Systematic reviews and metaanalyses have become increasingly popular ways of summarizing, and sometimes extending, existing medical knowledge. In this review the authors summarize current methods of performing metaanalyses, including the following: formulating a research question; performing a structured literature search and a search for trials not published in the formal medical literature; summarizing and, where appropriate, combining results from several trials; and reporting and presenting results. Topics such as cumulative and Bayesian metaanalysis and metaregression are also addressed. References to textbooks, articles, and Internet resources are also provided. The goal is to assist readers who wish to perform their own metaanalysis or to interpret critically a published example. PMID:16241107
Barker, Fred G; Carter, Bob S
Objective: To review the literature on strategies to optimize medication adherence in community-dwelling older adults and to make recommendations for clinical practice. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and EMBASE databases for randomized controlled trials examining strategies to optimize medication adherence in patients aged 65 or older prescribed long-term medication regimens. Additional studies were found by examining the reference lists of systematic reviews and selected papers. 34 papers reporting on 33 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Results: Improvement in adherence was mixed across the studies examining educational interventions, with only 12 of the 28 studies showing improvement in adherence; most were delivered by pharmacists. Effect sizes for the statistically significant educational interventions ranged from Cohen's d = 0.14 to 4.93. Four of the 5 interventions using memory aids and cues, some in conjunction with newer technologies, improved adherence. Effect sizes for the statistically significant interventions using memory aids and cues ranged from Cohen's d = 0.26 to 2.72. Conclusion: The evidence from this review does not clearly support one single intervention to optimize medication adherence in older patients. Future studies should explore suggestive strategies, such as tailored interventions involving ongoing contact, and should endeavor to correct methodologic weaknesses found in the literature.
Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Organist, Linda A.; Klem, Mary Lou; Engberg, Sandra
Medical respite programs provide care to homeless patients who are too sick to be on the streets or in a traditional shelter, but not sick enough to warrant inpatient hospitalization. They are designed to improve the health of homeless patients while also decreasing costly hospital use. Although there is increasing interest in implementing respite programs, there has been no prior systematic review of their effectiveness. We conducted a comprehensive search for studies of medical respite program outcomes in multiple biomedical and sociological databases, and the grey literature. Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria. The articles were heterogeneous in methods, study quality, inclusion of a comparison group, and outcomes examined. Available evidence showed that medical respite programs reduced future hospital admissions, inpatient days, and hospital readmissions. They also resulted in improved housing outcomes. Results for emergency department use and costs were mixed but promising. Future research utilizing adequate comparison groups is needed. PMID:23728025
Doran, Kelly M; Ragins, Kyle T; Gross, Cary P; Zerger, Suzanne
Background Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical and pharmacy journals. Methods and Findings Studies were identified via searching electronic databases, web library, search engine and reviewing citations (1950 – February 2006). Only articles published in English and examined the quality of information included in pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical or pharmacy journals were included. For each eligible article, a researcher independently extracted the data on the study methodology and outcomes. The data were then reviewed by a second researcher. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The data were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 24 articles. The studies reviewed advertisements from 26 countries. The number of journals surveyed in each study ranged from four to 24 journals. Several outcome measures were examined including references and claims provided in advertisements, availability of product information, adherence to codes or guidelines and presentation of risk results. The majority of studies employed a convenience-sampling method. Brand name, generic name and indications were usually provided. Journal articles were commonly cited to support pharmaceutical claims. Less than 67% of the claims were supported by a systematic review, a meta-analysis or a randomised control trial. Studies that assessed misleading claims had at least one advertisement with a misleading claim. Two studies found that less than 28% of claims were unambiguous clinical claims. Most advertisements with quantitative information provided risk results as relative risk reduction. Studies were conducted in 26 countries only and then the generalizability of the results is limited. Conclusions Evidence from this review indicates that low quality of journal advertising is a global issue. As information provided in journal advertising has the potential to change doctors' prescribing behaviour, ongoing efforts to increase education about drug promotion are crucial. The results from our review suggest the need for a global pro-active and effective regulatory system to ensure that information provided in medical journal advertising is supporting the quality use of medicines.
Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes; Roughead, Elizabeth E.
Background In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) had eight sets of conflicting recommendations for decontaminating medical equipment. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to assist WHO in reconciling the various guidelines. This paper summarises the methods developed and illustrates the results for three procedures – alcohol, bleach and povidone iodine. Methods We developed a Medline search strategy and applied inclusion criteria specifying the decontamination procedures of interest and an outcome of microbial destruction for a set of marker organisms. We developed protocols to assess the quality of studies and categorised them according to the reliability of the methods used. Through an iterative process we identified best practice for the decontamination methods and key additional factors required to ensure their effectiveness. We identified 88 published papers for inclusion, describing 135 separate studies of decontamination. Results For disinfection with alcohol, best practice was identified from 23 studies as an exposure to 70–80% ethanol or isopropanol for at least 5 minutes. Bleach was effective for sterilization at a concentration of 5000 ppm for 5 minutes and for disinfection at 1000 ppm for 10 minutes (33 studies). Povidone iodine was only partially effective for disinfection at a concentration of 1% for 15 minutes (15 studies). Conclusions Our findings provide an evidence base for WHO guidelines on decontaminating medical equipment. The results support the recommended use of bleach and show that alcohol could be used more widely than current guidelines suggest, provided best practice is followed. The effectiveness of povidone iodine is uncertain.
Sopwith, Will; Hart, Tony; Garner, Paul
Background The therapeutic use of cannabis and cannabis-based medicines raises safety concerns for patients, clinicians, policy-makers, insurers, researchers and regulators. Although the efficacy of cannabinoids is being increasingly demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, most safety information comes from studies of recreational use. Methods We performed a systematic review of safety studies of medical cannabinoids published over the past 40 years to create an evidence base for cannabis-related adverse events and to facilitate future cannabis research initiatives. We critically evaluated the quality of published studies with a view to identifying ways to improve future studies. Results A total of 321 articles were eligible for evaluation. After excluding those that focused on recreational cannabis use, we included 31 studies (23 randomized controlled trials and 8 observational studies) of medical cannabis use in our analysis. In the 23 randomized controlled trials, the median duration of cannabinoid exposure was 2 weeks (range 8 hours to 12 months). A total of 4779 adverse events were reported among participants assigned to the intervention. Most (4615 [96.6%]) were not serious. Of the 164 serious adverse events, the most common was relapse of multiple sclerosis (21 events [12.8%]), vomiting (16 events [9.8%]) and urinary tract infection (15 events [9.1%]). The rate of nonserious adverse events was higher among participants assigned to medical cannabinoids than among controls (rate ratio [RR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57–2.21); the rates of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between these 2 groups (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.78–1.39). Dizziness was the most commonly reported nonserious adverse event (714 events [15.5%]) among people exposed to cannabinoids. Interpretation Short-term use of existing medical cannabinoids appeared to increase the risk of nonserious adverse events. The risks associated with long-term use were poorly characterized in published clinical trials and observational studies. High-quality trials of long-term exposure are required to further characterize safety issues related to the use of medical cannabinoids.
Wang, Tongtong; Collet, Jean-Paul; Shapiro, Stan; Ware, Mark A.
Background To reduce harm caused by health care is a global priority. Medical students should be able to recognize unsafe conditions,\\u000a systematically report errors and near misses, investigate and improve such systems with a thorough understanding of human\\u000a fallibility, and disclose errors to patients. Incorporating the knowledge of how to do this into the medical student curriculum\\u000a is an urgent necessity.
Yanli Nie; Lin Li; Yurong Duan; Peixian Chen; Bruce H Barraclough; Mingming Zhang; Jing Li
Background: Systematic reviews on the effects of problem- based learning have been limited to knowledge competency either during medical school or postgraduate training. We conducted a systematic review of evidence of the effects that problem-based learning during medical school had on physician competencies after graduation. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Databases, and the tables of contents of
G. C.-H. Koh; H. E. Khoo; M. L. Wong; D. Koh
A systematic review of published studies reveals that undergraduate medical students may experience substantial exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, and that this contact may be associated with positive attitudes about marketing.
Kirsten E. Austad; Jerry Avorn; Aaron S. Kesselheim
Purpose Unhealthy behaviors contribute to half of U.S. deaths. However, physicians lack sufficient skill in counseling patients to change behaviors. Characterizing effective published curricular interventions for behavior-change counseling for medical trainees would inform educators toward improved training. Method The authors conducted a systematic literature search of studies published 1965–2011 evaluating curricula on behavior change counseling for medical trainees. Included studies described: (1) behavior change counseling, (2) teaching interventions for medical trainees, and (3) assessment of interventions. The authors extracted eligible articles, rated outcomes for learners and patients using Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy, and determined study quality. Results Of 2,788 identified citations, 109 met inclusion criteria. Most studies were performed in the United States (98), 93 at a single institution, and 81 in primary care settings. Curricular topics for counseling included smoking (67 studies), nutrition (30), alcohol/drug use (26), and exercise (22). Although most studies did not include theoretical frameworks, 39 used the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Sixty-two studies involved eight or fewer hours of curricular time, and 51 spanned four or fewer weeks. The studies with highest-level outcomes and quality employed multiple curricular techniques and included practice of counseling techniques in either simulated or actual clinical settings. Conclusions Existing literature suggests that trainees learn behavior change counseling through active, realistic practice and implementation of reminder and feedback systems within actual clinical practice settings. Multi-institutional medical education research on methods of teaching behavior-change counseling that influence patients’ health outcomes are needed to ensure trainees’ clinical competence and improve patient care.
Hauer, Karen E.; Carney, Patricia A.; Chang, Anna; Satterfield, Jason
Safe medication administration is necessary to ensure quality healthcare. Barcode medication administration systems were developed to reduce drug administration errors and the related costs and improve patient safety. Work-arounds created by nurses in the execution of the required processes can lead to unintended consequences, including errors. This article provides a systematic review of the literature associated with barcoded medication administration and work-arounds and suggests interventions that should be adopted by nurse executives to ensure medication safety. PMID:24061586
Voshall, Barbara; Piscotty, Ronald; Lawrence, Jeanette; Targosz, Mary
Suboptimal medication use may lead to morbidity, mortality and increased costs. To reduce unnecessary patient harm, medicines management including medication reviews can be provided by clinical pharmacists. Some recent studies have indicated a positive effect of this service, but the quality and outcomes vary among studies. Hence, there is a need for compiling the evidence within this area. The aim of this systematic MiniReview was to identify, assess and summarize the literature investigating the effect of pharmacist-led medication reviews in hospitalized patients. Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library) were searched from their inception to 2011 in addition to citation tracking and hand search. Only original research papers published in English describing pharmacist-led medication reviews in a hospital setting including minimum 100 patients or 100 interventions were included in the final assessment. A total of 836 research papers were identified, and 31 publications were included in the study: 21 descriptive studies and 10 controlled studies, of which 6 were randomized controlled trials. The pharmacist interventions were well implemented with acceptance rates from 39% to 100%. The 10 controlled studies generally show a positive effect on medication use and costs, satisfaction with the service and positive as well as insignificant effects on health service use. Several outcomes were statistically insignificant, but these were predominantly associated with low sample sizes or low acceptance rates. Therefore, future research within this area should be designed using rigorous design, large sample sizes and includes comparable outcome measures for patient health outcomes. PMID:23506448
Graabaek, Trine; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel
Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…
Background: Older adults take multiple medications and are at high risk for adverse drug effects.Objective: This systematic review was conducted to describe the impact of computer decision support (CDS) interventions designed to improve the quality of medication prescribing in older adults.Methods: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from January 1980 through July 2007 (English-language only); studies were eligible if they
Lindsey Yourman; John Concato; Joseph V. Agostini
Purpose: This paper will provide a description of the methods, skills, and knowledge of expert searchers working on systematic review teams. Brief Description: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are very important to health care practitioners, who need to keep abreast of the medical literature and make informed decisions. Searching is a critical part of conducting these systematic reviews, as errors made in the search process potentially result in a biased or otherwise incomplete evidence base for the review. Searches for systematic reviews need to be constructed to maximize recall and deal effectively with a number of potentially biasing factors. Librarians who conduct the searches for systematic reviews must be experts. Discussion/Conclusion: Expert searchers need to understand the specifics about data structure and functions of bibliographic and specialized databases, as well as the technical and methodological issues of searching. Search methodology must be based on research about retrieval practices, and it is vital that expert searchers keep informed about, advocate for, and, moreover, conduct research in information retrieval. Expert searchers are an important part of the systematic review team, crucial throughout the review process—from the development of the proposal and research question to publication.
McGowan, Jessie; Sampson, Margaret
Background Inappropriate medication prescription is a common cause of preventable adverse drug events among elderly persons in the primary care setting. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to quantify the extent of inappropriate prescription to elderly persons in the primary care setting. Methods We systematically searched Ovid-Medline and Ovid-EMBASE from 1950 and 1980 respectively to March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened and selected primary studies published in English that measured (in)appropriate medication prescription among elderly persons (>65 years) in the primary care setting. We extracted data sources, instruments for assessing medication prescription appropriateness, and the rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions. We grouped the reported individual medications according to the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classification and compared the median rate of inappropriate medication prescription and its range within each therapeutic class. Results We included 19 studies, 14 of which used the Beers criteria as the instrument for assessing appropriateness of prescriptions. The median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions (IMP) was 20.5% [IQR 18.1 to 25.6%.]. Medications with largest median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions were propoxyphene 4.52(0.10–23.30)%, doxazosin 3.96 (0.32 15.70)%, diphenhydramine 3.30(0.02–4.40)% and amitriptiline 3.20 (0.05–20.5)% in a decreasing order of IMP rate. Available studies described unequal sets of medications and different measurement tools to estimate the overall prevalence of inappropriate prescription. Conclusions Approximately one in five prescriptions to elderly persons in primary care is inappropropriate despite the attention that has been directed to quality of prescription. Diphenhydramine and amitriptiline are the most common inappropriately prescribed medications with high risk adverse events while propoxyphene and doxazoxin are the most commonly prescribed medications with low risk adverse events. These medications are good candidates for being targeted for improvement e.g. by computerized clinical decision support.
Opondo, Dedan; Eslami, Saied; Visscher, Stefan; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Verheij, Robert; Korevaar, Joke C.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen
To conduct a systematic review of the evidence associating the medical home with beneficial health outcomes in healthy children. The English-language pediatric literature 1975-2011 was searched via PubMed, Embase and CINAHL. Inclusion criteria (the medical home as an independent variable, individual-level quantitative analysis, outpatient setting in the US, healthy children) and exclusion criteria (age >18, medical home operationalized with only one American Academy of Pediatrics component) were determined a priori. Presence of a medical home was examined in relation to three outcome measures: primary care services, health care utilization, and child well-being. Of 4,856 unique citations, 9 studies were included in the final systematic review, amassing 290,180 children from 6 data sources. Two drew on prospective cohort data; the remainder, on cross-sectional design. Children with a medical home were more likely to receive preventive medical care (2 studies), anticipatory guidance (1 study), and developmental screening (1 study); to have higher health-related quality of life (1 study); and were less likely to seek care in the emergency department (2 studies). The medical home was associated with full immunization status in only 1 of 4 studies examining this outcome. No protective effect of the medical home was found with regard to preventable hospitalization (1 study). The medical home is associated with beneficial health outcomes among healthy children. However, the evidence is limited in comparison with that for children with special health care needs. As healthy children represent the majority of the pediatric population, this lack of evidence represents a significant knowledge gap. PMID:23784614
Hadland, Scott E; Long, Webb E
Falls in the elderly, often classified as accidental, are frequently related to medication, generally involving poor prognosis and thus becoming a public health issue. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify published Brazilian studies on medication as a risk factor for falls or fall-related fractures in the elderly. The search covered the LILACS, PubMed, and SciELO indexes using the descriptors falls, elderly, and pharmaceutical preparations/medications/medicines/drugs or specific drug classes. A total of 340 articles presented data on prevalence, incidence, and risk factors associated with medication and falls or fall-related fractures, but only 6 pharmacoepidemiological studies were examined because they were conducted specifically in Brazilian samples. The main drug classes associated with increased risk of falls: antidepressants, sedatives, anxiolytics, and diuretics. The promotion of rational drug use in geriatrics requires well-designed studies to produce robust scientific data. PMID:23288056
Rezende, Cristiane de Paula; Gaede-Carrillo, Maria Ruth Gonçalves; Sebastião, Elza Conceição de Oliveira
PURPOSE: /st>Improving medication safety has become a major topic in all clinical settings. Information technology (IT) can play an important role to prevent adverse drug events (ADEs), but data on the effectiveness of IT interventions are controversial. The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review about the effects of IT interventions on medication safety in primary care. DATA SOURCES: /st>PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, handsearching reference lists from full-text articles. STUDY SELECTION: /st>Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), if interventions based on IT, performed in primary care and outcomes reported on medication safety.Data extractionStudy characteristics and outcome data independently extracted by two reviewers. Disagreement resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. RESULTS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: /st>Out of 3918 studies retrieved, 10 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Of the six studies evaluating computerized provider order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS) only 3 studies effectively reduced unsafe prescribing. Both pharmacist-led IT interventions decreased the prescription of potentially inappropriate medication or unsafe prescribing in pregnancy. No reduction of ADEs was achieved by a web program or a TeleWatch system intervention. CONCLUSION: /st>Only 5 of 10 RCTs revealed a reduction of medication errors. CPOE with CDS was effective if targeted at a limited number of potentially inappropriate medications. The positive results of pharmacist-led IT interventions indicate that IT interventions with inter-professional communication appear to be effective. The unequivocal results of the included RCTs stress the necessity of rigorous evaluation prior to large-scale implementation. PMID:23771745
Lainer, Miriam; Mann, Eva; Sönnichsen, Andreas
Introduction International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL) during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice. Objective To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students. Method A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes. Results From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective contexts, achieves short-term learner outcomes that are comparable with those produced by faculty-based teaching. Furthermore, peer-teaching has beneficial effects on student-teacher learning outcomes. Conclusions Peer-teaching in undergraduate medical programs is comparable to conventional teaching when utilized in selected contexts. There is evidence to suggest that participating student-teachers benefit academically and professionally. Long-term effects of peer-teaching during medical school remain poorly understood and future research should aim to address this.
Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wilson, Nichola C; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; Hawken, Susan J; Hill, Andrew G
|This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…
Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.
This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…
Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.
Research investigating the effects of attitude-focused interventions on doctors' and medical students' attitudes toward older adults has produced mixed results. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether factors pertaining to study design and quality might provide some explanation of this inconclusive picture. Articles were judged of interest if they reported doctors' or medicals students' attitude scores before and after a geriatric-focused intervention. Articles that did not report the measure used, mean scores, or inferential statistics were excluded. Twenty-seven databases, including Medline, PsychInfo, and Embase, were searched through April 2011 using a systematic search strategy. After assessment and extraction, 27 studies met the eligibility criteria for this review. These studies demonstrated inconsistent results; 14 appeared successful in effecting positive attitude change toward older adults after an intervention, and 13 appeared unsuccessful. Attitude change results differed in line with the content of the intervention. Of the 27 studies, 11 interventions contained solely knowledge-building content. Three of these studies demonstrated positive changes in doctors' or medical students' attitudes toward older adults after the intervention. The remaining 16 interventions incorporated an empathy-building component, such as an aging simulation exercise or contact with a healthy older adult. Of these, 11 successfully demonstrated positive attitude change after the intervention. The inclusion of an empathy-building task in an intervention appears to be associated with positive attitude change in medical students' and doctors' attitudes toward older adults. PMID:23750821
Samra, Rajvinder; Griffiths, Amanda; Cox, Tom; Conroy, Simon; Knight, Alec
Objectives Reducing out-of-pocket drug costs can increase use of essential drugs, but it may also increase inappropriate use of others. Medicare Part D has been shown to reduce patients’ out-of-pocket costs and increase overall drug utilization, but its impact on the under- and overuse of specific medications and corresponding health outcomes is unclear. Design Systematic review. Setting Medline search of the peer-reviewed literature from January 1, 2006-October 8, 2010. Measurements Included articles that reported original results describing changes in the utilization of specific drugs or drug classes after implementation of Part D. Results Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Part D’s implementation was associated with increased use of essential medications such as clopidogrel and statins, especially among patients who had been previously uninsured. However, increase in inappropriate antibiotic use for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infections, and increases in claims for the often over-used proton pump inhibitor drug class were also observed. In the Part D transition period, dual-eligible patients’ drug use largely remained unchanged. When patient cost-sharing increased in the coverage gap, use of both essential and over-used medications declined. Conclusion Increasing drug coverage led to increased use of both under-used essential medications and inappropriate, or over-used, medications under Medicare Part D. Despite efforts to do so, the Part D benefit did not sufficiently discriminate between essential and non-essential medication use.
Polinski, Jennifer M.; Donohue, Julie M.; Kilabuk, Elaine; Shrank, William H.
Background Over a quarter of hospital prescribing errors are attributable to incomplete medication histories being obtained at the time of admission. We undertook a systematic review of studies describing the frequency, type and clinical importance of medication history errors at hospital admission. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL for articles published from 1966 through April 2005 and bibliographies of papers subsequently retrieved from the search. We reviewed all published studies with quantitative results that compared prescription medication histories obtained by physicians at the time of hospital admission with comprehensive medication histories. Three reviewers independently abstracted data on methodologic features and results. Results We identified 22 studies involving a total of 3755 patients (range 33–1053, median 104). Errors in prescription medication histories occurred in up to 67% of cases: 10%– 61% had at least 1 omission error (deletion of a drug used before admission), and 13%– 22% had at least 1 commission error (addition of a drug not used before admission); 60%– 67% had at least 1 omission or commission error. Only 5 studies (n = 545 patients) explicitly distinguished between unintentional discrepancies and intentional therapeutic changes through discussions with ordering physicians. These studies found that 27%– 54% of patients had at least 1 medication history error and that 19%– 75% of the discrepancies were unintentional. In 6 of the studies (n = 588 patients), the investigators estimated that 11%–59% of the medication history errors were clinically important. Interpretation Medication history errors at the time of hospital admission are common and potentially clinically important. Improved physician training, accessible community pharmacy databases and closer teamwork between patients, physicians and pharmacists could reduce the frequency of these errors.
Tam, Vincent C.; Knowles, Sandra R.; Cornish, Patricia L.; Fine, Nowell; Marchesano, Romina; Etchells, Edward E.
Background: Group medical visits, whereby health care professionals meet with groups of patients who have the same disease, have been introduced in primary care as a way to meet the increasing demand for health care delivery to patients with chronic diseases. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the effectiveness of such visits for patients with diabetes. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all relevant studies published from 1947 to February 2012 identified in a search of electronic databases and grey literature. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies published in English that included patients aged 16–80 years with type 1 or 2 diabetes and that had group medical visits as the intervention. These studies were assessed for methodologic quality. We included data only from the RCTs in the meta-analysis. Results: Of the 94 studies identified, we selected 26 that met our inclusion criteria, 13 of which were RCTs. Group medical visits had a positive effect on clinical and patient-reported outcomes, with significant reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c reduction ?0.46%, 95% confidence interval ?0.80% to ?0.31%). We were unable to assess the effect of group medical visits on processes of care because of an insufficient number of RCTs that reported on this outcome. Interpretation: Group medical visits for patients with diabetes were found to be effective in terms of reducing HbA1c. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that wider implementation of group medical visits for patients with diabetes will have a positive effect on patient outcomes.
Housden, Laura; Wong, Sabrina T.; Dawes, Martin
Background: Nonadherence to medication is a recognized problem and may be the most challenging aspect of treatment. Methods: We performed a systematic review of factors that influence adherence and the consequences of nonadherence to the patient, healthcare system and society, in patients with schizophrenia. Particular attention was given to the effect of nonadherence on hospitalization rates, as a key driver of increased costs of care. A qualitative systematic literature review was conducted using a broad search strategy using disease and adherence terms. Due to the large number of abstracts identified, article selection was based on studies with larger sample sizes published after 2001. Thirty-seven full papers were included: 15 studies on drivers and 22 on consequences, of which 12 assessed the link between nonadherence and hospitalization. Results: Key drivers of nonadherence included lack of insight, medication beliefs and substance abuse. Key consequences of nonadherence included greater risk of relapse, hospitalization and suicide. Factors positively related to adherence were a good therapeutic relationship with physician and perception of benefits of medication. The most frequently reported driver and consequence were lack of insight and greater risk of hospitalization respectively. Conclusions: Improving adherence in schizophrenia may have a considerable positive impact on patients and society. This can be achieved by focusing on the identified multitude of factors driving nonadherence.
Medic, Goran; Littlewood, Kavi J.; Diez, Teresa; Granstrom, Ola; De Hert, Marc
Aim This literature study explores the impact of educational interventions about medicines for psychiatric patients on adherence,\\u000a knowledge and economic, clinical and humanistic outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method A systematic review of eight electronic databases was carried out. Reference lists of primary studies were searched. Studies\\u000a measuring the impact of medication information for adult psychiatric patients in an individual way on adherence, knowledge,\\u000a economic, clinical
Franciska A. M. Desplenter; Steven Simoens; Gert Laekeman
A systematic literature review was conducted to summarize the existing evidence on presumed determinants of heart failure (HF) medication adherence. The aim was to assess the evidence and provide directions for future medication adherence interventions for HF patients. Based on a search in relevant databases and a quality assessment, eleven articles were included in the review. A best evidence synthesis was used to combine the results of presumed determinants that were found more than once in the literature. Results were classified according the World Health Organization's (WHO) multidimensional adherence model. Results demonstrated a relationship between having been institutionalized in the past (including hospitalizations and nursing home visits) and higher adherence levels. This finding is related to the healthcare system dimension of the WHO model. The presumed determinants related to the other dimensions, such as social and economic factors, condition-related, therapy-related, and patient-related factors of the multidimensional adherence model all had inconsistent evidence. However, there was also an indication that patients' educational level and the number of healthcare professionals they have visited are not related to higher adherence levels. Based on the current review, HF patients who have been institutionalized in the past are more adherent to HF medication. Many other presumed determinants were investigated, but displayed inconsistent evidence. Due to the lack of evidence, it was not possible to make recommendations for future interventions. PMID:22723048
Oosterom-Calo, R; van Ballegooijen, A J; Terwee, C B; te Velde, S J; Brouwer, I A; Jaarsma, T; Brug, J
Introduction In 2010, a total of 385 natural disasters killed more than 297?000 people worldwide and affected over 217 million others. More standardised reporting of major incident management have been advocated in the previous years. Prevention, mitigation, preparedness and major incident response may be improved through collection and analysis of high-quality standardised data on medical management of major incidents. Standardised data may elevate the level of scientific evidence within disaster medicine research. Methods and analysis A systematic literature review will be conducted to identify templates for reporting pre-hospital major incident medical management. The first set of entry terms aims to describe major incidents published during the last 20?years. The second set aims to focus the number of search results from the first set to those publications that describe templates based on data collections from these major incidents. Predefined free search phases will be combined with the first two sets. Ethics and dissemination The results will be submitted for publication in an open access, peer-reviewed scientific journal. The PRISMA checklist will be applied. No ethics approval is considered indicated, as this is a literature review only. Registration details This review is registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42012002051).
Rehn, Marius; Reierth, Eirik; Wisborg, Torben
Objective: This study was undertaken to determine if a systematic review of the evidence from thirty years of literature evaluating clinical medical librarian (CML) programs could help clarify the effectiveness of this outreach service model. Methods: A descriptive review of the CML literature describes the general characteristics of these services as they have been implemented, primarily in teaching-hospital settings. Comprehensive searches for CML studies using quantitative or qualitative evaluation methods were conducted in the medical, allied health, librarianship, and social sciences literature. Findings: Thirty-five studies published between 1974 and 2001 met the review criteria. Most (30) evaluated single, active programs and used descriptive research methods (e.g., use statistics or surveys/ questionnaires). A weighted average of 89% of users in twelve studies found CML services useful and of high quality, and 65% of users in another overlapping, but not identical, twelve studies said these services contributed to improved patient care. Conclusions: The total amount of research evidence for CML program effectiveness is not great and most of it is descriptive rather than comparative or analytically qualitative. Standards are needed to consistently evaluate CML or informationist programs in the future. A carefully structured multiprogram study including three to five of the best current programs is needed to define the true value of these services.
Wagner, Kay Cimpl; Byrd, Gary D.
PURPOSE: To systematically review the methodologic quality of, and summarize the evidence from trials examining the effectiveness of physical exercise in improving the level of physical functioning and psychological well-being of cancer patients during and after medical treatment. METHODS: Thirty-four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials were identified, reviewed for substantive results, and assessed for methodologic quality. RESULTS:
R. H. Knols; N. K. Aaronson; D. Uebelhart; J. Fransen; G. Aufdemkampe
Objective To identify and describe the content of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management. Design Systematic literature review according to PRISMA guidelines. Data sources PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Grey literature was also searched. Eligibility criteria for selected studies Templates published after 1 January 1990 and up to 19 March 2012. Non-English language literature, except Scandinavian; literature without an available abstract; and literature reporting only psychological aspects were excluded. Results The main database search identified 8497 articles, among which 8389 were excluded based on title and abstract. An additional 96 were excluded based on the full-text. The remaining 12 articles were included in the analysis. A total of 107 articles were identified in the grey literature and excluded. The reference lists for the included articles identified five additional articles. A relevant article published after completing the search was also included. In the 18 articles included in the study, 10 different templates or sets of data are described: 2 methodologies for assessing major incident responses, 3 templates intended for reporting from exercises, 2 guidelines for reporting in medical journals, 2 analyses of previous disasters and 1 Utstein-style template. Conclusions More than one template exists for generating reports. The limitations of the existing templates involve internal and external validity, and none of them have been tested for feasibility in real-life incidents. Trial registration The review is registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42012002051).
Fattah, Sabina; Rehn, Marius; Reierth, Eirik; Wisborg, Torben
OBJECTIVES:: Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common chronic disease among older adults. Therapeutic approaches mainly consist of physiotherapy or pharmacological therapy, but these approaches are limited over time by their cost and/or side effects. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of medical leech therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee. METHODS:: The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus, and CAMBASE databases were screened in August 2012 to identify randomized (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing leech therapy to control conditions. Main outcome measures were pain, functional impairment, and joint stiffness. For each outcome, standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS:: Three RCTs and 1 CCT were found, in which a total of 237 patients with osteoarthritis were included. Three trials had a low risk of bias. There was strong overall evidence for immediate (SMD=-1.05; P<0.01) and short-term pain reduction (SMD=-1.00; P<0.01), immediate improvement in patients' physical function (SMD=-0.72; P<0.01), and both immediate (SMD=-0.88; P=0.04) and long-term improvement in their joint stiffness (SMD=-0.62; P<0.01). Moderate evidence was found for leech therapy's short-term effects on physical function (SMD=-0.46; P<0.01) and long-term effects on pain (SMD=-0.45; P<0.01). Leech therapy was not associated with any serious adverse events. DISCUSSION:: This systematic review found moderate to strong evidence for the reduction of pain, functional impairment, and joint stiffness after medical leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Given the low number of reported adverse events, leech therapy may be a useful approach in treating this condition. Further high-quality RCTs are required for the conclusive judgment of its effectiveness and safety. PMID:23446069
Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav
Medication adherence is critical to the efficacy of available treatment for depression in primary care settings. This review identifies factors associated with adherence and what is known about the effectiveness of adherence-enhancement programmes. A comprehensive systematic review of English language publications from January 2002 to October 2011 was conducted using the following databases: PUBMED/MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane database. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria for adherence-enhancement evaluations. Eleven of the studies evaluated demonstrated significantly positive effects on adherence; the remaining 10 reported mixed or no effects. Similar to previous literature reviews, factors shown to be associated with adherence were multifactorial and in this analysis were grouped as patient, condition and comorbidities, therapy or treatment, patient–provider relationship and healthcare system level. Adherence improved most notably in studies that included sustainable system and patient-targeted changes. Evaluating adherence-enhancement interventions is key to promoting successful approaches; however, a number of gaps exist between intervention and implementation: (1) the cost in resources and time to implement and sustain these programmes is unknown, (2) specific details about which subgroups of patients are best helped with such programmes is not clear, and (3) what specific processes or content are critical to programme success is still to be identified. There are sufficient data supporting the substantial need for planning and implementing adherence interventions despite reported mixed results. Primary care providers are often positioned to impact patients' adherence; however, practice constraints can limit their implementation.
Objective To assess evidence from randomised clinical trials about the effectiveness of extracts of Boswellia serrata (frankincense).Design Systematic review.Data sources Electronic searches on Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Amed, and Cochrane Library. Hand searches of conference proceedings, bibliographies, and departmental files.Review methods All randomised clinical trials of B serrata extract as a treatment for any human medical condition were included and studies
Psoriasis is associated with considerable physical and psychological morbidity. Optimal use of psoriasis treatments can limit the physical manifestations of psoriasis and help improve quality of life, but nonadherence is common. Smoking, obesity and excessive alcohol consumption are prevalent in this population. A systematic review of adherence to medication and recommendations for lifestyle change in psoriasis was undertaken, with a critical appraisal of the quality of the selected studies. Electronic searches from inception to March 2012 (PubMed, Web of Science and Embase) were conducted. Twenty-nine studies were included; however, none examined adherence to advice about lifestyle change. Studies using a dichotomous classification of adherence tended to report suboptimal adherence, with 21·6-66·6% of patients classed as adherent. No consistent pattern of results emerged for sociodemographical, disease and lifestyle factors as determinants of adherence. However, some treatment factors were associated with adherence. While mixed findings were reported for quality of life as a determinant of adherence, psychological factors (psychological distress and patient satisfaction with care and therapy) were associated with adherence. Only tentative conclusions can be made for determinants of adherence because the methodological quality of many of the included studies limits conclusions. There is a need for improved quality of research and reporting in this area, and this review provides a platform from which future research within this area should progress, along with suggested research recommendations. PMID:22963128
Thorneloe, R J; Bundy, C; Griffiths, C E M; Ashcroft, D M; Cordingley, L
|Background: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to establish the current evidence base regarding the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disabilities. Method: An electronic search of PsycInfo, Embase, Medline and Cinahl databases was conducted spanning the…
Sohanpal, S. K.; Deb, S.; Thomas, C.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.; Unwin, G.
Background Increased investments are being made for electronic medical records (EMRs) in Canada. There is a need to learn from earlier EMR studies on their impact on physician practice in office settings. To address this need, we conducted a systematic review to examine the impact of EMRs in the physician office, factors that influenced their success, and the lessons learned. Results For this review we included publications cited in Medline and CINAHL between 2000 and 2009 on physician office EMRs. Studies were included if they evaluated the impact of EMR on physician practice in office settings. The Clinical Adoption Framework provided a conceptual scheme to make sense of the findings and allow for future comparison/alignment to other Canadian eHealth initiatives. In the final selection, we included 27 controlled and 16 descriptive studies. We examined six areas: prescribing support, disease management, clinical documentation, work practice, preventive care, and patient-physician interaction. Overall, 22/43 studies (51.2%) and 50/109 individual measures (45.9%) showed positive impacts, 18.6% studies and 18.3% measures had negative impacts, while the remaining had no effect. Forty-eight distinct factors were identified that influenced EMR success. Several lessons learned were repeated across studies: (a) having robust EMR features that support clinical use; (b) redesigning EMR-supported work practices for optimal fit; (c) demonstrating value for money; (d) having realistic expectations on implementation; and (e) engaging patients in the process. Conclusions Currently there is limited positive EMR impact in the physician office. To improve EMR success one needs to draw on the lessons from previous studies such as those in this review.
RATIONALE AND AIM: Facilitators and barriers to satisfaction after implementation of the electronic medical/health record (EMR/EHR) are important to understand as patient satisfaction is linked with improvement in health care and meaningful use of EMR/EHR. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate patient satisfaction after implementation and to synthesize available factors regarding the estimates of the patient satisfaction with EMR/EHR. These factors may help vendors to better design EMR/EHR and to assist in providing direction for progression of research in this field. METHODS: Data sources for the study included reports of studies from the Medline, Ovid, Springerlink, EBSCOhost, Embase and Wiley Online Library, and searching of bibliographies of review and other articles. Our inclusion criteria were the descriptions of patient satisfaction after implementation of EMR/EHR. RESULTS: Searching the online database resulted in 1425 articles and 58 articles from reference lists. After removing duplicates and assessing against the selection criteria, 41 articles were for further full-text review. After careful analysis, 33 articles were excluded. Eventually, a total of eight articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: These studies showed a positive patient satisfaction with EMR/EHR, but more rigorous studies should be carried out to more precisely quantify and describe the impact of EMR/EHR on patient satisfaction. Due to many factors influencing patient satisfaction with EMR/EHR, more research is needed to understand these factors before more concrete measurements of satisfaction can be developed to help researchers develop effective evaluation satisfaction. PMID:23181421
Liu, Jialin; Luo, Li; Zhang, Riu; Huang, Tingting
Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents. PMID:21749481
Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W
Background and objectives: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are often prescribed antiplatelet medications. However, these patients are also at increased risk of bleeding compared with the general population, and an aim was made to quantify this risk with antiplatelet agents. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A systematic review of the literature (Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and Google Scholar databases) was done to determine the bleeding risk in ESRD patients prescribed antiplatelet therapy. The secondary outcome was the effect on access thrombosis. All case series, cohort studies and clinical trials were considered if they included ten or more ESRD patients, assessed bleeding risk with antiplatelet agents, and lasted for more than 3 mo. Results: Sixteen studies, including 40,676 patients, were identified that met predefined inclusion criteria. Due to study heterogeneity and weaknesses in methodology, bleeding rates were not pooled across studies. However, the bleeding risk appears to be increased for hemodialysis patients treated with combination antiplatelet therapy. The results are mixed for studies using a single antiplatelet agent. Antiplatelet agents appear to be effective in preventing shunt and central venous catheter thrombosis, but not for preventing thrombosis of arteriovenous grafts. Conclusion: The risks and benefits of antiplatelet agents in ESRD patients remain poorly defined. Until a clinical trial addresses this in the dialysis population, individual risk stratification taking into account the increased risk of bleeding should be considered before initiating antiplatelet agents, especially in combination therapy.
Holden, Rachel M.; Fergusson, Dean; Zimmerman, Deborah L.
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of current medical and psychological interventions for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children, both in known abusers and those at risk of abusing. Design Systematic review of interventions designed to prevent reoffending among known abusers and prevention for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children. Randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were eligible. Primary outcomes were arrests, convictions, breaches of conditions, and self reported sexual abuse of children after one year or more. Results After review of 1447 abstracts, we retrieved 167 full text studies, and finally included eight studies with low to moderate risk of bias. We found weak evidence for interventions aimed at reducing reoffending in identified sexual abusers of children. For adults, evidence from five trials was insufficient regarding both benefits and risks with psychological treatment and pharmacotherapy. For adolescents, limited evidence from one trial suggested that multisystemic therapy prevented reoffence (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.73); lack of adequate research prevented conclusions about effects of other treatments. Evidence was also inadequate regarding effectiveness of treatment for children with sexual behavioural problems in the one trial identified. Finally, we found no eligible research on preventive methods for adults and adolescents who had not sexually abused children but were at higher risk of doing so (such as those with paedophilic sexual preference). Conclusion There are major weaknesses in the scientific evidence, particularly regarding adult men, the main category of sexual abusers of children. Better coordinated and funded high quality studies including several countries are urgently needed. Until conclusive evidence is available, realistic clinical strategies might involve reduction of specific risk factors for sex crimes, such as sexual preoccupation, in abusers at risk of reoffending.
Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinican conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When ‘harder’ outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped.
Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K
Provides an update on, and preliminary research agenda for, best evidence medical education (BEME). Describes the Campbell Collaboration and the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organization of Care review group. Provides, based on discussion by the Society of Directors of Research in Medical Education, a list of topics and…
Wolf, Fredric M.; Shea, Judy A.; Albanese, Mark A.
Constipation is a common, often chronic, gastrointestinal disorder that can negatively impact the lives of those it affects and can be difficult to treat satisfactorily. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and analyze the available published literature on US Food and Drug Administration-approved prescription therapies for adults with constipation (episodic and chronic) and to assess their place
Brooks D. Cash; Brian E. Lacy
Objective: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effects of adjunctive medications when added to 0.005% latanoprost taken once daily. Methods: Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Randomized clinical trials with over 85% of patients presenting with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were treated with the combination treatment of
Jin-Wei Cheng; You Li; Rui-Li Wei
The city of Baltimore is a typical, large, urban center in the United States with several major academic medical institutions\\u000a surrounded by disadvantaged neighborhoods with multiple poor health indices. In order to understand the extent to which academic\\u000a research agendas reflect the health concerns of Baltimore’s local population, a systematic review was conducted to identify\\u000a research about four key, health-related
Nadra C. Tyus; M. Christopher Gibbons; Karen A. Robinson; Claire Twose; Bernard Guyer
Objectives Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) promises effective treatment for high-risk elderly patients with symptomatic\\u000a severe aortic stenosis (AS). However, the adoption of TAVI must be justified and guarantee long-term performance. Systematic\\u000a reviews are a core methodology in evidence-based health economics for judging medical effectiveness. In this work, the methodology\\u000a was applied to provide objective evidence on the efficacy and safety
L. Figulla; A. Neumann; H. R. Figulla; P. Kahlert; R. Erbel; T. Neumann
Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize this gap in best practices and subsequently to promote instrument development research that is more consistent through the peer-review process.
Wetzel, Angela Payne
Background: Previous reviews of the literature on medication compliance have confirmed the inverse relationship between number of daily doses and rate of compliance. However, compliance in most of these studies was based on patient self-report, blood-level monitoring, prescription refills, or pill count data, none of which are as accurate as electronic monitoring (EM).Objective: In this paper, we review studies in
Ami J. Claxton; Joyce Cramer; Courtney Pierce
Background Medication nonadherence is a common problem among the elderly. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the published literature describing potential non-financial barriers to medication adherence among the elderly. Methods The PubMed and PsychINFO databases were searched for articles published in English between January 1998 and January 2010 that described “predictors,” “facilitators,” or “determinants” of medication adherence and those articles that examined the “relationship” between a specific barrier and adherence for elderly patients (ie, age ? 65 years) in the United States (U.S.). A manual search of the reference lists of identified articles and the authors’ files and recent review articles was conducted. The search included articles that (1) reviewed specific barriers to medication adherence and did not solely describe nonmodifiable predictors of adherence (eg, demographics, marital status); (2) were not interventions designed to address adherence; (3) defined adherence or compliance and specified its method of measurement; (4) involved U.S. participants only. Non-systematic reviews were excluded, as were studies that focused specifically on people who were homeless or substance abusers, or patients with psychotic disorders, tuberculosis, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), because of the unique circumstances that surround medication adherence for each of these populations. Results Nine studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Four studies used pharmacy records/claims data to assess adherence, 2 studies used pill count/electronic monitoring, and 3 studies used other methods to assess adherence. Substantial heterogeneity existed among the populations studied as well as among the measures of adherence, barriers addressed, and significant findings. Some potential barriers (ie, factors associated with nonadherence) were identified from the studies, including patient-related factors such as disease-related knowledge, health literacy, and cognitive function, drug-related factors such as adverse effects and polypharmacy, and other factors including the patient-provider relationship and various logistical barriers to obtaining medications. None of the reviewed studies examined primary nonadherence or nonpersistence. Conclusion Medication nonadherence in the elderly is not well described in the literature, despite being a major cause of morbidity, and thus it is difficult to draw a systematic conclusion on potential barriers based on the current literature. Future research should focus on standardizing medication adherence measurements among the elderly in order to gain a better understanding of this important issue.
Gellad, Walid F.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Marcum, Zachary A.
An analysis of the articles published in 1992 in the Journal of the National Medical Association (JNMA) was performed to assess the content, statistical analysis, and the profile of its contributors. Seventy-six articles were reviewed. The majority of the articles focused on biomedical aspects of health; however, a significant proportion of the remaining articles contained information on the psychosocial aspects of health as it relates to people of African descent in the United States, Africa, and the Caribbean. Most of the literature was derived from physicians in university settings, with the contributions from traditionally black medical schools constituting nearly 30% of the articles. Analysis of data from contingency tables was the most common research method used. This study suggests that the JNMA is contributing to the mission of the National Medical Association. Reasons why authors who perform research with more rigorous scientific method do not publish in JNMA should be explored. PMID:8078080
Paige, C Y; Johnson, M S
The present review is based on a survey of 21 studies on the cytocompatibility of medical biomaterials containing nickel,\\u000a as assessed by cell culture of human and animal osteoblasts or osteoblast-like cells. Among the biomaterials evaluated were\\u000a stainless steel, NiTi alloys, pure Ni, Ti, and other pure metals. The materials were either commercially available, prepared\\u000a by the authors, or implanted
Marcin Mikulewicz; Katarzyna Chojnacka
Introduction: Complex medication regimens are error prone and challenging for patients, which may impact medication adherence and safety. No universal method to assess the complexity of medication regimens (CMRx) exists. The authors aim to review literature for CMRx measurements to establish consistencies and, secondarily, describe CMRx impact on healthcare outcomes. Areas covered: A search of EMBASE and PubMed for studies analyzing at least two medications and complexity components, among those self-managing medications, was conducted. Out of 1204 abstracts, 38 studies were included in the final sample. The majority (74%) of studies used one of five validated CMRx scales; their components and scoring were compared. Expert opinion: Universal CMRx assessment is needed to identify and reduce complex regimens, and, thus, improve safety. The authors highlight commonalities among five scales to help build consensus. Common components (i.e., regimen factors) included dosing frequency, units per dose, and non-oral routes. Elements (e.g., twice daily) of these components (e.g., dosing frequency) and scoring varied. Patient-specific factors (e.g., dexterity, cognition) were not addressed, which is a shortcoming of current scales and a challenge for future scales. As CMRx has important outcomes, notably adherence and healthcare utilization, a standardized tool has potential for far-reaching clinical, research, and patient-safety impact. PMID:23984969
Paquin, Allison M; Zimmerman, Kristin M; Kostas, Tia R; Pelletier, Lindsey; Hwang, Angela; Simone, Mark; Skarf, Lara M; Rudolph, James L
Objectives To estimate per-person and aggregate direct medical costs of overweight and obesity and to examine the effect of study design factors. Methods PubMed (1968–2009), EconLit (1969–2009), and Business Source Premier (1995–2009) were searched for original studies. Results were standardized to compute the incremental cost per overweight person and per obese person, and to compute the national aggregate cost. Results A total of 33 U.S. studies met review criteria. Among the 4 highest quality studies, the 2008 per-person direct medical cost of overweight was $266 and of obesity was $1723. The aggregate national cost of overweight and obesity combined was $113.9 billion. Study design factors that affected cost estimate included: use of national samples versus more selected populations; age groups examined; inclusion of all medical costs versus obesity-related costs only; and BMI cutoffs for defining overweight and obesity. Conclusions Depending on the source of total national health care expenditures used, the direct medical cost of overweight and obesity combined is approximately 5.0% to 10% of U.S. health care spending. Future studies should include nationally representative samples, evaluate adults of all ages, report all medical costs, and use standard BMI cutoffs.
Tsai, Adam Gilden; Williamson, David F.; Glick, Henry A.
Introduction: Both for curricular development and mapping, as well as for orientation within the mounting supply of learning resources in medical education, the Semantic Web ("Web 3.0") poses a low-threshold, effective tool that enables identification of content related items across system boundaries. Replacement of the currently required manual with an automatically generated link, which is based on content and semantics, requires the use of a suitably structured vocabulary for a machine-readable description of object content. Aim of this study is to compile the existing taxonomies and ontologies used for the annotation of medical content and learning resources, to compare those using selected criteria, and to verify their suitability in the context described above. Methods: Based on a systematic literature search, existing taxonomies and ontologies for the description of medical learning resources were identified. Through web searches and/or direct contact with the respective editors, each of the structured vocabularies thus identified were examined in regards to topic, structure, language, scope, maintenance, and technology of the taxonomy/ontology. In addition, suitability for use in the Semantic Web was verified. Results: Among 20 identified publications, 14 structured vocabularies were identified, which differed rather strongly in regards to language, scope, currency, and maintenance. None of the identified vocabularies fulfilled the necessary criteria for content description of medical curricula and learning resources in the German-speaking world. Discussion: While moving towards Web 3.0, a significant problem lies in the selection and use of an appropriate German vocabulary for the machine-readable description of object content. Possible solutions include development, translation and/or combination of existing vocabularies, possibly including partial translations of English vocabularies. PMID:23467484
Blaum, Wolf E; Jarczweski, Anne; Balzer, Felix; Stötzner, Philip; Ahlers, Olaf
Background Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n?=?9), studies of device recalls (n?=?8), and surveys of device manufacturers (n?=?3). These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys. Conclusions Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of what works in either setting. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Kramer, Daniel B.; Xu, Shuai; Kesselheim, Aaron S.
Background The UK, USA and the World Health Organization have identified improved patient safety in healthcare as a priority. Medication error has been identified as one of the most frequent forms of medical error and is associated with significant medical harm. Errors are the result of the systems that produce them. In industrial settings, a range of systematic techniques have been designed to reduce error and waste. The first stage of these processes is to map out the whole system and its reliability at each stage. However, to date, studies of medication error and solutions have concentrated on individual parts of the whole system. In this paper we wished to conduct a systematic review of the literature, in order to map out the medication system with its associated errors and failures in quality, to assess the strength of the evidence and to use approaches from quality management to identify ways in which the system could be made safer. Methods We mapped out the medicines management system in primary care in the UK. We conducted a systematic literature review in order to refine our map of the system and to establish the quality of the research and reliability of the system. Results The map demonstrated that the proportion of errors in the management system for medicines in primary care is very high. Several stages of the process had error rates of 50% or more: repeat prescribing reviews, interface prescribing and communication and patient adherence. When including the efficacy of the medicine in the system, the available evidence suggested that only between 4% and 21% of patients achieved the optimum benefit from their medication. Whilst there were some limitations in the evidence base, including the error rate measurement and the sampling strategies employed, there was sufficient information to indicate the ways in which the system could be improved, using management approaches. The first step to improving the overall quality would be routine monitoring of adherence, clinical effectiveness and hospital admissions. Conclusion By adopting the whole system approach from a management perspective we have found where failures in quality occur in medication use in primary care in the UK, and where weaknesses occur in the associated evidence base. Quality management approaches have allowed us to develop a coherent change and research agenda in order to tackle these, so far, fairly intractable problems.
Garfield, Sara; Barber, Nick; Walley, Paul; Willson, Alan; Eliasson, Lina
As genetic services grow in scope, issues of quality assessment in genetic services are emerging. These efforts are well developed for molecular and cytogenetic testing and laboratories, and newborn screening programs, but assessing quality in clinical services has lagged, perhaps owing to the small work force and the recent evolution from a few large training programs to multiple training sites. We surveyed the English language, peer-reviewed literature to summarize the knowledge-base of quality assessment of genetics services, organized into the tripartite categories of the Donabedian model of "structure," "process," and "outcome." MEDLINE searches from 1990 to July 2008, yielded 2,143 articles that addressed both "medical/genetic screening and counseling" and "quality indicators, control, and assurance." Of the 2,143 titles, 131 articles were extracted for in-depth analysis, and 55 were included in this review. Twenty-nine articles focused on structure, 19 on process, and seven on outcomes. Our review underscored the urgent need for a coherent model that will provide health care organizations with tools to assess, report, monitor, and improve quality. The structure, process, and outcomes domains that make up the quality framework provide a comprehensive lens through which to examine quality in medical genetics. PMID:19621459
Chou, Ann F; Norris, Ann I; Williamson, Lori; Garcia, Katrina; Baysinger, Justin; Mulvihill, John J
Medication non-adherence poses a major barrier to reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden globally, and is increasingly recognised as a socioeconomically determined problem. Strategies promoting CVD medication adherence appear of moderate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Potentially, 'one-size-fits-all' measures are ill-equipped to address heterogeneous adherence behaviour between social groups. This review aims to determine the effects of strategies to improve adherence to CVD-related medications in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Randomised/quasi-randomised controlled trials (1996-June 2012, English), testing strategies to increase adherence to CVD-related medications prescribed to adult patients who may experience health inequity (place of residence, occupation, education, or socioeconomic position) were reviewed. 772 abstracts were screened, 111 full-text articles retrieved, and 16 full-text articles reporting on 14 studies, involving 7739 patients (age range 41-66 years), were included. Methodological and clinical heterogeneity precluded quantitative data synthesis. Studies were thematically grouped by targeted outcomes; underlying interventions and policies were classified using Michie et al.'s Behaviour Change Wheel. Contrasting with patient or physician/practice strategies, those simultaneously directed at patients and physicians/practices resulted in statistically significant improvements in relative adherence (16-169%). Comparative cost and cost-effectiveness analyses from three studies did not find cost-saving or cost-effective strategies. Unlike much current evidence in general populations, promising evidence exists about what strategies improve adherence in disadvantaged groups. These strategies were generally complex: simultaneously targeting patients and physicians; addressing social, financial, and treatment-related adherence barriers; and supported by broader guidelines, regulatory and communication-based policies. Given their complexity and potential resource implications, comprehensive process evaluations and cost and cost-effectiveness evidence are urgently needed. PMID:23415168
Laba, Tracey-Lea; Bleasel, Jonathan; Brien, Jo-Anne; Cass, Alan; Howard, Kirsten; Peiris, David; Redfern, Julie; Salam, Abdul; Usherwood, Tim; Jan, Stephen
Disparities in access to and retention of regular HIV medical treatment persist among African Americans living with HIV. Many scholars believe that the mistrust of health care held by many African Americans stems from a legacy of abuse, from medical experimentation on slaves to the unethical practices with patients in the Tuskegee Syphilis study. We performed a systematic appraisal of the literature, using several key terms, in order to understand how attitudes about HIV-related health care influence African Americans' engagement in care. We examined peer-reviewed studies published during the period January 2001 through May 2012. An initial search generated 326 studies. Sixteen descriptive studies met our inclusion criteria. Experiences of racism, conspiracy beliefs and the quality of provider relationships appeared to impact engagement. Providers should openly investigate personal beliefs that adversely affect their treatment decisions, listen to patient narratives, and share treatment decisions in order to create a transparent environment. PMID:23010941
Gaston, Gina B; Alleyne-Green, Binta
OBJECTIVE Antidepressant use has risen sharply over recent years. Recent concerns that antidepressants may adversely affect glucose metabolism require investigation. Our aim was to assess the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with antidepressants through a systematic review. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources were MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, meeting abstracts of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, American Diabetes Association, and Diabetes UK, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, U.K. Clinical Research Network, scrutiny of bibliographies of retrieved articles, and contact with relevant experts. Relevant studies of antidepressant effects were included. Key outcomes were diabetes incidence and change in blood glucose (fasting and random). RESULTS Three systemic reviews and 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Research designs included 1 case series and 21 observational studies comprising 4 cross-sectional, 5 case-control, and 12 cohort studies. There was evidence that antidepressant use is associated with type 2 diabetes. Causality is not established, but rather, the picture is confused, with some antidepressants linked to worsening glucose control, particularly with higher doses and longer duration, others linked with improved control, and yet more with mixed results. The more recent, larger studies, however, suggest a modest effect. Study quality was variable. CONCLUSIONS Although evidence exists that antidepressant use may be an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, long-term prospective studies of the effects of individual antidepressants rather than class effects are required. Heightened alertness to potential risks is necessary until these are complete. PMID:24065841
Barnard, Katharine; Peveler, Robert C; Holt, Richard I G
|Background: Psychotropic medications are used to manage behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID). One group of psychotropic medication are mood stabilizers such as lithium and some antiepileptic drugs. Method: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to determine the evidence base for the effectiveness of mood…
Deb, S.; Chaplin, R.; Sohanpal, S.; Unwin, G.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.
|The use of medications to manage problem behaviours is widespread. However, robust evidence to support their use seems to be lacking. The aim was to review research evidence into the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic medication in managing problem behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence. A systematic…
Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro
This article systematically reviews the literature on the impact of collaboration between pharmacists and general practitioners and describes its effect on patients' health. A systematic literature search provided 1041 articles. After first review of title and abstract, 152 articles remained. After review of the full text, 83 articles were included. All included articles are presented according to the following variables: (i) reference; (ii) design and setting of the study; (iii) inclusion criteria for patients; (iv) description of the intervention; (v) whether a patient interview was performed to involve patients' experiences with their medicine-taking behaviour; (vi) outcome; (vii) whether healthcare professionals received additional training; and (viii) whether healthcare professionals received financial reimbursement. Many different interventions are described where pharmacists and general practitioners work together to improve patients' health. Only nine studies reported hard outcomes, such as hospital (re)admissions; however, these studies had different results, not all of which were statistically significant. Randomized controlled trials should be able to describe hard outcomes, but large patient groups will be needed to perform such studies. Patient involvement is important for long-term success.
Geurts, Marlies M E; Talsma, Jaap; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Gier, Johan J
BACKGROUND: The UK, USA and the World Health Organization have identified improved patient safety in healthcare as a priority. Medication error has been identified as one of the most frequent forms of medical error and is associated with significant medical harm. Errors are the result of the systems that produce them. In industrial settings, a range of systematic techniques have
Sara Garfield; Nick Barber; Paul Walley; Alan Willson; Lina Eliasson
Background Inappropriate medication use (IMU) by elderly people is a public health problem associated with adverse effects on health. There are a number of methods for identifying IMU, some involving clinical judgment and others, consensually generated lists of drugs to be avoided. This review aims to describe studies that used information from insurance company and social security administrative databases to assess IMU among community-dwelling elderly and to present the risk factors most often associated with IMU. Methods The paper search was conducted in Medline and Embase, using descriptors combined with free terms in the title or abstract. The limits applied were: publication date from January 1990 to June 2010, species (human) and publication type (excluding editorials, letters and reviews). Excluded were: case studies; studies in hospitals, nursing homes, or hospital emergency departments; studies of specific drugs or groups of drugs; studies exclusively of subgroups of ill, frail elderly or rural populations. Additional studies were identified from reference lists. Data were selected and extracted after independent reading by two of the authors, with disagreements resolved by a third author. The primary outcome assessed was prevalence of IMU, defined as the proportion of elderly who received at least one inappropriate medication. Results Of the 628 studies, 19 met the inclusion criteria, 78.9% of them conducted in the USA. All papers included used explicit criteria of inappropriateness, most commonly Beers criteria (73.7%) in their three versions (1991, 1997 and 2002). Other methods used included Zhan, which is derived from on Beers criteria and was applied in 21% of the papers selected. The study found that prevalence of IMU ranged from 11.5% to 62.5%. Only 68.4% of the studies included examined inappropriate use-related factors, the most important being female sex, advanced age and larger number of drugs. Conclusions The results show that the prevalence of IMU among community-dwelling elderly is high and depends partly on the method used to evaluate improper use. Besides the diversity of methods, other factors, such as patient sex, age and number of drugs used concurrently, appear to have influenced the estimates of IMU.
Background: Numerous medical conditions can affect one's ability to operate a motor vehicle. The likelihood of having multiple medical conditions increases with advancing age; however, the interplay of the associated impairments has not been previously addressed in the literature.Objective: To identify the incremental risks for the effects of multiple chronic medical conditions on driving ability and crash risk.Methods: A comprehensive
Shawn C. Marshall; Malcolm Man-Son-Hing
Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article\\u000a describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture\\u000a of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study.\\u000a The annual incidence of
The objective was to systematically review the literature to identify and grade tools used for the end point assessment of procedural skills (e.g., phlebotomy, IV cannulation, suturing) competence in medical students prior to certification. The authors searched eight bibliographic databases electronically - ERIC, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psychinfo, PsychLIT, EBM Reviews and the Cochrane databases. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature to identify procedural assessment tools used specifically for assessing medical students within the PRISMA framework, the inclusion/exclusion criteria and search period. Papers on OSATS and DOPS were excluded as they focused on post-registration assessment and clinical rather than simulated competence. Of 659 abstracted articles 56 identified procedural assessment tools. Only 11 specifically assessed medical students. The final 11 studies consisted of 1 randomised controlled trial, 4 comparative and 6 descriptive studies yielding 12 heterogeneous procedural assessment tools for analysis. Seven tools addressed four discrete pre-certification skills, basic suture (3), airway management (2), nasogastric tube insertion (1) and intravenous cannulation (1). One tool used a generic assessment of procedural skills. Two tools focused on postgraduate laparoscopic skills and one on osteopathic students and thus were not included in this review. The levels of evidence are low with regard to reliability - ? = 0.65-0.71 and minimum validity is achieved - face and content. In conclusion, there are no tools designed specifically to assess competence of procedural skills in a final certification examination. There is a need to develop standardised tools with proven reliability and validity for assessment of procedural skills competence at the end of medical training. Medicine graduates must have comparable levels of procedural skills acquisition entering the clinical workforce irrespective of the country of training. PMID:22927716
Morris, Marie C; Gallagher, Tom K; Ridgway, Paul F
Background Accurate values are a must in medicine. An important parameter in determining the quality of a medical instrument is agreement with a gold standard. Various statistical methods have been used to test for agreement. Some of these methods have been shown to be inappropriate. This can result in misleading conclusions about the validity of an instrument. The Bland-Altman method is the most popular method judging by the many citations of the article proposing this method. However, the number of citations does not necessarily mean that this method has been applied in agreement research. No previous study has been conducted to look into this. This is the first systematic review to identify statistical methods used to test for agreement of medical instruments. The proportion of various statistical methods found in this review will also reflect the proportion of medical instruments that have been validated using those particular methods in current clinical practice. Methodology/Findings Five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for agreement studies. A total of 3,260 titles were initially identified. Only 412 titles were potentially related, and finally 210 fitted the inclusion criteria. The Bland-Altman method is the most popular method with 178 (85%) studies having used this method, followed by the correlation coefficient (27%) and means comparison (18%). Some of the inappropriate methods highlighted by Altman and Bland since the 1980s are still in use. Conclusions This study finds that the Bland-Altman method is the most popular method used in agreement research. There are still inappropriate applications of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for a clinician or medical researcher to be aware of this issue because misleading conclusions from inappropriate analyses will jeopardize the quality of the evidence, which in turn will influence quality of care given to patients in the future.
Zaki, Rafdzah; Bulgiba, Awang; Ismail, Roshidi; Ismail, Noor Azina
Objective(s): Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice. Materials and Methods: In 2010, five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for reliability studies. A total of 5,795 titles were initially identified. Only 282 titles were potentially related, and finally 42 fitted the inclusion criteria. Results: The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is the most popular method with 25 (60%) studies having used this method followed by the comparing means (8 or 19%). Out of 25 studies using the ICC, only 7 (28%) reported the confidence intervals and types of ICC used. Most studies (71%) also tested the agreement of instruments. Conclusion: This study finds that the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient is the most popular method used to assess the reliability of medical instruments measuring continuous outcomes. There are also inappropriate applications and interpretations of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for medical researchers to be aware of this issue, and be able to correctly perform analysis in reliability studies. PMID:23997908
Zaki, Rafdzah; Bulgiba, Awang; Nordin, Noorhaire; Azina Ismail, Noor
To perform a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for detecting depression in medical settings, this article focuses on the revised version of the scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II), which was reformulated according to the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. We examined relevant investigations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II for measuring depression in medical settings to provide guidelines for practicing clinicians. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria seventy articles were retained. Validation studies of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, in both primary care and hospital settings, were found for clinics of cardiology, neurology, obstetrics, brain injury, nephrology, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, oncology, and infectious disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II showed high reliability and good correlation with measures of depression and anxiety. Its threshold for detecting depression varied according to the type of patients, suggesting the need for adjusted cut-off points. The somatic and cognitive-affective dimension described the latent structure of the instrument. The Beck Depression Inventory-II can be easily adapted in most clinical conditions for detecting major depression and recommending an appropriate intervention. Although this scale represents a sound path for detecting depression in patients with medical conditions, the clinician should seek evidence for how to interpret the score before using the Beck Depression Inventory-II to make clinical decisions.
Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gorenstein, Clarice
Objective(s): Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice. Materials and Methods: In 2010, five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for reliability studies. A total of 5,795 titles were initially identified. Only 282 titles were potentially related, and finally 42 fitted the inclusion criteria. Results: The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is the most popular method with 25 (60%) studies having used this method followed by the comparing means (8 or 19%). Out of 25 studies using the ICC, only 7 (28%) reported the confidence intervals and types of ICC used. Most studies (71%) also tested the agreement of instruments. Conclusion: This study finds that the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient is the most popular method used to assess the reliability of medical instruments measuring continuous outcomes. There are also inappropriate applications and interpretations of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for medical researchers to be aware of this issue, and be able to correctly perform analysis in reliability studies.
Zaki, Rafdzah; Bulgiba, Awang; Nordin, Noorhaire; Azina Ismail, Noor
Background: Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. However, physicians feel poorly trained to address the obesity epidemic. This article examines effective training methods for overweight and obesity intervention in undergraduate medical education. Using indexing terms related to overweight, obesity, and medical student education, we conducted a literature searched PubMed PsycINFO, Cochrane, and ERIC
Mara Z. Vitolins; Sonia Crandall; David Miller; Eddie Ip; Gail Marion; John G. Spangler
|Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…
Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.
SUMMARY Review date: 1969 to 2003, 34 years. Background and context: Simulations are now in wide- spread use in medical education and medical personnel evaluation. Outcomes research on the use and effectiveness of simulation technology in medical education is scattered, inconsistent and varies widely in methodological rigor and substantive focus. Objectives: Review and synthesize existing evidence in educational science that
S. Barry Issenberg; William C. Mcgaghie; Emil R. Petrusa; David Lee Gordon; Ross J. Scalese
Objective To examine the strength and consistency of the evidence on the relationship between depression and adherence to antihypertensive medications. Methods The MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, SCOPUS, and ISI databases were searched from inception until December 11, 2009 for published studies of original research that assessed adherence to antihypertensive medications and used a standardized interview, validated questionnaire or International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code to assess depression or symptoms of depression in patients with hypertension. Manual searching was conducted on 22 selected journals. Citations of included articles were tracked using Web of Science and Google Scholar. Two investigators independently extracted data from the selected articles and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Results Eight studies were identified that included a total of 42,790 patients. 95% of these patients were from one study. Only 4 of the studies had the assessment of this relationship as a primary objective. Adherence rates varied from 29% to 91%. There were widely varying results within and across studies. All 8 studies reported at least one significant bivariate or multivariate negative relationship between depression and adherence to antihypertensive medications. Insignificant findings in bivariate or multivariate analyses were reported in 6 of 8 studies. Conclusions All studies reported statistically significant relationships between depression and poor adherence to antihypertensive medications, but definitive conclusions cannot be drawn because of substantial heterogeneity between studies with respect to the assessment of depression and adherence, as well as inconsistencies in results both within and between studies. Additional studies would help clarify this relationship.
Eze-Nliam, Chete M.; Thombs, Brett D.; Lima, Bruno B.; Smith, Cheri G.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.
ObjectiveTo develop a generic methodology for the online assessment of medical education materials available on the World Wide Web and to implement it for pilot subject areas.DesignAn online questionnaire was developed, based on an existing scheme for computer-based learning material. It was extended to involve five stages, covering general suitability, local suitability, the user interface, educational style, and a general
Elizabeth Berry; Christine Parker-Jones; Richard G Jones; Patrick J R Harkin; Harold O Horsfall; Joseph A Nicholls; Nicholas J A Cook
The city of Baltimore is a typical, large, urban center in the United States with several major academic medical institutions surrounded by disadvantaged neighborhoods with multiple poor health indices. In order to understand the extent to which academic research agendas reflect the health concerns of Baltimore's local population, a systematic review was conducted to identify research about four key, health-related topic areas. We classified papers on: disease prevalence and health status, utilization of health services, population-based interventions, and the unmet health needs of Baltimore City residents. Approximately 4,150 citations were identified in the search and two levels of screening yielded a total of 288 papers. The majority of articles (n = 189) examined prevalence of health conditions such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), mental health and mental disorders, and sexually transmitted diseases. Papers about specific target populations focused primarily on adults, African Americans, and females. Despite a significant body of research concerning several health conditions and priority populations, significant gaps in knowledge about health services utilization, community interventions, unmet health needs, and the prevalence of specific health issues remain. This review provides valuable insight into the extent of health research conducted about the city of Baltimore and whether community health priorities have been investigated. It provides a basis for examining the potential directions of academic research centers to effectively identify and address collective, urban health priorities of the communities in which they reside. PMID:20422444
Tyus, Nadra C; Gibbons, M Christopher; Robinson, Karen A; Twose, Claire; Guyer, Bernard
Objective: To determine the clinical significance of definite bites by mouse spiders (Actinopodidae: Missulena spp.) from published case reports\\/series and museum records. Data sources: A computerised literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was undertaken. All cases reported to major Australian museums and reports from venom researchers working with mouse spiders were also reviewed. Textbooks on clinical toxinology were searched and
Geoffrey K Isbister
Oocyte donation can satisfy the desire to have children in women with premature ovarian failure (POF) but little progress has been made to improve reproduction using the patients' own gametes. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of alternative treatments to oocyte donation in patients with POF. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 1988 to January 2012 using descriptors related to POF, ovulation induction, and pregnancy was made. Randomized clinical trials of women with POF undergoing various treatments to achieve ovulation induction, often compared with alternative treatment and placebo groups, were only selected. Outcomes of interest were those related to pregnancy (biochemical and live birth). Twelve trials were included and analysed for methodology, inclusion and exclusion criteria, number of patients included, characteristics and type of intervention, and results in terms of ovulation rate, pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate. The large methodological variability among studies prevented to combined data for a meta-analysis. None of the studies showed statistically significant differences between the study groups. The lack of case-control studies with a placebo group makes it impossible to establish differences between a treatment and no treatment. PMID:23772774
Robles, Ana; Checa, Miguel A; Prat, Maria; Carreras, Ramón
Several preclinical and observational studies have shown that anti-diabetic medications (ADMs) can modify the risk of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies evaluating the effect of metformin, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), sulfonylureas, and/or insulin on the risk of HCC. We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to August 2012. Studies were included if they (1) evaluated and clearly defined exposure to metformin, TZDs, sulfonylureas, and/or insulin, (2) reported HCC outcomes in patients with DM, and (3) reported relative risks or odds ratio (OR) or provided data for their estimation. Summary OR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the random-effects model. Ten studies reporting 22,650 cases of HCC in 334,307 patients with type 2 DM were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis of observational studies showed a 50% reduction in HCC incidence with metformin use (n=8 studies; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34-0.73), 62% and 161% increase in HCC incidence with sulfonylurea (n=8 studies; OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.16-2.24) or insulin use (n=7; OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.46-4.65), respectively. TZDs did not modify the risk of HCC (n=4; OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.28-1.02). There was considerable heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by study setting, location, and whether the studies adjusted for the concomitant use of other ADMs. Post-hoc analysis of randomized controlled trials did not reveal any significant association between ADM use and risk of HCC. ADMs may modify the risk of HCC in patients with DM, especially in the Western population. However, the effect of each individual agent should be interpreted with caution owing to inherent cancer-modifying effect of the comparator group. PMID:23381014
Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Preet Paul; Singh, Abha Goyal; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Sanchez, William
The aim of this study was to systematically review the published evidence of the impact of health information technology (HIT) or health information systems (HIS) on the quality of healthcare, focusing on clinicians' adherence to evidence-based guidelines and the corresponding impact this had on patient clinical outcomes. The review covered the use of health information technologies and systems in both
Aziz Jamal; Kirsten McKenzie; Michele Clark
Background Patient safety is a fundamental component of good quality health care. Checklists have been proposed as a method of improving patient safety. This systematic review, asked "In acute hospital settings, would the use of safety checklists applied by medical care teams, compared to not using checklists, improve patient safety?" Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials published in English before September 2009. Studies were selected and appraised by two reviewers independently in consultation with colleagues, using inclusion, exclusion and appraisal criteria established a priori. Results Nine cohort studies with historical controls studies from four hospital care settings were included-intensive care unit, emergency department, surgery, and acute care. The studies used a variety of designs of safety checklists, and implemented them in different ways, however most incorporated an educational component to teach the staff how to use the checklist. The studies assessed outcomes occurring a few weeks to a maximum of 12 months post-implementation, and these outcomes were diverse. The studies were generally of low to moderate quality and of low levels of evidence, with all but one of the studies containing a high risk of bias. The results of these studies suggest some improvements in patient safety arising from use of safety checklists, but these were not consistent across all studies or for all outcomes. Some studies showed no difference in outcomes between checklist use and standard care without a checklist. Due to the variations in setting, checklist design, educational training given, and outcomes measured, it was unfeasible to accurately summarise any trends across all studies. Conclusions The included studies suggest some benefits of using safety checklists to improve protocol adherence and patient safety, but due to the risk of bias in these studies, their results should be interpreted with caution. More high quality and studies, are needed to enable confident conclusions about the effectiveness of safety checklists in acute hospital settings.
The objective of this report is to perform a comparative effectiveness review of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of antiepileptic medications and to address the issue of generic substitution by qualitatively and/or quantitatively comparing older ver...
The use of 2-way audiovisual telemedicine technology for the delivery of acute stroke care is well established in the literature and is a growing practice. The use of such technology for neurologic consultation outside the cerebrovascular specialty has been reported to a variable extent across most disciplines within the field of neurology, including that of the neurohospitalist medicine. A systematic review of these reports is lacking. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on teleneurologic consultation in hospital neurology. The databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane were used as data sources and were searched with key words “teleneurology” and its numerous synonyms and cognates. These key words were cross-referenced with subspecialties of neurology. The studies were included for further review only if the title or the abstract indicated that the study made use of 2-way audiovisual communication to address a neurologic indication. This search yielded 6625 abstracts. By consensus between the 2 investigators, 688 publications met the criteria for inclusion and further review. Four of those citations directly pertained to the inpatient hospital neurologic consultation. Each of the 4 relevant articles was scored with a novel rubric scoring functionality, application, technology, and evaluation phase. A subspecialty category score was calculated by averaging those scores. The use of 2-way audiovisual technology for general neurologic consultation of hospital inpatients, beyond stroke-related care, is promising, but the evidence supporting its routine use is weak. Further studies on reliability, validity, safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness are encouraged.
Rubin, Mark N.; Wellik, Kay E.; Channer, Dwight D.; Demaerschalk, Bart M.
Abstract Objective To compare medical abortion practised at home and in clinics in terms of effectiveness, safety and acceptability. Methods A systematic search for randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies comparing home-based and clinic-based medical abortion was conducted. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Popline were searched. Failure to abort completely, side-effects and acceptability were the main outcomes of interest. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Findings Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (n?=?4522 participants). All were prospective cohort studies that used mifepristone and misoprostol to induce abortion. Complete abortion was achieved by 86–97% of the women who underwent home-based abortion (n?=?3478) and by 80–99% of those who underwent clinic-based abortion (n?=?1044). Pooled analyses from all studies revealed no difference in complete abortion rates between groups (odds ratio?=?0.8; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5). Serious complications from abortion were rare. Pain and vomiting lasted 0.3 days longer among women who took misoprostol at home rather than in clinic. Women who chose home-based medical abortion were more likely to be satisfied, to choose the method again and to recommend it to a friend than women who opted for medical abortion in a clinic. Conclusion Home-based abortion is safe under the conditions in place in the included studies. Prospective cohort studies have shown no differences in effectiveness or acceptability between home-based and clinic-based medical abortion across countries.
Park, Min Hae; Shakur, Haleema; Free, Caroline
Abstract The treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is a multidisciplinary effort that spans from the time of injury through to an acute care center, and in some cases the remainder of the individual's life. Recovery from SCI depends on the care received at each point along this spectrum in time. In order to facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine and best clinical practices, a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers systematically reviewed the literature on SCI and set out to answer pertinent clinical questions and establish evidence-based recommendations. This article introduces the series of systematic reviews, summarizes the most notable findings, and gives an overview of the questions asked in each review and the evidence-based recommendations for care. Some of the most important recommendations are as follows: (1) Patients should be immobilized before transport to a hospital using a cervical collar, head immobilization, and a spinal board; (2) MRI is strongly recommended for the prognostication of acute SCI; (3) early surgical intervention (from 8–24?h) should be considered following acute traumatic SCI; (4) SCI patients are at significant risk of cardiovascular and respiratory problems and management should proactively anticipate these potential complications; and (5) outcomes can be improved by management in specialized centers with access to intensive care.
Cadotte, David W.; Fehlings, Lauren N.
Objectives: To perform a systematic review of published research trials of preconception care services to determine what evidence for effectiveness of care at improving the course of pregnancy or its outcomes has accumulated since the last major review in 1990. Methods: The review was conducted adapting the systematic methods developed by the Cochrane Collaboration to collect evidence from published clinical
Carol C. Korenbrot; Alycia Steinberg; Catherine Bender; Sydne Newberry
Background Many patients experience difficulties in adhering to long-term treatment. Although patients' reasons for not being adherent are diverse, one of the most commonly reported barriers is forgetfulness. Reminding patients to take their medication may provide a solution. Electronic reminders (automatically sent reminders without personal contact between the healthcare provider and patient) are now increasingly being used in the effort to improve adherence. Objective To examine the effectiveness of interventions using electronic reminders in improving patients' adherence to chronic medication. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Electronic searches were supplemented by manual searching of reference lists and reviews. Two reviewers independently screened all citations. Full text was obtained from selected citations and screened for final inclusion. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Four studies evaluated short message service (SMS) reminders, seven audiovisual reminders from electronic reminder devices (ERD), and two pager messages. Best evidence synthesis revealed evidence for the effectiveness of electronic reminders, provided by eight (four high, four low quality) studies showing significant effects on patients' adherence, seven of which measured short-term effects (follow-up period <6?months). Improved adherence was found in all but one study using SMS reminders, four studies using ERD and one pager intervention. In addition, one high quality study using an ERD found subgroup effects. Conclusion This review provides evidence for the short-term effectiveness of electronic reminders, especially SMS reminders. However, long-term effects remain unclear.
Linn, Annemiek J; van Weert, Julia C M; de Bakker, Dinny H; Bouvy, Marcel L; van Dijk, Liset
As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention and treatment of childhood depression.
Lima, Nadia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vania Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telesforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula
Mental health-care professionals are striving to keep up to date with health interventions that are effective and beneficial to patients. The Cochrane Reviews make available a systematic and up-to-date review of a comprehensive range of health interventions. We identified a total of 28 interventions from a systematic search and review of the Cochrane Reviews for either schizophrenia, psychosis, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorder. These interventions have been graded into tables of: strong support that merits application, moderate support that warrants consideration of application, not supported, and data that is deemed inconclusive. The tables provide a comprehensive summary and classification of evidence-based practices. This information is presented in a way to enable nurses and other health-care professionals to analyze their own practices to improve mental health services and outcomes for patients. Of the 28 interventions identified in this review, four had strong support and five had moderate support meriting application. Limitations of this review are discussed. PMID:19594644
Jung, Xenia Tricia; Newton, Richard
Text Version... Subject: BPCA / PREA: Postmarketing Medication Error Review Drug Name(s): Crestor (Rosuvastatin Calcium) Tablets ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
Medication errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Inadequate laboratory monitoring of high-risk medications after initial prescription is a medical error that contributes to preventable adverse drug events. Health information technology (HIT)-based clinical decision support may improve patient safety by improving the laboratory monitoring of high-risk medications, but the effectiveness of such interventions is unclear. Therefore, the authors
Shira H. Fischer; Jennifer Tjia; Terry S. Field
The Experimental Medical Care Review Organization (EMCRO) program was initiated in 1971 for developing objective and systematic methods for evaluating the quality of personal health services provided by physicians and other health professionals in all set...
There are many ethical decisions in the practice of health research and care, and in the creation of policy and guidelines. We argue that those charged with making such decisions need a new genre of review. The new genre is an application of the systematic review, which was developed over decades to inform medical decision-makers about what the totality of studies that investigate links between smoking and cancer, for example, implies about whether smoking causes cancer. We argue that there is a need for similarly inclusive and rigorous reviews of reason-based bioethics, which uses reasoning to address ethical questions. After presenting a brief history of the systematic review, we reject the only existing model for writing a systematic review of reason-based bioethics, which holds that such a review should address an ethical question. We argue that such a systematic review may mislead decision-makers when a literature is incomplete, or when there are mutually incompatible but individually reasonable answers to the ethical question. Furthermore, such a review can be written without identifying all the reasons given when the ethical questions are discussed, their alleged implications for the ethical question, and the attitudes taken to the reasons. The reviews we propose address instead the empirical question of which reasons have been given when addressing a specified ethical question, and present such detailed information on the reasons. We argue that this information is likely to improve decision-making, both directly and indirectly, and also the academic literature. We explain the limitations of our alternative model for systematic reviews.
Sofaer, Neema; Strech, Daniel
There are many ethical decisions in the practice of health research and care, and in the creation of policy and guidelines. We argue that those charged with making such decisions need a new genre of review. The new genre is an application of the systematic review, which was developed over decades to inform medical decision-makers about what the totality of studies that investigate links between smoking and cancer, for example, implies about whether smoking causes cancer. We argue that there is a need for similarly inclusive and rigorous reviews of reason-based bioethics, which uses reasoning to address ethical questions. After presenting a brief history of the systematic review, we reject the only existing model for writing a systematic review of reason-based bioethics, which holds that such a review should address an ethical question. We argue that such a systematic review may mislead decision-makers when a literature is incomplete, or when there are mutually incompatible but individually reasonable answers to the ethical question. Furthermore, such a review can be written without identifying all the reasons given when the ethical questions are discussed, their alleged implications for the ethical question, and the attitudes taken to the reasons. The reviews we propose address instead the empirical question of which reasons have been given when addressing a specified ethical question, and present such detailed information on the reasons. We argue that this information is likely to improve decision-making, both directly and indirectly, and also the academic literature. We explain the limitations of our alternative model for systematic reviews. PMID:21521251
Sofaer, Neema; Strech, Daniel
Medical end-of-life decisions, defined as end-of-life practices with a potential or certain life-shortening effect, precede almost 50% of deaths in Western countries, and receive ample medical-ethical attention. This systematic review aims to detect whether there are differences in the prevalence of medical end-of-life decisions in 'vulnerable' patient groups. In 2009, five major databases were scrutinized for publications containing original data on the prevalence of euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide, life-ending without explicit patient request, intensified symptom alleviation, non-treatment decisions and palliative sedation by social factors (eg age, gender and SES). Heterogeneous findings were pooled using a random effects model. We identified 6377 papers of which 51 papers were selected, involving over 1.09 million patients. Most publications reported the prevalence of non-treatment decisions. The most studied social factors were age and gender. Among patients older than eighty years, non-treatment decisions occurred more frequently compared with younger patients, while intensified symptom alleviation, palliative sedation, euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide and life-ending without explicit request were practiced less often. Similar patterns of association, although less strong, were found for female patients compared with males and those with lower levels of education versus more highly-educated patients. We conclude that the administration of medication with a potential or certain life-shortening effect seemed generally to be practiced less often among the elderly, females and less well-educated patients compared with younger, male or more educated patients, while decisions that include the withdrawal or withholding of treatments seem to be more common in these groups. Further studies should focus on investigating whether these differences reflect less than optimal end-of-life care for specific patient groups. PMID:22401644
Rietjens, Judith A C; Deschepper, Reginald; Pasman, Roeline; Deliens, Luc
Multiple barriers can influence adherence to antihypertensive medications. The aim of this systematic review was to determine what adherence barriers were included in each instrument and to describe the psychometric properties of the identified surveys. Barriers were characterized using the World Health Organization (WHO) Multidimensional Adherence Model with patient, condition, therapy, socioeconomic, and health care system/team-related barriers. Five databases (Medline, Embase, Health and Psychological Instruments, CINHAL, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts [IPA]) were searched from 1980 to September 2011. Our search identified 1712 citations; 74 articles met inclusion criteria and 51 unique surveys were identified. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was the most commonly used survey. Only 20 surveys (39%) have established reliability and validity evidence. According to the WHO Adherence Model domains, patient-related barriers were most commonly addressed, while condition, therapy, and socioeconomic barriers were underrepresented. The complexity of adherence behavior requires robust self-report measurements and the inclusion of barriers relevant to each unique patient population and intervention. PMID:23205755
AlGhurair, Suliman A; Hughes, Christine A; Simpson, Scot H; Guirguis, Lisa M
Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were identified, including a total of 46 eligible systematic reviews. These brought together research studies for 24 different risk factors. This has shown that the following factors appear to be associated with a higher risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage: being a woman, older age, posterior circulation aneurysms, larger aneurysms, previous symptoms, "non-white" ethnicity, hypertension, low body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption of more than 150 g per week. The following factors appear to be associated with a lower risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage: high cholesterol, diabetes and use of hormone replacement therapy. PMID:18560819
BACKGROUND: Training in Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely implemented throughout medical school and residency curricula. The aim of this study is to systematically review studies that assessed the effectiveness of EBP teaching to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior of postgraduate healthcare workers, and to describe instruments available to evaluate EBP teaching. METHODS: The design is a systematic review
Gemma Flores-Mateo; Josep M Argimon
Scope and purposeThe systematic review was commissioned by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) to evaluate the scientific literature relating to the health effects of fluoride and fluoridation. The systematic review's research questions relate to the caries-reducing benefits and associated potential health risks of providing fluoride systemically (via addition to water, milk and salt) and the use
C Albert Yeung
Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach of synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas and formulate scientific consensus state...
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of Tuina-focused integrative Chinese medical therapies (TICMT) on inpatients with low back pain (LBP). Methods. 6 English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TICMT for in-patients with LBP. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was assessed based on PEDro scale. And the meta-analyses of TICMT for LBP on pain and functional status were conducted. Results. 20 RCTs were included. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was poor. The meta-analyses' results showed that TICMT had statistically significant effects on pain and functional status, especially Tuina plus Chinese herbal medicine (standardised mean difference, SMD: 1.17; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.60 on pain; SMD: 1.31; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.14 on functional status) and Tuina plus acupuncture (SMD: 0.94; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.50 on pain; SMD: 0.53; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.85 on functional status). But Tuina plus moxibustion or hot pack did not show significant improvements on pain. And the long-term evidence of TICMT was far from sufficient. Conclusions. The preliminary evidence from current studies suggests that TICMT might be effective complementary and alternative treatments for in-patients with LBP. However, the poor methodological quality of the included RCTs means that high-quality RCTs with long follow-up are warranted. PMID:23346207
Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Pu, Jiang Hui; Cheng, Ying Wu; Chen, Bo
The rapid progress of medical science and the invention of various medicines have benefited mankind and the whole civilization. Modern science also has been doing wonders in the surgical field. But, the proper and correct diagnosis of diseases is the primary necessity before the treatment. The more sophisticate the bio-instruments are, better diagnosis will be possible. The medical images plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy of doctor and teaching and researching etc. Medical imaging is often thought of as a way to represent anatomical structures of the body with the help of X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. But often it is more useful for physiologic function rather than anatomy. With the growth of computer and image technology medical imaging has greatly influenced medical field. As the quality of medical imaging affects diagnosis the medical image processing has become a hotspot and the clinical applications wanting to store and retrieve images for future purpose needs some convenient process to store those images in details. This paper is a tutorial review of the medical image processing and repository techniques appeared in the literature.
Ganguly, Debashis; Chakraborty, Srabonti; Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon
Over the years, the rate of international adoptions in the United States has increased and continues to steadily rise. A large percentage of these adoptions are from orphanages that are poverty-stricken, with limited food and a high orphan-to- caregiver ratio. These conditions can lead to medical and developmental issues such as malnutrition, failure-to-thrive, infectious disease, developmental delays, and behavioral disorders.
Meredith K. Bolton; David Day
Background: The use of two-way audio-visual technology for delivery of acute stroke is supported by a well established literature base. The use of telemedicine for general neurologic consultation has been reported across most subspecialties within the field, but a comprehensive systematic review of these reports is lacking. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review of the published literature on teleneurologic consultation beyond stroke. Data sources: Databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane were searched with keywords, “teleneurology,” and numerous synonyms and cross-referenced with neurology subspecialties. The search yielded 6,615 potentially eligible hits, which were independently reviewed by two investigators. Ultimately 375 unique studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Study selection: Studies were included if the title or abstract expressed use of two-way AV communication for a clinical neurologic indication other than stroke. Data extraction: Each article was classified using a novel scoring rubric to assess the level of functionality, application, technology, and evaluative stage. Data analysis: Articles were hierarchized within a subspecialty category. Overall subspecialty scores were assigned based on aggregate of scores across papers in each category. Conclusion: Use of telemedicine for general and most subspecialty neurologic consultation, beyond stroke, appears very promising but the clinical science is nascent.
Rubin, Mark N.; Wellik, Kay E.; Channer, Dwight D.; Demaerschalk, Bart M.
...Downgrading] [Sec. 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.] 32...Downgrading Sec. 2400.20 Systematic review for declassification. (a) Permanent records. Systematic review is applicable only to...
The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the "Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine". The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy); serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria). PMID:23828524
Garbino, José Antonio; Marques, Wilson; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Heise, Carlos Otto; Rodrigues, Márcia Maria Jardim; Antunes, Sérgio L; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Floriano, Marcos Cesar; Nery, José Augusto; Trindade, Maria Angela Bianconcini; Carvalho, Noêmia Barbosa; de Andrada, Nathália Carvalho; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Virmond, Marcos da Cunha Lopes
Objective: To evaluate the existing evidence on the diagnosis and management of septic arthritis in native joints. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, National Electronic Library for Health, reference lists, national experts. Review methods: Systematic review of the literature with evaluation of the methodological quality of the selected papers using defined criteria set out by the Clinical Effectiveness and Evaluation Unit of the Royal College of Physicians. Results: 3291 citations were initially identified. Of these, 189 full text articles were identified for potential selection. Following review of these full text articles, 80 articles were found to fulfil the inclusion criteria and were included in the final list. Conclusions were drawn on the diagnosis, investigation and management of septic arthritis. Discussion: Little good quality evidence exists to guide the diagnosis and management of septic arthritis. Overall, no investigation is more reliable in the diagnosis of septic arthritis than the opinion of an experienced doctor. Aspiration and culture of synovial fluid is crucial to the diagnosis, but measurement of cell count is unhelpful. Antibiotics are clearly required for a prolonged period, but there are no data to indicate by which route or for how long. Key unanswered questions remain surrounding the medical and surgical management of the infected joint.
Mathews, C J; Kingsley, G; Field, M; Jones, A; Weston, V C; Phillips, M; Walker, D; Coakley, G
Background An emergency cricothyrotomy is the last-resort in most airway management protocols and is performed when it is not possible to intubate or ventilate a patient. This situation can rapidly prove fatal, making it important to identify the best method to establish a secure airway. We conducted a systematic review to identify whether there exists superiority between available commercial kits versus traditional surgical and needle techniques. Methods Medline, EMBASE and other databases were searched for pertinent studies. The inclusion criteria included manikin, animal and human studies and there were no restrictions regarding the professional background of the person performing the procedure. Results In total, 1,405 unique references were identified; 108 full text articles were retrieved; and 24 studies were included in the review. Studies comparing kits with one another or with various surgical and needle techniques were identified. The outcome measures included in this systematic review were success rate and time consumption. The investigators performing the studies had chosen unique combinations of starting and stopping points for time measurements, making comparisons between studies difficult and leading to many conflicting results. No single method was shown to be better than the others, but the size of the studies makes it impossible to draw firm conclusions. Conclusions The large majority of the studies were too small to demonstrate statistically significant differences, and the limited available evidence was of low or very low quality. That none of the techniques in these studies demonstrated better results than the others does not necessarily indicate that each is equally good, and these conclusions will likely change as new evidence becomes available.
Systematic reviews are used to gather information from a variety of sources and distill information based on best evidence synthesis, while also excluding poor quality studies via explicit validity checks. This article provides a roadmap to conducting a systematic review with the Cochrane Collaboration and uses an example of a completed systematic review. The literature is drawn upon to provide rationale for the processes undertaken. The aim of the sample systematic review was to identify and review all randomized controlled trials evaluating disposable surgical face masks worn by surgical team members during clean surgery to prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. PMID:12885070
Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…
Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.
|Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within…
Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.
BACKGROUND: Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to
Rebecca Ganann; Donna Ciliska; Helen Thomas
The purpose of this article is to discuss systematic reviews, how they are performed, and their associated strengths and limitations. A systematic review is an assessment of evidence involving exact methods to systematically identify, select, and critically evaluate all available literature on a particular topic. Unlike most narrative reviews, systematic reviews have defined methods established a priori for searching, evaluating, extracting, synthesizing, and reporting available evidence. Key characteristics differentiating systematic reviews from most narrative reviews include: clearly stated objectives, pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, an explicit reproducible methodology, systematic exhaustive searches to identify all sources of evidence, an assessment of the validity for each included study, and a systematic presentation of the study characteristics/results. Though there are significant advantages to systematic reviews, there are also clear limitations such as: the quality of included evidence; heterogeneity and homogeneity of included studies; and publication bias. Even with these limitations, systematic reviews are beneficial to front line clinicians when the quantity of evidence is so substantial that reviewing and synthesizing it is not feasible, available evidence is conflicting, or when the robustness of available evidence is unknown. PMID:23744820
Crowther, David M
Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking.
MacDonald-Jankowski, D S
Objectives Qigong has been recommended to improve health and prevent disease but the evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this overview was to critically evaluate all systematic reviews (SRs) of qigong for the treatment of any condition or symptom. Design Literature searches were carried out in 11 electronic databases for all systematic reviews of the effectiveness of qigong in any indication. Reviews were defined as systematic if they included an explicit and repeatable methods section describing the search strategy and explicit inclusion/exclusion criteria. Setting Retrospective review of medical database. Participants Participants with any type of medical conditions of any severity were included. Main outcome measures Evidence from each systematic review. Results Ten systematic reviews were included. They related to a wide range of conditions. The primary studies and several of the reviews were associated with a high risk of bias. Five reviews concluded that qigong is effective and five reviews were inconclusive. Conclusion The effectiveness of qigong is based mostly on poor quality research. Therefore, it would be unwise to draw firm conclusions at this stage.
Lee, Myeong Soo; Oh, Byeongsang; Ernst, Edzard
This paper reviews the difficulties associated with being a statistical reviewer for a medical journal. As background, I consider first the use of statistical reviewers by medical journals, medical journals' policies on statistical peer review, and the limited evidence of its effectiveness. The assessment of a manuscript is considered under the headings of design, methods of analysis, presentation and interpretation, with many illustrative examples of the difficulties to be overcome. I emphasize the judgemental nature of many aspects. I suggest how to present and structure the reviewer's report to the editor. Finally, I consider wider issues, including the various other ways in which statisticians can interact with medical journals. PMID:9881413
Altman, D G
Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small number and poor methodological quality of primary studies. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews provides a useful method of appraising the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Individual item scores, however, should be examined in addition to total scores, so that significant methodological flaws of systematic reviews are not missed, and results are interpreted appropriately. (348 words)
Objectives To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures.Design Systematic review.Data sources Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the
Lin Yang; Shannon Sahlqvist; Alison McMinn; Simon J Griffin; David Ogilvie
Title. The efficacy of reflexology: systematic review. Aim. This paper is a report of a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of reflexology in any condition. Background. Anecdotal evidence has shown potential benefits of reflexology in a variety of health conditions. However, the efficacy of reflexology has yet to be
Mei-Yeh Wang; Pei-Shan Tsai; Pi-Hsia Lee; Wen-Yin Chang; Che-Ming Yang
Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a protein that promotes fibrin stabilization by forming multiple covalent cross-links between fibrin monomers. Beside congenital FXIII deficiency, due to FXIII gene mutations, severe acquired FXIII deficiency has been described in association with autoantibodies against coagulation FXIII. These inhibitors, which occurs very rarely but may cause life-threatening bleeding complications, may arise spontaneously or in association with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders or medications. The management of patients with acquired FXIII inhibitors is very demanding and treatment regimens must be focused on eradication of the inhibitor and to increase the plasma FXIII levels. In this systematic review, we analyse all the published case-reports on anti-FXIII autoantibodies focusing on the clinical features and treatment modalities of this acquired hemorrhagic condition. PMID:23065324
Franchini, Massimo; Frattini, Francesco; Crestani, Silvia; Bonfanti, Carlo
Delirium in a patient with preexisting dementia is a common problem that may have serious complications and poor prognostic implications. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the medical literature on delirium superimposed on dementia, specifically to review studies on prevalence, associated features, outcomes, and management. Areas of controversy and gaps in our knowledge of this problem are highlighted. Finally, an agenda for future research is proposed. Fourteen studies were reviewed, including seven prospective studies, three retrospective studies, two cross-sectional studies, and two clinical trials. For the review of the literature on delirium superimposed on dementia, we searched MEDLINE from January 1966 through February 2002 for research studies with primary sources of data. Selection criteria for inclusion of articles in this study were inclusion of data on subjects with delirium superimposed on dementia, inclusion of a validated operational definition/measures of dementia and delirium, actual data on persons with delirium and dementia reported in the paper, and reporting of primary data. MEDLINE was searched using the following key search terms: delirium, acute confusion, cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, delirium superimposed on dementia, and elderly. The prevalence of delirium superimposed on dementia ranged from 22% to 89% of hospitalized and community populations aged 65 and older with dementia. To date, only one reported study systematically identified associated factors and interventions for delirium superimposed on dementia, but several studies examining outcomes have found that adverse events are associated with delirium in persons with dementia, including accelerated and long-term cognitive and functional decline, need for institutionalization, rehospitalization, and increased mortality. This paper highlights the dearth of research on delirium superimposed on dementia and stresses the importance of early recognition and prevention of delirium in persons with dementia. PMID:12366629
Fick, Donna M; Agostini, Joseph V; Inouye, Sharon K
Background: The family medical history is an important risk factor for several common chronic diseases but challenges remain in efficiently identifying individuals at increased risk. Family history questionnaires (FHQs) may have an important role in primary care as a screening tool to support tailored disease prevention. Aims: To systematically review studies reporting on the use and outcomes of FHQs in
G. T. Reid; F. M. Walter; J. M. Brisbane; J. D. Emery
We compared the methodology and the recommendations of evidence-based guidelines for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) to give an orientation within the continuously growing number of reviews on the therapy of FMS. Systematic searches up to April 2008 of the US-American National Guideline Clearing House, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany
Winfried Häuser; Kati Thieme; Dennis C. Turk
Purpose. Skin problems of the stump in lower limb amputees are relative common in daily rehabilitation practice, possibly impeding prosthetic use. This impediment may have great impact in daily life. Our objective was to review literature systematically concerning incidence and prevalence of skin disorders of the stump in lower limb amputees. Method. A literature search was performed in several medical
Henk E. J. Meulenbelt; Pieter U. Dijkstra; Marcel F. Jonkman; Jan H. B. Geertzen
Objective: Present-day students have grown up with considerable knowledge concerning multi-media. The communication modes they use are faster, more spontaneous, and independent of place and time. These new web-based forms of information and communication are used by students, educators, and patients in various ways. Universities which have already used these tools report many positive effects on the learning behaviour of the students. In a systematic literature review, we summarized the manner in which the integration of Social Media and Web 2.0 into education has taken place. Method: A systematic literature search covering the last 5 years using MeSH terms was carried out via PubMed. Result: Among the 20 chosen publications, there was only one German publication. Most of the publications are from the US and Great Britain. The latest publications report on the concrete usage of the tools in education, including social networking, podcasts, blogs, wikis, YouTube, Twitter and Skype. Conclusion: The integration of Web 2.0 and Social Media is the modern form of self-determined learning. It stimulates reflection and actively integrates the students in the construction of their knowledge. With these new tools, the students acquire skills which they need in both their social and professional lives. PMID:23467509
Hollinderbäumer, Anke; Hartz, Tobias; Uckert, Frank
Objective: Present-day students have grown up with considerable knowledge concerning multi-media. The communication modes they use are faster, more spontaneous, and independent of place and time. These new web-based forms of information and communication are used by students, educators, and patients in various ways. Universities which have already used these tools report many positive effects on the learning behaviour of the students. In a systematic literature review, we summarized the manner in which the integration of Social Media and Web 2.0 into education has taken place. Method: A systematic literature search covering the last 5 years using MeSH terms was carried out via PubMed. Result: Among the 20 chosen publications, there was only one German publication. Most of the publications are from the US and Great Britain. The latest publications report on the concrete usage of the tools in education, including social networking, podcasts, blogs, wikis, YouTube, Twitter and Skype. Conclusion: The integration of Web 2.0 and Social Media is the modern form of self-determined learning. It stimulates reflection and actively integrates the students in the construction of their knowledge. With these new tools, the students acquire skills which they need in both their social and professional lives.
Hollinderbaumer, Anke; Hartz, Tobias; Uckert, Frank
OBJECTIVES To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. DESIGN A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. DATA SOURCES Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. SELECTION OF STUDIES We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. RESULTS The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency. CONCLUSIONS In order to revitalize academic medicine, we must engage trainees and retain their interest throughout their training. Research opportunities for medical students, and fellowships or graduate training can meet this challenge and influence career choice. Initiatives to stimulate and maintain interest in academic medicine should be evaluated in prospective studies across multiple sites.
Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina
Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews in palliative care are well performed, but fail to provide good evidence for clinical practice because the primary studies are few in number, small, clinically heterogeneous, and of poor quality and external validity. They are useful in highlighting the weakness of the evidence base and problems in performing trials in palliative care.
Wee, Bee; Hadley, Gina; Derry, Sheena
KEYWORDS health; illness; healing; social values; social relations; ethno-medicine ABSTRACT Medical anthropology looks at cultural conceptions of the body, health and illness. Medical anthropology is the study of ethno-medicine; explanation of illness and disease; what causes illness; the evaluation of health, illness and cure from both an emic and etic point of view; naturalistic and personalistic explanation , evil eye,
Objective: The main objective of this study was to systematically review the existing evidence for the effectiveness of farm injury prevention interventions.Search Strategy: We used a systematic approach to search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Sociofile, NTIS, Agricola, Expanded Academic Index, Dissertation Abstracts, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTIC). Proceedings and technical papers of the National Institute
Lisa A DeRoo; Risto H Rautiainen
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...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045...Restricted Data Â§ 1045.43 Systematic review for declassification...DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents....
Background Empathy is frequently cited as an important attribute in physicians and some groups have expressed a desire to measure empathy either at selection for medical school or during medical (or postgraduate) training. In order to do this, a reliable and valid test of empathy is required. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the reliability and validity of existing tests for the assessment of medical empathy. Methods A systematic review of research papers relating to the reliability and validity of tests of empathy in medical students and doctors. Journal databases (Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) were searched for English-language articles relating to the assessment of empathy and related constructs in applicants to medical school, medical students, and doctors. Results From 1147 citations, we identified 50 relevant papers describing 36 different instruments of empathy measurement. As some papers assessed more than one instrument, there were 59 instrument assessments. 20 of these involved only medical students, 30 involved only practising clinicians, and three involved only medical school applicants. Four assessments involved both medical students and practising clinicians, and two studies involved both medical school applicants and students. Eight instruments demonstrated evidence of reliability, internal consistency, and validity. Of these, six were self-rated measures, one was a patient-rated measure, and one was an observer-rated measure. Conclusion A number of empathy measures available have been psychometrically assessed for research use among medical students and practising medical doctors. No empathy measures were found with sufficient evidence of predictive validity for use as selection measures for medical school. However, measures with a sufficient evidential base to support their use as tools for investigating the role of empathy in medical training and clinical care are available.
Hemmerdinger, Joanne M; Stoddart, Samuel DR; Lilford, Richard J
The paper gives a thorough description of the systematic review (SR) research methodology. SRs are designed to reduce the problems associated with less rigorous literature review methods by employing strict, quantitative research methods that lead to obje...
D. B. Larson E. Anthony J. S. Lyons L. E. Pastro
\\u000a The rapid progress of medical science and the invention of various medicines have benefited mankind and the whole civilization.\\u000a Modern science also has been doing wonders in the surgical field. But, the proper and correct diagnosis of diseases is the\\u000a primary necessity before the treatment. The more sophisticate the bio-instruments are, better diagnosis will be possible.\\u000a The medical images plays
Debashis Ganguly; Srabonti Chakraborty; Maricel Balitanas; Tai-Hoon Kim
Text Version... ways, several different times, trying to describe the areas that they ... SLIDE 51 This concludes the presentation, "Medical Device Review at CBER". ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities
CONTEXT.Pediatric and intensive care patients are particularly at risk for medication errors. Computerized physician order entry systems could be effective in reducing medication errors and improving outcome. Effectiveness of computerized physician order entry systems has been shown in adult medical care. However, in critically ill patients and\\/or children, medication prescribing is a more complex process, and usefulness of computerized physician
Floor van Rosse; Barbara Maat; Carin M. A. Rademaker; Adrianus J. van Vught; Antoine C. G. Egberts; Casper W. Bollen
The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994–2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy.
Kuziemsky, Craig; Price, Morgan; Gardner, Jesse
Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.
Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre
Background Systematic reviews have the potential to inform clinical decisions, yet little is known about the impact of interventions\\u000a on increasing the use of systematic reviews in clinical decision-making.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose To systematically review the evidence on the impact of interventions for seeking, appraising, and applying evidence from systematic\\u000a reviews in decision-making by clinicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Data Sources Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled
Laure Perrier; Kelly Mrklas; Sasha Shepperd; Maureen Dobbins; K. Ann McKibbon; Sharon E. Straus
This article focuses on applying systematic reviews to the Early Intervention (EI) literature. Systematic reviews are defined and differentiated from traditional, or narrative, reviews and from meta-analyses. In addition, the steps involved in critiquing systematic reviews and an illustration of a systematic review from the EI literature are…
Hargrove, Patricia; Lund, Bonnie; Griffer, Mona
|This article focuses on applying systematic reviews to the Early Intervention (EI) literature. Systematic reviews are defined and differentiated from traditional, or narrative, reviews and from meta-analyses. In addition, the steps involved in critiquing systematic reviews and an illustration of a systematic review from the EI literature are…
Hargrove, Patricia; Lund, Bonnie; Griffer, Mona
This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…
Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.
|This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…
Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.
Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Contribuciones de las Revisiones Sistemáticas a las Decisiones de Manejo. PMID:24001025
Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A
A systematic review of the safety information contained within the Summaries of Product Characteristics of medications licensed in the United Kingdom for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. how does the safety prescribing advice compare with national guidance?
Background The safety of paediatric medications is paramount and contraindications provide clear pragmatic advice. Further advice may be accessed through Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and relevant national guidelines. The SPC can be considered the ultimate independent guideline and is regularly updated. In 2008, the authors undertook a systematic review of the SPC contraindications of medications licensed in the United Kingdom (UK) for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). At that time, there were fewer contraindications reported in the SPC for atomoxetine than methylphenidate and the specific contraindications varied considerably amongst methylphenidate formulations. In 2009, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) mandated harmonisation of methylphenidate SPCs. Between September and November 2011, there were three changes to the atomoxetine SPC that resulted in revised prescribing information. In addition, Clinical Guidance has also been produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2008), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2009) and the British National Formulary for Children (BNFC). Methods An updated systematic review of the Contraindications sections of the SPCs of all medications currently licensed for treatment of ADHD in the UK was undertaken and independent statements regarding contraindications and relevant warnings and precautions were then compared with UK national guidance with the aim of assessing any disparity and potential areas of confusion for prescribers. Results As of November 2011, there were seven medications available in the UK for the treatment of ADHD. There are 15 contraindications for most formulations of methylphenidate, 14 for dexamfetamine and 5 for atomoxetine. Significant differences exist between the SPCs and national guidance part due to the ongoing reactive process of amending the former as new information becomes known. In addition, recommendations are made outside UK SPC licensed indications and a significant contraindication for methylphenidate (suicidal behaviours) is missing from both the NICE and SIGN guidelines. Particular disparity exists relating to monitoring for suicidal and psychiatric side effects. The BNFC has not yet been updated in line with the European Union (EU) Directive on methylphenidate; it does not include any contraindications for atomoxetine but describes contraindications for methylphenidate that are no longer in the SPC. Conclusion Clinicians seeking prescribing advice from critical independent sources of data, such as SPCs and national guidelines, may be confused by the disparity that exists. There are major differences between guidelines and SPCs and neither should be referred to in isolation. The SPC represents the most relevant source of safety data to aid prescribing of medications for ADHD as they present the most current safety data in line with increased exposure. National guidelines may need more regular updates.
Background Amusia, a music-specific agnosia, is a disorder of pitch interval analysis and pitch direction change recognition which results in a deficit in musical ability. The full range of aetiological factors which cause this condition is unknown, as is each cause’s frequency. The objective of this study was to identify all causes of amusia, and to measure each of their frequencies. Methods Design: systematic review was conducted by search of multiple databases for articles related to the aetiology of amusic auditory dysfunction. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed, utilizing the PRISMA checklist and PRISMA flowchart methodology. Setting: Retrospective medical database review. Main outcome measures: evidence yielded from the systematic review process. Results The initial search protocol identified 5723 articles. Application of a classification review filter and exclusion of irrelevant or duplicates led to the initial identification of 56 relevant studies which detailed 301 patients. However, these studies were of poor quality. Because of this, synthesis and statistical analysis were not appropriate. Conclusion Although initially a large number of relevant studies were identified, and might point in future to potential diagnostic categories, it was not appropriate to synthesise and analyse them due to poor quality, considerable heterogeneity and small numbers. This suggests that large, high quality studies focussed directly on understanding the aetiology of amusia are required.
Goal of Work The goal of this work was to identify methods of clinician–patient cancer-related communication that may impact patient outcomes\\u000a associated with distress at critical points in the course of cancer care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods A systematic review of practice guidelines, systematic reviews, or randomized trials on this topic was conducted. Guidelines\\u000a for quality was evaluated using the Appraisal of Guidelines
Gary Rodin; Jean A. Mackay; Camilla Zimmermann; Carole Mayer; Doris Howell; Mark Katz; Jonathan Sussman; Melissa Brouwers
The objective of this study was to review patients with intrasellar cysticercosis to outline the features of this form of neurocysticercosis. A MEDLINE and manual search of patients with intrasellar cysticercosis were done. Abstracted data included clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, therapy, and outcome. Twenty-three patients were reviewed. Ophthalmological disturbances, including diminution of visual acuity and visual field defects following a chiasmatic pattern, were recorded in 67 % of cases. Endocrine abnormalities were found in 56 % of patients (panhypopituitarism, hyperprolactinemia, diabetes insipidus, and isolated hypothyroidism). In addition, some patients complained of seizures or chronic headaches. Neuroimaging studies showed lesions confined to the sellar region in 47 % of cases. The remaining patients also had subarachnoid cysts associated or not with hydrocephalus, parenchymal brain cysts, or parenchymal brain calcifications. Thirteen patients underwent surgical resection of the sellar cyst through a craniotomy in nine cases and by the transsphenoidal approach in four. Visual acuity or visual field defects improved in only two of these patients. Five patients were treated with cysticidal drugs without improvement. Intrasellar cysticercosis is rare and probably under-recognized. Clinical manifestations resemble those caused by pituitary tumors, cysts, or other granulomatous lesions. Neuroimaging findings are of more value when intrasellar cysts are associated with other forms of neurocysticercosis, such as basal subarachnoid cysts or hydrocephalus. Prompt surgical resection is mandatory to reduce the risk of permanent loss of visual function. There seems to be no role for cysticidal drug therapy in these cases. PMID:23605125
Del Brutto, Oscar H; Del Brutto, Victor J
BackgroundExtensive debate exists in the healthcare community over whether outcomes of medical care at teaching hospitals and other healthcare units are better or worse than those at the respective nonteaching ones. Thus, our goal was to systematically evaluate the evidence pertaining to this question.Methods and FindingsWe reviewed all studies that compared teaching versus nonteaching healthcare structures for mortality or any
Panagiotis N Papanikolaou; Georgia D Christidi; John P. A Ioannidis
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. OBJECTIVE: To
David S Thompson; Carole A Estabrooks; Shannon Scott-Findlay; Katherine Moore; Lars Wallin
Rationale Recommended medication prescribing hierarchies for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary between different\\u000a guideline committees. Few trials directly compare competing ADHD medications in adults and provide little insight for clinicians\\u000a making treatment choices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective The objective of this study was to assess comparative benefits and harms of competing medications for adult ADHD using indirect\\u000a comparison meta-analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Eligible studies were
Kim Peterson; Marian S. McDonagh; Rongwei Fu
Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach to synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas, and formulate scientific consensus statements. The use of systematic reviews for nutrition-related topics is more recent. Systematic reviews provide independently conducted comprehensive and objective assessments of available information addressing precise questions. This approach to summarizing available data is a useful tool for identifying the state of science including knowledge gaps and associated research needs, supporting development of science-based recommendations and guidelines, and serving as the foundation for updates as new data emerge. Our objective is to describe the steps for performing systematic reviews and highlight areas unique to the discipline of nutrition that are important to consider in data assessment. The steps involved in generating systematic reviews include identifying staffing and planning for outside expert input, forming a research team, developing an analytic framework, developing and refining research questions, defining eligibility criteria, identifying search terms, screening abstracts according to eligibility criteria, retrieving articles for evaluation, constructing evidence and summary tables, assessing methodological quality and applicability, and synthesizing results including performing meta-analysis, if appropriate. Unique and at times challenging, nutrition-related considerations include baseline nutrient exposure, nutrient status, bioequivalence of bioactive compounds, bioavailability, multiple and interrelated biological functions, undefined nature of some interventions, and uncertainties in intake assessment. Systematic reviews are a valuable and independent component of decision-making processes by groups responsible for developing science-based recommendations and policies. PMID:19022948
Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Lau, Joseph
This article systematically reviews the literature on business incubators and business incubation. Focusing on the primary research orientations—i.e. studies centering on incubator development, incubator configurations, incubatee development, incubator-incubation impacts, and theorizing about incubators-incubation—problems with extant research are analyzed and opportunities for future research are identified. From our review, it is clear that research has just begun to scratch the surface
Sean M. Hackett; David M. Dilts
The study involves a systematic review of the scientific research investigating pornography. Included are studies on the sale and distribution of pornographic materials over time; the use of sexually explicit materials in medical treatments, sex education...
J. S. Lyons R. L. Anderson E. Hale
Objective To assess the evidence for the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous warts. Methods Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Main outcomes measures Total clearance of warts and adverse effects such as irritation, pain, and blistering. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of any local treatment for uncomplicated cutaneous warts. All published and unpublished material was considered, with no restriction
Sam Gibbs; Ian Harvey; Jane Sterling; Rosemary Stark
Introduction: Knowledge of the effects of the specific approach, mode of delivery, and dose of educational interventions is essential to develop and implement effective postoperative educational interventions. Understanding the relationships of patient characteristics to outcomes is important for educational interventions. Purpose and method: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine who would most benefit from postoperative education, given
Suzanne Fredericks; Sepali Guruge; Souraya Sidani; Teresa Wan
Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…
Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of
Lale Say; Allan Donner; A Metin Gülmezoglu; Monica Taljaard; Gilda Piaggio
Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols
L. Dugdill; A. Brettle; C. Hulme; S. McCluskey; A. F. Long
|Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…
Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.
Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health
W. Douglas Evans; Jonathan Blitstein; James C. Hersey; Jeanette Renaud; Amy L. Yaroch
BACKGROUND: Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement) and (grief) combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy) and (controlled or trial or design). We also searched citations in published reports for
Amanda L Forte; Malinda Hill; Rachel Pazder; Chris Feudtner
Objective To ascertain patients' views on the benefits of and possible memory loss from electroconvulsive therapy. Design Descriptive systematic review. Data sources Psychinfo, Medline, Web of Science, and Social Science Citation Index databases, and bibliographies. Study selection Articles with patients' views after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy. Data extraction 26 studies carried out by clinicians and nine reports of work undertaken
Diana Rose; Til Wykes; Morven Leese; Jonathan Bindman; Pete Fleischmann
The full text of Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics is available on line at the JSTOR site. Coverage includes volumes 1-28, 1970-1997. Visitors can search or browse the journal. Note: access to JSTOR contents is currently available only on a site licence basis to academic institutions. A list of institutions with site licenses is available.
While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy
Rosalind F. Dudden; Shandra L. Protzko
Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are increasingly being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper we present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold into account, we therefore advice authors of these reviews to use the hierarchical summary ROC or the bivariate model for the analysis of the data for the analysis. Challenges that remain are the poor reporting of original diagnostic test accuracy research, and difficulties with the interpretation of the results of diagnostic test accuracy research.
Leeflang, Mariska.M.G.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Gatsonis, Constantine; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.
Objective To review the literature on educational interventions to improve prescribing and identify educational methods that improve prescribing competency in both medical and non-medical prescribers. Design A systematic review was conducted. The databases Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for articles in English published between January 1990 and July 2013. Setting Primary and secondary care. Participants Medical and non-medical prescribers. Intervention Education-based interventions to aid improvement in prescribing competency. Primary outcome Improvements in prescribing competency (knows how) or performance (shows how) as defined by Miller's competency model. This was primarily demonstrated through prescribing examinations, changes in prescribing habits or adherence to guidelines. Results A total of 47 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Studies were categorised by their method of assessment, with 20 studies assessing prescribing competence and 27 assessing prescribing performance. A wide variety of educational interventions were employed, with different outcome measures and methods of assessments. In particular, six studies demonstrated that specific prescribing training using the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing increased prescribing competency in a wide variety of settings. Continuing medical education in the form of academic detailing and personalised prescriber feedback also yielded positive results. Only four studies evaluated educational interventions targeted at non-medical prescribers, highlighting that further research is needed in this area. Conclusions A broad range of educational interventions have been conducted to improve prescribing competency. The WHO Guide to Good Prescribing has the largest body of evidence to support its use and is a promising model for the design of targeted prescribing courses. There is a need for further development and evaluation of educational methods for non-medical prescribers.
Kamarudin, Gritta; Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah
Objective:Preventive measures to contain the epidemic of obesity have become a major focus of attention. This report reviews the scientific evidence for medical interventions aimed at preventing obesity during childhood and adolescence.Design:A systematic literature review involving selection of primary research and other systematic reviews. Articles published until 2004 were added to an earlier (2002) review by the Swedish Council on
C-E Flodmark; C Marcus; M Britton
ObjectiveThe Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of life of hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and renal transplant (RTx) patients.
Ylian S. Liem; Johanna L. Bosch; Lidia R. Arends; Majanka H. Heijenbrok-Kal; M. G. Myriam Hunink
The first and most important decision in preparing any systematic review is to clearly frame the question the review team seeks to answer. However, this is not always straightforward, particularly if synthesis teams are interested in the effects of complex interventions. In this article, we discuss how to formulate good systematic review questions of complex interventions. We describe the rationale for developing well-formulated review questions and review the existing guidance on formulating review questions. We discuss that complex interventions can contain a mix of effective and ineffective (or even harmful) actions, which may interact synergistically or dysynergistically or be interdependent, and how these interactions and interdependencies need to be considered when formulating systematic review questions. We discuss complexity specifically in terms of how it relates to the type of question, the scope of the review (i.e., lumping vs. splitting debate), and specification of the intervention. We offer several recommendations to assist review authors in developing a definition for their complex intervention of interest, which is an essential first step in formulating the review question. We end by identifying areas in which future methodological research aimed at improving question formulation, especially as it relates to complex interventions, is needed. PMID:23953086
Squires, Janet E; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Grimshaw, Jeremy M
Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice.
A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.
Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu
A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition. PMID:19745008
Chae, Han; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-Geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu
Until recently, the sexual offending literature focused on male perpetrators and neglected to examine the characteristics of female perpetrators. As a result, treatment provision for female sexual abusers has been either nonexistent or inappropriately adapted from programs designed for males. What we do know is that male and female sexual abusers share similarities; however, there remain distinct differences that warrant empirical and theoretical study. The current review systematically examines the literature on offense-supportive cognition in female sexual abusers. The aim of this systematic review is to aid clinical practitioners who work with female sexual abusers by providing an evaluation of current available research regarding implicit theories, rape myth acceptance, violence-supportive cognition, gender stereotypes, beliefs about sex, and empathy. We conclude that further research examining the offense-supportive cognition of female sexual abusers is needed in order to facilitate more effective empirically driven clinical practice. PMID:23093577
Gannon, Theresa A; Alleyne, Emma K A
Objective: To evaluate all the possible therapeutic measures concerning the acute management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mentioned in Cochrane Systematic Reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Methods: An exhausted literature search for all published Cochrane Systematic Reviews discussing therapeutic rather than prevention or rehabilitative interventions of TBI was conducted. We retrieved such databases as CDSR and Cochrane Injury Group, excluded the duplications, and eventually obtained 20 results, which stand for critical appraisal for as many as 20 different measures for TBI patients. The important data of each systematic review, including total population, intervention, outcome, etc, were collected and presented in a designed table. Besides, we also tried to find out the possible weakness of these clinical trials included in each review. Results: Analysis of these reviews yielded meanfuling observations: (1) The effectiveness of most ordinary treatments in TBI is inconclusive except that corticosteroids are likely to be ineffective or harmful, and tranexamic acid, nimodipine and progesterone show a promising effect in bleeding trauma, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, TBI or severe TBI. (2) A majority of the systematic reviews include a small number of clinical trials and the modest numbers of patients, largely due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness. (3) The quality of most trials reported in the systematic reviews is more or less questionable. (4) In addition, lots of other complex factors together may lead to the inconclusive results demonstrated in the Cochrane Systematic Reviews. Conclusions: For clinical physicians, to translate these conclusions into practice with caution is essential. Basic medication and nursing care deserve additional attention as well and can be beneficial. For researchers, high quality trials with perfect design and comprehensive consideration of various factors are urgently required. PMID:22300914
Lei, Jin; Gao, Guo-Yi; Jiang, Ji-Yao
The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 – 2004). The results
Adam R. Nicholls; Remco C. J. Polman
OBJECTIVE:A systematic review of the published literature was performed to assess the prevalence, incidence, natural history, and comorbid conditions of functional constipation in children.METHODS:Articles were identified through electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Library, Cinhal and PsychInfo databases. Study selection criteria included: (1) epidemiology studies of general population, (2) on the prevalence of constipation without obvious organic etiology, (3)
Maartje M. van den Berg; M. A. Benninga; C. Di Lorenzo
BackgroundThe SARS outbreak of 2002–2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO) expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify
Lauren J Stockman; Richard Bellamy; Paul Garner
Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade’s. The purpose of this quantitative systematic\\u000a review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether\\u000a treatment fidelity has been measured and\\/or reported and whether this related to the treatment effect size. Searches revealed\\u000a 61 relevant articles published from January 2000
Leanne J. StanifordJeff; Jeff D. Breckon; Robert J. Copeland
Appraisal of the methodological quality of systematic reviews would reflect on their utility for the clinicians and policymakers. This study was done to assess the quality of systematic reviews published in five leading Indian medical journals using AMSTAR. 22 systematic reviews of healthcare interventions were identified. The scores ranged 0 to 10 (mean 3.77 and median 2.5), 9 reviews scored > 4/11. Most frequent yes and no scores were: publication status as an inclusion criterion (12 /22), respectively and duplicate study selection and data extraction (17 /22). Several suboptimal aspects of methodological quality were identified in the reviews evaluated. PMID:21169651
Jagannath, Vanitha; Mathew, Joseph L; Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Zbys
Effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) model for reducing the non-medical use of psychoactive substances: a systematic review protocol
Background There is a significant public health burden associated with substance use in Canada. The early detection and/or treatment of risky substance use has the potential to dramatically improve outcomes for those who experience harms from the non-medical use of psychoactive substances, particularly adolescents whose brains are still undergoing development. The Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment model is a comprehensive, integrated approach for the delivery of early intervention and treatment services for individuals experiencing substance use-related harms, as well as those who are at risk of experiencing such harm. Methods This article describes the protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment model for reducing the non-medical use of psychoactive substances. Studies will be selected in which brief interventions target non-medical psychoactive substance use (excluding alcohol, nicotine, or caffeine) among those 12?years and older who are opportunistically screened and deemed at risk of harms related to psychoactive substance use. We will include one-on-one verbal interventions and exclude non-verbal brief interventions (for example, the provision of information such as a pamphlet or online interventions) and group interventions. Primary, secondary and adverse outcomes of interest are prespecified. Randomized controlled trials will be included; non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series designs will be considered in the absence of randomized controlled trials. We will search several bibliographic databases (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CORK) and search sources for grey literature. We will meta-analyze studies where possible. We will conduct subgroup analyses, if possible, according to drug class and intervention setting. Discussion This review will provide evidence on the effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment protocol aimed at the non-medical use of psychoactive substances and may provide guidance as to where future research might be most beneficial.
Polysemy is a bottleneck for the demanding needs of semantic data management. We suggest the importance of a well-founded conceptual analysis for understanding some systematic structures underlying polysemy in the medical lexicon. We present some cases studies, which exploit the methods (ontological integration and general theories) and tools (description logics and ontology libraries) of the ONIONS methodology defined elsewhere by the authors. This paper addresses an aspect (systematic metomymies) of the project we are involved in, which investigates the feasibility of building a large-scale ontology library of medicine that integrates the most important medical terminology banks.
Gangemi, A.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Steve, G.
Transfusion medicine has become a large and complex specialty. Although there are now systematic reviews covering many aspects of transfusion, these span a large number of clinical areas and are published across more than a hundred different medical journals, making it difficult for transfusion medicine practitioners and researchers to keep abreast of the current high-level evidence. In response to this problem, NHS Blood and Transplant's Systematic Review Initiative (SRI) has produced a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews in transfusion medicine. A systematic search (to December 2009) and screening procedure were followed by the appraisal of systematic reviews according to predefined inclusion criteria. The 340 eligible systematic reviews were mapped to 10 transfusion intervention groups and 14 topic groups within clinical medicine. Trends in the systematic review literature were examined and gaps in the literature described. The spread of systematic reviews across clinical areas was found to be very uneven, with some areas underreviewed and others with multiple systematic reviews on the same topic, making the identification of the best evidence for current transfusion practice a continuing challenge. References and links to all systematic reviews included in this overview can be freely accessed via the SRI's new online database, the Transfusion Evidence Library (www.transfusionguidelines.org). PMID:20851331
Dorée, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon; Brunskill, Susan J; Hopewell, Sally; Hyde, Chris J; Murphy, Mike F
Antipsychotic-related weight gain and metabolic effects are a critical outcome for patients requiring these medications. A literature search using MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycNET, and EMBASE for randomized, open and double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of medications targeting antipsychotic-induced weight gain was performed. Primary outcome measures were change and endpoint values in body weight and body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcomes included >or=7% weight gain, all-cause discontinuation, change in waist circumference, glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, and psychiatric symptoms. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explain heterogeneity of the results. Across 32 studies including 1482 subjects, 15 different medications were tested: amantadine, dextroamphetamine, d-fenfluramine, famotidine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, metformin, nizatidine, orlistat, phenylpropanolamine, reboxetine, rosiglitazone, sibutramine, topiramate, and metformin+sibutramine. Compared with placebo, metformin had the greatest weight loss (N=7, n=334, -2.94 kg (confidence interval (CI:-4.89,-0.99)), followed by d-fenfluramine (N=1, n=16, -2.60 kg (CI:-5.14,-0.06)), sibutramine (N=2, n=55, -2.56 kg (CI:-3.91,-1.22)), topiramate (N=2, n=133, -2.52 kg (CI:-4.87,-0.16)), and reboxetine (N=2, n=79, -1.90 kg (CI:-3.07,-0.72)). Weight loss remained significant with metformin initiation after weight gain had occurred, but not when started concomitantly with antipsychotics. Nausea rates were not higher with any treatment compared with placebo. In all, 5 of 15 psychopharmacologic interventions aimed at ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain outperformed placebo. Results were most robust for metformin, although these were modest and heterogeneous. Only one (negative) combination treatment study was available and head-to-head studies are absent. None of the agents were able to entirely reverse weight gain because of antipsychotics. At present, no treatment has sufficient evidence to recommend broad clinical usage. Antipsychotics with no or minimal cardiometabolic liability, as well as interventions that prevent or normalize adverse antipsychotic cardiometabolic effects are needed. PMID:20336059
Maayan, Lawrence; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Correll, Christoph U
Background Point-of-care electronic medical records (EMRs) are a key tool to manage chronic illness. Several EMRs have been developed for use in treating HIV and tuberculosis, but their applicability to primary care, technical requirements and clinical functionalities are largely unknown. Objectives This study aimed to address the needs of clinicians from resource-limited settings without reliable internet access who are considering adopting an open-source EMR. Study eligibility criteria Open-source point-of-care EMRs suitable for use in areas without reliable internet access. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The authors conducted a comprehensive search of all open-source EMRs suitable for sites without reliable internet access. The authors surveyed clinician users and technical implementers from a single site and technical developers of each software product. The authors evaluated availability, cost and technical requirements. Results The hardware and software for all six systems is easily available, but they vary considerably in proprietary components, installation requirements and customisability. Limitations This study relied solely on self-report from informants who developed and who actively use the included products. Conclusions and implications of key findings Clinical functionalities vary greatly among the systems, and none of the systems yet meet minimum requirements for effective implementation in a primary care resource-limited setting. The safe prescribing of medications is a particular concern with current tools. The dearth of fully functional EMR systems indicates a need for a greater emphasis by global funding agencies to move beyond disease-specific EMR systems and develop a universal open-source health informatics platform.
Bru, Juan; Berger, Christopher A
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Introduction The last decade has seen a growth in the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and one of the most popular and sought-after complementary and alternative medicine therapies for nonspecific low back pain is massage. Massage may often be perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risks or side effects. However, despite its popularity, there continues to be ongoing debate on the effectiveness of massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. With a rapidly evolving research evidence base and access to innovative means of synthesizing evidence, it is time to reinvestigate this issue. Methods A systematic, step-by-step approach, underpinned by best practice in reviewing the literature, was utilized as part of the methodology of this umbrella review. A systematic search was conducted in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, AMED, ICONDA, Academic Search Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, CINAHL, HealthSource, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, investigating systematic reviews and meta-analyses from January 2000 to December 2012, and restricted to English-language documents. Methodological quality of included reviews was undertaken using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine critical appraisal tool. Results Nine systematic reviews were found. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews varied (from poor to excellent) although, overall, the primary research informing these systematic reviews was generally considered to be weak quality. The findings indicate that massage may be an effective treatment option when compared to placebo and some active treatment options (such as relaxation), especially in the short term. There is conflicting and contradictory findings for the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain when compared against other manual therapies (such as mobilization), standard medical care, and acupuncture. Conclusion There is an emerging body of evidence, albeit small, that supports the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of non-specific low back pain in the short term. Due to common methodological flaws in the primary research, which informed the systematic reviews, recommendations arising from this evidence base should be interpreted with caution.
Kumar, Saravana; Beaton, Kate; Hughes, Tricia
Background: Asthma’s cost-effectiveness is a major consideration in the evaluation of its treatment options. Our objective was to perform a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of asthma medications. Methods: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OHE-HEED, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessments Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and Web of Science and reviewed references from key articles between 1990 and Jan 2008. Results: A total of 49 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids was found to be very cost-effective and in uncontrolled asthmatics patients currently being treated with ICS, the combination of an ICS/LABA represents a safe, cost-effective treatment. The simplified strategy using budesonide and formoterol for maintenance and reliever therapy was also found to be as cost-effective as salmeterol/fluticasone plus salbutamol. Omalizumab was found to be cost-effective. An important caveat with regard to the published literature is the relatively high proportion of economic evaluations which are funded by the manufacturers of specific drug treatments. Conclusion: Future studies should be completed independent of industry support and ensure that the comparator arms within studies should include dosages of drugs that are equivalent.
Bahadori, Katayoun; Quon, Bradley S; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Marra, Carlo; FitzGerald, J Mark
This paper assessed the burden of adverse events (AEs) associated with azathioprine (AZA), cyclophosphamide (CYC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), methotrexate (MTX), and cyclosporine (CsA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thirty-eight publications were included. Incidence of AEs ranged from 42.8% to 97.3%. Common AEs included infections (2.4–77%), gastrointestinal AEs (3.2–66.7%), and amenorrhea and/or ovarian complications (0–71%). More hematological cytopenias were associated with AZA (14 episodes) than MMF (2 episodes). CYC was associated with more infections than MMF (40–77% versus 12.5–32%, resp.) or AZA (17–77% versus 11–29%, resp.). Rates of hospitalized infections were similar between MMF and AZA patients, but higher for those taking CYC. There were more gynecological toxicities with CYC than MMF (32–36% versus 3.6–6%, resp.) or AZA (32–71% versus 8–18%, resp.). Discontinuation rates due to AEs were 0–44.4% across these medications. In summary, the incidence of AEs associated with SLE immunosuppressants was consistently high as reported in the literature; discontinuations due to these AEs were similar across treatments. Studies on the economic impact of these AEs were sparse and warrant further study. This paper highlights the need for more treatment options with better safety profiles.
Oglesby, A.; Shaul, A. J.; Pokora, T.; Paramore, C.; Cragin, L.; Dennis, G.; Narayanan, S.; Weinstein, A.
Background The empirical literature on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period is limited. The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence on the effect of disasters on perinatal health. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycInfo), including literature on disasters and pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth, low birthweight, congenital anomalies), mental health, and child development. 110 articles were identified, but many published reports were anecdotes or recommendations rather than systematic studies. The final review included 49 peer-reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria. Results Studies addressing the World Trade Center disaster of September 11th and other terrorist attacks, environmental/chemical disasters, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes were identified. Disasters of various types may reduce fetal growth in some women, though there does not appear to be an effect on gestational age at birth. Severity of exposure is the major predictor of mental health issues among pregnant and postpartum women. The mother's mental health after a disaster may more strongly influence on child development than any direct effect of disaster-related prenatal stress. Conclusions There is evidence that disaster impacts maternal mental health and some perinatal health outcomes, particular among highly-exposed women. Future research should focus on under-studied outcomes such as spontaneous abortion. Relief workers and clinicians should concentrate on the most exposed women, particularly with respect to mental health.
Harville, EW; Xiong, X; Buekens, P
Systematic reviews systematically evaluate and summarize current knowledge and have many advantages over narrative reviews. Meta-analyses provide a more reliable and enhanced precision of effect estimate than do individual studies. Systematic reviews are invaluable for defining the methods used in subsequent studies, but, as retrospective research projects, they are subject to bias. Rigorous research methods are essential, and the quality
Yuhong Yuan; Richard H Hunt
Theory-based systematic reviews, which summarise evidence on what works, when and why, strive for greater policy relevance. Reviews that answer these questions adopt a mixed methods approach and draw on a range of study types. Answering the ‘what works’ and ‘what doesn't’ questions means drawing on effectiveness studies, conducted to standards of high-quality impact evaluation. But in formulating answers to
OBJECTIVES—To determine the effectiveness of radical radiotherapy in medically inoperable stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the extent of treatment related morbidity.?METHODS—Randomised trials were sought by electronically searching the Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and both randomised and non-randomised trials were sought by searching Medline and Excerpta Medica (Embase). Further studies were identified from references cited in those papers already identified by electronic searching. The studies included were those of patients of any age with stage I/II NSCLC receiving radiotherapy at a dose of >40 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks or its radiobiological equivalent.?RESULTS—Two randomised and 35 non-randomised studies were identified. One randomised and nine non-randomised studies did not meet the selection criteria, leaving one randomised and 26 non-randomised studies for analysis. In the randomised trial 2 year survival was higher following continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART; 37%) than following 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks (24%). An estimated 2003 patients were included in the 26 non-randomised studies; overall survival was 22-72% at 2 years, 17-55% at 3 years, and 0-42% at 5 years. Following treatment, 11-43% of patients died from causes other than cancer. Cancer specific survival was 54-93% at 2 years, 22-56% at 3 years, and 13-39% at 5 years. Complete response rates were 33-61% and local failure rates were 6-70%. Distant metastases developed in approximately 25% of patients. Better response rates and survival were seen in those with smaller tumours and in those receiving higher doses although the reasons for prescribing higher doses were not clearly stated. The outcome was worse in those with prior weight loss or poor performance status. Assessment of treatment related morbidity and effects on quality of life and symptom control were inconclusive because of the lack of prospective evaluation and paucity of data.?CONCLUSIONS—No randomised trials compared a policy of immediate radical radiotherapy with palliative radiotherapy given when patients develop symptoms. In the absence of such trials, radical radiotherapy appears to result in a better survival than might be expected had treatment not been given. A substantial, though variable, proportion of patients died during follow up from causes other than cancer. The optimal radiation dose and treatment technique (particularly with respect to mediastinal irradiation) remain uncertain.??
Rowell, N; Williams, C
Purpose Degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis has received insufficient attention, in contrast to degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.\\u000a In fact, degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis may be more common than previously thought.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In order to provide appropriate guidelines for the treatment of degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis, a systematic review\\u000a of degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis was performed. An English literature search from January 1947 to November 2010\\u000a was completed with
Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai
Background Asthma is associated with enormous healthcare expenditures that include both direct and indirect costs. It is also associated with the loss of future potential earnings related to both morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study is to determine the burden of disease costs associated with asthma. Methods We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CDSR, OHE-HEED, and Web of Science Databases between 1966 and 2008. Results Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Hospitalization and medications were found to be the most important cost driver of direct costs. Work and school loss accounted for the greatest percentage of indirect costs. The cost of asthma was correlated with comorbidities, age, and disease severity. Conclusion Despite the availability of effective preventive therapy, costs associated with asthma are increasing. Strategies including education of patients and physicians, and regular follow-up are required to reduce the economic burden of asthma.
Bahadori, Katayoun; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Marra, Carlo; Lynd, Larry; Alasaly, Kadria; Swiston, John; FitzGerald, J Mark
Abstract Objectives Shoulder pain, for which acupuncture has been used, is a common complication after a stroke that interferes with the function of the upper extremities. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and evaluate the effects of acupuncture for shoulder pain after stroke. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the effects of acupuncture for shoulder pain, published between January 1990 and August 2009, were obtained from the National Libraries of Medicine, MEDLINE®, CINAHL, AMED, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register 2009, Korean Medical Database (Korea Institute of Science Technology Information, DBPIA, KoreaMed, and Research Information Service System), and the Chinese Database (China Academic Journal). Results Among the 453 studies that were obtained (300 written in English, 137 in Chinese, and 16 in Korean), 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. All of them were RCTs published in China and reported positive effects of the treatment. The quality of the studies was assessed by the Modified Jadad Scores (MJS) and the Cochrane Back Review Group Criteria List for Methodologic Quality Assessment of RCTs (CBRG); the studies scored between 2 and 3 points on MJS, and between 4 and 7 points on CBRG. Conclusions It is concluded from this systematic review that acupuncture combined with exercise is effective for shoulder pain after stroke. It is recommended that future trials be carefully conducted on this topic.
Lee, Jung Ah; Hwang, Pil Woo; Lim, Sung Min; Kook, Sejeong; Choi, Kyung In; Kang, Kyoung Sook
A fear of neurology and neural sciences (neurophobia) may have clinical consequences. There is therefore a need to formulate an evidence-based approach to neurology education. A comprehensive systematic review of educational interventions in neurology was performed. BEI, Cochrane Library, Dialog Datastar, EBSCO Biomedical, EBSCO Psychology & Behavioral Sciences, EMBASE, ERIC, First Search, MDConsult, Medline, Proquest Medical Library and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for all published studies assessing interventions in neurology education among undergraduate students, junior medical doctors and residents up to and including July 2012. Two independent literature searches were performed for relevant studies, which were then classified for level of evidence using the Centre of Evidence-based Medicine criteria and four levels of Kirkpatrick educational outcomes. One systematic review, 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine non-randomized cohort/follow-up studies, 33 case series or historically controlled studies and three mechanism-based reasoning studies were identified. Educational interventions showed favourable evaluation or assessment outcomes in 15 of 16 (94%) RCTs. Very few studies measured subsequent clinical behaviour (two studies) and patient outcomes (one study). There is very little high quality evidence of demonstrably effective neurology education. However, RCTs are emerging, albeit without meeting comprehensive educational criteria. An improving evidence base in the quality of neurology education will be important to reduce neurophobia. PMID:23551791
McColgan, P; McKeown, P P; Selai, C; Doherty-Allan, R; McCarron, M O
Background The role of immediate transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after thrombolysis for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction remains controversial. We performed a systematic review of the related literature to determine whether thrombolysis followed by transfer for immediate or early PCI is safe, feasible and superior to conservative management. Methods A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the American Heart Association EndNote 7 Master Library databases, was performed to 2004 for relevant published studies. The level of evidence and the quality of the study design and methods were rated by 2 reviewers according to a standardized classification. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect at 6–12 months on mortality of immediate or early PCI after thrombolysis. Results We found 13 articles that were supportive of immediate or early PCI after thrombolysis and 16 that were neutral or provided evidence opposing it. The largest randomized trials and meta-analyses showed no benefit of routine PCI immediately or shortly after thrombolysis. The studies that were supportive were generally more recent and more frequently involved coronary stents. One large trial supported early PCI after thrombolysis for patients with myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Overall, the difference in mortality rates between the invasive strategy and conservative care was nonsignificant. The 3 stent-era trials showed a significantly lower mortality among patients randomly assigned to the invasive strategy (5.8% v. 10.0%, odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.92). Analysis of variance found a significant difference in treatment effect between stent-era and pre–stent-era trials. Interpretation At present, there is inadequate evidence to recommend routine transfer of patients for immediate or early PCI after successful thrombolysis. Results of recent trials using contemporary PCI techniques, including coronary stents, appear more favourable but need to be confirmed in large randomized trials, which are currently in progress. Transfer for immediate PCI is recommended for patients with cardiogenic shock, hemodynamic instability or persistent ischemic symptoms after thrombolysis.
Cantor, Warren J.; Brunet, Fabrice; Ziegler, Carolyn P.; Kiss, Alex; Morrison, Laurie J.
In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE. PMID:23579389
Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit
BACKGROUND: Gastrojejunostomy (GJJ) is the most commonly used palliative treatment modality for malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Recently, stent placement has been introduced as an alternative treatment. We reviewed the available literature on stent placement and GJJ for gastric outlet obstruction, with regard to medical effects and costs. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed by searching PubMed for
Suzanne M Jeurnink; Casper HJ van Eijck; Ewout W Steyerberg; Ernst J Kuipers; Peter D Siersema
There is abundant literature on the birth outcomes of women of Mexican origin living in the United States, but in most cases it does not refer to data available in Mexico. We conducted a systematic review of available data regarding low birthweight (LBW) rates in Mexico. We searched official online Mexican administrative data bases and four literature databases: OVID (Global Health), EMBASE, PubMed, and Bireme. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) study is in English, Spanish, or Portuguese; (2) study presents data regarding LBW or birthweight distribution in Mexico; (3) study defines LBW as either < or ?2,500 g; (4) study population includes newborn children; and, (5) LBW was a primary interest of the study. Because altitude influences birthweight, it was taken into account when comparing regions. Birth certificate data showed LBW rates of 8.2% in 2008 and 8.5% in 2009 among live births with known birthweights. In 2009, high altitude (?2,000 m) federal entities (states and Mexico City) had LBW rates higher than the median (>7.9%). States at low altitudes (<50 m) had LBW rates lower than the median, with the exception of Yucatán state. The systematic literature review identified 22 hospital-based studies and three household interview surveys that met our inclusion criteria. The hospital-based LBW rates were relatively similar to the birth certificate data and slightly lower than survey data. Data on LBW rates are available in Mexico. They should be analyzed further and used for comparative studies. PMID:22322429
Buekens, Pierre; Canfield, Caitlin; Padilla, Nicolas; Lara Lona, Elia; Lozano, Rafael
In recent years, many systematic reviews of the clinical efficacy of acupuncture have been conducted. Almost every review found major problems with the quality of the clinical trials, making it difficult to draw clear conclusions about efficacy. The present paper explores a number of important issues involved in the design and conduct of systematic reviews of acupuncture. Examples are pointed
In this paper we discuss mixing methods at the level of reviews of research, combining the findings of multiple, already existing, studies that are labelled broadly as using either ‘qualitative’ or ‘quantitative’ methods. We define systematic reviews and outline the ‘mixed methods’ we have developed for combining diverse study types within them. Traditional systematic reviews usually answer a single question,
Angela Harden; James Thomas
Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining mortality estimates and to establish guidelines for policy-makers, the media and the public on how to interpret these estimates.
Tapp, Christine; Burkle, Frederick M; Wilson, Kumanan; Takaro, Tim; Guyatt, Gordon H; Amad, Hani; Mills, Edward J
Background A framework for high quality in post graduate training has been defined by the World Federation of Medical Education (WFME). The objective of this paper is to perform a systematic review of reviews to find current evidence regarding aspects of quality of post graduate training and to organise the results following the 9 areas of the WFME framework. Methods The systematic literature review was conducted in 2009 in Medline Ovid, EMBASE, ERIC and RDRB databases from 1995 onward. The reviews were selected by two independent researchers and a quality appraisal was based on the SIGN tool. Results 31 reviews met inclusion criteria. The majority of the reviews provided information about the training process (WFME area 2), the assessment of trainees (WFME area 3) and the trainees (WFME area 4). One review covered the area 8 'governance and administration'. No review was found in relation to the mission and outcomes, the evaluation of the training process and the continuous renewal (respectively areas 1, 7 and 9 of the WFME framework). Conclusions The majority of the reviews provided information about the training process, the assessment of trainees and the trainees. Indicators used for quality assessment purposes of post graduate training should be based on this evidence but further research is needed for some areas in particular to assess the quality of the training process.
A study conducted by Lai and colleagues, published this week in BMC Medicine, suggests that more guidance might be required for interpreting systematic review (SR) results. In the study by Lai and colleagues, positive (or favorable) results were influential in changing participants' prior beliefs about the interventions presented in the systematic review. Other studies have examined the relationship between favorable systematic review results and the publication of systematic reviews. An international registry may decrease the number of unpublished systematic reviews and will hopefully decrease redundancy, increase transparency, and increase collaboration within the SR community. In addition, using guidance from the Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA: http://www.prisma-statement.org/) Statement and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE: http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org/) approach can also be used to improve the interpretation of systematic reviews. In this commentary, we highlight important methodological issues related to the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and also present our own guidance on interpreting systematic reviews. Please see Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/30/.
Background: Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions. Methods: Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data from trials that statistically compared the treatment group with that of the control were extracted in a standardised predefined manner and assessed critically by two independent reviewers. Results: Fifteen trials were identified, of which nine compared the treatment group with the control group appropriately. Five RCTs tested progressive muscle relaxation or mental and muscular relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. Conclusions: There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence that muscular relaxation improves lung function of patients with asthma but no evidence for any other relaxation technique.
Huntley, A; White, A; Ernst, E
Objectives The aims of the review were to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequency of OOC between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of OOCs that occurred in a consecutive series of OOCs in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. Results 37 reports on 36 case series were included in the SR. OOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost 2.5 times as frequently. Although the mean age at first presentation was 35 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade for the Western, East Asian and Latin American global groups. Seven reports included details of at least one clinical finding. 11 reported case series included at least 1 radiological feature. All OOCs were radiolucent, 93% were unilocular and 68% were associated with unerupted teeth. 28% of the reported case series included follow up. 4% of OCC recurred and all of these were in the Western global group. Conclusions Although one feature of OOCs is that they are unlikely to recur, some do. Not only is there a lack of long-term follow up of large series with long-term outcomes of OOC, but there is a paucity of clinical and radiological details of OOC at initial presentation.
MacDonald-Jankowski, D S
OBJECTIVE Mental health systems internationally have adopted a goal of supporting recovery. Measurement of the experience of recovery is, therefore, a priority. The aim of this review was to identify and analyze recovery measures in relation to their fit with recovery and their psychometric adequacy. METHODS A systematic search of six data sources for articles, Web-based material, and conference presentations related to measurement of recovery was conducted by using a defined search strategy. Results were filtered by title and by abstract (by two raters in the case of abstracts), and the remaining papers were reviewed to identify any suitable measures of recovery. Measures were then evaluated for their fit with the recovery processes identified in the CHIME framework (connectedness, hope, identity, meaning, and empowerment) and for demonstration of nine predefined psychometric properties. RESULTS Thirteen measures of personal recovery were identified from 336 abstracts and 35 articles. The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was published most, and the Questionnaire About the Process of Recovery (QPR) was the only measure to have all items map to the CHIME framework. No measure demonstrated all nine psychometric properties. The Stages of Recovery Instrument demonstrated the most psychometric properties (N=6), followed by the Maryland Assessment of Recovery (N=5), and the QPR and the RAS (N=4). Criterion validity, responsiveness, and feasibility were particularly underinvestigated properties. CONCLUSIONS No recovery measure can currently be unequivocally recommended, although the QPR most closely maps to the CHIME framework of recovery and the RAS is most widely published. PMID:23820592
Shanks, Vicki; Williams, Julie; Leamy, Mary; Bird, Victoria J; Le Boutillier, Clair; Slade, Mike
Background: The staging method, whereby a disorder is characterized according to its seriousness, extension, development and features, is attracting increasing attention in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The aim of this systematic review was to critically summarize the tools that are available for reproducing and standardizing the clinical intuitions that are involved in a staging formulation. Methods: A comprehensive research was conducted on the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2012. The following search terms were used: 'stage/staging' AND 'psychiatric disorder/mental disorder/schizophrenia/mood disorder/anxiety disorder/substance use disorder/eating disorder'. Results: A total of 78 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. We discussed studies addressing or related to the issue of staging in a number of mental disorders (schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, substance use disorders, anorexia and bulimia nervosa). The literature indicates that disorders have a longitudinal development or a treatment history that can be categorized according to stages. We proposed staging formulations for the above-mentioned psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Staging models offer innovative assessment tools for clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Characterizing each stage of an illness demarcates major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same psychiatric diagnosis. A stage 0 to denote an at-risk condition does not appear to be warranted at the current state of research. PMID:23147126
Cosci, Fiammetta; Fava, Giovanni A
Objectives To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Design Systematic review. Data sources Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled “before and after” experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Results Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of “environmentally friendly” modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Conclusions Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled evaluative studies incorporating more precise measures are required, particularly in areas without an established cycling culture. Studies of individualised marketing report consistent positive effects of interventions on cycling behaviour, but these findings should be confirmed using more robust study designs. Future research should also examine how best to promote cycling in children and adolescents and through workplaces. Whether interventions to promote cycling result in an increase in overall physical activity or changes in anthropometric measures is unclear.
A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All…
Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K.; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R.; Squires, Hazel
|A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All…
Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K.; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R.; Squires, Hazel
Background Rising cesarean section (CS) rates are a major public health concern and cause worldwide debates. To propose and implement effective measures to reduce or increase CS rates where necessary requires an appropriate classification. Despite several existing CS classifications, there has not yet been a systematic review of these. This study aimed to 1) identify the main CS classifications used worldwide, 2) analyze advantages and deficiencies of each system. Methods and Findings Three electronic databases were searched for classifications published 1968–2008. Two reviewers independently assessed classifications using a form created based on items rated as important by international experts. Seven domains (ease, clarity, mutually exclusive categories, totally inclusive classification, prospective identification of categories, reproducibility, implementability) were assessed and graded. Classifications were tested in 12 hypothetical clinical case-scenarios. From a total of 2948 citations, 60 were selected for full-text evaluation and 27 classifications identified. Indications classifications present important limitations and their overall score ranged from 2–9 (maximum grade?=?14). Degree of urgency classifications also had several drawbacks (overall scores 6–9). Woman-based classifications performed best (scores 5–14). Other types of classifications require data not routinely collected and may not be relevant in all settings (scores 3–8). Conclusions This review and critical appraisal of CS classifications is a methodologically sound contribution to establish the basis for the appropriate monitoring and rational use of CS. Results suggest that women-based classifications in general, and Robson's classification, in particular, would be in the best position to fulfill current international and local needs and that efforts to develop an internationally applicable CS classification would be most appropriately placed in building upon this classification. The use of a single CS classification will facilitate auditing, analyzing and comparing CS rates across different settings and help to create and implement effective strategies specifically targeted to optimize CS rates where necessary.
Torloni, Maria Regina; Betran, Ana Pilar; Souza, Joao Paulo; Widmer, Mariana; Allen, Tomas; Gulmezoglu, Metin; Merialdi, Mario
Background Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pre-clinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical care. Publication bias is one of the major threats of validity in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Previous empirical studies suggested that systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become more prevalent until 2010 and found evidence for compromised methodological rigor with a trend towards improvement. We aim to comprehensively summarize and update the evidence base on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies, their methodological quality and assessment of publication bias in particular. Methods/Design The objectives of this systematic review are as follows: •To investigate the epidemiology of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present. •To examine methodological features of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies with special attention to the assessment of publication bias. •To investigate the influence of systematic reviews of animal studies on clinical research by examining citations of the systematic reviews by clinical studies. Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews and meta-analyses that summarize in vivo animal experiments with the purpose of reviewing animal evidence to inform human health. We will exclude genome-wide association studies and animal experiments with the main purpose to learn more about fundamental biology, physical functioning or behavior. In addition to the inclusion of systematic reviews and meta-analyses identified by other empirical studies, we will systematically search Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 2009 to January 2013 for further eligible studies without language restrictions. Two reviewers working independently will assess titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility and extract relevant data from included studies. Data reporting will involve a descriptive summary of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Discussion Results are expected to be publicly available later in 2013 and may form the basis for recommendations to improve the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies and their use with respect to clinical care.
Electronic resources in the health sciences have historically been bibliographically based, but the need for image content is growing. The SMART Imagebase from EBSCO is a peer-reviewed source for high quality medical images, animations, videos, and monograph content. Nucleus Medical Art, a publisher of online medical illustrations, animations, interactive media, and educational materials for patients, consumers, and health care professionals,
J. Michael Lindsay
Amputation of a limb may have a negative impact on the psychological and physical well-being, mobility and social life of individuals with limb amputations. Participation in sports and/or regular physical activity has a positive effect on the above mentioned areas in able-bodied individuals. Data concerning participation in sports or regular physical activity together with its benefits and risks for individuals with limb amputations are scarce. No systematic review exists that addresses a wide range of outcomes such as biomechanics, cardiopulmonary function, psychology, sport participation and sport injuries. Therefore, the aim of this article is to systematically review the literature about individuals with limb amputations and sport participation. MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL® and SportDiscus® were searched without time or language restrictions using free text words and MeSH terms. The last search date was 31 March 2010. Books, internet sites and references of included papers were checked for papers relevant to the topic under review. Papers were included if the research topic concerned sports and a minimum of ten individuals with limb amputations were part of the study population. Papers were excluded if they included individuals with amputations of body parts other than upper or lower limbs or more distal than the wrist or ankle, or if they consisted of case reports, narrative reviews, books, notes or letters to the editor. Title, abstract and full-text assessments were performed by two independent observers following a list of preset criteria. Of the 3689 papers originally identified, 47 were included in the review. Most of the included studies were older than 10 years and had cross-sectional designs. Study participants were generally younger and often had more traumatic amputations than the general population of individuals with limb amputations. Heterogeneity in population characteristics, intervention types and main outcomes made data pooling impossible. In general, sports were associated with a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, psychological well-being, social reintegration and physical functioning. Younger individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations achieve better athletic performance and encounter fewer problems when participating in sports compared with older individuals with bilateral transfemoral amputations. Regardless of their amputation level, individuals with limb amputations participate in a wide range of recreational activities. The majority of them were not aware of the sport facilities in their area and were not informed about available recreational activities. Sport prosthetic devices were used mostly by competitive athletes. For football, the injury rate and pattern of the players with an amputation were similar to those of able-bodied players. Individuals with limb amputations appear to benefit both physically and psychologically from participation in sports and/or regular physical activity. Therefore, sports should be included in rehabilitation programmes, and individuals with limb amputations should be encouraged to pursue a physically active life following hospital discharge. PMID:21846162
Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U
...and Translation Approach for Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for...Translation (OHAT) Approach for Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for...assessments that incorporates systematic review methodology. Systematic...
We compared the methodology and the recommendations of evidence-based guidelines for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) to give an orientation within the continuously growing number of reviews on the therapy of FMS. Systematic searches up to April 2008 of the US-American National Guideline Clearing House, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and Medline were conducted. Three evidence-based guidelines for the management of FMS published by professional organizations were identified: The American Pain Society (APS) (2005), the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) (2007), and the AWMF (2008). The steering committees and panels of APS and AWMF were comprised of multiple disciplines engaged in the management of FMS and included patients, whereas the task force of EULAR only consisted of physicians, predominantly rheumatologists. APS and AWMF ascribed the highest level of evidence to systematic reviews and meta-analyses, whereas EULAR credited the highest level of evidence to randomised controlled studies. Both APS and AWMF assigned the highest level of recommendation to aerobic exercise, cognitive-behavioral therapy, amitriptyline, and multicomponent treatment. In contrast, EULAR assigned the highest level of recommendation to a set of to pharmacological treatment. Although there was some consistency in the recommendations regarding pharmacological treatments among the three guidelines, the APS and AWMF guidelines assigned higher ratings to CBT and multicomponent treatments. The inconsistencies across guidelines are likely attributable to the criteria used for study inclusion, weighting systems, and composition of the panels. PMID:19264521
Häuser, Winfried; Thieme, Kati; Turk, Dennis C
Background and objectives: Systematic reviews of clinical studies aim to compile best available evidence for various diagnosis and treatment options. This study assessed the methodologic quality of all systematic reviews relevant to the practice of nephrology published in 2005. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We searched electronic databases (Medline, Embase, American College of Physicians Journal Club, Cochrane) and hand searched Cochrane renal group records. Clinical practice guidelines, case reports, narrative reviews, and pooled individual patient data meta-analyses were excluded. Methodologic quality was measured using a validated questionnaire (Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire). For reviews of randomized trials, we also evaluated adherence to recommended reporting guidelines (Quality of Reporting of Meta-Analyses). Results: Ninety renal systematic reviews were published in year 2005, 60 of which focused on therapy. Many systematic reviews (54%) had major methodologic flaws. The most common review flaws were failure to assess the methodologic quality of included primary studies and failure to minimize bias in study inclusion. Only 2% of reviews of randomized trials fully adhered to reporting guidelines. A minority of journals (four of 48) endorsed adherence to consensus guidelines for review reporting, and these journals published systematic reviews of higher methodologic quality (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The majority of systematic reviews had major methodologic flaws. The majority of journals do not endorse consensus guidelines for review reporting in their instructions to authors; however, journals that recommended such adherence published systemic reviews of higher methodologic quality.
Mrkobrada, Marko; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Haynes, R. Brian; Iansavichus, Arthur V.; Rehman, Faisal; Garg, Amit X.
Objective To assess the evidence for the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous warts. Methods Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Main outcomes measures Total clearance of warts and adverse effects such as irritation, pain, and blistering. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of any local treatment for uncomplicated cutaneous warts. All published and unpublished material was considered, with no restriction on date or language. Results 50 included trials provided generally weak evidence because of poor methods and reporting. The best evidence was for topical treatments containing salicylic acid. Data pooled from six placebo controlled trials showed a cure rate of 75% (144 of 191) in cases compared with 48% (89 of 185) in controls (odds ratio 3.91, 95% confidence interval 2.40 to 6.36). Some evidence for the efficacy of contact immunotherapy was provided by two small trials comparing dinitrochlorobenzene with placebo. Evidence for the efficacy of cryotherapy was limited. No consistent evidence was found for the efficacy of intralesional bleomycin, and only limited evidence was found for the efficacy of topical fluorouracil, intralesional interferons, photodynamic therapy, and pulsed dye laser. Conclusions Reviewed trials of local treatments for cutaneous warts were highly variable in methods and quality, and there was a paucity of evidence from randomised, placebo controlled trials on which to base the rational use of the treatments. There is good evidence that topical treatments containing salicylic acid have a therapeutic effect and some evidence for the efficacy of dinitrochlorobenzene. Less evidence was found for the efficacy of all the other treatments reviewed, including cryotherapy. What is already known on this topicA wide range of local treatments is available for treating wartsNo one treatment is strikingly effective and little is known about the absolute and relative efficacy of these treatmentsWhat this study addsHigh quality research on the efficacy of various local treatments for warts is lackingEvidence, which is generally of a poor quality, shows a beneficial effect of topical salicylic acid and contact immunotherapy with dinitrochlorobenzeneLittle evidence exists for the efficacy of cryotherapy and no consistent evidence for the efficacy of all the other treatments reviewed
Gibbs, Sam; Harvey, Ian; Sterling, Jane; Stark, Rosemary
PURPOSE: Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare and highly malignant neoplasm that often involves the anterior skull base. This study reviews the published literature related to SNTCS. Clinical presentation, demographics, radiographic diagnosis, pathology, treatment, and management outcomes of this uncommon disease are reported. METHODS: A systematic review in the published English literature was conducted. A MEDLINE/PubMed search and bibliographic examination of articles pertaining to SNTCS were performed. Each case was analyzed for patient demographics, clinical presentation, tumor location, diagnosis, treatment, and survival outcome. RESULTS: A total of 49 journal articles were included. Individual patient data were reported in 86 cases. The average age of the patients was 54.5years (range, 0.1 to 85years), with a strong male predilection (7:1). Average follow-up was found to be 38.9months (range, 2 to 372months). The most common treatment method was surgery with radiation therapy, utilized in 59.3% of patients. Out of 71 cases with reported outcome and follow-up, there were 21 cases of recurrence, 8 cases with metastasis, and 6 cases reporting both recurrence and metastasis. Forty-two out of 71 (59.2%) patients survived at the time of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the largest pool of SNTCS patients to date. SNTCS is a rare and aggressive malignant skull base tumor with a poor prognosis with frequent recurrence and metastasis. Although a variety of treatment paradigms have been reported in the literature, radical surgical resection followed by radiation therapy appears to be the most commonly used treatment option. PMID:23731851
Misra, Poonam; Husain, Qasim; Svider, Peter F; Sanghvi, Saurin; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Medication errors in critical care are frequent, serious, and predictable. Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as many medications as patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-threatening error at some point during their stay. The aim of this article is to provide a basic review of medication errors in the ICU, identify risk factors for medication errors, and suggest strategies to prevent errors and manage their consequences.
Moyen, Eric; Camire, Eric; Stelfox, Henry Thomas
Introduction: Efavirenz commonly causes early neuropsychiatric side effects, but tolerance develops in most patients. There is emerging evidence that efavirenz use may damage neurons, which could result in impaired neurocognitive performance. Areas covered: The authors conducted a systematic review using the PubMed database, references cited by other articles and conference web sites to determine if there is evidence that efavirenz may contribute to cognitive impairment by damaging nerve cells. Expert opinion: There is weak clinical evidence suggesting that efavirenz use may worsen neurocognitive impairment or be associated with less improvement in neurocognitive impairment than other antiretrovirals. Efavirenz, especially its major metabolite 8-hydroxy-efavirenz, is toxic in neuron cultures at concentrations found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Extensive metabolizers of efavirenz may therefore be more likely to develop efavirenz toxicity by forming more 8-hydroxy-efavirenz. Several potential mechanisms exist to explain the observed efavirenz neurotoxicity, including altered calcium hemostasis, decreases in brain creatine kinase, mitochondrial damage, increases in brain proinflammatory cytokines and involvement of the cannabinoid system. There is a need for large randomized controlled trials to determine if the neuronal toxicity induced by efavirenz results in clinically significant neurological impairment. PMID:23889591
Decloedt, Eric H; Maartens, Gary
Pregnancy is a period of increased vulnerability for migrant women, and access to healthcare, use and quality of care provided during this period are important aspects to characterize the support provided to this population. A systematic review of the scientific literature contained in the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases was carried out, searching for population based studies published between 1990 and 2012 and reporting on maternal healthcare in immigrant populations. A total of 854 articles were retrieved and 30 publications met the inclusion criteria, being included in the final evaluation. The majority of studies point to a higher health risk profile in immigrants, with an increased incidence of co-morbidity in some populations, reduced access to health facilities particularly in illegal immigrants, poor communication between women and caregivers, a lower rate of obstetrical interventions, a higher incidence of stillbirth and early neonatal death, an increased risk of maternal death, and a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Incidences vary widely among different population groups. Some migrant populations are at a higher risk of serious complications during pregnancy, for reasons that include reduced access and use of healthcare facilities, as well as less optimal care, resulting in a higher incidence of adverse outcomes. Tackling these problems and achieving equality of care for all is a challenging aim for public healthcare services. PMID:23334357
Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora; Dias, Sónia
This paper explores the role of systematic reviews of research literature and considers what they have to offer research in science education. The origins of systematic reviews are described, together with the reasons why they are currently attracting considerable attention in the research literature. An overview is presented of the key features…
Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hogarth, Sylvia; Campbell, Bob
The evaluation of systematic review as part of the evidence-based or evidence-informed practice movement is a dominant theme in current debates in educational research. This article contributes to the debate by offering a personal, reflexive narrative on the process of doing systematic review, relating some of the arguments regarding the merits…
Strengths assessments focus on the individual's talents, abilities, resources, and strengths. No systematic review of strengths assessments for use within mental health populations has been published. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate strengths assessments for use within mental health services. A systematic review identified 12…
Bird, Victoria J.; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G.; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike
Acupuncture has been reported to affect the autonomic system. Currently, there are no systematic reviews examining the effect of acupuncture on HRV available in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarize and critically assess the effects of acupuncture on heart rate variability. We searched the literature using 14 databases for articles published from the earliest
Sanghoon Lee; Myeong Soo Lee; Jun-Yong Choi; Seung-Won Lee; Sang-Yong Jeong; Edzard Ernst
Public debate over the safety of the trivalent measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the drop in vaccination rates in several countries persists despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence of unintended effects (beneficial or harmful) associated with MMR and the applicability of systematic reviewing methods to the
Tom Jefferson; Deirdre Price; Vittorio Demicheli; Elvira Bianco
|Strengths assessments focus on the individual's talents, abilities, resources, and strengths. No systematic review of strengths assessments for use within mental health populations has been published. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate strengths assessments for use within mental health services. A systematic review identified 12…
Bird, Victoria J.; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G.; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike
The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducing body weight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed,
M H Pittler; E Ernst
The optimal surgical treatment for symptomatic os acromiale that has failed nonoperative management is unclear in the literature. We conducted a systematic review of multiple medical databases for level I–IV evidence. Both radiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (118 subjects, 125 shoulders). One hundred and fifteen subjects were treated surgically (122 shoulders). The mean age of the subjects was 49±11 years. The mean preoperative duration of symptoms was 12±8.6 months. Mesoacromiale was the most common type treated (94%). Internal fixation was the most common surgical technique used (60%), followed by excision (27%) and acromioplasty (13%). Rotator cuff repair was the most common concurrent surgical technique (performed in 59% of the surgically treated shoulders), followed by distal clavicle excision (25%). All surgical techniques resulted in improvement in clinical outcomes. Surgical management of symptomatic os acromiale that has failed nonoperative measures may predictably lead to improved outcomes.
Harris, Joshua D.; Griesser, Michael J.; Jones, Grant L.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the published evidence about the feasibility and acceptability of community pharmacy-based screening for major diseases. METHOD: Studies published between January 1990 and August 2012 involving community pharmacy-based screening interventions, published in the English language, were identified from electronic databases. Reference lists of included studies were also searched. KEY FINDINGS: Fifty studies (one randomised controlled trial, two cluster randomised studies, five non-randomised comparative studies and 42 uncontrolled studies) were included. The quality of most of these was assessed as poor. Screening was mostly opportunistic and screening tools included questionnaires or risk assessment forms, medical equipment to make physiological measurements, or a combination of both. Few studies assessed the accuracy of pharmacy-based screening tools. More than half of the screening interventions included an element of patient education. The proportion of screened individuals, identified with disease risk factors or the disease itself, ranged from 4% to 89%. Only 10 studies reported any economic information. Where assessed, patient satisfaction with pharmacy-based screening was high, but individuals who screened positive often did not follow pharmacist advice to seek further medical help. CONCLUSION: Available evidence suggests that screening for some diseases in community pharmacies is feasible. More studies are needed to compare effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacy-based screening with screening by other providers. Strategies to improve screening participants' adherence to pharmacist advice also need to be explored. This systematic review will help to inform future studies wishing to develop community pharmacy-based screening interventions. PMID:23683090
Ayorinde, Abimbola Adebukola; Porteous, Terry; Sharma, Pawana
Obesity is considered a worldwide health problem of epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for patients with severe obesity, resulting in improved obesity-related co-morbidities and increased overall life expectancy. However, weight recidivism has been observed in a subset of patients post-bariatric surgery. Weight recidivism has significant medical, societal and economic ramifications. Unfortunately, there is a very limited understanding of how to predict which bariatric surgical patients are more likely to regain weight following surgery and how to appropriately treat patients who have regained weight. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the existing literature to assess the incidence and causative factors associated with weight regain following bariatric surgery. An electronic literature search was performed of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane library databases along with the PubMed US national library from January 1950 to December 2012 to identify relevant articles. Following an initial screen of 2,204 titles, 1,437 abstracts were reviewed and 1,421 met exclusion criteria. Sixteen studies were included in this analysis: seven case series, five surveys and four non-randomized controlled trials, with a total of 4,864 patients for analysis. Weight regain in these patients appeared to be multi-factorial and overlapping. Aetiologies were categorized as patient specific (psychiatric, physical inactivity, endocrinopathies/metabolic and dietary non-compliance) and operation specific. Weight regain following bariatric surgery varies according to duration of follow-up and the bariatric surgical procedure performed. The underlying causes leading to weight regain are multi-factorial and related to patient- and procedure-specific factors. Addressing post-surgical weight regain requires a systematic approach to patient assessment focusing on contributory dietary, psychologic, medical and surgical factors. PMID:23996349
Karmali, Shahzeer; Brar, Balpreet; Shi, Xinzhe; Sharma, Arya M; de Gara, Christopher; Birch, Daniel W
Background There has been a significant increase in the availability of online programs for alcohol problems. A systematic review of the research evidence underpinning these programs is timely. Objectives Our objective was to review the efficacy of online interventions for alcohol misuse. Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were conducted for English abstracts (excluding dissertations) published from 1998 onward. Search terms were: (1) Internet, Web*; (2) online, computer*; (3) alcohol*; and (4) E\\effect*, trial*, random* (where * denotes a wildcard). Forward and backward searches from identified papers were also conducted. Articles were included if (1) the primary intervention was delivered and accessed via the Internet, (2) the intervention focused on moderating or stopping alcohol consumption, and (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol-related screen, assessment, or intervention. Results The literature search initially yielded 31 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 17 of which met inclusion criteria. Of these 17 studies, 12 (70.6%) were conducted with university students, and 11 (64.7%) specifically focused on at-risk, heavy, or binge drinkers. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 3216 (median 261), with 12 (70.6%) studies predominantly involving brief personalized feedback interventions. Using published data, effect sizes could be extracted from 8 of the 17 studies. In relation to alcohol units per week or month and based on 5 RCTs where a measure of alcohol units per week or month could be extracted, differential effect sizes to posttreatment ranged from 0.02 to 0.81 (mean 0.42, median 0.54). Pre-post effect sizes for brief personalized feedback interventions ranged from 0.02 to 0.81, and in 2 multi-session modularized interventions, a pre-post effect size of 0.56 was obtained in both. Pre-post differential effect sizes for peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranged from 0.22 to 0.88, with a mean effect size of 0.66. Conclusions The available evidence suggests that users can benefit from online alcohol interventions and that this approach could be particularly useful for groups less likely to access traditional alcohol-related services, such as women, young people, and at-risk users. However, caution should be exercised given the limited number of studies allowing extraction of effect sizes, the heterogeneity of outcome measures and follow-up periods, and the large proportion of student-based studies. More extensive RCTs in community samples are required to better understand the efficacy of specific online alcohol approaches, program dosage, the additive effect of telephone or face-to-face interventions, and effective strategies for their dissemination and marketing.
Kavanagh, David; Stallman, Helen; Klein, Britt; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judy; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Hines, Emily; Young, Ross
In the last decades of the twentieth century it became obvious that modern medical care is replete with data and information, but in need of reliable evidence. This has led to an increased effort to systematically synthesise medical research and make it more useful for practitioners. Systematic reviews use an approach to research synthesis that minimises the risk of misinterpreting a body of evidence due to incomprehensive search or subjective opinion. Carrying out a systematic review is a rigorous procedure which corresponds to standard methodological steps in primary research studies. It involves posing a well-defined question, developing a robust search strategy, screening for relevant primary studies, critical appraisal of included studies, data extraction and processing, analysis and interpretation of results. In some, but not all systematic reviews it is appropriate to conduct a meta-analysis, which is a statistical procedure that integrates the results of several independent studies. Results of meta-analysis are graphically presented in forest plots, with pooled point estimate and its confidence interval represented as a rhombus, usually called a "diamond". Methodological quality of systematic reviews should not be judged by the quality of primary studies included, but by a distinct set of criteria specified in assessment tools such as AMSTAR. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be reported according to the PRISMA checklist. A major contribution to the development of methodological standards has been given by The Cochrane Collaboration, whose Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the primary reference for all authors and referees of systematic reviews in health care. PMID:22198362
Sambunjak, Dario; Frani?, Miljenko
The basic curricular structure and courses deemed necessary to podiatric medical education are outlined and their rationale explained. Specialties appropriate to podiatric practice, such as electrophysiology and cardiovascular physiology, are noted, and the sequence of coursework suggested. (MSE)
Pollock, George P.
Currently the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has the responsibility and regulatory authority for the administration of the medical fitness program for drivers engaged in interstate commerce under 49 CFR Section 391, of the Federal Motor Carrier Saf...
Objective: To determine the evidence regarding the effectiveness of goal planning in clinical rehabilitation.Design: Systematic review.Method: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, American College of Physicians (ACP) Journal Club, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) were searched for randomized controlled trials on the therapeutic effectiveness of
William MM Levack; Kathryn Taylor; Richard J Siegert; Sarah G Dean; Kath M McPherson; Mark Weatherall
Systematic reviews can be a tremendous asset in the implementation of evidence-based practice, because they minimize some of the most-documented barriers to evidence-based practice. For example, by reading systematic reviews, clinicians may save time that would otherwise be dedicated to locating and appraising individual studies. Further, clinicians can rely on someone else's reviewing expertise, which reduces the knowledge and skill
Ralf W. Schlosser; Oliver Wendt; Jeff Sigafoos
Objective To systematically review the literature regarding the prevalence, preventability, severity and types of adverse events (AE) in the Emergency Department (ED). Methods We systematically searched major bibliographic databases, relevant journals and conference proceedings, and completed reference reviews of primary articles. Observational studies (cohort and case-control), quasi-experimental (e.g. before/after) studies and randomized controlled trials, were considered for inclusion if they examined a broad demographic group reflecting a significant proportion of ED patients and described the proportion of AE. Studies conducted outside of the ED setting, those examining only a subpopulation of patients (e.g. a specific entrance complaint or receiving a specific intervention), or examining only adverse drug events, were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility, completed data extraction, and assessed study quality with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Results Our search identified 11,624 citations. Ten articles, representing eight observational studies, were included. Methodological quality was low to moderate with weaknesses in study group comparability, follow-up, and outcome ascertainment and reporting. There was substantial variation in the proportion of patients with AE related to ED care, ranging from 0.16% (n?=?9308) to 6.0% (n?=?399). Similarly, the reported preventability of AE ranged from 36% (n?=?250) to 71% (n?=?24). The most common types of events were related to management (3 studies), diagnosis (2 studies) and medication (2 studies). Conclusions The variability in findings and lack of high quality studies on AE in the high risk ED setting highlights the need for research in this area. Further studies with rigorous, standardized outcome assessment and reporting are required.
Stang, Antonia S.; Wingert, Aireen S.; Hartling, Lisa; Plint, Amy C.
Artificial neural networks have featured in a wide range of medical journals, often with promising results. This paper reports on a systematic review that was conducted to assess the benefit of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as decision making tools in the field of cancer. The number of clinical trials (CTs) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving the use of ANNs
Paulo J. Lisboa; Azzam Fouad George Taktak
BACKGROUND: Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of premature deaths. Several pharmacological interventions now exist to aid smokers in cessation. These include Nicotine Replacement Therapy [NRT], bupropion, and varenicline. We aimed to assess their relative efficacy in smoking cessation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched 10 electronic medical databases (inception to Sept. 2006) and bibliographies of
Ping Wu; Kumanan Wilson; Popey Dimoulas; Edward J Mills
Although numerous reports exist in the literature regarding health care professionals' opinions towards euthanasia and the general public's views, few studies have conducted a systematic review of literature on physicians' views on this topic. As medical doctors are the individuals involved with active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) and physician-assisted death (PAD), their opinions need to be known. The purpose of our
George E Dickinson; David Clark; Michelle Winslow; Rachael Marples
Background: Heart failure (HF) and cognitive impairment are common medical conditions that are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aging Western population. They are associated with frequent hospitalisation and increased mortality, particularly when they occur simultaneously. Evidence from a number of studies suggests that HF is independently associated with impairment in various cognitive domains. Aims: This systematic literature review evaluates the
Raymond L. C. Vogels; Philip Scheltens; Jutta M. Schroeder-Tanka; Henry C. Weinstein
Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to
Peter H. Canter; Joanna Thompson Coon; Edzard Ernst; Exeter Devon
Hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography (HSG), sonohysterography and endometrial ablation are increasingly performed in an outpatient setting. The primary reason for failure to complete these procedures is pain. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness and safety of different types of pharmacological intervention for pain relief in office gynaecological procedures. A systematic search of medical databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane
Gaity Ahmad; Shatha Attarbashi; Helena O’Flynn; Andrew J. S. Watson
The term neuroenhancement refers to improvement in the cognitive, emotional and motivational functions of healthy individuals through, inter alia, the use of drugs. Of known interventions, psychopharmacology provides readily available options, such as methylphenidate and modafinil. Both drugs are presumed to be in widespread use as cognitive enhancers for non-medical reasons. Based on a systematic review and meta-analysis we show
Dimitris Repantis; Peter Schlattmann; Oona Laisney; Isabella Heuser
Clinical librarianship (CL), currently receiving renewed interest world-wide, seeks to provide quality-filtered information to health professionals at the point of need to support clinical decision-making. This review builds upon the work of Cimpl (Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1985, 73, 21-8) and attempts to establish the evidence base for CL. The objectives were to determine, from the literature, whether CL services are used by clinicians, have an effect on patient care, and/or clinicians' use of literature in practice and/or are cost-effective. The methodology used was a systematic review of the literature, following, where possible, the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) framework. Modifications to this methodology included the resources searched, and the critical appraisal checklist (CriSTAL) used. Two hundred and eighty-four unique references were retrieved. Seventeen (16 unique) evaluative and a further 33 descriptive studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of reporting of the literature was generally poor. CL programmes appear to be well-used and received by clinicians. However, there is insufficient evidence available on their effect on patient care, clinicians' use of literature in practice, and their cost-effectiveness, thus highlighting the need for further high-quality research. PMID:12757432
Winning, M A; Beverley, C A
Medication errors in critical care are frequent, serious, and predictable. Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as\\u000a many medications as patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-threatening\\u000a error at some point during their stay. The aim of this article is to provide a basic review of medication errors in the ICU,
Eric Moyen; Eric Camiré; Henry Thomas Stelfox
|(Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…
Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa
Background: Environmental exposure to arsenic has been linked to hypertension in persons living in arsenic-endemic areas. Objective: We summarized published epidemiologic studies concerning arsenic exposure and hypertension or blood pressure (BP) measurements to evaluate the potential relationship. Data sources and extraction: We searched PubMed, Embase, and TOXLINE and applied predetermined exclusion criteria. We identified 11 cross-sectional studies from which we abstracted or derived measures of association and calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models. Data synthesis: The pooled OR for hypertension comparing the highest and lowest arsenic exposure categories was 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.47; p-value for heterogeneity = 0.001; I2 = 70.2%]. In populations with moderate to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water, the pooled OR was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.37; p-value for heterogeneity = 0.002; I2 = 76.6%) and 2.57 (95% CI: 1.56, 4.24; p-value for heterogeneity = 0.13; I2 = 46.6%) before and after excluding an influential study, respectively. The corresponding pooled OR in populations with low arsenic concentrations in drinking water was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.01; p-value for heterogeneity = 0.27; I2 = 24.6%). A dose–response assessment including six studies with available data showed an increasing trend in the odds of hypertension with increasing arsenic exposure. Few studies have evaluated changes in systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively) measurements by arsenic exposure levels, and those studies reported inconclusive findings. Conclusion: In this systematic review we identified an association between arsenic and the prevalence of hypertension. Interpreting a causal effect of environmental arsenic on hypertension is limited by the small number of studies, the presence of influential studies, and the absence of prospective evidence. Additional evidence is needed to evaluate the dose–response relationship between environmental arsenic exposure and hypertension.
Abhyankar, Lalita N.; Jones, Miranda R.; Guallar, Eliseo
Background Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health outcomes and economic burden) in children in Western Europe via a systematic literature review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1970-April 2011) and extracted data on influenza burden in children (defined as aged ? 18 years) from 50 publications (13 reporting laboratory-confirmed influenza; 37 reporting influenza-like illness). Results Children with laboratory-confirmed influenza experienced hospitalisations (0.3%-20%), medical visits (1.7-2.8 visits per case), antibiotic prescriptions (7%-55%), and antipyretic or other medications for symptomatic relief (76%-99%); young children and those with severe illness had the highest rates of health care use. Influenza in children also led to absenteeism from day care, school, or work for the children, their siblings, and their parents. Average (mean or median) length of absence from school or day care associated with confirmed influenza ranged from 2.8 to 12.0 days for the children, from 1.3 to 6.0 days for their siblings, and from 1.3 to 6.3 days for their parents. Influenza negatively affected health-related quality of life in children with asthma, including symptoms and activities; this negative effect was smaller in vaccinated children than in non-vaccinated children. Conclusions Influenza burden in children is substantial and has a significant direct impact on the ill children and an indirect impact on their siblings and parents. The identified evidence regarding the burden of influenza may help inform both influenza antiviral use in children and paediatric immunisation policies in European countries.
Background There has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based approaches to improve patient outcomes through rigorous, standardised and well-validated approaches. Clinical guidelines drive this process and are largely developed based on the findings of systematic reviews (SRs). This paper presents a discussion of the SR process in providing decisive information to shape and guide clinical practice, using a purpose-built review database: the Cochrane reviews; and focussing on a highly prevalent medical condition: hypertension. Methods We searched the Cochrane database and identified 25 relevant SRs incorporating 443 clinical trials. Reviews with the terms ‘blood pressure’ or ‘hypertension’ in the title were included. Once selected for inclusion, the abstracts were assessed independently by two authors for their capacity to inform and influence clinical decision-making. The inclusions were independently audited by a third author. Results Of the 25 SRs that formed the sample, 12 provided conclusive findings to inform a particular treatment pathway. The evidence-based approaches offer the promise of assisting clinical decision-making through clarity, but in the case of management of blood pressure, half of the SRs in our sample highlight gaps in evidence and methodological limitations. Thirteen reviews were inconclusive, and eight, including four of the 12 conclusive SRs, noted the lack of adequate reporting of potential adverse effects or incidence of harm. Conclusions These findings emphasise the importance of distillation, interpretation and synthesis of information to assist clinicians. This study questions the utility of evidence-based approaches as a uni-dimensional approach to improving clinical care and underscores the importance of standardised approaches to include adverse events, incidence of harm, patient’s needs and preferences and clinician’s expertise and discretion.
Objective To evaluate factors predisposing women to chronic and recurrent pelvic pain. Design, data sources, and methods Systematic review of relevant studies without language restrictions identified through Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, SCISEARCH, conference papers, and bibliographies of retrieved primary and review articles. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and results. Exposure to risk factors was compared
Pallavi Latthe; Luciano Mignini; Richard Gray; Robert Hills; Khalid Khan
BACKGROUND: While a number of reviews of homeopathic clinical trials have been done, all have used methods dependent on allopathic diagnostic classifications foreign to homeopathic practice. In addition, no review has used established and validated quality criteria allowing direct comparison of the allopathic and homeopathic literature. METHODS: In a systematic review, we compared the quality of clinical-trial research in homeopathy
Wayne B Jonas; Rachel L Anderson; Cindy C Crawford; John S Lyons
Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires.
Phil Edwards; Ian Roberts; Mike Clarke; Carolyn DiGuiseppi; Sarah Pratap; Reinhard Wentz; Irene Kwan
Objectives: A systematic review of the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose aspirin compared with placebo in postoperative pain. Design: Published studies were identified from systematic searching of bibliographic databases and reference lists of retrieved reports. Summed pain intensity and pain relief data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of patients with at least
Jayne E. Edwards; Anna D. Oldman; Lesley A. Smith; Dawn Carroll; Philip J. Wiffen; Henry J. McQuay; R. Andrew Moore
This report presents the totality of evidence through a systematic review that assessed either the efficacy or safety of bortezomib-based regimens in multiple myeloma with renal impairment. A systematic and comprehensive search of the literature was performed using MEDLINE databases from 1978 to December 1, 2010, and a hand search of references. We used the following medical subject headings (MESH)
Eugenio Piro; Stefano Molica
Objectives Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible for our study. Twenty-one of the included reviews had at least one Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner as its co-author. 7 reviews didn't include any primary study, the remaining reviews (n?=?51) included a median of 9 studies and 936 participants. 50% of reviews were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2008. The questions addressed by 39 reviews were broad in scope, in which 9 reviews combined studies with different herbal medicines. For OQAQ, the mean of overall quality score (item 10) was 5.05 (95% CI; 4.58-5.52). All reviews assessed the methodological quality of primary studies, 16% of included primary studies used adequate sequence generation and 7% used adequate allocation concealment. Of the 51 nonempty reviews, 23 reviews were reported as being inconclusive, while 27 concluded that there might be benefit of CHM, which was limited by the poor quality or inadequate quantity of included studies. 58 reviews reported searching a median of seven electronic databases, while 10 reviews did not search any Chinese database. Conclusions Now CDSR has included large numbers of CHM reviews, our study identified some areas which could be improved, such as almost half of included reviews did not have the participation of TCM practitioners and were not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria, some reviews pooled the results of different herbal medicines and ignored the searching of Chinese databases.
Hu, Jing; Zhang, Junhua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yongling; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hongcai
To propose and test a simple instrument based on seven criteria of study design to distinguish effectiveness (pragmatic) from efficacy (explanatory) trials while conducting systematic reviews. Currently, no validated definition of effectiveness studies ex...
D. Nissman G. Gartlehner K. N. Lohr R. A. Hansen T. S. Carey
The Utah Professional Review Organization (UPRO) enables nurse-coordinators to conduct an ongoing evaluation of the quality of patient care, to upgrade care through physician-sponsored continuing education programs, and to limit care cost, in a medical peer review program. (DS)
Orme, June Y.; Lindbeck, Rosemary S.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) is the commonest bariatric procedure worldwide. The safety and feasibility of\\u000a same-day discharge after LAGB has not been reviewed before. The aim of this study is to review the published literature on\\u000a same-day LAGB. Systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase and Cochrane library using the medical subjects headings\\u000a terms “ambulatory surgical procedures” and “bariatric
Harun Thomas; Sanjay Agrawal
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence on the extent to which personal debt impacts on mental health, and mental health on personal debt. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper systematically reviews the English-language, peer-reviewed literature, 1980-2009, drawing on 14 databases across the medical, business, legal, and social science fields. Findings – From 39,333 potential papers identified,
Chris Fitch; Sarah Hamilton; Paul Bassett; Ryan Davey
Context: Making best use of the growing number of empirical studies in Software Engineering, for making decisions and formulating research questions, requires the ability to construct an objective summary of available research evidence. Adopting a systematic approach to assessing and aggregating the outcomes from a set of empirical studies is also particularly important in Software Engineering, given that such studies
David Budgen; Pearl Brereton
Context: Making best use of the growing number of em- pirical studies in Software Engineering, for making decisions and formulating research questions, requires the ability to construct an objective summary of available research evi- dence. Adopting a systematic approach to assessing and ag- gregating the outcomes from a set of empirical studies is also particularly important in Software Engineering, given
David Budgen; Pearl Brereton
As preliminary research into the childbirth experience of migrants in China, this paper presents a systematic review of Chinese and English literature published between 1999 and 2011 on childbirth in migrants in China. Electronic databases were accessed and papers were found by keyword search. A total of 132 Chinese and 9 English papers were catalogued for review. These papers address migrant maternity issues concerning antenatal, intrapartum, postnatal care, institutional issues, family planning or birth control. Since China's economic reforms, the healthcare infrastructure has been inadequate for childbirth in migrants. They experience more adverse birth outcomes than local residents. This suggests that the effects of change upon childbirth and the existing urban and rural care systems cannot meet the needs of the migrants. There is a lack of research in the childbirth experience of women. Knowledge of their childbirth experience will contribute to the understanding of these needs, informing systems' reform. The medical approach results in many unnecessary interventions and higher costs. It is argued here that a midwifery model of care is most appropriate for the childbirth experience of migrant women. PMID:22950617
Cheung, Ngai Fen; Pan, Anshi
Exclusive breastfeeding has been linked to many positive health outcomes, yet its widespread adoption as the primary mode of providing nutrition to infants remains challenging. The most common reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is perception of inadequate milk production. To augment breast milk production, a substantial number of women turn to herbal galactogogues despite the limited scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to evaluate the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. PubMed was searched from inception to October 2012 using an iterative search process that proceeded from broad categories to specific herbs. Manuscript references were also reviewed. Only experimental studies with objective outcome measures were included. Six trials met our search criteria. Using an adapted version of the CONSORT checklist, each trial was evaluated for potential sources of bias in design and reporting. Shatavari, torbangun, fenugreek, milk thistle, and a Japanese herbal medication were the 5 herbal preparations studied. Five trials found an increase in breast milk production. Several limitations exist that affect the validity of the trial results, including small sample size, insufficient randomization methods, poorly defined eligibility criteria, use of poly-herbal interventions, and variable breastfeeding practices among enrolled subjects. Given the insufficiency of evidence from these trials, no recommendation is made for the use of herbs as galactogogues. Well-designed and well-conducted clinical trials that address the above limitations are necessary to generate a body of evidence as a basis for recommendations regarding herbal galactogogues. PMID:23468043
Mortel, Mylove; Mehta, Supriya D
Studies in pediatric oncology have shown a positive effect of physical activity on disease- and treatment-related side effects. Although several reviews have approved the benefits of therapeutic exercise for adult cancer patients, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of physical activity in pediatric oncology. We identified a total of 17 studies using the PubMed database and Cochrane library. To evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine 2001. The findings confirm that clinical exercise interventions are feasible and safe, especially with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and during medical treatment. No adverse effects have been reported. Positive effects were found on fatigue, strength, and quality of life. Single studies present positive effects on the immune system, body composition, sleep, activity levels, and various aspects of physical functioning. Child-specific aspects such as cognitive abilities, growth, adolescence, and reintegration into peer-groups, school, and sports have barely been taken into consideration. The evidence for exercise interventions in pediatric oncology is rated level "3." Although the results are very promising, future research of high methodological quality and focusing on child-specific aspects is needed to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations, particularly for childhood cancer patients. PMID:23857296
Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beulertz, Julia
Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT.
To systematically review the worldwide evidence on the prevalence of domestic violence against women, to evaluate the quality\\u000a of studies, and to account for variation in prevalence between studies, using consistent definitions and explicit, rigorous\\u000a methods. Systematic review of prevalence studies on domestic violence against women. Literature searches of 6 databases were\\u000a undertaken for the period 1995 to 2006. Medline,
Samia Alhabib; Ula Nur; Roger Jones
Background Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrine disorder that can be associated with significant morbidity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of outcomes of hyperprolactinemic patients, including microadenomas and macroadenomas, to provide evidence-based recommendations for practitioners. Through this review, we aimed to compare efficacy and adverse effects of medications, surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Methods We searched electronic databases, reviewed bibliographies of included articles, and contacted experts in the field. Eligible studies provided longitudinal follow-up of patients with hyperprolactinemia and evaluated outcomes of interest. We collected descriptive, quality and outcome data (tumor growth, visual field defects, infertility, sexual dysfunction, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and prolactin levels). Results After review, 8 randomized and 178 nonrandomized studies (over 3,000 patients) met inclusion criteria. Compared to no treatment, dopamine agonists significantly reduced prolactin level (weighted mean difference, -45; 95% confidence interval, -77 to ?11) and the likelihood of persistent hyperprolactinemia (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 0.99). Cabergoline was more effective than bromocriptine in reducing persistent hyperprolactinemia, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and galactorrhea. A large body of noncomparative literature showed dopamine agonists improved other patient-important outcomes. Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports improved outcomes with surgery and radiotherapy compared to no treatment in patients who were resistant to or intolerant of dopamine agonists. Conclusion Our results provide evidence to support the use of dopamine agonists in reducing prolactin levels and persistent hyperprolactinemia, with cabergoline proving more efficacious than bromocriptine. Radiotherapy and surgery are useful in patients with resistance or intolerance to dopamine agonists.
The literature is filled with reports that link medications with the onset or progression of depression. Because depression is so common in patients with medical illness, assessing whether a medication has in fact caused depression, or whether the relationship is coincidental, can be challenging. In this article, we review the literature on the association between medications and depression. For most agents, there are case reports or small studies linking the medication with the onset of depression, but more rigorous prospective studies are either lacking or found no association between the agent and depression. However, several medications, (eg, barbiturates, vigabatrin, topiramate, flunarizine, corticosteroids, mefloquine, efavirenz, and interferon-?) do appear to cause depression in some patients and should be used with caution in patients at risk for depression.
Celano, Christopher M.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Fernandez-Robles, Carlos; Stern, Theodore A.; Caro, Mario A.; Huffman, Jeff C.
Background Chest pain is a common complaint in primary care, with coronary heart disease (CHD) being the most concerning of many potential causes. Systematic reviews on the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms and signs summarize the evidence about which of them are most useful in making a diagnosis. Previous meta-analyses are dominated by studies of patients referred to specialists. Moreover, as the analysis is typically based on study-level data, the statistical analyses in these reviews are limited while meta-analyses based on individual patient data can provide additional information. Our patient-level meta-analysis has three unique aims. First, we strive to determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for myocardial ischemia in primary care. Second, we investigate associations between study- or patient-level characteristics and measures of diagnostic accuracy. Third, we aim to validate existing clinical prediction rules for diagnosing myocardial ischemia in primary care. This article describes the methods of our study and six prospective studies of primary care patients with chest pain. Later articles will describe the main results. Methods/Design We will conduct a systematic review and IPD meta-analysis of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for diagnosing coronary heart disease in primary care. We will perform bivariate analyses to determine the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of individual symptoms and signs and multivariate analyses to explore the diagnostic value of an optimal combination of all symptoms and signs based on all data of all studies. We will validate existing clinical prediction rules from each of the included studies by calculating measures of diagnostic accuracy separately by study. Discussion Our study will face several methodological challenges. First, the number of studies will be limited. Second, the investigators of original studies defined some outcomes and predictors differently. Third, the studies did not collect the same standard clinical data set. Fourth, missing data, varying from partly missing to fully missing, will have to be dealt with. Despite these limitations, we aim to summarize the available evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for diagnosing CHD in patients presenting with chest pain in primary care. Review registration Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (University of York): CRD42011001170
ObjectiveTo determine the safety of ciprofloxacin in paediatric patients in relation to arthropathy, any other adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions.MethodsA systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and bibliographies of relevant articles was carried out for all published articles, regardless of design, that involved the use of ciprofloxacin in any paediatric age group ?17 years. Only articles that reported
Abiodun Adefurin; Helen Sammons; Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain; Imti Choonara
Objective: To describe and compare the content, feasibility, outcome parameters, and clinimetric properties of the manual wheelchair skills tests reported in the literature.Design: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and Current Contents. Tests were selected if they were observational tests, designed for subjects using hand-rim wheelchairs and were intended to assess wheelchair skill performance at the
Olga JE Kilkens; Marcel WM Post; Annet J Dallmeijer; Henk AM Seelen; Lucas HV van der Woude
Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions including Africa, Latin America and Southern Asia to further elucidate the global epidemiology of this disease.
While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy on a variety of databases, documenting the searches, record keeping, and writing the search methodology. It also discusses challenges encountered such as irregular timelines, providing education, communication, and learning new technologies for record keeping. Rewards include building relationships with researchers, expanding professional expertise, and receiving recognition for contributions to health care outcomes. PMID:21800987
Dudden, Rosalind F; Protzko, Shandra L
Objective To review the barriers to the uptake of research evidence from systematic reviews by decision makers. Search strategy We searched 19 databases covering the full range of publication years, utilised three search engines and also personally contacted investigators. Reference lists of primary studies and related reviews were also consulted. Selection criteria Studies were included if they reported on the views and perceptions of decision makers on the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews, meta-analyses and the databases associated with them. All study designs, settings and decision makers were included. One investigator screened titles to identify candidate articles then two reviewers independently assessed the quality and the relevance of retrieved reports. Data extraction Two reviewers described the methods of included studies and extracted data that were summarised in tables and then analysed. Using a pre-established taxonomy, the barriers were organised into a framework according to their effect on knowledge, attitudes or behaviour. Results Of 1726 articles initially identified, we selected 27 unique published studies describing at least one barrier to the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews. These studies included a total of 25 surveys and 2 qualitative studies. Overall, the majority of participants (n=10?218) were physicians (64%). The most commonly investigated barriers were lack of use (14/25), lack of awareness (12/25), lack of access (11/25), lack of familiarity (7/25), lack of usefulness (7/25), lack of motivation (4/25) and external barriers (5/25). Conclusions This systematic review reveals that strategies to improve the uptake of evidence from reviews and meta-analyses will need to overcome a wide variety of obstacles. Our review describes the reasons why knowledge users, especially physicians, do not call on systematic reviews. This study can inform future approaches to enhancing systematic review uptake and also suggests potential avenues for future investigation.
Wallace, John; Nwosu, Bosah; Clarke, Mike
The systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of water fluoridation was an open-access systematic review. This has overcome some of the difficulties encountered in a highly contentious area, but it did not work perfectly. Parties on each side of the controversy were reluctant to abandon their previous positions and endorse the review result whole-heartedly. Surprising progress was made, however,
D Richards; P Mansfield; J Kleijnen
To increase young people's physical activity (PA) levels it is important to understand the correlates of PA in children and adolescents. We sought to identify factors associated with children's and adolescents’ PA by reviewing systematic quantitative reviews of non-intervention research. Systematic reviews examining associations between quantitatively measured variables and PA in young people (< 19 years) from 2000–2010 were identified
Stuart J. H. Biddle; Andrew J. Atkin; Nick Cavill; Charlie Foster
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis may develop in patients with liver disease, a fact highlighted by recent FDA announcements cautioning against the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in select liver disease patients. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to characterize the risk of NSF in patients with liver disease. All published articles on NSF from September 2000, through August 2008, were identified via Pubmed searches and examination of articles’ reference lists. Two reviewers independently read each article and identified unique patients with biopsy-proven or suspected NSF. Data on demographics, liver status, renal status, and GBCA exposure were collected. A total of 324 articles were reviewed, with 108 articles containing case descriptions on 335 unique NSF patients. After excluding the 95/335 (28%) patients in whom the presence or absence of liver disease was uncertain, liver disease was confirmed present in 41/239 (17%) patients. Renal insufficiency could be assessed in 35 of the liver disease patients; severe renal insufficiency, defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or estimated GFR (eGFR) < 30 mL/min/1.73m2 or dialysis requirement, was present in 34/35 (97%) patients. The lone patient who developed NSF with mild-moderate renal insufficiency was atypical and received a total gadodiamide load of 0.76 mmol/kg over a 10-week period peri-liver transplantation. The published medical literature demonstrates that patients with liver disease who develop NSF also have severe renal insufficiency, suggesting that liver disease does not confer a risk for NSF beyond that of the underlying renal insufficiency.
Mazhar, Sameer M.; Shiehmorteza, Masoud; Kohl, Chad A.; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude B.
BACKGROUND: Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the existing reviews of adherence to interventions and identify the underlying theories for effective interventions. That is the aim
Sandra van Dulmen; Emmy Sluijs; Liset van Dijk; Denise de Ridder; Rob Heerdink; Jozien Bensing
The clinical course of myasthenia gravis (MG) is variable, and spontaneous remission is still uncommon. Knowledge of the prognostic factors may help understand the course of MG and thus optimize its management. A systematic review search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE for English language studies from 1985 through 2009. We identified additional studies by reviewing bibliographies of retrieved articles
Z. F. Mao; X. A. Mo; C. Qin; Y. R. Lai; T. C. Olde Hartman
This article describes a systematic review on the research into postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in noncardiac surgery to ascertain the status of the evidence and to examine the methodologies used in studies. The review demonstrated that in the early weeks after major noncardiac surgery, a sig- nificant proportion of people show POCD, with the elderly being more at risk. Minimal
Stanton Newman; Jan Stygall; Shashivadan Hirani; Shahzad Shaefi; Mervyn Maze
The aim of this systematic literature review is to describe the psychological consequences of predictive genetic testing. Five databases were searched for studies using standardised outcome measures and statistical comparison of groups. Studies were selected and coded by two independent researchers. From 899 abstracts, 15 papers, describing 11 data sets, met the selection criteria for the review. The studies were
Marita Broadstock; Susan Michie; Theresa Marteau
This essay outlines key issues raised during a project that aimed to (1) identify the gaps in the international evidence base of systematic reviews of intervention effectiveness relevant to public health decision making to address health inequalities experienced by indigenous people, and (2) identify priority areas and topics for future reviews. A number of indigenous researchers and clinicians invited to
E. McDonald; N. Priest; J. Doyle; R. Bailie; I. Anderson; E. Waters
The article presents a critique of the discourse of "systematic review" in education, as developed and promoted by the EPPI-Centre at the University of London. Based on a close reading of the exhortatory and instructional literature and 30 published reviews, it argues that the approach degrades the status of reading and writing as scholarly…
Risk factors and consequences of exposure to violence at work were examined through a systematic review of longitudinal studies of workplace violence. Literature in different databases was screened and the articles were selected on the basis of a set of inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies were included into the review and they were evaluated according to a number of criteria recommended
Annie Hogh; Eija Viitasara
Aims To review studies of the prevalence of substance abuse and dependence in prisoners on reception into custody. Design and method A systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse and depen- dence in male and female prisoners on reception into prison was conducted. Only studies using standardized diagnostic criteria were included. Relevant information, such as
Seena Fazel; Parveen Bains; Helen Doll
An effect size quantifies the effects of an experimental treatment. Conclusions drawn from hypothesis testing results might be errone- ous if effect sizes are not judged in addition to statistical significance. This paper reports a systematic review of 92 controlled experiments published in 12 major software engineering journals and conference proceedings in the decade 1993-2002. The review investigates the practice
Vigdis By Kampenes; Tore Dybå; Jo Erskine Hannay; Dag I. K. Sjøberg
Objective. The goal of the study was to systematically review the global body of evidence sur- rounding the effectiveness of interventions for the pre- vention of acute pediatric agricultural injuries. A specific focus was the effectiveness of the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks. Methods. Two reviewers independently screened studies and applied inclusion criteria on the basis of searches
Lisa Hartling; Robert J. Brison; Ellen T. Crumley; Terry P. Klassen; William Pickett
|This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…
Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan
This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts.
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olivia
This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts. PMID:15595944
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olivia
OBJECTIVE To review literature documenting associations between pesticide use and cancer. DaTa sOuRCEs We searched MEDLINE, PreMedline, CancerLit, and LILACS to find studies published between 1992 and 2003 on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and 8 solid-tumour cancers: brain, breast, kidney, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, and stomach cancer. sTuDY sELECTION Each title and abstract was assessed for relevance; disagreements among reviewers were
K. L. Bassil; C. Vakil; M. Sanborn; D. C. Cole; J. S. Kaur; K. J. Kerr; DIP ENV
Objective To estimate the degree of scatter of reports of randomised trials and systematic reviews, and how the scatter differs among medical specialties and subspecialties. Design Cross sectional analysis. Data source PubMed for all disease relevant randomised trials and systematic reviews published in 2009. Study selection Randomised trials and systematic reviews of the nine diseases or disorders with the highest burden of disease, and the broader category of disease to which each belonged. Results The scatter across journals varied considerably among specialties and subspecialties: otolaryngology had the least scatter (363 trials across 167 journals) and neurology the most (2770 trials across 896 journals). In only three subspecialties (lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hearing loss) were 10 or fewer journals needed to locate 50% of trials. The scatter was less for systematic reviews: hearing loss had the least scatter (10 reviews across nine journals) and cancer the most (670 reviews across 279 journals). For some specialties and subspecialties the papers were concentrated in specialty journals; whereas for others, few of the top 10 journals were a specialty journal for that area. Generally, little overlap occurred between the top 10 journals publishing trials and those publishing systematic reviews. The number of journals required to find all trials or reviews was highly correlated (r=0.97) with the number of papers for each specialty/subspecialty. Conclusions Publication rates of speciality relevant trials vary widely, from one to seven trials per day, and are scattered across hundreds of general and specialty journals. Although systematic reviews reduce the extent of scatter, they are still widely scattered and mostly in different journals to those of randomised trials. Personal subscriptions to journals, which are insufficient for keeping up to date with knowledge, need to be supplemented by other methods such as journal scanning services or systems that cover sufficient journals and filter articles for quality and relevance. Few current systems seem adequate.
Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate systematic reviews of research into two public health priorities, tobacco consumption and HIV infection, in terms of the reporting of data related to the applicability of trial results (i.e., whether the results of a trial can be reasonably applied or generalized to a definable group of patients in a particular setting in routine practice, also called external validity or generalisability). Methods All systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and treating or preventing HIV infection published in the Cochrane database of systematic reviews and in journals indexed in MEDLINE between January 1997 and December 2007 were selected. We used a standardized data abstraction form to extract data related to applicability in terms of the context of the trial, (country, centres, settings), participants (recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, baseline characteristics of participants such as age, sex, ethnicity, coexisting diseases or co-morbidities, and socioeconomic status), treatment (duration, intensity/dose of treatment, timing and delivery format), and the outcomes assessment from selected reviews. Results A total of 98 systematic reviews were selected (57 Cochrane reviews and 41 non-Cochrane reviews); 49 evaluated interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and 49 treating or preventing HIV infection. The setting of the individual studies was reported in 45 (46%) of the systematic reviews, the number of centres in 21 (21%), and the country where the trial took place in 62 (63%). Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the included studies were reported in 16 (16%) and 13 (13%) of the reviews, respectively. Baseline characteristics of participants in the included studies were described in 59 (60%) of the reviews. These characteristics concerned age in about half of the reviews, sex in 46 (47%), and ethnicity in 9 (9%). Applicability of results was discussed in 13 (13%) of the systematic reviews. The reporting was better in systematic reviews by the Cochrane Collaboration than by non-Cochrane groups. Conclusions Our study highlighted the lack of consideration of applicability of results in systematic reviews of research into 2 public health priorities: tobacco consumption and HIV infection.
Objective To identify adverse effects of spinal manipulation. Design Systematic review of papers published since 2001. Setting Six electronic databases. Main outcome measures Reports of adverse effects published between January 2001 and June 2006. There were no restrictions according to language of publication or research design of the reports. Results The searches identified 32 case reports, four case series, two prospective series, three case-control studies and three surveys. In case reports or case series, more than 200 patients were suspected to have been seriously harmed. The most common serious adverse effects were due to vertebral artery dissections. The two prospective reports suggested that relatively mild adverse effects occur in 30% to 61% of all patients. The case-control studies suggested a causal relationship between spinal manipulation and the adverse effect. The survey data indicated that even serious adverse effects are rarely reported in the medical literature. Conclusions Spinal manipulation, particularly when performed on the upper spine, is frequently associated with mild to moderate adverse effects. It can also result in serious complications such as vertebral artery dissection followed by stroke. Currently, the incidence of such events is not known. In the interest of patient safety we should reconsider our policy towards the routine use of spinal manipulation.
Several systematic reviews (SRs) have assessed the effectiveness of t'ai chi for many conditions including hypertension, osteoarthritis and fall prevention; however, their conclusions have been contradictory. The aim of this overview was to critically evaluate the SRs of t'ai chi for any improvement of medical conditions or clinical symptoms. English, Chinese and Korean electronic databases were searched for relevant articles, and data were extracted according to predefined criteria; 35 SRs met our inclusion criteria. They were related to the following conditions: cancer, older people, Parkinson's disease, musculoskeletal pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), muscle strength and flexibility, improving aerobic capacity, cardiovascular disease and risk factors, lowering resting blood pressure, osteoporosis or bone mineral density, type 2 diabetes, psychological health, fall prevention and improving balance, and any chronic conditions. In several instances, the conclusions of these articles were contradictory. Relatively clear evidence emerged to suggest that t'ai chi is effective for fall prevention and improving psychological health and was associated with general health benefits for older people. However, t'ai chi seems to be ineffective for the symptomatic treatment of cancer and RA. In conclusion, many SRs of t'ai chi have recently been published; however, the evidence is convincingly positive only for fall prevention and for improvement of psychological health. PMID:21586406
Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and policy-level changes in relation to alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and physical activity. Social marketing is the use of marketing concepts in programmes designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve
Martine Stead; Ross Gordon; Kathryn Angus; Laura McDermott
BACKGROUND: In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review
Christine Tapp; Frederick M Burkle Jr; Kumanan Wilson; Tim Takaro; Gordon H Guyatt; Hani Amad; Edward J Mills
Men with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis have been frequently associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), with an of between 20% to 87.7%. As a result of the multi-system disease processes present in many uremic men, it is apparent that the pathogenesis of ED is most probably multifactorial. Factors to be considered include peripheral vascular disease, neurogenic abnormalities, hormonal disturbances and medications used for treatment of conditions associated with CRF. These physiological abnormalities may be supplemented by significant psychological stresses and abnormalities resulting from chronic illness. Treatment must start with the determination and treatment of the underlying causes. In addition to psychological treatment, further lines of treatment of ED in CRF can be classified as 1st line (medical treatment which includes oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and hormone regulation), 2nd line (intracavernosal injection, vacuum constriction devices and alprostadil urethral suppositories) or 3rd line (surgical treatment). Renal transplantation improves the quality of life for some patients with CRF and subsequently it may improve erectile function in a significant number of them, however still there is high incidence of ED after transplantation.
Exercise as a therapeutic tool used in End-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) in hemodialysis (HD) is not routinately applied, as it occurs with cardiac or respiratory patients. Lack of awareness of research in this field may contribute to the current situation. Thus, the aims of this review are: 1) to systematically review the literature of exercise training on adult HD patients or patients at a pre-HD stage; 2) to show the evidence on the benefits of exercise for counteracting physiological, functional and psychological impairments found even in older ESRD patients; 3) to recommend requirements of future research in order to include exercise prescription in the HD patients treatment. The Data bases reviewed from 2005 to 2009 were: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOHost), SportDicus (EBSCOHost), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOHost), Fuente Académica (EBSCOHost), MedicLatina (EBSCOHost), PEDro y PubMed. Additionally, references from identified articles, several reviews on ESRD and abstracts to Nephrology Congresses were also reviewed. Randomized Controlled Trials on aerobic, strength and combined programs for HD patients were selected. Data from the studies was compiled and Van Tulder criteria were used for methodological quality assessment. Metanalysis included 6 studies on aerobic exercise, 2 on strength exercise and 5 on combined exercise programs. 640 patients were included in 16 included studies. Effects on physical function, health related quality of life and other secondary measurements were summarized by the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) Moderate evidence exists on positive effects of aerobic training on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 6.55; CI 95%: 4.31-8.78). There is high evidence on positive effects of strength training on health related quality of life (SMD 11.03; CI 95%: 5.63-16.43). Finally, moderate evidence exists on positive effects of combined exercise on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 5.57; CI 95%: 2.52-8.61). Summarizing, moderate evidence exists on the improvement on exercise capacity of aerobic training, isolated or combined with strength training. Strength training improves health related quality of life, functional capacity and lower limbs strength. Future studies should clarify which out of the three modalities results in higher benefits for HD patients. PMID:20098466
Background Gallbladder torsion is a rare disease, predominantly affecting elderly women. It is an important differential in the acute surgical abdomen. Methods A total of 324 published case reports of torsion of the gallbladder were reviewed. Features in diagnostic imaging suggestive of torsion were reviewed and summarized. Results Gallbladder torsion is primarily a disease of elderly people; the median age at presentation is 77 years. It is more common amongst women, occurring at a female : male ratio of 4 : 1, although not in childhood, when it occurs at a male : female ratio of 2.5 : 1. Conclusions Improved imaging techniques within the last 20 years have enabled the preoperative diagnosis of one quarter of patients with gallbladder torsion. With prompt surgical intervention, the condition has an excellent prognosis.
Reilly, Daniel J; Kalogeropoulos, George; Thiruchelvam, Dhan
Objective To explore the evidence available of poor-quality (counterfeit and substandard) medicines in the literature. Design Systematic review. Data sources Databases used were EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, including articles published till January 2013. Eligibility criteria Prevalence studies containing original data. WHO definitions (1992) used for counterfeit and substandard medicines. Study appraisal and synthesis Two reviewers independently scored study methodology against recommendations from the MEDQUARG Checklist. Studies were classified according to the World Bank classification of countries by income. Data extraction Data extracted: place of study; type of drugs sampled; sample size; percentage of substandard/counterfeit medicines; formulations included; origin of the drugs; chemical analysis and stated issues of counterfeit/substandard medicines. Results 44 prevalence studies were identified, 15 had good methodological quality. They were conducted in 25 different countries; the majority were in low-income countries (11) and/or lower middle-income countries (10). The median prevalence of substandard/counterfeit medicines was 28.5% (range 11–48%). Only two studies differentiated between substandard and counterfeit medicines. Prevalence data were limited to antimicrobial drugs (all 15 studies). 13 studies involved antimalarials, 6 antibiotics and 2 other medications. The majority of studies (93%) contained samples with inadequate amounts of active ingredients. The prevalence of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials was significantly higher when purchased from unlicensed outlets (p<0.000; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.32). No individual data about the prevalence in upper middle-income countries and high-income countries were available. Limitations Studies with strong methodology were few. The majority did not differentiate between substandard and counterfeit medicines. Most studies assessed only a single therapeutic class of antimicrobials. Conclusions The prevalence of poor-quality antimicrobial medicines is widespread throughout Africa and Asia in lower income countries and lower middle-income countries . The main problem identified was inadequate amounts of the active ingredients.
Almuzaini, Tariq; Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen
Purpose A substantial number of cancer patients turn to treatments other than those recommended by mainstream oncologists in an effort to sustain tumor remission or halt the spread of cancer. These unconventional approaches include botanicals, high-dose nutritional supplementation, off-label pharmaceuticals, and animal products. The objective of this study was to review systematically the methodologies applied in clinical trials of unconventional treatments specifically for cancer. Methods MEDLINE 1966 to 2005 was searched using approximately 200 different medical subject heading terms (eg, alternative medicine) and free text words (eg, laetrile). We sought prospective clinical trials of unconventional treatments in cancer patients, excluding studies with only symptom control or nonclinical (eg, immune) end points. Trial data were extracted by two reviewers using a standardized protocol. Results We identified 14,735 articles, of which 214, describing 198 different clinical trials, were included. Twenty trials were phase I, three were phase I and II, 70 were phase II, and 105 were phase III. Approximately half of the trials investigated fungal products, 20% investigated other botanicals, 10% investigated vitamins and supplements, and 10% investigated off-label pharmaceuticals. Only eight of the phase I trials were dose-finding trials, and a mere 20% of phase II trials reported a statistical design. Of the 27 different agents tested in phase III, only one agent had a prior dose-finding trial, and only for three agents was the definitive study initiated after the publication of phase II data. Conclusion Unconventional cancer treatments have not been subject to appropriate early-phase trial development. Future research on unconventional therapies should involve dose-finding and phase II studies to determine the suitability of definitive trials.
Vickers, Andrew J.; Kuo, Joyce; Cassileth, Barrie R.
Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oil from herbs, flowers, and other plants. The aim of this overview was to provide an overview of systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy. We searched 12 electronic databases and our departmental files without restrictions of time or language. The methodological quality of all systematic reviews was evaluated independently by two authors. Of 201 potentially relevant publications, 10 met our inclusion criteria. Most of the systematic reviews were of poor methodological quality. The clinical subject areas were hypertension, depression, anxiety, pain relief, and dementia. For none of the conditions was the evidence convincing. Several SRs of aromatherapy have recently been published. Due to a number of caveats, the evidence is not sufficiently convincing that aromatherapy is an effective therapy for any condition. PMID:22285469
Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Jiae; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard
No one within endocrinology can keep up to date with the relevant evidence in their field of interest. The major bibliographic\\u000a databases cover less than half the world’s literature and are biased toward English-language publications. Of the evidence\\u000a available in the major databases, only a fraction can be found by the average searcher. Textbooks, editorials, and narrative\\u000a reviews that have
|Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…
Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. A model is presented here for writing systematic reviews of argument-based literature: literature that uses arguments to address conceptual questions, such as whether abortion is morally permissible or whether research participants should be legally entitled to compensation for sustaining research-related injury. Such reviews aim to improve ethically relevant decisions in healthcare, research or policy. They are better tools than informal reviews or samples of literature with respect to the identification of the reasons relevant to a conceptual question, and they enable the setting of agendas for conceptual and empirical research necessary for sound policy-making. This model comprises prescriptions for writing the systematic review's review question and eligibility criteria, the identification of the relevant literature, the type of data to extract on reasons and publications, and the derivation and presentation of results. This paper explains how to adapt the model to the review question, literature reviewed and intended readers, who may be decision-makers or academics. Obstacles to the model's application are described and addressed, and limitations of the model are identified.
Objectives The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether screening for prostate cancer reduces prostate cancer mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A systematic search for randomised controlled trials was conducted through electronic scientific databases and a specialist\\u000a register of the Cochrane Prostatic Diseases and Urologic Cancers Group. Manual searching of specific journals was also conducted.\\u000a Two authors independently reviewed studies that met the
Dragan Ilic; Denise O’Connor; Sally Green; Timothy Wilt
In this systematic review, we present a comprehensive and up-to-date systematic review of the literature as it relates to the efficacy and effectiveness of spinal manipulation or mobilization in the management of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar-related extremity pain. There is moderate quality evidence that spinal manipulation is effective for the treatment of acute lumbar radiculopathy. The quality of evidence for chronic lumbar spine-related extremity symptoms and cervical spine-related extremity symptoms of any duration is low or very low. At present, no evidence exists for the treatment of thoracic radiculopathy. Future high-quality studies should address these conditions. PMID:21292148
Leininger, Brent; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni; Reiter, Todd
Background Pancreatic resection is associated with a significant morbidity. Efforts to reduce hospital stay and enhance recovery have\\u000a seen the introduction of minimally invasive surgical techniques. This article reviews the current published literature on\\u000a the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgery of the pancreas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods An electronic search of the PubMed and Embase databases was performed from 1996 to May 2008
Christopher D. Briggs; Christopher D. Mann; Glen R. B. Irving; Christopher P. Neal; Mark Peterson; Iain C. Cameron; David P. Berry
Objective To review the literature on the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Methods A Medline (PubMed) search identified studies from 1966–2006 that investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Search terms included: “reactive arthritis”, “spondyloarthropathy”, “Reiter’s syndrome”, “gastroenteritis”, “diarrhea”, “epidemiology”, “incidence”, “prevalence”, and “Campylobacter”. Results The literature available to date suggests that the incidence of Campylobacter reactive arthritis may occur in 1 to 5% of those infected. The annual incidence of ReA after Campylobacter or Shigella may be 4.3 and 1.3 respectively per 100,000. The duration of acute ReA varies considerably between reports, and the incidence and impact of chronic reactive arthritis from Campylobacter infection is virtually unknown. Conclusions Campylobacter associated ReA incidence and prevalence varies widely from reviews such as: case ascertainment differences, exposure differences, lack of diagnostic criteria for ReA and perhaps genetics and ages of exposed individuals. At the population level it may not be associated with HLA-B27 and inflammatory back involvement is uncommon. Follow up for long-term sequelae is largely unknown. Five percent of Campylobacter ReA may be chronic or relapsing (with respect to musculoskeletal symptoms).
Pope, Janet E.; Krizova, Adriana; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ouimet, Janine M.
We reviewed recent data on the prevalence, risk factors, complications, and management of trauma during pregnancy. Using the terms "trauma" and "pregnancy" along with specified mechanisms of injury, we queried the PubMed database for studies reported from Jan. 1, 1990, through May 1, 2012. Studies with the largest number of patients for a given injury type and that were population-based and/or prospective were included. Case reports and case series were used only when more robust studies were lacking. A total of 1164 abstracts were reviewed and 225 met criteria for inclusion. Domestic violence/intimate partner violence and motor vehicle crashes are the predominant causes of reported trauma during pregnancy. Management of trauma during pregnancy is dictated by its severity and should be initially geared toward maternal stabilization. Minor trauma can often be safely evaluated with simple diagnostic modalities. Pregnancy should not lead to underdiagnosis or undertreatment of trauma due to unfounded fears of fetal effects. More studies are required to elucidate the safest and most cost-effective strategies for the management of trauma in pregnancy. PMID:23333541
Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Dahlke, Joshua D; Vrees, Roxanne A; Rouse, Dwight J
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a debilitating rheumatic disorder characterized mainly by the presence of continual and widespread musculoskeletal pain, in addition to other disturbing symptoms. There is inconsistent evidence about the effectiveness of the treatments developed so far, making FM a chronic disease that is difficult to treat. The aim of this literature review was to analyze the empirical studies about psychological treatment of FM that have been published over the last twenty years. We conducted a literature search of studies published between 1990 and 2012 using Medline and PsycINFO in the Ovid and ProQuest platforms and hand searching. In total, 58 original studies were identified. The present review presents a comprehensive analysis of the main characteristics of these studies and a description of the interventions developed in order to improve FM symptoms. The most used intervention modality was group treatment with a cognitive-behavioral approach. We also found intensive and remote treatments as well as multimodal therapy, hypnosis, cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, behavioral therapies, mind-body-based techniques, and biofeedback components. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of addressing the symptoms of patients with FM and its scientific validation. PMID:23715945
Lami, María José; Martínez, María Pilar; Sánchez, Ana Isabel
Objective. To evaluate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation for yoga as an ancillary intervention in rheumatic diseases. Methods. Medline/PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and IndMED were searched through February 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing yoga with control interventions in patients with rheumatic diseases were included. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Back Review Group risk of bias tool. The quality of evidence and the strength of the recommendation for or against yoga were graded according to the GRADE recommendations. Results. Eight RCTs with a total of 559 subjects were included; two RCTs had a low risk of bias. In two RCTs on FM syndrome, there was very low evidence for effects on pain and low evidence for effects on disability. In three RCTs on OA, there was very low evidence for effects on pain and disability. Based on two RCTs, very low evidence was found for effects on pain in RA. No evidence for effects on pain was found in one RCT on CTS. No RCT explicitly reported safety data. Conclusion. Based on the results of this review, only weak recommendations can be made for the ancillary use of yoga in the management of FM syndrome, OA and RA at this point. PMID:23934220
Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav
IntroductionChronic Idiopathic Constipation (CIC) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients often self-medicate with laxatives, but there are high levels of dissatisfaction with their efficacy. Prucalopride is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist licensed for the treatment of CIC. As yet, there has been no quantitative summary of its efficacy in the condition. We conducted a systematic review and
N C Suares; A C Ford
Bone involvement in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is rare, but affects the spine in approximately 50% of cases. Despite significant advances in diagnostic imaging techniques as well as surgical and medical treatment of spinal CE, our basic understanding of the parasite's predilection for the spine remains incomplete. To fill this gap, we systematically reviewed the published literature of the last five decades to summarize and analyze the currently existing data on epidemiological and anatomical aspects of spinal CE. PMID:24086783
Neumayr, Andreas; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Blum, Johannes; Brunetti, Enrico
Bone involvement in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is rare, but affects the spine in approximately 50% of cases. Despite significant advances in diagnostic imaging techniques as well as surgical and medical treatment of spinal CE, our basic understanding of the parasite's predilection for the spine remains incomplete. To fill this gap, we systematically reviewed the published literature of the last five decades to summarize and analyze the currently existing data on epidemiological and anatomical aspects of spinal CE.
Neumayr, Andreas; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Blum, Johannes; Brunetti, Enrico
OBJECTIVE--To assess the effectiveness of interventions that train healthcare professionals in methods for improving the quality of care delivered to patients who smoke. DESIGN--Systematic literature review. SETTING--Primary care medical and dental practices in the United States and Canada. Patients were recruited opportunistically. SUBJECTS--878 healthcare professionals and 11,228 patients who smoked and were identified in eight randomised controlled trials. In each
C Silagy; T Lancaster; S Gray; G Fowler
BACKGROUND: Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids. Given the interplay between pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, and the less pro-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, it has been thought that the latter could play a key role in treating or preventing asthma. The purpose was to systematically review the scientific-medical literature in order
J Reisman; HM Schachter; RE Dales; K Tran; K Kourad; D Barnes; M Sampson; A Morrison; I Gaboury; J Blackman
Patients with moderate to severe atrophy challenge the surgeon to discover alternative ways to use existing bone or resort to augmenting the patient with autogenous or alloplastic bone materials. Many procedures have been suggested for these atrophied maxillae before implant placement, which include Le Fort I maxillary downfracture, onlay bone grafts and maxillary sinus graft procedures. A zygomatic implant can be an effective device for rehabilitation of the severely resorbed maxilla. If zygomatic implants are used, onlay bone grafting or sinus augmentation would likely not be necessary. The purpose of this article is to review the developments that have taken place in zygomatic implant treatment over years, including anatomic information for installing the zygomatic implants, implant placement techniques, stabilization, and prosthodontic procedures. PMID:22248122
Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R
Objective To systematically evaluate the evidence across surgical specialties as to whether staples or sutures better improve patient and provider level outcomes. Design A systematic review of systematic reviews and panoramic meta-analysis of pooled estimates. Results Eleven systematic reviews, including 13,661 observations, met the inclusion criteria. In orthopaedic surgery sutures were found to be preferable, and for appendicial stump sutures were protective against both surgical site infection and post surgical complications. However, staples were protective against leak in ilecolic anastomosis. For all other surgery types the evidence was inconclusive with wider confidence intervals including the possibly of preferential outcomes for surgical site infection or post surgical complication for either staples or sutures. Whilst reviews showed substantial variation in mean differences in operating time (I2 94%) there was clear evidence of a reduction in average operating time across all surgery types. Few reviews reported on length of stay, but the three reviews that did (I2 0%, including 950 observations) showed a non significant reduction in length of stay, but showed evidence of publication bias (P-value for Egger test 0.05). Conclusions Evidence across surgical specialties indicates that wound closure with staples reduces the mean operating time. Despite including several thousand observations, no clear evidence of superiority emerged for either staples or sutures with respect to surgical site infection, post surgical complications, or length of stay.
Hemming, Karla; Pinkney, Thomas; Futaba, Kay; Pennant, Mary; Morton, Dion G.; Lilford, Richard J.
This paper demonstrates a method for systematic analysis of published mineral dissolution rate data using forsterite dissolution as an example. The steps of the method are: (1) identify the data sources, (2) select the data, (3) tabulate the data, (4) analyze the data to produce a model, and (5) report the results. This method allows for a combination of critical selection of data, based on expert knowledge of theoretical expectations and experimental pitfalls, and meta-analysis of the data using statistical methods. Application of this method to all currently available forsterite dissolution rates (0 < pH < 14, and 0 < T < 150 °C) normalized to geometric surface area produced the following rate equations: For pH < 5.6 and 0° < T < 150 °C, based on 519 data logr=6.05(0.22)-0.46(0.02)pH-3683.0(63.6)1/T(R2=0.88) For pH > 5.6 and 0° < T < 150 °C, based on 125 data logr=4.07(0.38)-0.256(0.023)pH-3465(139)1/T(R2=0.92) The R2 values show that ˜10% of the variance in r is not explained by variation in 1/T and pH. Although the experimental error for rate measurements should be ± ˜30%, the observed error associated with the log r values is ˜0.5 log units (±300% relative error). The unexplained variance and the large error associated with the reported rates likely arises from the assumption that the rates are directly proportional to the mineral surface area (geometric or BET) when the rate is actually controlled by the concentration and relative reactivity of surface sites, which may be a function of duration of reaction. Related to these surface area terms are other likely sources of error that include composition and preparation of mineral starting material. Similar rate equations were produced from BET surface area normalized rates. Comparison of rate models based on geometric and BET normalized rates offers no support for choosing one normalization method over the other. However, practical considerations support the use of geometric surface area normalization. Comparison of Mg and Si release rates showed that they produced statistically indistinguishable dissolution rates because dissolution was stoichiometric in the experiments over the entire pH range even though the surface concentrations of Mg and Si are known to change with pH. Comparison of rates from experiments with added carbonate, either from CO2 partial pressures greater than atmospheric or added carbonate salts, showed that the existing data set is not sufficient to quantify any effect of dissolved carbonate species on forsterite dissolution rates.
Rimstidt, J. Donald; Brantley, Susan L.; Olsen, Amanda A.
Background Yoga is thought to be effective for health conditions. The article aims to assess the current clinical evidence of yoga for Essential hypertension (EH). Strategy MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched until June, 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing yoga against conventional therapy, yoga versus no treatment, yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy or conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results A total of 6 studies (involving 386 patients) were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. A total of 6 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. 4 of them compared yoga plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy. 1 RCT described yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. 2 RCT tested the effect of yoga versus conventional therapy alone. 1 RCT described yoga compared to no treatment. Only one trial reported adverse events without details, the safety of yoga is still uncertain. Conclusions There is some encouraging evidence of yoga for lowering SBP and DBP. However, due to low methodological quality of these identified trials, a definite conclusion about the efficacy and safety of yoga on EH cannot be drawn from this review. Therefore, further thorough investigation, large-scale, proper study designed, randomized trials of yoga for hypertension will be required to justify the effects reported here.
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of fevers, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites, infertility, and problems with menstruation and labor during childbirth. The feverfew herb has a long history of use in traditional and folk medicine, especially among Greek and early European herbalists. Feverfew has also been used for psoriasis, allergies, asthma, tinnitus, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. The plant contains a large number of natural products, but the active principles probably include one or more of the sesquiterpene lactones known to be present, including parthenolide. Other potentially active constituents include flavonoid glycosides and pinenes. It has multiple pharmacologic properties, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, antispasmodic, an emmenagogue, and as an enema for worms. In this review, we have explored the various dimensions of the feverfew plant and compiled its vast pharmacologic applications to comprehend and synthesize the subject of its potential image of multipurpose medicinal agent. The plant is widely cultivated to large regions of the world and its importance as a medicinal plant is growing substantially with increasing and stronger reports in support of its multifarious therapeutic uses.
Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S.; Bansal, Vijay
It has been suggested that dancers are less fit compared to other athletes. However, the majority of studies make their arguments based on data deriving mainly from ballet. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to investigate: a) aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscular strength and body composition characteristics in contemporary dancers of different levels, and b) whether supplementary exercise interventions, in addition to normal dance training, further improves contemporary dance performance. Three databases (Medline, Cochrane and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health research database) were searched to identify publications regarding the main fitness components of contemporary professional and student dancers. At a professional level, it appears that contemporary dancers demonstrate higher maximal oxygen uptake and higher scores in muscular endurance than ballet dancers. However, contemporary dance students are equally fit compared to their ballet counterparts and their body composition is also very similar. Only two studies have investigated the effects of supplementary exercise training on aspects of dance performance. Further research is needed in order to confirm preliminary data, which suggest that the implementation of additional fitness training is beneficial for contemporary dance students to achieve a better performance outcome. PMID:19301219
Angioi, M; Metsios, G S; Metsios, G; Koutedakis, Y; Wyon, M A
Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207
Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad
The aim of this paper is to identify reviews of interventions for preventing and treating preterm birth so that these could be appraised and the findings from good quality reviews highlighted. Reviews, rather than individual studies, are the basis for this systematic review because of the proliferation of reviews and the benefits of a single, consistent appraisal and assessment of evidence from these reviews rather than further attempts to find and appraise the many individual studies in the literature. Our systematic review consists of a description of five interventions for preventing and treating preterm birth; antibiotics, cervical cerclage, bed rest, progesterone, and tocolytic therapy, for which at least one relevant review was found. The scope and quality of the identified reviews are described, and their conclusions and the strength of these conclusions discussed. Potentially eligible reviews were sought primarily through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE (1966-2008), EMBASE (1980-2008), CINHAL (1982-2008), Science Citation Index (1970-2008) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2008). Thirty-seven reviews were identified of which 22 were included in this systematic review of reviews. This shows that antibiotics may significantly delay, but might not prevent, preterm birth for women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes; there is insufficient evidence to show the absolute efficacy of cerclage and bed rest in preventing preterm birth; the use of progesterone appears promising; and the possible benefits of certain tocolytics, such as beta-mimetics, need to be reliably measured against the possible adverse effects when used in preventing preterm birth. PMID:18996637
Smith, Valerie; Devane, Declan; Begley, Cecily M; Clarke, Mike; Higgins, Shane
Objective To evaluate the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and death due to cardiovascular disease.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Data sources Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library) and reference lists of included studies and reviews published until January 2009.Selection criteria Case-control and cohort studies investigating the association between any migraine or specific migraine subtypes and cardiovascular
Markus Schürks; Pamela M Rist; Marcelo E Bigal; Julie E Buring; Richard B Lipton; Tobias Kurth
Study design:Systematic review.Objective:To review sexuality in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCIs), and to report the effectiveness of erectile interventions.Methods:Reports from six databases (1966–2003), selected annual proceedings (1997–2002) and manufacturer's information were screened against eligibility criteria. Included reports were abstracted and data pooled from case-series reports regarding intracavernous injections and sildenafil.Results:From 2127 unique reports evaluated, 49 were included. Male sexual
D DeForge; J Blackmer; C Garritty; F Yazdi; V Cronin; N Barrowman; M Fang; V Mamaladze; L Zhang; M Sampson; D Moher
Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy.Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with ‘evidence based health policy’ in their title was conducted using PubMed as a search engine. The identified papers were critically analysed using
Background: Several studies have examined the role of cigarette smoking in the development of renal disease in human populations. However, there have been no systematic reviews on the evidence linking smoking with incident renal disease. Methods: We performed an evidence-based evaluation of peer-reviewed research published during 1966–2005, from a search of five databases, including Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE. Results: Of
Charlotte Jones-Burton; Stephen L. Seliger; Roberta W. Scherer; Shiraz I. Mishra; Ghazal Vessal; Jeanine Brown; Matthew R. Weir; Jeffrey C. Fink
Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological\\u000a distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental\\u000a health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style review was conducted searching nine\\u000a major databases, bibliographies, and grey literature from
Israel Bronstein; Paul Montgomery
Aluminium (Al) toxicity problem in parenteral nutrition solutions (PNS) is decades old and is still unresolved. The aim of this review is to gather updated information about this matter, regarding legislation, manifestations, diagnostics and treatment, patient population at risk and the actions to be taken to limit its accumulation. A structured search using MeSH vocabulary and Title/Abstract searches was conducted in PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov) up to November 2012. Al is ubiquitous, facilitating its potential for exposure. Nevertheless, humans have several mechanisms to prevent significant absorption and to aid its elimination; therefore, the vast majority of the population is not at risk for Al toxicity. However, when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed (for example, parenteral fluids), renal function is impaired (for example, adult patients with renal compromise and neonates) or exposure is high (for example, long-term PNS), Al is prone to accumulate in the body, including manifestations such as impaired neurological development, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic bone disease, dyslipemia and even genotoxic activity. A high Al content in PNS is largely the result of three parenteral nutrient additives: calcium gluconate, inorganic phosphates and cysteine hydrochloride. Despite the legislative efforts, some factors make difficult to comply with the rule and, therefore, to limit the Al toxicity. Unfortunately, manufacturers have not universally changed their processes to obtain a lower Al content of parenteral drug products (PDP). In addition, the imprecise information provided by PDP labels and the high lot-to-lot variation make the prediction of Al content rather inaccurate. PMID:23403874
Hernández-Sánchez, A; Tejada-González, P; Arteta-Jiménez, M
Background Several conservative (i.e., nonpharmacologic, nonsurgical) treatments exist for secondary lymphedema. The optimal treatment is unknown. We examined the effectiveness of conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema, as well as harms related to these treatments. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials®, AMED, and CINAHL from 1990 to January 19, 2010. We obtained English- and non-English-language randomized controlled trials or observational studies (with comparison groups) that reported primary effectiveness data on conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema. For English-language studies, we extracted data in tabular form and summarized the tables descriptively. For non-English-language studies, we summarized the results descriptively and discussed similarities with the English-language studies. Results Thirty-six English-language and eight non-English-language studies were included in the review. Most of these studies involved upper-limb lymphedema secondary to breast cancer. Despite lymphedema's chronicity, lengths of follow-up in most studies were under 6 months. Many trial reports contained inadequate descriptions of randomization, blinding, and methods to assess harms. Most observational studies did not control for confounding. Many studies showed that active treatments reduced the size of lymphatic limbs, although extensive between-study heterogeneity in areas such as treatment comparisons and protocols, and outcome measures, prevented us from assessing whether any one treatment was superior. This heterogeneity also precluded us from statistically pooling results. Harms were rare (< 1% incidence) and mostly minor (e.g., headache, arm pain). Conclusions The literature contains no evidence to suggest the most effective treatment for secondary lymphedema. Harms are few and unlikely to cause major clinical problems.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system thought to be due to autoimmunity for which immunotherapy is usually prescribed. To provide the best evidence on which to base clinical practice, we systematically reviewed the results of randomized trials of immunotherapy for GBS. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE in July 2006 and
R. A. C. Hughes; A. V. Swan; J.-C. Raphaël; D. Annane; R. van Koningsveld; Doorn van P. A
Objectives To analyse evidence on the effectiveness of intensive NHS treatments for smoking cessation in helping smokers to quit. Methods A systematic review of studies published between 1990 and 2007. Electronic databases were searched for published studies. Unpublished reports were identified from the national research register and experts. Results Twenty studies were included. They suggest that intensive NHS treatments for
Linda Bauld; Kirsten Bell; Lucy McCullough; Lindsay Richardson; Lorraine Greaves
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and
Kelly Russell; Donna M Dryden; Yuanyuan Liang; Carol Friesen; Kathleen O'Gorman; Tamara Durec; T Cameron Wild; Terry P Klassen
Objective To evaluate the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers on the risk of myocardial infarction in patients at risk for cardiovascular events. Design Systematic review of controlled trials of angiotensin receptor blockers. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, hand search, and contact with investigators. Selection of studies Predefined criteria were used to select controlled clinical trials
Michael A McDonald; Scot H Simpson; Justin A Ezekowitz; Gabor Gyenes; Ross T Tsuyuki; Michael A
Summary Aim: Tea tree oil (TTO) is immensely popular for various topical applications. In vitro studies have repeatedly demonstrated that it has antibiotic activity. This article is an attempt to systematically review the evidence from randomised clinical trials for or against effectiveness of external TTO in dermatological conditions. Methods:Six electronic databases were searched. Methodological quality was assessed by Jadad score.
E. Ernst; A. Huntley
Background: The importance of examining the status of gastric inflammation has been acknowledged; the new classification by the updated Sydney system (USS) allows us to evaluate the quantitative status of gastric inflammation. However, this system is based on the histological classification derived from biopsy specimens. Therefore, more convenient, objective and practical biomarkers are recommended. Aim: We undertook a systematic review
Yuji Naito; Masanori Ito; Toshio Watanabe; Hidekazu Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Colonoscopy is the best available method to detect and remove colonic polyps and therefore serves as the gold standard for less invasive tests such as virtual colonoscopy. Although gastroenterologists agree that colonoscopy is not infallible, there is no clarity on the numbers and rates of missed polyps. The purpose of this systematic review was to obtain summary estimates
Jeroen C. van Rijn; Johannes B. Reitsma; Jaap Stoker; Patrick M. Bossuyt; Sander J. van Deventer; Evelien Dekker
Frailty is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals. The level of frailty depends on several interrelated factors and can change over time while different interventions seem to be able to influence the level of frailty. Therefore, an outcome instrument to measure frailty with sound clinimetric properties is needed. A systematic review on evaluative measures of frailty was performed
N. M. de Vries; J. B. Staal; C. D. van Ravensberg; J. S. M. Hobbelen; M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; M. W. G. Nijhuis-van der Sanden
Renal insufficiency is one of the most common co-morbidities present in heart failure (HF) patients. It has significant impact on mortality and adverse outcomes. Cystatin C has been shown as a promising marker of renal function. A systematic review of all the published studies evaluating the prognostic role of cystatin C in both acute and chronic HF was undertaken. A
Background: Though trials evaluating the effect of intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection on gastroparesis have been reported, there is no agreement whether botulinum toxin can effectively relieve the symptoms and improve the results of gastric emptying study in patients with gastroparesis. We performed a systematic literature review to address this issue. Methods: Databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library and
Yu Bai; Mao-Jin Xu; Xia Yang; Can Xu; Jun Gao; Duo-Wu Zou; Zhao-Shen Li
Calcium antagonists have been shown to be superior over other antihypertensive drugs to prevent stroke. Because this cannot be fully attributed to blood pressure lowering effects, other mechanisms seem to play a role. Previously we found in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage that nimodipine enhances fibrinolytic activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the fibrinolytic effect of calcium
Mervyn D I Vergouwen; Marinus Vermeulen; Rob J de Haan; Marcel Levi; Yvo B W E M Roos; MDI Vergouwen
To perform a systematic review on the effect of changes in incisor inclination owing to orthodontic treatment and the occurrence of gingival recession. PubMed, EMBASE Excerpta Medica and CENTRAL of the Cochrane Library were searched and a hand search was performed. From 1925 articles identified, 17 articles were finally included: six experimental animal studies and 11 retrospective clinical studies in
I. Joss-Vassalli; C. Grebenstein; N. Topouzelis; A. Sculean; C. Katsaros
SUMMARY. Silymarin from the milk thistle herb (Silybum marianum) is used by many patients with chronic viral hepatitis, but its efficacy remains unknown. We performed a systematic review of silymarin for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B and C. An exhaustive search strategy identified 148 papers that studied silymarin compounds in liver disease. Of these, four trials included patients
K. E. Mayer; R. P. Myers; S. S. Lee
Recent years have seen an explosion of scientific papers that deal with drugs from the fruits of milk thistle and its active substances silymarin (standardized mixture of flavonolignanes), thus justifying an updated systematic review. Methods: Electronic databases identified silymarin, silibinin, silicristin or milk thistle as descriptors in >700 papers (34% published in last 5 years; 92% dealt with animal pharmacological).
Reinhard Saller; Jörg Melzer; Jürgen Reichling; Reto Brignoli; Remy Meier
BackgroundPostherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review
Kathleen Hempenstall; Turo J. Nurmikko; Robert W. Johnson; Roger P AHern; Andrew S. C. Rice
The objective of this study was to summarize outcomes of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase databases were searched to perform a systematic review of the literature from 1966 through May 2007 on outcomes of SA for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the infrainguinal vessels. The keywords 'percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization,' 'subintimal
Rosemarie Met; Krijn P. Van Lienden; Mark J. W. Koelemay; Shandra Bipat; Dink A. Legemate; Jim A. Reekers
|This report systematically reviews research on the outcomes of programs that teach young children in a group setting before they begin kindergarten. Study inclusion criteria included the use of randomized or matched control groups, evidence of initial equality, and study duration of at least 12 weeks. Studies included valid measures of language,…
Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Slavin, Robert E.; Smith, Dewi; Laurenzano, Mary
Background: Studies investigating workplace bullying started in the early 1990s in Scandinavian countries. Research has been conducted regarding bullying definitions, behaviours, prevalence rates, risk factors and outcomes such as sickness absences, psychological effects, chronic and cardiovascular diseases and lower job satisfaction. To date, no systematic review has been conducted regarding this subject.Objectives: To investigate the association between (1) workplace factors
Farman A. Moayed; Nancy Daraiseh; Richard Shell; Sam Salem
To determine the efficacy of using splinting as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis (LE), a systematic review of the literature was conducted on Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, PEDro, and Cochrane databases using pertinent key words and phrases. Hand searches of article references were also used to ensure that as many relevant articles as
Carin D Borkholder; Valerie A Hill; Elaine Ewing Fess
|Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…
Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul
Parents are often involved in interventions to engage youth in physical activity, but it is not clear which methods for involving parents are effective. A systematic review was conducted of interventions with physical activity and parental components among healthy youth to identify how best to invol...
BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review to examine the diagnostic yield (endoscopic and histologic) of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for the evaluation of abdominal pain of unclear etiology in children. We also examined the effect of EGD on change in treatment, quality of life, change in abd...
We conducted a systematic literature review of anger management in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). We identified 2 studies that used randomized controlled trials and 6 that used pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group designs. The mean between-group effect size was 1.52 for randomized controlled trials and 0.89 for the other…
Hamelin, Jeffery; Travis, Robert; Sturmey, Peter
The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…
Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.
Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…
Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela
This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…
Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen
The aim of this systematic review is to compile and critically evaluate the evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for the effectiveness of acupuncture using constitutional med- icine compared to standard acupuncture. Ten databases were searched through to December 2008 without language restrictions. We also hand-searched nine Korean journals of oriental medicine. We included prospective RCTs of any form of
Myeong Soo Lee; Byung-Cheul Shin; Sun-Mi Choi; Jong Yeol Kim
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of dental health care workers (DHCWs) towards infection control procedures, to examine DHCWs’ practising behaviour in respect of infection control, and to determine whether a relationship exists between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.Methods:Within this systematic review, study quality was assessed in line with selection criteria relating to study
B. L Gordon; F. J. T Burke; J Bagg; H. S Marlborough; E. S McHugh
Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…
Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul
Objective To study interventions that provide people with information about cancer risk and about screening that is tailored to their personal characteristics. We assess the tailoring characteristics, theory base and effects on risk perception, knowledge and screening behavior of these interventions. Methods A systematic literature review in this field was performed. PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched.
JOZIEN M. BENSINGa
|A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…
Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna
Objective: To evaluate the effect of conservative interventions on clinically relevant outcome measures for patients with subacute low back pain. This is particularly important because effective treatment for subacute low back pain will prevent the transition to chronic low back pain, a condition that is largely responsible for the high health care costs of low back pain.Design: Systematic review of
Heloise M Pengel; Chris G Maher; Kathryn M Refshauge
A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…
Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna
Purpose. This systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence for effectiveness of the community oriented primary care (COPC) model and discuss alternative approaches to community medicine practice and education. Methods. A literature search for all articles referring to COPC was conducted. Articles were categorized by type, and the extent of the use of elements of the COPC model, and
MPH Thomas Gavagan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for preventing osteoporotic fractures in people at high risk. Data sources were electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of systematic reviews, meta-analyses and included trials, registers of trials and conference databases. There was no language restriction. Study selection comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with appropriate comparator groups
Catherine A. Lock; Janet Lecouturier; James M. Mason; Heather O. Dickinson
|We conducted a systematic literature review of anger management in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). We identified 2 studies that used randomized controlled trials and 6 that used pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group designs. The mean between-group effect size was 1.52 for randomized controlled trials and 0.89 for the other…
Hamelin, Jeffery; Travis, Robert; Sturmey, Peter
Background - Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, including protein from various sources, in relation to human BP. Methodology\\/Principal Findings - We performed
Mariëlle F. Engberink; Elizabeth J. Brink; Baak van M. A; Stephan J. L. Bakker; Gerjan Navis; Pieter van't Veer; Johanna M. Geleijnse
Objective To assess the effect of reduction or modification of dietary fat intake on total and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Design Systematic review. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CAB abstracts, SIGLE, CVRCT registry, and biographies were searched; trials known to experts were included. Included studies Randomised controlled trials stating intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake
Lee Hooper; Carolyn D Summerbell; Rachel L Thompson; George Davey Smith; Rudolph A Riemersma; Shah Ebrahim; Carolyn D
Dizziness is a common and often disabling disorder. In some people the cause of their dizziness is pathology or dysfunction of upper cervical vertebral segments that can be treated with manual therapy. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the manual therapy treatment of patients with cervicogenic dizziness, by identifying and evaluating both randomized
Susan A. Reid; Darren A. Rivett
Objectives. To evaluate the effects of acupuncture on pain and function in patients with chronic knee pain. Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adequate acupuncture. Computerized databases and reference lists of articles were searched in June 2006. Studies were selected in which adults with chronic knee pain or osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to receive
A. White; N. E. Foster; M. Cummings; P. Barlas
Background: Although the health benefits of physical activity are well-established, the evidence regarding the efficacy of physical activity counseling by primary care providers is inconclusive. Healthy People 2020 recommends that physicians provide counseling on physical activity to their patients; however, few providers adhere to these guidelines. The primary objective of this review is to systematically summarize and evaluate primary care
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and\\/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled
Jose-Ramon Rueda; Javier Ballesteros; Maria-Isabel Tejada
Background and Purpose—Tirilazad is a nonglucocorticoid, 21-aminosteroid that inhibits lipid peroxidation. Studies in experimental models of ischemic stroke had suggested that tirilazad had neuroprotective properties. As a result, clinical studies were undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of tirilazad in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. We performed a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials that assessed the safety
The occurrence of strictures as a complication of Crohn's disease is a significant clinical problem. No specific antifibrotic therapies are available. This systematic review comprehensively addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, prediction, diagnosis and therapy of this disease complication. We also provide specific recommendations for clinical practice and summarise areas that require future investigation. PMID:23626373
Rieder, Florian; Zimmermann, Ellen M; Remzi, Feza H; Sandborn, William J
In this manuscript, we systematically review the literature on role reversals in the life-course. The term “role reversals” in this context means changes between the roles of offender and victim (and vice versa) over time. The majority of the literature focuses on the complex relationship between victim and offender in violent situations. The phrases “violence begets violence” or the “transgenerational
Laura J. Moriarty; Nicolle Parsons-Pollard
Background Motivational Interviewing is a well-known, scientifically tested method of counselling clients developed by Miller and Rollnick and viewed as a useful intervention strategy in the treatment of lifestyle problems and disease. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in different areas of disease and to identify factors shaping outcomes. Design of study A systematic review and meta-analysis of
Sune Rubak; Annelli Sandbæk; Torsten Lauritzen; Bo Christensen
Background Prolapse of the fallopian tube into the vaginal vault is a rarely reported complication that may occur after hysterectomy. Clinicians can miss the diagnosis of this disregarded complication when dealing with post-hysterectomy vaginal bleeding. Objectives We performed a systematic review in order to describe the clinical presentation, therapeutic management and outcome of fallopian tube prolapse occurring after hysterectomy. Search Strategy A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE references from January 1980 to December 2010 was performed. We included articles that reported cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy. Data from eligible studies were independently extracted onto standardized forms by two reviewers. Results Twenty-eight articles including 51 cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy were included in this systematic review. Clinical presentations included abdominal pain, dyspareunia, post- coital bleeding, and/or vaginal discharge. Two cases were asymptomatic and diagnosed at routine checkup. The surgical management reported comprised partial or total salpingectomy, with vaginal repair in some cases combined with oophorectomy using different approaches (vaginal approach, combined vaginal-laparoscopic approach, laparoscopic approach, or laparotomy). Six patients were initially treated by silver nitrate application without success. Conclusions This systematic review provided a precise summary of the clinical characteristics and treatment of patients presenting with fallopian tube prolapse following hysterectomy published in the past 30 years. We anticipate that these results will help inform current investigations and treatment.
Ouldamer, Lobna; Caille, Agnes; Body, Gilles
This systematic review addresses the question: In the modern age of extensive fluoride exposure, do individuals with a high level of sugar intake experience greater caries severity relative to those with a lower level of intake? The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language papers published between 1980 and 2000 using a search expression developed in conjunction with an
Brian A. Burt; Satishchandra Pai
In a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT), we aimed to evaluate the benefits and harms of all interventions for children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Nine RCTs involving 225 children were included. Cyclosporin when compared with placebo or no treatment significantly increased the number of children who achieved complete remission [3 trials, 49 children, relative risk
Doaa Habashy; Elisabeth M. Hodson; Jonathan C. Craig
We reviewed communication intervention studies involving people with Rett syndrome. Systematic searches of five electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) target skills, (c) procedures, (d) main findings, and (e) certainty of evidence. Across the nine studies, intervention was provided to a
Jeff Sigafoos; Vanessa A. Green; Ralf Schlosser; Mark F. O’eilly; Giulio E. Lancioni; Mandy Rispoli; Russell Lang
This article presents results of an NIA-funded systematic review of research on religion and aging published from 1980–1994 in mainstream gerontology and religion journals, including the Journal of Religious Gerontology. Findings are summarized from 73 empirical studies, a subset of the 115 articles included in NIA's bibliography on this topic. In general, these studies use multiethnic samples, include multiple religious
Jeffrey S. Levin
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a hypopigmentation disorder affecting 1 to 4% of the world population. Fifty percent of cases appear before the age of 20 years old, and the disfigurement results in psychiatric morbidity in 16 to 35% of those affected. METHODS: Our objective was to complete a comprehensive, systematic review of the published scientific literature to identify natural health products
Orest Szczurko; Heather S Boon
BACKGROUND: Dexketoprofen, an NSAID used in the management of acute and chronic pains, is licensed in several countries but has not previously been the subjected of a systematic review. We used published and unpublished information from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of dexketoprofen in painful conditions to assess evidence on efficacy and harm. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched for
R Andrew Moore; Jodie Barden
A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the relationship to the deceased. Factors associated
Elizabeth A. Lobb; Linda J. Kristjanson; Samar M. Aoun; Leanne Monterosso; Georgia K. B. Halkett; Anna Davies
Objective: The RTI International-Univer- sity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evi- dence-based Practice Center systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), harms associat- ed with treatments, factors associated with treatment efficacy, and differential outcome by sociodemographic characteristics. Method: We searched six major data- bases published from 1980 to September 2005 in all languages against a
Jennifer R. Shapiro; Nancy D. Berkman; Kimberly A. Brownley; Jan A. Sedway; Kathleen N. Lohr; Cynthia M. Bulik
Homeopathy is often advocated as a prophylaxis of migraine and headaches. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the clinical trials, testing the efficacy of homeopathy for these indications. Independent computerized literature searches were carried out in 4 databases. Only randomized, placebo-controlled trials were included. Four such studies were found. Their methodological quality was variable but, on average,
|We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…
Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios
ObjectiveHuman toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stages of Toxocara canis (T. canis) and less frequently Toxocara cati (T. cati). A relationship between toxocariasis and epilepsy has been hypothesized. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available data to evaluate the strength of association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity and to propose some guidelines
Graziella Quattrocchi; Alessandra Nicoletti; Benoit Marin; Elisa Bruno; Michel Druet-Cabanac; Pierre-Marie Preux
|This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…
Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen
Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving 281 cases of ASD. Overall, children with ASD performed worse on imitative tasks (Combined
Justin H. G. Williams; Andrew Whiten; Tulika Singh
There is increasing interest in the nature of the emotion recognition deficit in Huntington's disease (HD). There are conflicting reports of disproportionate impairments for some emotions in some modalities in HD.A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted for studies investigating emotion recognition in HD. Embase, MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Pubmed were searched from 1993 to 2010, and citations and reference
Susie M. D. Henley; Marianne J. U. Novak; Chris Frost; John King; Sarah J. Tabrizi; Jason D. Warren
The use of an evidence?based approach to practice requires “the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values”, where the best evidence can be gathered from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta?analyses. Furthermore, informed decisions in healthcare and the prompt incorporation of new research findings in routine practice necessitate regular reading, evaluation, and integration of the current knowledge from the primary literature on a given topic. However, given the dramatic increase in published studies, such an approach may become too time consuming and therefore impractical, if not impossible. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta?analyses can provide the “best evidence” and an unbiased overview of the body of knowledge on a specific topic. In the present article the authors aim to provide a gentle introduction to readers not familiar with systematic reviews and meta?analyses in order to understand the basic principles and methods behind this type of literature. This article will help practitioners to critically read and interpret systematic reviews and meta?analyses to appropriately apply the available evidence to their clinical practice.
Objective. To determine if conservative treatments (manual therapies, physical medicine methods, med - ication, and patient education) relieved pain or improved function\\/disability, patient satisfaction, and global perceived effect in adults with acute, subacute, and chronic mechanical neck disorders (MND) by updating 11 systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Methods. Two independent authors selected studies, abstracted data, and assessed methodological
ANITA R. GROSS; CHARLIE GOLDSMITH; JAN L. HOVING; TED HAINES; PAUL PELOSO; PETER AKER; PASQUALINA SANTAGUIDA; CYNTHIA MYERS
Background and purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is thought by some authors the main cause of headache and neck pain. MPS is characterized by Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs). However, there are not many controlled studies that have analyzed the effects of the manual therapies in their treatment. The aim of this systematic review is to establish whether manual therapies have
César Fernández de las Peñas; Mónica Sohrbeck Campo; Josué Fernández Carnero; Juan Carlos Miangolarra Page
|Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore w