Sample records for systematic medication review

  1. Literature search for a Systematic Review Library of Medical Sciences

    E-print Network

    van Suijlekom, Walter

    Literature search for a Systematic Review Library of Medical Sciences www protocol? see Step-by-step (1) 3. How many weeks are available for searching, processing, selecting, please mention the reference or attach it to this form 5. Which databases do you wish to search? see Step

  2. Optimizing Medication Adherence in Older Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Organist, Linda A.; Klem, Mary Lou; Engberg, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on strategies to optimize medication adherence in community-dwelling older adults and to make recommendations for clinical practice. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and EMBASE databases for randomized controlled trials examining strategies to optimize medication adherence in patients aged 65 or older prescribed long-term medication regimens. Additional studies were found by examining the reference lists of systematic reviews and selected papers. 34 papers reporting on 33 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Results: Improvement in adherence was mixed across the studies examining educational interventions, with only 12 of the 28 studies showing improvement in adherence; most were delivered by pharmacists. Effect sizes for the statistically significant educational interventions ranged from Cohen's d = 0.14 to 4.93. Four of the 5 interventions using memory aids and cues, some in conjunction with newer technologies, improved adherence. Effect sizes for the statistically significant interventions using memory aids and cues ranged from Cohen's d = 0.26 to 2.72. Conclusion: The evidence from this review does not clearly support one single intervention to optimize medication adherence in older patients. Future studies should explore suggestive strategies, such as tailored interventions involving ongoing contact, and should endeavor to correct methodologic weaknesses found in the literature. PMID:19424450

  3. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. Methods A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Results Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a “gray literature search” utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%). In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg, surgery, cancer) were often analyzed. In terms of settings, 56% of papers covered inpatients, whereas 14 papers (44%) captured outpatients, including patients in community centers. Interestingly, in comparison with the papers identified overall, very few health economic models were found. Most of the articles were modeling analyses and economic trials in different design settings. Overall, only eight health economic models were published and were validated applying the Drummond checklist. In summary, most of the models included were carried out to quite a high standard, although some areas were identified for further improvement. Of the two systematic health economic reviews identified, one achieved the highest quality score when applying the AMSTAR checklist. Conclusion The reasons for finding only a few modeling studies but quite a large number of clinical trials with health economic endpoints, might be different. Until recently, health economics has not been required for reimbursement or coverage decisions concerning medical nutrition interventions. Further, there might be specifics of medical nutrition which might not allow easy modeling and consequently explain the limited uptake so far. The health economic data on medical nutrition generated and published is quite ample. However, it has been primarily based on database analysis and clinical studies. Only a few modeling analyses have been carried out, indicating a need for further research to understand the specifics of medical nutrition and their applicability for health economic modeling. PMID:24648747

  4. A systematic review of self-medication practices among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Agarwal, Anoop Kumar; Khan, Nelofer

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to systematically review the global trends and factors influencing self-medication (SM) among adolescents. Databases (Medline/Pubmed, Ingenta, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Proquest, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for peer-reviewed research published between January 2000 and December 2013 on SM among adolescents aged 13-18 years. Articles were scrutinized for country of origin, sample size, recall period, prevalence rates and associations, influencing factors, medicines used, self-medicated health complaints, sources of drug information, recommendation and procurement, knowledge about medicines, and adverse drug reactions. One hundred and sixty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. SM prevalence ranged from 2% to 92% in different countries. The most frequently self-medicated over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines were analgesics and antibiotics, respectively. Headache, allergies, and fever were the most common self-medicated health complaints reported. Misuse of both over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines reflected a risky trend. Female gender, older age, maternal education, and familial practices were associated with SM among adolescents. The primary sources of drug information, recommendation, and procurement included pharmacists, parents, and friends. High-risk practices such as diversion of prescription medicines and utilization of previous prescriptions were also reported. Most studies revealed gaps in drug knowledge, although adolescents self-rated it as satisfactory. However, few adverse drug reactions were reported, probably because of lack of awareness about the potential harmful effects of medicines. Recommendations for "responsible SM" have been made to minimize the adverse effects of SM. Understanding the links between various factors promoting SM can be helpful in deriving strategies aimed at reducing drug-related health risks among adolescents. Moreover, these will aid in creating awareness among adolescents about the potential risks of using drugs without proper information and consultation. Studies need to be designed to assess the changing trend and identify new correlates of self-medication practices among adolescents, which pose fresh challenges to monitor the menace. PMID:25245937

  5. Preventing infection from reusable medical equipment: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sopwith, Will; Hart, Tony; Garner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Background In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) had eight sets of conflicting recommendations for decontaminating medical equipment. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to assist WHO in reconciling the various guidelines. This paper summarises the methods developed and illustrates the results for three procedures – alcohol, bleach and povidone iodine. Methods We developed a Medline search strategy and applied inclusion criteria specifying the decontamination procedures of interest and an outcome of microbial destruction for a set of marker organisms. We developed protocols to assess the quality of studies and categorised them according to the reliability of the methods used. Through an iterative process we identified best practice for the decontamination methods and key additional factors required to ensure their effectiveness. We identified 88 published papers for inclusion, describing 135 separate studies of decontamination. Results For disinfection with alcohol, best practice was identified from 23 studies as an exposure to 70–80% ethanol or isopropanol for at least 5 minutes. Bleach was effective for sterilization at a concentration of 5000 ppm for 5 minutes and for disinfection at 1000 ppm for 10 minutes (33 studies). Povidone iodine was only partially effective for disinfection at a concentration of 1% for 15 minutes (15 studies). Conclusions Our findings provide an evidence base for WHO guidelines on decontaminating medical equipment. The results support the recommended use of bleach and show that alcohol could be used more widely than current guidelines suggest, provided best practice is followed. The effectiveness of povidone iodine is uncertain. PMID:11916458

  6. A systematic guide for peer reviewers for a medical journal.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Joseph M; Kaye, Alan David; Kolinsky, Daniel C; Urman, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Performing a peer review of an article under consideration for publication requires not only an understanding of the subject matter, but also a systematic approach that includes screening for conflicts of interest; determining whether the manuscript is within or outside the reviewer's area of expertise; properly classifying the manuscript; and writing a detailed, organized review. Although some journals may provide guidelines for the reviewers, the guidelines usually are not detailed and do not take into consideration the variability in reviewer experience. This article is meant to serve as a guideline for peer reviewers and provide concrete information on how to write a comprehensive, unbiased review that will serve both the author and the journal well. PMID:26062311

  7. Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. METHOD: The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. DISCUSSION: This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have worse outcomes and many risk dying when their medication is not available. PMID:25642363

  8. Predictors of Self-Medication Behavior: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    SHAGHAGHI, Abdolreza; ASADI, Marzieh; ALLAHVERDIPOUR, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-medication with over the counter (OTC) and non OTC drugs may provoke serious consequences for users and societies. Recognition of its predictors therefore, is pivotal in plans to hinder the aggregating behavior. This study aimed to identify possibly all predictors of self-medication and the range of its prevalence among different populations. Methods Medline, Amed, Scopus, Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct, and super searcher of Google Scholar were scrutinized using “self-medication”, “self-prescription” and “self-treatment” key words without a time limit with special focus on Iranian studies. Authors independently assessed the title, abstract and full text of identified articles for inclusion and any disagreement was resolved with consensus. Results The range of reported self-medication in the 70 included publications was 8.5-98.0%. Having a minor illness (15 studies), health care costs (9 studies), lack of adequate time to visit a physician (11 studies), prior experience (7 studies) in using a drug and long waiting time to visit a qualified practitioner (5 studies) were most frequently reported reasons of self-medication. Conclusion The observed diversity in the reported prevalence and reasons of self-medication among different sub-groups of populations (e.g. males vs. females) and between developed and developing countries highlights the importance of explanatory behavioral chain analysis of self-medication in different population groups and countries. Even within a single country, predictors of this harmful practice could be inconsistent. Lack of sufficient quality re-search to identify precipitating factors of self-medication in developing countries is paramount.

  9. Impact of helicopter emergency medical services in major incidents: systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) aim to bring highly specialised crews to the major incident for triage, treatment and transport. When the site is difficult to access, HEMS may be the only mode of transportation of both personnel and patients. This systematic review will identify, describe and appraise literature regarding the role of HEMS in medical response to major incidents. We aim to improve knowledge on HEMS role in a major incident and provide a basis for future research. Methods and analysis A systematic literature review will be conducted with search phrases that combine HEMS and major incidents to identify when and how HEMS have been used. Included literature will be subject to quality appraisal and data extraction. Ethics No ethical approval is sought because this is a literature review. It will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal and the PRISMA guidelines will be followed. Registration details PROSPERO CRD42013004473 PMID:23959759

  10. End-of-life training in U.S. medical schools: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bickel-Swenson, Denise

    2007-02-01

    Physicians are educated and trained to cure illness and save lives. The traditional educational model in U.S. medical schools allows for generalist training as well as specialization in specific areas of practice such as pediatrics, geriatrics, or oncology. As the population continues to age, and chronic illnesses challenge cancer diagnoses as the predominant precursor to palliative care, medical students must be educated and trained in the specialties of palliative medicine and end-of-life care. The purpose of this study was to review systematically the empirical evidence related to the ways in which end-of-life care is included in U.S. medical school training. PMID:17298271

  11. Reflective writing and its impact on empathy in medical education: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Medical schools are increasingly aware of the ways in which physician empathy can have a profound impact on patients’ lives and have developed humanities initiatives to address this concern. Reflective writing in particular is more commonly promoted in medical curricula, but there is limited research on the impact of reflective writing on medical student empathy levels. It aims to find the emotional effects of reflective writing interventions on medical and healthcare students by systemic review. Methods: Two investigators independently reviewed educational publications for critical analysis. This review focused systematically on quantitative papers that measure the impact of reflective writing on empathy. Results: Of the 1,032 studies found on Medline and CINAHL, only 8 used quantitative measures pre- and postwritten reflection to measure any impact on empathy outcomes. The outcomes measured included impact of reflective writing exercises on student wellness, aptitude, and/or clinical skills. Of these studies, a significant change in student empathy was observed in 100% of the studies, demonstrating a significant change in outcomes. Conclusion: Although the lack of homogeneity in outcome measurement in the literature limits possible conclusion from this review, the overwhelmingly positive reporting of outcomes suggests that reflective writing should be considered in any medical curriculum. PMID:25112448

  12. The Impact of Social Media on Medical Professionalism: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Gholami-Kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina

    2013-01-01

    Background The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full spectrum of (1) social media–related challenges imposed on medical professionalism and (2) social media–related opportunities to both undermine and improve medical professionalism. Objective The aim of this systematic qualitative review is to present this full spectrum of social media–related challenges and opportunities. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English and German literature published between 2002 and 2011) for papers that address social media–related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. To operationalize “medical professionalism”, we refer to the 10 commitments presented in the physicians’ charter “Medical professionalism in the new millennium” published by the ABIM Foundation. We applied qualitative text analysis to categorize the spectrum of social media–related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. Results The literature review retrieved 108 references, consisting of 46 original research studies and 62 commentaries, editorials, or opinion papers. All references together mentioned a spectrum of 23 broad and 12 further-specified, narrow categories for social media–related opportunities (n=10) and challenges (n=13) for medical professionalism, grouped under the 10 commitments of the physicians’ charter. Conclusions The accommodation of the traditional core values of medicine to the characteristics of social media presents opportunities as well as challenges for medical professionalism. As a profession that is entitled to self-regulation, health care professionals should proactively approach these challenges and seize the opportunities. There should be room to foster interprofessional and intergenerational dialogue (and eventually guidelines and policies) on both challenges and opportunities of social media in modern health care. This review builds a unique source of information that can inform further research and policy development in this regard. PMID:23985172

  13. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Plastic Surgery and the Medical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, Philip J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nature and extent of medicine’s relationship with the medical industry is currently a heated issue in medicine. Although the ethical implications of this relationship have been widely discussed in medical journals and the popular media, it is unknown how the current interest in industry issues has affected Plastic Surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to characterize the literature of the past two decades that examines Plastic Surgery’s relationship with the medical industry. Methods Three medical databases were searched using Plastic Surgery and industry-related search terms. The quality of selected articles was assessed by two reviewers. The specific data abstracted included the venue of the industry interaction discussed within the article: (1) physician education programs, (2) research partnerships, and (3) clinical settings. Within each of these categories, a comprehensive taxonomy was created to categorize the thematic content of the articles’ discussion. Results Of the 465 articles gleaned by the search, 21 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the final review. All 21 articles were of a review or editorial-type nature and the majority (57%) discussed the nature or effects of industry’s presence within the clinical setting. Conclusion This systematic review revealed the literature’s cursory analysis of Plastic Surgery’s relationship with the medical industry. This project highlighted the need for Plastic Surgery to examine the ethical implications of industry’s support and engagement within the field. Improving this literature is necessary for plastic surgeons to understand and adhere to current standards on acceptable practices. PMID:20811241

  14. Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable. PMID:25112445

  15. Sport psychiatry: a systematic review of diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Factor, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    Sport psychiatry focuses on diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric illness in athletes in addition to utilization of psychological approaches to enhance performance. As this field and its research base are relatively new, clinicians often deliver psychiatric care to athletes without a full understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic issues unique to this population. In this systematic review, we discuss published findings relating to psychiatric diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes. There have been several studies looking at the prevalence of some psychiatric disorders in various athlete populations. Eating disorders and substance abuse are the most studied of these disorders and appear to be common problems in athletes. However, to provide informed understanding and treatment, we especially need more research on overtraining syndrome, bipolar disorder, suicidality, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychosis in athletes. Research is needed in the areas of prevalence, risk factors, prognosis and the unique experiences facing athletes with any of these disorders. Additionally, there have not been any large, systematic studies on the use of psychotropic medications in athletes. Small studies suggest that some medications may either be performance enhancing or detrimental to performance, but we need larger studies with rigorous methodology. Higher level athletes suffering from psychiatric symptoms often have reservations about taking medications with unknown performance and safety effects, and methodological issues with the current literature database preclude any definitive conclusions on performance effects of psychiatric medications. We need many more, higher quality studies on the use by athletes of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, stimulants and other ADHD medications, sedative-hypnotics and antipsychotics. Such studies should utilize sensitive performance measures and involve longer term use of psychotropic medications. Furthermore, study subjects should include athletes who actually have the psychiatric disorder for which the medication is proposed, and should include more women. PMID:20942511

  16. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ?four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new interventions in clinical practice. This review clearly demonstrates the need for high-quality, longitudinal research to identify psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence. PMID:24851043

  17. Medical Student Research: An Integrated Mixed-Methods Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amgad, Mohamed; Man Kin Tsui, Marco; Liptrott, Sarah J.; Shash, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Importance Despite the rapidly declining number of physician-investigators, there is no consistent structure within medical education so far for involving medical students in research. Objective To conduct an integrated mixed-methods systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies about medical students' participation in research, and to evaluate the evidence in order to guide policy decision-making regarding this issue. Evidence Review We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines during the preparation of this review and meta-analysis. We searched various databases as well as the bibliographies of the included studies between March 2012 and September 2013. We identified all relevant quantitative and qualitative studies assessing the effect of medical student participation in research, without restrictions regarding study design or publication date. Prespecified outcome-specific quality criteria were used to judge the admission of each quantitative outcome into the meta-analysis. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in the retrieval of 256 articles for full-text assessment. Eventually, 79 articles were included in our study, including eight qualitative studies. An integrated approach was used to combine quantitative and qualitative studies into a single synthesis. Once all included studies were identified, a data-driven thematic analysis was performed. Findings and Conclusions Medical student participation in research is associated with improved short- and long- term scientific productivity, more informed career choices and improved knowledge about-, interest in- and attitudes towards research. Financial worries, gender, having a higher degree (MSc or PhD) before matriculation and perceived competitiveness of the residency of choice are among the factors that affect the engagement of medical students in research and/or their scientific productivity. Intercalated BSc degrees, mandatory graduation theses and curricular research components may help in standardizing research education during medical school. PMID:26086391

  18. The impact of informing psychiatric patients about their medication: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franciska A. M. Desplenter; Steven Simoens; Gert Laekeman

    2006-01-01

    Aim  This literature study explores the impact of educational interventions about medicines for psychiatric patients on adherence,\\u000a knowledge and economic, clinical and humanistic outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A systematic review of eight electronic databases was carried out. Reference lists of primary studies were searched. Studies\\u000a measuring the impact of medication information for adult psychiatric patients in an individual way on adherence, knowledge,\\u000a economic, clinical

  19. Medication Adherence of Patients with Selected Rheumatic Conditions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Harrold, Leslie R.; Andrade, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Nonadherence with medication treatment has been found to occur in large proportions of patients with a broad range of chronic conditions. Our aim was to perform a systematic review of the literature examining adherence with treatments for inflammatory rheumatic conditions to assess the magnitude of the problem in this patient population. Methods A MEDLINE search of English language literature was performed to identify studies published between January 1, 1985 and November 30, 2007 that evaluated adherence with chronic medications needed in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. Results A total of 20 articles met the criteria for evaluation, the majority of which focused on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the studies examined the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Adherence was assessed based on self-report, pill counts, pharmacy dispensings, openings of pill containers using electronic devices, laboratory assays, and physician assessment. Adherence varied greatly based on the adherence measure used, arthritic condition evaluated and medication under study. Overall, the highest rates of adherence were based on self-reports for a wide variety of medications and conditions (range of persons reporting adherence was 30 to 99%), while the lowest adherence rates were for allopurinol based on pharmacy dispensings (18–26%). Conclusions Adherence has not been widely examined for most chronic inflammatory rheumatic conditions and the few studies that exist used different definitions and populations, thus limiting any conclusions. However, the current literature does suggest that nonadherence is a substantial problem. PMID:18336875

  20. Medications for Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Dwayne; Warren, Zachary; McPheeters, Melissa L.; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Sathe, Nila A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although many treatments have been studied in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), less attention has focused on interventions that may be helpful in adolescents and young adults with ASD. The goal of this study was to systematically review evidence regarding medication treatments for individuals between the ages of 13 and 30 years with ASD. METHODS: The Medline, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases were searched (1980–December 2011), as were reference lists of included articles. Two investigators independently assessed studies against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two investigators independently extracted data regarding participant and intervention characteristics, assessment techniques, and outcomes and assigned overall quality and strength of evidence ratings on the basis of predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Eight studies of medications were identified that focused on 13- to 30-year-olds with ASD; 4 of the studies were of fair quality. The strength of evidence was insufficient for all outcomes associated with medications tested in this population; however, the 2 available studies of the atypical antipsychotic medication risperidone in this age range were consistent with the moderate evidence in children with ASD for treating problem behavior, including aggression, and high strength of evidence for adverse events, including sedation and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: There is a marked lack of data on use of medication treatments for adolescents and young adults with ASD. The evidence on the use of risperidone in this age range is insufficient when considered alone but is consistent with the data in the population of children with ASD. PMID:23008452

  1. Effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence: a systematic review revealing research gaps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This was a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Evidence mapping was used to reveal the effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence, to identify research gaps and to make suggestions for future research. Methods PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched with an end date of September 2013 using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term ‘medication adherence’ and 20 different search terms for ‘drug reminder packaging’, limited to the English and German languages. Additional references were identified through cross-referencing. All prospective controlled trials with an intervention using drug reminder packaging for patients taking at least one medication without the assistance of a health-care professional were included in the evidence mapping of the effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and outcomes according to the Economic, Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes (ECHO) model. Results A total of 30 studies met the inclusion criteria: 10 randomized controlled trials, 19 controlled clinical trials and 1 cohort study. Drug reminder packaging had a significant effect on at least one adherence parameter in 17 studies (57%). The methodological quality was strong in five studies. Two studies provided complete information. Clear research gaps emerged. Conclusions Overall, the studies showed a positive effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and clinical outcomes. However, poor reporting and important gaps like missing humanistic and economic outcomes and neglected safety issues limit the drawing of firm conclusions. Suggestions are made for future research. PMID:24661495

  2. Medical treatment for reflux oesophagitis does not consistently improve asthma control: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, J; Gibson, P; Henry, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the effect of treating reflux oesophagitis on asthma outcomes.?METHODS—Randomised controlled trials of reflux oesophagitis treatment in adults or children that reported asthma health outcomes were included and assessed in accordance with the standard Cochrane systematic review process. Patients were typically adults with asthma and concurrent symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux who received interventions that included pharmacological therapy, conservative management, and surgery. The following outcome measures were assessed: lung function, peak expiratory flow, asthma symptoms, asthma medications, and nocturnal asthma.?RESULTS—From 22 potentially relevant published and unpublished randomised controlled trials, 12 were included. Treatment duration ranged from 1 week to 6 months. Eight trials reported that treatment improved at least one asthma outcome, but these outcomes differed between trials. Overall, treatment of reflux oesophagitis did not consistently improve forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate, asthma symptoms, nocturnal asthma symptoms, or use of asthma medications in asthmatic subjects. Significant improvement in wheeze was reported in two studies.?CONCLUSIONS—The published literature does not consistently support treatment of reflux oesophagitis as a means of controlling asthma. Further large randomised controlled trials in subjects with a demonstrated temporal relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux and asthma are needed. These trials should be conducted over at least 6 months to allow adequate time to observe a treatment effect.?? PMID:11182012

  3. Effectiveness of interventions to improve antidepressant medication adherence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chong, W W; Aslani, P; Chen, T F

    2011-09-01

    Non-adherence to antidepressant medications is a significant barrier to the successful treatment of depression in clinical practice. This review aims to systematically assess the effectiveness of interventions for improving antidepressant medication adherence among patients with unipolar depression, and to evaluate the effect of these interventions on depression clinical outcomes. MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language randomised controlled trials published between January 1990 and December 2010 on interventions to improve antidepressant adherence. The impact of interventions on antidepressant medication adherence (compliance and persistence) and depression clinical outcomes was evaluated. Data concerning the quality of the included studies were also extracted. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were classified as educational, behavioural and multifaceted interventions. A total of 28 interventions were tested, as two studies investigated two interventions each. Sixteen (57%) of the 28 interventions showed significant effects on antidepressant adherence outcomes, whereas 12 (43%) interventions demonstrated significant effects on both antidepressant adherence and depression outcomes. The interventions which showed significant improvement in outcomes were primarily multifaceted and complex, with proactive care management and involvement of mental health specialists. The most commonly used elements of multifaceted interventions included patient educational strategies, telephone follow-up to monitor patients' progress, as well as providing medication support and feedback to primary care providers. Overall, educational interventions alone were ineffective in improving antidepressant medication adherence. In conclusion, improving adherence to antidepressants requires a complex behavioural change and there is some evidence to support behavioural and multifaceted interventions as the most effective in improving antidepressant medication adherence and depression outcomes. More carefully designed and well-conducted studies are needed to clarify the effect of interventions in different patient populations and treatment settings. PMID:21849010

  4. Factors associated with antidepressant medication adherence and adherence-enhancement programmes: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Medication adherence is critical to the efficacy of available treatment for depression in primary care settings. This review identifies factors associated with adherence and what is known about the effectiveness of adherence-enhancement programmes. A comprehensive systematic review of English language publications from January 2002 to October 2011 was conducted using the following databases: PUBMED/MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane database. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria for adherence-enhancement evaluations. Eleven of the studies evaluated demonstrated significantly positive effects on adherence; the remaining 10 reported mixed or no effects. Similar to previous literature reviews, factors shown to be associated with adherence were multifactorial and in this analysis were grouped as patient, condition and comorbidities, therapy or treatment, patient–provider relationship and healthcare system level. Adherence improved most notably in studies that included sustainable system and patient-targeted changes. Evaluating adherence-enhancement interventions is key to promoting successful approaches; however, a number of gaps exist between intervention and implementation: (1) the cost in resources and time to implement and sustain these programmes is unknown, (2) specific details about which subgroups of patients are best helped with such programmes is not clear, and (3) what specific processes or content are critical to programme success is still to be identified. There are sufficient data supporting the substantial need for planning and implementing adherence interventions despite reported mixed results. Primary care providers are often positioned to impact patients' adherence; however, practice constraints can limit their implementation. PMID:23205067

  5. Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, G A H; Ahmed, A I A; Lammers, M; Kramers, C; Verkes, R J; van der Marck, M A; Rikkert, M G M Olde

    2014-03-01

    This systematic review aims to integrate the evidence on indications, efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of medical cannabinoids in older subjects. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. We selected controlled trials including solely older subjects (?65 years) or reporting data on older subgroups. 105 (74%) papers, on controlled intervention trials, reported the inclusion of older subjects. Five studies reported data on older persons separately. These were randomized controlled trials, including in total 267 participants (mean age 47-78 years). Interventions were oral tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (n=3) and oral THC combined with cannabidiol (n=2). The studies showed no efficacy on dyskinesia, breathlessness and chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Two studies showed that THC might be useful in treatment of anorexia and behavioral symptoms in dementia. Adverse events were more common during cannabinoid treatment compared to the control treatment, and were most frequently sedation like symptoms. Although trials studying medical cannabinoids included older subjects, there is a lack of evidence of its use specifically in older patients. Adequately powered trials are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids in older subjects, as the potential symptomatic benefit is especially attractive in this age group. PMID:24509411

  6. Intervention to Promote Patients' Adherence to Antimalarial Medication: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fuangchan, Anjana; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Kongkaew, Chuenjid

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence as a major contributor to poor treatment outcomes. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of existing interventions promoting adherence to antimalarial drugs by systematic review. The following databases were used to identify potential articles: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane CENTRAL, and CINAHL (through March 2013). From 1,813 potential papers identified, 16 studies met the selection criteria comprising 9,247 patients. Interventions were classified as packaging aids, visual media, combined visual media and verbal information, community education, medication supervision, and convenient regimen. These interventions were shown to increase adherence to antimalarial drugs (median relative risk = 1.4, interquartile range 1.2–2.0). Although a most effective intervention did not emerge, community education and visual media/verbal information combinations may well have most potential to improve adherence to antimalarial medication. These interventions should be implemented in combination to optimize their beneficial effects. The current understanding on improved adherence would facilitate to contain outbreaks of malaria cost effectively. PMID:24166045

  7. Barriers to the acceptance of electronic medical records by physicians from systematic review to taxonomy and interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Boonstra; Manda Broekhuis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main objective of this research is to identify, categorize, and analyze barriers perceived by physicians to the adoption of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) in order to provide implementers with beneficial intervention options. METHODS: A systematic literature review, based on research papers from 1998 to 2009, concerning barriers to the acceptance of EMRs by physicians was conducted. Four databases,

  8. The Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohanpal, S. K.; Deb, S.; Thomas, C.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.; Unwin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to establish the current evidence base regarding the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disabilities. Method: An electronic search of PsycInfo, Embase, Medline and Cinahl databases was conducted spanning the time…

  9. A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated with Medical Herb Use among Children

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To perform a systematic review of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Since many health care providers get their information about the safety of herbal medicine from case reports published in the medical literature, it is important to assess the quality of these case reports. Methods Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication”, we assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 – 8 years old, and 23 % between the ages 9-18 years old. In a few cases, the child used a product that was contaminated (5%) or adulterated (2%). Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6 – 17). Conclusions There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably, and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding clinical recommendations. PMID:19203654

  10. Medication adherence and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Engelkes, Marjolein; Janssens, Hettie M; de Jongste, Johan C; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Verhamme, Katia M C

    2015-02-01

    The benefits of drug therapy for asthma have been well established, but adherence to treatment is poor, and this might be associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between adherence to asthma controller treatment and risk of severe asthma exacerbations in children and adults. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, from inception until January 2014. Studies were included if data on the association between medication adherence and severe asthma exacerbations were presented. Quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The search yielded 2319 unique publications, of which 23 met the inclusion criteria and underwent data extraction and quality scoring. High levels of heterogeneity across studies with regard to adherence and exacerbation measurements, designs and analysis precluded a formal meta-analysis. Although effect measures varied widely, good adherence was associated with fewer severe asthma exacerbations in high-quality studies. Good adherence tended to be associated with lower risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Future studies should use standardised methodology to assess adherence and exacerbations, and should consider inhaler competence. PMID:25323234

  11. From QUOROM to PRISMA: A Survey of High-Impact Medical Journals' Instructions to Authors and a Review of Systematic Reviews in Anesthesia Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-ming Tao; Xiao-qian Li; Qing-hui Zhou; David Moher; Chang-quan Ling; Wei-feng Yu

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was published to help authors improve how they report systematic reviews. It is unknown how many journals mention PRISMA in their instructions to authors, or whether stronger journal language regarding use of PRISMA improves author compliance.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsAn Internet-based investigation examined the extent to which 146 leading medical journals have

  12. Preventing sexual abusers of children from reoffending: systematic review of medical and psychological interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of current medical and psychological interventions for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children, both in known abusers and those at risk of abusing. Design Systematic review of interventions designed to prevent reoffending among known abusers and prevention for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children. Randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were eligible. Primary outcomes were arrests, convictions, breaches of conditions, and self reported sexual abuse of children after one year or more. Results After review of 1447 abstracts, we retrieved 167 full text studies, and finally included eight studies with low to moderate risk of bias. We found weak evidence for interventions aimed at reducing reoffending in identified sexual abusers of children. For adults, evidence from five trials was insufficient regarding both benefits and risks with psychological treatment and pharmacotherapy. For adolescents, limited evidence from one trial suggested that multisystemic therapy prevented reoffence (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.73); lack of adequate research prevented conclusions about effects of other treatments. Evidence was also inadequate regarding effectiveness of treatment for children with sexual behavioural problems in the one trial identified. Finally, we found no eligible research on preventive methods for adults and adolescents who had not sexually abused children but were at higher risk of doing so (such as those with paedophilic sexual preference). Conclusion There are major weaknesses in the scientific evidence, particularly regarding adult men, the main category of sexual abusers of children. Better coordinated and funded high quality studies including several countries are urgently needed. Until conclusive evidence is available, realistic clinical strategies might involve reduction of specific risk factors for sex crimes, such as sexual preoccupation, in abusers at risk of reoffending. PMID:23935058

  13. The outcomes of recent patient safety education interventions for trainee physicians and medical students: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Sevdalis, Nick; Arora, Sonal; Baker, Paul; Vincent, Charles; Ahmed, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the latest evidence for patient safety education for physicians in training and medical students, updating, extending and improving on a previous systematic review on this topic. Design A systematic review. Data sources Embase, Ovid Medline and PsycINFO databases. Study selection Studies including an evaluation of patient safety training interventions delivered to trainees/residents and medical students published between January 2009 and May 2014. Data extraction The review was performed using a structured data capture tool. Thematic analysis also identified factors influencing successful implementation of interventions. Results We identified 26 studies reporting patient safety interventions: 11 involving students and 15 involving trainees/residents. Common educational content included a general overview of patient safety, root cause/systems-based analysis, communication and teamwork skills, and quality improvement principles and methodologies. The majority of courses were well received by learners, and improved patient safety knowledge, skills and attitudes. Moreover, some interventions were shown to result in positive behaviours, notably subsequent engagement in quality improvement projects. No studies demonstrated patient benefit. Availability of expert faculty, competing curricular/service demands and institutional culture were important factors affecting implementation. Conclusions There is an increasing trend for developing educational interventions in patient safety delivered to trainees/residents and medical students. However, significant methodological shortcomings remain and additional evidence of impact on patient outcomes is needed. While there is some evidence of enhanced efforts to promote sustainability of such interventions, further work is needed to encourage their wider adoption and spread. PMID:25995240

  14. A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated With Medical Herb Use Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Information about the safety of herbal medicine often comes from case reports published in the medical literature, thus necessitating good quality reporting of these adverse events. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the comprehensiveness of reporting of published case reports of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Methods: Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included published case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. We used descriptive statistics. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication,” we developed and assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results: Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 and 8 years old, and 23% between the ages of 9 and 18 years old. Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Fifty-two percent of cases documented the Latin binomial of the herb ingredients; 41% documented plant part. Thirty-two percent of the cases reported laboratory testing of the herb, 20% documented the manufacturer of the product, and 22% percent included an assessment of the potential concomitant therapies that could have been influential in the adverse events. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6-17). Conclusions: There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding recommendations for medicinal herb use. PMID:24416663

  15. Computerised clinical decision support systems to improve medication safety in long-term care homes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Computerised clinical decision support systems (CCDSS) are used to improve the quality of care in various healthcare settings. This systematic review evaluated the impact of CCDSS on improving medication safety in long-term care homes (LTC). Medication safety in older populations is an important health concern as inappropriate medication use can elevate the risk of potentially severe outcomes (ie, adverse drug reactions, ADR). With an increasing ageing population, greater use of LTC by the growing ageing population and increasing number of medication-related health issues in LTC, strategies to improve medication safety are essential. Methods Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane Library. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to LTC, medication safety and CCDSS. One reviewer undertook screening and quality assessment. Results Overall findings suggest that CCDSS in LTC improved the quality of prescribing decisions (ie, appropriate medication orders), detected ADR, triggered warning messages (ie, related to central nervous system side effects, drug-associated constipation, renal insufficiency) and reduced injury risk among older adults. Conclusions CCDSS have received little attention in LTC, as attested by the limited published literature. With an increasing ageing population, greater use of LTC by the ageing population and increased workload for health professionals, merely relying on physicians’ judgement on medication safety would not be sufficient. CCDSS to improve medication safety and enhance the quality of prescribing decisions are essential. Analysis of review findings indicates that CCDSS are beneficial, effective and have potential to improve medication safety in LTC; however, the use of CCDSS in LTC is scarce. Careful assessment on the impact of CCDSS on medication safety and further modifications to existing CCDSS are recommended for wider acceptance. Due to scant evidence in the current literature, further research on implementation and effectiveness of CCDSS is required. PMID:25967986

  16. Feature Engineering and a Proposed Decision-Support System for Systematic Reviewers of Medical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bekhuis, Tanja; Tseytlin, Eugene; Mitchell, Kevin J.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based medicine depends on the timely synthesis of research findings. An important source of synthesized evidence resides in systematic reviews. However, a bottleneck in review production involves dual screening of citations with titles and abstracts to find eligible studies. For this research, we tested the effect of various kinds of textual information (features) on performance of a machine learning classifier. Based on our findings, we propose an automated system to reduce screeing burden, as well as offer quality assurance. Methods We built a database of citations from 5 systematic reviews that varied with respect to domain, topic, and sponsor. Consensus judgments regarding eligibility were inferred from published reports. We extracted 5 feature sets from citations: alphabetic, alphanumeric+, indexing, features mapped to concepts in systematic reviews, and topic models. To simulate a two-person team, we divided the data into random halves. We optimized the parameters of a Bayesian classifier, then trained and tested models on alternate data halves. Overall, we conducted 50 independent tests. Results All tests of summary performance (mean F3) surpassed the corresponding baseline, P<0.0001. The ranks for mean F3, precision, and classification error were statistically different across feature sets averaged over reviews; P-values for Friedman's test were .045, .002, and .002, respectively. Differences in ranks for mean recall were not statistically significant. Alphanumeric+ features were associated with best performance; mean reduction in screening burden for this feature type ranged from 88% to 98% for the second pass through citations and from 38% to 48% overall. Conclusions A computer-assisted, decision support system based on our methods could substantially reduce the burden of screening citations for systematic review teams and solo reviewers. Additionally, such a system could deliver quality assurance both by confirming concordant decisions and by naming studies associated with discordant decisions for further consideration. PMID:24475099

  17. Elective courses for medical students during the preclinical curriculum: a systematic review and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ankit; Wong, Stephanie; Sarfaty, Suzanne; Devaiah, Anand; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Preclinical medical student electives are prevalent at medical schools across the United States, but the range of electives available and their impact on medical student education are not well described in the literature. The objective of this article is to review the literature relating to preclinical medical student electives and their impact on medical student educational outcomes. Methods We reviewed studies that met the following criteria: English-language articles describing preclinical US-based medical electives. We used PubMed journal databases and limited our search for the time period 1999–2014. We excluded electives based in other countries or electives designed for third or fourth year students. Data abstracted included the topic of the elective, qualitative descriptions of the electives, and any associated surveys or exam data associated with the electives. Data were synthesized using descriptive tables sorting electives by broad topic. Reported outcomes and statistical methods were analyzed to assess study quality. Results We found a wide range of subjects taught in the form of preclinical medical school electives. We identified electives in clinical skills, the humanities, student lifestyle, specialty-specific electives, and an assortment of other miscellaneous electives. Surveys and exams administered to students showed that the electives were universally well received by students. Of the 37 electives identified, 15 electives used quantitative objective assessments, such as knowledge exams, while the remaining tended to use student self-reported results. Conclusions Preclinical medical student electives are prevalent at medical schools across the United States and have a significant impact on medical student education. PMID:25968131

  18. A systematic review of the associations between dose regimens and medication compliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ami J. Claxton; Joyce Cramer; Courtney Pierce

    2001-01-01

    Background: Previous reviews of the literature on medication compliance have confirmed the inverse relationship between number of daily doses and rate of compliance. However, compliance in most of these studies was based on patient self-report, blood-level monitoring, prescription refills, or pill count data, none of which are as accurate as electronic monitoring (EM).Objective: In this paper, we review studies in

  19. Cytocompatibility of Medical Biomaterials Containing Nickel by Osteoblasts: a Systematic Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Mikulewicz; Katarzyna Chojnacka

    The present review is based on a survey of 21 studies on the cytocompatibility of medical biomaterials containing nickel,\\u000a as assessed by cell culture of human and animal osteoblasts or osteoblast-like cells. Among the biomaterials evaluated were\\u000a stainless steel, NiTi alloys, pure Ni, Ti, and other pure metals. The materials were either commercially available, prepared\\u000a by the authors, or implanted

  20. Adherence, persistence, and medication discontinuation in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gajria, Kavita; Lu, Mei; Sikirica, Vanja; Greven, Peter; Zhong, Yichen; Qin, Paige; Xie, Jipan

    2014-01-01

    Untreated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can lead to substantial adverse social, economic, and emotional outcomes for patients. The effectiveness of current pharmacologic treatments is often reduced, due to low treatment adherence and medication discontinuation. This current systematic literature review analyzes the current state of knowledge surrounding ADHD medication discontinuation, focusing on: 1) the extent of patient persistence; 2) adherence; and 3) the underlying reasons for patients’ treatment discontinuation and how discontinuation rates and reasons vary across patient subgroups. We selected 91 original studies (67 with persistence/discontinuation results, 26 with adherence results, and 41 with reasons for discontinuation, switching, or nonadherence) and 36 expert opinion reviews on ADHD medication discontinuation, published from 1990 to 2013. Treatment persistence on stimulants, measured by treatment duration during the 12-month follow-up periods, averaged 136 days for children and adolescents and 230 days for adults. Owing to substantial study heterogeneity, comparisons across age or medication type subgroups were generally inconclusive; however, long-acting formulations and amphetamines were associated with longer treatment duration than short-acting formulations and methylphenidates. The medication possession ratio, used to measure adherence, was <0.7 for all age groups and medication classes during a 12-month period. Adverse effects were the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation in all studies. Original research studies reported the lack of symptom control as a common discontinuation reason, followed by dosing inconvenience, social stigma associated with ADHD medication, and the patient’s attitude. In summary, although there was a lack of consistency in the measurement of adherence and persistence, these findings indicate that drug adherence and persistence are generally poor among patients with ADHD. Clinicians may be able to help improve adherence and persistence to ADHD treatment by educating caregivers and patients on treatment goals, administering long-acting medications, and following-up with patients to verify if medication is still effective and well-tolerated. PMID:25187718

  1. How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Daniel B.; Xu, Shuai; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n?=?9), studies of device recalls (n?=?8), and surveys of device manufacturers (n?=?3). These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys. Conclusions Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of what works in either setting. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22912563

  2. Combined palliative and anti-inflammatory medications as treatment of temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Januzzi, Eduardo; Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Grossmann, Eduardo; Leite, Frederico Mota Gonçalves; Heir, Gary M; Melnik, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of self-care combined with anti-inflammatory medications in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain associated with disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was done by the authors. The databases searched were Medline (1966 to July 2012); EMBASE (1980 to July 2012); and LILACS (from 1982 to July 2012). The review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and methodological quality and also extracted all data. The data was double-checked for accuracy. There was no language restriction in the searches of EMBASE, PubMed, and LILACS databases, or in the manual search. The risk of bias and the heterogeneity of the studies taken into consideration were assessed. Two studies, randomizing 175 patients, were included in this review. The first study (n = 106) compared the following interventions: medical treatment, rehabilitation, arthroscopic surgery with postoperative rehabilitation, or arthroplastic surgery with post-operative rehabilitation. The second study (n = 69) compared the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and self-care instructions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, occlusal splint, and mobilization therapy. The third group received no treatment; patients were only informed of their prognosis. There is no sufficient evidence regarding efficacy and safety of the palliative treatments associated with anti-inflammatory versus other treatments, or absence of treatment on pain reduction in patients with TMJ DDWOR. PMID:23971162

  3. Strategies to improve adherence to medications for cardiovascular diseases in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Laba, Tracey-Lea; Bleasel, Jonathan; Brien, Jo-Anne; Cass, Alan; Howard, Kirsten; Peiris, David; Redfern, Julie; Salam, Abdul; Usherwood, Tim; Jan, Stephen

    2013-09-10

    Medication non-adherence poses a major barrier to reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden globally, and is increasingly recognised as a socioeconomically determined problem. Strategies promoting CVD medication adherence appear of moderate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Potentially, 'one-size-fits-all' measures are ill-equipped to address heterogeneous adherence behaviour between social groups. This review aims to determine the effects of strategies to improve adherence to CVD-related medications in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Randomised/quasi-randomised controlled trials (1996-June 2012, English), testing strategies to increase adherence to CVD-related medications prescribed to adult patients who may experience health inequity (place of residence, occupation, education, or socioeconomic position) were reviewed. 772 abstracts were screened, 111 full-text articles retrieved, and 16 full-text articles reporting on 14 studies, involving 7739 patients (age range 41-66 years), were included. Methodological and clinical heterogeneity precluded quantitative data synthesis. Studies were thematically grouped by targeted outcomes; underlying interventions and policies were classified using Michie et al.'s Behaviour Change Wheel. Contrasting with patient or physician/practice strategies, those simultaneously directed at patients and physicians/practices resulted in statistically significant improvements in relative adherence (16-169%). Comparative cost and cost-effectiveness analyses from three studies did not find cost-saving or cost-effective strategies. Unlike much current evidence in general populations, promising evidence exists about what strategies improve adherence in disadvantaged groups. These strategies were generally complex: simultaneously targeting patients and physicians; addressing social, financial, and treatment-related adherence barriers; and supported by broader guidelines, regulatory and communication-based policies. Given their complexity and potential resource implications, comprehensive process evaluations and cost and cost-effectiveness evidence are urgently needed. PMID:23415168

  4. Systematic literature reviews in software engineering A systematic literature review

    E-print Network

    Systematic literature reviews in software engineering ­ A systematic literature review Barbara i n f o Available online 12 November 2008 Keywords: Systematic literature review Evidence. Aims: This study assesses the impact of systematic literature reviews (SLRs) which are the recommended

  5. Motivational Interviewing Interventions in Graduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dunhill, David; Schmidt, Stacie; Klein, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Background Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered method of behavior change counseling. It has shown promise in enabling patients to identify and improve problem health behaviors. Incorporating MI education into residency training may be beneficial. Objective To review the current evidence regarding the impact of MI education in graduate medical education. Results Of the 9 studies of MI education in graduate medical education training, most noted favorable outcomes after MI education. Outcomes included improvements in residents' view of MI, MI skill use and competency, and resident satisfaction with MI interventions. Of the 5 studies that looked at residents' views of MI, 3 found improvements in resident assessments of the importance of and confidence in using MI. Of the 4 studies of MI skills, 3 reported improvements in residents' use of and competency in the MI skill. The quality of MI education in the graduate medical education literature is limited by overreliance on preintervention and postintervention analysis as a study design, the variable intensity of educational interventions, and limited use of validated assessment tools and quantitative outcome measures. Conclusions Review of the literature shows that MI education can be successfully implemented within the residency education environment. The intensity of MI interventions, coupled with experiential learning and feedback, correlated with favorable outcomes in terms of resident use of MI skills and resident satisfaction. Further study is needed to determine which MI skills are most effectively taught to residents, the impact of MI training on resident behavior in clinical settings, and the impact on clinical outcomes. PMID:24949125

  6. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  7. The Effectiveness of Mood Stabilizers and Antiepileptic Medication for the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, S.; Chaplin, R.; Sohanpal, S.; Unwin, G.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychotropic medications are used to manage behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID). One group of psychotropic medication are mood stabilizers such as lithium and some antiepileptic drugs. Method: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to determine the evidence base for the effectiveness of mood…

  8. Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The use of medications to manage problem behaviours is widespread. However, robust evidence to support their use seems to be lacking. The aim was to review research evidence into the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic medication in managing problem behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence. A systematic

  9. Medical causes of admissions to hospital among adults in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Etyang, Anthony O.; Scott, John Anthony Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the publication of several studies on the subject, there is significant uncertainty regarding the burden of disease among adults in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Objectives To describe the breadth of available data regarding causes of admission to hospital, to systematically analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to provide recommendations for future research. Design We performed a systematic online and hand-based search for articles describing patterns of medical illnesses in patients admitted to hospitals in sSA between 1950 and 2010. Diseases were grouped into bodily systems using International Classification of Disease (ICD) guidelines. We compared the proportions of admissions and deaths by diagnostic category using ?2. Results Thirty articles, describing 86,307 admissions and 9,695 deaths, met the inclusion criteria. The leading causes of admission were infectious and parasitic diseases (19.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.6–20.1), respiratory (16.2%, 95% CI 16.0–16.5) and circulatory (11.3%, 95% CI 11.1–11.5) illnesses. The leading causes of death were infectious and parasitic (17.1%, 95% CI 16.4–17.9), circulatory (16%, 95% CI 15.3–16.8) and digestive (16.2%, 95% CI 15.4–16.9). Circulatory diseases increased from 3.9% of all admissions in 1950–59 to 19.9% in 2000–2010 (RR 5.1, 95% CI 4.5–5.8, test for trend p<0.00005). The most prevalent methodological deficiencies, present in two-thirds of studies, were failures to use standardized case definitions and ICD guidelines for classifying illnesses. Conclusions Cardiovascular and infectious diseases are currently the leading causes of admissions and in-hospital deaths in sSA. Methodological deficiencies have limited the usefulness of previous studies in defining national patterns of disease in adults. As African countries pass through demographic and health transition, they need to significantly invest in clinical research capacity to provide an accurate description of the disease burden among adults for public health policy. PMID:23336616

  10. Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions and Associated Driving Risk: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn C. Marshall; Malcolm Man-Son-Hing

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous medical conditions can affect one's ability to operate a motor vehicle. The likelihood of having multiple medical conditions increases with advancing age; however, the interplay of the associated impairments has not been previously addressed in the literature.Objective: To identify the incremental risks for the effects of multiple chronic medical conditions on driving ability and crash risk.Methods: A comprehensive

  11. Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Barry Issenberg; William C. Mcgaghie; Emil R. Petrusa; David Lee Gordon; Ross J. Scalese

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Review date: 1969 to 2003, 34 years. Background and context: Simulations are now in wide- spread use in medical education and medical personnel evaluation. Outcomes research on the use and effectiveness of simulation technology in medical education is scattered, inconsistent and varies widely in methodological rigor and substantive focus. Objectives: Review and synthesize existing evidence in educational science that

  12. Risk factors for incident delirium among older people in acute hospital medical units: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Suman; Leurent, Baptiste; Sampson, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: delirium affects up to 40% of older hospitalised patients, but there has been no systematic review focussing on risk factors for incident delirium in older medical inpatients. We aimed to synthesise data on risk factors for incident delirium and where possible conduct meta-analysis of these. Methods: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched (January 1987–August 2013). Studies were quality rated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We used the Mantel–Haenszel and inverse variance method to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) or mean difference for individual risk factors. Results: eleven articles met inclusion criteria and were included for review. Total study population 2338 (411 patients with delirium/1927 controls). The commonest factors significantly associated with delirium were dementia, older age, co-morbid illness, severity of medical illness, infection, ‘high-risk’ medication use, diminished activities of daily living, immobility, sensory impairment, urinary catheterisation, urea and electrolyte imbalance and malnutrition. In pooled analyses, dementia (OR 6.62; 95% CI (confidence interval) 4.30, 10.19), illness severity (APACHE II) (MD (mean difference) 3.91; 95% CI 2.22, 5.59), visual impairment (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.03, 3.47), urinary catheterisation (OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.26, 7.92), low albumin level (MD ?3.14; 95% CI ?5.99, ?0.29) and length of hospital stay (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.20, 7.50) were statistically significantly associated with delirium. Conclusion: we identified risk factors consistently associated with incident delirium following admission. These factors help to highlight older acute medical inpatients at risk of developing delirium during their hospital stay. PMID:24610863

  13. Effective interventions to improve medication adherence in Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joni L Strom; Walker, Rebekah J; Smalls, Brittany L; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim Medication adherence is associated with improved outcomes in diabetes. Interventions have been established to help improve medication adherence; however, the most effective interventions in patients with Type 2 diabetes remain unclear. The goal of this study was to distinguish whether interventions were effective and identify areas for future research. Methods Medline was searched for articles published between January 2000 and May 2013, and a reproducible strategy was used. Study eligibility criteria included interventions measuring medication adherence in adults with Type 2 diabetes. Results Twenty seven studies met the inclusion criteria and 13 showed a statistically significant change in medication adherence. Conclusion Heterogeneity of the study designs and measures of adherence made it difficult to identify effective interventions that improved medication adherence. Additionally, medication adherence may not be solely responsible for achieving glycemic control. Researchers must emphasize tailored interventions that optimize management and improve outcomes, and examine the need for clear indicators of medication adherence. PMID:25214893

  14. Assessment of depression in medical patients: A systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2013-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for detecting depression in medical settings, this article focuses on the revised version of the scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II), which was reformulated according to the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. We examined relevant investigations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II for measuring depression in medical settings to provide guidelines for practicing clinicians. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria seventy articles were retained. Validation studies of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, in both primary care and hospital settings, were found for clinics of cardiology, neurology, obstetrics, brain injury, nephrology, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, oncology, and infectious disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II showed high reliability and good correlation with measures of depression and anxiety. Its threshold for detecting depression varied according to the type of patients, suggesting the need for adjusted cut-off points. The somatic and cognitive-affective dimension described the latent structure of the instrument. The Beck Depression Inventory-II can be easily adapted in most clinical conditions for detecting major depression and recommending an appropriate intervention. Although this scale represents a sound path for detecting depression in patients with medical conditions, the clinician should seek evidence for how to interpret the score before using the Beck Depression Inventory-II to make clinical decisions. PMID:24141845

  15. A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Programs for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…

  16. Health economic evaluations of medical devices in the People’s Republic of China: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongrong; Modaresi, Farhang; Borisenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. Methods A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed. The search spanned the period from 1990 to 2013. Studies on health economic evaluations of medical devices, in-vitro diagnostics, procedures, and the use of medical devices in Chinese health care settings were included. Full-text articles and conference abstracts in English and Chinese were included. Results Fifty-seven publications were included, 26 (46%) of which were in English and 31 (54%) of which were in Chinese. The included publications covered a wide range of clinical areas, such as surgery (n=23, 40%), screening (n=9, 16%), imaging use (n=6, 11%), kidney intervention (n=4, 7%), and nine other technological areas. Most of the studies (n=31, 54%) were cost analyses. Among the others, 13 (50%) studies used modeling, and another 13 (50%) were within-trial evaluations. Among studies that used modeling, eleven (85%) conducted sensitivity analyses, six of which had one-way sensitivity analysis, whereas one conducted both one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses; four of these eleven modeling-based analyses included probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was reported in ten (18%) studies, eight of which were screening studies. The remaining two modeling studies were in areas of imaging and oncology. Conclusion This study indicates that there are major limitations and deficiencies in the health economic evaluations on medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. Further efforts are required from different stakeholders – academic, governmental, and privatized – to improve health economic research capacity and to put it to use when informative decisions are made in the health care setting. PMID:25914551

  17. Medical Utilization of Kiosks in the Delivery of Patient Education: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yvonne Chan, Yu-Feng; Nagurka, Roxanne; Bentley, Suzanne; Ordonez, Edgardo; Sproule, William

    2014-01-01

    Background: The utilization of kiosks has previously been shown to be effective for collecting information, delivering educational modules, and providing access to health information. We discuss a review of current literature for the utilization of kiosks for the delivery of patient education. Methods: The criteria for inclusion in this literature review were: (1) study discusses the utilization of kiosks for patient health education; (2) study discusses the use of touch screens for patient health information; (3) published in English. Our review includes searches via MEDLINE databases and Google Scholar for the years 1996-2014. Results: Overall, 167 articles were screened for final eligibility, and after discarding duplicates and non-eligible studies with abstract. Full-text review of 28 articles was included in the final analysis. Conclusion: The review of available literature demonstrates the effectiveness of touch screen kiosks to educate patients and to improve healthcare, both at a performance and cost advantage over other modes of patient education. PMID:25097831

  18. Comparison of methodological quality of positive versus negative comparative studies published in Indian medical journals: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Jaykaran; Chaudhari, Mayur; Jackson, Ryan; Mhaskar, Rahul; Reljic, Tea; Kumar, Ambuj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Published negative studies should have the same rigour of methodological quality as studies with positive findings. However, the methodological quality of negative versus positive studies is not known. The objective was to assess the reported methodological quality of positive versus negative studies published in Indian medical journals. Design A systematic review (SR) was performed of all comparative studies published in Indian medical journals with a clinical science focus and impact factor >1 between 2011 and 2013. The methodological quality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies. The results were considered positive if the primary outcome was statistically significant and negative otherwise. When the primary outcome was not specified, we used data on the first outcome reported in the history followed by the results section. Differences in various methodological quality domains between positive versus negative studies were assessed by Fisher's exact test. Results Seven journals with 259 comparative studies were included in this SR. 24% (63/259) were RCTs, 24% (63/259) cohort studies, and 49% (128/259) case–control studies. 53% (137/259) of studies explicitly reported the primary outcome. Five studies did not report sufficient data to enable us to determine if results were positive or negative. Statistical significance was determined by p value in 78.3% (199/254), CI in 2.8% (7/254), both p value and CI in 11.8% (30/254), and only descriptive in 6.3% (16/254) of studies. The overall methodological quality was poor and no statistically significant differences between reporting of methodological quality were detected between studies with positive versus negative findings. Conclusions There was no difference in the reported methodological quality of positive versus negative studies. However, the uneven reporting of positive versus negative studies (72% vs 28%) indicates a publication bias in Indian medical journals with an impact factor of >1. PMID:26109118

  19. Phenomena associated with sick leave among primary care patients with Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aamland, Aase; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore and synthesize the literature on phenomena associated with sick leave among patients with Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS). Design A systematic review of the literature was undertaken in three phases: (1) a search of the following databases: Medline, Embase, Psych Info, Cochrane Collaboration Library, Digital Dissertations, DiVA, SweMed +, NORART, and ISI Web of Science, (2) selection of studies based on pre-specified inclusion criteria was undertaken, extracting study design and results, (3) quality assessment was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Due to heterogeneity in study designs, populations, interventions, and outcome measures, a mixed research synthesis approach was used. Results were assessed in a pragmatic and descriptive way; textual and numerical data were extracted from the included studies, and classified into patient- and doctor-related factors. Results Sixteen studies were included. With regard to patients, an association was found between sick leave and psychiatric comorbidity as well as total symptom burden. With regard to doctors, knowledge of the patient, sympathy, and trust appeared to increase the probability of the patient being sick-listed. None of the interventions in the educational programmes aiming to improve doctors’ management of MUPS patients succeeded in lowering sick leave. Implications Despite MUPS being a leading cause of sickness absence, the review identified only a small number of studies concerning phenomena associated with sick leave. The authors did not identify any studies regarding the impact of the working conditions on sick leave among MUPS patients. This is an important area for further studies. PMID:22817103

  20. Outcome of adverse events and medical errors in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adil H; Giri, Jyothsna; Kashyap, Rahul; Singh, Balwinder; Dong, Yue; Kilickaya, Oguz; Erwin, Patricia J; Murad, M Hassan; Pickering, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Adverse events and medical errors (AEs/MEs) are more likely to occur in the intensive care unit (ICU). Information about the incidence and outcomes of such events is conflicting. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the effects of MEs/AEs on mortality and hospital and ICU lengths of stay among ICU patients. Potentially eligible studies were identified from 4 major databases. Of 902 studies screened, 12 met the inclusion criteria, 10 of which are included in the quantitative analysis. Patients with 1 or more MEs/AEs (vs no MEs/AEs) had a nonsignificant increase in mortality (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-2.14) but significantly longer hospital and ICU stays; the mean difference (95% CI) was 8.9 (3.3-14.7) days for hospital stay and 6.8 (0.2-13.4) days for ICU. The ICU environment is associated with a substantial incidence of MEs/AEs, and patients with MEs/AEs have worse outcomes than those with no MEs/AEs. PMID:24357344

  1. Cognition of and Demand for Education and Teaching in Medical Statistics in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gaoming; Yi, Dali; Wu, Xiaojiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Ling; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a substantial number of studies focus on the teaching and application of medical statistics in China, few studies comprehensively evaluate the recognition of and demand for medical statistics. In addition, the results of these various studies differ and are insufficiently comprehensive and systematic. Objectives This investigation aimed to evaluate the general cognition of and demand for medical statistics by undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff in China. Methods We performed a comprehensive database search related to the cognition of and demand for medical statistics from January 2007 to July 2014 and conducted a meta-analysis of non-controlled studies with sub-group analysis for undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff. Results There are substantial differences with respect to the cognition of theory in medical statistics among undergraduates (73.5%), graduates (60.7%), and medical staff (39.6%). The demand for theory in medical statistics is high among graduates (94.6%), undergraduates (86.1%), and medical staff (88.3%). Regarding specific statistical methods, the cognition of basic statistical methods is higher than of advanced statistical methods. The demand for certain advanced statistical methods, including (but not limited to) multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple linear regression, and logistic regression, is higher than that for basic statistical methods. The use rates of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and statistical analysis software (SAS) are only 55% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion The overall statistical competence of undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff is insufficient, and their ability to practically apply their statistical knowledge is limited, which constitutes an unsatisfactory state of affairs for medical statistics education. Because the demand for skills in this area is increasing, the need to reform medical statistics education in China has become urgent. PMID:26053876

  2. A Systematic Review of Cochrane Anticoagulation Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Cundiff, David Keith

    2009-01-01

    Context I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered appreciably during the review process. Consequently, I decided to critique all anticoagulation drug-related reviews and protocols in the Cochrane database with feedback letters concerning any issues of potential controversy. Evidence Acquisition Using key words in the search engine of the Cochrane Reviews, I located reviews and protocols involving anticoagulant drugs. I critiqued each anticoagulation review and protocol and sent a total of 57 feedback letters to Cochrane concerning each publication to elicit a response/rebuttal from the authors. Evidence Synthesis Cochrane anticoagulation review editors acknowledged receipt of all letters. As of 12 months after receipt of my last letter, the Cochrane authors have replied to 13 of the 57 and agreed with many of my points. Two protocols were withdrawn after my feedback letters were acknowledged. The 58 Cochrane anticoagulation drug reviews, including mine, contained 9 categories of methodological errors (207 total instances) and 4 types of biases (18 total instances). This review of those Cochrane reviews suggests that the effectiveness of anticoagulants for 30 medical indications is questionable. Conclusions The efficacy of anticoagulants for treatment and prophylaxis for 30 current medical indications should be reconsidered by the scientific community and medical regulatory agencies. At least 50,000 people per year worldwide have fatal bleeding due to anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis for these indications. PMID:19295926

  3. Preconception Care: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol C. Korenbrot; Alycia Steinberg; Catherine Bender; Sydne Newberry

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a systematic review of published research trials of preconception care services to determine what evidence for effectiveness of care at improving the course of pregnancy or its outcomes has accumulated since the last major review in 1990. Methods: The review was conducted adapting the systematic methods developed by the Cochrane Collaboration to collect evidence from published clinical

  4. Factors influencing the effectiveness of multisource feedback in improving the professional practice of medical doctors: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multisource feedback (MSF) is currently being introduced in the UK as part of a cycle of performance review for doctors. However, although it is suggested that the provision of feedback can lead to a positive change in performance and learning for medical professionals, the evidence supporting these assumptions is unclear. The aim of this review, therefore, was to identify the key factors that influence the effectiveness of multisource feedback in improving the professional practice of medical doctors. Method Relevant electronic bibliographic databases were searched for studies that aimed to assess the impact of MSF on professional practice. Two reviewers independently selected and quality assessed the studies and abstracted data regarding study design, setting, MSF instrument, behaviour changes identified and influencing factors using a standard data extraction form. Results A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria and quality assessment criteria. While seven studies reported only a general change in professional practice, a further seven studies identified specific changes in behaviour. The main professional behaviours that were found to be influenced by the feedback were communication, both with colleagues and patients and an improvement in clinical competence/skills. The main factors found to influence the acceptance and use of MSF were the format of the feedback, specifically in terms of whether it was facilitated, or if narrative comments were included in the review, and if the feedback was from sources that the physician believed to be knowledgeable and credible. Conclusions While there is limited evidence suggesting that MSF can influence professional performance, the quality of this evidence is variable. Further research is necessary to establish how this type of feedback actually influences behaviours and what factors have greatest influence. PMID:24725268

  5. A systematic view on medical informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hasman; R. Haux; A. Albert

    1996-01-01

    Medical informatics is defined as the scientific discipline concerned with the systematic processing of data, information and knowledge in medicine and health care. The domain of medical informatics (including health informatics), its aim, methods and tools, and its relevance to other disciplines in medicine and health sciences are outlined. It is recognized that one of the major tasks of medical

  6. Informing web-based communication curricula in veterinary education: a systematic review of web-based methods used for teaching and assessing clinical communication in medical education.

    PubMed

    Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview. PMID:24418922

  7. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt for medically refractory hepatic hydrothorax: A systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ditah, Ivo C; Al Bawardy, Badr F; Saberi, Behnam; Ditah, Chobufo; Kamath, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) in refractory hepatic hydrothorax (RHH) in a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed covering the period from January 1970 to August 2014. Two authors independently selected and abstracted data from eligible studies. Data were summarized using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. RESULTS: Six studies involving a total of 198 patients were included in the analysis. The mean (SD) age of patients was 56 (1.8) years. Most patients (56.9%) had Child-Turcott-Pugh class C disease. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 mo (range, 5.7-16 mo). Response to TIPSS was complete in 55.8% (95%CI: 44.7%-66.9%), partial in 17.6% (95%CI: 10.9%-24.2%), and absent in 21.2% (95%CI: 14.2%-28.3%). The mean change in hepatic venous pressure gradient post-TIPSS was 12.7 mmHg. The incidence of TIPSS-related encephalopathy was 11.7% (95%CI: 6.3%-17.2%), and the 45-d mortality was 17.7% (95%CI: 11.34%-24.13%). CONCLUSION: TIPSS is associated with a clinically relevant response in RHH. TIPSS should be considered early in these patients, given its poor prognosis. PMID:26167253

  8. A Systematic Review of Interventions Addressing Adherence to Anti-Diabetic Medications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes—Components of Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Sujata; Brien, Jo-anne E.; Greenfield, Jerry R.; Aslani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to anti-diabetic medications contributes to suboptimal glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A range of interventions have been developed to promote anti-diabetic medication adherence. However, there has been very little focus on the characteristics of these interventions and how effectively they address factors that predict non-adherence. In this systematic review we assessed the characteristics of interventions that aimed to promote adherence to anti-diabetic medications. Method Using appropriate search terms in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), PUBmed, and PsychINFO (years 2000–2013), we identified 52 studies which met the inclusion criteria. Results Forty-nine studies consisted of patient-level interventions, two provider-level interventions, and one consisted of both. Interventions were classified as educational (n = 7), behavioural (n = 3), affective, economic (n = 3) or multifaceted (a combination of the above; n = 40). One study consisted of two interventions. The review found that multifaceted interventions, addressing several non-adherence factors, were comparatively more effective in improving medication adherence and glycaemic target in patients with T2D than single strategies. However, interventions with similar components and those addressing similar non-adherence factors demonstrated mixed results, making it difficult to conclude on effective intervention strategies to promote adherence. Educational strategies have remained the most popular intervention strategy, followed by behavioural, with affective components becoming more common in recent years. Most of the interventions addressed patient-related (n = 35), condition-related (n = 31), and therapy-related (n = 20) factors as defined by the World Health Organization, while fewer addressed health care system (n = 5) and socio-economic-related factors (n = 13). Conclusion There is a noticeable shift in the literature from using single to multifaceted intervention strategies addressing a range of factors impacting adherence to medications. However, research limitations, such as limited use of standardized methods and tools to measure adherence, lack of individually tailored adherence promoting strategies and variability in the interventions developed, reduce the ability to generalize the findings of the studies reviewed. Furthermore, this review highlights the need to develop multifaceted interventions which can be tailored to the individual patient’s needs over the duration of their diabetes management. PMID:26053004

  9. A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally occurring canine leishmaniosis. Part II: topically applied insecticide treatments and prophylactic medications.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of topically applied insecticide treatments of dogs (impregnated collars, spot-ons), and prophylactic medications to prevent natural Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated preventive efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search yielded 937 articles, from which 84 full text articles were selected for second stage screening. Eleven eligible studies were included; four on collars (two RCTs), three on spot-ons (two RCTs - one looking at two different dosing regimens), three on prophylactic medications (all RCTs) and one on both collars and spot-ons summarised in this paper. All of the studies were considered to be at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, with the exception of one spot-on study which was considered to be at an unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Deltamethrin collars, 65% permethrin, 10% imidacloprid with 50% permethrin spot-ons and domperidone prophylactic medication tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. PMID:25062787

  10. Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System versus Medical Therapy for Menorrhagia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jin; Cheng, Jiajing; Wang, Qingying; Hua, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with conventional medical treatment in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding. Material/Methods Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinical trials registries (from inception to April 2014). Randomized controlled trials comparing the LNG-IUS with conventional medical treatment (mefenamic acid, tranexamic acid, norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, or combined oral contraceptive pills) in patients with menorrhagia were included. Results Eight randomized controlled trials that included 1170 women (LNG-IUS, n=562; conventional medical treatment, n=608) met inclusion criteria. The LNG-IUS was superior to conventional medical treatment in reducing menstrual blood loss (as measured by the alkaline hematin method or estimated by pictorial bleeding assessment chart scores). More women were satisfied with the LNG-IUS than with the use of conventional medical treatment (odds ratio [OR] 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.73–9.86). Compared with conventional medical treatment, the LNG-IUS was associated with a lower rate of discontinuation (14.6% vs. 28.9%, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20–0.74) and fewer treatment failures (9.2% vs. 31.0%, OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.34). Furthermore, quality of life assessment favored LNG-IUS over conventional medical treatment, although use of various measurements limited our ability to pool the data for more powerful evidence. Serious adverse events were statistically comparable between treatments. Conclusions The LNG-IUS was the more effective first choice for management of menorrhagia compared with conventional medical treatment. Long-term, randomized trials are required to further investigate patient-based outcomes and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the LNG-IUS and other medical treatments. PMID:25245843

  11. Mobile Text Messaging for Health: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  12. Mobile text messaging for health: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-03-18

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  13. Application of systematic review methodology to the field of nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach of synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas and formulate scientific consensus state...

  14. Medical therapy of stricturing Crohn’s disease: what the gut can learn from other organs - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic remitting and relapsing disease. Fibrostenosing complications such as intestinal strictures, stenosis and ultimately obstruction are some of its most common long-term complications. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding of CD and a significant improvement of anti-inflammatory therapeutics, medical therapy for stricturing CD is still inadequate. No specific anti-fibrotic therapy exists and the incidence rate of strictures has essentially remained unchanged. Therefore, the current therapy of established fibrotic strictures comprises mainly endoscopic dilation as well as surgical approaches. However, these treatment options are associated with major complications as well as high recurrence rates. Thus, a specific anti-fibrotic therapy for CD is urgently needed. Importantly, there is now a growing body of evidence for prevention as well as effective medical treatment of fibrotic diseases of other organs such as the skin, lung, kidney and liver. In face of the similarity of molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis across these organs, translation of therapeutic approaches from other fibrotic diseases to the intestine appears to be a promising treatment strategy. In particular transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) neutralization, selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors, blockade of components of the renin-angiotensin system, IL-13 inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have emerged as potential drug candidates for anti-fibrotic therapy and may retard progression or even reverse established intestinal fibrosis. However, major challenges have to be overcome in the translation of novel anti-fibrotics into intestinal fibrosis therapy, such as the development of appropriate biomarkers that predict the development and accurately monitor therapeutic responses. Future clinical studies are a prerequisite to evaluate the optimal timing for anti-fibrotic treatment approaches, to elucidate the best routes of application, and to evaluate the potential of drug candidates to reach the ultimate goal: the prevention or reversal of established fibrosis and strictures in CD patients. PMID:24678903

  15. A Systematic Review of Interventions Addressing Adherence to Anti-Diabetic Medications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes—Impact on Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Sujata; Brien, Jo-anne; Greenfield, Jerry; Aslani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Medications are a recommended strategy to control hyperglycaemia. However, patient adherence can be variable, impacting health outcomes. A range of interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes have focused on improving treatment adherence. This review evaluates the impact of these interventions on adherence to anti-diabetic medications and focuses on the methods and tools used to measure adherence. Method Medline, Embase, CINAHL, IPA, PUBmed, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles published in 2000–2013, using appropriate search terms. Results Fifty two studies addressing adherence to anti-diabetic medications in patients with type 2 diabetes met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Each study was assessed for research design, method(s) used for measuring medication adherence, and impact of intervention on medication adherence and glycaemic control. Fourteen studies were published in 2000–2009 and 38 in 2010–2013. Twenty two interventions led to improvements in adherence to anti-diabetic medications, while only nine improved both medication adherence and glycaemic control. A single strategy could not be identified which would be guaranteed to improve anti-diabetic medication adherence consistently. Nonetheless, most interventions were successful in influencing one or more of the outcomes assessed, indicating the usefulness of these interventions under certain circumstances. Self-report, particularly the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire was the most commonly used tool to assess medication adherence, although other self-report tools were used in more recent studies. Overall, there was a slight increase in the number of studies that employed multiple methods to assess medication adherence in studies conducted after 2008. Conclusion The diversity of interventions and adherence measurements prevented a meta-analysis of the impact of interventions on adherence to therapy, highlighting the need for more consistency in methods in the area of adherence research. Whilst effective interventions were identified, it is not possible to conclude on an effective intervention that can be generalised to all patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25710465

  16. Emergency cricothyrotomy – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An emergency cricothyrotomy is the last-resort in most airway management protocols and is performed when it is not possible to intubate or ventilate a patient. This situation can rapidly prove fatal, making it important to identify the best method to establish a secure airway. We conducted a systematic review to identify whether there exists superiority between available commercial kits versus traditional surgical and needle techniques. Methods Medline, EMBASE and other databases were searched for pertinent studies. The inclusion criteria included manikin, animal and human studies and there were no restrictions regarding the professional background of the person performing the procedure. Results In total, 1,405 unique references were identified; 108 full text articles were retrieved; and 24 studies were included in the review. Studies comparing kits with one another or with various surgical and needle techniques were identified. The outcome measures included in this systematic review were success rate and time consumption. The investigators performing the studies had chosen unique combinations of starting and stopping points for time measurements, making comparisons between studies difficult and leading to many conflicting results. No single method was shown to be better than the others, but the size of the studies makes it impossible to draw firm conclusions. Conclusions The large majority of the studies were too small to demonstrate statistically significant differences, and the limited available evidence was of low or very low quality. That none of the techniques in these studies demonstrated better results than the others does not necessarily indicate that each is equally good, and these conclusions will likely change as new evidence becomes available. PMID:23725520

  17. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  18. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  19. Update in pediatric anaphylaxis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chipps, Bradley E

    2013-05-01

    Anaphylaxis is common in children and has many differences across age groups. A systematic review of the literature from the past 5 years was conducted with the goal of updating the pediatrician. Food is the most common trigger in children, but insect venom and drugs are other typical causes. Clinical diagnostic criteria include dermatological, respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal manifestations. A biphasic reaction is seen in some, with recurrence usually within 8 hours of the initial episode. Epinephrine is the drug of choice for acute reactions and the only medication shown to be lifesaving when administered promptly, but it is underutilized. Patients should have ready access to ?2 doses of an epinephrine autoinjector, with thorough training regarding correct use of a given device and an emergency action plan. Management of anaphylaxis in schools presents distinct challenges. Pediatricians are in a unique position to assess and treat these patients chronically. PMID:23393309

  20. Patient Outcomes with Teaching Versus Nonteaching Healthcare: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis N. Papanikolaou; Georgia D. Christidi; John P. A. Ioannidis

    2006-01-01

    Background Extensive debate exists in the healthcare community over whether outcomes of medical care at teaching hospitals and other healthcare units are better or worse than those at the respective nonteaching ones. Thus, our goal was to systematically evaluate the evidence pertaining to this question. Methods and Findings We reviewed all studies that compared teaching versus nonteaching healthcare structures for

  1. Optimizing Feature Representation for Automated Systematic Review Work Prioritization

    E-print Network

    Matwin, Stan

    component in the practice of Evidence-based Medicine (EBM), providing recommendations for medical treatment for enhancing the efficiency of creating and updating systematic reviews (SRs) for evidence- based medicine. One, diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology based on the best available biomedical evidence. Because new information

  2. Kombucha: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ernst

    2003-01-01

    SummaryAim: Kombucha has become a popular complementary remedy. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence related to its efficacy and safety. Methods: Computerised literature searches were carried out to locate all human medical investigations of kombucha regardless of study design. Data were extracted and validated by the present author and are reported in narrative form.

  3. The Relations between Perfectionism and Suicidality: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rory C.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, there has been a 300 percent increase in the number of published papers on perfectionism. Given the inconsistent findings in the literature, this systematic review examines, for the first time, the nature of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidality. To this end, the three main psychological and medical databases…

  4. Systematic reviews, systematic error and the acquisition of clinical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since its inception, evidence-based medicine and its application through systematic reviews, has been widely accepted. However, it has also been strongly criticised and resisted by some academic groups and clinicians. One of the main criticisms of evidence-based medicine is that it appears to claim to have unique access to absolute scientific truth and thus devalues and replaces other types of knowledge sources. Discussion The various types of clinical knowledge sources are categorised on the basis of Kant's categories of knowledge acquisition, as being either 'analytic' or 'synthetic'. It is shown that these categories do not act in opposition but rather, depend upon each other. The unity of analysis and synthesis in knowledge acquisition is demonstrated during the process of systematic reviewing of clinical trials. Systematic reviews constitute comprehensive synthesis of clinical knowledge but depend upon plausible, analytical hypothesis development for the trials reviewed. The dangers of systematic error regarding the internal validity of acquired knowledge are highlighted on the basis of empirical evidence. It has been shown that the systematic review process reduces systematic error, thus ensuring high internal validity. It is argued that this process does not exclude other types of knowledge sources. Instead, amongst these other types it functions as an integrated element during the acquisition of clinical knowledge. Conclusions The acquisition of clinical knowledge is based on interaction between analysis and synthesis. Systematic reviews provide the highest form of synthetic knowledge acquisition in terms of achieving internal validity of results. In that capacity it informs the analytic knowledge of the clinician but does not replace it. PMID:20537172

  5. A Systematic Review Process for Software Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Mian; Tayana Conte; Ana Natali; Jorge Biolchini; Guilherme Travassos

    Usually researches start with their research work accomplishing a literature review of some sort. However, unless the review is true, far and repeatable, it is of little scientific value. In this sense, a systematic literature reviews aim at providing the means for carrying out literature reviews that are thorough and unbiased, such that produces scientific value results. This paper describes

  6. Bee venom acupuncture for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Son, Mi Ju; Choi, Jiae; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This systematic review aims to analyse the trial data on the effects of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods and analysis The following 14 databases will be searched from their inception to March 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), AMED, CINAHL, six Korean medical databases (OASIS, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, Korean Studies Information Service System, KoreaMed, Korean Medical Database and DBPIA) and three Chinese databases including CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang and VIP. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013005853 PMID:24760349

  7. How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Bee; Hadley, Gina; Derry, Sheena

    2008-01-01

    Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews in palliative care are well performed, but fail to provide good evidence for clinical practice because the primary studies are few in number, small, clinically heterogeneous, and of poor quality and external validity. They are useful in highlighting the weakness of the evidence base and problems in performing trials in palliative care. PMID:18715496

  8. Career Choice in Academic Medicine: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. DESIGN A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. DATA SOURCES Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. SELECTION OF STUDIES We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. RESULTS The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency. CONCLUSIONS In order to revitalize academic medicine, we must engage trainees and retain their interest throughout their training. Research opportunities for medical students, and fellowships or graduate training can meet this challenge and influence career choice. Initiatives to stimulate and maintain interest in academic medicine should be evaluated in prospective studies across multiple sites. PMID:17105520

  9. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  10. DEBATE Open Access Medical record: systematic centralization versus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DEBATE Open Access Medical record: systematic centralization versus secure on demand aggregation histories scattered among various medical records hosted in several health-care establishments, the purpose by standardizing and centralizing all the information about every patient in a single Medical Record system

  11. Treatment options in painful chronic pancreatitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    D'Haese, Jan G; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Tieftrunk, Elke; Friess, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Background Longlasting and unbearable pain is the most common and striking symptom of chronic pancreatitis. Accordingly, pain relief and improvement in patients' quality of life are the primary goals in the treatment of this disease. This systematic review aims to summarize the available data on treatment options. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library was performed according to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Reference lists were then hand-searched for additional relevant titles. The results obtained were examined individually by two independent investigators for further selection and data extraction. Results A total of 416 abstracts were reviewed, of which 367 were excluded because they were obviously irrelevant or represented overlapping studies. Consequently, 49 full-text articles were systematically reviewed. Conclusions First-line medical options include the provision of pain medication, adjunctive agents and pancreatic enzymes, and abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. If medical treatment fails, endoscopic treatment offers pain relief in the majority of patients in the short term. However, current data suggest that surgical treatment seems to be superior to endoscopic intervention because it is significantly more effective and, especially, lasts longer. PMID:24033614

  12. Running Head: TRANSITION PLANNING SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Cobb; Morgen Alwell

    Abstract The relationship between transition planning\\/coordinating interventions and transition outcomes for secondary aged youth with disabilities was explored in this systematic review. A total of 31 studies intervening with 859 youth with a wide variety of disabilities were reviewed. Using the transition intervention framework,of Kohler and Field (2003) the findings of this review support the efficacy of student focused planning

  13. Systematic reviews, systematic error and the acquisition of clinical knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since its inception, evidence-based medicine and its application through systematic reviews, has been widely accepted. However, it has also been strongly criticised and resisted by some academic groups and clinicians. One of the main criticisms of evidence-based medicine is that it appears to claim to have unique access to absolute scientific truth and thus devalues and replaces other types

  14. Guidelines for performing Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering

    E-print Network

    Guidelines for performing Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering Version 2.3 EBSE. Systematic Literature Reviews ..............................................................................3 2.1 Reasons for Performing Systematic Literature Reviews ...............................3 2

  15. Systematic reviews in the field of nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...

  16. A systematic method for search term selection in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a solution to this problem as they aim to synthesize all current information on a particular topic and present a balanced and unbiased summary of the findings. They are fast becoming an important method of research across a number of fields, yet only a small number of guidelines exist on how to define and select terms for a systematic search. This article presents a replicable method for selecting terms in a systematic search using the semantic concept recognition software called leximancer (Leximancer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). We use this software to construct a set of terms from a corpus of literature pertaining to transborder interventions for drug control and discuss the applicability of this method to systematic reviews in general. This method aims to contribute a more 'systematic' approach for selecting terms in a manner that is entirely replicable for any user. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26052649

  17. A review on systematic reviews of health information system studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Price, Morgan; Gardner, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994–2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy. PMID:20962125

  18. Contribution of systematic reviews to management decisions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. PMID:24001025

  19. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  20. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  1. Interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Thompson; Carole A Estabrooks; Shannon Scott-Findlay; Katherine Moore; Lars Wallin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. OBJECTIVE: To

  2. Patient Outcomes with Teaching Versus Nonteaching Healthcare: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis N Papanikolaou; Georgia D Christidi; John P. A Ioannidis

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundExtensive debate exists in the healthcare community over whether outcomes of medical care at teaching hospitals and other healthcare units are better or worse than those at the respective nonteaching ones. Thus, our goal was to systematically evaluate the evidence pertaining to this question.Methods and FindingsWe reviewed all studies that compared teaching versus nonteaching healthcare structures for mortality or any

  3. Dental insurance: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Garla, Bharath Kumar; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    To review uses of finance in dentistry. A search of 25 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Insurance has come of ages and has become the mainstay of payment in many developed countries. So much so that all the alternative forms of payment which originated as an alternative to fee for service now depend on insurance at one point or the other. Fee for service is still the major form of payment in many developing countries including India. It is preferred in many instances since the payment is made immediately. PMID:25558454

  4. [Medical image compression: a review].

    PubMed

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings. PMID:23715317

  5. Short implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, I.; Desai, Shrikar R.; Singh, Rika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ?10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ?7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ?7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was conducted to identify studies concerning short dental implants of length ?7 mm published between 1991 and 2011. The articles included in this study report data on implant length ?7 mm, such as demographic variables, implant type, location in jaws, observation time, prostheses and complications. Results: The 28 included studies represent one randomized controlled trial, 12 prospective studies and 10 retrospective studies. The survival rate of short implant was found to be increased from 80% to 90% gradually, with recent articles showing 100%. Conclusion: When severe atrophy of jaws was encountered, short and wide implants can be placed successfully. PMID:23162320

  6. Educational interventions to improve prescribing competency: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Gritta; Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on educational interventions to improve prescribing and identify educational methods that improve prescribing competency in both medical and non-medical prescribers. Design A systematic review was conducted. The databases Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for articles in English published between January 1990 and July 2013. Setting Primary and secondary care. Participants Medical and non-medical prescribers. Intervention Education-based interventions to aid improvement in prescribing competency. Primary outcome Improvements in prescribing competency (knows how) or performance (shows how) as defined by Miller's competency model. This was primarily demonstrated through prescribing examinations, changes in prescribing habits or adherence to guidelines. Results A total of 47 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Studies were categorised by their method of assessment, with 20 studies assessing prescribing competence and 27 assessing prescribing performance. A wide variety of educational interventions were employed, with different outcome measures and methods of assessments. In particular, six studies demonstrated that specific prescribing training using the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing increased prescribing competency in a wide variety of settings. Continuing medical education in the form of academic detailing and personalised prescriber feedback also yielded positive results. Only four studies evaluated educational interventions targeted at non-medical prescribers, highlighting that further research is needed in this area. Conclusions A broad range of educational interventions have been conducted to improve prescribing competency. The WHO Guide to Good Prescribing has the largest body of evidence to support its use and is a promising model for the design of targeted prescribing courses. There is a need for further development and evaluation of educational methods for non-medical prescribers. PMID:23996821

  7. Medical health physics: a review.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard J

    2005-06-01

    Medical health physics is the profession dedicated to the protection of healthcare providers, members of the public, and patients from unwarranted radiation exposure. Medical health physicists must be knowledgeable in the principles of health physics and in the applications of radiation in medicine. Advances in medical health physics require the definition of problems, testing of hypotheses, and gathering of evidence to defend changes in health physics practice and to assist medical practitioners in making changes in their practices as appropriate. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples included in this review include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This review summarizes evidence that supports changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. Medical health physicists must continue to gather evidence to support intelligent but practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients as modalities and applications evolve in the practice of medicine. PMID:15891459

  8. Medical health physics: a review.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard J

    2004-05-01

    Medical health physics is the profession dedicated to the protection of healthcare providers, members of the public, and patients from unwarranted radiation exposure. Medical health physicists must be knowledgeable in the principles of health physics and in the applications of radiation in medicine. Advances in medical health physics require the definition of problems, testing of hypotheses, and gathering of evidence to defend changes in health physics practice and to assist medical practitioners in making changes in their practices as appropriate. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples included in this review include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This review summarizes evidence that supports changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. Medical health physicists must continue to gather evidence to support intelligent but practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients as modalities and applications evolve in the practice of medicine. PMID:15083140

  9. A Systematic Review of Business Incubation Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Hackett; David M. Dilts

    2004-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the literature on business incubators and business incubation. Focusing on the primary research orientations—i.e. studies centering on incubator development, incubator configurations, incubatee development, incubator-incubation impacts, and theorizing about incubators-incubation—problems with extant research are analyzed and opportunities for future research are identified. From our review, it is clear that research has just begun to scratch the surface

  10. Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging imaging modality for medical applications, especially in disease diagnosis and image-guided surgery. HSI acquires a three-dimensional dataset called hypercube, with two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension. Spatially resolved spectral imaging obtained by HSI provides diagnostic information about the tissue physiology, morphology, and composition. This review paper presents an overview of the literature on medical hyperspectral imaging technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. PMID:24441941

  11. Local treatments for cutaneous warts: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam Gibbs; Ian Harvey; Jane Sterling; Rosemary Stark

    Objective To assess the evidence for the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous warts. Methods Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Main outcomes measures Total clearance of warts and adverse effects such as irritation, pain, and blistering. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of any local treatment for uncomplicated cutaneous warts. All published and unpublished material was considered, with no restriction

  12. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of

    E-print Network

    Connor, Ed

    (Kang et al., 2012). The main objective of this Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project was to compare and the highest quality of care. Methods Utilizing the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) modelAn Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Efficacious Interventions for the Management of Delirium

  13. Vasectomy surgical techniques: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Labrecque; Caroline Dufresne; Mark A Barone; Karine St-Hilaire

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A wide variety of surgical techniques are used to perform vasectomy. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess if any surgical techniques to isolate or occlude the vas are associated with better outcomes in terms of occlusive and contraceptive effectiveness, and complications. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1966-June 2003), EMBASE (1980-June 2003), reference lists of retrieved articles, urology

  14. Systematic synthesis of sustainable biorefineries: A review

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    on the actual sustainability of the production process of biofuels mainly due to the consumption of energy1 Systematic synthesis of sustainable biorefineries: A review Mariano Martína,b , Ignacio E b Department of Chemical Engineering. Carnegie Mellon University. Pittsburgh PA. 15213 Abstract

  15. Health sector accreditation research: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID GREENFIELD; JEFFREY BRAITHWAITE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze research into accreditation and accreditation processes. Data sources. A multi-method, systematic review of the accreditation literature was conducted from March to May 2007. The search identified articles researching accreditation. Discussion or commentary pieces were excluded. Study selection. From the initial identification of over 3000 abstracts, 66 studies that met

  16. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lale Say; Allan Donner; A Metin Gülmezoglu; Monica Taljaard; Gilda Piaggio

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of

  17. DOD MEDICAL EXAMINATION REVIEW BOARD (DODMERB) REPORT OF MEDICAL HISTORY

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    DOD MEDICAL EXAMINATION REVIEW BOARD (DODMERB) REPORT OF MEDICAL HISTORY (This information is for official and medically confidential use only and will not be released to unauthorized persons.) SECTION I in the REMARKS section. Mark and explain each item to the best of your ability. Be perfectly honest! Your medical

  18. Family-based interventions for substance misuse: a systematic review of systematic reviews—protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, there are an estimated 15 million individuals with drug use disorders and over five times as many with alcohol use disorders (WHO 1:2, 2005). Most individuals with substance misuse have families who are affected. Initial scoping searches identified an expanse of broad and disparate studies and reviews on the family interventions for substance misuse. This systematic review of systematic reviews aims to bring together the expanse of research on the effectiveness of family-based interventions in substance misuse. Initial scoping searches identified an expanse of broad and disparate studies and reviews on the family interventions for substance misuse. This systematic review of systematic reviews aims to bring together the expanse of research on the effectiveness of family-based interventions in substance misuse. Methods Extensive electronic and manual searches will be undertaken. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment will be undertaken by two reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. The inclusion criteria will be that the study is a systematically undertaken review, the population is individuals with substance misuse problems and the interventions include a family-focused component. Reviews that focus on prevention rather than treatment will be excluded. The reviews will be assessed for quality and relevance. The evidence from included systematic reviews will be mapped by focus of intervention (promoting engagement of user into treatment/joint involvement in treatment of user/treating family member in own right) for both adults and adolescents for drug and/or alcohol misusers to allow assessment of the density of available evidence. The higher-quality, up-to-date evidence for each domain will be identified and described, and conclusions will be drawn with limitations of the evidence highlighted. Discussion This systematic review of systematic reviews will be an efficient and robust way of looking at the current state of the evidence in the field of family-based interventions for substance misuse. It will evaluate all the available systematic-review-level literature to report on the effectiveness of family-based psychological interventions in improving substance-related outcomes and improving health and wellbeing of substance misusers and/or their families. This will inform future treatment policies and commissioning decisions. In addition, it will identify areas of poor quality, inconsistency and gaps in the evidence base for family-based psychological interventions in substance misuse with respect to secondary evidence in order to inform future research. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014006834 PMID:25128186

  19. Psychological profile of sasang typology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chae, Han; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-Geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu

    2009-09-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition. PMID:19745008

  20. Psychological Profile of Sasang Typology: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition. PMID:19745008

  1. Fungal Periprosthetic Joint Infection of the Hip: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schoof, Benjamin; Jakobs, Oliver; Schmidl, Stefan; Klatte, Till Orla; Frommelt, Lars; Gehrke, Thorsten; Gebauer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature concerning fungal PJI in total hip arthroplasty, including 45 cases of fungal PJI. At the moment a two-stage revision procedure is favorable and there is an ongoing discussion on the therapeutic effect of antifungal drug loaded cement spacers on fungal periprosthetic infections of the hip. Due to the fact that there is rare experience with it, there is urgent need to establish guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections of total hip arthroplasty. PMID:25874063

  2. Public health interventions in midwifery: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice. PMID:23134701

  3. Open-source point-of-care electronic medical records for use in resource-limited settings: systematic review and questionnaire surveys

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Juan; Berger, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Background Point-of-care electronic medical records (EMRs) are a key tool to manage chronic illness. Several EMRs have been developed for use in treating HIV and tuberculosis, but their applicability to primary care, technical requirements and clinical functionalities are largely unknown. Objectives This study aimed to address the needs of clinicians from resource-limited settings without reliable internet access who are considering adopting an open-source EMR. Study eligibility criteria Open-source point-of-care EMRs suitable for use in areas without reliable internet access. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The authors conducted a comprehensive search of all open-source EMRs suitable for sites without reliable internet access. The authors surveyed clinician users and technical implementers from a single site and technical developers of each software product. The authors evaluated availability, cost and technical requirements. Results The hardware and software for all six systems is easily available, but they vary considerably in proprietary components, installation requirements and customisability. Limitations This study relied solely on self-report from informants who developed and who actively use the included products. Conclusions and implications of key findings Clinical functionalities vary greatly among the systems, and none of the systems yet meet minimum requirements for effective implementation in a primary care resource-limited setting. The safe prescribing of medications is a particular concern with current tools. The dearth of fully functional EMR systems indicates a need for a greater emphasis by global funding agencies to move beyond disease-specific EMR systems and develop a universal open-source health informatics platform. PMID:22763661

  4. The effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravana; Beaton, Kate; Hughes, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The last decade has seen a growth in the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and one of the most popular and sought-after complementary and alternative medicine therapies for nonspecific low back pain is massage. Massage may often be perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risks or side effects. However, despite its popularity, there continues to be ongoing debate on the effectiveness of massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. With a rapidly evolving research evidence base and access to innovative means of synthesizing evidence, it is time to reinvestigate this issue. Methods A systematic, step-by-step approach, underpinned by best practice in reviewing the literature, was utilized as part of the methodology of this umbrella review. A systematic search was conducted in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, AMED, ICONDA, Academic Search Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, CINAHL, HealthSource, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, investigating systematic reviews and meta-analyses from January 2000 to December 2012, and restricted to English-language documents. Methodological quality of included reviews was undertaken using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine critical appraisal tool. Results Nine systematic reviews were found. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews varied (from poor to excellent) although, overall, the primary research informing these systematic reviews was generally considered to be weak quality. The findings indicate that massage may be an effective treatment option when compared to placebo and some active treatment options (such as relaxation), especially in the short term. There is conflicting and contradictory findings for the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain when compared against other manual therapies (such as mobilization), standard medical care, and acupuncture. Conclusion There is an emerging body of evidence, albeit small, that supports the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of non-specific low back pain in the short term. Due to common methodological flaws in the primary research, which informed the systematic reviews, recommendations arising from this evidence base should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24043951

  5. Female sexual abusers' cognition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; Alleyne, Emma K A

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sexual offending literature focused on male perpetrators and neglected to examine the characteristics of female perpetrators. As a result, treatment provision for female sexual abusers has been either nonexistent or inappropriately adapted from programs designed for males. What we do know is that male and female sexual abusers share similarities; however, there remain distinct differences that warrant empirical and theoretical study. The current review systematically examines the literature on offense-supportive cognition in female sexual abusers. The aim of this systematic review is to aid clinical practitioners who work with female sexual abusers by providing an evaluation of current available research regarding implicit theories, rape myth acceptance, violence-supportive cognition, gender stereotypes, beliefs about sex, and empathy. We conclude that further research examining the offense-supportive cognition of female sexual abusers is needed in order to facilitate more effective empirically driven clinical practice. PMID:23093577

  6. Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care interventions. PMID:24416098

  7. Coping in sport: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam R. Nicholls; Remco C. J. Polman

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 – 2004). The results

  8. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarabelle T. Pham; Caryn L. Perera; D. Scott Watkin; Guy J. Maddern

    2009-01-01

    Background  Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair may be an alternative to open mesh repair as it avoids a large abdominal incision, and\\u000a thus potentially reduces pain and hospital stay. This review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic ventral\\u000a hernia repair in comparison with open ventral hernia repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A systematic review was conducted, with comprehensive searches identifying six randomised controlled

  9. Methodological challenges when performing a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nina Kay; Jayaratne, Yasas S N

    2015-06-01

    Well-conducted systematic reviews can provide a foundation upon which to base educational curricula, practice guidelines and healthcare policy. We aim to provide an overview of important methodological issues that need to be addressed during the five phases of performing a systematic review. 1. The specific problems to be addressed by the systematic review need to be formulated as clear, unambiguous and structured question/s. 2. Literature from multiple resources should be searched to avoid publication biases, as positive outcomes are more likely to be published than null/negative results. 3. The quality of selected articles should be assessed using a checklist, while the reliability of graders, as well as the quality of the checklist, needs to be established a priori. 4. Statistical heterogeneity needs to be assessed to determine if a meta-analysis is appropriate to pool the data. If not, a narrative synthesis of the evidence/overall findings needs to be performed within a clinical context. PMID:25846029

  10. Latino Veterans with PTSD: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pittman, James O E

    2014-09-01

    Latinos have a long history of military service with recent service including combat conditions and multiple deployments, which are highly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinical acumen underscores the importance of culture in assessment and treatment, but there has been little scientific literature that investigates the unique needs of veteran Latinos with PTSD. The primary goal of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on Latino veterans with PTSD and to critically evaluate attention to cultural issues. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were used to guide this review. Peer-reviewed, research reports written in English on Latino Veterans with PTSD since 1980 were included; 20 were assessment related, and nine were treatment related. All studies were quantitative. Only 13 studies mentioned culture as part of the context for Latino veterans, and only seven included cultural factors as part of the study design. Present findings highlight a lack of research focused on understanding cultural factors related to the assessment and treatment of Latino veterans with PTSD. Culturally-informed research on Latino veterans from current wars, Latina veterans and Latino veteran treatment outcomes are necessary to provide culturally-appropriate care to this growing veteran subgroup. PMID:25379284

  11. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. PMID:25772195

  12. Reliability of thermal quantitative sensory testing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Niamh A; Hall, Toby M; Doody, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    The use of quantitative sensory testing (QST) has become more widespread, with increasing focus on describing somatosensory profiles and pain mechanisms. However, the reliability of thermal QST has yet to be established. We systematically searched the literature using key medical databases. Independent reviewers evaluated reliability data using the Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies checklist. Of the 21 studies we included in this review, we deemed 5 to have high methodological quality. Narrative analysis revealed that estimates of reliability varied considerably, but overall, the reliability of cold and warm detection thresholds ranged from poor to excellent, while heat and cold pain thresholds ranged from fair to excellent. The methodological quality of research investigating the reliability of thermal QST warrants improvement, particularly in terms of appropriate blinding. The results from this review showed considerable variability in the reliability of each thermal QST parameter. PMID:22773522

  13. Calciphylaxis from Nonuremic Causes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nigwekar, Sagar U.; Wolf, Myles; Sterns, Richard H.; Hix, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Calciphylaxis, or calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a well-described entity in end-stage kidney disease and renal transplant patients; however, little systematic information is available on calciphylaxis from nonuremic causes. This systematic review was designed to characterize etiologies, clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, and prognosis of nonuremic calciphylaxis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A systematic review of literature for case reports and case series of nonuremic calciphylaxis was performed. Cases included met the operational definition of nonuremic calciphylaxis–histopathologic diagnosis of calciphylaxis in the absence of end-stage kidney disease, renal transplantation, or acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. Results: We found 36 cases (75% women, 63% Caucasian, aged 15 to 82 yr) of nonuremic calciphylaxis. Primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, alcoholic liver disease, and connective tissue disease were the most common reported causes. Preceding corticosteroid use was reported for 61% patients. Protein C and S deficiencies were seen in 11% of patients. Skin lesions were morphologically similar to calcific uremic arteriolopathy. Mortality rate was 52%, with sepsis being the leading cause of death. Conclusion: Calciphylaxis should be considered while evaluating skin lesions in patients with predisposing conditions even in the absence of end-stage kidney disease and renal transplantation. Nonuremic calciphylaxis is reported most often in white women. Mineral abnormalities that are invoked as potential causes in calcific uremic arteriolopathy are often absent, suggesting that heterogeneous mechanisms may contribute to its pathogenesis. Nonuremic calciphylaxis is associated with high mortality, and there is no known effective treatment. PMID:18417747

  14. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill-health. PMID:16401351

  15. Child maltreatment prevention: a systematic review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To synthesize recent evidence from systematic and comprehensive reviews on the effectiveness of universal and selective child maltreatment prevention interventions, evaluate the methodological quality of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they are based on, and map the geographical distribution of the evidence. Methods A systematic review of reviews was conducted. The quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated with a tool for the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR), and the quality of the outcome evaluations was assessed using indicators of internal validity and of the construct validity of outcome measures. Findings The review focused on seven main types of interventions: home visiting, parent education, child sex abuse prevention, abusive head trauma prevention, multi-component interventions, media-based interventions, and support and mutual aid groups. Four of the seven – home-visiting, parent education, abusive head trauma prevention and multi-component interventions – show promise in preventing actual child maltreatment. Three of them – home visiting, parent education and child sexual abuse prevention – appear effective in reducing risk factors for child maltreatment, although these conclusions are tentative due to the methodological shortcomings of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they draw on. An analysis of the geographical distribution of the evidence shows that outcome evaluations of child maltreatment prevention interventions are exceedingly rare in low- and middle-income countries and make up only 0.6% of the total evidence base. Conclusion Evidence for the effectiveness of four of the seven main types of interventions for preventing child maltreatment is promising, although it is weakened by methodological problems and paucity of outcome evaluations from low- and middle-income countries. PMID:19551253

  16. Systematic sports medical prophylactic evaluations in the countries of the former USSR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Mustafins; A Landyr; I Schybria; J Istomina; T Gurevich

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundPeriodic health evaluations for athletes are widely discussed in the sports medical literature, and are intended to screen for underlying cardiovascular disease, identify sports injury risk factors and posture disturbances, as well as exercise induced physiological conditions.ObjectiveTo review the systematic the athletes' periodic health evaluations in the territories of the former USSR.ParticipantsSelected sports medicine outpatient centres (SMC) and sports medicine

  17. Interventions to promote walking: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles E; Rothnie, Helen; Cavill, Nick; Hamilton, Val; Fitzsimons, Claire F; Mutrie, Nanette

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of interventions to promote walking in individuals and populations. Design Systematic review. Data sources Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 25 electronic databases, by searching websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and by contacting experts. Review methods Systematic search for and appraisal of controlled before and after studies of the effects of any type of intervention on how much people walk, the distribution of effects on walking between social groups, and any associated effects on overall physical activity, fitness, risk factors for disease, health, and wellbeing. Results We included 19 randomised controlled trials and 29 non-randomised controlled studies. Interventions tailored to people's needs, targeted at the most sedentary or at those most motivated to change, and delivered either at the level of the individual (brief advice, supported use of pedometers, telecommunications) or household (individualised marketing) or through groups, can encourage people to walk more, although the sustainability, generalisability, and clinical benefits of many of these approaches are uncertain. Evidence for the effectiveness of interventions applied to workplaces, schools, communities, or areas typically depends on isolated studies or subgroup analysis. Conclusions The most successful interventions could increase walking among targeted participants by up to 30-60 minutes a week on average, at least in the short term. From a perspective of improving population health, much of the research currently provides evidence of efficacy rather than effectiveness. Nevertheless, interventions to promote walking could contribute substantially towards increasing the activity levels of the most sedentary. PMID:17540909

  18. Match analysis in football: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Hugo; Marcelino, Rui; Anguera, M Teresa; CampaniÇo, Jorge; Matos, Nuno; LeitÃo, José Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The main focus of this paper was to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male football. The most common research topics were identified, their methodologies described and the evolutionary tendencies of this research area systematised. A systematic review of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge database was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. The following keywords were used: football and soccer, each one associated with the terms: match analysis, performance analysis, notational analysis, game analysis, tactical analysis and patterns of play. Of 2732 studies initially identified, only 53 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures abstracted and analysed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organised according to their research design as descriptive, comparative or predictive. Results showed that 10 studies focused predominantly on a description of technical, tactical and physical performance variables. From all comparative studies, the dependent variables more frequently used were "playing position" and "competitive level". Even though the literature stresses the importance of developing predictive models of sports performance, only few studies (n = 8) have focused on modelling football performance. Situational variables like game location, quality of opposing teams, match status and match half have been progressively included as object of research, since they seem to work as effective covariables of football performance. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, use standardised categories and description of activities and participants, and consider integrating the situational and interactional contexts into the analysis of football performance. PMID:24787442

  19. Acupuncture for psoriasis: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Haoyu; Li, Nuo; Wang, Weiming; Bai, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The described systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for psoriasis. Methods and analysis We will electronically search for randomised controlled trials in the following databases from inception to 31 March 2015: OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Medical Current Content, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), Wan-Fang Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. We will also try to obtain literature by manually searching reference lists, conference proceedings and registers of clinical trials (eg, the Meta Register of Controlled Trials and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry). Changes in disease status as evaluated by clinical signs or any available tool will be measured as the primary outcome. Global changes as well as changes in participant status (as evaluated by quality of life), safety (as measured by the prevalence and severity of adverse effects or adverse events) and costs (if available) will be measured as secondary outcomes. Two researchers will independently undertake selection of studies, data extraction and assessment of the quality of included studies. Data synthesis and subgroup analyses will be performed using special software (Review Manager). Data will be combined with a random effect model. Results will be presented as risk ratios for dichotomous data and the standardised mean difference for continuous data. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval will not be required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The systematic review will evaluate the current evidence regarding acupuncture therapy for psoriasis. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD 42014013695. PMID:26048208

  20. Telemonitoring can assist in managing cardiovascular disease in primary care: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been growing interest regarding the impact of telemonitoring and its ability to reduce the increasing burden of chronic diseases, including chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD), on healthcare systems. A number of randomised trials have been undertaken internationally and synthesised into various systematic reviews to establish an evidence base for this model of care. This study sought to synthesise and critically evaluate this large body of evidence to inform clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Methods A systematic review of systematic reviews investigating the impact of telemonitoring interventions in the primary care management of CVD was conducted. Reviews were included if they explored primary care based telemonitoring in either CVD, heart failure or hypertension, were reported in the English language and were published between 2000 and 2013. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer using a standardised form. Two assessors then rated the quality of each review using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). Results Of the 13 included reviews, four focused on telemonitoring interventions in hypertension or CVD management and the remaining 9 reviews investigated telemonitoring in HF management. Seven reviews scored a five or above on the OQAQ evidencing good quality reviews. Findings suggest that telemonitoring can contribute to significant reductions in blood pressure, decreased all-cause and HF related hospitalisations, reduced all-cause mortality and improved quality of life. Telemonitoring was also demonstrated to reduce health care costs and appears acceptable to patients. Conclusion Telemonitoring has the potential to enhance primary care management of CVD by improving patient outcomes and reducing health costs. However, further research needs to explore the specific elements of telemonitoring interventions to determine the relative value of the various elements. Additionally, the ways in which telemonitoring care improves health outcomes needs to be further explored to understand the nature of these interventions. PMID:24606887

  1. Facilitated communication and authorship: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Iacono, Teresa; Probst, Paul; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages--the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) formed an Ad Hoc Committee on FC and charged this committee to synthesize the evidence base related to this question in order to develop a position statement. The purpose of this paper is to report this synthesis of the extant peer-reviewed literature on the question of authorship in FC. A multi-faceted search was conducted including electronic database searches, ancestry searches, and contacting selected authors. The authors considered synopses of systematic reviews, and systematic reviews, which were supplemented with individual studies not included in any prior reviews. Additionally, documents submitted by the membership were screened for inclusion. The evidence was classified into articles that provided (a) quantitative experimental data related to the authorship of messages, (b) quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through FC without testing of authorship, (c) qualitative descriptive data on the output generated via FC without testing of authorship, and (d) anecdotal reports in which writers shared their perspectives on FC. Only documents with quantitative experimental data were analyzed for authorship. Results indicated unequivocal evidence for facilitator control: messages generated through FC are authored by the facilitators rather than the individuals with disabilities. Hence, FC is a technique that has no validity. PMID:25384895

  2. Automatic Evidence Retrieval for Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Background Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing’s effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Objective Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing’s capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Methods Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. Results The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. Conclusions The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews. PMID:25274020

  3. Systematic review of teleneurology: neurohospitalist neurology.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark N; Wellik, Kay E; Channer, Dwight D; Demaerschalk, Bart M

    2013-07-01

    The use of 2-way audiovisual telemedicine technology for the delivery of acute stroke care is well established in the literature and is a growing practice. The use of such technology for neurologic consultation outside the cerebrovascular specialty has been reported to a variable extent across most disciplines within the field of neurology, including that of the neurohospitalist medicine. A systematic review of these reports is lacking. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on teleneurologic consultation in hospital neurology. The databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane were used as data sources and were searched with key words "teleneurology" and its numerous synonyms and cognates. These key words were cross-referenced with subspecialties of neurology. The studies were included for further review only if the title or the abstract indicated that the study made use of 2-way audiovisual communication to address a neurologic indication. This search yielded 6625 abstracts. By consensus between the 2 investigators, 688 publications met the criteria for inclusion and further review. Four of those citations directly pertained to the inpatient hospital neurologic consultation. Each of the 4 relevant articles was scored with a novel rubric scoring functionality, application, technology, and evaluation phase. A subspecialty category score was calculated by averaging those scores. The use of 2-way audiovisual technology for general neurologic consultation of hospital inpatients, beyond stroke-related care, is promising, but the evidence supporting its routine use is weak. Further studies on reliability, validity, safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness are encouraged. PMID:24167644

  4. Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoë E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

  5. Cost of status epilepticus: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kortland, Lena-Marie; Knake, Susanne; Rosenow, Felix; Strzelczyk, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to give an overview of published cost of illness (COI) studies on status epilepticus (SE). For identifying COI studies that evaluated the direct and indirect costs of SE, a systematic literature review was performed. We used a standardized assessment form for extracting information on the study design, methodological framework, and data sources from each publication. The results were systematically reported. We identified only two studies worldwide, which included prevalence- or incidence-based data on the direct costs of SE: one from Germany and one from the USA. Both used a bottom-up approach and a prospective design. The estimated mean inpatient costs summed up to US$18,834 in the USA and to €8347 in Germany per admission with an average length of stay of 12.9 and 14.0 days. The mean annual direct costs for SE had been estimated at US$4 billion in the USA and at €83 million (adults only) in Germany. Both available studies indicate that SE is a cost-intensive disorder with an acute CNS aetiology as a cost-driving factor. In conclusion, there is a paucity of data on the costs of SE. Further studies are warranted to determine costs, its predictors, quality of life, mortality data due to SE and its sequelae and to provide a basis for further cost-effectiveness calculations for new drugs and other interventions in SE and prolonged seizures. PMID:25564314

  6. Acupuncture for patients with Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Peng, Weina; Li, Wang; Liu, Zhishun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this protocol is to provide the methods used to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Methods and analysis We will search the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Medical Current Contents and China National Knowledge Infrastructure without restriction of language and publication status. Other sources such as Chinese acupuncture journals and the reference list of selected studies will also be searched. After screening the studies, a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials will be conducted, if possible. Results expressed as risk ratios for dichotomous data and standardised or weighted mean differences for continuous data, will be used for data synthesis. Dissemination The protocol of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014009619 PMID:25142265

  7. Hospital readmission of skilled nursing facility residents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Jabeen, Sanjeeda; Bajwa, Tanvir; Kim, Sun J; Leander, David; Hasan, Laila; Punke, Jodi; Soryal, Soryal; Khan, Ariba

    2015-01-01

    Hospital readmission of patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is common and costly with increasing public attention over the past decade, particularly in light of the new health care environment surrounding the advent of the Affordable Care Act. The purpose of the current systematic review is to critically examine prevalence, predictors, and costs of hospital readmission of SNF residents found in the medical literature. Individual resident, facility, and intervention factors predicting hospital readmission of SNF residents were studied. Despite the heterogeneity of the reviewed articles' data sources and study designs, the existing literature asserts that hospital readmission of SNF residents is associated with individual resident and facility characteristics. Implementation of promising intervention programs can promote quality of care and reduce hospital readmission of SNF residents. PMID:25710452

  8. Work-related leukemia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia is a complex disease, which only became better understood during the last decades following the development of new laboratory techniques and diagnostic methods. Despite our improved understanding of the physiology of the disease, little is yet known about the causes of leukemia. A variety of potential risk factors have been suggested so far, including personal habits and lifestyle, and a wide range of occupational or environmental exposures. A causal association with leukemia has only been documented to date for ionizing radiation, benzene and treatment with cytostatic drugs, but there is an ongoing scientific debate on the possible association of leukemia with a number of other work-related hazards. In this article, we have reviewed scientific studies, published over the past 5 years, which investigated potential associations between leukemia and exposure to occupational risk factors. The systematic literature review took place via electronic databases, using specific search criteria, and independent reviewers have further filtered the search results to identify the number of articles, presented in our paper. A large number of studies included in the review referred to the effects of ionizing radiation, where new data suggest that the effects of exposure to small doses of ionizing radiation should probably be reevaluated. Some other works appear to substantiate a potential association of the disease with certain pesticides. Further research is also suggested regarding the role of infectious agents or exposure to certain chemicals like formaldehyde or butadiene in the pathogenesis of leukemia. PMID:23697536

  9. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review Upulee Kanewala

    E-print Network

    Bieman, James M.

    scientific software. Method: We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevantTesting Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review Upulee Kanewala , James M. Bieman Computer Science Department, Colorado State University, USA Abstract Context: Scientific software plays

  10. Clinical review: A systematic review of corticosteroid use in infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jody Aberdein; Mervyn Singer

    2005-01-01

    Traditional teaching suggests that corticosteroids should be avoided during acute infectious episodes for fear of compromising\\u000a the immune response. However, the outcome benefit shown through steroid administration in early septic shock implies this\\u000a paranoia may be misplaced. We therefore performed a systematic review of the literature to identify the current strength of\\u000a evidence for the use of corticosteroids in specified

  11. Teaching Discrete Structures: A systematic review of the literature

    E-print Network

    Power, James

    Teaching Discrete Structures: A systematic review of the literature Thomas Whelan Dept of Computer the results of a systematic literature review of the teaching of discrete structures, based on the guidelines outlined by Kitchenham and Charters for performing literature reviews in software engineering [20]. Our

  12. Topiramate and the vision: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Fazel, Farhad; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Etemadifar, Masoud; Jenab, Keivan; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Topiramate (TPM) is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue. Methods For the time period 1996–2011, a PubMed search was made for the studies concerning the adverse/beneficial effects of TPM on vision. Overall, 404 citations out of a total of 2756 TPM-related studies were examined for relevance. Results A total of 74 relevant studies were reviewed, 65 of which comprise small observational studies describing the ophthalmic side effects of TPM in 84 patients. Of these patients, 66 were affected by ciliochoroidal effusion syndrome as the cardinal ocular side effect of TPM (17 cases of myopic shift and 49 cases of angle closure glaucoma). A comprehensive statistical analysis is provided on these 66 subjects. Other rare side effects of TPM on the vision were also reviewed, including massive choroidal effusion, ocular inflammatory reactions, visual field defects, probable effects on retina, cornea, and sclera, and neuroophthalmologic complications. In addition, a framework is provided to classify these results. Discussion Due to the expanding spectrum of indications for the administration of TPM, neurologists and psychiatrists should be aware of its diverse ocular side effects. In conclusion, ocular complications following this drug should be taken seriously and be subjected to ophthalmic counseling. PMID:22275816

  13. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tervo, Taru; Nordström, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. PMID:25349484

  14. Antifungal prophylaxis following heart transplantation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Luis G; Cortés, Jorge A; Granados, Carlos E; Montoya, José G

    2014-07-01

    Patients with heart transplantation have a high incidence of infectious complications, especially fungal infections. The aim of the systematic review was to determine the best pharmacological strategy to prevent fungal infections among patients with heart transplant. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies reporting the effectivenesss of pharmacologic strategies to prevent fungal infections in adult patient with a heart transplant. Our search yielded five studies (1176 patients), four of them with historical controls. Two studies used inhaled amphotericin B deoxycholate, three used itraconazole and one used targeted echinocandin. All studies showed significant reduction in the prophylaxis arm. Different products, doses and outcomes were noted. There is a highly probable benefit of prophylaxis use, however, better studies with standardised doses and comparators should be performed. PMID:24589065

  15. Diet and breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Papavagelis, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer occurs as a result between genes-diet interactions. Concerning diet, only alcohol is widely recognized for being most consistently associated with breast cancer risk. The purpose of this review is to report through a systematic way the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and diet, through original-research studies published in English language during the last decade, assessing the consumption of specific foodstuffs/food-nutrients in relation to the disease. The available literature suggests that soy food intake seems to be inversely associated with the disease, while no association seems to be reported for dietary carbohydrates and dietary fiber intake. The consumption of dietary fat, is probably suggestive of an increase in breast cancer risk, while studies evaluating the role of fruit/vegetable, meat as well as dietary patterns and breast cancer risk, provide inconsistent results. Diet seems to be modestly associated with the disease, highlighting the need for more studies to be conducted. PMID:25198160

  16. Diabetic nephropathy in Africa: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Naidoo, Jashira; Kengne, Andre P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Africa. METHODS: We performed a systematic narrative review of published literature following the MOOSE Guidelines for Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviews of Observational Studies. We searched PubMed-MEDLINE for all articles published in English and French languages between January 1994 and July 2014 using a predefined strategy based on the combination of relevant terms and the names of each of the 54 African countries and African sub-regions to capture the largest number of studies, and hand-searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies reported on the prevalence, incidence or determinants of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes within African countries. RESULTS: Overall, we included 32 studies from 16 countries; two being population-based studies and the remaining being clinic-based surveys. Most of the studies (90.6%) were conducted in urban settings. Methods for assessing and classifying CKD varied widely. Measurement of urine protein was the most common method of assessing kidney damage (62.5% of studies). The overall prevalence of CKD varied from 11% to 83.7%. Incident event rates were 94.9% for proteinuria at 10 years of follow-up, 34.7% for end-stage renal disease at 5 years of follow-up and 18.4% for mortality from nephropathy at 20 years of follow-up. Duration of diabetes, blood pressure, advancing age, obesity and glucose control were the common determinants of kidney disease. CONCLUSION: The burden of CKD is important among people with diabetes in Africa. High quality data from large population-based studies with validated measures of kidney function are still needed to better capture the magnitude and characteristics of diabetic nephropathy in Africa.

  17. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of the review were to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequency of OOC between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of OOCs that occurred in a consecutive series of OOCs in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. Results 37 reports on 36 case series were included in the SR. OOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost 2.5 times as frequently. Although the mean age at first presentation was 35 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade for the Western, East Asian and Latin American global groups. Seven reports included details of at least one clinical finding. 11 reported case series included at least 1 radiological feature. All OOCs were radiolucent, 93% were unilocular and 68% were associated with unerupted teeth. 28% of the reported case series included follow up. 4% of OCC recurred and all of these were in the Western global group. Conclusions Although one feature of OOCs is that they are unlikely to recur, some do. Not only is there a lack of long-term follow up of large series with long-term outcomes of OOC, but there is a paucity of clinical and radiological details of OOC at initial presentation. PMID:21062939

  18. Dentin hypersensitivity and oxalates: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Cruz, J; Stout, J R; Heaton, L J; Wataha, J C

    2011-03-01

    Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity with oxalates is common, but oxalate efficacy remains unclear. Our objective was to systematically review clinical trials reporting an oxalate treatment compared with no treatment or placebo with a dentin hypersensitivity outcome. Risk-of-bias assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were estimated by random-effects meta-analysis. Of 677 unique citations, 12 studies with high risk-of-bias were included. The summary SMD for 3% monohydrogen-monopotassium oxalate (n = 8 studies) was -0.71 [95% Confidence Interval: -1.48, 0.06]. Other treatments, including 30% dipotassium oxalate (n = 1), 30% dipotassium oxalate plus 3% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate (n = 3), 6% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate (n = 1), 6.8% ferric oxalate (n = 1), and oxalate-containing resin (n = 1), also were not statistically significantly different from placebo treatments. With the possible exception of 3% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate, available evidence currently does not support the recommendation of dentin hypersensitivity treatment with oxalates. PMID:21191127

  19. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Suortti; W. Thomlinson

    2003-01-01

    The medical imaging and therapeutic technologies that are based on the use of radiation are reviewed briefly, with special emphasis on the recent developments of synchrotron radiation (SR) methods. New results have been achieved in all of these areas since the last comprehensive reviews were written in this field. This topical review is intended to make the latest possible results

  1. A descriptive analysis of child-relevant systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Bow; Jeffrey Klassen; Annabritt Chisholm; Lisa Tjosvold; Denise Thomson; Terry P. Klassen; David Moher; Lisa Hartling

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs) are considered an important tool for decision-making. There has been no recent comprehensive identification or description of child-relevant SRs. A description of existing child-relevant SRs would help to identify the extent of available child-relevant evidence available in SRs and gaps in the evidence base where SRs are required. The objective of this study was to describe

  2. Financial evaluations of antibiotic stewardship programs—a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Vemer, Pepijn; Friedrich, Alex W.; Hendrix, Ron; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; Sinha, Bhanu; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing awareness to counteract problems due to incorrect antimicrobial use. Interventions that are implemented are often part of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). Studies publishing results from these interventions are increasing, including reports on the economical effects of ASPs. This review will look at the economical sections of these studies and the methods that were used. Methods: A systematic review was performed of articles found in the PubMed and EMBASE databases published from 2000 until November 2014. Included studies found were scored for various aspects and the quality of the papers was assessed following an appropriate check list (CHEC criteria list). Results: 1233 studies were found, of which 149 were read completely. Ninety-nine were included in the final review. Of these studies, 57 only mentioned the costs associated with the antimicrobial medication. Others also included operational costs (n = 23), costs for hospital stay (n = 18), and/or other costs (n = 19). Nine studies were further assessed for their quality. These studies scored between 2 and 14 out of a potential total score of 19. Conclusions: This review gives an extensive overview of the current financial evaluation of ASPs and the quality of these economical studies. We show that there is still major potential to improve financial evaluations of ASPs. Studies do not use similar nor consistent methods or outcome measures, making it impossible draw sound conclusions and compare different studies. Finally, we make some recommendations for the future. PMID:25932024

  3. The Safety of Cruciferous Plants in Humans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ori; Galicia-Connolly, Elaine; Adams, Denise; Surette, Soleil; Vohra, Sunita; Yager, Jerome Y.

    2012-01-01

    Some cruciferous plants may serve as preventive treatments for several medical conditions; our objective was to systematically investigate their safety in humans. Four electronic databases were searched, and, of 10,831 references identified, 50 were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers, whereafter the association between interventions and adverse events was assessed. Adverse events in 53 subjects were identified through clinical trials; of these, altered drug metabolism was rated as certainly/likely caused by cruciferous plants. Adverse events in 1247 subjects were identified through observational studies, of which none received high causality ratings. Adverse events in 35 subjects were identified through case reports, of which allergies and warfarin resistance were rated as certainly/likely caused by cruciferous plants. We conclude that cruciferous plants are safe in humans, with the exception of allergies. Individuals treated with warfarin should consult their physician. Further investigation of uses of cruciferous plants in preventative medicine is warranted. PMID:22500092

  4. Local treatments for cutaneous warts: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Sam; Harvey, Ian; Sterling, Jane; Stark, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence for the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous warts. Methods Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Main outcomes measures Total clearance of warts and adverse effects such as irritation, pain, and blistering. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of any local treatment for uncomplicated cutaneous warts. All published and unpublished material was considered, with no restriction on date or language. Results 50 included trials provided generally weak evidence because of poor methods and reporting. The best evidence was for topical treatments containing salicylic acid. Data pooled from six placebo controlled trials showed a cure rate of 75% (144 of 191) in cases compared with 48% (89 of 185) in controls (odds ratio 3.91, 95% confidence interval 2.40 to 6.36). Some evidence for the efficacy of contact immunotherapy was provided by two small trials comparing dinitrochlorobenzene with placebo. Evidence for the efficacy of cryotherapy was limited. No consistent evidence was found for the efficacy of intralesional bleomycin, and only limited evidence was found for the efficacy of topical fluorouracil, intralesional interferons, photodynamic therapy, and pulsed dye laser. Conclusions Reviewed trials of local treatments for cutaneous warts were highly variable in methods and quality, and there was a paucity of evidence from randomised, placebo controlled trials on which to base the rational use of the treatments. There is good evidence that topical treatments containing salicylic acid have a therapeutic effect and some evidence for the efficacy of dinitrochlorobenzene. Less evidence was found for the efficacy of all the other treatments reviewed, including cryotherapy. What is already known on this topicA wide range of local treatments is available for treating wartsNo one treatment is strikingly effective and little is known about the absolute and relative efficacy of these treatmentsWhat this study addsHigh quality research on the efficacy of various local treatments for warts is lackingEvidence, which is generally of a poor quality, shows a beneficial effect of topical salicylic acid and contact immunotherapy with dinitrochlorobenzeneLittle evidence exists for the efficacy of cryotherapy and no consistent evidence for the efficacy of all the other treatments reviewed PMID:12202325

  5. Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Jefferson; Deirdre Price; Vittorio Demicheli; Elvira Bianco

    2003-01-01

    Public debate over the safety of the trivalent measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the drop in vaccination rates in several countries persists despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence of unintended effects (beneficial or harmful) associated with MMR and the applicability of systematic reviewing methods to the

  6. Clone evolution: a systematic review Jeremy R. Pate

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Clone evolution: a systematic review Jeremy R. Pate Robert Tairas Nicholas A. Kraft Department of the National Science Foundation. #12;Clone evolution: a systematic review Jeremy R. Pate1 , Robert Tairas2 clones -- similar or identical source code fragments -- is of concern both to researchers

  7. Diagnostic tests in Hirschsprung disease: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. de Lorijn; L. C. M. Kremer; J. B. Reitsma; M. A. Benninga

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a systematic review to determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast enema (CE), anorectal manometry (ARM) and rectal suction biopsy (RSB) in infants suspected of Hirschsprung disease. Design: This is a systematic review. Data Sources: Articles were identified through electronic searches in Medline, EMBASE.com and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Searches were limited to articles published after

  8. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison M Kemp; Frank Dunstan; Sara Harrison; Susan Morris; Mala Mann; Kim Rolfe; Shalini Datta; D Phillip Thomas; Jonathan R Sibert; Sabine Maguire

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types.Design Systematic review.Data sources All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation

  9. Steps in the undertaking of a systematic review in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sambunjak, Dario; Frani?, Miljenko

    2012-03-01

    In the last decades of the twentieth century it became obvious that modern medical care is replete with data and information, but in need of reliable evidence. This has led to an increased effort to systematically synthesise medical research and make it more useful for practitioners. Systematic reviews use an approach to research synthesis that minimises the risk of misinterpreting a body of evidence due to incomprehensive search or subjective opinion. Carrying out a systematic review is a rigorous procedure which corresponds to standard methodological steps in primary research studies. It involves posing a well-defined question, developing a robust search strategy, screening for relevant primary studies, critical appraisal of included studies, data extraction and processing, analysis and interpretation of results. In some, but not all systematic reviews it is appropriate to conduct a meta-analysis, which is a statistical procedure that integrates the results of several independent studies. Results of meta-analysis are graphically presented in forest plots, with pooled point estimate and its confidence interval represented as a rhombus, usually called a "diamond". Methodological quality of systematic reviews should not be judged by the quality of primary studies included, but by a distinct set of criteria specified in assessment tools such as AMSTAR. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be reported according to the PRISMA checklist. A major contribution to the development of methodological standards has been given by The Cochrane Collaboration, whose Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the primary reference for all authors and referees of systematic reviews in health care. PMID:22198362

  10. Clinical review: Medication errors in critical care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Moyen; Eric Camiré; Henry Thomas Stelfox

    2008-01-01

    Medication errors in critical care are frequent, serious, and predictable. Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as\\u000a many medications as patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-threatening\\u000a error at some point during their stay. The aim of this article is to provide a basic review of medication errors in the ICU,

  11. The use of artificial neural networks in decision support in cancer: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo J. Lisboa; Azzam Fouad George Taktak

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have featured in a wide range of medical journals, often with promising results. This paper reports on a systematic review that was conducted to assess the benefit of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as decision making tools in the field of cancer. The number of clinical trials (CTs) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving the use of ANNs

  12. Rural Medical Education: Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    (Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…

  13. Prehospital analgesia: systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Park, C L; Roberts, D E; Aldington, D J; Moore, R A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate current evidence for analgesic use in the prehospital environment using expert military and civilian opinion to determine the important clinical questions. There was a high degree of agreement that pain should be no worse than mild, that pain relief be rapid (within 10 minutes), that patients should respond to verbal stimuli and not require ventilatory support, and that major adverse events should be avoided. Twenty-one studies provided information about 6212 patients; the majority reported most of the outcomes of interest. With opioids 60-70% of patients still had pain levels above 30/100 mm on a Visual Analogue Scale after 10 minutes, falling to about 30% by 30-40 minutes. Fascia iliaca blocks demonstrated some efficacy for femoral fractures. No patient on opioids required ventilatory support; two required naloxone; sedation was rare. Cardiovascular instability was uncommon. Main adverse events were dizziness or giddiness, and pruritus with opioids. There was little evidence regarding the prehospital use ofketamine. PMID:21302646

  14. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714

  15. Digital Fillet Flaps: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schade, Valerie L

    2014-11-26

    Digital fillet flaps have a consistent vascular supply and provide durable soft-tissue coverage. Despite their readily available nature, their use in the foot remains limited. This systematic review was undertaken to determine the size defect that could be covered, the potential postoperative complications, and the durability of a digital fillet flap. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they involved use of the entire digit for soft-tissue coverage of defects of any etiology, reported complications, and had any length of follow-up time. A total of 9 studies met all the inclusion criteria, for a total of 34 patients with a combined mean age of 47.1 years and a combined mean follow-up time of 9.3 months. Complications consisted of continued infection and partial or total necrosis of the flap. Digital fillet flaps were able to cover defects up to a combined mean size of 15.6 cm(2). Coverage was found to be best for forefoot ulcerations. The flaps had limited donor site morbidity and provided full coverage of exposed vital and osseous structures that was able to withstand forces applied during weight bearing, The procedure is simple and straightforward, reducing operating time and the need for more complex soft-tissue reconstructive procedures. PMID:25428181

  16. Evidence based practice in postgraduate healthcare education: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Argimon, Josep M

    2007-01-01

    Background Training in Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely implemented throughout medical school and residency curricula. The aim of this study is to systematically review studies that assessed the effectiveness of EBP teaching to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior of postgraduate healthcare workers, and to describe instruments available to evaluate EBP teaching. Methods The design is a systematic review of randomized, non-randomized, and before-after studies. The data sources were MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL and ERIC between 1966 and 2006. Main outcomes were knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior towards EBP. Standardized effect sizes (E-S) were calculated. The E-S was categorized as small (E-S < 0.2), small to moderate (E-S between 0.2 and 0.5), moderate to large (E-S between 0.51 and 0.79), large (E-S > 0.79). Reliability and validity of instruments for evaluating education were assessed. Studies excluded were those that were not original, performed in medical students, focused on prescribing practices, specific health problems, theoretical reviews of different components of EBP, continuing medical education, and testing the effectiveness of implementing guidelines. Results Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. There were 15 outcomes within the 10 studies for which E-S could be calculated. The E-S ranged from 0.27 (95%CI: -0.05 to 0.59) to 1.32 (95%CI: 1.11 to 1.53). Studies assessing skills, behavior and/or attitudes had a "small to moderate" E-S. Only 1 of the 2 studies assessing knowledge had E-S of 0.57 (95 CI: 0.32 to 0.82) and 2 of the 4 studies that assessed total test score outcomes had "large" E-S. There were 22 instruments used, but only 10 had 2 or more types of validity or reliability evidence. Conclusion Small improvements in knowledge, skills, attitudes or behavior are noted when measured alone. A large improvement in skills and knowledge in EBP is noted when measured together in a total test score. Very few studies used validated measures tests. PMID:17655743

  17. Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies; Missing Link in Translational Research?

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Judith; Bakker, Brenda; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; de Vries, Rob B. M.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    Background The methodological quality of animal studies is an important factor hampering the translation of results from animal studies to a clinical setting. Systematic reviews of animal studies may provide a suitable method to assess and thereby improve their methodological quality. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the risk of bias assessment in animal-based systematic reviews, and 2) to study the internal validity of the primary animal studies included in these systematic reviews. Data Sources We systematically searched Pubmed and Embase for SRs of preclinical animal studies published between 2005 and 2012. Results A total of 91 systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed in 48 (52.7%) of these 91 systematic reviews. Thirty-three (36.3%) SRs provided sufficient information to evaluate the internal validity of the included studies. Of the evaluated primary studies, 24.6% was randomized, 14.6% reported blinding of the investigator/caretaker, 23.9% blinded the outcome assessment, and 23.1% reported drop-outs. Conclusions To improve the translation of animal data to clinical practice, systematic reviews of animal studies are worthwhile, but the internal validity of primary animal studies needs to be improved. Furthermore, risk of bias should be assessed by systematic reviews of animal studies to provide insight into the reliability of the available evidence. PMID:24670965

  18. [Systematic assessment and improvement of medical data quality].

    PubMed

    Jacke, C O; Kalder, M; Koller, M; Wagner, U; Albert, U S

    2012-11-01

    Public health research depends on empirical information that is based on data of high quality. The aim of this study was to apply the current guidelines developed by the Technology and Methodology Platform for Networked Medical Research (TMF) for the independent assessment and enhancement of data quality. A clinical register of female breast cancer patients from two periods (N?=?389 of 1996-1997 and N?=?488 of 2003-2004) was used. To check the plausibility, organization, and correctness of the data quality levels, data quality indicators (DQI) were chosen, operationalized, and the variance ratios of normative-analytic-defined thresholds were calculated. Significant deviations led to data improvement, which included the commonly known source data verification (SDV). A summary data quality score was calculated before and after application of the guidelines. Eleven out of 24 DQIs were tested. Data quality systematically increased from 51.6 to 67.7%. The guidelines facilitate a systematic assessment and improvement of data quality with a reasonable use of resources. This target-oriented procedure allows for a high transparency of the available data quality, which is essential for health research. PMID:23114449

  19. Acupuncture for low back pain: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot; McDonough, Suzanne; Mabire, Leon; Baxter, George David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were generated from a narrative synthesis of the outcomes of subgroup comparisons. Results. Sixteen systematic reviews were appraised. Overall, the methodological quality was low and external validity weak. For acute LBP, evidence that acupuncture has a more favorable effect than sham acupuncture in relieving pain was inconsistent; it had a similar effect on improving function. For chronic LBP, evidence consistently demonstrated that acupuncture provides short-term clinically relevant benefits for pain relief and functional improvement compared with no treatment or acupuncture plus another conventional intervention. Conclusion. Systematic reviews of variable quality showed that acupuncture, either used in isolation or as an adjunct to conventional therapy, provides short-term improvements in pain and function for chronic LBP. More efforts are needed to improve both internal and external validity of systematic reviews and RCTs in this area. PMID:25821485

  20. Homeopathy for allergic rhinitis: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem that is often treated with homeopathy. The objective of this review will be to evaluate the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods/Design The authors will conduct a systematic review. We will search Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, CAM-Quest, Google Scholar and reference lists of identified studies up to December 2013. The review will include randomized controlled trials that evaluate homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Studies with participants of all ages, with acute or chronic comorbidities will be included. Patients with immunodeficiency will not be included. The diagnosis will be based on the published guidelines of diagnosis and classification. Studies of all homeopathy modalities (clinical, complex and classical homeopathy, and isopathy) will be included. We will include trials with both active controls (conventional therapy, standard care) and placebo controls. The primary outcomes are: an improvement of global symptoms recorded in validated daily or weekly diaries and any scores from validated visual analogue scales; the total Quality of Life Score (such as the Juniper RQLQ);individual symptoms scores which include any appropriate measures of nasal obstruction, runny nose, sneezing, itching, and eye symptoms; and number of days requiring medication. Secondary outcomes selected will include serum immunoglobin E (IgE) levels, individual ocular symptoms, adverse events, and the use of rescue medication. Treatment effects will be measured by calculating the mean difference and the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous data. Risk ratio or, if feasible, odds ratio will be calculated with 95% CI for dichotomous data. After assessing clinical and statistical heterogeneity, meta-analysis will be performed, if appropriate. The individual participant will be the unit of analysis. Descriptive information on missing data will be included about participants missing due to drop out, whether there was intention to treat or per protocol analysis and missing statistics. A number of subgroups, homeopathic potency, age groups, and types of allergic rhinitis (seasonal or perennial) will be analyzed. Sensitivity analysis will be performed to explore the impact of risk of bias on overall treatment effect. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42013006741 PMID:24913155

  1. Not all systematic reviews are created equal: Considerations for appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf W. Schlosser; Oliver Wendt; Jeff Sigafoos

    2007-01-01

    Systematic reviews can be a tremendous asset in the implementation of evidence-based practice, because they minimize some of the most-documented barriers to evidence-based practice. For example, by reading systematic reviews, clinicians may save time that would otherwise be dedicated to locating and appraising individual studies. Further, clinicians can rely on someone else's reviewing expertise, which reduces the knowledge and skill

  2. Medical record review for clinical pertinence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, K S

    1991-08-01

    This clinical pertinence review process described was in effect for seven months, after which the author terminated affiliation with the hospital. Despite resistance by many physicians, this monthly review process focused the medical staff's attention on good documentation practices. To the author's knowledge, the plan is still in use. PMID:10112162

  3. Review of ANU Health and Medical Sciences

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    engagement with Government and a national role in influencing public policy. A strong presence in health Review of ANU Health and Medical Sciences Report DECEMBER 2013 #12; REVIEW OF ANU HEALTH has achieved excellent health outcomes but significant work is required to improve health outcomes

  4. Medical audible alarms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  5. Probiotics for infantile colic: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile colic is a common paediatric condition which causes significant parental distress. Increased intestinal coliform colonization in addition to alteration in Lactobacillus abundance and distribution may play an important role in its pathogenesis. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic supplementation in the reduction of crying time and successful treatment of infantile colic. Methods Literature searches were conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials enrolling term, healthy infants with colic were included. A meta-analysis of included trials was performed utilizing the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Results Three trials that enrolled 220 breastfed infants met inclusion criteria, of which 209 infants were available for analysis. Two of the studies were assessed as good quality. Lactobacillus reuteri (strains-American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730 and DSM 17 938) was the only species utilized in the therapeutic intervention. Two of the trials were industry funded. Probiotic supplementation compared to simethicone or placebo significantly and progressively shortened crying times to 7 days reaching a plateau at three weeks post initiation of therapy [mean difference ?56.03 minutes; 95% CI (?59.92, -52.15)]. Similarly, probiotics compared to placebo significantly increased the treatment success of infantile colic with a relative risk (RR) of 0.06; 95% CI (0.01, 0.25) and a number needed to treat of 2. Conclusions Although L. reuteri may be effective as a treatment strategy for crying in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, the evidence supporting probiotic use for the treatment of infant colic or crying in formula-fed infants remains unresolved. Results from larger rigorously designed studies will help draw more definitive conclusions. PMID:24238101

  6. Suicide in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

  7. Ciprofloxacin safety in paediatrics: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Adefurin, Abiodun; Sammons, Helen; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety of ciprofloxacin in paediatric patients in relation to arthropathy, any other adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and bibliographies of relevant articles was carried out for all published articles, regardless of design, that involved the use of ciprofloxacin in any paediatric age group ?17 years. Only articles that reported on safety were included. Results 105 articles met the inclusion criteria and involved 16 184 paediatric patients. There were 1065 reported AEs (risk 7%, 95% CI 3.2% to 14.0%). The most frequent AEs were musculoskeletal AEs, abnormal liver function tests, nausea, changes in white blood cell counts and vomiting. There were six drug interactions (with aminophylline (4) and methotrexate (2)). The only drug related death occurred in a neonate who had an anaphylactic reaction. 258 musculoskeletal events occurred in 232 paediatric patients (risk 1.6%, 95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%). Arthralgia accounted for 50% of these. The age of occurrence of arthropathy ranged from 7 months to 17 years (median 10 years). All cases of arthropathy resolved or improved with management. One prospective controlled study estimated the risk of arthropathy as 9.3 (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 195). Pooled safety data of controlled trials in this review estimated the risk of arthropathy as 1.57 (OR 95% CI 1.26 to 1.97). Conclusion Musculoskeletal AEs occur due to ciprofloxacin use. However, these musculoskeletal events are reversible with management. It is recommended that further prospective controlled studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of ciprofloxacin, with particular focus on the risk of arthropathy. PMID:21785119

  8. Patient engagement in research: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A compelling ethical rationale supports patient engagement in healthcare research. It is also assumed that patient engagement will lead to research findings that are more pertinent to patients’ concerns and dilemmas. However; it is unclear how to best conduct this process. In this systematic review we aimed to answer 4 key questions: what are the best ways to identify patient representatives? How to engage them in designing and conducting research? What are the observed benefits of patient engagement? What are the harms and barriers of patient engagement? Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Cochrane, EBSCO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Business Search Premier, Academic Search Premier and Google Scholar. Included studies were published in English, of any size or design that described engaging patients or their surrogates in research design. We conducted an environmental scan of the grey literature and consulted with experts and patients. Data were analyzed using a non-quantitative, meta-narrative approach. Results We included 142 studies that described a spectrum of engagement. In general, engagement was feasible in most settings and most commonly done in the beginning of research (agenda setting and protocol development) and less commonly during the execution and translation of research. We found no comparative analytic studies to recommend a particular method. Patient engagement increased study enrollment rates and aided researchers in securing funding, designing study protocols and choosing relevant outcomes. The most commonly cited challenges were related to logistics (extra time and funding needed for engagement) and to an overarching worry of a tokenistic engagement. Conclusions Patient engagement in healthcare research is likely feasible in many settings. However, this engagement comes at a cost and can become tokenistic. Research dedicated to identifying the best methods to achieve engagement is lacking and clearly needed. PMID:24568690

  9. Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Flower, Gillian; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Verma, Shailendra; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Fergusson, Dean; Seely, Dugald

    2013-09-01

    Background. Flax is a food and dietary supplement commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Flax is known for its lignan, ?-linolenic acid, and fiber content, components that may possess phytogestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hormone modulating effects, respectively. We conducted a systematic review of flax for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women living with breast cancer and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to January 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to flax and breast cancer. Results. Of 1892 records, we included a total of 10 studies: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 1 biomarker study, and 5 observational studies. Nonsignificant (NS) decreases in hot flash symptomatology were seen with flax ingestion (7.5 g/d). Flax (25 g/d) increased tumor apoptotic index (P < .05) and decreased HER2 expression (P < .05) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 index; NS) among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients when compared with placebo. Uncontrolled and biomarker studies suggest beneficial effects on hot flashes, cell proliferation, atypical cytomorphology, and mammographic density, as well as possible anti-angiogenic activity at doses of 25 g ground flax or 50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglycoside daily. Observational data suggests associations between flax and decreased risk of primary breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.97), better mental health (AOR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.05-2.94), and lower mortality (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95) among breast cancer patients. Conclusions. Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast cancer. PMID:24013641

  10. Treatment of generalized granuloma annulare - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-08-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign inflammatory skin disease. Localized GA is likely to resolve spontaneously, while generalized GA (GGA) is rare and may persist for decades. GGA usually is resistant to a variety of therapeutic modalities and takes a chronic course. The objective of this study was to summarize all reported treatments of generalized granuloma annulare. This is a systematic review based on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Register search of articles in English and German and a manual search, between 1980 and 2013, to summarize the treatment of generalized granuloma annulare. Most medical literature on treatment of GGA is limited to individual case reports and small series of patients treated without a control group. Randomized controlled clinical studies are missing. Multiple treatment modalities for GGA were reported including topical and systemic steroids, PUVA, isotretinoin, dapsone, pentoxifylline, hydroxychloroquine, cyclosporine, IFN-?, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, dipyridamole, PDT, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab. While there are numerous case reports of successful treatments in the literature including surgical, medical and phototherapy options, well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials are required for an evidence-based treatment of GGA. PMID:25651003

  11. Systematic Review Checklist: A Standardized Technique for Assessing and Reporting Reviews of Life Cycle Assessment Data

    PubMed Central

    Zumsteg, Jennifer M.; Cooper, Joyce S.; Noon, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Systematic review, including meta-analysis, is increasingly utilized in life cycle assessment (LCA). There are currently no widely recognized guidelines for designing, conducting, or reporting systematic reviews in LCA. Other disciplines such as medicine, ecology, and software engineering have both recognized the utility of systematic reviews and created standardized protocols for conducting and reporting systematic reviews. Based largely on the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, which updated the preferred format for reporting of such reviews in biomedical research, we provide an introduction to the topic and a checklist to guide the reporting of future LCA reviews in a standardized format. The standardized technique for assessing and reporting reviews of LCA (STARR-LCA) checklist is a starting point for improving the utility of systematic reviews in LCA.

  12. Worksite primary care clinics: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shahly, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C; Duncan, Ian

    2014-10-01

    Despite levels of health spending that are higher per capita and as share of gross domestic product than any country worldwide, the US health care system is fragmented, technology and administration heavy, and primary care deficient. Studies of regional variations in US health care show similar "disconnects" between higher spending and better health outcomes. Faced with rising health benefit costs and suboptimal workforce health amid economic downturn, concerned US employers have implemented innovative payment and health care delivery strategies such as consumer-driven health plans and targeted prevention programs. The former may impose undue cost shifting, prohibitive out-of-pocket expenses, and health literacy challenges, while the latter have shown inconsistent near-term economic returns and long-term clinical efficacy. Employers have begun exploring more comprehensive health delivery platforms such as integrated worksite primary care clinics that have potential to cost-effectively address several pressing problems with current US health care: the growing primary care physician shortage, poor access to routine care, lack of coordinated and patient-centered treatment models, low rates of childhood immunizations, and "quality-blind" fee-for-service payment mechanisms. Such on-site medical clinics exploit one of the rare comparative strengths of the US health care system-its plentiful supply of highly skilled registered nurses-to offer workers and their dependents convenient, high-quality, affordable care. A relatively recent health care paradigm, worksite clinics must yet develop consistent reporting strategies and credible demonstration of outcomes. This review explores available evidence regarding worksite primary care clinics, including current rationale, historical trends, prevalence and projected growth, expected health and financial benefits, challenges, and future research directions. PMID:24835541

  13. A review of medical imaging informatics.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Usha; Bui, Alex; Taira, Ricky; Dionisio, John; Morioka, Craig; Johnson, David; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    2002-12-01

    This review of medical imaging informatics is a survey of current developments in an exciting field. The focus is on informatics issues rather than traditional data processing and information systems, such as picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) and image processing and analysis systems. In this review, we address imaging informatics issues within the requirements of an informatics system defined by the American Medical Informatics Association. With these requirements as a framework, we review, in four sections: (1) Methods to present imaging and associated data without causing an overload, including image study summarization, content-based medical image retrieval, and natural language processing of text data. (2) Data modeling techniques to represent clinical data with focus on an image data model, including general-purpose time-based multimedia data models, health-care-specific data models, knowledge models, and problem-centric data models. (3) Methods to integrate medical data information from heterogeneous clinical data sources. Advances in centralized databases and mediated architectures are reviewed along with a discussion on our efforts at data integration based on peer-to-peer networking and shared file systems. (4) Visualization schemas to present imaging and clinical data: the large volume of medical data presents a daunting challenge for an efficient visualization paradigm. In this section we review current multimedia visualization methods including temporal modeling, problem-specific data organization, including our problem-centric, context and user-specific visualization interface. PMID:12594089

  14. How has healthcare research performance been assessed? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Ahmed, Kamran; Arora, Sonal; Jiwan, Sejal; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Healthcare research performance is increasingly assessed through research indicators. We performed a systematic review to identify the indicators that have been used to measure healthcare research performance. We evaluated their feasibility, validity, reliability and acceptability; and finally assessed the utility of these indicators in terms of measuring performance in individuals, specialties, institutions and countries. Design A systematic review was performed by searching EMBASE, PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases between 1950 and September 2010. Setting Studies of healthcare research were appraised. Healthcare was defined as the prevention, treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical wellbeing through the services offered by the medical and allied health professions. Participants All original studies that evaluated research performance indicators in healthcare were included. Main outcome measures Healthcare research indicators, data sources, study characteristics, results and limitations for each study were studied. Results The most common research performance indicators identified in 50 studies were: number of publications (n = 38), number of citations (n = 27), Impact Factor (n = 15), research funding (n = 10), degree of co-authorship (n = 9), and h index (n = 5). There was limited investigation of feasibility, validity, reliability and acceptability, although the utility of these indicators was adequately described. Conclusion Currently, there is only limited evidence to assess the value of healthcare research performance indicators. Further studies are required to define the application of these indicators through a balanced approach for quality and innovation. The ultimate aim of utilizing healthcare research indicators is to create a culture of measuring research performance to support the translation of research into greater societal and economic impact. PMID:21659400

  15. Systematic Review of Pancreatic Cyst Fluid Biomarkers: The Path Forward.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Nikhil; Park, Walter G

    2015-01-01

    There is significant research interest in developing and validating novel pancreatic cyst-fluid biomarkers given the increasing recognition of the prevalence of pancreatic cysts and their associated malignant potential. Although current international consensus guidelines are helpful, they fail to diagnose with certainty the cyst type and the level of epithelial dysplasia. They also fall short in predicting the future likelihood of malignant transformation. A systematic review was performed with the objective of summarizing cyst-fluid-based biomarkers that have been published in the medical literature over the past 10 years and characterizing the current quality of evidence. Our review demonstrates that there is an increasing interest in this topic with several different and innovative approaches including DNA, RNA, proteomic, and metabolomics profiling. Further techniques to improve upon cytological yield have also been studied. Besides identifying potentially useful clinical biomarkers, these empiric approaches have provided further insight into their pathogenesis. The level of evidence for the vast majority of these studies, however, is limited to retrospective early validation studies. The path forward will be to select out the most promising biomarkers and develop multicenter consortiums capable of capturing adequate sample sizes with appropriate study designs. PMID:26065716

  16. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

  17. Patient engagement in the inpatient setting: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Prey, Jennifer E; Woollen, Janet; Wilcox, Lauren; Sackeim, Alexander D; Hripcsak, George; Bakken, Suzanne; Restaino, Susan; Feiner, Steven; Vawdrey, David K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review existing literature regarding patient engagement technologies used in the inpatient setting. Methods PubMed, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Xplore, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies that discussed patient engagement (‘self-efficacy’, ‘patient empowerment’, ‘patient activation’, or ‘patient engagement’), (2) involved health information technology (‘technology’, ‘games’, ‘electronic health record’, ‘electronic medical record’, or ‘personal health record’), and (3) took place in the inpatient setting (‘inpatient’ or ‘hospital’). Only English language studies were reviewed. Results 17 articles were identified describing the topic of inpatient patient engagement. A few articles identified design requirements for inpatient engagement technology. The remainder described interventions, which we grouped into five categories: entertainment, generic health information delivery, patient-specific information delivery, advanced communication tools, and personalized decision support. Conclusions Examination of the current literature shows there are considerable gaps in knowledge regarding patient engagement in the hospital setting and inconsistent use of terminology regarding patient engagement overall. Research on inpatient engagement technologies has been limited, especially concerning the impact on health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. PMID:24272163

  18. Childbirth experience of migrants in China: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ngai Fen; Pan, Anshi

    2012-09-01

    As preliminary research into the childbirth experience of migrants in China, this paper presents a systematic review of Chinese and English literature published between 1999 and 2011 on childbirth in migrants in China. Electronic databases were accessed and papers were found by keyword search. A total of 132 Chinese and 9 English papers were catalogued for review. These papers address migrant maternity issues concerning antenatal, intrapartum, postnatal care, institutional issues, family planning or birth control. Since China's economic reforms, the healthcare infrastructure has been inadequate for childbirth in migrants. They experience more adverse birth outcomes than local residents. This suggests that the effects of change upon childbirth and the existing urban and rural care systems cannot meet the needs of the migrants. There is a lack of research in the childbirth experience of women. Knowledge of their childbirth experience will contribute to the understanding of these needs, informing systems' reform. The medical approach results in many unnecessary interventions and higher costs. It is argued here that a midwifery model of care is most appropriate for the childbirth experience of migrant women. PMID:22950617

  19. A systematic review of the quality of homeopathic clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Wayne B; Anderson, Rachel L; Crawford, Cindy C; Lyons, John S

    2001-01-01

    Background While a number of reviews of homeopathic clinical trials have been done, all have used methods dependent on allopathic diagnostic classifications foreign to homeopathic practice. In addition, no review has used established and validated quality criteria allowing direct comparison of the allopathic and homeopathic literature. Methods In a systematic review, we compared the quality of clinical-trial research in homeopathy to a sample of research on conventional therapies using a validated and system-neutral approach. All clinical trials on homeopathic treatments with parallel treatment groups published between 1945–1995 in English were selected. All were evaluated with an established set of 33 validity criteria previously validated on a broad range of health interventions across differing medical systems. Criteria covered statistical conclusion, internal, construct and external validity. Reliability of criteria application is greater than 0.95. Results 59 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 79% were from peer-reviewed journals, 29% used a placebo control, 51% used random assignment, and 86% failed to consider potentially confounding variables. The main validity problems were in measurement where 96% did not report the proportion of subjects screened, and 64% did not report attrition rate. 17% of subjects dropped out in studies where this was reported. There was practically no replication of or overlap in the conditions studied and most studies were relatively small and done at a single-site. Compared to research on conventional therapies the overall quality of studies in homeopathy was worse and only slightly improved in more recent years. Conclusions Clinical homeopathic research is clearly in its infancy with most studies using poor sampling and measurement techniques, few subjects, single sites and no replication. Many of these problems are correctable even within a "holistic" paradigm given sufficient research expertise, support and methods. PMID:11801202

  20. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrine disorder that can be associated with significant morbidity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of outcomes of hyperprolactinemic patients, including microadenomas and macroadenomas, to provide evidence-based recommendations for practitioners. Through this review, we aimed to compare efficacy and adverse effects of medications, surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Methods We searched electronic databases, reviewed bibliographies of included articles, and contacted experts in the field. Eligible studies provided longitudinal follow-up of patients with hyperprolactinemia and evaluated outcomes of interest. We collected descriptive, quality and outcome data (tumor growth, visual field defects, infertility, sexual dysfunction, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and prolactin levels). Results After review, 8 randomized and 178 nonrandomized studies (over 3,000 patients) met inclusion criteria. Compared to no treatment, dopamine agonists significantly reduced prolactin level (weighted mean difference, -45; 95% confidence interval, -77 to ?11) and the likelihood of persistent hyperprolactinemia (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 0.99). Cabergoline was more effective than bromocriptine in reducing persistent hyperprolactinemia, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and galactorrhea. A large body of noncomparative literature showed dopamine agonists improved other patient-important outcomes. Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports improved outcomes with surgery and radiotherapy compared to no treatment in patients who were resistant to or intolerant of dopamine agonists. Conclusion Our results provide evidence to support the use of dopamine agonists in reducing prolactin levels and persistent hyperprolactinemia, with cabergoline proving more efficacious than bromocriptine. Radiotherapy and surgery are useful in patients with resistance or intolerance to dopamine agonists. PMID:22828169

  1. Class II functional orthopaedic treatment: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    D'Antò, V; Bucci, R; Franchi, L; Rongo, R; Michelotti, A; Martina, R

    2015-08-01

    This Systematic Review (SR) aims to assess the quality of SRs and Meta-Analyses (MAs) on functional orthopaedic treatment of Class II malocclusion and to summarise and rate the reported effects. Electronic and manual searches were conducted until June 2014. SRs and MAs focusing on the effects of functional orthopaedic treatment of Class II malocclusion in growing patients were included. The methodological quality of the included papers was assessed using the AMSTAR (Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews). The design of the primary studies included in each SR was assessed with Level of Research Design scoring. The evidence of the main outcomes was summarised and rated according to a scale of statements. 14 SRs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The appliances evaluated were as follows: Activator (2 studies), Twin Block (4 studies), headgear (3 studies), Herbst (2 studies), Jasper Jumper (1 study), Bionator (1 study) and Fränkel-2 (1 study). Four studies reviewed several functional appliances, as a group. The mean AMSTAR score was 6 (ranged 2-10). Six SRs included only controlled clinical trials (CCTs), three SRs included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs), four SRs included both CCTs and RCTs and one SR included also expert opinions. There was some evidence of reduction of the overjet, with different appliances except from headgear; there was some evidence of small maxillary growth restrain with Twin Block and headgear; there was some evidence of elongation of mandibular length, but the clinical relevance of this results is still questionable; there was insufficient evidence to determine an effect on soft tissues. PMID:25824331

  2. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Achieving a Consensual Definition of Phishing

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Lastdrager SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Achieving a Consensual Definition of Phishing Based on a Systematic information is available at the end of the article Abstract Background: Phishing is a widely known phenomenon, but currently lacks a commonly accepted definition. As a result, many studies about phishing use their own

  3. Book review The perils of point-and-click systematics

    E-print Network

    Grant, Taran

    Book review The perils of Ôpoint-and-clickÕ systematics Phylogenetic Trees Made Easy, a How- To Manual for Molecular Biologists was born. The first page of the book begins with a disclaimer or nucleic acid sequence data. . . This book is not intended to be used as a primary text in a systematics

  4. Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

  5. Knowledge about infection with human papillomavirus: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie J. Klug; Meike Hukelmann; Maria Blettner

    2008-01-01

    Objective.Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of knowledge about HPV infection among the public, students, patients and health professionals.

  6. [Acupuncture status analysis in PROSPERO systematic review registry platform].

    PubMed

    Lan, Ying; Lan, Lei; Zeng, Fang; Wang, Yujue; Feng, Shuwei; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-02-01

    By searching the registry information of systematic review regarding acupuncture included before March 31, 2014 in PROSPERO systematic review registry platform, information in the project plan such as care gories of diseases, interventions, research team and the completion status was analyzed to make a comprehensive understanding on registry status of acupuncture systematic review in this platform. As a result, a total of 52 project plans was finally included. The health problem concerned was mainly painrelated diseases, and the interventions were mostly simple acupuncture or combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. The registered plan participated with Chinese team appeared comparatively late, which was featured with fewer independent projects and concentrated research organization, so its scientific research advantage in acupuncture did not present. In conclusion, it is believed that the consciousness on systematic review registry in domestic researchers needs to be improved, and researchers might take good advantages of the PROSPERO platform in the future. PMID:25854028

  7. Domestic Violence Against Women: Systematic Review of Prevalence Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samia Alhabib; Ula Nur; Roger Jones

    2010-01-01

    To systematically review the worldwide evidence on the prevalence of domestic violence against women, to evaluate the quality\\u000a of studies, and to account for variation in prevalence between studies, using consistent definitions and explicit, rigorous\\u000a methods. Systematic review of prevalence studies on domestic violence against women. Literature searches of 6 databases were\\u000a undertaken for the period 1995 to 2006. Medline,

  8. Fertility following spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D DeForge; J Blackmer; C Garritty; F Yazdi; V Cronin; N Barrowman; M Fang; V Mamaladze; L Zhang; M Sampson; D Moher

    2005-01-01

    Study design:Systematic review.Objectives:To review systematically fertility of persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and their partners.Methods:Reports from six databases (1966–2003), selected annual proceedings (1997–2002) and manufacturer's information were screened against eligibility criteria. Searches covered female obstetrical issues, and the efficacy of vibration and electroejaculation for males, as well as advanced fertility (AF) treatments for partners of SCI males. Data were

  9. A Web-based archive of systematic review data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systematic reviews have become increasingly critical to informing healthcare policy; however, they remain a time-consuming and labor-intensive activity. The extraction of data from constituent studies comprises a significant portion of this effort, an activity which is often needlessly duplicated, such as when attempting to update a previously conducted review or in reviews of overlapping topics. In order to address these inefficiencies, and to improve the speed and quality of healthcare policy- and decision-making, we have initiated the development of the Systematic Review Data Repository, an open collaborative Web-based repository of systematic review data. As envisioned, this resource would serve as both a central archive and data extraction tool, shared among and freely accessible to organizations producing systematic reviews worldwide. A suite of easy-to-use software tools with a Web frontend would enable researchers to seamlessly search for and incorporate previously deposited data into their own reviews, as well as contribute their own. In developing this resource, we identified a number of technical and non-technical challenges, as well as devised a number of potential solutions, including proposals for systems and software tools to assure data quality, stratify and control user access effectively and flexibly accommodate all manner of study data, as well as means by which to govern and foster adoption of this new resource. Herein we provide an account of the rationale and development of the Systematic Review Data Repository thus far, as well as outline its future trajectory. PMID:22588052

  10. Patient adherence to medical treatment: a review of reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra van Dulmen; Emmy Sluijs; Liset van Dijk; Denise de Ridder; Rob Heerdink; Jozien Bensing

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the existing reviews of adherence to interventions and identify the underlying theories for effective interventions. That is the aim

  11. Systematic reviews published in the July 2014 issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The July 2014 issue (3rd DVD for 2014) contains 6050 complete reviews, 2,359 protocols for reviews in production, and 31,000 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 789,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 14,000 citations. Ninety-six new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months of which five have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.715. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:25338103

  12. Systematic Reviews Published in the January 2015 Issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The January 2015 issue (first DVD for 2015) contains 6277 complete reviews, 2355 protocols for reviews in production, and 34,000 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 832,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 14,000 citations. One hundred and ten new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months, of which six have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.939. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest, as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:26095497

  13. Barriers to the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses: a systematic review of decision makers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, John; Nwosu, Bosah; Clarke, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the barriers to the uptake of research evidence from systematic reviews by decision makers. Search strategy We searched 19 databases covering the full range of publication years, utilised three search engines and also personally contacted investigators. Reference lists of primary studies and related reviews were also consulted. Selection criteria Studies were included if they reported on the views and perceptions of decision makers on the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews, meta-analyses and the databases associated with them. All study designs, settings and decision makers were included. One investigator screened titles to identify candidate articles then two reviewers independently assessed the quality and the relevance of retrieved reports. Data extraction Two reviewers described the methods of included studies and extracted data that were summarised in tables and then analysed. Using a pre-established taxonomy, the barriers were organised into a framework according to their effect on knowledge, attitudes or behaviour. Results Of 1726 articles initially identified, we selected 27 unique published studies describing at least one barrier to the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews. These studies included a total of 25 surveys and 2 qualitative studies. Overall, the majority of participants (n=10?218) were physicians (64%). The most commonly investigated barriers were lack of use (14/25), lack of awareness (12/25), lack of access (11/25), lack of familiarity (7/25), lack of usefulness (7/25), lack of motivation (4/25) and external barriers (5/25). Conclusions This systematic review reveals that strategies to improve the uptake of evidence from reviews and meta-analyses will need to overcome a wide variety of obstacles. Our review describes the reasons why knowledge users, especially physicians, do not call on systematic reviews. This study can inform future approaches to enhancing systematic review uptake and also suggests potential avenues for future investigation. PMID:22942232

  14. Postoperative pain treatment after total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Højer Karlsen, Anders Peder; Geisler, Anja; Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of postoperative pain should rely on results from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of high scientific quality. The efficacy of a particular intervention may depend on the type of surgical procedure, which supports the reporting of "procedure-specific" interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to document the procedure-specific evidence for analgesic interventions after total hip arthroplasty (THA). This PRISMA-compliant and PROSPERO-registered review includes randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of medication-based analgesic interventions after THA. Endpoints were postoperative opioid consumption, pain scores (rest and during mobilization), adverse events, and length of hospital stay. Fifty-eight trials with 19 different interventions were retrieved. High risk of bias, substantial differences in assessment-tools and criteria for pain, irregular reporting of adverse events, considerable differences in supplemental analgesic consumption, and basic analgesic regimens generally characterized trials. Meta-analyses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local infiltration analgesia, intrathecal opioids, and lumbar plexus block provided a 24-hour intravenous morphine-sparing effect of 14.1 (95 % confidence interval: 8.0-20.2) mg, 7.5 (3.7-11.3) mg, 19.8 (14.9-24.7) mg, and 11.9 (6.4-17.3) mg, respectively. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and lumbar plexus block were demonstrated to provide reductions in postoperative pain scores. Intrathecal opioids increased pruritus, and lumbar plexus block reduced nausea and pruritus. The GRADE-rated quality of evidence ranged from low to very low throughout the analyses. This review demonstrated, that some analgesic interventions may have the capacity to reduce mean opioid requirements and/or mean pain intensity compared with controls, but the available randomized placebo-controlled trials does not allow a designation of a "best proven intervention" for THA. PMID:25599296

  15. Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Devillé, Walter L; Buntinx, Frank; Bouter, Lex M; Montori, Victor M; de Vet, Henrica CW; van der Windt, Danielle AWM; Bezemer, P Dick

    2002-01-01

    Background Although guidelines for critical appraisal of diagnostic research and meta-analyses have already been published, these may be difficult to understand for clinical researchers or do not provide enough detailed information. Methods Development of guidelines based on a systematic review of the evidence in reports of systematic searches of the literature for diagnostic research, of methodological criteria to evaluate diagnostic research, of methods for statistical pooling of data on diagnostic accuracy, and of methods for exploring heterogeneity. Results Guidelines for conducting diagnostic systematic reviews are presented in a stepwise fashion and are followed by comments providing further information. Examples are given using the results of two systematic reviews on the accuracy of the urine dipstick in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections, and on the accuracy of the straight-leg-raising test in the diagnosis of intervertebral disc hernia. PMID:12097142

  16. Towards Systematic Exploration of Tradeoffs for Medical Image Registration on Heterogeneous Platforms

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.

    Towards Systematic Exploration of Tradeoffs for Medical Image Registration on Heterogeneous, USA Abstract--For the past decade, improving the performance and accuracy of medical image registration has been a driving force of innovation in medical imaging. The ultimate goal of accurate, robust

  17. Alignment of systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness with global burden-of-disease data: a bibliographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Hall, Alix; Williams, Christopher M; Skelton, Eliza; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N; Dellavalle, Robert P; Hilton, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of high-quality evidence are used to inform policy and practice. To improve community health, the production of such reviews should align with burden of disease. This study aims to assess if the volume of research output from systematic reviews proportionally aligns with burden of disease assessed using percentages of mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods A cross-sectional audit of reviews published between January 2012 and August 2013 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) was undertaken. Percentages of mortality and DALYs were obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Standardised residual differences (SRD) based on percentages of mortality and DALYs were calculated, where conditions with SRD of more than or less than three were considered overstudied or understudied, respectively. Results 1029 reviews from CDSR and 1928 reviews from DARE were examined. There was a significant correlation between percentage DALYs and systematic reviews published in CDSR and DARE databases (CDSR: r=0.68, p=0.001; DARE: r=0.60, p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between percentage mortality and number of systematic reviews published in either database (CDSR: r=0.34, p=0.14; DARE: r=0.22, p=0.34). Relative to percentage of mortality, mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal conditions and other non-communicable diseases were overstudied. Maternal disorders were overstudied relative to percentages of mortality and DALYs in CDSR. Conclusions The focus of systematic reviews is moderately correlated with DALYs. A number of conditions may be overstudied relative to percentage of mortality particularly in the context of health and medical reviews. PMID:25888595

  18. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  19. A systematic review of antidepressants in neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. McQuay; M. Tramér; B. A. Nye; D. Carroll; P. J. Wiffen; R. A. Moore

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in neuropathic pain. In a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, the main outcomes were global judgements, pain relief or fall in pain intensity which approximated to more than 50% pain relief, and information about minor and major adverse effects. Dichotomous data for effectiveness and adverse

  20. Evidence-Based Health Policy: A Preliminary Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…

  1. Psychological consequences of predictive genetic testing: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marita Broadstock; Susan Michie; Theresa Marteau

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review is to describe the psychological consequences of predictive genetic testing. Five databases were searched for studies using standardised outcome measures and statistical comparison of groups. Studies were selected and coded by two independent researchers. From 899 abstracts, 15 papers, describing 11 data sets, met the selection criteria for the review. The studies were

  2. Clinical performance of CEREC ceramic inlays: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Martin; N. M. Jedynakiewicz

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review of clinical trials seeks to identify the clinical performance of intra-coronal CEREC restorations luted with an adhesive composite technique. The focus of the review is to establish the survival rate of these restorations and to identify the factors that may cause them to fail.Method: A comprehensive literature search was undertaken, spanning from the year of introduction

  3. Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Zgierska; David Rabago; Neharika Chawla; Kenneth Kushner; Robert Koehler; Alan Marlatt

    2009-01-01

    Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs. The comprehensive search for and review of literature found over 2000 abstracts and resulted in 25 eligible manuscripts (22 published, 3 unpublished: 8 randomized controlled trials, 7 controlled nonrandomized,

  4. Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction after Noncardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanton Newman; Jan Stygall; Shashivadan Hirani; Shahzad Shaefi; Mervyn Maze

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a systematic review on the research into postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in noncardiac surgery to ascertain the status of the evidence and to examine the methodologies used in studies. The review demonstrated that in the early weeks after major noncardiac surgery, a sig- nificant proportion of people show POCD, with the elderly being more at risk. Minimal

  5. "Clarity Bordering on Stupidity": Where's the Quality in Systematic Review?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLure, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a critique of the discourse of "systematic review" in education, as developed and promoted by the EPPI-Centre at the University of London. Based on a close reading of the exhortatory and instructional literature and 30 published reviews, it argues that the approach degrades the status of reading and writing as scholarly…

  6. A Systematic Review of Studies of Open Source Software Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyu Pei Breivold; Muhammad Aufeef Chauhan; Muhammad Ali Babar

    2010-01-01

    Software evolution relates to how software systems evolve over time. With the emergence of the open source paradigm, researchers are provided with a wealth of data for open source software evolution analysis. In this paper, we present a systematic review of open source software (OSS) evolution. The objective of this review is to obtain an overview of the existing studies

  7. Parenteral opioids for labor pain relief: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanne Bricker; Tina Lavender

    2002-01-01

    Parenteral opioids are commonly used for labor pain relief and have been the subject of research for many years. The objectives of this review were to determine the safety and effectiveness of parenteral opioids in this context. Of 85 trials systematically reviewed, 48 comprising more than 9800 were included, but the number of trials contributing data to individual outcome measures

  8. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olivia

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts. PMID:15595944

  9. Applicability and generalisability of the results of systematic reviews to public health practice and policy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate systematic reviews of research into two public health priorities, tobacco consumption and HIV infection, in terms of the reporting of data related to the applicability of trial results (i.e., whether the results of a trial can be reasonably applied or generalized to a definable group of patients in a particular setting in routine practice, also called external validity or generalisability). Methods All systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and treating or preventing HIV infection published in the Cochrane database of systematic reviews and in journals indexed in MEDLINE between January 1997 and December 2007 were selected. We used a standardized data abstraction form to extract data related to applicability in terms of the context of the trial, (country, centres, settings), participants (recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, baseline characteristics of participants such as age, sex, ethnicity, coexisting diseases or co-morbidities, and socioeconomic status), treatment (duration, intensity/dose of treatment, timing and delivery format), and the outcomes assessment from selected reviews. Results A total of 98 systematic reviews were selected (57 Cochrane reviews and 41 non-Cochrane reviews); 49 evaluated interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and 49 treating or preventing HIV infection. The setting of the individual studies was reported in 45 (46%) of the systematic reviews, the number of centres in 21 (21%), and the country where the trial took place in 62 (63%). Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the included studies were reported in 16 (16%) and 13 (13%) of the reviews, respectively. Baseline characteristics of participants in the included studies were described in 59 (60%) of the reviews. These characteristics concerned age in about half of the reviews, sex in 46 (47%), and ethnicity in 9 (9%). Applicability of results was discussed in 13 (13%) of the systematic reviews. The reporting was better in systematic reviews by the Cochrane Collaboration than by non-Cochrane groups. Conclusions Our study highlighted the lack of consideration of applicability of results in systematic reviews of research into 2 public health priorities: tobacco consumption and HIV infection. PMID:20187938

  10. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Nasim

    2014-07-01

    Abstract Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available. PMID:24916211

  11. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a role for vasopressor support in acute SCI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Ploumis; N Yadlapalli; M G Fehlings; B K Kwon; A R Vaccaro

    2010-01-01

    Study design:A systematic review of clinical and preclinical literature.Objective:To critically evaluate the evidence supporting a role for vasopressor support in the management of acute spinal cord injury and to provide updated recommendations regarding the appropriate clinical application of this therapeutic modality.Background:Only few clinical studies exist examining the role of arterial pressure and vasopressors in the context of spinal cord trauma.Methods:Medical

  12. Spinal Cystic Echinococcosis – A Systematic Analysis and Review of the Literature: Part 1. Epidemiology and Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Neumayr, Andreas; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Blum, Johannes; Brunetti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Bone involvement in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is rare, but affects the spine in approximately 50% of cases. Despite significant advances in diagnostic imaging techniques as well as surgical and medical treatment of spinal CE, our basic understanding of the parasite's predilection for the spine remains incomplete. To fill this gap, we systematically reviewed the published literature of the last five decades to summarize and analyze the currently existing data on epidemiological and anatomical aspects of spinal CE. PMID:24086783

  13. Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Reisman; HM Schachter; RE Dales; K Tran; K Kourad; D Barnes; M Sampson; A Morrison; I Gaboury; J Blackman

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids. Given the interplay between pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, and the less pro-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, it has been thought that the latter could play a key role in treating or preventing asthma. The purpose was to systematically review the scientific-medical literature in order

  14. Alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robyn A; Conway, Aaron; Poulsen, Vanessa; Keech, Wendy; Tirimacco, Rosy; Tideman, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The traditional hospital-based model of cardiac rehabilitation faces substantial challenges, such as cost and accessibility. These challenges have led to the development of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify and critique evidence for the effectiveness of these alternative models. A total of 22 databases were searched to identify quantitative studies or systematic reviews of quantitative studies regarding the effectiveness of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation. Included studies were appraised using a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool and the National Health and Medical Research Council's designations for Level of Evidence. The 83 included articles described interventions in the following broad categories of alternative models of care: multifactorial individualized telehealth, internet based, telehealth focused on exercise, telehealth focused on recovery, community- or home-based, and complementary therapies. Multifactorial individualized telehealth and community- or home-based cardiac rehabilitation are effective alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation, as they have produced similar reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with hospital-based programmes. While further research is required to address the paucity of data available regarding the effectiveness of alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation in rural, remote, and culturally and linguistically diverse populations, our review indicates there is no need to rely on hospital-based strategies alone to deliver effective cardiac rehabilitation. Local healthcare systems should strive to integrate alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation, such as brief telehealth interventions tailored to individual's risk factor profiles as well as community- or home-based programmes, in order to ensure there are choices available for patients that best fit their needs, risk factor profile, and preferences. PMID:23943649

  15. Building capacity of Indian scientists to conduct systematic reviews in child health: an ICMR initiative.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Anju; Shah, Dheeraj; Tharyan, Prathap

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge and training in evidence-based medicine is essential for informed clinical decision-making and treatment choices. Systematic reviews identify, appraise and synthesize research-based evidence and present it in accessible format. The Indian Council of Medical Research has promoted evidence-based medicine in India by establishing an Advanced Center for evidence based medicine that hosted the South Asian Cochrane Network and Center at the Christian Medical College, Vellore; procuring a national subscription to The Cochrane Library making it accessible to all Indian scientists; and establishing a Center for Advanced research on evidence- based child health at Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. This article informs about a national level initiative by ICMR that aims to harness the translational potential of secondary research, by funding systematic reviews aligned to national health priorities selected through a national competitive process; and to provide training, mentoring, and quality assurance. A continuing scheme of funding high-quality systematic reviews on priority areas of Child Health may follow. PMID:25848991

  16. Effectiveness of moxibustion for allergic rhinitis: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Guo, Shengnan; Wang, Jun; Ha, Eunhae; Marmori, Federico; Wang, Yanping; Zhao, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion for treating allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods and analysis The following databases will be searched from their inception to January 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, Ovid Healthstar, PubMed, SciELO, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Wanfang Database, the Japanese Medical Research Database, and Korean Medical Databases. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The primary outcome is total nasal symptoms, which may be evaluated by any appropriate scores or other forms of measurement. Secondary outcome measures will include quality of life, total non-nasal symptoms, use of daily medication and laboratory indicators. Ethics and dissemination Because this study will not involve patients, institutional review body permission is not required. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print to help guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014013275. PMID:25991446

  17. Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Stevinson; Edzard Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the evidence for the effects of the herb valerian (Valeriana officinalis) on insomnia, based on randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials.Background: Valerian has long been advocated and used for promoting sleep but until quite recently evidence was solely anecdotal. However, during the last two decades a number of clinical trials have been conducted.Materials and methods: Systematic literature searches

  18. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Tapp; Frederick M Burkle Jr; Kumanan Wilson; Tim Takaro; Gordon H Guyatt; Hani Amad; Edward J Mills

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review

  19. Systematic review of suicide in economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Oyesanya, Mayowa; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier; Dutta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a systematic update of the evidence concerning the relationship between economic recession and suicide. METHODS: A keyword search of Ovid Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES was performed to identify studies that had investigated the association between economic recession and suicide. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met predetermined selection criteria and 31 of them found a positive association between economic recession and increased suicide rates. Two studies reported a negative association, two articles failed to find such an association, and three studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Economic recession periods appear to increase overall suicide rates, although further research is warranted in this area, particularly in low income countries.

  20. What are validated self-report adherence scales really measuring?: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-My-Uyen; Caze, Adam La; Cottrell, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Aims Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem. There are numerous methods for measuring adherence, but no single method performs well on all criteria. The purpose of this systematic review is to (i) identify self-report medication adherence scales that have been correlated with comparison measures of medication-taking behaviour, (ii) assess how these scales measure adherence and (iii) explore how these adherence scales have been validated. Methods Cinahl and PubMed databases were used to search articles written in English on the development or validation of medication adherence scales dating to August 2012. The search terms used were medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and names of each scale. Data such as barriers identified and validation comparison measures were extracted and compared. Results Sixty articles were included in the review, which consisted of 43 adherence scales. Adherence scales include items that either elicit information regarding the patient's medication-taking behaviour and/or attempts to identify barriers to good medication-taking behaviour or beliefs associated with adherence. The validation strategies employed depended on whether the focus of the scale was to measure medication-taking behaviour or identify barriers or beliefs. Conclusions Supporting patients to be adherent requires information on their medication-taking behaviour, barriers to adherence and beliefs about medicines. Adherence scales have the potential to explore these aspects of adherence, but currently there has been a greater focus on measuring medication-taking behaviour. Selecting the ‘right’ adherence scale(s) requires consideration of what needs to be measured and how (and in whom) the scale has been validated. PMID:23803249

  1. Sedentary Behavior and Health Outcomes: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rodrigues Lopes, Maurício; Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2) To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found. Methodology/Principal Findings Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase); PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers. Conclusions This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted. PMID:25144686

  2. How to write a systematic review of reasons

    PubMed Central

    Sofaer, Neema

    2011-01-01

    Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. A model is presented here for writing systematic reviews of argument-based literature: literature that uses arguments to address conceptual questions, such as whether abortion is morally permissible or whether research participants should be legally entitled to compensation for sustaining research-related injury. Such reviews aim to improve ethically relevant decisions in healthcare, research or policy. They are better tools than informal reviews or samples of literature with respect to the identification of the reasons relevant to a conceptual question, and they enable the setting of agendas for conceptual and empirical research necessary for sound policy-making. This model comprises prescriptions for writing the systematic review's review question and eligibility criteria, the identification of the relevant literature, the type of data to extract on reasons and publications, and the derivation and presentation of results. This paper explains how to adapt the model to the review question, literature reviewed and intended readers, who may be decision-makers or academics. Obstacles to the model's application are described and addressed, and limitations of the model are identified. PMID:22080465

  3. How to write a systematic review of reasons.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Sofaer, Neema

    2012-02-01

    Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. A model is presented here for writing systematic reviews of argument-based literature: literature that uses arguments to address conceptual questions, such as whether abortion is morally permissible or whether research participants should be legally entitled to compensation for sustaining research-related injury. Such reviews aim to improve ethically relevant decisions in healthcare, research or policy. They are better tools than informal reviews or samples of literature with respect to the identification of the reasons relevant to a conceptual question, and they enable the setting of agendas for conceptual and empirical research necessary for sound policy-making. This model comprises prescriptions for writing the systematic review's review question and eligibility criteria, the identification of the relevant literature, the type of data to extract on reasons and publications, and the derivation and presentation of results. This paper explains how to adapt the model to the review question, literature reviewed and intended readers, who may be decision-makers or academics. Obstacles to the model's application are described and addressed, and limitations of the model are identified. PMID:22080465

  4. Ultraweak photon emission as a non-invasive health assessment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ives, John A; van Wijk, Eduard P A; Bat, Namuun; Crawford, Cindy; Walter, Avi; Jonas, Wayne B; van Wijk, Roeland; van der Greef, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the peer reviewed scientific literature on ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) from humans. The question was: Can ultraweak photon emissions from humans be used as a non-invasive health assessment? A systematic search was conducted across eight relevant databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, BIOSIS, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, All of Cochrane EBM databases, GIDEON, DoD Biomedical Research, and clinicaltrials.gov from database inception to October 2011. Of the 1315 studies captured by the search strategy, 56 met the inclusion criteria, out of which 1 was a RCT, 27 were CCT, and 28 were observational and descriptive studies. There were no systematic reviews/meta-analyses that fit the inclusion criteria. In this report, the authors provide an assessment of the quality of the RCT included; describe the characteristics of all the included studies, the outcomes assessed, and the effectiveness of photon emission as a potential health assessment tool. This report demonstrates that the peer reviewed literature on UPE and human UPE measurement in particular is surprisingly large. Most of the human UPE literature is of good to high quality based on our systematic evaluation. However, an evaluation tool for systematically evaluating this type of "bio-evaluation" methodology is not currently available and would be worth developing. Publications in the peer reviewed literature over the last 50 years demonstrate that the use of "off-the-shelf" technologies and well described methodologies for the detection of human photon emissions are being used on a regular basis in medical and research settings. The overall quality of this literature is good and the use of this approach for determining inflammatory and oxidative states of patients indicate the growing use and value of this approach as both a medical and research tool. PMID:24586274

  5. Social mobility and smoking: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Motta, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos; Lima, Natália Peixoto; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature on longitudinal studies that have evaluated the effect of social mobility on the occurrence of smoking in various populations. Articles were selected from the web databases PubMed and Web of Science using the words: follow up, cohort longitudinal prospective, social mobility, social change life, course socioeconomic, smoking, and tobacco. Of the six studies identified in this review, four used occupational classification to measure social mobility. All six were carried out on the continent of Europe. The results indicate higher proportions of tobacco users among those with lower socioeconomic level during the whole period of observation (for all variables analyzed); and that people who suffered downward mobility, that is to say people who were classified as having a higher socioeconomic level at the beginning of life, tended to mimic habits of the new group when they migrated to a lower social group. PMID:26017952

  6. Meta-Review: Systematic Assessment of Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…

  7. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic

  8. Systematic Review Evidence Methodology: Providing Quality Family Planning Services.

    PubMed

    Tregear, Stephen J; Gavin, Loretta E; Williams, Jessica R

    2015-08-01

    From 2010 to 2014, CDC and the Office of Population Affairs at the USDHHS collaborated on the development of clinical recommendations for providing quality family planning services. A high priority was placed on the use of existing scientific evidence in developing the recommendations, in accordance with IOM guidelines for how to develop "trustworthy" clinical practice guidelines. Consequently, a series of systematic reviews were developed using a transparent and reproducible methodology aimed at ensuring that the clinical practice guidelines would be based on evidence collected in the most unbiased manner possible. This article describes the methodology used in conducting these systematic reviews, which occurred from mid-2011 through 2012. PMID:26190844

  9. Systematic reviews of treatment for inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy*

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, RAC

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the progress made in preparing Cochrane systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and the demyelinating neuropathies associated with paraproteins. The discovery of antibodies against myelin andaxolemmal glycolipids and proteins has not yet replaced the clinicopathological classificationon which treatment trials have been based. Systematic reviews have endorsed the equivalence of plasma exchange (PE) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and the lack of efficacy of steroids in GBS. Systematic reviews have also endorsed the value of steroids, PE and IVIg in CIDP butrandomized controlled trials have only shown benefit from IVIg in MMN. There is a paucity of evidence concerning the efficacy of treatments in paraproteinaemic demyelinating neuropathy apartment from small trials showing short-term benefit from PE or IVIg. There is a lack of good quality controlled trials of immunosuppressive agents in any of these conditions. As the numberof treatment trials increases, Cochrane systematic reviews will be an increasingly valuable resource for summarizing the evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base clinical practice. They already demonstrate major deficiencies in the existing evidence base. PMID:12090400

  10. Disagreement in primary study selection between systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Peinemann; Natalie McGauran; Stefan Sauerland; Stefan Lange

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) regarding their agreement in primary study selection. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic review (a full review and a subsequent rapid

  11. Campylobacter Reactive Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Janet E.; Krizova, Adriana; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ouimet, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Methods A Medline (PubMed) search identified studies from 1966–2006 that investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Search terms included: “reactive arthritis”, “spondyloarthropathy”, “Reiter’s syndrome”, “gastroenteritis”, “diarrhea”, “epidemiology”, “incidence”, “prevalence”, and “Campylobacter”. Results The literature available to date suggests that the incidence of Campylobacter reactive arthritis may occur in 1 to 5% of those infected. The annual incidence of ReA after Campylobacter or Shigella may be 4.3 and 1.3 respectively per 100,000. The duration of acute ReA varies considerably between reports, and the incidence and impact of chronic reactive arthritis from Campylobacter infection is virtually unknown. Conclusions Campylobacter associated ReA incidence and prevalence varies widely from reviews such as: case ascertainment differences, exposure differences, lack of diagnostic criteria for ReA and perhaps genetics and ages of exposed individuals. At the population level it may not be associated with HLA-B27 and inflammatory back involvement is uncommon. Follow up for long-term sequelae is largely unknown. Five percent of Campylobacter ReA may be chronic or relapsing (with respect to musculoskeletal symptoms). PMID:17360026

  12. Pharmacopuncture for Cancer Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Soyeon; Zhang, Xiuyu; Lee, In-Seon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture's effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.44). The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12–2.89). Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation. PMID:24899911

  13. Pharmacopuncture for cancer care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Soyeon; Zhang, Xiuyu; Lee, In-Seon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture's effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.44). The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12-2.89). Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation. PMID:24899911

  14. Interventions in exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Gillian; Brown, Michelle

    Now recognised as a worldwide public health issue, the significance of promoting and encouraging exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been acknowledged by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Documented policies about the importance of facilitating the support of breastfeeding women is currently receiving worldwide recognition (WHO, 2011; WHO and UNICEF, 2003). This literature review will examine provision of support mechanisms for breastfeeding mothers, focusing on peer support in encouraging the starting and maintaining of EBF. Consideration will also be given to any barriers that may prevent higher success rates, as cultural and educational factors may have a significant impact on the starting and maintaining of EBF. These factors must be considered when starting support groups, networks or activities that aim to address this significant public health issue. PMID:24464112

  15. Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-wei; Fu, Min; Gao, Si-Hua; Liu, Jun-Li

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics. PMID:24348712

  16. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO's) in glaucoma: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Vandenbroeck; S De Geest; T Zeyen; I Stalmans; F Dobbels

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize literature in view of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for glaucoma and provide guidance on how outcomes are best assessed based on evidence about their content and validity. A systematic literature review was performed on papers describing the developmental process and\\/or psychometric properties of glaucoma or vision-specific PRO-instruments. Each of them was assessed

  17. Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Israel Bronstein; Paul Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological\\u000a distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental\\u000a health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style review was conducted searching nine\\u000a major databases, bibliographies, and grey literature from

  18. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Fritz; Deborah Kennedy; Dean Fergusson; Rochelle Fernandes; Kieran Cooley; Andrew Seely; Stephen Sagar; Raimond Wong; Dugald Seely

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundSelenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies.Methods and FindingsTwo independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and

  19. Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Mitri; M D Muraru; A G Pittas

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:Vitamin D may modify the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review was to examine the association between vitamin D status and incident type 2 diabetes, and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic outcomes.Methods:We performed a systematic review of English-language studies using MEDLINE through February 2011. Longitudinal cohort studies reporting associations between vitamin D

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

    2003-07-01

    The medical imaging and therapeutic technologies that are based on the use of radiation are reviewed briefly, with special emphasis on the recent developments of synchrotron radiation (SR) methods. New results have been achieved in all of these areas since the last comprehensive reviews were written in this field. This topical review is intended to make the latest possible results and complete set of references available. The different contrast mechanisms in imaging by x-rays are described. The applications range from whole-body imaging to studies of atomic and molecular structures. The SR imaging applications include coronary angiography, bronchography, mammography, computed tomography, x-ray microscopy and imaging by scattering. The therapy applications include photon activation therapy and microbeam radiation therapy.

  1. Health status in the ambulance services: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sterud, Tom; Ekeberg, Øivind; Hem, Erlend

    2006-01-01

    Background Researchers have become increasingly aware that ambulance personnel may be at risk of developing work-related health problems. This article systematically explores the literature on health problems and work-related and individual health predictors in the ambulance services. Methods We identified the relevant empirical literature by searching several electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ISI Web of Science. Other relevant sources were identified through reference lists and other relevant studies known by the research group. Results Forty-nine studies are included in this review. Our analysis shows that ambulance workers have a higher standardized mortality rate, higher level of fatal accidents, higher level of accident injuries and a higher standardized early retirement on medical grounds than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Ambulance workers also seem to have more musculoskeletal problems than the general population. These conclusions are preliminary at present because each is based on a single study. More studies have addressed mental health problems. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptom caseness was > 20% in five of seven studies, and similarly high prevalence rates were reported for anxiety and general psychopathology in four of five studies. However, it is unclear whether ambulance personnel suffer from more mental health problems than the general working population. Conclusion Several indicators suggest that workers in the ambulance services experience more health problems than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Several methodological challenges, such as small sample sizes, non-representative samples, and lack of comparisons with normative data limit the interpretation of many studies. More coordinated research and replication are needed to compare data across studies. We discuss some strategies for future research. PMID:16817949

  2. Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

  3. Acute Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Appraisal of Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Kirk J.; Hu, Tian; Fee, Colin; Wang, Richard; Smith, Morgan; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few clinical practice guidelines provide management recommendations for acute hypertensive episodes except in the context of specific conditions such as pregnancy and stroke. Methods We performed a systematic search to identify guidelines addressing acute hypertension and appraised the guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) validated quality assessment tool. Two reviewers independently appraised and one extracted key recommendations. Literature on secondary hypertension, hypertension in pregnancy, preeclampsia/eclampsia, stroke, aortic dissection, and pheochromocytoma was excluded. Results Three guidelines were identified, sponsored by the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) in conjunction with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). AGREE II yielded mean domain (%) and overall assessment scores (1-7) as follows: NHLBI: 73%, 5.5; ACEP: 67%, 5.5; and ESH/ESC: 56%, 4.5. In hypertensive emergencies, the NHLBI guideline recommends reducing mean arterial pressure by ?25% for the first hour, and then to 160/100-110 mmHg by 2-6 hours with subsequent gradual normalization in 24-48 hours. The ESH/ESC has similar recommendations. The ACEP does not address guidelines for hypertensive emergency but focuses on whether screening for target organ damage or medical intervention in patients with asymptomatic elevated blood pressure in emergency departments reduces the rate of adverse outcomes, concluding that routine screening does not reduce adverse outcomes, but patients with poor follow-up may benefit from routine screening. Conclusion NHLBI and ESH/ESC guidelines are high quality and provide similar recommendations for management of asymptomatic acute hypertensive episodes and hypertensive emergencies. Additional research is needed to inform clinical practice guidelines for this common condition. PMID:25598731

  4. Residential mobility in childhood and health outcomes: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Jelleyman; N Spencer

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To assess evidence for residential mobility in childhood having an adverse association with health outcomes through the life course.Methods:A systematic search of medical and social sciences literature was undertaken to identify research defining residential mobility as an independent variable and in which health outcomes were described and objectively measured. Studies were excluded that investigated international migration for asylum or were

  5. A systematic review of natural health product treatment for vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orest Szczurko; Heather S Boon

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a hypopigmentation disorder affecting 1 to 4% of the world population. Fifty percent of cases appear before the age of 20 years old, and the disfigurement results in psychiatric morbidity in 16 to 35% of those affected. METHODS: Our objective was to complete a comprehensive, systematic review of the published scientific literature to identify natural health products

  6. Effective Early Childhood Education Programs: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Slavin, Robert E.; Smith, Dewi; Laurenzano, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This report systematically reviews research on the outcomes of programs that teach young children in a group setting before they begin kindergarten. Study inclusion criteria included the use of randomized or matched control groups, evidence of initial equality, and study duration of at least 12 weeks. Studies included valid measures of language,…

  7. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Schmucker; Robert Grosselfinger; Rob Riemsma; Gerd Antes; Stefan Lange; Wolf Lagrèze; Jos Kleijnen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of

  8. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose-Ramon Rueda; Javier Ballesteros; Maria-Isabel Tejada

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and\\/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled

  9. Valerian for Sleep: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Bent; Amy Padula; Dan Moore; Michael Patterson; Wolf Mehling

    2006-01-01

    Insomnia affects approximately one-third of the adult population and contributes to increased rates of absenteeism, health care use, and social disability. Extracts of the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) are widely used for inducing sleep and improving sleep quality. A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of valerian for improving sleep quality is presented. An extensive literature search identified 16

  10. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Lobb; Linda J. Kristjanson; Samar M. Aoun; Leanne Monterosso; Georgia K. B. Halkett; Anna Davies

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the relationship to the deceased. Factors associated

  11. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  12. Facial Emotion Recognition in Child Psychiatry: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…

  13. A Systematic Review of Elderly Suicide Prevention Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Lapierre; Annette Erlangsen; Margda Waern; Diego De Leo; Hirofumi Oyama; Paolo Scocco; Joseph Gallo; Katalin Szanto; Yeates Conwell; Brian Draper; Paul Quinnett

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. Aims: We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas needing further exploration. Methods: Searches through various electronic databases yielded 19 studies with an empirical

  14. Ultrasound therapy for musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniëlle A. W. M. van der Windt; Geert J. M. G. van der Heijden; Suzanne G. M. van den Berg; Gerben ter Riet; Andrea F. de Winter; Lex M. Bouter

    1999-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound therapy is used frequently to reduce pain and related disability, mainly by physiotherapists. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: Published reports of randomized clinical trials investigating the effects of ultrasound therapy on pain, disability or range of motion were identified by a systematic search

  15. Prediction of Institutionalisation in Dementia A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Luppa; Tobias Luck; Hans-Helmut König; Steffi G. Riedel-Heller

    Background\\/Aims: In the past decades, a substantial num- ber of studies considered factors influencing institutionali- sation of persons with dementia. This study reviews recent work on predictors of actual institutionalisation in dementia. Method: Relevant articles were identified by a systematic search of the literature. Studies were considered which in- cluded persons aged 65 and over, and whose results were based

  16. Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…

  17. Role Reversals in the Life-Course: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura J. Moriarty; Nicolle Parsons-Pollard

    2008-01-01

    In this manuscript, we systematically review the literature on role reversals in the life-course. The term “role reversals” in this context means changes between the roles of offender and victim (and vice versa) over time. The majority of the literature focuses on the complex relationship between victim and offender in violent situations. The phrases “violence begets violence” or the “transgenerational

  18. Strength of Evidence in Systematic Reviews in Software Engineering

    E-print Network

    for enabling evidence-based practice as they bring together, and combine, the findings from multiple studies as the evidence they are based on. It is important, therefore, that users of systematic reviews know how much], [32]. This is useful, in evidence-based software engineering (EBSE), which aims to improve decision

  19. Does Being Overweight Impede Academic Attainment? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Josephine; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Kathryn; Oliver, Sandy; Stansfield, Claire; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine evidence from studies exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and educational attainment. Design: A systematic review of secondary analyses and observational studies published in English after 1997 examining attainment as measured by grade point average or other validated measure, in children aged 6 to 16 years,…

  20. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Fitzpatrick-Lewis; Jennifer Yost; Donna Ciliska; Shari Krishnaratne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review

  1. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  2. The Social Relations Model in Family Studies: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…

  3. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META?ANALYSIS: A PRIMER

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The use of an evidence?based approach to practice requires “the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values”, where the best evidence can be gathered from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta?analyses. Furthermore, informed decisions in healthcare and the prompt incorporation of new research findings in routine practice necessitate regular reading, evaluation, and integration of the current knowledge from the primary literature on a given topic. However, given the dramatic increase in published studies, such an approach may become too time consuming and therefore impractical, if not impossible. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta?analyses can provide the “best evidence” and an unbiased overview of the body of knowledge on a specific topic. In the present article the authors aim to provide a gentle introduction to readers not familiar with systematic reviews and meta?analyses in order to understand the basic principles and methods behind this type of literature. This article will help practitioners to critically read and interpret systematic reviews and meta?analyses to appropriately apply the available evidence to their clinical practice. PMID:23091781

  4. Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Peters; Melanie Harling; Madeleine Dulon; Anja Schablon; José Torres Costa; Albert Nienhaus

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. METHOD: A systematic review has been prepared in which publications

  5. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…

  6. Classroom Dialogue: A Systematic Review across Four Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Abedin, Manzoorul

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that empirical research into classroom dialogue has been conducted for about 40?years, a review is reported of 225 studies published between 1972 and 2011. The studies were identified through systematic search of electronic databases and scrutiny of publication reference lists. They focus on classroom dialogue in primary and secondary…

  7. Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Headache: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bronfort; Willem J. J. Assendelft; Roni Evans; Lex Bouter

    Background: Chronic headache is a preva- lent condition with substantial socioeco- nomic impact. Complementary or alterna- tive therapies are increasingly being used by patients to treat headache pain, and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is among the most common of these. Objective: To assess the efficacy\\/effectiveness of SMT for chronic headache through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Study Selection:

  8. A Systematic Map of Systematic Reviews in Pediatric Dentistry—What Do We Really Know?

    PubMed Central

    Mejàre, Ingegerd A.; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K.; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina; Twetman, Svante H. A.; Tranæus, Sofia H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. Methods A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps. Results Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low. Conclusion There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry. PMID:25706629

  9. Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985–2012) were surveyed using the terms “endometriosis and physical exercises”, “endometriosis and life style and physical exercises” in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293

  10. Yoga for Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Yoga is thought to be effective for health conditions. The article aims to assess the current clinical evidence of yoga for Essential hypertension (EH). Strategy MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched until June, 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing yoga against conventional therapy, yoga versus no treatment, yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy or conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results A total of 6 studies (involving 386 patients) were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. A total of 6 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. 4 of them compared yoga plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy. 1 RCT described yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. 2 RCT tested the effect of yoga versus conventional therapy alone. 1 RCT described yoga compared to no treatment. Only one trial reported adverse events without details, the safety of yoga is still uncertain. Conclusions There is some encouraging evidence of yoga for lowering SBP and DBP. However, due to low methodological quality of these identified trials, a definite conclusion about the efficacy and safety of yoga on EH cannot be drawn from this review. Therefore, further thorough investigation, large-scale, proper study designed, randomized trials of yoga for hypertension will be required to justify the effects reported here. PMID:24124549

  11. Anthrax: a systematic review of atypical presentations.

    PubMed

    Holty, Jon-Erik C; Kim, Rebecca Y; Bravata, Dena M

    2006-08-01

    During the 2001 US anthrax attacks, mortality from inhalational anthrax was significantly lower than had been reported historically, which was attributed in part to early identification and timely treatment. During future attacks, clinicians will rely on published descriptions of the clinical features of inhalational anthrax to rapidly diagnose patients and institute appropriate treatment. Published descriptions of typical inhalation anthrax usually include patients presenting with cough, dyspnea, or chest pain and found to have abnormal lung examination results with pleural effusions or enlarged mediastinum. The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether atypical presentations of inhalational anthrax occur and to describe the features of these presentations. We define atypical presentations as those in patients with confirmed anthrax infection who do not have known cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational ports of entry. We reviewed the case reports of 42 patients with atypical anthrax (published between 1900 and 2004) that may have had an inhalational source of infection to evaluate whether their clinical presentations differed from the typical findings of inhalational anthrax. Patients with atypical anthrax were less likely to have cough, chest pain, or abnormal lung examination results than patients with typical inhalational anthrax (P<.05 for all comparisons). A previously published screening protocol for patients with suspected anthrax correctly identified 91% of patients with atypical presentations. We conclude that although uncommon, atypical presentations of inhalational anthrax likely occur. Timely diagnosis and treatment of patients with inhalational anthrax require clinical awareness of the full spectrum of signs and symptoms associated with inhalational anthrax. PMID:16857469

  12. Medication-overuse headache: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Lundqvist, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a worldwide health problem with a prevalence of 1%–2%. It is a severe form of headache where the patients often have a long history of headache and of unsuccessful treatments. MOH is characterized by chronic headache and overuse of different headache medications. Through the years, withdrawal of the overused medication has been recognized as the treatment of choice. However, currently, there is no clear consensus regarding the optimal strategy for management of MOH. Treatment approaches are based on expert opinion rather than scientific evidence. This review focuses on aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of MOH. We suggest that information and education about the risk of MOH is important since the condition is preventable. Most patients experience reduction of headache days and intensity after successful treatment. The first step in the treatment of MOH should be carried out in primary care and focus primarily on withdrawal, leaving prophylactic medication to those who do not manage primary detoxification. For most patients, a general practitioner can perform the follow-up after detoxification. More complicated cases should be referred to neurologists and headache clinics. Patients suffering with MOH have much to gain by an earlier treatment-focused approach, since the condition is both preventable and treatable. PMID:25061336

  13. Nontrauma helicopter emergency medical services transport: Annotated review of selected outcomes-related literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen H. Thomas; Farah Cheema; Melissa Cumming; Suzanne K. Wedel; David Thomson

    2002-01-01

    While helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has its roots in military transport of wounded soldiers, rotor-wing transport is also used for a wide variety of nontrauma indications. Despite this common use of HEMS for noninjured patients, a Medline search found little systematic review of the literature pertinent to HEMS use for nontrauma. With HEMS utilization subject to appropriately increased scrutiny,

  14. Trauma helicopter emergency medical services transport: Annotated review of selected outcomes-related literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen H. Thomas; Farah Cheema; Suzanne K. Wedel; David Thomson

    2002-01-01

    Based on its roots in military air evacuation, helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has always been emphasized as a tool for trauma transportation. Despite much discussion regarding resource allocation for HEMS, a literature search found little recent systematic review of pertinent studies. As HEMS utilization is subject to increased scrutiny in a health care dollar-conscious environment, it was felt that

  15. Systematic review: conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several conservative (i.e., nonpharmacologic, nonsurgical) treatments exist for secondary lymphedema. The optimal treatment is unknown. We examined the effectiveness of conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema, as well as harms related to these treatments. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials®, AMED, and CINAHL from 1990 to January 19, 2010. We obtained English- and non-English-language randomized controlled trials or observational studies (with comparison groups) that reported primary effectiveness data on conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema. For English-language studies, we extracted data in tabular form and summarized the tables descriptively. For non-English-language studies, we summarized the results descriptively and discussed similarities with the English-language studies. Results Thirty-six English-language and eight non-English-language studies were included in the review. Most of these studies involved upper-limb lymphedema secondary to breast cancer. Despite lymphedema's chronicity, lengths of follow-up in most studies were under 6 months. Many trial reports contained inadequate descriptions of randomization, blinding, and methods to assess harms. Most observational studies did not control for confounding. Many studies showed that active treatments reduced the size of lymphatic limbs, although extensive between-study heterogeneity in areas such as treatment comparisons and protocols, and outcome measures, prevented us from assessing whether any one treatment was superior. This heterogeneity also precluded us from statistically pooling results. Harms were rare (< 1% incidence) and mostly minor (e.g., headache, arm pain). Conclusions The literature contains no evidence to suggest the most effective treatment for secondary lymphedema. Harms are few and unlikely to cause major clinical problems. PMID:22216837

  16. Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kip

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…

  17. Occupational therapy interventions for shoulder conditions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    von der Heyde, Rebecca L

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were (1) to identify, evaluate, and synthesize the research literature of relevance to occupational therapy regarding interventions for work-related shoulder conditions and (2) to interpret and apply the research literature to occupational therapy. Twenty-two studies were reviewed for this study-16 of Level I evidence, 2 of Level II evidence, and 4 of Level III evidence. In this systematic review, limited evidence from Level I studies was found to support exercise for shoulder pain; manual therapy and laser for adhesive capsulitis; conservative management of shoulder instability; early intervention without immobilization for specific, nondisplaced proximal humerus fractures; and exercise, joint mobilizations, and laser for patients with shoulder impingement. Further prospective studies are necessary for the delineation of specific surgical and therapeutic variables that facilitate positive outcomes in the treatment of patients with shoulder conditions. PMID:21309367

  18. Client-Directed Interventions to Increase Community Access to Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy C. Baron; Barbara K. Rimer; Ralph J. Coates; Jon Kerner; Geetika P. Kalra; Stephanie Melillo; Nancy Habarta; Katherine M. Wilson; Sajal Chattopadhyay; Kimberly Leeks

    2008-01-01

    Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet not all people who should be screened are screened, either regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effective- ness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation,

  19. Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review of Laparoscopic Surgery and Simulation-Based Training

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Grover, Amelia C.; Pastis, Nicholas J.; Feldman, Moshe; Granados, Deborah Diaz; Murithi, Lydia K.; Mainous, Arch G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This systematic review was conducted to analyze the impact and describe simulation-based training and the acquisition of laparoscopic surgery skills during medical school and residency programs. Methods This systematic review focused on the published literature that used randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of simulation-based training to develop laparoscopic surgery skills. Searching PubMed from the inception of the databases to May 1, 2014 and specific hand journal searches identified the studies. This current review of the literature addresses the question of whether laparoscopic simulation translates the acquisition of surgical skills to the operating room (OR). Results This systematic review of simulation-based training and laparoscopic surgery found that specific skills could be translatable to the OR. Twenty-one studies reported learning outcomes measured in five behavioral categories: economy of movement (8 studies); suturing (3 studies); performance time (13 studies); error rates (7 studies), and global rating (7 studies). Conclusion Simulation-based training can lead to demonstrable benefits of surgical skills in the OR environment. This review suggests that simulation-based training is an effective way to teach laparoscopic surgery skills, increase translation of laparoscopic surgery skills to the OR, and increase patient safety; however, more research should be conducted to determine if and how simulation can become apart of surgical curriculum. PMID:25716408

  20. Motivation in Software Engineering: A systematic literature review Sarah Beecham a,*, Nathan Baddoo a

    E-print Network

    Motivation in Software Engineering: A systematic literature review Sarah Beecham a,*, Nathan Baddoo a systematic literature review of motivation in Software Engineering. The objective of this review is to plot and how existing models address motivation. Methods: We perform a systematic literature review of peer

  1. REVIEW ARTICLE: Medical implants based on microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokwa, W.

    2007-05-01

    The fast development of CMOS technologies to smaller dimensions led to very high integration densities with complex circuitry on very small chip areas. In 2006 Intel fabricated the first products in a 65 nm technology. The cointegration of microsensors or actuators together with the very low power consumption of the CMOS circuitry is very well suited for use in implanted systems. Applications like intracranial or intraocular pressure measurements have become possible. This review presents an overview over actual applications and developments of sensor/actuator-based microsystems for medical implants. It concentrates on the technical part of these investigations. It will mainly review work on systems measuring pressure in blood vessels and on systems for ophthalmic applications.

  2. Literature Review of Testing Techniques for Medical Device Software

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Literature Review of Testing Techniques for Medical Device Software John J. Majikes Department As software-controlled medical devices evolve from monolithic de- vices to modular Medical Cyber existing software-testing techniques that expose failures in software-controlled medical devices. In par

  3. The impact of cosmetic breast implants on breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cosmetic breast augmentation (breast implants) is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures worldwide and uptake in high income countries has increased in the last two decades. Women need information about all associated outcomes in order to make an informed decision regarding whether to undergo cosmetic breast surgery. We conducted a systematic review to assess breastfeeding outcomes among women with breast implants compared to women without. Methods A systematic literature search of Medline, Pubmed, CINAHL and Embase databases was conducted using the earliest inclusive dates through December 2013. Eligible studies included comparative studies that reported breastfeeding outcomes (any breastfeeding, and among women who breastfed, exclusive breastfeeding) for women with and without breast implants. Pairs of reviewers extracted descriptive data, study quality, and outcomes. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled across studies using the random-effects model. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to critically appraise study quality, and the National Health and Medical Research Council Level of Evidence Scale to rank the level of the evidence. This systematic review has been registered with the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42014009074. Results Three small, observational studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was fair (NOS 4-6) and the level of evidence was low (III-2 - III-3). There was no significant difference in attempted breastfeeding (one study, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.76, 1.17). However, among women who breastfed, all three studies reported a reduced likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding amongst women with breast implants with a pooled rate ratio of 0.60 (95% CI 0.40, 0.90). Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that women with breast implants who breastfeed were less likely to exclusively feed their infants with breast milk compared to women without breast implants. PMID:25332722

  4. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Shelley; Dunger, David B.; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of impaired glucose tolerance first recognised during pregnancy. Most women with GDM revert to normal glucose metabolism after delivery of their babies; however, they are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life as are their offspring. Determining a country’s GDM prevalence can assist with policy guidelines regarding GDM screening and management, and can highlight areas requiring research. This systematic review assesses GDM prevalence in Africa. Methods and Findings Three electronic databases were searched without language restrictions; PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library. Thirty-one search terms were searched. Eligible articles defined GDM, stated what GDM screening approaches were employed and reported GDM prevalence. The reporting quality and risk of bias within each study was assessed. The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. The literature search identified 466 unique records. Sixty full text articles were reviewed of which 14 were included in the systematic review. One abstract, for which the full text article could not be obtained, was also included. Information regarding GDM classification, screening methods and prevalence was obtained for six African countries; Ethiopia (n?=?1), Morocco (n?=?1), Mozambique (n?=?1), Nigeria (n?=?6), South Africa (n?=?4) and Tanzania (n?=?1). Prevalence figures ranged from 0% (Tanzania) to 13.9% (Nigeria) with some studies focussing on women with GDM risk factors. Most studies utilised the two hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and applied the World Health Organization’s diagnostic criteria. Conclusions Six countries, equating to 11% of the African continent, were represented in this systematic review. This indicates how little is known about GDM in Africa and highlights the need for further research. Considering the increasing public health burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is essential that the extent of GDM is understood in Africa to allow for effective intervention programmes. PMID:24892280

  5. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  6. Towards the systematic development of medical networking technology.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Shetty, Ravindra; Sree, S Vinitha; Acharya, Sripathi; Acharya U, Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Poo, Chua Kok; Suri, Jasjit

    2011-12-01

    Currently, there is a disparity in the availability of doctors between urban and rural areas of developing countries. Most experienced doctors and specialists, as well as advanced diagnostic technologies, are available in urban areas. People living in rural areas have less or sometimes even no access to affordable healthcare facilities. Increasing the number of doctors and charitable medical hospitals or deploying advanced medical technologies in these areas might not be economically feasible, especially in developing countries. We need to mobilize science and technology to master this complex, large scale problem in an objective, logical, and professional way. This can only be achieved with a collaborative effort where a team of experts works on both technical and non-technical aspects of this health care divide. In this paper we use a systems engineering framework to discuss hospital networks which might be solution for the problem. We argue that with the advancement in communication and networking technologies, economically middle class people and even some rural poor have access to internet and mobile communication systems. Thus, Hospital Digital Networking Technologies (HDNT), such as telemedicine, can be developed to utilize internet, mobile and satellite communication systems to connect primitive rural healthcare centers to well advanced modern urban setups and thereby provide better consultation and diagnostic care to the needy people. This paper describes requirements and limitations of the HDNTs. It also presents the features of telemedicine, the implementation issues and the application of wireless technologies in the field of medical networking. PMID:20703774

  7. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.?M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  8. Self-Management Support Interventions for Stroke Survivors: A Systematic Meta-Review

    PubMed Central

    Parke, Hannah L.; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Pearce, Gemma; Taylor, Stephanie J. C.; Sheikh, Aziz; Griffiths, Chris J.; Greenhalgh, Trish; Pinnock, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Background There is considerable policy interest in promoting self-management in patients with long-term conditions, but it remains uncertain whether these interventions are effective in stroke patients. Design Systematic meta-review of the evidence for self-management support interventions with stroke survivors to inform provision of healthcare services. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED, BNI, Database of Abstracts of Reviews for Effectiveness, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews of self-management support interventions for stroke survivors. Quality was assessed using the R-AMSTAR tool, and data extracted using a customised data extraction form. We undertook a narrative synthesis of the reviews' findings. Results From 12,400 titles we selected 13 systematic reviews (published 2003-2012) representing 101 individual trials. Although the term ‘self-management’ was rarely used, key elements of self-management support such as goal setting, action planning, and problem solving were core components of therapy rehabilitation interventions. We found high quality evidence that supported self-management in the context of therapy rehabilitation delivered soon after the stroke event resulted in short-term (< 1 year) improvements in basic and extended activities of daily living, and a reduction in poor outcomes (dependence/death). There is some evidence that rehabilitation and problem solving interventions facilitated reintegration into the community. Conclusions Self-management terminology is rarely used in the context of stroke. However, therapy rehabilitation currently successfully delivers elements of self-management support to stroke survivors and their caregivers with improved outcomes. Future research should focus on managing the emotional, medical and social tasks of long-term survivorship. PMID:26204266

  9. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Lloyd; S C Langley-Evans; S McMullen

    2010-01-01

    Background:Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk.Objective:To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether

  10. Group treatment for postpartum depression: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice H. Goodman; Gabrielle Santangelo

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious public health problem affecting 10% to 15% of women during the first year after delivery\\u000a with negative consequences for both mother and infant. There is a need for evidence-based interventions to treat this disorder.\\u000a Thus, the purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding group treatment for PPD to determine\\u000a the

  11. Rituximab for Children with Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Liang; Lingli Zhang; Ju Gao; Die Hu; Yuan Ai

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundRituximab has been widely used off-label as a second line treatment for children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). However, its role in the management of pediatric ITP requires clarification. To understand and interpret the available evidence, we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of rituximab for children with ITP.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI,

  12. Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) Tool to Support Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Emma R.; Bell, Shannon M.; Cote, Ila; Wang, Rong-Lin; Perkins, Edward J.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gong, Ping; Burgoon, Lyle D.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health risk assessors are challenged to understand and incorporate new data streams as the field of toxicology continues to adopt new molecular and systems biology technologies. Systematic screening reviews can help risk assessors and assessment teams determine which studies to consider for inclusion in a human health assessment. A tool for systematic reviews should be standardized and transparent in order to consistently determine which studies meet minimum quality criteria prior to performing in-depth analyses of the data. The Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) tool is focused on assisting risk assessment support teams in performing systematic reviews of transcriptomic studies. SOAR is a spreadsheet tool of 35 objective questions developed by domain experts, focused on transcriptomic microarray studies, and including four main topics: test system, test substance, experimental design, and microarray data. The tool will be used as a guide to identify studies that meet basic published quality criteria, such as those defined by the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment standard and the Toxicological Data Reliability Assessment Tool. Seven scientists were recruited to test the tool by using it to independently rate 15 published manuscripts that study chemical exposures with microarrays. Using their feedback, questions were weighted based on importance of the information and a suitability cutoff was set for each of the four topic sections. The final validation resulted in 100% agreement between the users on four separate manuscripts, showing that the SOAR tool may be used to facilitate the standardized and transparent screening of microarray literature for environmental human health risk assessment. PMID:25531884

  13. Environmental correlates of children's active transportation: A systematic literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina Pont; Jenny Ziviani; David Wadley; Sally Bennett; Rebecca Abbott

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the environmental (physical, economic, socio-cultural and political) correlates of active transportation (AT) among young people aged 5–18 years to better inform the promotion of active living. Greater distance, increasing household income and increasing car ownership are consistently associated with lower rates of AT among children. Having a non-white ethnic background has a convincing positive association with

  14. Neuroimaging and APOE Genotype: A Systematic Qualitative Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Cherbuin; Liana S. Leach; Helen Christensen; Kaarin J. Anstey

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has also been implicated in cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and cognitive changes in healthy ageing. The aim of this paper is to systematically review and critically assess the association between the APOE genotype and structural\\/functional cerebral changes as evidenced by brain imaging studies. A second

  15. Effect of fish oil on arrhythmias and mortality: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernando León; Marcelo C Shibata; Soori Sivakumaran; Marlene Dorgan; Trish Chatterley; Ross T Tsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the literature on the effects of fish oil—docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)—on mortality and arrhythmias and to explore dose response and formulation effects.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Academic OneFile, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine, and

  16. Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) tool to support risk assessment.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Emma R; Bell, Shannon M; Cote, Ila; Wang, Rong-Lin; Perkins, Edward J; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gong, Ping; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health risk assessors are challenged to understand and incorporate new data streams as the field of toxicology continues to adopt new molecular and systems biology technologies. Systematic screening reviews can help risk assessors and assessment teams determine which studies to consider for inclusion in a human health assessment. A tool for systematic reviews should be standardized and transparent in order to consistently determine which studies meet minimum quality criteria prior to performing in-depth analyses of the data. The Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) tool is focused on assisting risk assessment support teams in performing systematic reviews of transcriptomic studies. SOAR is a spreadsheet tool of 35 objective questions developed by domain experts, focused on transcriptomic microarray studies, and including four main topics: test system, test substance, experimental design, and microarray data. The tool will be used as a guide to identify studies that meet basic published quality criteria, such as those defined by the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment standard and the Toxicological Data Reliability Assessment Tool. Seven scientists were recruited to test the tool by using it to independently rate 15 published manuscripts that study chemical exposures with microarrays. Using their feedback, questions were weighted based on importance of the information and a suitability cutoff was set for each of the four topic sections. The final validation resulted in 100% agreement between the users on four separate manuscripts, showing that the SOAR tool may be used to facilitate the standardized and transparent screening of microarray literature for environmental human health risk assessment. PMID:25531884

  17. Variability in Diagnostic Criteria for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan S. Dellon; Ademola Aderoju; John T. Woosley; Robert S. Sandler; Nicholas J. Shaheen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity defined by abnormal esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Our understanding of this disease is hampered by the lack of a uniform diagnostic standard. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the range of diagnostic strategies and histologic criteria in the EoE literature.METHODS:The MEDLINE-indexed literature from 1950 through December 31, 2006 was independently

  18. Efficacy of spinal manipulation for chronic headache: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bronfort; Willem J. J. Assendelft; Roni Evans; Mitchell Haas; Lex Bouter

    2001-01-01

    Background: Chronic headache is a prevalent condition with substantial socioeconomic impact. Complementary or alternative therapies are increasingly being used by patients to treat headache pain, and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is among the most common of these.Objective: To assess the efficacy\\/effectiveness of SMT for chronic headache through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials on chronic

  19. The treatment of depression in cancer patients: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Rodin; Nancy Lloyd; Mark Katz; Esther Green; Jean A. Mackay; Rebecca K. S. Wong

    2007-01-01

    Goals of the work:  To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments for depression in cancer populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods:  The Supportive Care Guidelines Group conducted a systematic review of the published literature through June 2005. Search sources\\u000a includes MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library. Comparative studies of treatments for depression in\\u000a cancer patients were selected for review by

  20. Frozen shoulder: A systematic review of therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Harpal Singh; Evans, Jonathan Peter; Smith, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Frozen shoulder is a common disease which causes significant morbidity. Despite over a hundred years of treating this condition the definition, diagnosis, pathology and most efficacious treatments are still largely unclear. This systematic review of current treatments for frozen shoulder reviews the evidence base behind physiotherapy, both oral and intra articular steroid, hydrodilatation, manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic capsular release. Key areas in which future research could be directed are identified, in particular with regard to the increasing role of arthroscopic capsular release as a treatment. PMID:25793166

  1. The Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions to Reduce the Health Impact of Climate Change: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Bouzid, Maha; Hooper, Lee; Hunter, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. Methods and Findings For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. Conclusion In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health. PMID:23634220

  2. The Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction in Leptospirosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an endemo-epidemic zoonotic disease associated with potentially fatal renal, cardiovascular or pulmonary failure. Recommended treatment includes antibiotics, which may induce a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR). Since little information on the importance of this adverse event is available, we performed this review to quantify frequency and impact of JHR in leptospirosis management. Methodology/Principal Findings This review systematically summarizes the literature on the JHR in leptospirosis. To approach the broader aspects of the subject, articles considering the treatment of leptospirosis, national leptospirosis guidelines and textbook and technical reports of the World Health Organisation were reviewed. Publications describing JHR in leptospirosis are very limited and consist mainly of single case reports and small case series. A single randomized control trial specifically assessed the JHR occurrence, but it has never been systematically investigated in large trials. Not all guidelines and not all literature on leptospirosis mention this reaction which can be fatal. Conclusions/Significance Although generally assumed to be a rare event, the true prevalence of JHR in leptospirosis is unknown and the awareness of this event is insufficient. All leptospirosis guidelines and local leptospirosis protocols should stress on systematic monitoring for clinical status early after antibiotic administration. Large well designed studies are required to precise the incidence and the impact of JHR as well as the severity and rates between various antibiotics. PMID:23555644

  3. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine V Lightowler; Mark W Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of non›invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the management of respiratory failure secondary to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials that compared NPPV and usual medical care with usual medical care alone in patients admitted to hospital with respiratory failure resulting from an exacerbation of chronic obstructive

  4. Physical Therapy Interventions for Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Knee: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gro Jamtvedt; Kristin Thuve Dahm; Anne Christie; Rikke H Moe; Espen Haavardsholm; Inger Holm; Kåre B Hagen

    Patients with osteoarthritis of the knee are commonly treated by physical therapists. Practice should be informed by updated evidence from systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to summarize the evidence from systematic reviews on the effectiveness of physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2007 were identified by a comprehensive literature search.

  5. Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain

    E-print Network

    Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering such approach, the practice of systematic literature review, to the published stud- ies relevant to topics within the software engineering domain. The systematic literature review process is summarised, a number

  6. A systematic review of the evidence supporting the use of priority dispatch of emergency ambulances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Wilson; Matthew Cooke; Richard Morrell; Pam Bridge; Teresa Allan

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. Systematic reviews of the literature assist in the location, appraisal, and synthesis of available evidence. This systematic review aimed to 1) assess the existing literature evaluating the effect of the priority dispatch of emergency ambulances on clinical outcome and ambulance utilization and 2) assess the relative effectiveness of sources of literature relevant to prehospital care. Methods. Systematic review. The

  7. Review of medical reports on pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2007-10-01

    The present report is a review of all 554 papers published on Medline on pedophilia. The first discussion is the history of the disorder from ancient Greece to the present time, especially the influence of the liberal country of the Netherlands, the North American Man-Boy Love Association, and the sexual crisis in the Catholic Church. One important question is the relationship between homosexual pedophilia and adult homosexuality. Evidence for and against this relationship is presented. Next discussed are the characteristics of the victim and the long lasting serious effects of sexual abuse. Laboratory correlations are included, especially phallometric tests in order to objectively measure the physical responses to sexual stimuli. Electrophysiological and radiographic tests are also mentioned, including electroencephalography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scans. An important section is the characterization of pedophiles with emphasis on their frequent previous sexual abuse, their past, their present, and their anticipated future. The final topic is treatment of this disorder with surgery, medication, behavioral therapy and the combination of medication and behavioral therapy. PMID:17502450

  8. Effect of pneumoperitoneum on renal perfusion and function: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scbastian Demyttenaere; Liane S. Feldman; Gerald M. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Background  The precise physiologic consequences of insufflating carbon dioxide into the abdominal cavity during laparoscopy are not yet\\u000a fully understood. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether pneumoperitoneum results in decreased renal blood flow\\u000a (RBF) or renal function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A literature search was conducted electronically using Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane libraries on 1 July 2005. Various\\u000a combinations of the medical subject

  9. [History of discussions of the Committee for Medical Safety Review].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    After notorious medical accidents in 1999 and 2000, medical safety promotion was enhanced in Japan. After struggling for years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare succeeded in increasing societal interest, including that of the medical community, in medical accident review, and a draft outline of the Bill for the Committee for Medical Safety Review was announced in 2008. This draft outline proposed establishing an independent governmental body to conduct medical accident reviews. The body was meant to collect information on all cases of death related to medical care, review the cases if needed, and announce the findings to prevent future accidents. It was also planned to adjust criminal procedures in such cases, about which the medical community was extremely concerned. Anxiety over that section of the draft outline was expressed by medical personnel, and it was decided to reconsider the plan. In August 2011, a study group on no-fault compensation and related matters was established. Its four meetings led to the establishment of a working group for discussions on the optimum method for accident review. In February 2012, a working group on the accident review system and related matters was established. After eight meetings, the opinions of its members still differed considerably. The search for a definitive conclusion on medical accident review that will find widespread acceptance continues. PMID:23617187

  10. The effectiveness of interventions for reducing stigma related to substance use disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, James D; Milne, Teresa; Fang, Mei Lan; Amari, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has empirically evaluated interventions designed to reduce stigma related to substance use disorders. Methods A comprehensive review of electronic databases was conducted to identify evaluations of substance use disorder related stigma interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed using systematic review methods. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was moderately strong. Interventions of three studies (23%) focused on people with substance use disorders (self-stigma), three studies (23%) targeted the general public (social stigma) and seven studies (54%) focused on medical students and other professional groups (structural stigma). Nine interventions (69%) used approaches that included education and/or direct contact with people who have substance use disorders. All but one study indicated their interventions produced positive effects on at least one stigma outcome measure. None of the interventions have been evaluated across different settings or populations. Conclusions A range of interventions demonstrate promise for achieving meaningful improvements in stigma related to substance use disorders. The limited evidence indicates that self-stigma can be reduced through therapeutic interventions such as group-based acceptance and commitment therapy. Effective strategies for addressing social stigma include motivational interviewing and communicating positive stories of people with substance use disorders. For changing stigma at a structural level, contact-based training and education programs targeting medical students and professionals (e.g. police, counsellors) are effective. PMID:21815959

  11. Reducing systematic review workload through certainty-based screening

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Makoto; Thomas, James; O’Mara-Eves, Alison; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    In systematic reviews, the growing number of published studies imposes a significant screening workload on reviewers. Active learning is a promising approach to reduce the workload by automating some of the screening decisions, but it has been evaluated for a limited number of disciplines. The suitability of applying active learning to complex topics in disciplines such as social science has not been studied, and the selection of useful criteria and enhancements to address the data imbalance problem in systematic reviews remains an open problem. We applied active learning with two criteria (certainty and uncertainty) and several enhancements in both clinical medicine and social science (specifically, public health) areas, and compared the results in both. The results show that the certainty criterion is useful for finding relevant documents, and weighting positive instances is promising to overcome the data imbalance problem in both data sets. Latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) is also shown to be promising when little manually-assigned information is available. Active learning is effective in complex topics, although its efficiency is limited due to the difficulties in text classification. The most promising criterion and weighting method are the same regardless of the review topic, and unsupervised techniques like LDA have a possibility to boost the performance of active learning without manual annotation. PMID:24954015

  12. Lifestyle risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Helen C; Jefferies, Johanna M; Clarke, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature for evidence of smoking and alcohol intake as independent risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Design Systematic review. Methods MEDLINE (1946—May 2012) and EMBASE (1947—May 2012) were searched for studies investigating alcohol or smoking as risk factors for acquiring IPD and which reported results as relative risk. Studies conducted exclusively in clinical risk groups, those assessing risk factors for outcomes other than acquisition of IPD and studies describing risk factors without quantifying a relative risk were excluded. Results Seven observational studies were identified and reviewed; owing to the heterogeneity of study design, meta-analysis was not attempted. Five of six studies investigating smoking reported an increased risk of IPD in the range 2.2–4.1. Four of the six studies investigating alcohol intake reported a significant increased risk for IPD ranging from 2.9 to 11.4, while one reported a significant protective effect. Conclusions Overall, these observational data suggest that smoking and alcohol misuse may increase the risk of IPD in adults, but the magnitude of this risk remains unclear and should be explored with further research. The findings of this review will contribute to the debate on whether pneumococcal vaccine should be offered to smokers and people who misuse alcohol in addition to other clinically defined risk groups. PMID:24951110

  13. Occupational therapy and return to work: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this review study was to gather evidence on the effectiveness in terms of return to work (RTW) of occupational therapy interventions (OTIs) in rehabilitation patients with non-congenital disorders. A secondary aim was to be able to select the most efficient OTI. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers was conducted using electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Ebsco, Medline (Pubmed), and PsycInfo). The search focussed on randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published in English from 1980 until September 2010. Scientific validity of the studies was assessed. Results Starting from 1532 papers with pertinent titles, six studies met the quality criteria. Results show systematic reviewing of OTIs on RTW was challenging due to varying populations, different outcome measures, and poor descriptions of methodology. There is evidence that OTIs as part of rehabilitation programs, increase RTW rates, although the methodological evidence of most studies is weak. Conclusions Analysis of the selected papers indicated that OTIs positively influence RTW; two studies described precisely what the content of their OTI was. In order to identify the added value of OTIs on RTW, studies with well-defined OT intervention protocols are necessary. PMID:21810228

  14. Instruments Measuring Blunted Affect in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms. PMID:26035179

  15. Systematic Review of Endoscopic Middle Ear Surgery Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kozin, Elliott D.; Gulati, Shawn; Lehmann, Ashton; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Kaplan, Alyson; Landegger, Lukas D.; Cohen, Michael S.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Middle ear surgery increasingly employs endoscopes as an adjunct to or replacement for the operative microscope. Superior visualization and transcanal access to disease normally managed with a transmastoid approach are touted as advantages with the endoscope. No study, however, has systemically reviewed the literature to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery (EES). We provide a systematic review of endoscope applications in middle ear surgery with an emphasis on outcomes. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Methods A literature review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis recommendations. Articles were categorized based on study design, indication, and use of an endoscope either as an adjunct to or as a replacement for a microscope. Quantitative and descriptive analyses were performed. Results Ninety-one articles published between 1967 and 2014 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main indication for the use of an endoscope was cholesteatoma or myringoplasty. Of the identified articles, 40 provided a discrete discussion of outcomes. In cholesteatoma surgery, the endoscope has been mainly employed as an adjunct to the microscope, and although outcomes assessments vary across studies, the endoscope identified residual cholesteatoma in up to 50% of cases. Conclusion Endoscopes have been predominately used as an observational adjunct to the microscope to improve visualization of the tympanic cavity. Recent reports utilize the endoscope exclusively during surgical dissection; however, data comparing patient outcomes following the use of an operative endoscope versus a microscope are lacking. Areas in need of additional research are highlighted. PMID:25418475

  16. Reducing systematic review workload through certainty-based screening.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Makoto; Thomas, James; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-10-01

    In systematic reviews, the growing number of published studies imposes a significant screening workload on reviewers. Active learning is a promising approach to reduce the workload by automating some of the screening decisions, but it has been evaluated for a limited number of disciplines. The suitability of applying active learning to complex topics in disciplines such as social science has not been studied, and the selection of useful criteria and enhancements to address the data imbalance problem in systematic reviews remains an open problem. We applied active learning with two criteria (certainty and uncertainty) and several enhancements in both clinical medicine and social science (specifically, public health) areas, and compared the results in both. The results show that the certainty criterion is useful for finding relevant documents, and weighting positive instances is promising to overcome the data imbalance problem in both data sets. Latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) is also shown to be promising when little manually-assigned information is available. Active learning is effective in complex topics, although its efficiency is limited due to the difficulties in text classification. The most promising criterion and weighting method are the same regardless of the review topic, and unsupervised techniques like LDA have a possibility to boost the performance of active learning without manual annotation. PMID:24954015

  17. New activities and changing roles of health sciences librarians: a systematic review, 1990–2012

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, I. Diane; Crum, Janet A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The paper identifies and documents new health sciences librarian activities and roles during the period from 1990–2012. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, Library and Information Abstracts, Library Literature, Scopus, and Web of Science. To find new roles that might not yet have been described in the literature, job announcements published in the Medical Library Association email discussion list archives from 2008–2012 were searched. For inclusion, an article needed to contain a substantive description of a new role and/or activity performed by librarians and be in the field of medical or health sciences librarianship. Papers that did not describe an actual (rather than proposed) librarian role were excluded. Results: New roles identified through the literature search were: embedded librarians (such as clinical informationist, bioinformationist, public health informationist, disaster information specialist); systematic review librarian; emerging technologies librarian; continuing medical education librarian; grants development librarian; and data management librarian. New roles identified through job announcements were digital librarian, metadata librarian, scholarly communication librarian, and translational research librarian. New twists to old roles were also identified: clinical medical librarian, instruction librarian, outreach librarian, and consumer health librarian. Conclusions: While the main purposes of health sciences librarianship remain the same, the new roles represent major new activities so that, for many librarians, daily on-the-job work is completely different. Implications: This list of new activities should inform students contemplating medical librarianship careers, guide formal and continuing education programs, and encourage other librarians to consider these new services. PMID:24163598

  18. Patient Web Portals to Improve Diabetes Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Y. Osborn; Lindsay Satterwhite Mayberry; Shelagh A. Mulvaney; Rachel Hess

    2010-01-01

    Patient web portals (PWPs), defined as the integration of electronic medical records and patient health records, have been\\u000a related to enhanced patient outcomes. A literature review was conducted to characterize the design and evaluation of PWPs\\u000a to improve health care processes and outcomes in diabetes. A summary of 26 articles revealed the positive impact PWPs have\\u000a on patient outcomes, patient-provider

  19. Safety of TNF-? inhibitors during IBD pregnancy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitors are increasingly being used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Because this chronic intestinal disorder often affects women of fertile age, it is essential to assess the effect of biologics on pregnancy outcome. Methods We performed a systematic review of the English-language literature to investigate if treatment with TNF-? blockers during pregnancy in women with IBD increases the risk of spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, congenital malformations, or risk of infections in the offspring. Of 552 articles and abstracts reviewed, 58 articles or abstracts with unique content were identified and included in this systematic review. However, most presentations were case reports or case series supplied by a limited number of observational studies. No randomized controlled studies were available. Results TNF-? inhibitors do not seem to affect either outcome of pregnancy in mothers with IBD, or the outcome in the offspring (congenital malformations and immunosuppression). Further, recent data have not identified any increased risk of infections in the first year of life in the offspring of mothers who received biologics, even in combination with immunomodulators (thiopurines). Conclusions From the present systematic review, no association was found between administration of TNF inhibitors for IBD during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome or congenital abnormalities. Further, no increased relative risk of infections has been reported in the first year of life in offspring of mothers who received biologics. Biologics should be discontinued during pregnancy solely if the IBD is in remission using the same stopping criteria as for patients with IBD in general, as uncontrolled activity of IBD may expose the mother and child to a risk greater than those only potentially coming from the use of TNF-? inhibitors. In such cases, inoculation of the offspring with live vaccines is contraindicated until the biologic agent is no longer detectable in the child’s circulation. PMID:23902720

  20. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses. PMID:25860572

  1. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  2. Outcomes of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We performed a systematic review to assess the functional outcomes of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing as reported in peer-reviewed literature. Methods We performed a computerized search on the data sources up to February 2011. The following text and key words were searched: “Birmingham hip”, “Birmingham hip resurfacing” and “Hip resurfacing”. Each of these key words was again searched with “outcomes” following them. We also hand searched the bibliographies of the retrieved articles and our own files to identify specifically relevant articles. Results Fourteen retrospective studies and three prospective studies were included for review. Each of these studies was evaluated by the criteria given by Sackett and AACPDM. The design, patient criteria, intervention, outcomes, duration of follow up and results of the research were reported. Conclusions Although the technique of BHR does allow the femur to be spared, claims that it may allow patients to be more active need to be further investigated. PMID:22461959

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This raises some concern that existing studies do not always cover all the regions globally that currently experience landslides and landslide fatalities.

  4. Computer-tailored dietary behaviour change interventions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Leonie M.; O'Hara, Blythe; Milat, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Improving dietary behaviours such as increasing fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing saturated fat intake are important in the promotion of better health. Computer tailoring has shown promise as a strategy to promote such behaviours. A narrative systematic review was conducted to describe the available evidence on ‘second’-generation computer-tailored primary prevention interventions for dietary behaviour change and to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Systematic literature searches were conducted through five databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and All EBM Reviews and by examining the reference lists of relevant articles to identify studies published in English from January 1996 to 2008. Randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs with pre-test and post-test behavioural outcome data were included. A total of 13 articles were reviewed, describing the evaluation of 12 interventions, seven of which found significant positive effects of the computer-tailored interventions for dietary behaviour outcomes, one also for weight reduction outcomes. Although the evidence of short-term efficacy for computer-tailored dietary behaviour change interventions is fairly strong, the uncertainty lies in whether the reported effects are generalizable and sustained long term. Further research is required to address these limitations of the evidence. PMID:19286893

  5. Methods for biomimetic remineralization of human dentine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chris Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved with full texts. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 716 studies were found, and 690 were excluded after initial screening. Two articles were identified from the bibliographies of the remaining papers. After retrieving the full text, 23 were included in this systematic review. Sixteen studies used analogues to mimic the functions of non-collagenous proteins in biomineralization of dentine, and four studies used bioactive materials to induce apatite formation on demineralized dentine surface. One study used zinc as a bioactive element, one study used polydopamine, and another study constructed an agarose hydrogel system for biomimetic mineralization of dentine. Many studies reported success in biomimetic mineralization of dentine, including the use of non-collagenous protein analogues, bioactive materials, or elements and agarose hydrogel system. PMID:25739078

  6. Dedicated Spine Trauma Clinical Quality Registries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Jin W.; Chan, Patrick C. H.; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.; Gruen, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design?Systematic review. Objective?We assessed the current state of spine registries by collecting spine trauma data and assessing their compliance to defined registry standards of being clinical quality. We ascertained if these registries collected spinal cord injury data alone or with spine column trauma data. Methods?A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE and Embase databases for articles describing dedicated spinal cord and spine column databases published between January 1990 and April 2011. Correspondence with these registries was performed via e-mail or post. When no correspondence was possible, the registries were analyzed with best information available. Results?Three hundred eight full-text articles were reviewed. Of 41 registries identified, 20 registries fulfilled the criteria of being clinical quality. The main reason for failure to attain clinical quality designation was due to the unavailability of patient outcomes. Eight registries collected both spine column and spinal cord injury data with 33 collecting only traumatic spinal cord injury data. Conclusion?There is currently a paucity of clinical quality spine trauma registries. Clinical quality registries are important tools for demonstrating trends and outcomes, monitoring care quality, and resolving controversies in the management of spine trauma. An international spine trauma data set (containing both spinal cord and spine column injury data) and standardized approach to recording and analysis are needed to allow international multicenter collaboration and benchmarking. PMID:24436881

  7. Methods for Biomimetic Remineralization of Human Dentine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chris Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved with full texts. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 716 studies were found, and 690 were excluded after initial screening. Two articles were identified from the bibliographies of the remaining papers. After retrieving the full text, 23 were included in this systematic review. Sixteen studies used analogues to mimic the functions of non-collagenous proteins in biomineralization of dentine, and four studies used bioactive materials to induce apatite formation on demineralized dentine surface. One study used zinc as a bioactive element, one study used polydopamine, and another study constructed an agarose hydrogel system for biomimetic mineralization of dentine. Many studies reported success in biomimetic mineralization of dentine, including the use of non-collagenous protein analogues, bioactive materials, or elements and agarose hydrogel system. PMID:25739078

  8. Complications after percutaneous ablation of liver tumors: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Eylon; Eshkenazy, Rony; Zendel, Alex; Zakai, Barak Bar; Maor, Mayan; Dreznik, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ablation therapy has been accepted as a promising and safe technique for treatment of unrespectable hepatic tumors, investigation of its complications has been limited. A physician who performs ablation treatment of hepatic malignancies should be aware of the broad spectrum of complications. Proper management is possible only if the physician Performing ablation understands the broad spectrum of complications encountered after ablation. Objectives To systematically review the complications after different ablation modalities: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA) and Nano knife for the treatment of liver tumors and analyze possible risk factors that precipitate these complications. Search methods We performed electronic searches in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHARNE. Current trials were identified through the Internet (from January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2014). We included only studies who specific mentioned complications after liver ablation therapy (RFA/MWA/Nano knife). Main results A total of 2,588 publications were identified, after detailed examination only 32 publications were included in the review. The included studies involved 15,744 participants. According to the type of technique, 13,044 and 2,700 patients were included for RFA and MWA. Analysis showed a pooled mortality of 0.15% for RFA, and 0.23% for MWA. Conclusions This systematic review gathers information from controlled clinical trials and observational studies which are vulnerable to different types of bias, never the less RFA and MWA can be considered safe techniques for the treatment of liver tumors. PMID:25392844

  9. Anorexia nervosa and body fat distribution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry-Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  10. Role, implementation, and effectiveness of advanced allied health assistants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stanhope, Jessica; Pearce, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness and implementation of advanced allied health assistant roles. Methods A systematic search of seven databases and Google Scholar was conducted to identify studies published in English peer-reviewed journals from 2003 to 2013 and reporting on the effectiveness and implementation of advanced allied health assistant (A/AHA) roles. Reference lists were also screened to identify additional studies, and the authors’ personal collections of studies were searched. Studies were allocated to the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and appraisal of higher-level studies (III-1 and above) conducted using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine Systematic Review Critical Appraisal Sheet for included systematic reviews or the PEDro scale for level II and III-1 studies. Data regarding country, A/AHA title, disciplines, competencies, tasks, level of autonomy, clients, training, and issues regarding the implementation of these roles were extracted, as were outcomes used and key findings for studies investigating their effectiveness. Results Fifty-three studies were included, and most because they reported background information rather than investigating A/AHA roles, this representing low-level information. A/AHAs work in a range of disciplines, with a variety of client groups, and in a number of different settings. Little was reported regarding the training available for A/AHAs. Four studies investigated the effectiveness of these roles, finding that they were generally well accepted by clients, and provided more therapy time. Issues in integrating these new roles into existing health systems were also reported. Conclusion A/AHA roles are being implemented in a range of settings, and appear to be effective in terms of process measures and stakeholder perceptions. Few studies have investigated these roles, indicating a need for research to be conducted in this area to enable policy-makers to consider the value of these positions and how they can best be utilized. PMID:24324337

  11. Health assessment of commercial drivers: a meta-narrative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Firwana, Belal; Cowl, Clayton T; Steinkraus, Lawrence W; Prokop, Larry J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle accidents associated with commercial driving are an important cause of occupational death and impact public safety. Objectives We summarise the evidence regarding the type, prevalence and impact of medical conditions discovered during health assessment of commercial drivers. Evidence review We conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic databases and made a manual search for relevant studies that enrolled commercial drivers in any country and reported the outcomes of health assessment carried out in the context of commercial driving through November 2012. Data were extracted by a pair of independent reviewers and synthesised using a metanarrative approach. Results We identified 32 studies of moderate methodological quality enrolling 151?644 commercial drivers (98% men). The prevalence of multiple health conditions was high (sleep disorders 19%, diabetes 33%, hypertension 23% and obesity 45%). Some conditions, such as sleep disorders and obesity, were linked to increased risk of crashes. Evidence on several other highly relevant medical conditions was lacking. Cost-effectiveness data were sparse. Conclusions Several medical conditions are highly prevalent in commercial drivers and can be associated with increased risk of crashes, thus providing a rationale for health assessment of commercial drivers. PMID:24604478

  12. Genetic Association Studies in Lumbar Disc Degeneration: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Eskola, Pasi J.; Lemmelä, Susanna; Kjaer, Per; Solovieva, Svetlana; Männikkö, Minna; Tommerup, Niels; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.; Chan, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Objective Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, The Genetic Association Database and The Human Genome Epidemiology Network for information published between 1990–2011 addressing genes and lumbar disc degeneration. Two investigators independently identified studies to determine inclusion, after which they performed data extraction and analysis. The level of cumulative genetic association evidence was analyzed according to The HuGENet Working Group guidelines. Results Fifty-two studies were included for review. Forty-eight studies reported at least one positive association between a genetic marker and lumbar disc degeneration. The phenotype definition of lumbar disc degeneration was highly variable between the studies and replications were inconsistent. Most of the associations presented with a weak level of evidence. The level of evidence was moderate for ASPN (D-repeat), COL11A1 (rs1676486), GDF5 (rs143383), SKT (rs16924573), THBS2 (rs9406328) and MMP9 (rs17576). Conclusions Based on this first extensive systematic review on the topic, the credibility of reported genetic associations is mostly weak. Clear definition of lumbar disc degeneration phenotypes and large population-based cohorts are needed. An international consortium is needed to standardize genetic association studies in relation to disc degeneration. PMID:23185509

  13. Pharmacological treatments for frontotemporal dementias: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Nardell, Maria; Tampi, Rajesh R

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the current data on the pharmacological treatments for frontotemporal dementias from randomized controlled trials. A systematic search of 4 major databases, PubMed, Medline, PsychINFO and Cochrane, found a total of 9 randomized controlled, double-blinded clinical trials. Of these, 2 trials used the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), paroxetine; 1 trial used trazodone; 2 trials used stimulants (methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine); 1 trial used the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, galantamine; 2 trials used the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, memantine; and 1 trial used the neuropeptide oxytocin. The analysis of the available data indicates that SSRIs, trazodone, and the amphetamines may be effective in reducing some behavioral symptoms, but none of these medications had an impact on cognition. Available data indicate that these medications were well tolerated in all the trials. PMID:24164931

  14. Economic burden of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with lymphoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Jun; Lopez, Shaun Eric; Chan, Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective of this review was to identify the cost components that were most frequently associated with the economic burden of febrile neutropenia (FN) among patients with lymphoma. The secondary objective was to identify any parameter associated with higher FN cost. Ten cost of illness (COI) studies were identified. General characteristics on study design, country, perspective, and patient population were extracted and systematically reported. It was observed that majority (70%) of the studies employed the perspective of healthcare provider. 20% of the studies considered long-term costs. Estimated costs were adjusted to 2013 US dollars and ranged from US$5819 to US$34,756. The cost components that were most frequently associated with economic burden were ward and medication costs. Inpatient management, male gender, discharged dead, and comorbidity were positively associated with higher FN costs. Future COI studies on FN should focus on the accurate estimation on ward and medication costs. PMID:25600838

  15. Optimal treatment of social phobia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Canton, John; Scott, Kate M; Glue, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a number of recommendations for the treatment of generalized social phobia, based on a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. An optimal treatment regimen would include a combination of medication and psychotherapy, along with an assertive clinical management program. For medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are first-line choices based on their efficacy and tolerability profiles. The nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor, phenelzine, may be more potent than these two drug classes, but because of its food and drug interaction liabilities, its use should be restricted to patients not responding to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. There are other medication classes with demonstrated efficacy in social phobia (benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, alpha-2-delta ligands), but due to limited published clinical trial data and the potential for dependence and withdrawal issues with benzodiazepines, it is unclear how best to incorporate these drugs into treatment regimens. There are very few clinical trials on the use of combined medications. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be more effective than other evidence-based psychological techniques, and its effects appear to be more enduring than those of pharmacotherapy. There is some evidence, albeit limited to certain drug classes, that the combination of medication and cognitive behavior therapy may be more effective than either strategy used alone. Generalized social phobia is a chronic disorder, and many patients will require long-term support and treatment. PMID:22665997

  16. Moxibustion for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Hun Kim; Tae-Yong Choi; Byung-Cheul Shin; Myeong Soo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective  Moxibustion is currently used for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) as a non-drug intervention in East Asian countries. This\\u000a systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion for managing the symptoms of type 2 DM patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We searched MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, six Korean databases, and four Chinese databases. Risk of\\u000a bias was used for evaluating the

  17. Environmental correlates of children's active transportation: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pont, Karina; Ziviani, Jenny; Wadley, David; Bennett, Sally; Abbott, Rebecca

    2009-09-01

    This systematic review investigated the environmental (physical, economic, socio-cultural and political) correlates of active transportation (AT) among young people aged 5-18 years to better inform the promotion of active living. Greater distance, increasing household income and increasing car ownership are consistently associated with lower rates of AT among children. Having a non-white ethnic background has a convincing positive association with AT. Having recreation facilities and walk or bike paths present are possibly associated with higher rates of AT. Further research requires longitudinal and intervention studies, utilizing multi-level design methodologies and objective measures of environmental attributes. PMID:19285904

  18. Transapical Versus Transaortic Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Ben; Tan, Darren; Chu, Daniel; Yau, Victor; Xiao, Jinguo; Ho, Kwok Ming; Yong, Gerald; Larbalestier, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Two alternative approaches for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) exist for patients unsuitable for the transfemoral approach; the transapical and the transaortic approaches. It is unclear as to which approach has superior short-term outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to answer this question. Mortality was equivalent in the 2 groups. There was a trend toward a lower rate of stroke in the transaortic group (0.9% vs 2.1%) but this was not statistically significant. Conversion to surgical aortic valve replacement, paravalvular leak, pacemaker requirement, and major bleeding occurred at equivalent rates. PMID:26002442

  19. Repair of Parastomal Hernias with Biologic Grafts: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Jonathan Slater; Bibi M. E. Hansson; Otmar R. Buyne; Thijs Hendriks; Robert P. Bleichrodt

    2011-01-01

    Background  Biologic grafts are increasingly used instead of synthetic mesh for parastomal hernia repair due to concerns of synthetic\\u000a mesh-related complications. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the use of these collagen-based scaffolds for\\u000a the repair of parastomal hernias.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Studies were retrieved after searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL. The search terms ‘paracolostomy’,\\u000a ‘paraileostomy’, ‘parastomal’, ‘colostomy’, ‘ileostomy’,

  20. The Value of Neuraminidase Inhibitors for the Prevention and Treatment of Seasonal Influenza: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, Barbara; Van Puyenbroeck, Karolien; Verhoeven, Veronique; Vermeire, Etienne; Coenen, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs), especially against influenza-related complications. A literature search was performed to critically assess the evidence collected by the available systematic reviews (SRs) regarding the benefits and disadvantages of NIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir) compared to placebos in healthy and at-risk individuals of all ages for prophylaxis and treatment of seasonal influenza. A SR was done using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Health Technology Assessment Database, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Medline (January 2006–July 2012). Two reviewers selected SRs based on randomized clinical trials, which were restricted to intention-to-treat results, and they assessed review (AMSTAR) and study quality indicators (GRADE). The SRs included (N?=?9) were of high quality. The efficacy of NIs in prophylaxis ranged from 64% (16–85) to 92% (37–99); the absolute risk reduction ranged from 1.2% to 12.1% (GRADE moderate to low). Clinically relevant treatment benefits of NIs were small in healthy adults and children suffering from influenza-like illness (GRADE high to moderate). Oseltamivir reduced antibiotic usage in healthy adults according to one SR, but this was not confirmed by other reviews (GRADE low). Zanamivir showed a preventive effect on antibiotic usage in children (95% (77–99);GRADE moderate) and on the occurrence of bronchitis in at-risk individuals (59% (30–76);GRADE moderate). No evidence was available on the treatment benefits of NIs in elderly and at-risk groups and their effects on hospitalization and mortality. In oseltamivir trials, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were significant side-effects. For zanamivir trials, no adverse effects have been reported. The combination of diagnostic uncertainty, the risk for virus strain resistance, possible side effects and financial cost outweigh the small benefits of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the prophylaxis and treatment of healthy individuals. No relevant benefits of these NIs on complications in at-risk individuals have been established. PMID:23565231

  1. Systematic Review of Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099

  2. Richness or Rigour? A Discussion of Systematic Reviews and Evidence-Based Policy in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen; Lloyd, Eva

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on the experiences of the Early Years Review Group, one of a number of education groups contracted to carry out systematic reviews for the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Coordinating (EPPI) Centre in the United Kingdom. The Early Years Review Group has carried out three systematic reviews: one…

  3. Acupuncture for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun; Peng, Weina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate commonly encountered in older men. BPH has been treated with acupuncture inside and outside China, but its effects are uncertain. This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for BPH. Methods and analysis Seven databases will be searched from their inception: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the VIP Database and Wanfang Database. Randomised controlled clinical trials using acupuncture to treat BPH will be included. Outcome measures included urological symptom scores, urodynamic measures and quality-of-life scales. Adverse events will be assessed and reported for safety evaluation. Study selection and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment (assessment of risk of bias) and data synthesis will be implemented using Review Manager (RevMan) software (V.5.2.3). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not necessary because this systematic review will not include specific patient data. Updates will be conducted if there is enough new evidence that may cause any change in review conclusions. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014013645. PMID:25838507

  4. A systematic scoping review of adherence to reporting guidelines in health care literature

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Zainab; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Kosa, Daisy; Debono, Victoria Borg; Dillenburg, Rejane; Zhang, Shiyuan; Fruci, Vincent; Dennis, Brittany; Bawor, Monica; Thabane, Lehana

    2013-01-01

    Background Reporting guidelines have been available for the past 17 years since the inception of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement in 1996. These guidelines were developed to improve the quality of reporting of studies in medical literature. Despite the widespread availability of these guidelines, the quality of reporting of medical literature remained suboptimal. In this study, we assess the current adherence practice to reporting guidelines; determine key factors associated with better adherence to these guidelines; and provide recommendations to enhance adherence to reporting guidelines for future studies. Methods We undertook a systematic scoping review of systematic reviews of adherence to reporting guidelines across different clinical areas and study designs. We searched four electronic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Embase, and Medline) from January 1996 to September 2012. Studies were included if they addressed adherence to one of the following guidelines: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Quality of Reporting of Meta-analysis (QUOROM), Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs (TREND), Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). A protocol for this study was devised. A literature search, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two authors in duplicate. This study reporting follows the PRISMA guidelines. Results Our search retrieved 5159 titles, of which 50 were eligible. Overall, 86.0% of studies reported suboptimal levels of adherence to reporting guidelines. Factors associated with better adherence included journal impact factor and endorsement of guidelines, publication date, funding source, multisite studies, pharmacological interventions and larger studies. Conclusion Reporting guidelines in the clinical literature are important to improve the standards of reporting of clinical studies; however, adherence to these guidelines remains suboptimal. Action is therefore needed to enhance the adherence to these standards. Strategies to enhance adherence include journal editorial policies endorsing these guidelines. PMID:23671390

  5. Motivations of physicians and nurses to practice voluntary euthanasia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While a number of reviews have explored the attitude of health professionals toward euthanasia, none of them documented their motivations to practice euthanasia. The objective of the present systematic review was to identify physicians’ and nurses’ motives for having the intention or for performing an act of voluntary euthanasia and compare findings from countries where the practice is legalized to those where it is not. Methods The following databases were investigated: MEDLINE/PubMed (1950+), PsycINFO (1806+), CINAHL (1982+), EMBASE (1974+) and FRANCIS (1984+). Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861+) was also investigated for gray literature. Additional studies were included by checking the references of the articles included in the systematic review as well as by looking at our personal collection of articles on euthanasia. Results This paper reviews a total of 27 empirical quantitative studies out of the 1 703 articles identified at the beginning. Five studies were in countries where euthanasia is legal and 22 in countries where it is not. Seventeen studies were targeting physicians, 9 targeted nurses and 1 both health professionals. Six studies identified the motivations underlying the intention to practice euthanasia, 16 the behavior itself and 5 both intention and behavior. The category of variables most consistently associated with euthanasia is psychological variables. All categories collapsed, the four variables most frequently associated with euthanasia are past behavior, medical specialty, whether the patient is depressed and the patient’s life expectancy. Conclusions The present review suggests that physicians and nurses are motivated to practice voluntary euthanasia especially when they are familiar with the act of euthanasia, when the patient does not have depressive symptoms and has a short life expectancy and their motivation varies according to their medical specialty. Additional studies among nurses and in countries where euthanasia is legal are needed. PMID:24716567

  6. Cost-effectiveness of guideline-endorsed treatments for low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Haas, Marion; Maher, Chris G; Machado, Luciana A C; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2011-07-01

    Healthcare costs for low back pain (LBP) are increasing rapidly. Hence, it is important to provide treatments that are effective and cost-effective. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of guideline-endorsed treatments for LBP. We searched nine clinical and economic electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and included studies for eligible studies. Economic evaluations conducted alongside randomised controlled trials investigating treatments for LBP endorsed by the guideline of the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society were included. Two independent reviewers screened search results and extracted data. Data extracted included the type and perspective of the economic evaluation, the treatment comparators, and the relative cost-effectiveness of the treatment comparators. Twenty-six studies were included. Most studies found that interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation or cognitive-behavioural therapy were cost-effective in people with sub-acute or chronic LBP. Massage alone was unlikely to be cost-effective. There were inconsistent results on the cost-effectiveness of advice, insufficient evidence on spinal manipulation for people with acute LBP, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of medications, yoga or relaxation. This review found evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness of the guideline-endorsed treatments of interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation and cognitive-behavioural therapy for sub-acute or chronic LBP. There is little or inconsistent evidence for other treatments endorsed in the guideline. PMID:21229367

  7. Tutorial for writing systematic reviews for the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy (BJPT).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marisa C; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Sampaio, Rosana F; Costa, Lucíola C M; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize all evidence using very rigorous methods in order to address a specific research question with less bias as possible. Systematic reviews are widely used in the field of physical therapy, however not all reviews have good quality. This tutorial aims to guide authors of the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy on how systematic reviews should be conducted and reported in order to be accepted for publication. It is expected that this tutorial will help authors of systematic reviews as well as journal editors and reviewers on how to conduct, report, critically appraise and interpret this type of study design. PMID:25590440

  8. Sexual dysfunction in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kurizky, Patricia Shu; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis is a cutaneous-articular disease, whose incidence ranges from 1% to 3%. Stress tends to be a triggering or aggravating factor in psoriasis. In addition, the disease itself can generate emotional stress because of its lesions. Several psychological disorders can be associated with psoriasis, and feelings such as rage, depression, shame, and anxiety have been commonly reported, which can culminate in social isolation and sexual dysfunction. Despite being a common complaint among patients with psoriasis, sexual dysfunction has been rarely reported in the literature. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, assessing the role played by factors such as depression and severity of disease in this relation. This systematic review showed that data on the sexual difficulties of patients with psoriasis are scarce. The hypotheses to explain sexual dysfunction in that group of patients include the severity of skin findings, the psychological effects of the condition on the patient, concerns of the sexual partner, and side effects of the medical treatments for psoriasis. Those data emphasize that this type of symptomatology is frequently neglected in medical practice, and stress the importance of assessing the impact of psoriasis regarding not only cutaneous and joint involvements, but also psychosocial and sexual impairments. Considering the sociocultural diversities of each population, a specific study of the Brazilian population to provide more information about our patients is required. PMID:23223703

  9. A systematic review of safety violations in industry.

    PubMed

    Alper, Samuel J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2009-07-01

    It is widely known that intentional non-malevolent violations of safety procedures and norms occur and evidence shows that safety violations can increase the risk of accidents. However, little research about the causes of these violations in work settings exists. To help shed light on the causes, this paper systematically reviews the empirical causes of safety violations in industry. Electronic database literature searches were performed to identify relevant articles published prior to January 1, 2007. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria and 57 different variables were examined as predictors of safety violations. Study settings were healthcare delivery, commercial driving, aviation, mining, railroad, and construction. The predictors were categorized into individual characteristics, information/education/training, design to support worker needs, safety climate, competing goals, and problems with rules. None of the reviewed studies examined whether violations can improve system performance or safety. Methodological suggestions and a macroergonomic framework are offered for improving future studies of the epidemiology of safety violations. PMID:19540963

  10. A systematic review of peri-operative melatonin.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L P H; Werner, M U; Rosenberg, J; Gögenur, I

    2014-10-01

    We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials of peri-operative melatonin. We included 24 studies of 1794 participants that reported eight peri-operative outcomes: anxiety; analgesia; sleep quality; oxidative stress; emergence behaviour; anaesthetic requirements; steal induction; and safety. Compared with placebo, melatonin reduced the standardised mean difference (95% CI) pre-operative anxiety score by 0.88 (0.44-1.33) and postoperative pain score by 1.06 (0.23-1.88). The magnitude of effect was unreliable due to substantial statistical heterogeneity, with I(2) 87% and 94%, respectively. Qualitative reviews suggested the melatonin improved sleep quality and emergence behaviour, and might be capable of reducing oxidative stress and anaesthetic requirements. PMID:24835540

  11. Trismus in head and neck oncology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, P U; Kalk, W W I; Roodenburg, J L N

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this review was to identify systematically, criteria for trismus in head and neck cancer, the evidence for risk factors for trismus and the interventions to treat trismus. Three databases were searched (time period 1966 to June 2003) for the text "trismus" or "restricted mouth opening". Included in the review were clinical studies (> or = 10 patients). Two observers independently assessed the papers identified. In 12 studies nine different criteria for trismus were found without justifying these criteria. Radiotherapy (follow-up: 6-12 months) involving the structures of the temporomandibular joint and or pterygoid muscles reduces mouth opening with 18% (sd: 17%). Exercises using a therabite device or tongue blades increase mouth opening significantly (no follow-up), effect sizes (ES) 2.6 and 1.5 respectively. Microcurrent electrotherapy (follow-up 3 months) and pentoxifylline (no follow-up) increases mouth opening significantly (ES for both: 0.3). PMID:15380165

  12. Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug application. The methodological quality of the included studies was relatively low. None of the induction techniques were verified to induce lucid dreams reliably and consistently, although some of them look promising. On the basis of the reviewed studies, a taxonomy of lucid dream induction methods is presented. Several methodological issues are discussed and further directions for future studies are proposed. PMID:22841958

  13. The socio-economic impact of telehealth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jennett, P A; Affleck Hall, L; Hailey, D; Ohinmaa, A; Anderson, C; Thomas, R; Young, B; Lorenzetti, D; Scott, R E

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the socio-economic impact of telehealth, focusing on nine main areas: paediatrics, geriatrics, First Nations (i.e. indigenous peoples), home care, mental health, radiology, renal dialysis, rural/remote health services and rehabilitation. A systematic search led to the identification of 4646 citations or abstracts; from these, 306 sources were analysed. A central finding was that telehealth studies to date have not used socio-economic indicators consistently. However, specific telehealth applications have been shown to offer significant socio-economic benefit, to patients and families, health-care providers and the health-care system. The main benefits identified were: increased access to health services, cost-effectiveness, enhanced educational opportunities, improved health outcomes, better quality of care, better quality of life and enhanced social support. Although the review found a number of areas of socio-economic benefit, there is the continuing problem of limited generalizability. PMID:14680514

  14. Mind-body Therapies for Menopausal Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Vishnu, Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature regarding the effects of self-administered mind-body therapies on menopausal symptoms. Methods To identify qualifying studies, we searched 10 scientific databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed systematically using predefined criteria. Results Twenty-one papers representing 18 clinical trials from 6 countries met our inclusion criteria, including 12 randomized controlled trials (N=719), 1 non-randomized controlled trial (N=58), and 5 uncontrolled trials (N=105). Interventions included yoga and/or meditation-based programs, tai chi, and other relaxation practices, including muscle relaxation and breath-based techniques, relaxation response training, and low frequency sound-wave therapy. Eight of the nine studies of yoga, tai chi, and meditation-based programs reported improvement in overall menopausal and vasomotor symptoms; six of seven trials indicated improvement in mood and sleep with yoga-based programs, and four studies reported reduced musculoskeletal pain. Results from the remaining nine trials suggest that breath-based and other relaxation therapies also show promise for alleviating vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms, although intergroup findings were mixed. Most studies reviewed suffered methodological or other limitations, complicating interpretation of findings. Conclusions Collectively, findings of these studies suggest that yoga-based and certain other mind-body therapies may be beneficial for alleviating specific menopausal symptoms. However, the limitations characterizing most studies hinder interpretation of findings and preclude firm conclusions regarding efficacy. Additional large, methodologically sound trials are needed to determine the effects of specific mind-body therapies on menopausal symptoms, examine long-term outcomes, and investigate underlying mechanisms. PMID:20167444

  15. Collaborative Principal Preparation Programs: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to (1) conduct the systematic search of the literature to identify the studies on partnerships in school leader preparation; and to (2) systematically review the findings of these studies and synthesize them into major themes reflecting the state of the art in collaborative leadership preparation in the…

  16. Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Tom; Price, Deirdre; Demicheli, Vittorio; Bianco, Elvira

    2003-09-01

    Public debate over the safety of the trivalent measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the drop in vaccination rates in several countries persists despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence of unintended effects (beneficial or harmful) associated with MMR and the applicability of systematic reviewing methods to the field of safety evaluation. Eligible studies were comparative prospective or retrospective on healthy individuals up to 15 years of age, carried out or published by 2003. We identified 120 articles satisfying our inclusion criteria and included 22. MMR is associated with a lower incidence of upper respiratory tract infections, a higher incidence of irritability, similar incidence of other adverse effects compared to placebo and is likely to be associated with benign thrombocytopenic purpura (TP), parotitis, joint and limb complaints and aseptic meningitis (mumps Urabe strain-containing MMR). Exposure to MMR is unlikely to be associated with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autism or aseptic meningitis (mumps Jeryl-Lynn strain-containing MMR). The design and reporting of safety outcomes in MMR vaccine studies, both pre- and post-marketing, are largely inadequate. The evidence of adverse events following immunization with MMR cannot be separated from its role in preventing the target diseases. PMID:12922131

  17. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Jomphe-Tremblay, Simon; Lamothe, Gilles; Stacey, Dawn; Szczotka, Agnieszka; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass) over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM). In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks), the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions. PMID:25988763

  18. Media roles in suicide prevention: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the 'Werther effect') and less about protective effect media can have (the 'Papageno effect'). Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material. PMID:22470283

  19. Intracranial hypertension after surgical correction for craniosynostosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christian, Eisha A; Imahiyerobo, Thomas A; Nallapa, Swathi; Urata, Mark; McComb, J Gordon; Krieger, Mark D

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The authors' aim was perform a systematic review on the incidence of intracranial hypertension (IH) after surgery for craniosynostosis. METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed to assess the rate of postoperative IH in studies published between 1985 and 2014. Inclusion criteria were 1) English-language literature; 2) human subjects; 3) pediatric cases; and 4) postoperative IH confirmed with invasive intracranial pressure monitoring. RESULTS Seven studies met inclusion criteria. IH was reported to be present in 5% of patients postoperatively with sagittal synostosis and 4% of patients with all forms of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Inadequate numbers were available to determine the incidence of postoperative IH for syndromic and individual nonsyndromic sutural synostosis based on the inclusion criteria. Surgical groups were subdivided into cranial remodeling procedures without orbital advancement and craniofacial procedures with orbital advancement. IH was reported to be present in 5% of patients with all forms of nonsyndromic sutural stenosis after cranial remodeling procedures and 1% after craniofacial advancement. CONCLUSIONS Postoperative development of elevated intracranial pressure has been described by multiple institutions, but the variation in how IH is determined and the multiple surgical procedures to correct craniosynostosis has limited the number of studies subject to a meta-analysis. Nonetheless, this entity deserves special attention, and further studies are required to determine the true incidence of postoperative IH, including the role of various surgical procedures on its incidence. The long-term consequences of chronic IH in this group of patients also need to be evaluated. PMID:25929968

  20. Therapeutic vaccines for tuberculosis--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gröschel, Matthias I; Prabowo, Satria A; Cardona, Père-Joan; Stanford, John L; van der Werf, Tjip S

    2014-05-30

    For eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2050, the declared aim of the Stop TB Partnership, novel treatment strategies are indispensable. The emerging epidemic of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB has fuelled the debate about TB vaccines, as increasing numbers of patients can no longer be cured by pharmacotherapy. Of several proposed modalities, TB vaccines administered in therapeutic manner represents a promising alternative, despite the controversial history due to the occurrence of exacerbated immune response. A modified concept of immunotherapy is required in order to justify further exploration. In this paper we systematically reviewed the most advanced therapeutic vaccines for TB. We address the rationale of immunotherapeutic vaccination combined with optimized pharmacotherapy in active TB. We summarize preclinical and patient data regarding the five most advanced therapeutic vaccines currently in the pipeline. Of the five products that have been tested in animal models and in humans during active or latent TB, the quality of the published clinical reports of two of these products justify further studies in patients with active TB. This systematic review fuels further clinical evaluation eventually including head-to-head comparative studies. PMID:24726245

  1. Extended perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Akl, Elie A; Terrenato, Irene; Barba, Maddalena; Sperati, Francesca; Muti, Paola; Schünemann, Holger J

    2008-12-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature to compare the relative efficacy and safety of extended versus limited duration heparin for perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer. We followed the Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methodology and searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI the Web of Science, and CENTRAL. The outcomes of interest included mortality, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and bleeding. We evaluated the quality of evidence by outcome using the GRADE approach. Of 3,986 identified citations, we included three randomized clinical trials using low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). The quality of evidence for mortality, DVT, and major bleeding was low. There was no significant difference between extended (4 weeks) and limited duration thromboprophylaxis in terms of death at three months (relative risk [RR] = 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-1.94), or major bleeding at four weeks (RR = 2.94; 95% CI 0.12-71.85). An extended regimen was associated with a significantly lower risk of asymptomatic DVT (RR = 0.21; 95% CI 0.05-0.94). No data was available for symptomatic DVT. In conclusion, there is limited and low-quality evidence that extended duration LMWH for perioperative thromboprophylaxis reduces DVT in patients with cancer undergoing major abdominal or pelvic surgery. More and better quality evidence is needed to justify extended regimens. PMID:19132245

  2. Genotoxic risk in rubber manufacturing industry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Moretto, Angelo

    2014-10-15

    A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies among workers employed in the rubber manufacturing industry has indicated a significant excess cancer risk in a variety of sites. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently classified the "Occupational exposures in the rubber-manufacturing industry" as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). A genotoxic mechanism for the increased cancer risk was suggested on the basis of the evidence from the scientific literature. Exposure assessment studies have shown that workers in the rubber manufacturing industry may be exposed to different airborne carcinogenic and/or genotoxic chemicals, such as certain aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitrosamines, although the available information does not allow to establish a causal association of cancer or genotoxic risk with particular substances/classes of chemicals or specific jobs. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate, by conducting a systematic review, the available biomonitoring studies using genotoxicity biomarkers in rubber manufacturing industry. This systematic review suggests that a genotoxic hazard may still be present in certain rubber manufacturing industries. A quantitative risk assessment needs further studies addressing the different, processes and chemicals in the rubber manufacturing industries. PMID:24275385

  3. Towards automating the initial screening phase of a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bekhuis, Tanja; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Systematic review authors synthesize research to guide clinicians in their practice of evidence-based medicine. Teammates independently identify provisionally eligible studies by reading the same set of hundreds and sometimes thousands of citations during an initial screening phase. We investigated whether supervised machine learning methods can potentially reduce their workload. We also extended earlier research by including observational studies of a rare condition. To build training and test sets, we used annotated citations from a search conducted for an in-progress Cochrane systematic review. We extracted features from titles, abstracts, and metadata, then trained, optimized, and tested several classifiers with respect to mean performance based on 10-fold cross-validations. In the training condition, the evolutionary support vector machine (EvoSVM) with an Epanechnikov or radial kernel is the best classifier: mean recall=100%; mean precision=48% and 41%, respectively. In the test condition, EvoSVM performance degrades: mean recall=77%, mean precision ranges from 26% to 37%. Because near-perfect recall is essential in this context, we conclude that supervised machine learning methods may be useful for reducing workload under certain conditions. PMID:20841667

  4. Psychosocial interventions for adults with visible differences: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some individuals with visible differences have been found to experience psychosocial adjustment problems that can lead to social anxiety and isolation. Various models of psychosocial intervention have been used to reduce social anxiety and appearance related distress in this population. The objective of this review was to update a previous systematic review assessing the efficacy of psychosocial intervention programs for adults with visible differences. The original review (Bessell & Moss, 2007) identified 12 papers for inclusion. Methods. A search protocol identified studies from 13 electronic journal databases. Methods: Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. Results. This update identified an additional four papers that met the inclusion criteria. Two papers provided very limited evidence for the efficacy of a combined cognitive-behavioural and social skills training approach. None of the papers provided sufficient evidence for the optimal duration, intensity or setting of psychosocial interventions for this population. Discussion. The review concluded that a greater number of Randomised Controlled Trials and experimental studies were required to increase the methodological validity of intervention studies. PMID:25861556

  5. Systematic review on adverse birth outcomes of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Keikha, Mojtaba; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Climate change and global warming have significant effects on human health. This systematic review presents the effects of the climate changes on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: The search process was conducted in electronic databases including ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using key words of “environmental temperature” “pregnancy” “low birth weight (LBW)” “pregnancy outcome,” “climate change,” “preterm birth (PTB),” and a combination of them. We did not consider any time limitation; English-language papers were included. The related papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, two reviewers extracted the data while the third reviewer checked their extracted data. Finally, 15 related articles were selected and included in the current study. Results: Approximately all studies have reported a significant relationship between exposure variable and intended outcomes including eclampsia, preeclampsia, cataract, LBW, PTB, hypertension, sex ratio and length of pregnancy. According to conducted studies, decrease in birth weight is more possible in cold months. Increase in temperature was followed by increase in PTB rate. According to most of the studies, eclampsia and preeclampsia were more prevalent in cold and humid seasons. Two spectrums of heat extent, different seasons of the year, sunlight intensity and season of fertilization were associated with higher rates of PTB, hypertension, eclampsia, preeclampsia, and cataract. Conclusion: Climate change has unfavorable effects on eclampsia, preeclampsia, PTB, and cataract. The findings of this review confirm the crucial importance of the adverse health effects of climate change especially in the perinatal period.

  6. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Interventions in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Cathy L.; Campbell, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically review cognitive behavioral interventions for people with advanced cancer. Methods A literature search was conducted using Medline©, CINAHL©, and Psych-info©. Inclusion criteria: Studies were included in the review if they met the following criteria: (1) the design was a randomized clinical trial (2) the study tested a cognitive behavioral therapy, including psycho-educational, alternative and complementary therapies (i.e. acupuncture, relaxation), expressive, support and skill building interventions, (3) participants were adults (18 years of age or older) with advanced cancer and the (4) outcomes were directly related to the patient with advanced cancer. Results 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the studies in the review: treatment effects were not statistically significant in most studies, methods were not consistently described, and samples had limited racial/ethnic diversity. Conclusion The interpretation of the effectiveness of the CBI’s was limited by major challenges to the internal validity of the studies included in the review. The lack of data about the efficacy of CBI’s to support people with advanced cancer is a gap in the current knowledge base. Practice Implications Given the needs of people living with advanced cancer well-designed studies are needed to test interventions that will improve outcomes for people living with advanced cancer. PMID:22796302

  7. Application of statistical process control in healthcare improvement: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Johan; Lundberg, Jonas; Ask, Jakob; Olsson, Jesper; Carli, Cheryl; Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Brommels, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature regarding how statistical process control—with control charts as a core tool—has been applied to healthcare quality improvement, and to examine the benefits, limitations, barriers and facilitating factors related to such application. Data sources Original articles found in relevant databases, including Web of Science and Medline, covering the period 1966 to June 2004. Study selection From 311 articles, 57 empirical studies, published between 1990 and 2004, met the inclusion criteria. Methods A standardised data abstraction form was used for extracting data relevant to the review questions, and the data were analysed thematically. Results Statistical process control was applied in a wide range of settings and specialties, at diverse levels of organisation and directly by patients, using 97 different variables. The review revealed 12 categories of benefits, 6 categories of limitations, 10 categories of barriers, and 23 factors that facilitate its application and all are fully referenced in this report. Statistical process control helped different actors manage change and improve healthcare processes. It also enabled patients with, for example asthma or diabetes mellitus, to manage their own health, and thus has therapeutic qualities. Its power hinges on correct and smart application, which is not necessarily a trivial task. This review catalogues 11 approaches to such smart application, including risk adjustment and data stratification. Conclusion Statistical process control is a versatile tool which can help diverse stakeholders to manage change in healthcare and improve patients' health. PMID:17913782

  8. Systematic review of health-related quality of life models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL. PMID:23158687

  9. A Youth Suicide Prevention Plan for Canada: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kathryn; Rhodes, Anne E; Duda, Stephanie; Cheung, Amy H; Manassis, Katharina; Links, Paul; Mushquash, Christopher; Braunberger, Peter; Newton, Amanda S; Kutcher, Stanley; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Santos, Robert G; Manion, Ian G; McLennan, John D; Bagnell, Alexa; Lipman, Ellen; Rice, Maureen; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We conducted an expedited knowledge synthesis (EKS) to facilitate evidence-informed decision making concerning youth suicide prevention, specifically school-based strategies and nonschool-based interventions designed to prevent repeat attempts. Methods: Systematic review of review methods were applied. Inclusion criteria were as follows: systematic review or meta-analysis; prevention in youth 0 to 24 years; peer-reviewed English literature. Review quality was determined with AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews). Nominal group methods quantified consensus on recommendations derived from the findings. Results: No included review addressing school-based prevention (n = 7) reported decreased suicide death rates based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled cohort studies (CCSs), but reduced suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and proxy measures of suicide risk were reported (based on RCTs and CCSs). Included reviews addressing prevention of repeat suicide attempts (n = 14) found the following: emergency department transition programs may reduce suicide deaths, hospitalizations, and treatment nonadherence (based on RCTs and CCSs); training primary care providers in depression treatment may reduce repeated attempts (based on one RCT); antidepressants may increase short-term suicide risk in some patients (based on RCTs and meta-analyses); this increase is offset by overall population-based reductions in suicide associated with antidepressant treatment of youth depression (based on observational studies); and prevention with psychosocial interventions requires further evaluation. No review addressed sex or gender differences systematically, Aboriginal youth as a special population, harm, or cost-effectiveness. Consensus on 6 recommendations ranged from 73% to 100%. Conclusions: Our EKS facilitates decision maker access to what is known about effective youth suicide prevention interventions. A national research-to-practice network that links researchers and decision makers is recommended to implement and evaluate promising interventions; to eliminate the use of ineffective or harmful interventions; and to clarify prevention intervention effects on death by suicide, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation. Such a network could position Canada as a leader in youth suicide prevention. PMID:26175322

  10. Post-traumatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ruckstuhl, Heidi; de Bruin, Eling D; Stussi, Edgar; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2008-01-01

    Background Any cartilage damage to the glenohumeral joint should be avoided, as these damages may result in osteoarthritis of the shoulder. To understand the pathomechanism leading to shoulder cartilage damage, we conducted a systematic review on the subject of articular cartilage lesions caused by traumas where non impression fracture of the subchondral bone is present. Methods PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect (EMBASE, BIOBASE, BIOSIS Previews) and the COCHRANE database of systematic reviews were systematically scanned using a defined search strategy to identify relevant articles in this field of research. First selection was done based on abstracts according to specific criteria, where the methodological quality in selected full text articles was assessed by two reviewers. Agreement between raters was investigated using percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa statistic. The traumatic events were divided into two categories: 1) acute trauma which refers to any single impact situation which directly damages the articular cartilage, and 2) chronic trauma which means cartilage lesions due to overuse or disuse of the shoulder joint. Results The agreement on data quality between the two reviewers was 93% with a Kappa value of 0.79 indicating an agreement considered to be 'substantial'. It was found that acute trauma on the shoulder causes humeral articular cartilage to disrupt from the underlying bone. The pathomechanism is said to be due to compression or shearing, which can be caused by a sudden subluxation or dislocation. However, such impact lesions are rarely reported. In the case of chronic trauma glenohumeral cartilage degeneration is a result of overuse and is associated to other shoulder joint pathologies. In these latter cases it is the rotator cuff which is injured first. This can result in instability and consequent impingement which may progress to glenohumeral cartilage damage. Conclusion The great majority of glenohumeral cartilage lesions without any bony lesions are the results of overuse. Glenohumeral cartilage lesions with an intact subchondral bone and caused by an acute trauma are either rare or overlooked. And at increased risk for such cartilage lesions are active sportsmen with high shoulder demand or athletes prone to shoulder injury. PMID:18651982

  11. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  12. A Systematic Review of Financial Incentives for Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S.; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized, controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand upon previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including RCTs, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based upon the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus and whether incentives took the form of assets or savings. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with eleven finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short-term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors even as policymakers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  13. Reported Radiation Overexposure Accidents Worldwide, 1980-2013: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Coeytaux, Karen; Bey, Eric; Christensen, Doran; Glassman, Erik S.; Murdock, Becky; Doucet, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation overexposure accidents are rare but can have severe long-term health consequences. Although underreporting can be an issue, some extensive literature reviews of reported radiation overexposures have been performed and constitute a sound basis for conclusions on general trends. Building further on this work, we performed a systematic review that completes previous reviews and provides new information on characteristics and trends of reported radiation accidents. Methods We searched publications and reports from MEDLINE, EMBASE, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Radiation Protection Association, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site radiation accident registry over 1980-2013. We retrieved the reported overexposure cases, systematically extracted selected information, and performed a descriptive analysis. Results 297 out of 5189 publications and reports and 194 records from the REAC/TS registry met our eligibility criteria. From these, 634 reported radiation accidents were retrieved, involving 2390 overexposed people, of whom 190 died from their overexposure. The number of reported cases has decreased for all types of radiation use, but the medical one. 64% of retrieved overexposure cases occurred with the use of radiation therapy and fluoroscopy. Additionally, the types of reported accidents differed significantly across regions. Conclusions This review provides an updated and broader view of reported radiation overexposures. It suggests an overall decline in reported radiation overexposures over 1980-2013. The greatest share of reported overexposures occurred in the medical fields using radiation therapy and fluoroscopy; this larger number of reported overexposures accidents indicates the potential need for enhanced quality assurance programs. Our data also highlights variations in characteristics of reported accidents by region. The main limitation of this study is the likely underreporting of radiation overexposures. Ensuring a comprehensive monitoring and reporting of radiation overexposures is paramount to inform and tailor prevention interventions to local needs. PMID:25789482

  14. 49 CFR 382.407 - Medical review officer notifications to the employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Medical review officer notifications to...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Handling... § 382.407 Medical review officer notifications to the employer. Medical review officers shall report...

  15. 49 CFR 382.409 - Medical review officer record retention for controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Medical review officer record retention for... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Handling...Confidentiality § 382.409 Medical review officer record retention for...substances. (a) A medical review officer or third party...

  16. 42 CFR 421.505 - Termination and extension of non-random prepayment complex medical review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...non-random prepayment complex medical review. 421.505 Section 421.505 Public...CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medical Review § 421.505 Termination and extension of non-random prepayment complex medical review. (a) Timeframe that a provider...

  17. Managing Anxiety Related to Anaphylaxis in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Manassis, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This paper reviews the relationship between anxiety and anaphylaxis in children and youth, and principles for managing anxiety in the anaphylactic child and his or her parents. Methods. A review of the medical literature (Medline) was done using the keywords “anxiety,” “anaphylaxis,” and “allergy,” limited to children and adolescents. Findings were organized into categories used in the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders, then applied to managing anxiety in the anaphylactic child. Results. Twenty-four relevant papers were identified. These varied widely in methodology. Findings emphasized included the need to distinguish anxiety-related and organic symptoms, ameliorate the anxiety-related impact of anaphylaxis on quality of life, and address parental anxiety about the child. Conclusion. Children with anaphylaxis can function well despite anxiety, but the physical, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of anxiety associated with anaphylactic risk must be addressed, and parents must be involved in care in constructive ways. PMID:22007248

  18. Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258?315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review. What is already known on this topicPostal questionnaires are widely used in the collection of data in epidemiological studies and health researchNon-response to postal questionnaires reduces the effective sample size and can introduce biasWhat this study addsThis systematic review includes more randomised controlled trials than any previously published review or meta-analysis no questionnaire responseThe review has identified effective ways to increase response to postal questionnairesThe review will be updated regularly in the Cochrane Library PMID:12016181

  19. Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more standardisation, it might be possible to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thus, we advocate maintaining the current case-by-case differentiated approach to evidence-based forensic assessment. PMID:25330208

  20. An integrative review of systematic reviews related to the management of breathlessness in respiratory illnesses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathlessness is a debilitating and distressing symptom in a wide variety of diseases and still a difficult symptom to manage. An integrative review of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions for breathlessness in non-malignant disease was undertaken to identify the current state of clinical understanding of the management of breathlessness and highlight promising interventions that merit further investigation. Methods Systematic reviews were identified via electronic databases between July 2007 and September 2009. Reviews were included within the study if they reported research on adult participants using either a measure of breathlessness or some other measure of respiratory symptoms. Results In total 219 systematic reviews were identified and 153 included within the final review, of these 59 addressed non-pharmacological interventions and 94 addressed pharmacological interventions. The reviews covered in excess of 2000 trials. The majority of systematic reviews were conducted on interventions for asthma and COPD, and mainly focussed upon a small number of pharmacological interventions such as corticosteroids and bronchodilators, including beta-agonists. In contrast, other conditions involving breathlessness have received little or no attention and studies continue to focus upon pharmacological approaches. Moreover, although there are a number of non-pharmacological studies that have shown some promise, particularly for COPD, their conclusions are limited by a lack of good quality evidence from RCTs, small sample sizes and limited replication. Conclusions More research should focus in the future on the management of breathlessness in respiratory diseases other than asthma and COPD. In addition, pharmacological treatments do not completely manage breathlessness and have an added burden of side effects. It is therefore important to focus more research on promising non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:21143887

  1. [Ethic review on clinical experiments of medical devices in medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Shuai, Wanjun; Chao, Yong; Wang, Ning; Xu, Shining

    2011-07-01

    Clinical experiments are always used to evaluate the safety and validity of medical devices. The experiments have two types of clinical trying and testing. Ethic review must be done by the ethics committee of the medical department with the qualification of clinical research, and the approval must be made before the experiments. In order to ensure the safety and validity of clinical experiments of medical devices in medical institutions, the contents, process and approval criterions of the ethic review were analyzed and discussed. PMID:22097752

  2. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with and without splenic vessel ligation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gaurav; Chakravartty, Saurav; Patel, Ameet G

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundSplenic preservation during a distal pancreatectomy (SPDP) may be performed with splenic vessel ligation, known as Warshaw's Technique (WT) or splenic vessel preservation (SVP). The consensus on which approach is best is divided. A systematic review of evidence in the literature was undertaken with the aim of analysing the merits and disadvantages of both WT and SVP. MethodsA systematic search of medical literature from 1985–2011 was undertaken to identify all comparative studies and case series on SPDP. Non-English papers, series with < 5 patients, technical reports and reviews were excluded. The remaining articles were reviewed considering the study design, surgical technique, outcomes and complications. ResultsIn 23 relevant studies, 356 patients underwent WT and 572 underwent SVP. In WT patients, the mean operating time (160?versus 215?min, P < 0.001), mean estimated blood loss (301 versus 390?ml, P < 0.001) and length of stay (8 versus 11 days, P < 0.001) was significantly less than the SVP patients, respectively. Considering complications, splenic infarction and splenectomy occurred more frequently in WT patients (P < 0.05). DiscussionWT is technically easier to perform than SVP but has a higher incidence of subsequent splenectomies. Surgeons should be able to perform both procedures and tailor the technique according to the patient. PMID:23458666

  3. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  4. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation. PMID:15836459

  5. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat B; Pittler, Max H; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens for the treatment of LUTS and BPH have been published, no systematic review on its drug interactions or adverse events currently exists. This review assesses all available human safety data of S. repens monopreparations. Systematic literature searches were conducted from date of inception to February 2008 in five electronic databases; reference lists and our departmental files were checked for further relevant publications. Information was requested from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national safety bodies. Twenty-four manufacturers/distributors of S. repens preparations and four herbalist organizations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Only reports of adverse events in humans from monopreparations of S. repens were included. Data from all articles, regardless of study design, reporting adverse events or interactions were independently extracted by the first author and validated by the second. Forty articles (26 randomized controlled trials, 4 non-randomized controlled trials, 6 uncontrolled trials and 4 case reports/series) were included. They suggest that adverse events associated with the use of S. repens are mild and similar to those with placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. More serious adverse events such as death and cerebral haemorrhage are reported in isolated case reports and data from spontaneous reporting schemes, but causality is questionable. No drug interactions were reported. Currently available data suggest that S. repens is well tolerated by most users and is not associated with serious adverse events. The majority of adverse events are mild, infrequent and reversible, and include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. We found no evidence for drug interactions with S. repens. However, higher quality reporting of adverse events is essential if safety assessments are to be improved in future. PMID:19591529

  6. Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—convened meeting

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Cheryl S.; Frey, Meghan T.; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F.; Chambers, Christina D.; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy. PMID:24881821

  7. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louk WH Peters; Gerjo Kok; Geert TM Ten Dam; Goof J Buijs; Theo GWM Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements of school health education are similar across three particular behavioral domains. METHODS: A systematic review

  8. Interventions for individuals with low health literacy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Stacey L; Halpern, David J; Viera, Anthony J; Berkman, Nancy D; Donahue, Katrina E; Crotty, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently called for action on health literacy. An important first step is defining the current state of the literature about interventions designed to mitigate the effects of low health literacy. We performed an updated systematic review examining the effects of interventions that authors reported were specifically designed to mitigate the effects of low health literacy. We searched MEDLINE®, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), and the Cochrane Library databases (2003 forward for health literacy; 1966 forward for numeracy). Two reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full-text articles for inclusion and included studies that examined outcomes by health literacy level and met other pre-specified criteria. One reviewer abstracted article information into evidence tables; a second checked accuracy. Two reviewers independently rated study quality using predefined criteria. Among 38 included studies, we found multiple discrete design features that improved comprehension in one or a few studies (e.g., presenting essential information by itself or first, presenting information so that the higher number is better, adding icon arrays to numerical information, adding video to verbal narratives). In a few studies, we also found consistent, direct, fair or good-quality evidence that intensive self-management interventions reduced emergency department visits and hospitalizations; and intensive self- and disease-management interventions reduced disease severity. Evidence for the effects of interventions on other outcomes was either limited or mixed. Multiple interventions show promise for mitigating the effects of low health literacy and could be considered for use in clinical practice. PMID:21951242

  9. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds. PMID:21087484

  10. Design of a systematic approach to workplace exposure medical surveillance protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen D OConor

    2000-01-01

    Current toxic tort cases have increased national awareness of health concerns and present an important avenue in which public health scientists can perform a vital function: in litigation, and in public health initiatives and promotions which may result. This review presents a systematic approach, using the paradigm of interactive public health disciplines, for the design of a matrix framework for

  11. Integration of Medical Images to the Teaching of Systematic Pathology: An Evaluation of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    A sound knowledge of pathological disease processes is required for professional practice within health professions. The project described in this paper reviewed the resources currently available for the delivery of systematic pathology tutorials. Additional complementary resources were developed and the inclusion of these additional learning…

  12. The association between psoriasis and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    REVIEW The association between psoriasis and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies AW Armstrong1 , CT Harskamp1 and EJ Armstrong2 OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is an inflammatory a systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizing the epidemiological associations between psoriasis

  13. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) on bone formation: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Rathe; Rüdiger Junker; Betsy M. Chesnutt; John A. Jansen

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review focused on the question, if and to what extent enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) [EMD]) promotes the regeneration of bone. The influence of combinations with other biomaterials was additionally evaluated. Twenty histomorphometric studies were included in this systematic review. Main results of the reviewed articles were (i) guide tissue regeneration (GTR) of infrabony defects seems to result in

  14. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. PMID:25840435

  15. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kueider, Alexandra M; Parisi, Jeanine M; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative. PMID:22792378

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy use in adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Considered as a moment of psychological vulnerability, adolescence is remarkably a risky period for the development of psychopathologies, when the choice of the correct therapeutic approach is crucial for achieving remission. One of the researched therapies in this case is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The present study reviews the recent and classical aspects regarding ECT use in adolescents. Methods Systematic review, performed in November 2012, conformed to the PRISMA statement. Results From the 212 retrieved articles, only 39 were included in the final sample. The reviewed studies bring indications of ECT use in adolescents, evaluate the efficiency of this therapy regarding remission, and explore the potential risks and complications of the procedure. Conclusions ECT use in adolescents is considered a highly efficient option for treating several psychiatric disorders, achieving high remission rates, and presenting few and relatively benign adverse effects. Risks can be mitigated by the correct use of the technique and are considered minimal when compared to the efficiency of ECT in treating psychopathologies. PMID:23718899

  17. Arsenic Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease: An Updated Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas–Acien, Ana

    2012-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, high-chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease, despite methodological limitations. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Here, we update a previous systematic review (Am J Epidemiol 2005;162: 1037–49) examining the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. Eighteen studies published since 2005 were combined with 13 studies from the previous review. We calculated pooled relative risks by comparing the highest versus the lowest exposure category across studies. For high exposure (arsenic in drinking water > 50 ?g/L), the pooled relative risks (95 % confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were 1.32 (95 % CI: 1.05–1.67), 1.89 (95 % CI: 1.33–2.69), 1.08 (95 % CI: 0.98–1.19), and 2.17 (95 % CI: 1.47–3.20), respectively. At low-moderate arsenic levels, the evidence was inconclusive. Our review strengthens the evidence for a causal association between high-chronic arsenic exposure and clinical cardiovascular endpoints. Additional high quality studies are needed at low-moderate arsenic levels. PMID:22968315

  18. Computerized Cognitive Training with Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kueider, Alexandra M.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative. PMID:22792378

  19. Educational interventions to improve recognition of delirium: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yanamadala, Mamata; Wieland, Darryl; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2013-11-01

    Delirium is a common and serious condition that is underrecognized in older adults in a variety of healthcare settings. It is poorly recognized because of deficiencies in provider knowledge and its atypical presentation. Early recognition of delirium is warranted to better manage the disease and prevent the adverse outcomes associated with it. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning educational interventions focusing on recognition of delirium. The Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) databases were searched for studies with specific educational focus in the recognition of delirium, and 26 studies with various designs were identified. The types of interventions used were classified according to the Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model, and outcomes were sorted according to Kirkpatrick's hierarchy. Educational strategies combining predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors achieved better results than strategies that included one or two of these components. Studies using predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing strategies together were more often effective in producing changes in staff behavior and participant outcomes. Based on this review, improvements in knowledge and skill alone seem insufficient to favorably influence recognition of delirium. Educational interventions to recognize delirium are most effective when formal teaching is interactive and is combined with strategies including engaging leadership and using clinical pathways and assessment tools. The goal of the current study was to systematically review the published literature to determine the effect of educational interventions on recognition of delirium. PMID:24219200

  20. Interventions to improve cultural competency in healthcare: a systematic review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cultural competency is a recognized and popular approach to improving the provision of health care to racial/ethnic minority groups in the community with the aim of reducing racial/ethnic health disparities. The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to gather and synthesize existing reviews of studies in the field to form a comprehensive understanding of the current evidence base that can guide future interventions and research in the area. Methods A systematic review of review articles published between January 2000 and June 2012 was conducted. Electronic databases (including Medline, Cinahl and PsycINFO), reference lists of articles, and key websites were searched. Reviews of cultural competency in health settings only were included. Each review was critically appraised by two authors using a study appraisal tool and were given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate or strong. Results Nineteen published reviews were identified. Reviews consisted of between 5 and 38 studies, included a variety of health care settings/contexts and a range of study types. There were three main categories of study outcomes: patient-related outcomes, provider-related outcomes, and health service access and utilization outcomes. The majority of reviews found moderate evidence of improvement in provider outcomes and health care access and utilization outcomes but weaker evidence for improvements in patient/client outcomes. Conclusion This review of reviews indicates that there is some evidence that interventions to improve cultural competency can improve patient/client health outcomes. However, a lack of methodological rigor is common amongst the studies included in reviews and many of the studies rely on self-report, which is subject to a range of biases, while objective evidence of intervention effectiveness was rare. Future research should measure both healthcare provider and patient/client health outcomes, consider organizational factors, and utilize more rigorous study designs. PMID:24589335

  1. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions. PMID:23840571

  2. Glycemic Index and Pregnancy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.; Markovic, Tania P.; Ross, Glynis P.; Moses, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Dietary glycemic index (GI) has received considerable research interest over the past 25 years although its application to pregnancy outcomes is more recent. This paper critically evaluates the current evidence regarding the effect of dietary GI on maternal and fetal nutrition. Methods. A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science, from 1980 through September 2010, was conducted. Results. Eight studies were included in the systematic review. Two interventional studies suggest that a low-GI diet can reduce the risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants in healthy pregnancies, but one epidemiological study reported an increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Evidence in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though limited (n = 3), consistently supports the advantages of a low-GI diet. Conclusion. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a low-GI diet during normal pregnancy. In pregnancy complicated by GDM, a low-GI diet may reduce the need for insulin without adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Until larger-scale intervention trials are completed, a low-GI diet should not replace the current recommended pregnancy diets from government and health agencies. Further research regarding the optimal time to start a low-GI diet for maximum protection against adverse pregnancy outcomes is warranted. PMID:21253478

  3. Toxoplasmosis and Epilepsy — Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngoungou, Edgard B.; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Principal findings Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27–3.9), p = 0.005. Conclusions Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy. PMID:25695802

  4. Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dante, Giulia; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition of cyclical and recurrent physical and psychological discomfort occurring 1 to 2 weeks before menstrual period. More severe psychological symptoms have been described for the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). No single treatment is universally recognised as effective and many patients often turn to therapeutic approaches outside of conventional medicine. This systematic review is aimed at analysing the effects of herb remedies in the above conditions. Systematic literature searches were performed in electronic databases, covering the period January 1980 to September 2010. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included. Papers quality was evaluated with the Jadad' scale. A further evaluation of PMS/PMDD diagnostic criteria was also done. Of 102 articles identified, 17 RCTs were eligible and 10 of them were included. The heterogeneity of population included, study design and outcome presentation refrained from a meta-analysis. Vitex agnus castus was the more investigated remedy (four trials, about 500 women), and it was reported to consistently ameliorate PMS better than placebo. Single trials also support the use of either Gingko biloba or Crocus sativus. On the contrary, neither evening primrose oil nor St. John's Wort show an effect different than placebo. None of the herbs was associated with major health risks, although the reduced number of tested patients does not allow definitive conclusions on safety. Some herb remedies seem useful for the treatment of PMS. However, more RCTs are required to account for the heterogeneity of the syndrome. PMID:21171936

  5. Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bellou, M; Kokkinos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2013-03-01

    Investigations of disease outbreaks linked to shellfish consumption have been reported in the scientific literature; however, only few countries systematically collate and report such data through a disease surveillance system. We conducted a systematic review to investigate shellfish-borne viral outbreaks and to explore their distribution in different countries, and to determine if different types of shellfish and viruses are implicated. Six databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Eurosurveillance Journal and Spingerlink electronic Journal) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched from 1980 to July 2012. About 359 shellfish-borne viral outbreaks, alongside with nine ProMED reports, involving shellfish consumption, were identified. The majority of the reported outbreaks were located in East Asia, followed by Europe, America, Oceania, Australia and Africa. More than half of the outbreaks (63.6 %) were reported from Japan. The most common viral pathogens involved were norovirus (83.7 %) and hepatitis A virus (12.8 %). The most frequent type of consumed shellfish which was involved in outbreaks was oysters (58.4 %). Outbreaks following shellfish consumption were often attributed to water contamination by sewage and/or undercooking. Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Consumption of contaminated shellfish represents a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities. PMID:23412719

  6. Autobiographical memory in borderline personality disorder-A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bech, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although a number of studies have been published results remain inconsistent. Furthermore, we find that many of the studies suffer from inadequate designs particularly regarding the reported measures of autobiographical memory. We discuss potential links between personality functioning, identity diffusion, autobiographical memory and borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25940516

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury and Olfaction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Peter William; Moore, Tammie Maree; Gardner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition that is often complicated by neuropsychiatric sequelae that can have major impacts on function and quality of life. An alteration in the sense of smell is recognized as a relatively common complication of TBI; however in clinical practice, this complication may not be sought or adequately characterized. We conducted a systematic review of studies concerned with olfactory functioning following TBI. Our predetermined criteria led to the identification of 25 studies published in English, which we examined in detail. We have tabulated the data from these studies in eight separate tables, beginning with Table 1, which highlights each study’s key findings, and we provide a summary/synthesis of the findings in the accompanying results and discussion sections. Despite widely differing methodologies, the studies attest to a high frequency of post-TBI olfactory dysfunction and indicate that its presence can serve as a potential marker of additional structural or functional morbidities. PMID:24478752

  8. Stress management in dental students: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alzahem, Abdullah M; Van der Molen, Henk T; Alaujan, Arwa H; De Boer, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of stress management programs in dental education by systematic review of the literature. The number of studies concerning stress management programs for dental students is limited compared with studies discussing sources of stress. Several types of programs for stress management have been reported, and differ in their duration, content, and outcomes. Two main strategies have been used to help stressed students, ie, decreasing the number of stressors and increasing the ability to cope with stress. The first strategy includes several components, such as reducing fear of failure and workload pressure due to examinations and requirements. The second strategy includes coping techniques, such as deep breathing exercises. Although positive effects have been reported for most of the programs, these have mainly been evaluated using subjective self-report measures. There is a need for more research to identify the most effective stress management program. PMID:24904226

  9. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  10. Ménière's disease treatment: a patient-centered systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tassinari, Mariateresa; Mandrioli, Daniele; Gaggioli, Nadia; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Ménière's disease is a disorder of the inner ear affecting hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo, low-pitched tinnitus, and hearing loss. There is currently no gold standard treatment for Ménière's disease. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Database, as a high-quality source of evidence-based therapies, for reviews on the efficacy of etiological therapy or on Ménière's disease or its symptoms. Following recent positive experiences reported by other research teams, we decided to involve a patients' representative in the assessment and analysis of the evidence retrieved in the literature in order to achieve a more patient-centered evaluation of the therapies. Evidence confirms that an effective treatment of Ménière's disease is still missing, but recent discoveries on the microvascular etiology of Ménière's disease may be assimilated by new evidence-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25832807

  11. Food selectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Zazpe, Itziar; Mari-Sanchis, Amelia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions and restricted patterns of behavior and interest; one of these characteristic behaviors is food selectivity. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature published between 1970 and 2013 concerning this eating behavior. The articles identified were analyzed in terms of sample size, study design, and criteria for assessment and intervention, as well as the results, level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The main search was conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and Embase). There is empirical evidence and an overall scientific consensus supporting an association between food selectivity and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24097852

  12. Use of ultrasound by emergency medical services: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bret P. Nelson; Kevin Chason

    2008-01-01

    Prehospital ultrasound has been deployed in certain areas of the USA and Europe. Physicians, emergency medical technicians,\\u000a and flight nurses have utilized a variety of medical and trauma ultrasound assessments to impact patient care in the field.\\u000a The goal of this review is to summarize the literature on emergency medical services (EMS) use of ultrasound to more clearly\\u000a define the

  13. Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in the Philippines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Roque, Vito G.; Tandoc, Amado O.; Sy, Ava Kristy; Espino, Fe Esperanza; DeQuiroz-Castro, Maricel; Jee, Youngmee; Ducusin, Maria Joyce; Fox, Kimberley K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia, with high case fatality rates and often significant neurologic sequelae among survivors. The epidemiology of JE in the Philippines is not well defined. To support consideration of JE vaccine for introduction into the national schedule in the Philippines, we conducted a systematic literature review and summarized JE surveillance data from 2011 to 2014. Methods We conducted searches on Japanese encephalitis and the Philippines in four databases and one library. Data from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE surveillance and from the national reference laboratory from January 2011 to March 2014 were tabulated and mapped. Results We identified 29 published reports and presentations on JE in the Philippines, including 5 serologic surveys, 18 reports of clinical cases, and 8 animal studies (including two with both clinical cases and animal data). The 18 clinical studies reported 257 cases of laboratory-confirmed JE from 1972 to 2013. JE virus (JEV) was the causative agent in 7% to 18% of cases of clinical meningitis and encephalitis combined, and 16% to 40% of clinical encephalitis cases. JE predominantly affected children under 15 years of age and 6% to 7% of cases resulted in death. Surveillance data from January 2011 to March 2014 identified 73 (15%) laboratory-confirmed JE cases out of 497 cases tested. Summary This comprehensive review demonstrates the endemicity and extensive geographic range of JE in the Philippines, and supports the use of JE vaccine in the country. Continued and improved surveillance with laboratory confirmation is needed to systematically quantify the burden of JE, to provide information that can guide prioritization of high risk areas in the country and determination of appropriate age and schedule of vaccine introduction, and to measure the impact of preventive measures including immunization against this important public health threat. PMID:25794009

  14. Bortezomib in multiple myeloma: systematic review and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kouroukis, T.C.; Baldassarre, F.G.; Haynes, A.E.; Imrie, K.; Reece, D.E.; Cheung, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the appropriate use of bortezomib alone or in combination with other agents in patients with multiple myeloma (mm). We searched medline, embase, the Cochrane Library, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of included studies. We analyzed randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews if they involved adult mm patients treated with bortezomib and if they reported on survival, disease control, response, quality of life, or adverse effects. Twenty-six unique studies met the inclusion criteria. For patients with previously untreated mm and for candidates for transplantation, we found a statistically significant benefit in time to progression [hazard ratio (hr): 0.48, p < 0.001; and hr: 0.63, p = 0.006, respectively] and a better response with a bortezomib than with a non-bortezomib regimen (p < 0.001). Progression-free survival was longer with bortezomib and thalidomide than with thalidomide alone (p = 0.01). In non-candidates for transplantation, a significant benefit in overall survival was observed with a bortezomib regimen (hr compared with a non-bortezomib regimen: 0.61; p = 0.008), and in transplantation candidates receiving bortezomib, the response rate was improved after induction (p = 0.004) and after a first transplant (p = 0.016). In relapsed or refractory mm, overall survival (p = 0.03), time to progression (hr: 1.82; p = 0.000004), and progression-free survival (hr: 1.69; p = 0.000026) were significantly improved with bortezomib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (compared with bortezomib alone), and bortezomib monotherapy was better than dexamethasone alone (hr: 0.77; p = 0.027). Bortezomib combined with thalidomide and dexamethasone was better than either bortezomib monotherapy or thalidomide with dexamethasone (p < 0.001). In previously untreated or in relapsed or refractory mm patients, bortezomib-based therapy has improved disease control and, in some patients, overall survival. PMID:25089109

  15. Sinonasal phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor: Case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deep, Nicholas L; Cain, Rachel B; McCullough, Ann E; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Lal, Devyani

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of sinonasal phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) and conduct a systematic review of the literature to highlight a unique paraneoplastic syndrome associated with PMT. We used English language publications from Medline and Cochrane databases (1970-2013) as data sources. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. All reported cases of head and neck PMTs were included. The presence or absence of the associated paraneoplastic syndrome was noted. We found 33 cases of PMT in the head and neck reported in the literature, 17 of which occurred in the sinonasal area. Approximately 5% of all PMTs are located in the head and neck. Just greater than half are concentrated in the sinonasal area, and the remaining involve various bony and soft tissue structures of the head and neck. PMT is sometimes associated with a paraneoplastic syndrome of tumor-induced (oncogenic) osteomalacia (TIO) causing bone pain, muscle weakness, and pathologic fractures. We present the 18th reported case of sinonasal PMT. A smooth mucosa-covered midline intraseptal mass filling the posterior nasal cavity with destruction and erosion of the skull base was found in an adult male. The patient underwent successful endoscopic resection with wide negative margins and is without recurrence at 24-month follow-up. PMT is a benign, locally aggressive tumor with rare malignant transformation. Knowledge of the bony invasion and destruction caused by this tumor is essential in planning surgical resection with wide negative margins. Familiarity with the associated TIO is essential to investigate for and manage any associated bony morbidity. PMID:25565053

  16. Reference values for maximal inspiratory pressure: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Isabela MB Sclauser; Parreira, Verônica Franco; Fregonezi, Guilherme AF; Sheel, A William; Chung, Frank; Reid, W Darlene

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review with meta-analyses to synthesize MIP values that represent healthy adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) and Sport Discus databases. Two reviewers identified and selected articles, and abstracted data. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. A random-effects model was used to calculate overall means and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of 22 included articles, MIP data were synthesized according to age group and sex from six reports (n=840) in the meta-analyses. The mean QUADAS score was 3.5 of 7. The age range was between 18 and 83 years (426 men, 414 women). MIP began to decrease with age in the 40 to 60 years age range and continued to fall progressively with age. For the same age group, men tended to have higher MIPs than women. Sensitivity analysis of withdrawing studies from the meta-analysis identified one study that contributed more to heterogeneity in some age groups. DISCUSSION: MIP was higher in men and decreased with age, which was initially apparent in middle age. Several characteristics of participants and MIP technique influence values in healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis provides normative MIP values that are reflective of a large sample (n=840) and likely represents the broadest representation of participant characteristics compared with previous reports of normative data. PMID:24137574

  17. Impact of osteoporosis in dental implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Giro, Gabriela; Chambrone, Leandro; Goldstein, Abrao; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Zenóbio, Elton; Feres, Magda; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Cassoni, Alessandra; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the failure and bone-to-implant contact rate of dental implants placed on osteoporotic subjects. METHODS: Extensive examination strategies were created to classify studies for this systematic review. MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE database were examined for studies in English up to and including May 2014. The examination presented a combination of the MeSH words described as follow: “osteoporosis” or “osteopenia” or “estrogen deficiency” AND “implant” or “dental implant” or “osseointegration”. Assessment of clinical and/or histological peri-implant conditions in osteoporosis subjects treated with titanium dental implants. The examination included a combination of the MeSH terms described as follow: “osteoporosis” or “osteopenia” or “estrogen deficiency” AND “implant” or “dental implant” or “osseointegration”. RESULTS: Of 943 potentially eligible articles, 12 were included in the study. A total of 133 subjects with osteoporosis, 73 subjects diagnosed with osteopenia and 708 healthy subjects were assessed in this systematic review. In these subjects were installed 367, 205, 2981 dental implants in osteoporotic, osteopenic and healthy subjects, respectively. The failure rate of dental implant was 10.9% in osteoporotic subjects, 8.29% in osteopenic and 11.43% in healthy ones. Bone-to-implant contact obtained from retrieved implants ranged between 49.96% to 47.84%, for osteoporosis and non-osteoporotic subjects. CONCLUSION: Osteoporotic subjects presented higher rates of implant loss, however, there is a lower evidence to strengthen or refute the hypothesis that osteoporosis may have detrimental effects on bone healing. Consequently, final conclusions regarding the effect of osteoporosis in dental implant therapy cannot be made at this time. There are no randomized clinical trial accessible for evaluation and the retrospective nature of the evaluated studies shall be taken in account when interpreting this study. PMID:25793172

  18. Measurement of Physician-Patient Communication—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zill, Jördis M.; Christalle, Eva; Müller, Evamaria; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Scholl, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective communication with health care providers has been found as relevant for physical and psychological health outcomes as well as the patients' adherence. However, the validity of the findings depends on the quality of the applied measures. This study aimed to provide an overview of measures of physician-patient communication and to evaluate the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified measures. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify psychometrically tested instruments which measure physician-patient communication. The search strategy included three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed), reference and citation tracking and personal knowledge. Studies that report the psychometric properties of physician-patient communication measures were included. Two independent raters assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies with the COSMIN (COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INtruments) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated with the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of 25 studies on 20 measures of physician-patient communication were extracted, mainly from primary care samples in Europe and the USA. Included studies reported a median of 3 out of the nine COSMIN criteria. Scores for internal consistency and content validity were mainly fair or poor. Reliability and structural validity were rated mainly of fair quality. Hypothesis testing scored mostly poor. The quality of psychometric properties of measures evaluated with Terwee et al.'s criteria was rated mainly intermediate or positive. Discussion This systematic review identified a number of measures of physician-patient communication. However, further psychometric evaluation of the measures is strongly recommended. The application of quality criteria like the COSMIN checklist could improve the methodological quality of psychometric property studies as well as the comparability of the studies' results. PMID:25532118

  19. Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yali; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Jiao; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Danlu; Sun, Wanting; Mai, Yuefen; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yajun; Cao, Hua; Yang, Ke hu

    2014-01-01

    Background The QUOROM and PRISMA statements were published in 1999 and 2009, respectively, to improve the consistency of reporting systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) of clinical trials. However, not all SRs/MAs adhere completely to these important standards. In particular, it is not clear how well SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies adhere to reporting standards and which reporting criteria are generally ignored in these analyses. Objectives To evaluate reporting quality in SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies. Methods We performed a literature search for studies published prior to 2014 using the following public archives: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) database, the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD), the Chinese Scientific Journal Full-text Database (CSJD), and the Wanfang database. Data were extracted into pre-prepared Excel data-extraction forms. Reporting quality was assessed based on the PRISMA checklist (27 items). Results Of 476 appropriate SRs/MAs identified in our search, 203, 227, and 46 were published in Chinese journals, international journals, and the Cochrane Database, respectively. In 476 SRs/MAs, only 3 reported the information completely. By contrast, approximately 4.93% (1/203), 8.81% (2/227) and 0.00% (0/46) SRs/Mas reported less than 10 items in Chinese journals, international journals and CDSR, respectively. In general, the least frequently reported items (reported?50%) in SRs/MAs were “protocol and registration”, “risk of bias across studies”, and “additional analyses” in both methods and results sections. Conclusions SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies have not comprehensively reported information recommended in the PRISMA statement. Our study underscores that, in addition to focusing on careful study design and performance, attention should be paid to comprehensive reporting standards in SRs/MAs on acupuncture studies. PMID:25397774

  20. A Systematic Review of the Mortality from Untreated Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis occurs worldwide, but the global incidence of human disease and its mortality are not well understood. Many patients are undiagnosed and untreated due to its non-specific symptoms and a lack of access to diagnostics. This study systematically reviews the literature to clarify the mortality from untreated leptospirosis. Results will help quantify the global burden of disease and guide health policies. Methodology/Principal Findings A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify untreated patient series. Included patients were symptomatic, but asymptomatic patients and those who had received antibiotics, dialysis or who were treated on Intensive Care Units were excluded. Included patients had a confirmed laboratory diagnosis by culture, PCR, or serological tests. Data was extracted and individual patient series were assessed for bias. Thirty-five studies, comprising 41 patient series and 3,390 patients, were included in the study. A high degree of bias within studies was shown due to limitations in study design, diagnostic tests and missing data. Median series mortality was 2.2% (Range 0.0 – 39.7%), but mortality was high in jaundiced patients (19.1%) (Range 0.0 – 39.7%), those with renal failure 12.1% (Range 0-25.0%) and in patients aged over 60 (60%) (Range 33.3-60%), but low in anicteric patients (0%) (Range 0-1.7%). Conclusions This systematic review contributes to our understanding of the mortality of untreated leptospirosis and provides data for the estimation of DALYs attributable to this disease. We show that mortality is significantly higher in older patients with icteric disease or renal failure but is lower in younger, anicteric patients. Increased surveillance and accurate point-of-care diagnostics are required to better understand the incidence and improve diagnosis of disease. Empirical treatment strategies should prioritize early treatment to improve outcomes from leptospirosis. PMID:26110270

  1. A Systematic Review on Health Resilience to Economic Crises

    PubMed Central

    Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S.; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. Methods We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. Results From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women’s mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men’s. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Conclusions Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience factors. Future conceptual and empirical research is needed to develop the epidemiology of resilience. PMID:25905629

  2. Systematic review of feline diabetic remission: separating fact from opinion.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, Ruth; Forcada, Yaiza; Graves, Thomas; Church, David; Niessen, Stijn

    2014-11-01

    It is increasingly recognised that diabetic remission is possible in the cat. This systematic review, following Cochrane Collaboration (CC) guidelines, critically appraises the level of evidence on factors influencing remission rate and factors predicting remission. A systematic online, bibliographic search and reference list examination was conducted. A level of evidence was assigned to each identified article by five internists using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for follow-up, cohort, case-series and case-control studies, the CC's risk of bias tool for trials and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group risk of bias criteria for before and after trials. Twenty-two studies were included in the review, assessing influence of pharmaceutical intervention (n?=?14) and diet (n?=?4), as well as diagnostic tests (n?=?9) and feline patient characteristics (n?=?5) as predictors of remission. The current level of evidence was found to be moderate to poor. Common sources of bias included lack of randomisation and blinding among trials, and many studies were affected by small sample size. Failure to provide criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes, or diabetic remission, and poor control of confounding factors were frequent causes of poor study design. Addressing these factors would significantly strengthen future research and ultimately allow meta-analyses to provide an excellent level of evidence. No single factor predicts remission and successful remission has been documented with a variety of insulin types and protocols. Dietary carbohydrate reduction might be beneficial, but requires further study. A lack of well-designed trials prevents reliable remission rate comparison. Factors associated with remission resemble those in human medicine and support the hypothesis that reversal of glucotoxicity is a major underlying mechanism for feline diabetic remission. PMID:25312717

  3. Global burden of untreated caries: a systematic review and metaregression.

    PubMed

    Kassebaum, N J; Bernabé, E; Dahiya, M; Bhandari, B; Murray, C J L; Marcenes, W

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to consolidate all epidemiologic data about untreated caries and subsequently generate internally consistent prevalence and incidence estimates for all countries, 20 age groups, and both sexes for 1990 and 2010. The systematic search of the literature yielded 18,311 unique citations. After screening titles and abstracts, we excluded 10,461 citations as clearly irrelevant to this systematic review, leaving 1,682 for full-text review. Furthermore, 1,373 publications were excluded following the validity assessment. Overall, 192 studies of 1,502,260 children aged 1 to 14 y in 74 countries and 186 studies of 3,265,546 individuals aged 5 y or older in 67 countries were included in separate metaregressions for untreated caries in deciduous and permanent teeth, respectively, using modeling resources from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. In 2010, untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition worldwide, affecting 2.4 billion people, and untreated caries in deciduous teeth was the 10th-most prevalent condition, affecting 621 million children worldwide. The global age-standardized prevalence and incidence of untreated caries remained static between 1990 and 2010. There is evidence that the burden of untreated caries is shifting from children to adults, with 3 peaks in prevalence at ages 6, 25, and 70 y. Also, there were considerable variations in prevalence and incidence between regions and countries. Policy makers need to be aware of a predictable increasing burden of untreated caries due to population growth and longevity and a significant decrease in the prevalence of total tooth loss throughout the world from 1990 to 2010. PMID:25740856

  4. Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Susan; Campbell, Katrina L.; Bogard, Jessica; Millichamp, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question “What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?” Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient. PMID:24451311

  5. Acupuncture for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a protocol of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Tae-Young; Jun, Ji Hee; Choi, Jun-Young; Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and analysis 14 databases will be searched from their inception. These include PubMed, AMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, seven Korean medical databases (Korean Studies Information Service System, DBPIA, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, Research Information Service System, KoreaMed, The Town Society of Science Technology and the Korean National Assembly Library), three Chinese Databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), and the Wanfang Database). Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) using acupuncture for COPD will be considered. The selection of the studies, data abstraction and validation will be performed independently by two researchers. Methodological quality will be assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias. Dissemination The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide the healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013004824. PMID:24776710

  6. A comprehensive model for executing knowledge management audits in organizations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Piri, Zakieh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge management audit (KMA) is the first phase in knowledge management implementation. Incomplete or incomprehensive execution of the KMA has caused many knowledge management programs to fail. A study was undertaken to investigate how KMAs are performed systematically in organizations and present a comprehensive model for performing KMAs based on a systematic review. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases such as Emerald, LISA, and the Cochrane library and e-journals such as the Oxford Journal and hand searching of printed journals, theses, and books in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences digital library. The sources used in this study consisted of studies available through the digital library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences that were published between 2000 and 2013, including both Persian- and English-language sources, as well as articles explaining the steps involved in performing a KMA. A comprehensive model for KMAs is presented in this study. To successfully execute a KMA, it is necessary to perform the appropriate preliminary activities in relation to the knowledge management infrastructure, determine the knowledge management situation, and analyze and use the available data on this situation. PMID:25627852

  7. Parathyroid Hormone, Cognitive Function and Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lourida, Ilianna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Dickens, Chris M.; Soni, Maya; Ku?ma, El?bieta; Kos, Katarina; Llewellyn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic factors are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels play a role in neuronal calcium dysregulation, hypoperfusion and disrupted neuronal signaling. Some studies support a significant link between PTH levels and dementia whereas others do not. Methods We conducted a systematic review through January 2014 to evaluate the association between PTH and parathyroid conditions, cognitive function and dementia. Eleven electronic databases and citation indexes were searched including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Hand searches of selected journals, reference lists of primary studies and reviews were also conducted along with websites of key organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of identified studies. Data extraction and study quality were performed by one and checked by a second reviewer using predefined criteria. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results The twenty-seven studies identified were of low and moderate quality, and challenging to synthesize due to inadequate reporting. Findings from six observational studies were mixed but suggest a link between higher serum PTH levels and increased odds of poor cognition or dementia. Two case-control studies of hypoparathyroidism provide limited evidence for a link with poorer cognitive function. Thirteen pre-post surgery studies for primary hyperparathyroidism show mixed evidence for improvements in memory though limited agreement in other cognitive domains. There was some degree of cognitive impairment and improvement postoperatively in observational studies of secondary hyperparathyroidism but no evident pattern of associations with specific cognitive domains. Conclusions Mixed evidence offers weak support for a link between PTH, cognition and dementia due to the paucity of high quality research in this area. PMID:26010883

  8. A systematic review of hospital foodservice patient satisfaction studies.

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Immacolata; Nicolò, Rosanna; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo; Bianchi, Natalia; Ciliento, Gaetano; Gawronski, Orsola; Pomponi, Manuel; Roberti, Marco; Tiozzo, Emanuela; Raponi, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    The quality of hospital foodservice is one of the most relevant items of health care quality perceived by patients and by their families. Patient satisfaction is considered a way of measuring the quality of services provided. The purpose of this study was to retrieve and review the literature describing patient satisfaction with hospital foodservices. The systematic review was conducted on three electronic archives, PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1988 through 2012), to search for any articles reporting patient satisfaction with hospital foodservices. A total of 319 studies were identified. After removing duplicates, 149 abstracts were reviewed, particular attention being given to the presence of a description of the tool used. Thirty-one articles were selected and the full texts were reviewed. Half the studies (n=15) were performed in North America. Patient satisfaction scores were generally high, with some variation among hospitals and different modes of food delivery that was investigated through intervention studies. Qualitative studies were also reported (ethnographic-anthropologic methods with interviews and focus groups). Quantitative tools were represented by questionnaires, some of which relied on previous literature and only a few were validated with factorial analysis and/or Cronbach's ? for internal consistency. Most analyses were conducted assuming a parametric distribution of results, an issue not primarily tested. More studies on the quality of hospital foodservice have been carried out in North America than in Europe. Also, a variety of tools, most of which have not been validated, have been used by the different investigating facilities. PMID:25634093

  9. Vitex agnus castus: a systematic review of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Claudia; Thompson Coon, Joanna; Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-01-01

    Vitex agnus castus L. (VAC) [Verbenaceae] is a deciduous shrub that is native to Mediterranean Europe and Central Asia. Traditionally, VAC fruit extract has been used in the treatment of many female conditions, including menstrual disorders (amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), corpus luteum insufficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, infertility, acne, menopause and disrupted lactation. The German Commission E has approved the use of VAC for irregularities of the menstrual cycle, premenstrual disturbances and mastodynia. Clinical reviews are available for the efficacy of VAC in PMS, cycle disorders, hyperprolactinaemia and mastalgia, but so far no systematic review has been published on adverse events or drug interactions associated with VAC. Therefore, this review was conducted to evaluate all the available human safety data of VAC monopreparations. Literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases, in references lists of all identified papers and in departmental files. Data from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national drug safety bodies were also included. Twelve manufacturers of VAC-containing preparations and five herbalist organisations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Combination preparations including VAC or homeopathic preparations of VAC were excluded. Data extraction of key data from all articles reporting adverse events or interactions was performed independently by at least two reviewers, regardless of study design. Data from clinical trials, postmarketing surveillance studies, surveys, spontaneous reporting schemes, manufacturers and herbalist organisations indicate that the adverse events following VAC treatment are mild and reversible. The most frequent adverse events are nausea, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual disorders, acne, pruritus and erythematous rash. No drug interactions were reported. Use of VAC should be avoided during pregnancy or lactation. Theoretically, VAC might also interfere with dopaminergic antagonists. Although further rigorous studies are needed to assess the safety of VAC, the data available seem to indicate that VAC is a safe herbal medicine. PMID:15783241

  10. A Systematic Review of Physician Leadership and Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, Laura Janine; Stoller, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review evaluates the current understanding of emotional intelligence (EI) and physician leadership, exploring key themes and areas for future research. Literature Search We searched the literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Business Source Complete for articles published between 1990 and 2012. Search terms included physician and leadership, emotional intelligence, organizational behavior, and organizational development. All abstracts were reviewed. Full articles were evaluated if they addressed the connection between EI and physician leadership. Articles were included if they focused on physicians or physicians-in-training and discussed interventions or recommendations. Appraisal and Synthesis We assessed articles for conceptual rigor, study design, and measurement quality. A thematic analysis categorized the main themes and findings of the articles. Results The search produced 3713 abstracts, of which 437 full articles were read and 144 were included in this review. Three themes were identified: (1) EI is broadly endorsed as a leadership development strategy across providers and settings; (2) models of EI and leadership development practices vary widely; and (3) EI is considered relevant throughout medical education and practice. Limitations of the literature were that most reports were expert opinion or observational and studies used several different tools for measuring EI. Conclusions EI is widely endorsed as a component of curricula for developing physician leaders. Research comparing practice models and measurement tools will critically advance understanding about how to develop and nurture EI to enhance leadership skills in physicians throughout their careers. PMID:24701306

  11. Herbal medicines for cancer cachexia: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612. PMID:24893603

  12. A review of alternatives to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-containing medical devices in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E D S Van Vliet; E M Reitano; J S Chhabra; G P Bergen; R M Whyatt; EDS Van Vliet

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To conduct an extensive literature and toxicological database review on substitute compounds and available alternative medical products to replace polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and\\/or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and conduct a DEHP-medical inventory analysis at a large metropolitan neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).Study Design:A systematic search for DEHP-free alternative products was performed using online databases. An informal audit of a large metropolitan

  13. Self-Directed Interventions to Promote Weight Loss: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jason; Greaves, Colin; Yates, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background A wide range of self-directed weight-loss interventions are available, providing users with a variety of tools delivered through various formats to regulate weight-related behavior patterns. However, it is unclear how effective self-directed interventions are and how they promote weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective A systematic review of reviews was conducted to examine the effectiveness of such interventions and to identify intervention content associated with effectiveness. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library for systematic reviews were searched from 2000-2012 for reviews of the effectiveness of self-directed interventions on weight loss and weight maintenance in adults. Two reviewers used predefined inclusion criteria to select relevant reviews and assess their quality using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). We extracted data on effectiveness and on relationships between intervention characteristics and effectiveness. Results Twenty reviews were included and quality assessed. Findings relevant to self-directed interventions, including interactive websites, smartphone applications, and text messaging (short message service, SMS) were summarized. Findings were mixed but promising. For example, one review of Internet-based interventions found that, when used in conjunction with standard weight loss programs, these interventions resulted in a significant average increase in weight loss of 1.5 kg over evaluation periods. Unfortunately, only 7 of 20 reviews were of high methodological quality according to OQAQ scores, and only 4 employed meta-analyses. Few reviews linked intervention content to effectiveness. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that self-directed interventions can independently promote weight loss and can augment interventions involving personal contact. Particular change techniques and delivery modes including individualized feedback, email counseling, and online social support appear to enhance effectiveness. Further reviews of the content of self-directed weight-loss intervention studies are needed to clarify which change techniques delivered through which delivery formats optimize intervention effectiveness. PMID:24554464

  14. Arsenic and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Laura; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Agnew, Jackie; Weaver, Virginia M; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-09-01

    In epidemiologic studies, high arsenic exposure has been associated with adverse kidney disease outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence of the association between arsenic and various kidney disease outcomes. The search period was January 1966 through January 2014. Twenty-five papers (comprising 24 studies) meeting the search criteria were identified and included in this review. In most studies, arsenic exposure was assessed by measurement of urine concentrations or with an ecological indicator. There was a generally positive association between arsenic and albuminuria and proteinuria outcomes. There was mixed evidence of an association between arsenic exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD), ?-2 microglobulin (?2MG), and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) outcomes. There was evidence of a positive association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease mortality. Assessment of a small number of studies with three or more categories showed a clear dose-response association between arsenic and prevalent albuminuria and proteinuria, but not with CKD outcomes. Eight studies lacked adjustment for possible confounders, and two had small study populations. The evaluation of the causality of the association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease outcomes is limited by the small number of studies, lack of study quality, and limited prospective evidence. Because of the high prevalence of arsenic exposure worldwide, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiologic and mechanistic studies of arsenic and kidney disease outcomes. PMID:25221743

  15. Estimating the coverage of mental health programmes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J; Lee, Lucy; Fuhr, Daniela C; Rathod, Sujit; Chisholm, Dan; Schellenberg, Joanna; Patel, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background The large treatment gap for people suffering from mental disorders has led to initiatives to scale up mental health services. In order to track progress, estimates of programme coverage, and changes in coverage over time, are needed. Methods Systematic review of mental health programme evaluations that assess coverage, measured either as the proportion of the target population in contact with services (contact coverage) or as the proportion of the target population who receive appropriate and effective care (effective coverage). We performed a search of electronic databases and grey literature up to March 2013 and contacted experts in the field. Methods to estimate the numerator (service utilization) and the denominator (target population) were reviewed to explore methods which could be used in programme evaluations. Results We identified 15 735 unique records of which only seven met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported contact coverage. No study explicitly measured effective coverage, but it was possible to estimate this for one study. In six studies the numerator of coverage, service utilization, was estimated using routine clinical information, whereas one study used a national community survey. The methods for estimating the denominator, the population in need of services, were more varied and included national prevalence surveys case registers, and estimates from the literature. Conclusions Very few coverage estimates are available. Coverage could be estimated at low cost by combining routine programme data with population prevalence estimates from national surveys. PMID:24760874

  16. Quality Assessment of TPB-Based Questionnaires: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oluka, Obiageli Crystal; Nie, Shaofa; Sun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) change model. Methods A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal tools: one for the overall methodological quality of each study and the other developed for the appraisal of the questionnaire content and development process. Both appraisal tools consisted of items regarding the likelihood of bias in each study and were eventually combined to give the overall quality score for each included study. Results 8 of the 10 included studies showed low risk of bias in the overall quality assessment of each study, while 9 of the studies were of high quality based on the quality appraisal of questionnaire content and development process. Conclusion Quality appraisal of the questionnaires in the 10 reviewed studies was successfully conducted, highlighting the top problem areas (including: sample size estimation; inclusion of direct and indirect measures; and inclusion of questions on demographics) in the development of TPB-based questionnaires and the need for researchers to provide a more detailed account of their development process. PMID:24722323

  17. Absorbable collagen membranes for periodontal regeneration: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stoecklin-Wasmer, C; Rutjes, A W S; da Costa, B R; Salvi, G E; Jüni, P; Sculean, A

    2013-09-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) with bioabsorbable collagen membranes (CM) is commonly used for the treatment of periodontal defects. The objective of this systematic review of randomized clinical trials was to assess the clinical efficacy of GTR procedures with CM, with or without bone substitutes, in periodontal infrabony defects compared with that of open flap debridement (OFD) alone. Primary outcomes were tooth loss and gain in clinical attachment level (CAL). Screening of records, data extraction, and risk-of-bias assessments were performed by two reviewers. Weighted mean differences were estimated by random effects meta-analysis. We included 21 reports on 17 trials. Risk of bias was generally high. No data were available for the primary outcome tooth loss. The summary treatment effect for change in CAL for GTR with CM compared with OFD was 1.58 mm (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.88). Despite large between-trial heterogeneity (I2 = 75%, p < .001), all trials favored GTR over OFD. No differences in treatment effects were detected between trials of GTR with CM alone and trials of GTR with CM in combination with bone substitutes (p for interaction, .31). GTR with CM, with or without substitutes, may result in improved clinical outcomes compared with those achieved with OFD alone. Our findings support GTR with CM for the treatment of infrabony periodontal defects. PMID:23842107

  18. The local food environment and diet: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Sorensen, Glorian; Subramanian, S.V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the problem of obesogenic environments, there has not been a comprehensive review evaluating the food environment-diet relationship. This study aims to evaluate this relationship in the current literature, focusing specifically on the method of exposure assessment (GIS, survey, or store audit). This study also explores 5 dimensions of “food access” (availability, accessibility, affordability, accommodation, acceptability) using a conceptual definition proposed by Penchansky and Thomas (1981). Articles were retrieved through a systematic keyword search in Web of Science and supplemented by the reference lists of included studies. Thirty-eight studies were reviewed and categorized by the exposure assessment method and the conceptual dimensions of access it captured. GIS-based measures were the most common measures, but were less consistently associated with diet than other measures. Few studies examined dimensions of affordability, accommodation, and acceptability. Because GIS-based measures on their own may not capture important non-geographic dimensions of access, a set of recommendations for future researchers is outlined. PMID:22717379

  19. Upper airway outcomes following midface distraction osteogenesis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B A; Brace, M; Hong, P

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically review the airway outcomes following distraction osteogenesis of midface with the goal of (1) deriving clinically oriented insights and (2) identifying gaps in knowledge to stimulate future research. Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched and studies were included if subjects of any age had midface retrusion/hypoplasia and underwent midface distraction osteogenesis. Outcome measures of interest were any respiratory or airway associated measures, and reports of adverse events. A total of 368 abstracts were generated from the literature searches; 16 studies met the criteria for data extraction and analysis. All 16 studies were observational. Generally, midface distraction osteogenesis was reported to improve respiratory status and was well tolerated. Specifically, favorable outcomes in cephalometry (9 studies), polysomnography (9 studies), and decannulation rates (8 studies) were reported. In conclusion, upper airway status was improved in most patients who underwent midface distraction osteogenesis, yet long-term results and consistent objective measures are lacking. Studies reviewed were retrospective case series and details regarding patients who did not improve were deficient. A standardized prospective multicenter cohort trial with long-term patient follow up is required. PMID:24631233

  20. Oncoplastic breast surgery: a review and systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Berry, M G; Fitoussi, A D; Curnier, A; Couturaud, B; Salmon, R J

    2010-08-01

    Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS) is relatively new, but has made rapid progress from its tentative steps of infancy in the 1990s. The recent Milanese Consensus Conference on Breast Conservation concluded that, firstly, oncoplastic techniques are warranted to allow wide excision and clear margins without compromising cosmesis. Secondly, such surgery is ideally performed at the same time as oncological excision. Whilst technically more challenging than standard breast conserving therapy (BCT), OBS is well proven, if not yet widely practised, both oncologically and aesthetically and a review of the available techniques is perhaps timely. The roots of breast conserving therapy can be traced to the 1930s, actually due to advances made in radiotherapy, and the last 20 years have seen it become firmly established. This review aims to summarise the key historical developments and latest innovations in OBS. Not only are our patients, who expect not only safe cancer treatment but a satisfactory aesthetic outcome, increasingly informed and demanding, but longer follow up has stimulated surgeons to improve outcomes. In many cases, particularly with ptosis and macromastia, the cancer can be treated, usually with wider excision margins, simultaneously improving the aesthetic appearance. Present at the birth of OBS, the Institut Curie has continued to introduce innovative techniques over the last two decades and a systematic approach, comprising nine basic techniques, has evolved to allow high quality treatment of any and all breast cancers suitable for OBS. PMID:19559661

  1. A Systematic Review of Electric-Acoustic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Cowan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear implant systems that combine electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear are now commercially available and the number of patients using these devices is steadily increasing. In particular, electric-acoustic stimulation is an option for patients with severe, high frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. There have been a range of approaches to combining electric stimulation and acoustic hearing in the same ear. To develop a better understanding of fitting practices for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation, we conducted a systematic review addressing three clinical questions: what is the range of acoustic hearing in the implanted ear that can be effectively preserved for an electric-acoustic fitting?; what benefits are provided by combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation?; and what clinical fitting practices have been developed for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation? A search of the literature was conducted and 27 articles that met the strict evaluation criteria adopted for the review were identified for detailed analysis. The range of auditory thresholds in the implanted ear that can be successfully used for an electric-acoustic application is quite broad. The effectiveness of combined electric and acoustic stimulation as compared with electric stimulation alone was consistently demonstrated, highlighting the potential value of preservation and utilization of low frequency hearing in the implanted ear. However, clinical procedures for best fitting of electric-acoustic devices were varied. This clearly identified a need for further investigation of fitting procedures aimed at maximizing outcomes for recipients of electric-acoustic devices. PMID:23539259

  2. Cryotherapy in inflammatory rheumatic diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Xavier; Tordi, Nicolas; Mourot, Laurent; Demougeot, Céline; Dugué, Benoît; Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this article was to review current evidence about cryotherapy in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (therapeutic and biological effects). For therapeutic effects, we performed a systematic review (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS databases, unpublished data) and selected studies including non-operated and non-infected arthritic patients treated with local cryotherapy or whole-body cryotherapy. By pooling 6 studies including 257 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we showed a significant decrease in pain visual analogic scale (mm) and 28-joint disease activity score after chronic cryotherapy in RA patients. For molecular pathways, local cryotherapy induces an intrajoint temperature decrease, which might downregulate several mediators involved in joint inflammation and destruction (cytokines, cartilage-degrading enzymes, proangiogenic factors), but studies in RA are rare. Cryotherapy should be included in RA therapeutic strategies as an adjunct therapy, with potential corticosteroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug dose-sparing effects. However, techniques and protocols should be more precisely defined in randomized controlled trials with stronger methodology. PMID:24345205

  3. Honey in modern wound care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, L; Heyneman, A; Hoeksema, H; Verbelen, J; Monstrey, S

    2013-12-01

    Honey, known for centuries as a topical treatment for a wide range of wounds, has recently known a revival in modern wound care. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the available evidence and the role of honey in contemporary wound care. The search strategy was developed in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Science. Fifty-five studies of any design, evaluating the use of honey in human burns, ulcers and other wounds, written in English, French, German or Dutch were eligible for inclusion. In all three wound categories honey seems to be a dressing with wound healing stimulating properties. In burns there is also evidence for its antibacterial capacity. In general, honey is also been mentioned to have deodorizing, debridement, anti-inflammatory and wound pain reducing properties, although the evidence for these properties is rather limited. Many of the included studies have methodological problems, and the quality of certain studies is low, making it difficult to formulate conclusive guidelines. This review reveals several gaps in the research of honey in modern wound care, and recommendations are suggested for future research. PMID:23896128

  4. Predictors of complicated grief: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Lobb, Elizabeth A; Kristjanson, Linda J; Aoun, Samar M; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K B; Davies, Anna

    2010-09-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the relationship to the deceased. Factors associated with the death include violent death, the quality of the caregiving or dying experience, close kinship relationship to the deceased, marital closeness and dependency, and lack of preparation for the death. Perceived social support played a key role after death, along with cognitive appraisals and high distress at the time of the death. Inconsistent definitions of CG and measurement tools were noted in the earlier studies reviewed. Limitations identified in the studies included use of cross-sectional designs, heterogeneous samples, high attrition, demographic differences between cases and controls, differences in length of time since death, and differences in types of death experienced. Notwithstanding these limitations, some consistent findings have emerged. Further research into conceptualizations of CG in terms of attachment theory and constructivist and cognitive-behavioral concepts of finding purpose and meaning after bereavement is warranted. PMID:24482845

  5. A systematic review of stress in dental students.

    PubMed

    Elani, Hawazin W; Allison, Paul J; Kumar, Ritu A; Mancini, Laura; Lambrou, Angella; Bedos, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the available literature on the levels, causes, and impact of stress among dental students. The investigators searched eight electronic databases: Medline, Medline in process, Psychinfo, ERIC, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Two independent reviewers conducted the selection, data extraction, and quality appraisal for included studies. The investigators then coded both quantitative and qualitative studies using similar codes and pooled results from studies that used the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire to demonstrate dental students' stress levels. The search initially identified 4,720 studies, of which 124 studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis and twenty-one were included in the meta-analysis. Evidence from this research showed that dental students experience considerable amounts of stress during their training. This stress is mainly due to the demanding nature of the training. In addition, studies suggest adverse effects of elevated stress on students' health and well-being. Most of the available literature is based on cross-sectional studies; thus, future longitudinal studies are needed to follow students throughout their curriculum. In addition, further research needs to explore and test stress management interventions. PMID:24489030

  6. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  7. Systematic review of diagnostic tests for vaginal trichomoniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S R; Wiese, W; Patel, S C; Ohl, C; Byrd, J C; Estrada, C A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review critically and to summarize the evidence of diagnostic tests and culture media for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginitis. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature indexed in MEDLINE of studies that used Trichomonas culture as the reference standard (9,882 patients, 35 studies). Level I studies (5,047 patients, 13 studies) fulfilled at least two of three criteria: 1) consecutive patients were evaluated prospectively, 2) decision to culture was not influenced by test results, and 3) there was independent and blind comparison to culture. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) was 95% (95% CI 91% to 99%), and the specificity was 98% (95% CI 96% to 100%). One study was classified as Level I evidence (52 patients). The sensitivity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 82% (95% CI 74% to 90%), and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 35% to 100%). The sensitivity of the direct fluorescence antibody was 85% (95% CI 79% to 90%), and the specificity was 99% (95% CI 98% to 100%). Sensitivities of culture media were 95% for Diamond's, 96% for Hollander, and 95% for CPLM. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and specificity of tests to diagnose trichomoniasis vary widely. PMID:11220487

  8. Biomedical Informatics Applications for Asthma Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David L.; Aronsky, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is a common condition associated with significant patient morbidity and health care costs. Although widely accepted evidence-based guidelines for asthma management exist, unnecessary variation in patient care remains. Application of biomedical informatics techniques is one potential way to improve care for asthmatic patients. We performed a systematic literature review to identify computerized applications for clinical asthma care. Studies were evaluated for their clinical domain, developmental stage and study design. Additionally, prospective trials were identified and analyzed for potential study biases, study effects, and clinical study characteristics. Sixty-four papers were selected for review. Publications described asthma detection or diagnosis (18 papers), asthma monitoring or prevention (13 papers), patient education (13 papers), and asthma guidelines or therapy (20 papers). The majority of publications described projects in early stages of development or with non-prospective study designs. Twenty-one prospective trials were identified, which evaluated both clinical and non-clinical impacts on patient care. Most studies took place in the outpatient clinic environment, with minimal study of the emergency department or inpatient settings. Few studies demonstrated evidence of computerized applications improving clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to prospectively evaluate the impact of using biomedical informatics to improve care of asthmatic patients. PMID:16622164

  9. Spinal manual therapy interventions for pediatric patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Daniel W; Kenyon, Lisa K; Sobeck, Corey M; Smith, Robyn E

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although much has been written about the efficacy of manual therapy interventions for adults with headaches or spinal pain, little research has focused on the use of these interventions in pediatric patients. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for spinal manual therapy (SMT) interventions in patients 4–17 years old with headaches and/or mechanical spinal pain. Methods: A search for relevant studies published in the past 15 years was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Randomized Control Trials, PEDro, PubMed, and Sports Discus. Only English language articles were reviewed. Studies had to include at least one outcome measure for pain, function, or quality of life. Studies evaluating post-operative interventions, or those in which the interventions were directed at influencing excessive spinal curvatures, were excluded. Case reports and studies that did not limit analysis of the results to the pediatric population were also excluded. Results: Two randomized control trials and two studies offering lower levels of evidence were identified in the literature search. The latter studies were prospective cohort studies. The four studies were evaluated using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. Discussion: There are very little data in the literature to support or refute the use of SMT interventions in pediatric patients. Further research is required to establish a strong evidence-based foundation for use of these interventions in children. PMID:23904755

  10. Urinary symptoms in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Kristine A; Boyington, Alice R; Ismail-Khan, Roohi; Wyman, Jean F

    2012-02-01

    A large body of research has documented the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms, especially vasomotor symptoms, in breast cancer survivors and their impact on quality of life. However, urinary symptoms as part of the constellation of menopausal symptoms have received relatively little attention. Thus, less is known about the prevalence and severity of urinary symptoms in breast cancer survivors. The authors of this report conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1990 and 2010 to describe the prevalence and severity of urinary symptoms in breast cancer survivors. In total, 16 eligible studies that involved >2500 women were identified. The studies varied with respect to purpose, design, and nature of the samples included; the majority used the same definition and assessment approach for urinary symptoms. Prevalence rates for symptoms ranged from 12% of women reporting burning or pain on micturition to 58% reporting difficulty with bladder control. Although, in many studies, the largest percentage of women rated symptoms as mild, 23% reported severe symptoms. Symptoms appeared to adversely affect women's quality of life. The authors concluded that there is a need for additional research assessing the natural history of urinary symptoms using consensus definitions and validated measures in diverse populations. Nevertheless, this review suggested that clinicians should screen for urinary symptoms in breast cancer survivors and should offer treatment recommendations or make referrals as appropriate. PMID:21751193

  11. A systematic review of allostatic load, health, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Beckie, Theresa M

    2012-10-01

    The theoretical constructs of allostasis and allostatic load (AL) have contributed to our understanding of how constantly changing social and environmental factors impact physiological functioning and shape health and aging disparities, particularly along socioeconomic, gendered, racial, and ethnic lines. AL represents the cumulative dysregulation of biological systems with prolonged or poorly regulated allostatic responses. Nearly two decades of empirical research has focused on operationalizing the AL construct for examining the antecedents and health outcomes accompanying multisystem biological dysregulation. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the empirical literature that quantifies the AL construct; the review also evaluates the social, environmental, and genetic antecedents of AL as well as its predictive utility for a variety of health outcomes. A total of 58 articles published between 1997 and 2012 were retrieved, analyzed, and synthesized. The results revealed considerable heterogeneity in the operationalization of AL and the measurement of AL biomarkers, making interpretations and comparisons across studies challenging. There is, however, empirical substantiation for the relationships between AL and socioeconomic status, social relationships, workplace, lifestyle, race/ethnicity, gender, stress exposure, and genetic factors. The literature also demonstrated associations between AL and physical and mental health and all-cause mortality. Targeting the antecedents of AL during key developmental periods is essential for improving public health. Priorities for future research include conducting prospective longitudinal studies, examining a broad range of antecedent allostatic challenges, and collecting reliable measures of multisystem dysregulation explicitly designed to assess AL, at multiple time points, in population-representative samples. PMID:23007870

  12. Dietary intake and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crane, Tracy E; Khulpateea, Beman R; Alberts, David S; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of gynecological cancer death. There is a need to identify modifiable dietary risk factors for this disease. To evaluate the role of diet in ovarian cancer risk, we performed a PRISMA-directed systematic review that included prospective cohort studies with >200 cases (n = 24). Higher risk for ovarian cancer was shown for total, animal, and dairy fat (five of nine studies), as well as total nitrate and possibly total vitamin C. No associations were demonstrated for red meat, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin E, ?-carotene, or folate. Vegetables were associated with lower risk in one of three studies; fruit showed no association, although risk estimates were all greater than 1.0. Isoflavones and flavonoids were associated with modestly lower risk in two studies and tea intake was associated with lower risk in one of two studies. This review suggests that no specific dietary factors are consistently associated with ovarian cancer risk. Data by tumor subtypes are limited, but suggest that differential associations by tumor subtype may exist and should be evaluated. Studies of ample sample size, varied exposure, which can better control for dietary measurement error, are needed to fully define dietary recommendations for ovarian cancer prevention. PMID:24142805

  13. An Overview of Systematic Reviews of Shenmai Injection for Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling-yan; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Shenmai injection (SMI) is widely applied in clinical practice as an organ protector. This overview is to evaluate the current evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of SMI for healthcare. The literature searches were carried out in 6 databases without language restrictions until December 2012. The quality of the primary studies from the respective SRs was evaluated by using Jadad score. The overview quality assessment questionnaire (OQAQ) was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included SRs. Twenty eligible SRs were identified. They reported a wide range of conditions, including SMI for cardio/cerebrovascular diseases, viral myocarditis, tumor chemotherapy, and adverse drug reactions. Most of the primary studies were of good quality only in 1 SR of non-small-cell lung cancer. According to the OQAQ scores, the quality of included SRs was variable and six reviews were of high quality with a score of 5 points. Two SRs showed that SMI had low adverse drug reaction occurrence. In conclusion, there is mixed evidence to support efficacy of SMI for an adjunct therapy to tumor chemotherapy and premature evidence for the use of SMI for cardio/cerebrovascular disorders and viral myocarditis. SMI seems generally safe for clinical application. Further large sample-size and well-designed RCTs are needed. PMID:24669229

  14. Sleep disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Oliveira, Ezequiel; Nacif, Sergio R.; Alves Pereira, Nixon; Fonseca, Nina Teixeira; Urbano, Jéssica Julioti; Perez, Eduardo Araújo; Cavalcante, Valéria; Santos Oliveira, Claudia; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Acary Sousa Bulle; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This systematic review evaluated the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with myasthenia gravis and clarified the role of physiotherapy. [Subjects and Methods] We followed the PRISMA declaration criteria. The evaluation was performed in accordance with the STROBE statement for observational and cross-sectional studies and the CONSORT checklist for clinical trials. Searches were followed by hand on MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciELO, PubMed Central, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. [Results] Our searches yielded a total of 36 studies published between 1970 and 2014. The number of patients involved ranged from 9–490. Of the 36 studies, 19 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Therefore, 17 observational, cross-sectional, or clinical studies assessing the quality of sleep and prevalence of sleep disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis were eligible for our review. [Conclusion] Some studies of patients with MG show that patients with MG are associated with poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, presence of restless syndrome, and a higher incidence of SDB, while other studies do not report such associations. Therefore, given the current inconclusive evidence and limited literature, further study of sleep disturbances in patients with MG is needed.

  15. Sugar-Fat Seesaw: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Michele Jeanne; McNulty, Helene; Gibson, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Further to reports of a reciprocal relationship between sugar and fat intakes, this review aimed to provide an in-depth analysis and to determine the likely influence of this relationship on the achievement of population dietary guidelines. Using systematic methods, relevant literature was selected according to preset criteria. A strong and consistent inverse association was found between total sugars and total fat intakes expressed as percentage energy. Fewer studies considered absolute intakes and these reported a positive relationship, which may be influenced by confounding with energy intakes. Evidence for an inverse relationship between percentage energy from fat and extrinsic sugars was weaker and less consistent than for fat and total sugars. Reciprocal relationships were also observed for sugar-saturated fat, sugar?protein, sugar?alcohol, and sugar?starch expressed as percentage energy. Under-reporting of dietary intakes had no major influence on the findings. This review confirms the existence of the sugar?fat seesaw on a percentage energy basis and concludes that it is most likely explained by a combination of mathematical and food compositional effects. This finding is relevant because dietary guidelines are expressed as percentage energy and implies that at the population level multiple guidelines may be difficult to achieve in practice. PMID:24915391

  16. Social Network Analysis in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Duncan; Wilson, Paul; Thompson, Carl; Harden, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Background Social network analysis (SNA) has been widely used across a range of disciplines but is most commonly applied to help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of decision making processes in commercial organisations. We are utilising SNA to inform the development and implementation of tailored behaviour-change interventions to improve the uptake of evidence into practice in the English National Health Service. To inform this work, we conducted a systematic scoping review to identify and evaluate the use of SNA as part of an intervention to support the implementation of change in healthcare settings. Methods and Findings We searched ten bibliographic databases to October 2011. We also searched reference lists, hand searched selected journals and websites, and contacted experts in the field. To be eligible for the review, studies had to describe and report the results of an SNA performed with healthcare professionals (e.g. doctors, nurses, pharmacists, radiographers etc.) and others involved in their professional social networks. We included 52 completed studies, reported in 62 publications. Almost all of the studies were limited to cross sectional descriptions of networks; only one involved using the results of the SNA as part of an intervention to change practice. Conclusions We found very little evidence for the potential of SNA being realised in healthcare settings. However, it seems unlikely that networks are less important in healthcare than other settings. Future research should seek to go beyond the merely descriptive to implement and evaluate SNA-based interventions. PMID:22870261

  17. Prevention of bacterial meningitis: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Karlupia, Neha

    2007-10-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is an acute inflammation of leptomeninges caused by bacteria, and has a case fatality rate of 10-30%. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination and prophylactic antibiotics, can prevent ABM and have substantial public health impact by reducing the disease burden associated with it. The aim of this paper is to summarize the main findings from Cochrane systematic reviews that have considered the evidence for measures to prevent ABM. We assessed the evidence available in the Cochrane Library. We found five Cochrane reviews focused on the prevention of ABM; three with use of vaccination and two with prophylactic antibiotics. Polysaccharide serogroup A vaccine is strongly protective for the first year, against serogroup A meningococcal meningitis in adults and children over 5 years of age. Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine is safe and effective in infants. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is safe and effective against Hib-invasive disease at all ages. Ceftriaxone, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin are the most effective prophylactic antibiotics against Neisseria meningitidis. There is sufficient evidence to use polysaccharide serogroup A vaccine to prevent serogroup A meningococcal meningitis, MCC conjugate vaccines to prevent meningococcal C meningitis and Hib conjugate vaccine to prevent Hib infections. More studies are needed to evaluate the effects of Hib conjugate vaccine on mortality. Further, studies are required to compare the relative effectiveness of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin in chemoprophylaxis against meningococcal infection. PMID:17706408

  18. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-02-01

    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  19. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557

  20. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such as all text. Findings also suggest that factors influencing response to risk communications are impacted by personal risk perception, previous personal experience with risk, sources of information and trust in those sources. Conclusions No single method of message delivery is best. Risk communication strategies that incorporate the needs of the target audience(s) with a multi-faceted delivery method are most effective at reaching the audience. PMID:21040529

  1. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Ocular Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Wajiha J.; Sheheitli, Huda; Abdul Fattah, Maamoun; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous or atypical mycobacterial ocular infections have been increasing in prevalence over the past few decades. They are known to cause periocular, adnexal, ocular surface and intraocular infections and are often recalcitrant to medical therapy. These infections can potentially cause detrimental outcomes, in part due to a delay in diagnosis. We review 174 case reports and series on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) ocular infections and discuss etiology, microbiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of these infections. History of interventions, trauma, foreign bodies, implants, contact lenses, and steroids are linked to NTM ocular infections. Steroid use may prolong the duration of the infection and cause poorer visual outcomes. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with multiple antibiotics are necessary to achieve the best visual outcome.

  2. Patient Web Portals to Improve Diabetes Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Mulvaney, Shelagh A.; Hess, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Patient web portals (PWPs), defined as the integration of electronic medical records and patient health records, have been related to enhanced patient outcomes. A literature review was conducted to characterize the design and evaluation of PWPs to improve health care processes and outcomes in diabetes. A summary of 26 articles revealed the positive impact PWPs have on patient outcomes, patient-provider communication, disease management, and access to and patient satisfaction with health care. Innovative and useful approaches included the evaluation of specific components of the PWPs, assessing the impact of PWPs on mediators of health behaviors, such as patient distress, identification of barriers to use, and patient willingness to pay for access. Future research should focus on relevant processes that mediate patient and provider use, impact on health care utilization, and a patient-centered approach to the design and integration of educational opportunities afforded through PWPs. PMID:20890688

  3. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, Sepideh; Ayu Said, Mas; Hussain Habil, Mohd

    2014-08-01

    Addiction to the