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1

Processing medical data: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Medical data recording is one of the basic clinical tools. Electronic Health Record (EHR) is important for data processing, communication, efficiency and effectiveness of patients’ information access, confidentiality, ethical and/or legal issues. Clinical record promote and support communication among service providers and hence upscale quality of healthcare. Qualities of records are reflections of the quality of care patients offered. Methods Qualitative analysis was undertaken for this systematic review. We reviewed 40 materials Published from 1999 to 2013. We searched these materials from databases including ovidMEDLINE and ovidEMBASE. Two reviewers independently screened materials on medical data recording, documentation and information processing and communication. Finally, all selected references were summarized, reconciled and compiled as one compatible document. Result Patients were dying and/or getting much suffering as the result of poor quality medical records. Electronic health record minimizes errors, saves unnecessary time, and money wasted on processing medical data. Conclusion Many countries have been complaining for incompleteness, inappropriateness and illegibility of records. Therefore creating awareness on the magnitude of the problem has paramount importance. Hence available correct patient information has lots of potential in reducing errors and support roles. PMID:24107106

2013-01-01

2

Systematic Review of Educational Interventions to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence  

PubMed Central

Adherence to prescribed glaucoma medications is often poor, and proper adherence can be challenging for patients. We systematically reviewed the literature and identified eight studies using educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Overall, five of the eight studies found that educational interventions lead to a significant improvement in medication adherence, and the remaining studies found a trend towards improvement. Using information from this systematic review and Health Behavior Theory, we constructed a conceptual framework to illustrate how counseling and education can improve glaucoma medication adherence. More rigorous studies grounded in Health Behavior Theory with adequately powered samples and longer follow-up are needed. PMID:23697623

Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Weizer, Jennifer S.; Heisler, Michele; Lee, Paul P.; Stein, Joshua D.

2014-01-01

3

Developing medical professionalism in future doctors: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives: There are currently no guidelines on the most effective ways of supporting medical students to develop high standards of medical professionalism. The aim of this review is to summarise the evidence currently available on methods used by medical schools to promote medical professionalism. Methods: We performed a systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, PsychInfo, British Education Index, Educational Resources Information Centre, Sociological Abstracts and Topics in Medical Education) from January 1998 to October 2008. Outcomes studied were methods used to support and promote the development of professionalism in medical students. Results: We identified 134 papers and five main themes for supporting the development of professionalism in medical students: curriculum design, student selection, teaching and learning methods, role modelling and assessment methods. However, the level of empirical evidence supporting each of these methods is limited. Conclusions: Identification of these five areas helps medical schools to focus the emphasis of their approaches to developing professionalism and identifies future research areas. This review offers a preliminary guide to future discovery and progress in the area of medical professionalism.

Doug, Manjo; Peile, Ed; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Johnson, Neil

2010-01-01

4

Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. Methods A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Results Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a “gray literature search” utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%). In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg, surgery, cancer) were often analyzed. In terms of settings, 56% of papers covered inpatients, whereas 14 papers (44%) captured outpatients, including patients in community centers. Interestingly, in comparison with the papers identified overall, very few health economic models were found. Most of the articles were modeling analyses and economic trials in different design settings. Overall, only eight health economic models were published and were validated applying the Drummond checklist. In summary, most of the models included were carried out to quite a high standard, although some areas were identified for further improvement. Of the two systematic health economic reviews identified, one achieved the highest quality score when applying the AMSTAR checklist. Conclusion The reasons for finding only a few modeling studies but quite a large number of clinical trials with health economic endpoints, might be different. Until recently, health economics has not been required for reimbursement or coverage decisions concerning medical nutrition interventions. Further, there might be specifics of medical nutrition which might not allow easy modeling and consequently explain the limited uptake so far. The health economic data on medical nutrition generated and published is quite ample. However, it has been primarily based on database analysis and clinical studies. Only a few modeling analyses have been carried out, indicating a need for further research to understand the specifics of medical nutrition and their applicability for health economic modeling. PMID:24648747

Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Severac, Helene

2014-01-01

5

Medical students as peer tutors: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background While Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) has long occurred informally in medical education, in the past ten years, there has been increasing international interest in formally organised PAL, with many benefits for both the students and institutions. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to establish why and how PAL has been implemented, focussing on the recruitment and training process for peer tutors, the benefits for peer tutors, and the competency of peer tutors. Method A literature search was conducted in three electronic databases. Selection of titles and abstracts were made based on pre-determined eligibility criteria. We utilized the ‘AMEE Peer assisted learning: a planning and implementation framework: AMEE Guide no. 30’ to assist us in establishing the review aims in a systematic review of the literature between 2002 and 2012. Six key questions were developed and used in our analysis of particular aspects of PAL programs within medical degree programs. Results We found nineteen articles that satisfied our inclusion criteria. The PAL activities fell into three broad categories of teacher training, peer teaching and peer assessment. Variability was found in the reporting of tutor recruitment and training processes, tutor outcomes, and tutor competencies. Conclusion Results from this review suggest that there are many perceived learning benefits for student tutors. However, there were mixed results regarding the accuracy of peer assessment and feedback, and no substantial evidence to conclude that participation as a peer tutor improves one’s own examination performance. Further research into PAL in medicine is required if we are to better understand the relative impact and benefits for student tutors. PMID:24912500

2014-01-01

6

Systematic review of new medics' clinical task experience by country  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is a need for research which informs on the overall size and significance of clinical skills deficits among new medics, globally. There is also the need for a meta-review of the similarities and differences between countries in the clinical skills deficits of new medics. Design A systematic review of published literature produced 68 articles from Google/Google Scholar, of which nine met the inclusion criteria (quantitative clinical skills data about new medical doctors). Participants One thousand three hundred twenty-nine new medical doctors (e.g. foundation year-1s, interns, postgraduate year-1 doctors). Setting Ten countries/regions. Main outcome measures One hundred twenty-three data points and representation of a broad range of clinical procedures. Results The average rate of inexperience with a wide range of clinical procedures was 35.92% (lower confidence interval [CI] 30.84, upper CI 40.99). The preliminary meta-analysis showed that the overall deficit in experience is significantly different from 0 in all countries. Focusing on a smaller selection of clinical skills such as catheterisation, IV cannulation, nasogastric tubing and venepuncture, the average rate of inexperience was 26.75% (lower CI 18.55, upper CI 35.54) and also significant. England presented the lowest average deficit (9.15%), followed by New Zealand (18.33%), then South Africa (19.53%), Egypt, Kuwait, Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Ireland (21.07%), after which was Nigeria (37.99%), then USA (38.5%) and Iran (44.75%). Conclusion A meta-analysis is needed to include data not yet in the public domain from more countries. These results provide some support for the UK General Medical Council’s clear, detailed curriculum, which has been heralded by other countries as good practice. PMID:25057392

2014-01-01

7

Quality of Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Medical Journals: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundJournal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review

Noordin Othman; Agnes Vitry; Elizabeth E. Roughead; Benjamin Djulbegovic

2009-01-01

8

Patient safety education for undergraduate medical students: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To reduce harm caused by health care is a global priority. Medical students should be able to recognize unsafe conditions,\\u000a systematically report errors and near misses, investigate and improve such systems with a thorough understanding of human\\u000a fallibility, and disclose errors to patients. Incorporating the knowledge of how to do this into the medical student curriculum\\u000a is an urgent necessity.

Yanli Nie; Lin Li; Yurong Duan; Peixian Chen; Bruce H Barraclough; Mingming Zhang; Jing Li

2011-01-01

9

Barcode Medication Administration System (BCMA) Errors A Systematic Review Rupa Mitra1  

E-print Network

Barcode Medication Administration System (BCMA) Errors ­ A Systematic Review Rupa Mitra1 1 IU School of Informatics Implementation of Barcode Medication Administration (BCMA) improves the accuracy of administration of medication. These systems can improve medication safety by ensuring that correct medication

Zhou, Yaoqi

10

Medication Management in Older Adults: What a Systematic Review Tells Us  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While the original goal of a systematic review is to evaluate interventions to improve care, the systematic review related\\u000a to medication management highlighted the lack of research performed in this area. The original goal of this systematic review\\u000a was to evaluate interventions to improve medication error incidence rates in an older population (?65 years). However, the\\u000a majority of studies did

Brent Hodgkinson

11

Barcode medication administration work-arounds: a systematic review and implications for nurse executives.  

PubMed

Safe medication administration is necessary to ensure quality healthcare. Barcode medication administration systems were developed to reduce drug administration errors and the related costs and improve patient safety. Work-arounds created by nurses in the execution of the required processes can lead to unintended consequences, including errors. This article provides a systematic review of the literature associated with barcoded medication administration and work-arounds and suggests interventions that should be adopted by nurse executives to ensure medication safety. PMID:24061586

Voshall, Barbara; Piscotty, Ronald; Lawrence, Jeanette; Targosz, Mary

2013-10-01

12

The Impact of Medical Interpreter Services on the Quality of Health Care: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one million Americans are limited in English proficiency (LEP), but little is known about the effect of medical interpreter services on health care quality. A systematic literature review was conducted on the impact of interpreter services on quality of care. Five database searches yielded 2,640 citations and a final database of 36 articles, after applying exclusion criteria. Multiple studies document

Glenn Flores

2005-01-01

13

The Effect of Electronic Prescribing on Medication Errors and Adverse Drug Events: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this systematic review is to analyse the relative risk reduction on medication error and adverse drug events (ADE) by computerized physician order entry systems (CPOE). We included controlled field studies and pretest-posttest studies, evaluating all types of CPOE systems, drugs and clinical settings. We present the results in evidence tables, calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence

ELSKE AMMENWERTH; PETRA SCHNELL-INDERST; CHRISTOF MACHAN; UWE SIEBERT

2008-01-01

14

Prevalence of self-medication for skin diseases: a systematic review*  

PubMed Central

Self-medication is the selection and use of drugs without medical prescription, to treat diseases or for symptomatic relief. This article is a systematic review on self-medication in skin diseases. A search was conducted on Virtual Health Library and PubMed databases using predetermined descriptors. Two researchers performed the article selection process independently, with the degree of inter-observer agreement measured by the kappa index. The prevalence of self-medication ranged from 6.0 to 45.0%. Topical corticosteroids were the most commonly used therapeutic strategies for self-medication, as found in the reviewed articles. This study revealed that published data on self-medication in dermatology are scarce, although the findings showed that it was a common practice.

Correa-Fissmer, Mariane; Mendonca, Mariana Gaspar; Martins, Anesio Henrique; Galato, Dayani

2014-01-01

15

Inappropriateness of Medication Prescriptions to Elderly Patients in the Primary Care Setting: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Inappropriate medication prescription is a common cause of preventable adverse drug events among elderly persons in the primary care setting. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to quantify the extent of inappropriate prescription to elderly persons in the primary care setting. Methods We systematically searched Ovid-Medline and Ovid-EMBASE from 1950 and 1980 respectively to March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened and selected primary studies published in English that measured (in)appropriate medication prescription among elderly persons (>65 years) in the primary care setting. We extracted data sources, instruments for assessing medication prescription appropriateness, and the rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions. We grouped the reported individual medications according to the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classification and compared the median rate of inappropriate medication prescription and its range within each therapeutic class. Results We included 19 studies, 14 of which used the Beers criteria as the instrument for assessing appropriateness of prescriptions. The median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions (IMP) was 20.5% [IQR 18.1 to 25.6%.]. Medications with largest median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions were propoxyphene 4.52(0.10–23.30)%, doxazosin 3.96 (0.32 15.70)%, diphenhydramine 3.30(0.02–4.40)% and amitriptiline 3.20 (0.05–20.5)% in a decreasing order of IMP rate. Available studies described unequal sets of medications and different measurement tools to estimate the overall prevalence of inappropriate prescription. Conclusions Approximately one in five prescriptions to elderly persons in primary care is inappropropriate despite the attention that has been directed to quality of prescription. Diphenhydramine and amitriptiline are the most common inappropriately prescribed medications with high risk adverse events while propoxyphene and doxazoxin are the most commonly prescribed medications with low risk adverse events. These medications are good candidates for being targeted for improvement e.g. by computerized clinical decision support. PMID:22928004

Opondo, Dedan; Eslami, Saied; Visscher, Stefan; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Verheij, Robert; Korevaar, Joke C.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

2012-01-01

16

Medication errors in paediatric care: a systematic review of epidemiology and an evaluation of evidence supporting reduction strategy recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although children are at the greatest risk for medication errors, little is known about the overall epidemiology of these errors, where the gaps are in our knowledge, and to what extent national medication error reduction strategies focus on children.Objective: To synthesise peer reviewed knowledge on children’s medication errors and on recommendations to improve paediatric medication safety by a systematic

Marlene R Miller; Karen A Robinson; Lisa H Lubomski; Michael L Rinke; Peter J Pronovost

2007-01-01

17

Does adherence therapy improve medication adherence among patients with schizophrenia? A systematic review.  

PubMed

Non-adherence to medication is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. Adherence therapy aims to improve medication adherence of these patients by applying techniques of cognitive behavioural therapy, psycho-education, and motivational interviewing. Even though adherence therapy is frequently discussed and researched, its effectiveness is still uncertain. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of adherence therapy on the medication adherence of patients with schizophrenia. To this end, six electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized, controlled trials on adherence therapy from January 2002 to March 2013. Four trials met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into the review. The findings suggest that adherence therapy does not improve patients' medication adherence in comparison to treatment as usual or a control intervention. However, all the studies reviewed showed high-adherence ratings at baseline. Thus, further well-designed studies that target adherence therapy to patients who are non-adherent to their medication are needed for a more profound understanding of its effectiveness. In addition, if adherence therapy is aimed not only at improving medication adherence, but also to reach an agreement whereby the patient's decision not to take his medication is accepted, the shared decision-making process needs to be assessed as well. PMID:25279684

Hegedüs, Anna; Kozel, Bernd

2014-12-01

18

Review Paper: The Effect of Electronic Prescribing on Medication Errors and Adverse Drug Events: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this systematic review is to analyse the relative risk reduction on medication error and adverse drug events (ADE) by computerized physician order entry systems (CPOE). We included controlled field studies and pretest-posttest studies, evaluating all types of CPOE systems, drugs and clinical settings. We present the results in evidence tables, calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence

Elske Ammenwerth; Petra Schnell-Inderst; Christof Machan; Uwe Siebert

2008-01-01

19

A systematic review of the medical home for children without special health care needs.  

PubMed

To conduct a systematic review of the evidence associating the medical home with beneficial health outcomes in healthy children. The English-language pediatric literature 1975-2011 was searched via PubMed, Embase and CINAHL. Inclusion criteria (the medical home as an independent variable, individual-level quantitative analysis, outpatient setting in the US, healthy children) and exclusion criteria (age >18, medical home operationalized with only one American Academy of Pediatrics component) were determined a priori. Presence of a medical home was examined in relation to three outcome measures: primary care services, health care utilization, and child well-being. Of 4,856 unique citations, 9 studies were included in the final systematic review, amassing 290,180 children from 6 data sources. Two drew on prospective cohort data; the remainder, on cross-sectional design. Children with a medical home were more likely to receive preventive medical care (2 studies), anticipatory guidance (1 study), and developmental screening (1 study); to have higher health-related quality of life (1 study); and were less likely to seek care in the emergency department (2 studies). The medical home was associated with full immunization status in only 1 of 4 studies examining this outcome. No protective effect of the medical home was found with regard to preventable hospitalization (1 study). The medical home is associated with beneficial health outcomes among healthy children. However, the evidence is limited in comparison with that for children with special health care needs. As healthy children represent the majority of the pediatric population, this lack of evidence represents a significant knowledge gap. PMID:23784614

Hadland, Scott E; Long, Webb E

2014-05-01

20

Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…

Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.

2012-01-01

21

Changes in Medical Student and Doctor Attitudes Toward Older Adults After an Intervention: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the effects of attitude-focused interventions on doctors’ and medical students’ attitudes toward older adults has produced mixed results. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether factors pertaining to study design and quality might provide some explanation of this inconclusive picture. Articles were judged of interest if they reported doctors’ or medicals students’ attitude scores before and after a geriatric-focused intervention. Articles that did not report the measure used, mean scores, or inferential statistics were excluded. Twenty-seven databases, including Medline, PsychInfo, and Embase, were searched through April 2011 using a systematic search strategy. After assessment and extraction, 27 studies met the eligibility criteria for this review. These studies demonstrated inconsistent results; 14 appeared successful in effecting positive attitude change toward older adults after an intervention, and 13 appeared unsuccessful. Attitude change results differed in line with the content of the intervention. Of the 27 studies, 11 interventions contained solely knowledge-building content. Three of these studies demonstrated positive changes in doctors’ or medical students’ attitudes toward older adults after the intervention. The remaining 16 interventions incorporated an empathy-building component, such as an aging simulation exercise or contact with a healthy older adult. Of these, 11 successfully demonstrated positive attitude change after the intervention. The inclusion of an empathy-building task in an intervention appears to be associated with positive attitude change in medical students’ and doctors’ attitudes toward older adults. PMID:23750821

Samra, Rajvinder; Griffiths, Amanda; Cox, Tom; Conroy, Simon; Knight, Alec

2013-01-01

22

Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ?four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new interventions in clinical practice. This review clearly demonstrates the need for high-quality, longitudinal research to identify psychosocial predictors of medication non-adherence. PMID:24851043

Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

2014-01-01

23

The use of medications approved for Alzheimer's disease in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1 in 68 children in the United States. Even though it is a common disorder, only two medications (risperidone and aripiprazole) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat symptoms associated with ASD. However, these medications are approved to treat irritability, which is not a core symptom of ASD. A number of novel medications, which have not been approved by the FDA to treat ASD have been used off-label in some studies to treat ASD symptoms, including medications approved for Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, some of these studies are high-quality, double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. This article systematically reviews studies published through April, 2014, which examined the use of Alzheimer's medications in ASD, including donepezil (seven studies, two were DBPC, five out of seven reported improvements), galantamine (four studies, two were DBPC, all reported improvements), rivastigmine (one study reporting improvements), tacrine (one study reporting improvements), and memantine (nine studies, one was DBPC, eight reported improvements). An evidence-based scale was used to rank each medication. Collectively, these studies reported improvements in expressive language and communication, receptive language, social interaction, irritability, hyperactivity, attention, eye contact, emotional lability, repetitive or self-stimulatory behaviors, motor planning, disruptive behaviors, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lethargy, overall ASD behaviors, and increased REM sleep. Reported side effects are reviewed and include irritability, gastrointestinal problems, verbal or behavioral regression, headaches, irritability, rash, tremor, sedation, vomiting, and speech problems. Both galantamine and memantine had sufficient evidence ranking for improving both core and associated symptoms of ASD. Given the lack of medications approved to treat ASD, further studies on novel medications, including Alzheimer's disease medications, are needed. PMID:25202686

Rossignol, Daniel A; Frye, Richard E

2014-01-01

24

Short-term medical service trips: a systematic review of the evidence.  

PubMed

Short-term medical service trips (MSTs) aim to address unmet health care needs of low- and middle-income countries. The lack of critically reviewed empirical evidence of activities and outcomes is a concern. Developing evidence-based recommendations for health care delivery requires systematic research review. I focused on MST publications with empirical results. Searches in May 2013 identified 67 studies published since 1993, only 6% of the published articles on the topic in the past 20 years. Nearly 80% reported on surgical trips. Although the MST field is growing, its medical literature lags behind, with nearly all of the scholarly publications lacking significant data collection. By incorporating data collection into service trips, groups can validate practices and provide information about areas needing improvement. PMID:24832401

Sykes, Kevin J

2014-07-01

25

Medication adherence in schizophrenia: factors influencing adherence and consequences of nonadherence, a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Nonadherence to medication is a recognized problem and may be the most challenging aspect of treatment. Methods: We performed a systematic review of factors that influence adherence and the consequences of nonadherence to the patient, healthcare system and society, in patients with schizophrenia. Particular attention was given to the effect of nonadherence on hospitalization rates, as a key driver of increased costs of care. A qualitative systematic literature review was conducted using a broad search strategy using disease and adherence terms. Due to the large number of abstracts identified, article selection was based on studies with larger sample sizes published after 2001. Thirty-seven full papers were included: 15 studies on drivers and 22 on consequences, of which 12 assessed the link between nonadherence and hospitalization. Results: Key drivers of nonadherence included lack of insight, medication beliefs and substance abuse. Key consequences of nonadherence included greater risk of relapse, hospitalization and suicide. Factors positively related to adherence were a good therapeutic relationship with physician and perception of benefits of medication. The most frequently reported driver and consequence were lack of insight and greater risk of hospitalization respectively. Conclusions: Improving adherence in schizophrenia may have a considerable positive impact on patients and society. This can be achieved by focusing on the identified multitude of factors driving nonadherence. PMID:24167693

Medic, Goran; Littlewood, Kavi J.; Diez, Teresa; Granstrom, Ola; De Hert, Marc

2013-01-01

26

Medical device procurement in low- and middle-income settings: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Medical device procurement processes for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a poorly understood and researched topic. To support LMIC policy formulation in this area, international public health organizations and research institutions issue a large body of predominantly grey literature including guidelines, manuals and recommendations. We propose to undertake a systematic review to identify and explore the medical device procurement methodologies suggested within this and further literature. Procurement facilitators and barriers will be identified, and methodologies for medical device prioritization under resource constraints will be discussed. Methods/design Searches of both bibliographic and grey literature will be conducted to identify documents relating to the procurement of medical devices in LMICs. Data will be extracted according to protocol on a number of pre-specified issues and variables. First, data relating to the specific settings described within the literature will be noted. Second, information relating to medical device procurement methodologies will be extracted, including prioritization of procurement under resource constraints, the use of evidence (e.g. cost-effectiveness evaluations, burden of disease data) as well as stakeholders participating in procurement processes. Information relating to prioritization methodologies will be extracted in the form of quotes or keywords, and analysis will include qualitative meta-summary. Narrative synthesis will be employed to analyse data otherwise extracted. The PRISMA guidelines for reporting will be followed. Discussion The current review will identify recommended medical device procurement methodologies for LMICs. Prioritization methods for medical device acquisition will be explored. Relevant stakeholders, facilitators and barriers will be discussed. The review is aimed at both LMIC decision makers and the international research community and hopes to offer a first holistic conceptualization of this topic. PMID:25336161

2014-01-01

27

Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

Wetzel, Angela Payne

2011-01-01

28

Maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Antidepressant and anxiolytic medications are widely prescribed and used by pregnant women for acute and maintenance therapy. These drugs are able to pass the placental barrier, and may potentially influence fetal and brain development. It is possible that exposure to prenatal antidepressants or anxiolytic medication may disturb neurotransmitter systems in the brain and have long-lasting consequences on neurodevelopment in the offspring. As all medication during pregnancy may pose a certain risk to the developing fetus, the potential benefits of the medication must be weighed against the risks for both mother and her unborn child. Therefore, information to guide patients and physicians to make a well-balanced decision for the appropriate treatment during pregnancy is needed. In this systematic review, an overview of maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes is provided. Some studies indicate a relation between prenatal exposure to antidepressants and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes such as delayed motor development/motor control, social difficulties, internalizing problems and autism, but cannot rule out confounding by indication. Overall, the results of the observational studies have been inconsistent, which makes translation of the findings into clinical recommendations difficult. More well-designed observational studies and also randomized controlled trials (e.g., maintenance treatment vs. cessation) are needed to move forward and provide a comprehensive evaluation of the risks and benefits of antidepressant and anxiolytic use during pregnancy. PMID:24863148

El Marroun, Hanan; White, Tonya; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

2014-10-01

29

Effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence: a systematic review revealing research gaps  

PubMed Central

Background This was a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Evidence mapping was used to reveal the effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence, to identify research gaps and to make suggestions for future research. Methods PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched with an end date of September 2013 using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term ‘medication adherence’ and 20 different search terms for ‘drug reminder packaging’, limited to the English and German languages. Additional references were identified through cross-referencing. All prospective controlled trials with an intervention using drug reminder packaging for patients taking at least one medication without the assistance of a health-care professional were included in the evidence mapping of the effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and outcomes according to the Economic, Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes (ECHO) model. Results A total of 30 studies met the inclusion criteria: 10 randomized controlled trials, 19 controlled clinical trials and 1 cohort study. Drug reminder packaging had a significant effect on at least one adherence parameter in 17 studies (57%). The methodological quality was strong in five studies. Two studies provided complete information. Clear research gaps emerged. Conclusions Overall, the studies showed a positive effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and clinical outcomes. However, poor reporting and important gaps like missing humanistic and economic outcomes and neglected safety issues limit the drawing of firm conclusions. Suggestions are made for future research. PMID:24661495

2014-01-01

30

Micro-costing studies in the health and medical literature: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Micro-costing is a cost estimation method that allows for precise assessment of the economic costs of health interventions. It has been demonstrated to be particularly useful for estimating the costs of new interventions, for interventions with large variability across providers, and for estimating the true costs to the health system and to society. However, existing guidelines for economic evaluations do not provide sufficient detail of the methods and techniques to use when conducting micro-costing analyses. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to review the current literature on micro-costing studies of health and medical interventions, strategies, and programs to assess the variation in micro-costing methodology and the quality of existing studies. This will inform current practice in conducting and reporting micro-costing studies and lead to greater standardization in methodology in the future. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review of the current literature on micro-costing studies of health and medical interventions, strategies, and programs. Using rigorously designed search strategies, we will search Ovid MEDLINE, EconLit, BIOSIS Previews, Embase, Scopus, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) to identify relevant English-language articles. These searches will be supplemented by a review of the references of relevant articles identified. Two members of the review team will independently extract detailed information on the design and characteristics of each included article using a standardized data collection form. A third reviewer will be consulted to resolve discrepancies. We will use checklists that have been developed for critical appraisal of health economics studies to evaluate the quality and potential risk of bias of included studies. Discussion This systematic review will provide useful information to help standardize the methods and techniques for conducting and reporting micro-costing studies in research, which can improve the quality and transparency of future studies and enhance comparability and interpretation of findings. In the long run, these efforts will facilitate clinical and health policy decision-making about resource allocation. Trial registration Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014007453. PMID:24887208

2014-01-01

31

Interventions to reduce medication errors in adult intensive care: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Critically ill patients need life saving treatments and are often exposed to medications requiring careful titration. The aim of this paper was to review systematically the research literature on the efficacy of interventions in reducing medication errors in intensive care. A search was conducted of PubMed, CINAHL EMBASE, Journals@Ovid, International Pharmaceutical Abstract Series via Ovid, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycInfo and The Cochrane Collaboration from inception to October 2011. Research studies involving delivery of an intervention in intensive care for adult patients with the aim of reducing medication errors were examined. Eight types of interventions were identified: computerized physician order entry (CPOE), changes in work schedules (CWS), intravenous systems (IS), modes of education (ME), medication reconciliation (MR), pharmacist involvement (PI), protocols and guidelines (PG) and support systems for clinical decision making (SSCD). Sixteen out of the 24 studies showed reduced medication error rates. Four intervention types demonstrated reduced medication errors post-intervention: CWS, ME, MR and PG. It is not possible to promote any interventions as positive models for reducing medication errors. Insufficient research was undertaken with any particular type of intervention, and there were concerns regarding the level of evidence and quality of research. Most studies involved single arm, before and after designs without a comparative control group. Future researchers should address gaps identified in single faceted interventions and gather data on multi-faceted interventions using high quality research designs. The findings demonstrate implications for policy makers and clinicians in adopting resource intensive processes and technologies, which offer little evidence to support their efficacy. PMID:22348303

Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison; Liew, Danny

2012-09-01

32

Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes about the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has become a source of controversy. Physicians' attitudes towards the industry can form early in their careers, but little is known about this key stage of development. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review reported according to PRISMA guidelines to determine the frequency and nature of medical students' exposure to the drug industry, as well as students' attitudes concerning pharmaceutical policy issues. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ERIC from the earliest available dates through May 2010, as well as bibliographies of selected studies. We sought original studies that reported quantitative or qualitative data about medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, their attitudes about marketing practices, relationships with industry, and related pharmaceutical policy issues. Studies were separated, where possible, into those that addressed preclinical versus clinical training, and were quality rated using a standard methodology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We found that 40%–100% of medical students reported interacting with the pharmaceutical industry. A substantial proportion of students (13%–69%) were reported as believing that gifts from industry influence prescribing. Eight studies reported a correlation between frequency of contact and favorable attitudes toward industry interactions. Students were more approving of gifts to physicians or medical students than to government officials. Certain attitudes appeared to change during medical school, though a time trend was not performed; for example, clinical students (53%–71%) were more likely than preclinical students (29%–62%) to report that promotional information helps educate about new drugs. Conclusions Undergraduate medical education provides substantial contact with pharmaceutical marketing, and the extent of such contact is associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism about negative implications of these interactions. These results support future research into the association between exposure and attitudes, as well as any modifiable factors that contribute to attitudinal changes during medical education. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21629685

Austad, Kirsten E.; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

2011-01-01

33

The economics of health information technology in medication management: a systematic review of economic evaluations  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the evidence surrounding the cost-effectiveness of health information technology (HIT) in the medication process. Materials and methods Peer-reviewed electronic databases and gray literature were searched to identify studies on HIT used to assist in the medication management process. Articles including an economic component were reviewed for further screening. For this review, full cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses and cost-benefit analyses, as well as cost analyses, were eligible for inclusion and synthesis. Results The 31 studies included were heterogeneous with respect to the HIT evaluated, setting, and economic methods used. Thus the data could not be synthesized, and a narrative review was conducted. Most studies evaluated computer decision support systems in hospital settings in the USA, and only five of the studied performed full economic evaluations. Discussion Most studies merely provided cost data; however, useful economic data involves far more input. A full economic evaluation includes a full enumeration of the costs, synthesized with the outcomes of the intervention. Conclusion The quality of the economic literature in this area is poor. A few studies found that HIT may offer cost advantages despite their increased acquisition costs. However, given the uncertainty that surrounds the costs and outcomes data, and limited study designs, it is difficult to reach any definitive conclusion as to whether the additional costs and benefits represent value for money. Sophisticated concurrent prospective economic evaluations need to be conducted to address whether HIT interventions in the medication management process are cost-effective. PMID:21984590

Tarride, Jean-Eric; Goeree, Ron; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann

2011-01-01

34

Veterinary homeopathy: systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised placebo-controlled trials.  

PubMed

A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of veterinary homeopathy has not previously been undertaken. Using Cochrane methods, this review aims to assess risk of bias and to quantify the effect size of homeopathic intervention compared with placebo for each eligible peer-reviewed trial. Judgement in seven assessment domains enabled a trial's risk of bias to be designated as low, unclear or high. A trial was judged to comprise reliable evidence if its risk of bias was low or was unclear in specified domains. A trial was considered to be free of vested interest if it was not funded by a homeopathic pharmacy. The 18 eligible RCTs were disparate in nature, representing four species and 11 different medical conditions. Reliable evidence, free from vested interest, was identified in two trials: homeopathic Coli had a prophylactic effect on porcine diarrhoea (odds ratio 3.89, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 12.68, P=0.02); and individualised homeopathic treatment did not have a more beneficial effect on bovine mastitis than placebo intervention (standardised mean difference -0.31, 95 per cent CI, -0.97 to 0.34, P=0.35). Mixed findings from the only two placebo-controlled RCTs that had suitably reliable evidence precluded generalisable conclusions about the efficacy of any particular homeopathic medicine or the impact of individualised homeopathic intervention on any given medical condition in animals. PMID:25324413

Mathie, Robert T; Clausen, Jürgen

2014-10-18

35

Effects of eHealth Interventions on Medication Adherence: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Background Since medication nonadherence is considered to be an important health risk, numerous interventions to improve adherence have been developed. During the past decade, the use of Internet-based interventions to improve medication adherence has increased rapidly. Internet interventions have the potential advantage of tailoring the interventions to the needs and situation of the patient. Objective The main aim of this systematic review was to investigate which tailored Internet interventions are effective in improving medication adherence. Methods We undertook comprehensive literature searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Communication Abstracts, following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. The methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials and methods for measuring adherence were independently reviewed by two researchers. Results A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. All included Internet interventions clearly used moderately or highly sophisticated computer-tailored methods. Data synthesis revealed that there is evidence for the effectiveness of Internet interventions in improving medication adherence: 5 studies (3 high-quality studies and 2 low-quality studies) showed a significant effect on adherence; 6 other studies (4 high-quality studies and 2 low-quality studies) reported a moderate effect on adherence; and 2 studies (1 high-quality study and 1 low-quality study) showed no effect on patients’ adherence. However, most studies used self-reported measurements to assess adherence, which is generally perceived as a low-quality measurement. In addition, we did not find a clear relationship between the quality of the studies or the level of sophistication of message tailoring and the effectiveness of the intervention. This might be explained by the great difference in study designs and the way of measuring adherence, which makes results difficult to compare. There was also large variation in the measured interval between baseline and follow-up measurements. Conclusion This review shows promising results on the effectiveness of Internet interventions to enhance patients’ adherence to prescribed long-term medications. Although there is evidence according to the data synthesis, the results must be interpreted with caution due to low-quality adherence measurements. Future studies using high-quality measurements to assess medication adherence are recommended to establish more robust evidence for the effectiveness of eHealth interventions on medication adherence. PMID:22138112

Linn, Annemiek J; van Dijk, Liset; Smit, Edith G; Van Weert, Julia CM

2011-01-01

36

Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To systematically review the methodologic quality of, and summarize the evidence from trials examining the effectiveness of physical exercise in improving the level of physical functioning and psychological well-being of cancer patients during and after medical treatment. METHODS: Thirty-four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials were identified, reviewed for substantive results, and assessed for methodologic quality. RESULTS:

R. H. Knols; N. K. Aaronson; D. Uebelhart; J. Fransen; G. Aufdemkampe

2005-01-01

37

Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development  

E-print Network

-STUDENTS#.DE. 2. (MEDIC$3 OR PREMEDICAL$ OR CLINICAL OR DOCTOR$) NEAR STUD$4 3. 1 OR 2 4. manag$5 OR lead$6 5. organisa$ OR organiza$ 6. Governance#.W..DE. 7. Organization#.W..DE. 8. Cost-Effectiveness#.DE. OR Costs#.W..DE. 9. Planning#.W..DE. 10. Change... of UME 21 Graduation survey assessing exposure to specific aspects of managing patient care covered by PCP: identification of costs, design of QI loop, use of evidence from Cochrane or similar, use of internet to access medical information and use...

Abbas, Mark R; Quince, Thelma A; Wood, Diana F; Benson, John A

2011-11-14

38

Systematic literature review of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify and describe the content of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management. Design Systematic literature review according to PRISMA guidelines. Data sources PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Grey literature was also searched. Eligibility criteria for selected studies Templates published after 1 January 1990 and up to 19 March 2012. Non-English language literature, except Scandinavian; literature without an available abstract; and literature reporting only psychological aspects were excluded. Results The main database search identified 8497 articles, among which 8389 were excluded based on title and abstract. An additional 96 were excluded based on the full-text. The remaining 12 articles were included in the analysis. A total of 107 articles were identified in the grey literature and excluded. The reference lists for the included articles identified five additional articles. A relevant article published after completing the search was also included. In the 18 articles included in the study, 10 different templates or sets of data are described: 2 methodologies for assessing major incident responses, 3 templates intended for reporting from exercises, 2 guidelines for reporting in medical journals, 2 analyses of previous disasters and 1 Utstein-style template. Conclusions More than one template exists for generating reports. The limitations of the existing templates involve internal and external validity, and none of them have been tested for feasibility in real-life incidents. Trial registration The review is registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42012002051). PMID:23906946

Fattah, Sabina; Rehn, Marius; Reierth, Eirik; Wisborg, Torben

2013-01-01

39

Patient satisfaction with medication for gastroesophageal reflux disease: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is increasingly regarded as an important aspect of measuring treatment success in individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). OBJECTIVE: To review how satisfied patients with GERD are with their medication, and to analyze the usefulness of patient satisfaction as a clinical end point by comparing it with symptom improvement. METHODS: Systematic searches of the PubMed and EMBASE databases identified clinical trials and patient surveys published between 1966 and 2009. RESULTS: Twelve trials reported that 56% to 100% of patients were ‘satisfied’ or ‘very satisfied’ with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment for GERD. Patient satisfaction levels were higher for PPIs than other GERD medications in two trials. The sample-size-weighted average proportion of patients ‘satisfied’ with their PPI after four weeks of treatment in trials was 93% (95% CI 87% to 99%), with 73% (95% CI 62% to 83%) being ‘very satisfied’. In four surveys, the average proportion of patients ‘satisfied’ with their PPI treatment was 82% (95% CI 73% to 90%) and 62% (95% CI 48% to 75%) were ‘very satisfied’. Seven trials found a positive association between patient satisfaction and symptom improvement, and two surveys between satisfaction and improved health-related quality of life. Three trials found that continuous treatment yielded higher rates of satisfaction than on-demand therapy. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-half of patients were satisfied with their PPI medication in trials, and more patients were satisfied with PPIs than other medication types. An association between patient satisfaction and symptom resolution was found, suggesting that patient satisfaction is a useful end point for evaluating GERD treatment success. PMID:22506259

van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Henderson, Catherine; Hughes, Nesta

2012-01-01

40

A systematic review of the literature on 'medication wastage': an exploration of causative factors and effect of interventions.  

PubMed

Introduction Reducing any wastage, including that of medications, is a paramount objective in promoting appropriate utilisation of finite resources. The objective was to systematically review the published literature, the possible causative factors associated with medication wastage and the effectiveness of any interventions to reduce wastage. Method A systematic review of studies published in English was identified from the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Medline, PubMed, Science Citation Index and The Cochrane Library. Data extraction and critical appraisal was undertaken independently by two researchers. Results and discussion Title, abstract and full paper screening reduced the 14,157 studies to 42. A general definition of medication wastage was reported in one paper only. 'Medication changed', 'patient death', 'resolution of patient's condition' and 'expired medications' were most commonly cited reasons for wastage. Only two studies were identified reporting wastage as a research outcome measure following intervention. Conclusion The systematic review has identified a limited literature on medication wastage with a lack of consistency of terms. There is a paucity of robust research focusing on the impact of healthcare interventions on outcomes around medication wastage. PMID:25037952

West, Lorna Marie; Diack, Lesley; Cordina, Maria; Stewart, Derek

2014-10-01

41

Frankincense: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess evidence from randomised clinical trials about the effectiveness of extracts of Boswellia serrata (frankincense).Design Systematic review.Data sources Electronic searches on Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Amed, and Cochrane Library. Hand searches of conference proceedings, bibliographies, and departmental files.Review methods All randomised clinical trials of B serrata extract as a treatment for any human medical condition were included and studies

E Ernst

2008-01-01

42

The Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to establish the current evidence base regarding the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disabilities. Method: An electronic search of PsycInfo, Embase, Medline and Cinahl databases was conducted spanning the time…

Sohanpal, S. K.; Deb, S.; Thomas, C.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.; Unwin, G.

2007-01-01

43

Standardised assessment of patients' capacity to manage medications: a systematic review of published instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Older people are commonly prescribed complex multi-drug regimens while also experiencing declines in the cognitive and physical abilities required for medication management, leading to increased risk of medication errors and need for assisted living. The purpose of this study was to review published instruments designed to assess patients' capacity to self-administer medications. METHODS: Searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO,

Rohan A Elliott; Jennifer L Marriott

2009-01-01

44

Preventing sexual abusers of children from reoffending: systematic review of medical and psychological interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of current medical and psychological interventions for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children, both in known abusers and those at risk of abusing. Design Systematic review of interventions designed to prevent reoffending among known abusers and prevention for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children. Randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were eligible. Primary outcomes were arrests, convictions, breaches of conditions, and self reported sexual abuse of children after one year or more. Results After review of 1447 abstracts, we retrieved 167 full text studies, and finally included eight studies with low to moderate risk of bias. We found weak evidence for interventions aimed at reducing reoffending in identified sexual abusers of children. For adults, evidence from five trials was insufficient regarding both benefits and risks with psychological treatment and pharmacotherapy. For adolescents, limited evidence from one trial suggested that multisystemic therapy prevented reoffence (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.73); lack of adequate research prevented conclusions about effects of other treatments. Evidence was also inadequate regarding effectiveness of treatment for children with sexual behavioural problems in the one trial identified. Finally, we found no eligible research on preventive methods for adults and adolescents who had not sexually abused children but were at higher risk of doing so (such as those with paedophilic sexual preference). Conclusion There are major weaknesses in the scientific evidence, particularly regarding adult men, the main category of sexual abusers of children. Better coordinated and funded high quality studies including several countries are urgently needed. Until conclusive evidence is available, realistic clinical strategies might involve reduction of specific risk factors for sex crimes, such as sexual preoccupation, in abusers at risk of reoffending. PMID:23935058

2013-01-01

45

Medication reviews  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinican conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When ‘harder’ outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped. PMID:22607195

Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K

2012-01-01

46

Feature Engineering and a Proposed Decision-Support System for Systematic Reviewers of Medical Evidence  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence-based medicine depends on the timely synthesis of research findings. An important source of synthesized evidence resides in systematic reviews. However, a bottleneck in review production involves dual screening of citations with titles and abstracts to find eligible studies. For this research, we tested the effect of various kinds of textual information (features) on performance of a machine learning classifier. Based on our findings, we propose an automated system to reduce screeing burden, as well as offer quality assurance. Methods We built a database of citations from 5 systematic reviews that varied with respect to domain, topic, and sponsor. Consensus judgments regarding eligibility were inferred from published reports. We extracted 5 feature sets from citations: alphabetic, alphanumeric+, indexing, features mapped to concepts in systematic reviews, and topic models. To simulate a two-person team, we divided the data into random halves. We optimized the parameters of a Bayesian classifier, then trained and tested models on alternate data halves. Overall, we conducted 50 independent tests. Results All tests of summary performance (mean F3) surpassed the corresponding baseline, P<0.0001. The ranks for mean F3, precision, and classification error were statistically different across feature sets averaged over reviews; P-values for Friedman's test were .045, .002, and .002, respectively. Differences in ranks for mean recall were not statistically significant. Alphanumeric+ features were associated with best performance; mean reduction in screening burden for this feature type ranged from 88% to 98% for the second pass through citations and from 38% to 48% overall. Conclusions A computer-assisted, decision support system based on our methods could substantially reduce the burden of screening citations for systematic review teams and solo reviewers. Additionally, such a system could deliver quality assurance both by confirming concordant decisions and by naming studies associated with discordant decisions for further consideration. PMID:24475099

Bekhuis, Tanja; Tseytlin, Eugene; Mitchell, Kevin J.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

2014-01-01

47

Quality of published Iranian medical education research studies: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Research in medical education has been paid more attention than before; however the quality of research reporting has not been comprehensively appraised. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of Iranian published medical education articles. Methods: Articles describing medical students, residents, fellows or program evaluation were included. Articles related to continuing medical education or faculty development, review articles and reports, and studies considering both medical and nonmedical students were excluded. We searched MEDLINE through PubMed in addition to major Iranian medical education search engines and databases including Scientific Information Database (SID) from March 2003 to March 2008. The Medical Education Research Quality Index (MERSQI) scale and the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT 2001) were used for experimental studies and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) was utilized for observational studies. Results: Ninety five articles were found to be related to the medical education research in Iran including 16 (16.8%) experimental studies. Total MERSQI scores ranged between 3.82 and 13.09 with the mean of 8.39 points. Mean domain scores were highest for data analysis (1.85) and lowest for validity (0.61). The most frequently reported item was background (96%) and the least reported was the study limitations (16%). Conclusion: The quality of published medical education research in Iran seems to be suboptimal.

Golnari, Pedram; Sodagari, Faezeh; Baradaran, Hamid Reza

2014-01-01

48

Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize this gap in best practices and subsequently to promote instrument development research that is more consistent through the peer-review process.

Wetzel, Angela Payne

49

A Systematic Review of Barriers to Medication Adherence in the Elderly: Looking Beyond Cost and Regimen Complexity  

PubMed Central

Background Medication nonadherence is a common problem among the elderly. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the published literature describing potential non-financial barriers to medication adherence among the elderly. Methods The PubMed and PsychINFO databases were searched for articles published in English between January 1998 and January 2010 that described “predictors,” “facilitators,” or “determinants” of medication adherence and those articles that examined the “relationship” between a specific barrier and adherence for elderly patients (ie, age ? 65 years) in the United States (U.S.). A manual search of the reference lists of identified articles and the authors’ files and recent review articles was conducted. The search included articles that (1) reviewed specific barriers to medication adherence and did not solely describe nonmodifiable predictors of adherence (eg, demographics, marital status); (2) were not interventions designed to address adherence; (3) defined adherence or compliance and specified its method of measurement; (4) involved U.S. participants only. Non-systematic reviews were excluded, as were studies that focused specifically on people who were homeless or substance abusers, or patients with psychotic disorders, tuberculosis, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), because of the unique circumstances that surround medication adherence for each of these populations. Results Nine studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Four studies used pharmacy records/claims data to assess adherence, 2 studies used pill count/electronic monitoring, and 3 studies used other methods to assess adherence. Substantial heterogeneity existed among the populations studied as well as among the measures of adherence, barriers addressed, and significant findings. Some potential barriers (ie, factors associated with nonadherence) were identified from the studies, including patient-related factors such as disease-related knowledge, health literacy, and cognitive function, drug-related factors such as adverse effects and polypharmacy, and other factors including the patient-provider relationship and various logistical barriers to obtaining medications. None of the reviewed studies examined primary nonadherence or nonpersistence. Conclusion Medication nonadherence in the elderly is not well described in the literature, despite being a major cause of morbidity, and thus it is difficult to draw a systematic conclusion on potential barriers based on the current literature. Future research should focus on standardizing medication adherence measurements among the elderly in order to gain a better understanding of this important issue. PMID:21459305

Gellad, Walid F.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Marcum, Zachary A.

2011-01-01

50

Antiepileptic medications in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topiramate. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference between medication and placebo in four studies targeting irritability/agitation and three studies investigating global improvement, although limitations include lack of power and different medications with diverse actions. Across all seven studies, there was no significant difference in discontinuation rate between two groups. AEDs do not appear to have a large effect size to treat behavioral symptoms in ASD, but further research is needed, particularly in the subgroup of patients with epileptiform abnormalities. PMID:24077782

Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

2014-04-01

51

Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

2014-01-01

52

Cytocompatibility of Medical Biomaterials Containing Nickel by Osteoblasts: a Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review is based on a survey of 21 studies on the cytocompatibility of medical biomaterials containing nickel,\\u000a as assessed by cell culture of human and animal osteoblasts or osteoblast-like cells. Among the biomaterials evaluated were\\u000a stainless steel, NiTi alloys, pure Ni, Ti, and other pure metals. The materials were either commercially available, prepared\\u000a by the authors, or implanted

Marcin Mikulewicz; Katarzyna Chojnacka

53

Barriers to the acceptance of electronic medical records by physicians from systematic review to taxonomy and interventions  

PubMed Central

Background The main objective of this research is to identify, categorize, and analyze barriers perceived by physicians to the adoption of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) in order to provide implementers with beneficial intervention options. Methods A systematic literature review, based on research papers from 1998 to 2009, concerning barriers to the acceptance of EMRs by physicians was conducted. Four databases, "Science", "EBSCO", "PubMed" and "The Cochrane Library", were used in the literature search. Studies were included in the analysis if they reported on physicians' perceived barriers to implementing and using electronic medical records. Electronic medical records are defined as computerized medical information systems that collect, store and display patient information. Results The study includes twenty-two articles that have considered barriers to EMR as perceived by physicians. Eight main categories of barriers, including a total of 31 sub-categories, were identified. These eight categories are: A) Financial, B) Technical, C) Time, D) Psychological, E) Social, F) Legal, G) Organizational, and H) Change Process. All these categories are interrelated with each other. In particular, Categories G (Organizational) and H (Change Process) seem to be mediating factors on other barriers. By adopting a change management perspective, we develop some barrier-related interventions that could overcome the identified barriers. Conclusions Despite the positive effects of EMR usage in medical practices, the adoption rate of such systems is still low and meets resistance from physicians. This systematic review reveals that physicians may face a range of barriers when they approach EMR implementation. We conclude that the process of EMR implementation should be treated as a change project, and led by implementers or change managers, in medical practices. The quality of change management plays an important role in the success of EMR implementation. The barriers and suggested interventions highlighted in this study are intended to act as a reference for implementers of Electronic Medical Records. A careful diagnosis of the specific situation is required before relevant interventions can be determined. PMID:20691097

2010-01-01

54

Direct medical cost of overweight and obesity in the United States: a quantitative systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate per-person and aggregate direct medical costs of overweight and obesity and to examine the effect of study design factors. Methods PubMed (1968–2009), EconLit (1969–2009), and Business Source Premier (1995–2009) were searched for original studies. Results were standardized to compute the incremental cost per overweight person and per obese person, and to compute the national aggregate cost. Results A total of 33 U.S. studies met review criteria. Among the 4 highest quality studies, the 2008 per-person direct medical cost of overweight was $266 and of obesity was $1723. The aggregate national cost of overweight and obesity combined was $113.9 billion. Study design factors that affected cost estimate included: use of national samples versus more selected populations; age groups examined; inclusion of all medical costs versus obesity-related costs only; and BMI cutoffs for defining overweight and obesity. Conclusions Depending on the source of total national health care expenditures used, the direct medical cost of overweight and obesity combined is approximately 5.0% to 10% of U.S. health care spending. Future studies should include nationally representative samples, evaluate adults of all ages, report all medical costs, and use standard BMI cutoffs. PMID:20059703

Tsai, Adam Gilden; Williamson, David F.; Glick, Henry A.

2010-01-01

55

Are interventions to reduce interruptions and errors during medication administration effective?: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Medication administration errors are frequent and lead to patient harm. Interruptions during medication administration have been implicated as a potential contributory factor. Objective To assess evidence of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing interruptions during medication administration on interruption and medication administration error rates. Methods In September 2012 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group reviews, Google and Google Scholar, and hand searched references of included articles. Intervention studies reporting quantitative data based on direct observations of at least one outcome (interruptions, or medication administration errors) were included. Results Ten studies, eight from North America and two from Europe, met the inclusion criteria. Five measured significant changes in interruption rates pre and post interventions. Four found a significant reduction and one an increase. Three studies measured changes in medication administration error rates and showed reductions, but all implemented multiple interventions beyond those targeted at reducing interruptions. No study used a controlled design pre and post. Definitions for key outcome indicators were reported in only four studies. Only one study reported ? scores for inter-rater reliability and none of the multi-ward studies accounted for clustering in their analyses. Conclusions There is weak evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to significantly reduce interruption rates and very limited evidence of their effectiveness to reduce medication administration errors. Policy makers should proceed with great caution in implementing such interventions until controlled trials confirm their value. Research is also required to better understand the complex relationship between interruptions and error to support intervention design. PMID:23980188

Raban, Magdalena Z; Westbrook, Johanna I

2014-01-01

56

Adherence, persistence, and medication discontinuation in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Untreated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can lead to substantial adverse social, economic, and emotional outcomes for patients. The effectiveness of current pharmacologic treatments is often reduced, due to low treatment adherence and medication discontinuation. This current systematic literature review analyzes the current state of knowledge surrounding ADHD medication discontinuation, focusing on: 1) the extent of patient persistence; 2) adherence; and 3) the underlying reasons for patients’ treatment discontinuation and how discontinuation rates and reasons vary across patient subgroups. We selected 91 original studies (67 with persistence/discontinuation results, 26 with adherence results, and 41 with reasons for discontinuation, switching, or nonadherence) and 36 expert opinion reviews on ADHD medication discontinuation, published from 1990 to 2013. Treatment persistence on stimulants, measured by treatment duration during the 12-month follow-up periods, averaged 136 days for children and adolescents and 230 days for adults. Owing to substantial study heterogeneity, comparisons across age or medication type subgroups were generally inconclusive; however, long-acting formulations and amphetamines were associated with longer treatment duration than short-acting formulations and methylphenidates. The medication possession ratio, used to measure adherence, was <0.7 for all age groups and medication classes during a 12-month period. Adverse effects were the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation in all studies. Original research studies reported the lack of symptom control as a common discontinuation reason, followed by dosing inconvenience, social stigma associated with ADHD medication, and the patient’s attitude. In summary, although there was a lack of consistency in the measurement of adherence and persistence, these findings indicate that drug adherence and persistence are generally poor among patients with ADHD. Clinicians may be able to help improve adherence and persistence to ADHD treatment by educating caregivers and patients on treatment goals, administering long-acting medications, and following-up with patients to verify if medication is still effective and well-tolerated.

Gajria, Kavita; Lu, Mei; Sikirica, Vanja; Greven, Peter; Zhong, Yichen; Qin, Paige; Xie, Jipan

2014-01-01

57

How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n?=?9), studies of device recalls (n?=?8), and surveys of device manufacturers (n?=?3). These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys. Conclusions Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of what works in either setting. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22912563

Kramer, Daniel B.; Xu, Shuai; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

2012-01-01

58

Failure or success of search strategies to identify adverse effects of medical devices: a feasibility study using a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Research has indicated that adverse effects terms are increasingly prevalent in the title, abstract or indexing terms of articles that contain adverse drug effects data in MEDLINE and Embase. However, it is unknown whether adverse effects terms are present in the database records of articles that contain adverse effects data of medical devices, and thus, to what extent the development of an adverse effects search filter for medical devices may be feasible. Methods A case study systematic review of a medical device was selected. The included studies from a systematic review of the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion were used in the analysis. For each included study, the corresponding database record on MEDLINE and Embase was assessed to measure the presence or absence of adverse effects terms in the title, abstract or indexing. The performance of each potential adverse effects search term was also measured and compared. Results There were 82 publications (49 studies) included in the systematic review with 51 of these indexed on MEDLINE and 55 on Embase. Ninety-four percent (48/51) of the records on MEDLINE and 95% (52/55) of the records on Embase contained at least one adverse effects related search term. The wide variety of adverse effects terms included in the title, abstract or indexing of bibliographic records, and the lack of any individual high-performing search terms suggests that a combination of terms in different fields is required to identify adverse effects of medical devices. In addition, the most successful search terms differed from the most successful terms for identifying adverse drug effects. Conclusions The search filters currently available for adverse drug effects are not necessarily useful for searching adverse effects data of medical devices. The presence of adverse effects terms in the bibliographic records of articles on medical devices, however, indicates that combinations of adverse effects search terms may be useful in search strategies in MEDLINE and Embase. The results, therefore, suggest that not only a search filter for the adverse effects of medical devices is feasible, but also that it should be a research priority. PMID:25312884

2014-01-01

59

Systematic review automation technologies.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects.We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

Tsafnat, Guy; Glasziou, Paul; Choong, Miew Keen; Dunn, Adam; Galgani, Filippo; Coiera, Enrico

2014-01-01

60

Systematic review automation technologies  

PubMed Central

Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

2014-01-01

61

Medical causes of admissions to hospital among adults in Africa: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the publication of several studies on the subject, there is significant uncertainty regarding the burden of disease among adults in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Objectives To describe the breadth of available data regarding causes of admission to hospital, to systematically analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to provide recommendations for future research. Design We performed a systematic online and hand-based search for articles describing patterns of medical illnesses in patients admitted to hospitals in sSA between 1950 and 2010. Diseases were grouped into bodily systems using International Classification of Disease (ICD) guidelines. We compared the proportions of admissions and deaths by diagnostic category using ?2. Results Thirty articles, describing 86,307 admissions and 9,695 deaths, met the inclusion criteria. The leading causes of admission were infectious and parasitic diseases (19.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.6–20.1), respiratory (16.2%, 95% CI 16.0–16.5) and circulatory (11.3%, 95% CI 11.1–11.5) illnesses. The leading causes of death were infectious and parasitic (17.1%, 95% CI 16.4–17.9), circulatory (16%, 95% CI 15.3–16.8) and digestive (16.2%, 95% CI 15.4–16.9). Circulatory diseases increased from 3.9% of all admissions in 1950–59 to 19.9% in 2000–2010 (RR 5.1, 95% CI 4.5–5.8, test for trend p<0.00005). The most prevalent methodological deficiencies, present in two-thirds of studies, were failures to use standardized case definitions and ICD guidelines for classifying illnesses. Conclusions Cardiovascular and infectious diseases are currently the leading causes of admissions and in-hospital deaths in sSA. Methodological deficiencies have limited the usefulness of previous studies in defining national patterns of disease in adults. As African countries pass through demographic and health transition, they need to significantly invest in clinical research capacity to provide an accurate description of the disease burden among adults for public health policy. PMID:23336616

Etyang, Anthony O.; Scott, John Anthony Gerard

2013-01-01

62

A systematic review of teaching and learning in palliative care within the medical undergraduate curriculum.  

PubMed

End of life care or palliative care has been acknowledged as important over the last 30 years and it is essential that doctors have core training in palliative care during their undergraduate training. There is little knowledge of the nature of teaching of palliative care within the undergraduate curriculum. This review was undertaken to determine the evidence to create an effective and appropriate undergraduate curriculum in palliative care. All relevant databases were electronically searched from 1966 until 2001 and selected contemporary work included. Key authors were contacted and grey literature and conference abstracts were searched. Efforts were made to quality grade any evaluation studies of teaching, learning and assessment. Two hundred and eighty abstract citations were obtained--192 papers were excluded due to lack of relevance to this study. Eighty-eight abstracts were obtained and forty-nine papers included in the review. There were no randomized controlled trials of educational interventions or open effect studies. All studies included were descriptive and were graded as level of evidence C. The main findings include lack of consistency in what undergraduates are taught about palliative care. Teaching tends to be fragmented, ad hoc and lacks co-ordination. There are difficulties in recruiting appropriate teachers. Palliative care is rarely formally assessed. Teaching focused more on the acquisition of knowledge and skills rather than attitudes. It is suggested that guidelines should be established within each medical school to develop an integrated curriculum for palliative care with due reference to the multidisciplinary nature of palliative care. PMID:15763870

Lloyd-Williams, Mari; MacLeod, Rod D M

2004-12-01

63

Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature  

PubMed Central

Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate estimates using non-standard definitions of ghostwriting nor conflate ghostwriting with other unethical authorship practices. Editors and peer reviewers should not accept articles that incorrectly cite or interpret primary publications that report the prevalence of ghostwriting. PMID:25023129

Stretton, Serina

2014-01-01

64

Systematic Review of Medical Treatment in Melanoma: Current Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide, and the prognosis for patients with high-risk or advanced metastatic melanoma remains poor despite advances in the field. Standard treatment for patients with thick (?2.0 mm) primary melanoma with or without regional metastases to lymph nodes is surgery followed by adjuvant therapy or clinical trial enrollment. Adjuvant therapy with interferon-? and cancer vaccines is discussed in detail. Patients who progress to stage IV metastatic melanoma have a median survival of ?1 year. Standard treatment with chemotherapy yields low response rates, of which few are durable. Cytokine therapy with IL-2 achieves durable benefits in a greater fraction, but it is accompanied by severe toxicities that require the patient to be hospitalized for support during treatment. A systematic literature review of treatments for advanced, metastatic disease was conducted to present the success of current treatments and the promise of those still in clinical development that may yield incremental improvements in the treatment of advanced, metastatic melanoma. PMID:21212434

Eigentler, Thomas K.; Keilholz, Ulrich; Hauschild, Axel; Kirkwood, John M.

2011-01-01

65

The Effectiveness of Mood Stabilizers and Antiepileptic Medication for the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Psychotropic medications are used to manage behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID). One group of psychotropic medication are mood stabilizers such as lithium and some antiepileptic drugs. Method: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to determine the evidence base for the effectiveness of mood…

Deb, S.; Chaplin, R.; Sohanpal, S.; Unwin, G.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.

2008-01-01

66

Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of medications to manage problem behaviours is widespread. However, robust evidence to support their use seems to be lacking. The aim was to review research evidence into the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic medication in managing problem behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence. A systematic

Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

2011-01-01

67

Interventions to improve osteoporosis medication adherence and persistence: a systematic review and literature appraisal by the ISPOR Medication Adherence & Persistence Special Interest Group.  

PubMed

This study aims to systematically review, critically appraise and identify from the published literature, the most effective interventions to improve medication adherence in osteoporosis. A literature search using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature was undertaken to identify prospective studies published between January 1, 1999 and June 30, 2012. We included studies on adult users of osteoporosis medications that tested a patient adherence intervention (e.g., patient education, intensified patient care, different dosing regimens) and reported quantitative results of adherence. The Delphi list was modified to assess the quality of studies. Of 113 articles identified, 20 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most frequent intervention was education (n = 11) followed by monitoring/supervision (n = 4), drug regimens (n = 2), drug regimens and patient support (n = 1), pharmacist intervention (n = 1), and electronic prescription (n = 1). Although patient education improved medication adherence in four studies, two large-scale randomized studies reported no benefits. Simplification of dosing regimens (with and without patient support program) was found to have a significant clinical impact on medication adherence and persistence. Monitoring/supervision showed no impact on medication persistence while electronic prescription and pharmacist intervention increased medication adherence or persistence. In conclusion, this review found that simplification of dosing regimens, decision aids, electronic prescription, or patient education may help to improve adherence or persistence to osteoporosis medications. We identified wide variation of quality of studies in the osteoporosis area. The efficacy of patient education was variable across studies, while monitoring/supervision does not seem an effective way to enhance medication adherence or persistence. PMID:23636230

Hiligsmann, M; Salas, M; Hughes, D A; Manias, E; Gwadry-Sridhar, F H; Linck, P; Cowell, W

2013-12-01

68

Inappropriate medication use among the elderly: a systematic review of administrative databases  

PubMed Central

Background Inappropriate medication use (IMU) by elderly people is a public health problem associated with adverse effects on health. There are a number of methods for identifying IMU, some involving clinical judgment and others, consensually generated lists of drugs to be avoided. This review aims to describe studies that used information from insurance company and social security administrative databases to assess IMU among community-dwelling elderly and to present the risk factors most often associated with IMU. Methods The paper search was conducted in Medline and Embase, using descriptors combined with free terms in the title or abstract. The limits applied were: publication date from January 1990 to June 2010, species (human) and publication type (excluding editorials, letters and reviews). Excluded were: case studies; studies in hospitals, nursing homes, or hospital emergency departments; studies of specific drugs or groups of drugs; studies exclusively of subgroups of ill, frail elderly or rural populations. Additional studies were identified from reference lists. Data were selected and extracted after independent reading by two of the authors, with disagreements resolved by a third author. The primary outcome assessed was prevalence of IMU, defined as the proportion of elderly who received at least one inappropriate medication. Results Of the 628 studies, 19 met the inclusion criteria, 78.9% of them conducted in the USA. All papers included used explicit criteria of inappropriateness, most commonly Beers criteria (73.7%) in their three versions (1991, 1997 and 2002). Other methods used included Zhan, which is derived from on Beers criteria and was applied in 21% of the papers selected. The study found that prevalence of IMU ranged from 11.5% to 62.5%. Only 68.4% of the studies included examined inappropriate use-related factors, the most important being female sex, advanced age and larger number of drugs. Conclusions The results show that the prevalence of IMU among community-dwelling elderly is high and depends partly on the method used to evaluate improper use. Besides the diversity of methods, other factors, such as patient sex, age and number of drugs used concurrently, appear to have influenced the estimates of IMU. PMID:22129458

2011-01-01

69

Quality of medication use in primary care - mapping the problem, working to a solution: a systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The UK, USA and the World Health Organization have identified improved patient safety in healthcare as a priority. Medication error has been identified as one of the most frequent forms of medical error and is associated with significant medical harm. Errors are the result of the systems that produce them. In industrial settings, a range of systematic techniques have

Sara Garfield; Nick Barber; Paul Walley; Alan Willson; Lina Eliasson

2009-01-01

70

Cardiovascular medication utilization and adherence among adults living in rural and urban areas: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Rural residents face numerous barriers to healthcare access and studies suggest poorer health outcomes for rural patients. Therefore we undertook a systematic review to determine if cardiovascular medication utilization and adherence patterns differ for rural versus urban patients. Methods A comprehensive search of major electronic datasets was undertaken for controlled clinical trials and observational studies comparing utilization or adherence to cardiovascular medications in rural versus urban adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Two reviewers independently identified citations, extracted data, and evaluated quality using the STROBE checklist. Risk estimates were abstracted and pooled where appropriate using random effects models. Methods and reporting were in accordance with MOOSE guidelines. Results Fifty-one studies were included of fair to good quality (median STROBE score 17.5). Although pooled unadjusted analyses suggested that patients in rural areas were less likely to receive evidence-based cardiovascular medications (23 studies, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79, 0.98), pooled data from 21 studies adjusted for potential confounders indicated no rural–urban differences (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91, 1.13). The high heterogeneity observed (I2?=?97%) was partially explained by treatment setting (hospital, ambulatory care, or community-based sample), age, and disease. Adherence did not differ between urban versus rural patients (3 studies, OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.39, 2.27, I2?=?91%). Conclusions We found no consistent differences in rates of cardiovascular medication utilization or adherence among adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes living in rural versus urban settings. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine if differences truly exist between urban and rural patients in the use of, and adherence to, evidence-based medications. PMID:24888355

2014-01-01

71

Post-marketing surveillance in the published medical and grey literature for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty catheters: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) may identify rare serious incidents or adverse events due to the long-term use of a medical device, which was not captured in the pre-market process. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a non-surgical procedure that uses a balloon-tipped catheter to enlarge a narrowed artery. In 2011, 1,942 adverse event reports related to the use of PTCA catheters were submitted to the FDA by the manufacturers, an increase from the 883 reported in 2008. The primary research objective is to conduct a systematic review of the published and grey literature published between 2007 and 2012 for the frequency of incidents, adverse events and malfunctions associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Grey literature has not been commercially published. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed for medical literature on PMS for PTCA catheters in patients with CAD published between January 2007 and July 2012. We also searched the grey literature. Results This review included 11 studies. The in-hospital adverse events reported were individual cases of myocardial infarction and hematoma. In studies of patients with coronary perforation, more patients with balloon angioplasty were identified compared with patients who required stenting. Conclusions Our systematic review illustrates that the volume and quality of PMS studies associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with CAD are low in the published and grey literature, and may not be useful sources of information for decisions on safety. In most studies, the objectives were not to monitor the long-term safety of the use of PTCA catheters in clinical practice. Future studies can explore the strengths and limitations of PMS databases administered by regulatory authorities. PMID:24112460

2013-01-01

72

A Systematic Review of Stress-Management Programs for Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Because medical students experience a considerable amount of stress during training, academic leaders have recognized the importance of developing stress-management programs for medical students. The authors set out to identify all controlled trials of stress-management interventions and determine the efficacy of those interventions.…

Shiralkar, Malan T.; Harris, Toi B.; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F.; Coverdale, John H.

2013-01-01

73

Medication reconciliation during the transition to and from long-term care settings: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMedication reconciliation has been recognized as an important process in care transitions to prevent adverse health outcomes. Because older adults have multiple comorbid conditions and use multiple medications, they are more likely to experience complicated transitions between acute and long-term care settings. Hence, it is important to develop effective interventions to protect older adults at transition points of care.

Pankdeep T. Chhabra; Gail B. Rattinger; Sarah K. Dutcher; Melanie E. Hare; Kelly L. Parsons; Ilene H. Zuckerman

74

Assessment of depression in medical patients: A systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II  

PubMed Central

To perform a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for detecting depression in medical settings, this article focuses on the revised version of the scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II), which was reformulated according to the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. We examined relevant investigations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II for measuring depression in medical settings to provide guidelines for practicing clinicians. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria seventy articles were retained. Validation studies of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, in both primary care and hospital settings, were found for clinics of cardiology, neurology, obstetrics, brain injury, nephrology, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, oncology, and infectious disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II showed high reliability and good correlation with measures of depression and anxiety. Its threshold for detecting depression varied according to the type of patients, suggesting the need for adjusted cut-off points. The somatic and cognitive-affective dimension described the latent structure of the instrument. The Beck Depression Inventory-II can be easily adapted in most clinical conditions for detecting major depression and recommending an appropriate intervention. Although this scale represents a sound path for detecting depression in patients with medical conditions, the clinician should seek evidence for how to interpret the score before using the Beck Depression Inventory-II to make clinical decisions. PMID:24141845

Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gorenstein, Clarice

2013-01-01

75

Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Review date: 1969 to 2003, 34 years. Background and context: Simulations are now in wide- spread use in medical education and medical personnel evaluation. Outcomes research on the use and effectiveness of simulation technology in medical education is scattered, inconsistent and varies widely in methodological rigor and substantive focus. Objectives: Review and synthesize existing evidence in educational science that

S. Barry Issenberg; William C. Mcgaghie; Emil R. Petrusa; David Lee Gordon; Ross J. Scalese

2005-01-01

76

Use and Acceptance of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among the General Population and Medical Personnel: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased during the past decade and the attitude of the general public is mainly positive, but the debate about the clinical effectiveness of these therapies remains controversial among many medical professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the existing literature utilizing different databases, including PubMed/Medline, PSYNDEX, and PsycLit, to research the use and acceptance of CAM among the general population and medical personnel. A special focus on CAM-referring literature was set by limiting the PubMed search to “Complementary Medicine” and adding two other search engines: CAMbase (www.cambase.de) and CAMRESEARCH (www.camresearch.net). These engines were used to reveal publications that at the time of the review were not indexed in PubMed. Results A total of 16 papers met the scope criteria. Prevalence rates of CAM in each of the included studies were between 5% and 74.8%. We found a higher utilization of homeopathy and acupuncture in German-speaking countries. Excluding any form of spiritual prayer, the data demonstrate that chiropractic manipulation, herbal medicine, massage, and homeopathy were the therapies most commonly used by the general population. We identified sex, age, and education as predictors of CAM utilization: More users were women, middle aged, and more educated. The ailments most often associated with CAM utilization included back pain or pathology, depression, insomnia, severe headache or migraine, and stomach or intestinal illnesses. Medical students were the most critical toward CAM. Compared to students of other professions (ie, nursing students: 44.7%, pharmacy students: 18.2%), medical students reported the least consultation with a CAM practitioner (10%). Conclusions The present data demonstrate an increase of CAM usage from 1990 through 2006 in all countries investigated. We found geographical differences, as well as differences between the general population and medical personnel. PMID:22438782

Frass, Michael; Strassl, Robert Paul; Friehs, Helmut; Mullner, Michael; Kundi, Michael; Kaye, Alan D.

2012-01-01

77

Title and Abstract Screening and Evaluation in Systematic Reviews (TASER): a pilot randomised controlled trial of title and abstract screening by medical students  

PubMed Central

Background The production of high quality systematic reviews requires rigorous methods that are time-consuming and resource intensive. Citation screening is a key step in the systematic review process. An opportunity to improve the efficiency of systematic review production involves the use of non-expert groups and new technologies for citation screening. We performed a pilot study of citation screening by medical students using four screening methods and compared students’ performance to experienced review authors. Methods The aims of this pilot randomised controlled trial were to provide preliminary data on the accuracy of title and abstract screening by medical students, and on the effect of screening modality on screening accuracy and efficiency. Medical students were randomly allocated to title and abstract screening using one of the four modalities and required to screen 650 citations from a single systematic review update. The four screening modalities were a reference management software program (EndNote), Paper, a web-based systematic review workflow platform (ReGroup) and a mobile screening application (Screen2Go). Screening sensitivity and specificity were analysed in a complete case analysis using a chi-squared test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test according to screening modality and compared to a final set of included citations selected by expert review authors. Results Sensitivity of medical students’ screening decisions ranged from 46.7% to 66.7%, with students using the web-based platform performing significantly better than the paper-based group. Specificity ranged from 93.2% to 97.4% with the lowest specificity seen with the web-based platform. There was no significant difference in performance between the other three modalities. Conclusions Medical students are a feasible population to engage in citation screening. Future studies should investigate the effect of incentive systems, training and support and analytical methods on screening performance. Systematic review registration Cochrane Database CD001048 PMID:25335439

2014-01-01

78

Antiepileptic Medications in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine,…

Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

2014-01-01

79

Frankincense: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess evidence from randomised clinical trials about the effectiveness of extracts of Boswellia serrata (frankincense). Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic searches on Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Amed, and Cochrane Library. Hand searches of conference proceedings, bibliographies, and departmental files. Review methods All randomised clinical trials of B serrata extract as a treatment for any human medical condition were included and studies of B serrata preparations combined with other ingredients were excluded. Titles and abstracts of all retrieved articles were read and hard copies of all relevant articles were obtained. Selection of studies, data extraction and validation were done by the author. The Jadad score was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included trials. Results Of 47 potentially relevant studies, seven met all inclusion criteria (five placebo controlled, two with active controls). The included trials related to asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, osteoarthritis, and collagenous colitis. Results of all trials indicated that B serrata extracts were clinically effective. Three studies were of good methodological quality. No serious safety issues were noted. Conclusions The evidence for the effectiveness of B serrata extracts is encouraging but not compelling. PMID:19091760

2008-01-01

80

Systematic review of percutaneous closure versus medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide a comprehensive comparison of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure versus medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and demonstrated PFO. Design Systematic review with complete case meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses. Data sources included MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1980 up to May 2013. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment with percutaneous catheter-based closure of PFO to anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA and echocardiographically confirmed PFO or atrial septal defect (ASD) were eligible. Participants 1967 participants with prior stroke or TIA and echocardiographically confirmed PFO or ASD. Primary outcome measures The primary outcome of interest was recurrence of ischaemic stroke. We utilised data from complete cases only for the primary endpoint and combined data from trials to estimate the pooled risk ratio (RR) and associated 95% CIs calculated using random effects models. Results We identified 284 potentially eligible articles of which three RCTs including 2303 patients proved eligible and 1967 patients had complete data. Of the 1026 patients randomised to PFO closure and followed to study conclusion 22 experienced non-fatal ischaemic strokes, as did 34 of 941 patients randomised to medical therapy (risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.07; heterogeneity: p=0.34, I2=8%, confidence in estimates low due to risk of bias and imprecision). Analyses for ischaemic stroke restricted to ‘per-protocol’ patients or patients with concomitant atrial septal aneurysm did not substantially change the observed RRs. Complication rates associated with either PFO closure or medical therapy were low. Conclusions Pooled data from three RCTs provides insufficient support that PFO closure is preferable to medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke in patients with PFO. PMID:24607561

Spencer, Frederick A; Lopes, Luciane C; Kennedy, Sean A; Guyatt, Gordon

2014-01-01

81

Ethnicity and academic performance in UK trained doctors and medical students: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the ethnicity of UK trained doctors and medical students is related to their academic performance. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Online databases PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC; Google and Google Scholar; personal knowledge; backwards and forwards citations; specific searches of medical education journals and medical education conference abstracts. Study selection The included quantitative reports measured the performance of medical students or UK trained doctors from different ethnic groups in undergraduate or postgraduate assessments. Exclusions were non-UK assessments, only non-UK trained candidates, only self reported assessment data, only dropouts or another non-academic variable, obvious sampling bias, or insufficient details of ethnicity or outcomes. Results 23 reports comparing the academic performance of medical students and doctors from different ethnic groups were included. Meta-analyses of effects from 22 reports (n=23?742) indicated candidates of “non-white” ethnicity underperformed compared with white candidates (Cohen’s d=?0.42, 95% confidence interval ?0.50 to ?0.34; P<0.001). Effects in the same direction and of similar magnitude were found in meta-analyses of undergraduate assessments only, postgraduate assessments only, machine marked written assessments only, practical clinical assessments only, assessments with pass/fail outcomes only, assessments with continuous outcomes only, and in a meta-analysis of white v Asian candidates only. Heterogeneity was present in all meta-analyses. Conclusion Ethnic differences in academic performance are widespread across different medical schools, different types of exam, and in undergraduates and postgraduates. They have persisted for many years and cannot be dismissed as atypical or local problems. We need to recognise this as an issue that probably affects all of UK medical and higher education. More detailed information to track the problem as well as further research into its causes is required. Such actions are necessary to ensure a fair and just method of training and of assessing current and future doctors. PMID:21385802

2011-01-01

82

Mentoring Programs for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medical Centers: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose Mentoring is critical for career advancement in academic medicine. However, underrepresented minority (URM) faculty often receive less mentoring than their nonminority peers. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of published mentoring programs designed for URM faculty to identify “promising practices.” Method Databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, PsychLit, Google Scholar, Dissertations Abstracts International, CINHAL, Sociological Abstracts) were searched for articles describing URM faculty mentoring programs. The RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) formed the model for analyzing programs. Results The search identified 73 citations. Abstract reviews led to retrieval of 38 full-text articles for assessment; 18 articles describing 13 programs were selected for review. The reach of these programs ranged from 7 to 128 participants. Most evaluated programs on the basis of the number of grant applications and manuscripts produced or satisfaction with program content. Programs offered a variety of training experiences, and adoption was relatively high, with minor changes made for implementing the intended content. Barriers included time-restricted funding, inadequate evaluation due to few participants, significant time commitments required from mentors, and difficulty in addressing institutional challenges faced by URM faculty. Program sustainability was a concern because programs were supported through external funds, with minimal institutional support. Conclusions Mentoring is an important part of academic medicine, particularly for URM faculty who often experience unique career challenges. Despite this need, relatively few publications exist to document mentoring programs for this population. Institutionally supported mentoring programs for URM faculty are needed, along with detailed plans for program sustainability. PMID:23425989

Beech, Bettina M.; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hairston, Kristen G.; Langdon, Sarah E.; Latham-Sadler, Brenda A.; Bell, Ronny A.

2013-01-01

83

Why Are Medical and Health-Related Studies Not Being Published? A Systematic Review of Reasons Given by Investigators  

PubMed Central

Objective About half of medical and health-related studies are not published. We conducted a systematic review of reports on reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies in peer-reviewed journals. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (until 13/09/2013), and references of identified articles were searched to identify reports of surveys that provided data on reasons given by investigators for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission and reasons for non-publication was calculated using the number of unpublished studies as the denominator. Because of heterogeneity across studies, quantitative pooling was not conducted. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted. Results We included 54 survey reports. Data from 38 included reports were available to estimate proportions of at least one reason given for not publishing studies. The proportion of non-submission among unpublished studies ranged from 55% to 100%, with a median of 85%. The reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies included: lack of time or low priority (median 33%), studies being incomplete (median 15%), study not for publication (median 14%), manuscript in preparation or under review (median 12%), unimportant or negative result (median 12%), poor study quality or design (median 11%), fear of rejection (median 12%), rejection by journals (median 6%), author or co-author problems (median 10%), and sponsor or funder problems (median 9%). In general, the frequency of reasons given for non-publication was not associated with the source of unpublished studies, study design, or time when a survey was conducted. Conclusions Non-submission of studies for publication remains the main cause of non-publication of studies. Measures to reduce non-publication of studies and alternative models of research dissemination need to be developed to address the main reasons given by investigators for not publishing their studies, such as lack of time or low priority and fear of being rejected by journals. PMID:25335091

Song, Fujian; Loke, Yoon; Hooper, Lee

2014-01-01

84

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Show that Carbapenem Use and Medical Devices Are the Leading Risk Factors for Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to identify sources and reservoirs for the pathogen. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases from 1 January 1987 until 27 January 2012 identified 1,662 articles, 53 of which were included in a systematic review and 38 in a random-effects meta-analysis study. The use of carbapenem, use of fluoroquinolones, use of vancomycin, use of other antibiotics, having medical devices, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, having underlying diseases, patient characteristics, and length of hospital stay were significant risk factors in multivariate analyses. The meta-analyses showed that carbapenem use (odds ratio [OR] = 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.43 to 9.25) and medical devices (OR = 5.11; 95% CI = 3.55 to 7.37) generated the highest pooled estimates. Cumulative meta-analyses showed that the pooled estimate of carbapenem use was stable and that the pooled estimate of the risk factor “having medical devices” increased with time. We conclude that our results highlight the importance of antibiotic stewardship and the thoughtful use of medical devices in helping prevent outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:24550343

Voor in 't holt, Anne F.; Severin, Juliette A.; Lesaffre, Emmanuel M. E. H.

2014-01-01

85

Preconception Care: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To perform a systematic review of published research trials of preconception care services to determine what evidence for effectiveness of care at improving the course of pregnancy or its outcomes has accumulated since the last major review in 1990. Methods: The review was conducted adapting the systematic methods developed by the Cochrane Collaboration to collect evidence from published clinical

Carol C. Korenbrot; Alycia Steinberg; Catherine Bender; Sydne Newberry

2002-01-01

86

Systematic literature reviews in software engineering - A systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In 2004 the concept of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) was introduced at the ICSE04 conference. Aims: This study assesses the impact of systematic literature reviews (SLRs) which are the recommended EBSE method for aggregating evidence. Method: We used the standard systematic literature review method employing a manual search of 10 journals and 4 conference proceedings. Results: Of 20 relevant

Barbara Kitchenham; Pearl Brereton; David Budgen; Mark Turner; John Bailey; Stephen G. Linkman

2009-01-01

87

Recent Surgical and Medical Advances in the Treatment of Dupuytren’s Disease - A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Dupuytren’s disease (DD) is a type of fibromatosis which progressively results in the shortening and thickening of the fibrous tissue of the palmar fascia. This condition which predominantly affects white-northern Europeans has been identified since 1614. DD can affect certain activities of daily living such as face washing, combing hair and putting hand in a glove. The origin of Dupuytren’s contracture is still unknown, but there are a number of treatments that doctors have come across throughout the years. Historically surgery has been the mainstay treatment for DD but not the only one. The objective is to make a structured review of the most recent advances in treatment of DD including the surgical and medical interventions. We have looked at the most relevant published articles regarding the various treatment options for DD. This review has taken 55 articles into consideration which have met the inclusion criteria. The most recent treatments used are multi-needle aponeurotomy, extensive percutaneous aponeurotomy and lipografting, injecting collagenase Clostridium histolyticum, INF-gamma and shockwave therapy as well as radiotherapy. Each of these treatments has certain advantages and drawbacks and cannot be used for every patient. In order to prevent this condition, spending more time and money in the topic is required to reach better and more consistent treatments and ultimately to eradicate this disease. PMID:22431952

R, Mafi; S, Hindocha; W, Khan

2012-01-01

88

Childhood depression: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention and treatment of childhood depression. PMID:24092979

Lima, Nadia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vania Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telesforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula

2013-01-01

89

A systematic view on medical informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical informatics is defined as the scientific discipline concerned with the systematic processing of data, information and knowledge in medicine and health care. The domain of medical informatics (including health informatics), its aim, methods and tools, and its relevance to other disciplines in medicine and health sciences are outlined. It is recognized that one of the major tasks of medical

A. Hasman; R. Haux; A. Albert

1996-01-01

90

Informing web-based communication curricula in veterinary education: a systematic review of web-based methods used for teaching and assessing clinical communication in medical education.  

PubMed

We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview. PMID:24418922

Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B

2014-01-01

91

Impact of health information technology interventions to improve medication laboratory monitoring for ambulatory patients: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Inadequate laboratory monitoring of high-risk medications after initial prescription is a medical error that contributes to preventable adverse drug events. Health information technology (HIT)-based clinical decision support may improve patient safety by improving the laboratory monitoring of high-risk medications, but the effectiveness of such interventions is unclear. Therefore, the authors

Shira H. Fischer; Jennifer Tjia; Terry S. Field

2010-01-01

92

The evidence for the effectiveness of safety alerts in electronic patient medication record systems at the point of pharmacy order entry: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic Patient Medication Record (ePMR) systems have important safety features embedded to alert users about potential clinical hazards and errors. To date, there is no synthesis of evidence about the effectiveness of these safety features and alerts at the point of pharmacy order entry. This review aims to systematically explore the literature and synthesise published evidence about the effectiveness of safety features and alerts in ePMR systems at the point of pharmacy order entry, in primary and secondary care. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Inspec, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsycINFO, CINHAL (earliest entry to March 2012) and reference lists of articles. Two reviewers examined the titles and abstracts, and used a hierarchical template to identify comparative design studies evaluating the effectiveness of safety features and alerts at the point of pharmacy order entry. The two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies using Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. Results Three randomised trials and two before-after studies met our criteria. Four studies involved integrated care facilities and one was hospital-based. The studies were all from the United States (US). The five studies demonstrated statistically significant reduction in medication errors in patients with renal insufficiency, pregnant women dispensed US Food Drug and Administration (FDA) risk category D (evidence of fetal risk but therapeutic benefits can outweigh the risk) or X (evidence suggests that risk to the fetus outweighs therapeutic benefits) medication, first dispensing of inappropriate medications in patients aged 65 and above, co-dispensing of interacting drugs, and adverse drug events related to hyperkalaemia. Conclusions This systematic review shows that the safety features of ePMR systems are effective in alerting users about potential clinical hazards and errors during pharmacy order entry. There are however, problems such as false alerts and inconsistencies in alert management. More studies are needed from other countries and pharmacy practice settings to assess the effectiveness of electronic safety features and alerts in preventing error and reducing harm to patients. PMID:23816138

2013-01-01

93

Retinal implants: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus II is the only device with FDA approval. Argus II and Alpha-IMS have both received the European CE Marking. All others are in clinical trials, except the Boston Retinal Implant, which is in animal studies. Vision restoration: resolution theoretically correlates with electrode number. Among devices with external cameras, the Boston Retinal Implant leads with 100 electrodes, followed by Argus II with 60 electrodes and visual acuity of 20/1262. Instead of an external camera, Alpha-IMS uses a photodiode system dependent on natural eye movements and can deliver visual acuity up to 20/546. Long-term compatibility: IMI offers iterative learning; Epi-Ret 3 is a fully intraocular device; Alpha-IMS uses intraocular photosensitive elements. Merging the results of these three criteria, Alpha-IMS is the most likely to achieve long-term success decades later, beyond current clinical availability. PMID:24403565

Chuang, Alice T; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B

2014-07-01

94

Methods used to conduct and report Bayesian mixed treatment comparisons published in the medical literature: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify published closed-loop Bayesian mixed treatment comparisons (MTCs) and to summarise characteristics regarding their conduct and reporting. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 2006–31 July 2011) for full-text, English language publications of Bayesian MTCs comparing the effectiveness or safety of ?3 interventions based on randomised controlled trials and having at least one closed loop. Methodological and reporting characteristics of MTCs were extracted in duplicate and summarised descriptively. Results We identified 34 Bayesian MTCs spanning 13 clinical areas. Publication of MTCs increased over the 5-year period; with 76.5% published during or after 2009. MTCs included a mean (±SD) of 35.9±30.1 trials (n=33?459±71?233 participants) and 8.5±4.3 interventions (85.7% pharmacological). Non-informative and informative prior distributions were reported to be used in 44.1% and 8.8% of MTCs, respectively, with the remainder failing to specify the prior used. A random-effects model was used to analyse the networks of trials in 58.5% of MTCs, all using WinBUGS; however, code was infrequently provided (20.6%). More than two-thirds of MTCs (76.5%) also conducted traditional meta-analysis. Methods used to evaluate convergence, heterogeneity and inconsistency were infrequently reported, but from those providing detail, methods appeared varied. MTCs most often used a binary effect measure (85.3%) and ranking of interventions based on probability was common (61.8%), although rarely displayed in a figure (8.8% of MTCs). MTCs were published in 24 different journals with a mean impact factor of 9.20±8.71. While 70.8% of journals imposed limits on word counts and 45.8% limits on the number of tables/figures, online supplements/appendices were allowed in 79.2% of journals. Publication of closed-loop Bayesian MTCs is increasing in frequency, but details regarding their methodology are often poorly described. Efforts in clarifying the appropriate methods and reporting of Bayesian MTCs should be of priority. PMID:23878173

Sobieraj, Diana M; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Baker, William L; Phung, Olivia J; White, C Michael; Coleman, Craig I

2013-01-01

95

Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System versus Medical Therapy for Menorrhagia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

Background The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with conventional medical treatment in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding. Material and Methods Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinical trials registries (from inception to April 2014). Randomized controlled trials comparing the LNG-IUS with conventional medical treatment (mefenamic acid, tranexamic acid, norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, or combined oral contraceptive pills) in patients with menorrhagia were included. Results Eight randomized controlled trials that included 1170 women (LNG-IUS, n=562; conventional medical treatment, n=608) met inclusion criteria. The LNG-IUS was superior to conventional medical treatment in reducing menstrual blood loss (as measured by the alkaline hematin method or estimated by pictorial bleeding assessment chart scores). More women were satisfied with the LNG-IUS than with the use of conventional medical treatment (odds ratio [OR] 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.73-9.86). Compared with conventional medical treatment, the LNG-IUS was associated with a lower rate of discontinuation (14.6% vs. 28.9%, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.74) and fewer treatment failures (9.2% vs. 31.0%, OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.34). Furthermore, quality of life assessment favored LNG-IUS over conventional medical treatment, although use of various measurements limited our ability to pool the data for more powerful evidence. Serious adverse events were statistically comparable between treatments. Conclusions The LNG-IUS was the more effective first choice for management of menorrhagia compared with conventional medical treatment. Long-term, randomized trials are required to further investigate patient-based outcomes and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the LNG-IUS and other medical treatments. PMID:25245843

Qiu, Jin; Cheng, Jiajing; Wang, Qingying; Hua, Jie

2014-01-01

96

Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System versus Medical Therapy for Menorrhagia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with conventional medical treatment in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding. Material/Methods Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinical trials registries (from inception to April 2014). Randomized controlled trials comparing the LNG-IUS with conventional medical treatment (mefenamic acid, tranexamic acid, norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, or combined oral contraceptive pills) in patients with menorrhagia were included. Results Eight randomized controlled trials that included 1170 women (LNG-IUS, n=562; conventional medical treatment, n=608) met inclusion criteria. The LNG-IUS was superior to conventional medical treatment in reducing menstrual blood loss (as measured by the alkaline hematin method or estimated by pictorial bleeding assessment chart scores). More women were satisfied with the LNG-IUS than with the use of conventional medical treatment (odds ratio [OR] 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.73–9.86). Compared with conventional medical treatment, the LNG-IUS was associated with a lower rate of discontinuation (14.6% vs. 28.9%, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20–0.74) and fewer treatment failures (9.2% vs. 31.0%, OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.34). Furthermore, quality of life assessment favored LNG-IUS over conventional medical treatment, although use of various measurements limited our ability to pool the data for more powerful evidence. Serious adverse events were statistically comparable between treatments. Conclusions The LNG-IUS was the more effective first choice for management of menorrhagia compared with conventional medical treatment. Long-term, randomized trials are required to further investigate patient-based outcomes and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the LNG-IUS and other medical treatments. PMID:25245843

Qiu, Jin; Cheng, Jiajing; Wang, Qingying; Hua, Jie

2014-01-01

97

Haematospermia - A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Haematospermia (or haemospermia) is a distressing symptom in sexually active men. In most cases, it is caused by non-specific inflammation of the prostate and seminal vesicles. In a small percentage of men, however, it may be a manifestation of genito-urinary or systemic malignancy, in particular prostate cancer. The purpose of this review is to explain the causes and management of patients with haematospermia. PMID:16834849

Kumar, Priya; Kapoor, Sona; Nargund, Vinod

2006-01-01

98

The Need for Systematic Reviews of Reasons  

PubMed Central

There are many ethical decisions in the practice of health research and care, and in the creation of policy and guidelines. We argue that those charged with making such decisions need a new genre of review. The new genre is an application of the systematic review, which was developed over decades to inform medical decision-makers about what the totality of studies that investigate links between smoking and cancer, for example, implies about whether smoking causes cancer. We argue that there is a need for similarly inclusive and rigorous reviews of reason-based bioethics, which uses reasoning to address ethical questions. After presenting a brief history of the systematic review, we reject the only existing model for writing a systematic review of reason-based bioethics, which holds that such a review should address an ethical question. We argue that such a systematic review may mislead decision-makers when a literature is incomplete, or when there are mutually incompatible but individually reasonable answers to the ethical question. Furthermore, such a review can be written without identifying all the reasons given when the ethical questions are discussed, their alleged implications for the ethical question, and the attitudes taken to the reasons. The reviews we propose address instead the empirical question of which reasons have been given when addressing a specified ethical question, and present such detailed information on the reasons. We argue that this information is likely to improve decision-making, both directly and indirectly, and also the academic literature. We explain the limitations of our alternative model for systematic reviews. PMID:21521251

Sofaer, Neema; Strech, Daniel

2012-01-01

99

Costs of Medication Nonadherence in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Critical Analysis of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesInformation on the health care costs associated with nonadherence to treatments for diabetes is both limited and inconsistent. We reviewed and critically appraised the literature to identify the main methodological issues that might explain differences among reports in the relationship of nonadherence and costs in patients with diabetes.

Maribel Salas; Dyfrig Hughes; Alvaro Zuluaga; Kawitha Vardeva; Maximilian Lebmeier

2009-01-01

100

Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to review the literature regarding the barriers to sampling, recruitment, participation, and retention of members of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in health research and strategies for increasing the amount of health research conducted with socially disadvantaged groups. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Searches of electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Social Science Index via Web of Knowledge and CINHAL were conducted for English language articles published up to May 2013. Qualitative and quantitative studies as well as literature reviews were included. Articles were included if they reported attempts to increase disadvantaged group participation in research, or the barriers to research with disadvantaged groups. Groups of interest were those described as socially, culturally or financially disadvantaged compared to the majority of society. Eligible articles were categorised according to five phases of research: 1) sampling, 2) recruitment and gaining consent, 3) data collection and measurement, 4) intervention delivery and uptake, and 5) retention and attrition. Results In total, 116 papers from 115 studies met inclusion criteria and 31 previous literature reviews were included. A comprehensive summation of the major barriers to working with various disadvantaged groups is provided, along with proposed strategies for addressing each of the identified types of barriers. Most studies of strategies to address the barriers were of a descriptive nature and only nine studies reported the results of randomised trials. Conclusions To tackle the challenges of research with socially disadvantaged groups, and increase their representation in health and medical research, researchers and research institutions need to acknowledge extended timeframes, plan for higher resourcing costs and operate via community partnerships. PMID:24669751

2014-01-01

101

Medical therapy of stricturing Crohn's disease: what the gut can learn from other organs - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic remitting and relapsing disease. Fibrostenosing complications such as intestinal strictures, stenosis and ultimately obstruction are some of its most common long-term complications. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding of CD and a significant improvement of anti-inflammatory therapeutics, medical therapy for stricturing CD is still inadequate. No specific anti-fibrotic therapy exists and the incidence rate of strictures has essentially remained unchanged. Therefore, the current therapy of established fibrotic strictures comprises mainly endoscopic dilation as well as surgical approaches. However, these treatment options are associated with major complications as well as high recurrence rates. Thus, a specific anti-fibrotic therapy for CD is urgently needed. Importantly, there is now a growing body of evidence for prevention as well as effective medical treatment of fibrotic diseases of other organs such as the skin, lung, kidney and liver. In face of the similarity of molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis across these organs, translation of therapeutic approaches from other fibrotic diseases to the intestine appears to be a promising treatment strategy. In particular transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) neutralization, selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors, blockade of components of the renin-angiotensin system, IL-13 inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have emerged as potential drug candidates for anti-fibrotic therapy and may retard progression or even reverse established intestinal fibrosis. However, major challenges have to be overcome in the translation of novel anti-fibrotics into intestinal fibrosis therapy, such as the development of appropriate biomarkers that predict the development and accurately monitor therapeutic responses. Future clinical studies are a prerequisite to evaluate the optimal timing for anti-fibrotic treatment approaches, to elucidate the best routes of application, and to evaluate the potential of drug candidates to reach the ultimate goal: the prevention or reversal of established fibrosis and strictures in CD patients. PMID:24678903

2014-01-01

102

Acid-suppressive medications and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's oesophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Acid-suppressive medications, particularly proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), may decrease the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus (BO). We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association between acid-suppressive medications (PPIs and histamine receptor antagonists (H2RAs)) and risk of OAC or high-grade dysplasia (BO-HGD) in patients with BO. Methods We performed a systematic search of multiple electronic databases and conference proceedings up to June 2013 to identify studies reporting the association between use of acid-suppressive medications and risk of OAC and/or BO-HGD in patients with BO. Summary ORs with 95% CIs were estimated. Results We identified seven observational studies (2813 patients with BO, 317 cases of OAC or BO-HGD, 84.4% PPI users). On meta-analysis, PPI use was associated with a 71% reduction in risk of OAC and/or BO-HGD in patients with BO (adjusted OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.79). There was a trend towards a dose–response relationship with PPI use for >2–3 years protective against OAC or BO-HGD (three studies; PPI use >2–3 years vs <2–3 years: OR 0.45 (95% CI 0.19 to 1.06) vs 1.09 (0.47 to 2.56)). Considerable heterogeneity was observed. Two studies reported the association between H2RA use and risk of OAC and/or BO-HGD (1352 patients with BO, 156 cases of OAC, 25.4% on H2RAs), and both studies did not show a significant effect. Conclusions Based on meta-analysis of observational studies, the use of PPIs is associated with a decreased risk of OAC and/or BO-HGD in patients with BO. None of the studies showed an increased risk of OAC. PPI use should be considered in BO, and chemopreventive trials of PPIs in patients with BO are warranted. PMID:24221456

Singh, Siddharth; Garg, Sushil Kumar; Singh, Preet Paul; Iyer, Prasad G; El-Serag, Hashem B

2014-01-01

103

Determinants of patient adherence: a review of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A number of potential determinants of medication non-adherence have been described so far. However, the heterogenic quality of existing publications poses the need for the use of a rigorous methodology in building a list of such determinants. The purpose of this study was a systematic review of current research on determinants of patient adherence on the basis of a recently agreed European consensus taxonomy and terminology. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, IPA, and PsycINFO were systematically searched for systematic reviews published between 2000/01/01 and 2009/12/31 that provided determinants on non-adherence to medication. The searches were limited to reviews having adherence to medication prescribed by health professionals for outpatient as a major topic. Results: Fifty-one reviews were included in this review, covering 19 different disease categories. In these reviews, exclusively assessing non-adherence to chronic therapies, 771 individual factor items were identified, of which most were determinants of implementation, and only 47—determinants of persistence with medication. Factors with an unambiguous effect on adherence were further grouped into 8 clusters of socio-economic-related factors, 6 of healthcare team- and system-related factors, 6 of condition-related factors, 6 of therapy-related factors, and 14 of patient-related factors. The lack of standardized definitions and use of poor measurement methods resulted in many inconsistencies. Conclusions: This study provides clear evidence that medication non-adherence is affected by multiple determinants. Therefore, the prediction of non-adherence of individual patients is difficult, and suitable measurement and multifaceted interventions may be the most effective answer toward unsatisfactory adherence. The limited number of publications assessing determinants of persistence with medication, and lack of those providing determinants of adherence to short-term treatment identify areas for future research. PMID:23898295

Kardas, Przemyslaw; Lewek, Pawel; Matyjaszczyk, Michal

2013-01-01

104

Tuina-Focused Integrative Chinese Medical Therapies for Inpatients with Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of Tuina-focused integrative Chinese medical therapies (TICMT) on inpatients with low back pain (LBP). Methods. 6 English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TICMT for in-patients with LBP. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was assessed based on PEDro scale. And the meta-analyses of TICMT for LBP on pain and functional status were conducted. Results. 20 RCTs were included. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was poor. The meta-analyses' results showed that TICMT had statistically significant effects on pain and functional status, especially Tuina plus Chinese herbal medicine (standardised mean difference, SMD: 1.17; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.60 on pain; SMD: 1.31; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.14 on functional status) and Tuina plus acupuncture (SMD: 0.94; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.50 on pain; SMD: 0.53; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.85 on functional status). But Tuina plus moxibustion or hot pack did not show significant improvements on pain. And the long-term evidence of TICMT was far from sufficient. Conclusions. The preliminary evidence from current studies suggests that TICMT might be effective complementary and alternative treatments for in-patients with LBP. However, the poor methodological quality of the included RCTs means that high-quality RCTs with long follow-up are warranted. PMID:23346207

Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Pu, Jiang Hui; Cheng, Ying Wu; Chen, Bo

2012-01-01

105

Coping with medical error: a systematic review of papers to assess the effects of involvement in medical errors on healthcare professionals' psychological well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious research has established health professionals as secondary victims of medical error, with the identification of a range of emotional and psychological repercussions that may occur as a result of involvement in error.23 Due to the vast range of emotional and psychological outcomes, research to date has been inconsistent in the variables measured and tools used. Therefore, differing conclusions have

Reema Sirriyeh; Rebecca Lawton; Peter Gardner; Gerry Armitage

2010-01-01

106

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty--a systematic review of cement augmentation techniques for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures compared to standard medical therapy.  

PubMed

After more than two decades the treatment effect of cement augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) has now been questioned by two blinded randomised placebo-controlled trials. Thus many practitioners are uncertain on the recommendation for cement augmentation techniques in elderly patients with osteoporotic VCF. This systematic review analyses randomised controlled trials on vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty to provide an overview on the current evidence. From an electronic database research 8 studies could be identified meeting our inclusion criteria of osteoporotic VCF in elderly (age>60 years), treatment with vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, controlled with placebo or standard medical therapy, quality of life, function, or pain as primary parameter, and randomisation. Only two studies were properly blinded using a sham-operation as control. The other studies were using a non-surgical treatment control group. Further possible bias may be caused by manufacturer involvement in financing of three published RCT. There is level Ib evidence that vertebroplasty is no better than placebo, which is conflicting with the available level IIb evidence that there is a positive short-term effect of cement augmentation compared to standard medical therapy with regard to QoL, function and pain. Kyphoplasty is not superior to vertebroplasty with regard to pain, but with regard to VCF reduction (evidence level IIb). Kyphoplasty is probably not cost-effective (evidence level IIb), and vertebroplasty has not more than short-term cost-effectiveness (evidence level IV). Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty cannot be recommended as standard treatment for osteoporotic VCF. Ongoing sham-controlled trials may provide further evidence in this regard. PMID:22425141

Robinson, Yohan; Olerud, Claes

2012-05-01

107

Medical Imaging: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid progress of medical science and the invention of various medicines have benefited mankind and the whole civilization. Modern science also has been doing wonders in the surgical field. But, the proper and correct diagnosis of diseases is the primary necessity before the treatment. The more sophisticate the bio-instruments are, better diagnosis will be possible. The medical images plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy of doctor and teaching and researching etc. Medical imaging is often thought of as a way to represent anatomical structures of the body with the help of X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. But often it is more useful for physiologic function rather than anatomy. With the growth of computer and image technology medical imaging has greatly influenced medical field. As the quality of medical imaging affects diagnosis the medical image processing has become a hotspot and the clinical applications wanting to store and retrieve images for future purpose needs some convenient process to store those images in details. This paper is a tutorial review of the medical image processing and repository techniques appeared in the literature.

Ganguly, Debashis; Chakraborty, Srabonti; Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

108

Systematic review of timed stair tests.  

PubMed

Functional testing is particularly useful in the clinic and for making research translatable; however, finding measures relevant across ages and different conditions can be difficult. A systematic review was conducted to investigate timed stair tests as an objective measure of functional abilities and musculoskeletal integrity. Data were analyzed for their ability to differentiate between controls and patient groups and between different patient groups. Literature was reviewed using the Medline, CINAHL, and PubMed databases until February 2012. Data were grouped according to methodology, ages, and medical conditions. Time per step was calculated to allow comparison between studies. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review. Methodologies varied considerably with stair ascent, stair descent, or a combination of the two being used across a wide range of ages and medical conditions. Times increased with age for ascent, descent, and combined and for a variety of medical problems. Timed stair tests appear to be sensitive to medical conditions but further data are required to obtain normative values for this test. We suggest that timed stair tests should follow a more standardized methodology using a combination of ascent and descent and asking participants to complete the stairs as quickly and safely as possible. PMID:25019658

Nightingale, Elizabeth Jean; Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Hiller, Claire E

2014-01-01

109

Statistical reviewing for medical journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper reviews the diƒculties associated with being a statistical reviewer for a medical journal. As background, I consider first the use of statistical reviewers by medical journals, medical journals' policies on statistical peer review, and the limited evidence of its e?ectiveness. The assessment of a manuscript is considered under the headings of design, methods of analysis, presentation and

Douglas G. Altman

1998-01-01

110

Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved. Selection criteria Studies were included if they addressed interventions enhancing the uptake of systematic reviews. Reports in any language were included. All decisionmakers were eligible. Studies could be randomised trials, cluster-randomised trials, controlled-clinical trials and before-and-after studies. Data sources We searched 19 databases including PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, covering the full range of publication years from inception to December 2010. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality according to the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care criteria. Results 10 studies from 11 countries, containing 12 interventions met our criteria. Settings included a hospital, a government department and a medical school. Doctors, nurses, mid-wives, patients and programme managers were targeted. Six of the studies were geared to improving knowledge and attitudes while four targeted clinical practice. Synthesis of results Three studies of low-to-moderate risk of bias, identified interventions that showed a statistically significant improvement: educational visits, short summaries of systematic reviews and targeted messaging. Promising interventions include e-learning, computer-based learning, inactive workshops, use of knowledge brokers and an e-registry of reviews. Juxtaposing barriers and facilitators alongside the identified interventions, it was clear that the three effective approaches addressed a wide range of barriers and facilitators. Discussion A limited number of studies were found for inclusion. However, the extensive literature search is one of the strengths of this review. Conclusions Targeted messaging, educational visits and summaries are recommended to enhance systematic review uptake. Identified promising approaches need to be developed further. New strategies are required to encompass neglected barriers and facilitators. This review addressed effectiveness and also appropriateness of knowledge uptake strategies. PMID:25324321

Wallace, John; Byrne, Charles; Clarke, Mike

2014-01-01

111

Topiramate to Prevent Pediatric Migraine Headaches: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neurogenic inflammation plays a key part in the development and continuation of migraine headaches. Treatment of migraines includes acute attack medications, avoidance of triggers, and preventative treatment. Currently there are no FDA approved preventative medications for treatment of pediatric migraines. Pediatric migraines have long been unrecognized and undertreated. This systematic review evaluates RCT’s that have studied prophylactic treatment of

Tammy L Wilson

2010-01-01

112

Treatment non-adherence in pediatric long-term medical conditions: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies of caregivers' views  

PubMed Central

Background Non-adherence to prescribed treatments is the primary cause of treatment failure in pediatric long-term conditions. Greater understanding of parents and caregivers’ reasons for non-adherence can help to address this problem and improve outcomes for children with long-term conditions. Methods We carried out a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Medline, Embase, Cinahl and PsycInfo were searched for relevant studies published in English and German between 1996 and 2011. Papers were included if they contained qualitative data, for example from interviews or focus groups, reporting the views of parents and caregivers of children with a range of long-term conditions on their treatment adherence. Papers were quality assessed and analysed using thematic synthesis. Results Nineteen papers were included reporting 17 studies with caregivers from 423 households in five countries. Long-term conditions included; asthma, cystic fibrosis, HIV, diabetes and juvenile arthritis. Across all conditions caregivers were making on-going attempts to balance competing concerns about the treatment (such as perceived effectiveness or fear of side effects) with the condition itself (for instance perceived long-term threat to child). Although the barriers to implementing treatment regimens varied across the different conditions (including complexity and time-consuming nature of treatments, un-palatability and side-effects of medications), it was clear that caregivers worked hard to overcome these day-to-day challenges and to deal with child resistance to treatments. Yet, carers reported that strict treatment adherence, which is expected by health professionals, could threaten their priorities around preserving family relationships and providing a ‘normal life’ for their child and any siblings. Conclusions Treatment adherence in long-term pediatric conditions is a complex issue which needs to be seen in the context of caregivers balancing the everyday needs of the child within everyday family life. Health professionals may be able to help caregivers respond positively to the challenge of treatment adherence for long-term conditions by simplifying treatment regimens to minimise impact on family life and being aware of difficulties around child resistance and supportive of strategies to attempt to overcome this. Caregivers would also welcome help with communicating with children about treatment goals. PMID:24593304

2014-01-01

113

Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

2012-01-01

114

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2011-01-01

115

Tiotropium in asthma: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this paper is to systematically review the existing evidence of the effectiveness and safety profile of a long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist as add-on therapy in patients with asthma that is uncontrolled despite inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use. Methods With the assistance of two experienced research librarians, we searched Ovid MEDLINE/PubMed (1946 to September 12, 2013), the Cochrane Library review, and the TRIP database. The key search terms were “tiotropium and asthma.” The search was limited to human data published in English. Included in the systematic review were all randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of tiotropium in patients with asthma. The clinical trials had to be at least 4 weeks in duration and to provide adequate information on clinically appropriate end points in asthma care (eg, change in lung function, exacerbation rates, and/or ICS dosing). Data on patient characteristics, study design, outcome measures, concomitant asthma medication, and adverse events were extracted from the full text of each included individual study. Marked heterogeneity of study design precluded statistical pooling of results for a meta-analysis. Consequently, only descriptive summaries of outcomes are provided. Results Our database search retrieved 149 citations. We found five randomized controlled trials in humans that met our criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. We also found two open-label uncontrolled trials that were considered in the discussion. Each of the five included studies met the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials criteria for a well-designed randomized trial. Discussion The five clinical studies included in this systematic review focused on evaluating the efficacy of tiotropium as add-on therapy to ICS or ICS in combination with a long-acting inhaled ?2-agonist (LABA) in patients with uncontrolled moderate to severe persistent asthma. Tiotropium maintained lung function when ICSs were tapered and when an LABA was discontinued. Tiotropium improved lung function when added to ICS alone or ICS–LABA combination therapy. In the only trial to have compared the addition of tiotropium with doubling the dose of ICS, tiotropium provided significantly superior results. In trials in which the addition of tiotropium was compared with salmeterol, the beneficial effects of these two bronchodilators were similar. No safety concerns were found with use of tiotropium as add-on therapy. Conclusion Tiotropium may have a beneficial role in moderate to severe persistent asthma despite use of an ICS or ICS and LABA. Use of tiotropium as add-on therapy poses no safety concerns. PMID:24600237

Befekadu, Elizabeth; Onofrei, Claudia; Colice, Gene L

2014-01-01

116

Pyoderma gangrenosum: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, chronic neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown etiology. The world wide incidence is estimated to be around 3-10 cases per million population per year. In 50-70% of cases inflammatory bowel diseases, hematological malignancies or rheumatologic disorders are associated to PG. Although the etiology is uncertain, the dysregulation of the immune system appears to be implied. Pathergy is the most important triggering factor of PG. Indeed, 20-30% of patients report the onset of PG following trivial trauma. Four main variants of PG have been described, namely classic, pustular, bullous, and vegetative forms. The classic form of PG is characterized by ulcers with a raised, undermined, inflammatory border. Intense pain is generally associated to PG. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and of exclusion. The differential diagnosis should take into account infections, vascular disorders and malignancies. The clinical course can be explosive and rapidly progressive or indolent and gradually progressive. Often patients develop only one episode and the overall prognosis is good but extremely influenced by the underlying disorders. Local therapy, mainly with topic steroids is used for mild to moderate lesions. For severe forms of PG a systemic therapy with glucocorticoids and/or other drugs such as tacrolimus, cyclosporine, etc. is needed. This paper is a systematic review of literature on PG. PMID:25213386

Cozzani, E; Gasparini, G; Parodi, A

2014-10-01

117

Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small number and poor methodological quality of primary studies. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews provides a useful method of appraising the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Individual item scores, however, should be examined in addition to total scores, so that significant methodological flaws of systematic reviews are not missed, and results are interpreted appropriately. (348 words) PMID:23331384

2013-01-01

118

Cupping for stroke rehabilitation: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cupping is often used for stroke rehabilitation in Asian countries. Currently, no systematic review of this topic is available. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for and against the effectiveness of cupping for stroke rehabilitation. Thirteen databases were searched from their inception through March of 2010 without language restrictions. Prospective clinical trials

Myeong Soo Lee; Tae-Young Choi; Byung-Cheul Shin; Chang-ho Han; Edzard Ernst

2010-01-01

119

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antipsychotic medications on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in schizophrenia: association with response to treatment.  

PubMed

Evaluating the short- and long-term effects of antipsychotics on brain physiology is a key factor in advancing our understanding of neurophysiological changes in psychosis and improving prediction of treatment response. Understanding the nature of such changes is crucial to the interpretation of neuroimaging findings in patients with schizophrenia and psychoses in general. This review has systematically appraised existing evidence on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment, relating the findings to symptom severity. The review shows that antipsychotics exert regional effects on rCBF, particularly in frontal and basal ganglia regions, and that different antipsychotic generations have differential effects on rCBF. These findings are supported by an exploratory meta-analysis of a subset of studies. The review also highlights the relative lack of studies that use a priori definitions of treatment response, which is an important step in identifying testable hypotheses and ensuring clinical relevance of remission criteria. Finally, the review highlights important considerations for future psychopharmacological studies investigating the potential for rCBF to predict symptomatic improvement, which could inform the management of treatment in schizophrenia. PMID:24690578

Goozée, Rhianna; Handley, Rowena; Kempton, Matthew J; Dazzan, Paola

2014-06-01

120

Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2010-01-01

121

Education 2.0 - How has social media and Web 2.0 been integrated into medical education? A systematical literature review  

PubMed Central

Objective: Present-day students have grown up with considerable knowledge concerning multi-media. The communication modes they use are faster, more spontaneous, and independent of place and time. These new web-based forms of information and communication are used by students, educators, and patients in various ways. Universities which have already used these tools report many positive effects on the learning behaviour of the students. In a systematic literature review, we summarized the manner in which the integration of Social Media and Web 2.0 into education has taken place. Method: A systematic literature search covering the last 5 years using MeSH terms was carried out via PubMed. Result: Among the 20 chosen publications, there was only one German publication. Most of the publications are from the US and Great Britain. The latest publications report on the concrete usage of the tools in education, including social networking, podcasts, blogs, wikis, YouTube, Twitter and Skype. Conclusion: The integration of Web 2.0 and Social Media is the modern form of self-determined learning. It stimulates reflection and actively integrates the students in the construction of their knowledge. With these new tools, the students acquire skills which they need in both their social and professional lives. PMID:23467509

Hollinderbaumer, Anke; Hartz, Tobias; Uckert, Frank

2013-01-01

122

Optimizing Feature Representation for Automated Systematic Review Work Prioritization  

E-print Network

for enhancing the efficiency of creating and updating systematic reviews (SRs) for evidence- based medicine. One component in the practice of Evidence-based Medicine (EBM), providing recommendations for medical treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology based on the best available biomedical evidence. Because new information

Matwin, Stan

123

Practice Management Residency Curricula: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Family medicine's professional organizations have reaffirmed the im - portance of practice management (PM), and three of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME) six recommended core competencies include skills related to PM. In the process of integrating the appropriate ACGME competencies into our family medicine residency's PM cur- riculum, we conducted a systematic review of

David E. Kolva; Kathleen A. Barzee; Christopher P. Morley

124

The Relations between Perfectionism and Suicidality: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1980s, there has been a 300 percent increase in the number of published papers on perfectionism. Given the inconsistent findings in the literature, this systematic review examines, for the first time, the nature of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidality. To this end, the three main psychological and medical databases…

O'Connor, Rory C.

2007-01-01

125

Kombucha: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAim: Kombucha has become a popular complementary remedy. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence related to its efficacy and safety. Methods: Computerised literature searches were carried out to locate all human medical investigations of kombucha regardless of study design. Data were extracted and validated by the present author and are reported in narrative form.

E. Ernst

2003-01-01

126

Bee venom acupuncture for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction This systematic review aims to analyse the trial data on the effects of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods and analysis The following 14 databases will be searched from their inception to March 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), AMED, CINAHL, six Korean medical databases (OASIS, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, Korean Studies Information Service System, KoreaMed, Korean Medical Database and DBPIA) and three Chinese databases including CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang and VIP. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013005853 PMID:24760349

Lee, Ju Ah; Son, Mi Ju; Choi, Jiae; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-01-01

127

Deciphering the system of a systematic review  

PubMed Central

All clinical decisions and research essentially begins with the review of pre-existing literature. It helps to make our clinical decisions based on an overview of all the literature concerning the particular clinical problem. This requires a lot of time and effort, which is becoming scarce in this day and age. Literature reviews shorten the time by offering relevant evidence in a concise form. However, narrative reviews might not be objective and unbiased. This drawback is overcome by systematic reviews. There is still some apprehension regarding undertaking systematic reviews due to lack of information. This article is an attempt to explain the concept of systematic reviews and methods used for conducting the same, which will be helpful in day-to- day clinical practice as well as research.

Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Gill, Namrata C.

2014-01-01

128

Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology  

PubMed Central

Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. PMID:23372426

Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

2013-01-01

129

A systematic review of Web engineering research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a systematic literature review as means of investigating the rigor of claims arising from Web engineering research. Rigor is measured using criteria combined from software engineering research. We reviewed 173 papers and results have shown that only 5% would be considered rigorous methodologically. In addition to presenting our results, we also provide suggestions for improvement of Web

Emilia Mendes

2005-01-01

130

Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2009-01-01

131

A critical review of the core medical training curriculum in the UK: A medical education perspective  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper represents a systematic evaluation of the Core Medical Training Curriculum in the UK. The authors critically review the curriculum from a medical education perspective based mainly on the medical education literature as well as their personal experience of this curriculum. They conclude in practical recommendations and suggestions which, if adopted, could improve the design and implementation of this postgraduate curriculum. The systematic evaluation approach described in this paper is transferable to the evaluation of other undergraduate or postgraduate curricula, and could be a helpful guide for medical teachers involved in the delivery and evaluation of any medical curriculum PMID:25057366

Gkotsi, Despoina; Panteliou, Eleftheria

2014-01-01

132

Short implants: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ?10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ?7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ?7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was conducted to identify studies concerning short dental implants of length ?7 mm published between 1991 and 2011. The articles included in this study report data on implant length ?7 mm, such as demographic variables, implant type, location in jaws, observation time, prostheses and complications. Results: The 28 included studies represent one randomized controlled trial, 12 prospective studies and 10 retrospective studies. The survival rate of short implant was found to be increased from 80% to 90% gradually, with recent articles showing 100%. Conclusion: When severe atrophy of jaws was encountered, short and wide implants can be placed successfully. PMID:23162320

Karthikeyan, I.; Desai, Shrikar R.; Singh, Rika

2012-01-01

133

Intrasellar cysticercosis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to review patients with intrasellar cysticercosis to outline the features of this form of neurocysticercosis. A MEDLINE and manual search of patients with intrasellar cysticercosis were done. Abstracted data included clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, therapy, and outcome. Twenty-three patients were reviewed. Ophthalmological disturbances, including diminution of visual acuity and visual field defects following a chiasmatic pattern, were recorded in 67 % of cases. Endocrine abnormalities were found in 56 % of patients (panhypopituitarism, hyperprolactinemia, diabetes insipidus, and isolated hypothyroidism). In addition, some patients complained of seizures or chronic headaches. Neuroimaging studies showed lesions confined to the sellar region in 47 % of cases. The remaining patients also had subarachnoid cysts associated or not with hydrocephalus, parenchymal brain cysts, or parenchymal brain calcifications. Thirteen patients underwent surgical resection of the sellar cyst through a craniotomy in nine cases and by the transsphenoidal approach in four. Visual acuity or visual field defects improved in only two of these patients. Five patients were treated with cysticidal drugs without improvement. Intrasellar cysticercosis is rare and probably under-recognized. Clinical manifestations resemble those caused by pituitary tumors, cysts, or other granulomatous lesions. Neuroimaging findings are of more value when intrasellar cysts are associated with other forms of neurocysticercosis, such as basal subarachnoid cysts or hydrocephalus. Prompt surgical resection is mandatory to reduce the risk of permanent loss of visual function. There seems to be no role for cysticidal drug therapy in these cases. PMID:23605125

Del Brutto, Oscar H; Del Brutto, Victor J

2013-09-01

134

Clinician-patient communication: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal of Work  The goal of this work was to identify methods of clinician–patient cancer-related communication that may impact patient outcomes\\u000a associated with distress at critical points in the course of cancer care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A systematic review of practice guidelines, systematic reviews, or randomized trials on this topic was conducted. Guidelines\\u000a for quality was evaluated using the Appraisal of Guidelines

Gary Rodin; Jean A. Mackay; Camilla Zimmermann; Carole Mayer; Doris Howell; Mark Katz; Jonathan Sussman; Melissa Brouwers

2009-01-01

135

Systematic review of water fluoridation  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the safety and efficacy of fluoridation of drinking water. Design Search of 25 electronic databases and world wide web. Relevant journals hand searched; further information requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Main outcome measures Decayed, missing, and filled primary/permanent teeth. Proportion of children without caries. Measure of effect was the difference in change in prevalence of caries from baseline to final examination in fluoridated compared with control areas. For potential adverse effects, all outcomes reported were used. Results 214 studies were included. The quality of studies was low to moderate. Water fluoridation was associated with an increased proportion of children without caries and a reduction in the number of teeth affected by caries. The range (median) of mean differences in the proportion of children without caries was ?5.0% to 64% (14.6%). The range (median) of mean change in decayed, missing, and filled primary/permanent teeth was 0.5 to 4.4 (2.25) teeth. A dose-dependent increase in dental fluorosis was found. At a fluoride level of 1 ppm an estimated 12.5% (95% confidence interval 7.0% to 21.5%) of exposed people would have fluorosis that they would find aesthetically concerning. Conclusions The evidence of a beneficial reduction in caries should be considered together with the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis. There was no clear evidence of other potential adverse effects. PMID:11021861

McDonagh, Marian S; Whiting, Penny F; Wilson, Paul M; Sutton, Alex J; Chestnutt, Ivor; Cooper, Jan; Misso, Kate; Bradley, Matthew; Treasure, Elizabeth; Kleijnen, Jos

2000-01-01

136

Comparative benefits and harms of competing medications for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and indirect comparison meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Recommended medication prescribing hierarchies for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary between different\\u000a guideline committees. Few trials directly compare competing ADHD medications in adults and provide little insight for clinicians\\u000a making treatment choices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The objective of this study was to assess comparative benefits and harms of competing medications for adult ADHD using indirect\\u000a comparison meta-analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Eligible studies were

Kim Peterson; Marian S. McDonagh; Rongwei Fu

2008-01-01

137

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: when they are useful and when to be careful  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly popular study designs in clinical research. A systematic review is a summary of the medical literature that uses explicit and reproducible methods for searching the literature and critical appraisal of individual studies; in contrast, a meta-analysis is a mathematical synthesis of the results of these individual studies. These study designs can be useful tools

Marlies Noordzij; Lotty Hooft; Friedo W Dekker; Carmine Zoccali; Kitty J Jager

2009-01-01

138

Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement) and (grief) combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy) and (controlled or trial or design). We also searched citations in published reports for

Amanda L Forte; Malinda Hill; Rachel Pazder; Chris Feudtner

2004-01-01

139

Systematic Review of Public Health Branding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health

W. Douglas Evans; Jonathan Blitstein; James C. Hersey; Jeanette Renaud; Amy L. Yaroch

2008-01-01

140

An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of  

E-print Network

and the highest quality of care. Methods Utilizing the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) modelAn Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Efficacious Interventions for the Management of Delirium (Kang et al., 2012). The main objective of this Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project was to compare

Connor, Ed

141

"Philosophy for Children": A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a systematic critical review of controlled outcome studies of the "Philosophy for Children" (P4C) method in primary (elementary) and secondary (high) schools. Ten studies met the stringent criteria for inclusion, measuring outcomes by norm-referenced tests of reading, reasoning, cognitive ability, and other curriculum-related…

Trickey, S.; Topping, K. J.

2004-01-01

142

Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

2012-01-01

143

Systematic synthesis of sustainable biorefineries: A review  

E-print Network

1 Systematic synthesis of sustainable biorefineries: A review Mariano Martína,b , Ignacio E but also sustainable. Integration of processes is the future of biorefineries to exploit synergies become a short and medium term solution to the increase in the demand for fuel in the transportation

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

144

Short Dental Implants: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants < 10 mm in length, to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Implant survival, incidence of biological and biomechanical complications, and radiographic

S. Annibali; M. P. Cristalli; D. Dell’Aquila; I. Bignozzi; G. La Monaca; A. Pilloni

2012-01-01

145

Educational interventions to improve prescribing competency: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the literature on educational interventions to improve prescribing and identify educational methods that improve prescribing competency in both medical and non-medical prescribers. Design A systematic review was conducted. The databases Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for articles in English published between January 1990 and July 2013. Setting Primary and secondary care. Participants Medical and non-medical prescribers. Intervention Education-based interventions to aid improvement in prescribing competency. Primary outcome Improvements in prescribing competency (knows how) or performance (shows how) as defined by Miller's competency model. This was primarily demonstrated through prescribing examinations, changes in prescribing habits or adherence to guidelines. Results A total of 47 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Studies were categorised by their method of assessment, with 20 studies assessing prescribing competence and 27 assessing prescribing performance. A wide variety of educational interventions were employed, with different outcome measures and methods of assessments. In particular, six studies demonstrated that specific prescribing training using the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing increased prescribing competency in a wide variety of settings. Continuing medical education in the form of academic detailing and personalised prescriber feedback also yielded positive results. Only four studies evaluated educational interventions targeted at non-medical prescribers, highlighting that further research is needed in this area. Conclusions A broad range of educational interventions have been conducted to improve prescribing competency. The WHO Guide to Good Prescribing has the largest body of evidence to support its use and is a promising model for the design of targeted prescribing courses. There is a need for further development and evaluation of educational methods for non-medical prescribers. PMID:23996821

Kamarudin, Gritta; Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

2013-01-01

146

Family-based interventions for substance misuse: a systematic review of systematic reviews--protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, there are an estimated 15 million individuals with drug use disorders and over five times as many with alcohol use disorders (WHO 1:2, 2005). Most individuals with substance misuse have families who are affected. Initial scoping searches identified an expanse of broad and disparate studies and reviews on the family interventions for substance misuse. This systematic review of systematic reviews aims to bring together the expanse of research on the effectiveness of family-based interventions in substance misuse. Initial scoping searches identified an expanse of broad and disparate studies and reviews on the family interventions for substance misuse. This systematic review of systematic reviews aims to bring together the expanse of research on the effectiveness of family-based interventions in substance misuse. Methods Extensive electronic and manual searches will be undertaken. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment will be undertaken by two reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. The inclusion criteria will be that the study is a systematically undertaken review, the population is individuals with substance misuse problems and the interventions include a family-focused component. Reviews that focus on prevention rather than treatment will be excluded. The reviews will be assessed for quality and relevance. The evidence from included systematic reviews will be mapped by focus of intervention (promoting engagement of user into treatment/joint involvement in treatment of user/treating family member in own right) for both adults and adolescents for drug and/or alcohol misusers to allow assessment of the density of available evidence. The higher-quality, up-to-date evidence for each domain will be identified and described, and conclusions will be drawn with limitations of the evidence highlighted. Discussion This systematic review of systematic reviews will be an efficient and robust way of looking at the current state of the evidence in the field of family-based interventions for substance misuse. It will evaluate all the available systematic-review-level literature to report on the effectiveness of family-based psychological interventions in improving substance-related outcomes and improving health and wellbeing of substance misusers and/or their families. This will inform future treatment policies and commissioning decisions. In addition, it will identify areas of poor quality, inconsistency and gaps in the evidence base for family-based psychological interventions in substance misuse with respect to secondary evidence in order to inform future research. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014006834 PMID:25128186

2014-01-01

147

Ideal timing of orchiopexy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The ideal management of cryptorchidism is a highly debated topic within the field of pediatric surgery. The optimal timing of orchiopexy is particularly unclear, as existing literature reports mixed recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine, based on a systematic review, the most favorable age at which orchiopexy should be performed. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library to find relevant articles. Two researchers quality assessed each study using the following tools: AMSTAR (systematic reviews), Jadad (RCTs), and MINORS (non-RCTs). We developed a conclusion based on the highest quality studies. We found one relevant systematic review, one RCT, and 30 non-RCTs. Fertility potential was greatest when orchiopexy was performed before 1 year of age. Additionally, orchiopexy before 10–11 years may protect against the increased risk of testicular cancer associated with cryptorchidism. Orchiopexy should not be performed before 6 months of age, as testes may descend spontaneously during the first few months of life. The highest quality evidence recommends orchiopexy between 6 and 12 months of age. Surgery during this timeframe may optimize fertility potential and protect against testicular malignancy in children with cryptorchidism. PMID:24232174

Chan, Emily; Wayne, Carolyn; Nasr, Ahmed

2014-01-01

148

Understanding systematic conceptual structures in polysemous medical terms.  

PubMed Central

Polysemy is a bottleneck for the demanding needs of semantic data management. We suggest the importance of a well-founded conceptual analysis for understanding some systematic structures underlying polysemy in the medical lexicon. We present some cases studies, which exploit the methods (ontological integration and general theories) and tools (description logics and ontology libraries) of the ONIONS methodology defined elsewhere by the authors. This paper addresses an aspect (systematic metomymies) of the project we are involved in, which investigates the feasibility of building a large-scale ontology library of medicine that integrates the most important medical terminology banks. PMID:11079890

Gangemi, A.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Steve, G.

2000-01-01

149

The pain-relieving effect of electro-acupuncture and conventional medical analgesic methods during oocyte retrieval: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the present review was to determine what pain-relieving effect had been reported for acupuncture and other conscious sedation methods in assisted reproduction therapy since 1990. The secondary objective was to determine pregnancy rates, when possible. METHODS: The data source was the Med- line database of the National Library of Medicine covering the period January 1990-

Elisabet Stener-Victorin

2005-01-01

150

Public health interventions in midwifery: a systematic review of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice. PMID:23134701

2012-01-01

151

Female sexual abusers' cognition: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Until recently, the sexual offending literature focused on male perpetrators and neglected to examine the characteristics of female perpetrators. As a result, treatment provision for female sexual abusers has been either nonexistent or inappropriately adapted from programs designed for males. What we do know is that male and female sexual abusers share similarities; however, there remain distinct differences that warrant empirical and theoretical study. The current review systematically examines the literature on offense-supportive cognition in female sexual abusers. The aim of this systematic review is to aid clinical practitioners who work with female sexual abusers by providing an evaluation of current available research regarding implicit theories, rape myth acceptance, violence-supportive cognition, gender stereotypes, beliefs about sex, and empathy. We conclude that further research examining the offense-supportive cognition of female sexual abusers is needed in order to facilitate more effective empirically driven clinical practice. PMID:23093577

Gannon, Theresa A; Alleyne, Emma K A

2013-01-01

152

Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade’s. The purpose of this quantitative systematic\\u000a review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether\\u000a treatment fidelity has been measured and\\/or reported and whether this related to the treatment effect size. Searches revealed\\u000a 61 relevant articles published from January 2000

Leanne J. StanifordJeff; Jeff D. Breckon; Robert J. Copeland

153

Coping in sport: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 – 2004). The results

Adam R. Nicholls; Remco C. J. Polman

2007-01-01

154

Open-source point-of-care electronic medical records for use in resource-limited settings: systematic review and questionnaire surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Point-of-care electronic medical records (EMRs) are a key tool to manage chronic illness. Several EMRs have been developed for use in treating HIV and tuberculosis, but their applicability to primary care, technical requirements and clinical functionalities are largely unknown. Objectives This study aimed to address the needs of clinicians from resource-limited settings without reliable internet access who are considering adopting an open-source EMR. Study eligibility criteria Open-source point-of-care EMRs suitable for use in areas without reliable internet access. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The authors conducted a comprehensive search of all open-source EMRs suitable for sites without reliable internet access. The authors surveyed clinician users and technical implementers from a single site and technical developers of each software product. The authors evaluated availability, cost and technical requirements. Results The hardware and software for all six systems is easily available, but they vary considerably in proprietary components, installation requirements and customisability. Limitations This study relied solely on self-report from informants who developed and who actively use the included products. Conclusions and implications of key findings Clinical functionalities vary greatly among the systems, and none of the systems yet meet minimum requirements for effective implementation in a primary care resource-limited setting. The safe prescribing of medications is a particular concern with current tools. The dearth of fully functional EMR systems indicates a need for a greater emphasis by global funding agencies to move beyond disease-specific EMR systems and develop a universal open-source health informatics platform. PMID:22763661

Bru, Juan; Berger, Christopher A

2012-01-01

155

Universal screening for intimate partner violence: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is known to be prevalent among therapy-seeking populations. Yet, despite a growing understanding of the dynamics of IPV and of the acceptability of screening, universal screening practices have not been systematically adopted in family therapy settings. A rapidly growing body of research data-almost entirely conducted in medical settings-has investigated attitudes and practices regarding universal screening for IPV. This article is a systematic review of the IPV universal screening research literature. The review summarizes literature related to IPV screening rates and practices, factors associated with provider screening practice, the role of training and institutional support on screening practice, impact of screening on disclosure rates, client beliefs and preferences for screening, and key safety considerations and screening competencies. Implications for family therapy and recommendations for further inquiry and screening model development are provided. PMID:21745237

Todahl, Jeff; Walters, Elaine

2011-07-01

156

Body image during the menopausal transition: a systematic scoping review.  

PubMed

This scoping review aimed to examine women's body image during the menopausal transition systematically. A systematic search strategy and exclusion criteria were applied to ensure that only relevant research was included in the review. A total of 15 studies in 17 papers were included highlighting an equivocal relationship between body image and the menopausal transition. The menopausal transition is complex and individual, and should not be examined as a simple positive or negative transition. There is a sense of confusion for women experiencing the menopausal transition due to contradicting medical advice and societal expectations of body image. Currently, the research consists of exploratory-based studies that highlight the importance of researching this field further to aid adaptive coping and self-management across this transition. PMID:25211211

Pearce, Gemma; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan

2014-12-01

157

Shift work and diabetes - A systematic review.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, which has an increasing trend all over the world. Type 2 diabetes constitutes 90% of all diabetes. It is associated with weight gain and insulin resistance. Research during recent years has suggested that shift work could be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Since shift work is becoming more common, it could contribute to the increasing trend of diabetes. In this systematic review, we have studied the potential association between shift work and type 2 diabetes. We have also reviewed studies on control of diabetes in relation to shift work. PMID:25290038

Knutsson, Anders; Kempe, Anders

2014-12-01

158

Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions - A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care interventions. PMID:24416098

Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

2013-01-01

159

The effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Introduction The last decade has seen a growth in the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and one of the most popular and sought-after complementary and alternative medicine therapies for nonspecific low back pain is massage. Massage may often be perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risks or side effects. However, despite its popularity, there continues to be ongoing debate on the effectiveness of massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. With a rapidly evolving research evidence base and access to innovative means of synthesizing evidence, it is time to reinvestigate this issue. Methods A systematic, step-by-step approach, underpinned by best practice in reviewing the literature, was utilized as part of the methodology of this umbrella review. A systematic search was conducted in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, AMED, ICONDA, Academic Search Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, CINAHL, HealthSource, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, investigating systematic reviews and meta-analyses from January 2000 to December 2012, and restricted to English-language documents. Methodological quality of included reviews was undertaken using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine critical appraisal tool. Results Nine systematic reviews were found. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews varied (from poor to excellent) although, overall, the primary research informing these systematic reviews was generally considered to be weak quality. The findings indicate that massage may be an effective treatment option when compared to placebo and some active treatment options (such as relaxation), especially in the short term. There is conflicting and contradictory findings for the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain when compared against other manual therapies (such as mobilization), standard medical care, and acupuncture. Conclusion There is an emerging body of evidence, albeit small, that supports the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of non-specific low back pain in the short term. Due to common methodological flaws in the primary research, which informed the systematic reviews, recommendations arising from this evidence base should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24043951

Kumar, Saravana; Beaton, Kate; Hughes, Tricia

2013-01-01

160

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and Suicide: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global health concern, and the recent literature reports that a single mild TBI can result in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It has been suggested that CTE may lead to death by suicide, raising important prevention, treatment, and policy implications. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to answer the key question: What is the existing evidence in support of a relationship between CTE and suicide? Systematic searches of CTE and suicide yielded 85 unique abstracts. Seven articles were identified for full text review. Only two case series met inclusion criteria and included autopsies from 17 unique cases, 5 of whom died by suicide. Neither studies used blinding, control cases, or systematic data collection regarding TBI exposure and/or medical/neuropsychiatric history. The identified CTE literature revealed divergent opinions regarding neuropathological elements of CTE and heterogeneity regarding clinical manifestations. Overall quality of evidence regarding a relationship between CTE and suicide was rated as very low using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE) criteria. Further studies of higher quality and methodological rigor are needed to determine the existence and nature of any relationship between CTE and suicide. PMID:24328030

Wortzel, Hal S.; Shura, Robert D.; Brenner, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

161

Disasters and Perinatal Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The empirical literature on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period is limited. The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence on the effect of disasters on perinatal health. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycInfo), including literature on disasters and pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth, low birthweight, congenital anomalies), mental health, and child development. 110 articles were identified, but many published reports were anecdotes or recommendations rather than systematic studies. The final review included 49 peer-reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria. Results Studies addressing the World Trade Center disaster of September 11th and other terrorist attacks, environmental/chemical disasters, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes were identified. Disasters of various types may reduce fetal growth in some women, though there does not appear to be an effect on gestational age at birth. Severity of exposure is the major predictor of mental health issues among pregnant and postpartum women. The mother's mental health after a disaster may more strongly influence on child development than any direct effect of disaster-related prenatal stress. Conclusions There is evidence that disaster impacts maternal mental health and some perinatal health outcomes, particular among highly-exposed women. Future research should focus on under-studied outcomes such as spontaneous abortion. Relief workers and clinicians should concentrate on the most exposed women, particularly with respect to mental health. PMID:21375788

Harville, EW; Xiong, X; Buekens, P

2012-01-01

162

Latino Veterans with PTSD: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Latinos have a long history of military service with recent service including combat conditions and multiple deployments, which are highly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinical acumen underscores the importance of culture in assessment and treatment, but there has been little scientific literature that investigates the unique needs of veteran Latinos with PTSD. The primary goal of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on Latino veterans with PTSD and to critically evaluate attention to cultural issues. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were used to guide this review. Peer-reviewed, research reports written in English on Latino Veterans with PTSD since 1980 were included; 20 were assessment related, and nine were treatment related. All studies were quantitative. Only 13 studies mentioned culture as part of the context for Latino veterans, and only seven included cultural factors as part of the study design. Present findings highlight a lack of research focused on understanding cultural factors related to the assessment and treatment of Latino veterans with PTSD. Culturally-informed research on Latino veterans from current wars, Latina veterans and Latino veteran treatment outcomes are necessary to provide culturally-appropriate care to this growing veteran subgroup. PMID:25379284

Pittman, James O. E.

2014-01-01

163

Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. Methods The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. Results The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. Conclusions The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health. PMID:24885280

2014-01-01

164

Calciphylaxis from Nonuremic Causes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Calciphylaxis, or calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a well-described entity in end-stage kidney disease and renal transplant patients; however, little systematic information is available on calciphylaxis from nonuremic causes. This systematic review was designed to characterize etiologies, clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, and prognosis of nonuremic calciphylaxis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A systematic review of literature for case reports and case series of nonuremic calciphylaxis was performed. Cases included met the operational definition of nonuremic calciphylaxis–histopathologic diagnosis of calciphylaxis in the absence of end-stage kidney disease, renal transplantation, or acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. Results: We found 36 cases (75% women, 63% Caucasian, aged 15 to 82 yr) of nonuremic calciphylaxis. Primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, alcoholic liver disease, and connective tissue disease were the most common reported causes. Preceding corticosteroid use was reported for 61% patients. Protein C and S deficiencies were seen in 11% of patients. Skin lesions were morphologically similar to calcific uremic arteriolopathy. Mortality rate was 52%, with sepsis being the leading cause of death. Conclusion: Calciphylaxis should be considered while evaluating skin lesions in patients with predisposing conditions even in the absence of end-stage kidney disease and renal transplantation. Nonuremic calciphylaxis is reported most often in white women. Mineral abnormalities that are invoked as potential causes in calcific uremic arteriolopathy are often absent, suggesting that heterogeneous mechanisms may contribute to its pathogenesis. Nonuremic calciphylaxis is associated with high mortality, and there is no known effective treatment. PMID:18417747

Nigwekar, Sagar U.; Wolf, Myles; Sterns, Richard H.; Hix, John K.

2008-01-01

165

The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill-health. PMID:16401351

Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gulmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

2006-01-01

166

Systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of location and citation counts  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews summarize all pertinent evidence on a defined health question. They help clinical scientists to direct their research and clinicians to keep updated. Our objective was to determine the extent to which systematic reviews are clustered in a large collection of clinical journals and whether review type (narrative or systematic) affects citation counts. Methods We used hand searches of 170 clinical journals in the fields of general internal medicine, primary medical care, nursing, and mental health to identify review articles (year 2000). We defined 'review' as any full text article that was bannered as a review, overview, or meta-analysis in the title or in a section heading, or that indicated in the text that the intention of the authors was to review or summarize the literature on a particular topic. We obtained citation counts for review articles in the five journals that published the most systematic reviews. Results 11% of the journals concentrated 80% of all systematic reviews. Impact factors were weakly correlated with the publication of systematic reviews (R2 = 0.075, P = 0.0035). There were more citations for systematic reviews (median 26.5, IQR 12 – 56.5) than for narrative reviews (8, 20, P <.0001 for the difference). Systematic reviews had twice as many citations as narrative reviews published in the same journal (95% confidence interval 1.5 – 2.7). Conclusions A few clinical journals published most systematic reviews. Authors cited systematic reviews more often than narrative reviews, an indirect endorsement of the 'hierarchy of evidence'. PMID:14633274

Montori, Victor M; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Morgan, Douglas; Haynes, R Brian

2003-01-01

167

Preventing childhood falls within the home: overview of systematic reviews and a systematic review of primary studies.  

PubMed

In most countries falls are the most common medically attended childhood injury and the majority of injuries in pre-school children occur at home. Numerous systematic reviews have reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions, but this evidence has not been synthesised into an overview, making it difficult for policy makers and practitioners to easily access the evidence. To synthesise all available evidence, we conducted an overview of reviews of home safety interventions targeting childhood falls, extracted data from primary studies included in the reviews and supplemented this with a systematic review of primary studies published subsequent to the reviews. Bibliographic databases, websites, conference proceedings, journals and bibliographies of included studies were searched for systematic reviews of studies with experimental or controlled observational designs. Thirteen reviews were identified containing 24 primary studies. Searches for additional primary studies identified five further studies not included in reviews. Evidence of the effect of interventions on falls or fall injuries was sparse, with only one of three primary studies reporting this outcome finding a reduction in falls. Interventions were effective in promoting the use of safety gates and furniture corner covers. There was some evidence of a reduction in baby walker use. The effect on the use of window safety devices, non-slip bath mats/decals and the reduction of tripping hazards was mixed. There was limited evidence that interventions were effective in improving lighting in corridors, altering furniture layout and restricting access to roofs. Most interventions to prevent childhood falls at home have not been evaluated in terms of their effect on reducing falls. Policy makers and practitioners should promote use of safety gates and furniture covers and restriction of baby walker use. Further research evaluating the effect of interventions to reduce falls and falls-related injuries is urgently required. PMID:24080473

Young, Ben; Wynn, Persephone M; He, Zhimin; Kendrick, Denise

2013-11-01

168

Methodology of systematic reviews and recommendations.  

PubMed

Although research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a relatively new endeavor, a remarkable number of papers focused on this subspecialty have been published in a broad variety of journals over the last two decades. A multidisciplinary group of experts, including clinical epidemiologists, neurosurgical and orthopedic spine surgeons, basic scientists, rehabilitation specialists, intensivists, and allied health professionals (nursing and physical therapy) was assembled through the Spinal Cord Injury Solutions Network to summarize the existing literature focusing on 12 key topics related to acute traumatic SCI, which have not been recently reviewed. The objective was to develop evidence-based recommendations to help translate current science into clinical practice and to identify new directions for research. For each topic one to three specific questions were formulated by consensus through the expert panel. A systematic review of the literature was performed to determine the current evidence for the specific questions. A primary literature search was performed using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A secondary search strategy incorporated additional articles referenced in significant publications (i.e., meta-analysis, systematic and nonsystematic review articles). Two reviewers independently reviewed the titles and abstracts yielded by this comprehensive search and subsequently selected articles based on the predetermined inclusion and inclusion criteria. Data were extracted for population into evidentiary tables. Selected articles were rated for level of evidence and methodological quality, information that was also included in evidentiary tables. Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer or consensus-based discussion. Based on the evidence compiled, answers to the targeted questions were formulated and recommendations generated by consensus-based discussion and anonymized voting using Delphi methodology. A level of consensus of 80% or higher was considered to represent strong agreement. PMID:20146555

Furlan, Julio C; Singh, Jeffrey; Hsieh, Jane; Fehlings, Michael G

2011-08-01

169

Child maltreatment prevention: a systematic review of reviews  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To synthesize recent evidence from systematic and comprehensive reviews on the effectiveness of universal and selective child maltreatment prevention interventions, evaluate the methodological quality of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they are based on, and map the geographical distribution of the evidence. Methods A systematic review of reviews was conducted. The quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated with a tool for the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR), and the quality of the outcome evaluations was assessed using indicators of internal validity and of the construct validity of outcome measures. Findings The review focused on seven main types of interventions: home visiting, parent education, child sex abuse prevention, abusive head trauma prevention, multi-component interventions, media-based interventions, and support and mutual aid groups. Four of the seven – home-visiting, parent education, abusive head trauma prevention and multi-component interventions – show promise in preventing actual child maltreatment. Three of them – home visiting, parent education and child sexual abuse prevention – appear effective in reducing risk factors for child maltreatment, although these conclusions are tentative due to the methodological shortcomings of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they draw on. An analysis of the geographical distribution of the evidence shows that outcome evaluations of child maltreatment prevention interventions are exceedingly rare in low- and middle-income countries and make up only 0.6% of the total evidence base. Conclusion Evidence for the effectiveness of four of the seven main types of interventions for preventing child maltreatment is promising, although it is weakened by methodological problems and paucity of outcome evaluations from low- and middle-income countries. PMID:19551253

Butchart, Alexander

2009-01-01

170

The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of correctional interventions on recidivism have important public safety implications when offenders are released from probation or prison. Hundreds of studies have been conducted on those effects, some investigating punitive approaches and some investigating rehabilitation treatments. Systematic reviews (meta-analyses) of those studies, while varying greatly in coverage and technique, display remarkable consistency in their overall findings. Supervision and

Mark W. Lipsey; Francis T. Cullen

2007-01-01

171

Reversed halo sign: a systematic review.  

PubMed

A reversed halo sign (RHS) is defined as the presence of a focal ring-shaped area of ground-glass opacity within a peripheral rim of consolidation. Although originally described in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, it has been described with several other noninfectious and infectious diseases, including fungal infections. Thus, it is imperative that a proper diagnosis be established before initiating treatment. In this article, we systematically review the literature (PubMed and Embase) for the associations of the RHS. We have also proposed a diagnostic algorithm for an approach to a patient with an RHS. PMID:24782557

Maturu, Venkata N; Agarwal, Ritesh

2014-09-01

172

Automatic Evidence Retrieval for Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing’s effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Objective Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing’s capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Methods Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. Results The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. Conclusions The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews. PMID:25274020

Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G

2014-01-01

173

Facilitated communication and authorship: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages - the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) formed an Ad Hoc Committee on FC and charged this committee to synthesize the evidence base related to this question in order to develop a position statement. The purpose of this paper is to report this synthesis of the extant peer-reviewed literature on the question of authorship in FC. A multi-faceted search was conducted including electronic database searches, ancestry searches, and contacting selected authors. The authors considered synopses of systematic reviews, and systematic reviews, which were supplemented with individual studies not included in any prior reviews. Additionally, documents submitted by the membership were screened for inclusion. The evidence was classified into articles that provided (a) quantitative experimental data related to the authorship of messages, (b) quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through FC without testing of authorship, (c) qualitative descriptive data on the output generated via FC without testing of authorship, and (d) anecdotal reports in which writers shared their perspectives on FC. Only documents with quantitative experimental data were analyzed for authorship. Results indicated unequivocal evidence for facilitator control: messages generated through FC are authored by the facilitators rather than the individuals with disabilities. Hence, FC is a technique that has no validity. PMID:25384895

Schlosser, Ralf W; Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Iacono, Teresa; Probst, Paul; von Tetzchner, Stephen

2014-12-01

174

Cupping for stroke rehabilitation: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cupping is often used for stroke rehabilitation in Asian countries. Currently, no systematic review of this topic is available. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for and against the effectiveness of cupping for stroke rehabilitation. Thirteen databases were searched from their inception through March of 2010 without language restrictions. Prospective clinical trials were included if cupping was tested as the sole treatment or as an adjunct to other conventional treatments for stroke rehabilitation. We found 43 potentially relevant articles, of which 5 studies including 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 2 uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) met our inclusion criteria. Cupping was compared with acupuncture, electro-acupuncture and warm needling. Some superior effects of cupping were found in two of the RCTs when compared to acupuncture in hemiplegic shoulder pain and high upper-limb myodynamia after stroke. The other RCT failed to show favorable effects of cupping when compared to acupuncture and warm needling in patients with hemiplegic hand edema. The two UOSs reported favorable effects of cupping on aphasia and intractable hiccup after stroke. There are not enough trials to provide evidence for the effectiveness of cupping for stroke rehabilitation because most of the included trials compared the effects with unproven evidence and were not informative. Future RCTs seem warranted but must overcome the methodological shortcomings of the existing evidence. PMID:20435319

Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Han, Chang-ho; Ernst, Edzard

2010-07-15

175

Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoe E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

2012-01-01

176

Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

2013-01-01

177

Work-related leukemia: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Leukemia is a complex disease, which only became better understood during the last decades following the development of new laboratory techniques and diagnostic methods. Despite our improved understanding of the physiology of the disease, little is yet known about the causes of leukemia. A variety of potential risk factors have been suggested so far, including personal habits and lifestyle, and a wide range of occupational or environmental exposures. A causal association with leukemia has only been documented to date for ionizing radiation, benzene and treatment with cytostatic drugs, but there is an ongoing scientific debate on the possible association of leukemia with a number of other work-related hazards. In this article, we have reviewed scientific studies, published over the past 5 years, which investigated potential associations between leukemia and exposure to occupational risk factors. The systematic literature review took place via electronic databases, using specific search criteria, and independent reviewers have further filtered the search results to identify the number of articles, presented in our paper. A large number of studies included in the review referred to the effects of ionizing radiation, where new data suggest that the effects of exposure to small doses of ionizing radiation should probably be reevaluated. Some other works appear to substantiate a potential association of the disease with certain pesticides. Further research is also suggested regarding the role of infectious agents or exposure to certain chemicals like formaldehyde or butadiene in the pathogenesis of leukemia. PMID:23697536

2013-01-01

178

Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain After Stroke: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Shoulder pain, for which acupuncture has been used, is a common complication after a stroke that interferes with the function of the upper extremities. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and evaluate the effects of acupuncture for shoulder pain after stroke. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the effects of acupuncture for shoulder pain, published between January 1990 and August 2009, were obtained from the National Libraries of Medicine, MEDLINE®, CINAHL, AMED, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register 2009, Korean Medical Database (Korea Institute of Science Technology Information, DBPIA, KoreaMed, and Research Information Service System), and the Chinese Database (China Academic Journal). Results Among the 453 studies that were obtained (300 written in English, 137 in Chinese, and 16 in Korean), 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. All of them were RCTs published in China and reported positive effects of the treatment. The quality of the studies was assessed by the Modified Jadad Scores (MJS) and the Cochrane Back Review Group Criteria List for Methodologic Quality Assessment of RCTs (CBRG); the studies scored between 2 and 3 points on MJS, and between 4 and 7 points on CBRG. Conclusions It is concluded from this systematic review that acupuncture combined with exercise is effective for shoulder pain after stroke. It is recommended that future trials be carefully conducted on this topic. PMID:22924414

Lee, Jung Ah; Hwang, Pil Woo; Lim, Sung Min; Kook, Sejeong; Choi, Kyung In; Kang, Kyoung Sook

2012-01-01

179

Yoga and hypertension: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Lifestyle modification is a cornerstone of hypertension (HPT) treatment, yet most recommendations currently focus on diet and exercise and do not consider stress reduction strategies. Yoga is a spiritual path that may reduce blood pressure (BP) through reducing stress, increasing parasympathetic activation, and altering baroreceptor sensitivity; however, despite reviews on yoga and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety that suggest yoga may reduce BP, no comprehensive review has yet focused on yoga and HPT. A systematic review of all published studies on yoga and HPT was performed revealing 39 cohort studies, 30 nonrandomized, controlled trials (NRCTs), 48 randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), and 3 case reports with durations ranging from 1 wk to 4 y and involving a total of 6693 subjects. Most studies reported that yoga effectively reduced BP in both normotensive and hypertensive populations. These studies suggest that yoga is an effective adjunct therapy for HPT and worthy of inclusion in clinical guidelines, yet the great heterogeneity of yoga practices and the variable quality of the research makes it difficult to recommend any specific yoga practice for HPT. Future research needs to focus on high quality clinical trials along with studies on the mechanisms of action of different yoga practices. PMID:24657958

Tyagi, Anupama; Cohen, Marc

2014-01-01

180

Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.  

PubMed

Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. PMID:24734868

van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

2014-06-01

181

Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.  

PubMed

In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE. PMID:23579389

Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit

2013-10-01

182

Costs of burn care: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Burn care is traditionally considered expensive care. However, detailed information about the costs of burn care is scarce despite the increased need for this information and the enhanced focus on healthcare cost control. In this study, economic literature on burn care was systematically reviewed to examine the problem of burn-related costs. Cost or economic evaluation studies on burn care that had been published in international peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to 2012 were identified. The methodology of these articles was critically appraised by two reviewers, and cost results were extracted. A total of 156 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nearly all of the studies were cost studies (n?=?153) with a healthcare perspective (n?=?139) from high-income countries (n?=?127). Hospital charges were often used as a proxy for costs (n?=?44). Three studies were cost-effectiveness analyses. The mean total healthcare cost per burn patient in high-income countries was $88,218 (range $704-$717,306; median $44,024). A wide variety of methodological approaches and cost prices was found. We recommend that cost studies and economic evaluations employ a standard approach to improve the quality and harmonization of economic evaluation studies, optimize comparability, and improve insight into burn care costs and efficiency. PMID:25041616

Hop, M Jenda; Polinder, Suzanne; van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Middelkoop, Esther; van Baar, Margriet E

2014-01-01

183

Science of floorball: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. PMID:25349484

Tervo, Taru; Nordstrom, Anna

2014-01-01

184

Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review Upulee Kanewala  

E-print Network

scientific software. Method: We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevantTesting Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review Upulee Kanewala , James M. Bieman Computer Science Department, Colorado State University, USA Abstract Context: Scientific software plays

Bieman, James M.

185

A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

2014-01-01

186

Priorities for tuberculosis research: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Summary Reliable and relevant research can help to improve tuberculosis control worldwide. In recent years, various organisations have assessed research needs and proposed priorities for tuberculosis. We summarise existing priority statements and assess the rigour of the methods used to generate them. We found 33 documents that specifically outline priorities in tuberculosis research. The top priority areas were drug development (28 articles), diagnosis and diagnostic tests (27), epidemiology (20), health services research (16), basic research (13), and vaccine development and use (13). The most focused questions were on the treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in people co-infected with HIV. Methods used to identify these priorities were varied. Improvements can be made to ensure the process is more rigorous and transparent, and to use existing research or systematic reviews more often. WHO, Stop TB Partnership, and other organisations could adopt an incremental process of priority development, building on the existing knowledge base. PMID:21050822

Rylance, Jamie; Pai, Madhukar; Lienhardt, Christian; Garner, Paul

2010-01-01

187

Antifungal prophylaxis following heart transplantation: systematic review.  

PubMed

Patients with heart transplantation have a high incidence of infectious complications, especially fungal infections. The aim of the systematic review was to determine the best pharmacological strategy to prevent fungal infections among patients with heart transplant. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies reporting the effectivenesss of pharmacologic strategies to prevent fungal infections in adult patient with a heart transplant. Our search yielded five studies (1176 patients), four of them with historical controls. Two studies used inhaled amphotericin B deoxycholate, three used itraconazole and one used targeted echinocandin. All studies showed significant reduction in the prophylaxis arm. Different products, doses and outcomes were noted. There is a highly probable benefit of prophylaxis use, however, better studies with standardised doses and comparators should be performed. PMID:24589065

Uribe, Luis G; Cortés, Jorge A; Granados, Carlos E; Montoya, José G

2014-07-01

188

Patients' perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To ascertain patients' views on the benefits of and possible memory loss from electroconvulsive therapy. Design Descriptive systematic review. Data sources Psychinfo, Medline, Web of Science, and Social Science Citation Index databases, and bibliographies. Study selection Articles with patients' views after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy. Data extraction 26 studies carried out by clinicians and nine reports of work undertaken by patients or with the collaboration of patients were identified; 16 studies investigated the perceived benefit of electroconvulsive therapy and seven met criteria for investigating memory loss. Data synthesis The studies showed heterogeneity. The methods used were associated with levels of perceived benefit. At least one third of patients reported persistent memory loss. Conclusions The current statement for patients from the Royal College of Psychiatrists that over 80% of patients are satisfied with electroconvulsive therapy and that memory loss is not clinically important is unfounded. PMID:12816822

Rose, Diana; Fleischmann, Pete; Wykes, Til; Leese, Morven; Bindman, Jonathan

2003-01-01

189

[Levobupivacaine for regional anesthesia. A systematic review].  

PubMed

Levobupivacaine [S(-)bupivacaine], the levorotatory S-enantiomer of racemic bupivacaine, is commercially available in the U.S. and in most European countries. We performed a systematic review (MEDLINE database) and identified 88 articles on the clinical application of levobupivacaine in more than 3,000 patients. The use of levobupivacaine is described for epidural, caudal, and spinal anesthesia, for peripheral nerve blocks, for ophthalmic and dental anesthesia, for different pediatric indications and for intravenous regional anesthesia. In these regional techniques, levobupivacaine was used for all common indications in a wide range of clinical settings. Epidural levobupivacaine was combined with fentanyl, morphine, sufentanil, epinephrine, and clonidine, spinal levobupivacaine was combined with sufentanil, fentanyl, and epinephrine. In most studies, levobupivacaine was compared to bupivacaine and/or ropivacaine. PMID:16341730

Urbanek, B; Kapral, S

2006-03-01

190

Risk perception in gambling: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Perception of the consequences of risk affects motivation and behaviour. In gambling, distorted expectations and preferences towards outcomes are associated with significant social and clinical harms. A systematic review was conducted to examine the relationship between gambling risk perception and behaviour. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. Studies provided evidence that disordered gamblers hold both more optimistic overall perceptions of risk, and a mixture of more positive and more negative specific outcome expectations. Preliminary evidence suggests a range of contextual and individual differences moderate risk perception affecting decision-making. Disordered gamblers appear to sustain motivation to gamble, despite more negative expectations and experiences, via cognitive processes that result in preferential emphasis on positive over negative outcomes. Given potential differences in the perception of risk between various categories of gamblers, clinicians should take into account how gamblers in treatment view gambling as a risky behaviour. Improving the accuracy of such perceptions may reduce the propensity for risk-taking behaviours. PMID:23508850

Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander

2014-06-01

191

Effectiveness of Nursing Management Information Systems: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to review evaluation studies of nursing management information systems (NMISs) and their outcome measures to examine system effectiveness. Methods For the systematic review, a literature search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted to retrieve original articles published between 1970 and 2014. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms included informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, medical informatics application, and management information systems for information systems and evaluation studies and nursing evaluation research for evaluation research. Additionally, manag* and admin*, and nurs* were combined. Title, abstract, and full-text reviews were completed by two reviewers. And then, year, author, type of management system, study purpose, study design, data source, system users, study subjects, and outcomes were extracted from the selected articles. The quality and risk of bias of the studies that were finally selected were assessed with the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS) criteria. Results Out of the 2,257 retrieved articles, a total of six articles were selected. These included two scheduling programs, two nursing cost-related programs, and two patient care management programs. For the outcome measurements, usefulness, time saving, satisfaction, cost, attitude, usability, data quality/completeness/accuracy, and personnel work patterns were included. User satisfaction, time saving, and usefulness mostly showed positive findings. Conclusions The study results suggest that NMISs were effective in time saving and useful in nursing care. Because there was a lack of quality in the reviewed studies, well-designed research, such as randomized controlled trials, should be conducted to more objectively evaluate the effectiveness of NMISs.

Choi, Mona; Yang, You Lee

2014-01-01

192

Short dental implants: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants < 10 mm in length, to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Implant survival, incidence of biological and biomechanical complications, and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone loss were evaluated. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Meta-analyses were performed by the pooling of survival data by implant surface, surgical technique, implant location, type of edentulism, and prosthetic restoration. Two randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies were selected and analyzed for data extraction. In total, 6193 short-implants were investigated from 3848 participants. The observational period was 3.2 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SD). The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.1% (95%CI: 98.8-99.4). The biological success rate was 98.8% (95%CI: 97.8-99.8), and the biomechanical success rate was 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4-100.0). A higher CSR was reported for rough-surfaced implants. The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term. PMID:22034499

Annibali, S; Cristalli, M P; Dell'Aquila, D; Bignozzi, I; La Monaca, G; Pilloni, A

2012-01-01

193

Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant. PMID:25166906

Lee, Rachel M; Moore, Laura B; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

2014-08-01

194

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of the review were to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequency of OOC between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of OOCs that occurred in a consecutive series of OOCs in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. Results 37 reports on 36 case series were included in the SR. OOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost 2.5 times as frequently. Although the mean age at first presentation was 35 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade for the Western, East Asian and Latin American global groups. Seven reports included details of at least one clinical finding. 11 reported case series included at least 1 radiological feature. All OOCs were radiolucent, 93% were unilocular and 68% were associated with unerupted teeth. 28% of the reported case series included follow up. 4% of OCC recurred and all of these were in the Western global group. Conclusions Although one feature of OOCs is that they are unlikely to recur, some do. Not only is there a lack of long-term follow up of large series with long-term outcomes of OOC, but there is a paucity of clinical and radiological details of OOC at initial presentation. PMID:21062939

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2010-01-01

195

Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of the Effectiveness of Contraceptive Service Interventions for Young People, Delivered in Health Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All…

Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K.; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R.; Squires, Hazel

2012-01-01

196

Digital Asthma Self-Management Interventions: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Many people with asthma tolerate symptoms and lifestyle limitations unnecessarily by not utilizing proven therapies. Better support for self-management is known to improve asthma control, and increasingly the Internet and other digital media are being used to deliver that support. Objective Our goal was to summarize current knowledge, evidenced through existing systematic reviews, of the effectiveness and implementation of digital self-management support for adults and children with asthma and to examine what features help or hinder the use of these programs. Methods A comprehensive search strategy combined 3 facets of search terms: (1) online technology, (2) asthma, and (3) self-management/behavior change/patient experience. We undertook searches of 14 databases, and reference and citation searching. We included qualitative and quantitative systematic reviews about online or computerized interventions facilitating self-management. Title, abstract, full paper screening, and quality appraisal were performed by two researchers independently. Data extraction was undertaken using standardized forms. Results A total of 3810 unique papers were identified. Twenty-nine systematic reviews met inclusion criteria: the majority were from the United States (n=12), the rest from United Kingdom (n=6), Canada (n=3), Portugal (n=2), and Australia, France, Spain, Norway, Taiwan, and Greece (1 each). Only 10 systematic reviews fulfilled pre-determined quality standards, describing 19 clinical trials. Interventions were heterogeneous: duration of interventions ranging from single use, to 24-hour access for 12 months, and incorporating varying degrees of health professional involvement. Dropout rates ranged from 5-23%. Four RCTs were aimed at adults (overall range 3-65 years). Participants were inadequately described: socioeconomic status 0/19, ethnicity 6/19, and gender 15/19. No qualitative systematic reviews were included. Meta-analysis was not attempted due to heterogeneity and inadequate information provision within reviews. There was no evidence of harm from digital interventions. All RCTs that examined knowledge (n=2) and activity limitation (n=2) showed improvement in the intervention group. Digital interventions improved markers of self care (5/6), quality of life (4/7), and medication use (2/3). Effects on symptoms (6/12) and school absences (2/4) were equivocal, with no evidence of overall benefits on lung function (2/6), or health service use (2/15). No specific data on economic analyses were provided. Intervention descriptions were generally brief making it impossible to identify which specific “ingredients” of interventions contribute most to improving outcomes. Conclusions Digital self-management interventions show promise, with evidence of beneficial effects on some outcomes. There is no evidence about utility in those over 65 years and no information about socioeconomic status of participants, making understanding the “reach” of such interventions difficult. Digital interventions are poorly described within reviews, with insufficient information about barriers and facilitators to their uptake and utilization. To address these gaps, a detailed quantitative systematic review of digital asthma interventions and an examination of the primary qualitative literature are warranted, as well as greater emphasis on economic analysis within trials. PMID:24550161

Morrison, Deborah; Wyke, Sally; Agur, Karolina; Cameron, Euan J; Docking, Robert I; MacKenzie, Alison M; McConnachie, Alex; Raghuvir, Vandana; Thomson, Neil C

2014-01-01

197

Local treatments for cutaneous warts: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the evidence for the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous warts. Methods Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Main outcomes measures Total clearance of warts and adverse effects such as irritation, pain, and blistering. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of any local treatment for uncomplicated cutaneous warts. All published and unpublished material was considered, with no restriction on date or language. Results 50 included trials provided generally weak evidence because of poor methods and reporting. The best evidence was for topical treatments containing salicylic acid. Data pooled from six placebo controlled trials showed a cure rate of 75% (144 of 191) in cases compared with 48% (89 of 185) in controls (odds ratio 3.91, 95% confidence interval 2.40 to 6.36). Some evidence for the efficacy of contact immunotherapy was provided by two small trials comparing dinitrochlorobenzene with placebo. Evidence for the efficacy of cryotherapy was limited. No consistent evidence was found for the efficacy of intralesional bleomycin, and only limited evidence was found for the efficacy of topical fluorouracil, intralesional interferons, photodynamic therapy, and pulsed dye laser. Conclusions Reviewed trials of local treatments for cutaneous warts were highly variable in methods and quality, and there was a paucity of evidence from randomised, placebo controlled trials on which to base the rational use of the treatments. There is good evidence that topical treatments containing salicylic acid have a therapeutic effect and some evidence for the efficacy of dinitrochlorobenzene. Less evidence was found for the efficacy of all the other treatments reviewed, including cryotherapy. What is already known on this topicA wide range of local treatments is available for treating wartsNo one treatment is strikingly effective and little is known about the absolute and relative efficacy of these treatmentsWhat this study addsHigh quality research on the efficacy of various local treatments for warts is lackingEvidence, which is generally of a poor quality, shows a beneficial effect of topical salicylic acid and contact immunotherapy with dinitrochlorobenzeneLittle evidence exists for the efficacy of cryotherapy and no consistent evidence for the efficacy of all the other treatments reviewed PMID:12202325

Gibbs, Sam; Harvey, Ian; Sterling, Jane; Stark, Rosemary

2002-01-01

198

Chronic Pain and Mortality: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain is common, often widespread and has a substantial impact on health and quality of life. The relationship between chronic pain and mortality is unclear. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate evidence for a relationship between chronic pain and mortality. Methods A search of ten electronic databases including EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted in March 2012, and updated until March 2014. Observational studies investigating the association between chronic or widespread pain (including fibromyalgia) and mortality were included. Risk of bias was assessed and a meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify heterogeneity and pool results. A narrative review was undertaken to explore similarities and differences between the included studies. Results Ten studies were included in the review. Three reported significant associations between chronic or widespread pain and mortality in unadjusted results. In adjusted analyses, four studies reported a significant association. The remaining studies reported no statistically significant association. A meta-analysis showed statistically significant heterogeneity of results from studies using comparable outcome measures (n?=?7)(I2?=?78.8%) and a modest but non-significant pooled estimate (MRR1.14,95%CI 0.95–1.37) for the relationship between chronic pain and all-cause mortality. This association was stronger when analysis was restricted to studies of widespread pain (n?=?5,I2?=?82.3%) MRR1.22(95%CI 0.93–1.60). The same pattern was observed with deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity is likely to be due to differences in study populations, follow-up time, pain phenotype, methods of analysis and use of confounding factors. Conclusion This review showed a mildly increased risk of death in people with chronic pain, particularly from cancer. However, the small number of studies and methodological differences prevented clear conclusions from being drawn. Consistently applied definitions of chronic pain and further investigation of the role of health, lifestyle, social and psychological factors in future studies will improve understanding of the relationship between chronic pain and mortality. PMID:24901358

Smith, Diane; Wilkie, Ross; Uthman, Olalekan; Jordan, Joanne L.; McBeth, John

2014-01-01

199

Volatile metabolites of pathogens: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Ideally, invading bacteria are detected as early as possible in critically ill patients: the strain of morbific pathogens is identified rapidly, and antimicrobial sensitivity is known well before the start of new antimicrobial therapy. Bacteria have a distinct metabolism, part of which results in the production of bacteria-specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which might be used for diagnostic purposes. Volatile metabolites can be investigated directly in exhaled air, allowing for noninvasive monitoring. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of VOCs produced by the six most abundant and pathogenic bacteria in sepsis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Such VOCs could be used as biological markers in the diagnostic approach of critically ill patients. A systematic review of existing literature revealed 31 articles. All six bacteria of interest produce isopentanol, formaldehyde, methyl mercaptan, and trimethylamine. Since humans do not produce these VOCs, they could serve as biological markers for presence of these pathogens. The following volatile biomarkers were found for identification of specific strains: isovaleric acid and 2-methyl-butanal for Staphylococcus aureus; 1-undecene, 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptane, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-quinazoline, hydrogen cyanide, and methyl thiocyanide for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and methanol, pentanol, ethyl acetate, and indole for Escherichia coli. Notably, several factors that may effect VOC production were not controlled for, including used culture media, bacterial growth phase, and genomic variation within bacterial strains. In conclusion, VOCs produced by bacteria may serve as biological markers for their presence. Goal-targeted studies should be performed to identify potential sets of volatile biological markers and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these markers in critically ill patients. PMID:23675295

Bos, Lieuwe D J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J

2013-05-01

200

Volatile Metabolites of Pathogens: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Ideally, invading bacteria are detected as early as possible in critically ill patients: the strain of morbific pathogens is identified rapidly, and antimicrobial sensitivity is known well before the start of new antimicrobial therapy. Bacteria have a distinct metabolism, part of which results in the production of bacteria-specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which might be used for diagnostic purposes. Volatile metabolites can be investigated directly in exhaled air, allowing for noninvasive monitoring. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of VOCs produced by the six most abundant and pathogenic bacteria in sepsis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Such VOCs could be used as biological markers in the diagnostic approach of critically ill patients. A systematic review of existing literature revealed 31 articles. All six bacteria of interest produce isopentanol, formaldehyde, methyl mercaptan, and trimethylamine. Since humans do not produce these VOCs, they could serve as biological markers for presence of these pathogens. The following volatile biomarkers were found for identification of specific strains: isovaleric acid and 2-methyl-butanal for Staphylococcus aureus; 1-undecene, 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptane, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-quinazoline, hydrogen cyanide, and methyl thiocyanide for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and methanol, pentanol, ethyl acetate, and indole for Escherichia coli. Notably, several factors that may effect VOC production were not controlled for, including used culture media, bacterial growth phase, and genomic variation within bacterial strains. In conclusion, VOCs produced by bacteria may serve as biological markers for their presence. Goal-targeted studies should be performed to identify potential sets of volatile biological markers and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these markers in critically ill patients. PMID:23675295

Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

2013-01-01

201

Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. Methods We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement) and (grief) combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy) and (controlled or trial or design). We also searched citations in published reports for additional pertinent studies. Eligible studies had to evaluate whether the treatment of bereaved individuals reduced bereavement-related symptoms. Data from the studies was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Results 74 eligible studies evaluated diverse treatments designed to ameliorate a variety of outcomes associated with bereavement. Among studies utilizing a structured therapeutic relationship, eight featured pharmacotherapy (4 included an untreated control group), 39 featured support groups or counselling (23 included a control group), and 25 studies featured cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, psychoanalytical, or interpersonal therapies (17 included a control group). Seven studies employed systems-oriented interventions (all had control groups). Other than efficacy for pharmacological treatment of bereavement-related depression, we could identify no consistent pattern of treatment benefit among the other forms of interventions. Conclusions Due to a paucity of reports on controlled clinical trails, no rigorous evidence-based recommendation regarding the treatment of bereaved persons is currently possible except for the pharmacologic treatment of depression. We postulate the following five factors as impeding scientific progress regarding bereavement care interventions: 1) excessive theoretical heterogeneity, 2) stultifying between-study variation, 3) inadequate reporting of intervention procedures, 4) few published replication studies, and 5) methodological flaws of study design. PMID:15274744

Forte, Amanda L; Hill, Malinda; Pazder, Rachel; Feudtner, Chris

2004-01-01

202

10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 1045.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.43 Systematic review for...

2011-01-01

203

10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 1045.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.43 Systematic review for...

2010-01-01

204

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a disorder characterized by amyloid deposition in the walls of leptomeningeal and cortical arteries, arterioles, and less often capillaries and veins of the central nervous system. CAA occurs mostly as a sporadic condition in the elderly, its incidence associating with advancing age. All sporadic CAA cases are due to deposition of amyloid-?, originating from proteolytic cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein. Hereditary forms of CAA are generally familial (and therefore rare in the general population), more severe and earlier in onset. CAA-related lobar intracerebral hemorrhage is the most well-studied clinical condition associated with brain amyloid deposition. Despite ever increasing understanding of CAA pathogenesis and availability of reliable clinical and diagnostic tools, preventive and therapeutic options remain very limited. Further research efforts are required in order to identify biological targets for novel CAA treatment strategies. We present a systematic review of existing evidence regarding the epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of CAA. PMID:21519520

Greenberg, Steven M.

2011-01-01

205

Peripheral biomarkers of endometriosis: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Endometriosis is estimated to affect 1 in 10 women during the reproductive years. There is often delay in making the diagnosis, mainly due to the non-specific nature of the associated symptoms and the need to verify the disease surgically. A biomarker that is simple to measure could help clinicians to diagnose (or at least exclude) endometriosis; it might also allow the effects of treatment to be monitored. If effective, such a marker or panel of markers could prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or recognize treatment failure at an early stage. METHODS We used QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria to perform a systematic review of the literature over the last 25 years to assess critically the clinical value of all proposed biomarkers for endometriosis in serum, plasma and urine. RESULTS We identified over 100 putative biomarkers in publications that met the selection criteria. We were unable to identify a single biomarker or panel of biomarkers that have unequivocally been shown to be clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS Peripheral biomarkers show promise as diagnostic aids, but further research is necessary before they can be recommended in routine clinical care. Panels of markers may allow increased sensitivity and specificity of any diagnostic test. PMID:20462942

May, K.E.; Conduit-Hulbert, S.A.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; Kennedy, S.H.; Becker, C.M.

2010-01-01

206

Patient safety in primary health care: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify methodologies to evaluate incidents in primary health care, types of incidents, contributing factors, and solutions to make primary care safer. A systematic literature review was performed in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, and Capes, from 2007 to 2012, in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. Thirty-three articles were selected: 26% on retrospective studies, 44% on prospective studies, including focus groups, questionnaires, and interviews, and 30% on cross-sectional studies. The most frequently used method was incident analysis from incident reporting systems (45%). The most frequent types of incidents in primary care were related to medication and diagnosis. The most relevant contributing factors were communication failures among member of the healthcare team. Research methods on patient safety in primary care are adequate and replicable, and they will likely be used more widely, thereby providing better knowledge on safety in this setting. PMID:25317512

Marchon, Simone Grativol; Mendes Junior, Walter Vieira

2014-09-01

207

The Safety of Cruciferous Plants in Humans: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Some cruciferous plants may serve as preventive treatments for several medical conditions; our objective was to systematically investigate their safety in humans. Four electronic databases were searched, and, of 10,831 references identified, 50 were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers, whereafter the association between interventions and adverse events was assessed. Adverse events in 53 subjects were identified through clinical trials; of these, altered drug metabolism was rated as certainly/likely caused by cruciferous plants. Adverse events in 1247 subjects were identified through observational studies, of which none received high causality ratings. Adverse events in 35 subjects were identified through case reports, of which allergies and warfarin resistance were rated as certainly/likely caused by cruciferous plants. We conclude that cruciferous plants are safe in humans, with the exception of allergies. Individuals treated with warfarin should consult their physician. Further investigation of uses of cruciferous plants in preventative medicine is warranted. PMID:22500092

Scott, Ori; Galicia-Connolly, Elaine; Adams, Denise; Surette, Soleil; Vohra, Sunita; Yager, Jerome Y.

2012-01-01

208

Tuberculosis Incidence in Prisons: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. Methods and Findings A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0–61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7–36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%–17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%–17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. Conclusions The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21203587

Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G.; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio

2010-01-01

209

Can you trust systematic reviews of complementary and alternative therapies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic reviews have considerable impact on the discussion of complementary therapies in the scientific community, in the media and on healthcare decision making, because they are considered to be the most reliable tool to summarize and assess the evidence available on a defined question. This article aims to discuss some of the most relevant problems of systematic reviews, both in

Klaus Linde

2009-01-01

210

Attention should be given to multiplicity issues in systematic reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. Study Design and Setting: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples. We pro- vide guidance on how to deal with multiplicity when it is

Ralf Bendera; Catey Buncec; Mike Clarked; Simon Gatese; Stefan Langea; Nathan L. Pacef; Kristian Thorlundg

211

Action Learning Research: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite considerable interest in action learning, no systematic investigation of action learning literature has been reported. Two purposes of this study are (a) to systematically access and examine recent empirical studies on action learning and related themes using Garrard's Matrix Method for reviewing literature (the review of the literature…

Cho, Yonjoo; Egan, Toby Marshall

2009-01-01

212

Systematic reviews of epidemiology in diabetes: finding the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Methodological research to support searching for those doing systematic reviews of epidemiological studies is a relatively neglected area. Our aim was to determine how many databases it is necessary to search to ensure a comprehensive coverage of the literature in diabetes epidemiology, with the aim of examining the efficiency of searching in support of systematic reviews of the epidemiology

Pamela Royle; Lynda Bain; Norman Waugh

2005-01-01

213

Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public debate over the safety of the trivalent measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the drop in vaccination rates in several countries persists despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence of unintended effects (beneficial or harmful) associated with MMR and the applicability of systematic reviewing methods to the

Tom Jefferson; Deirdre Price; Vittorio Demicheli; Elvira Bianco

2003-01-01

214

Assessing the Strengths of Mental Health Consumers: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strengths assessments focus on the individual's talents, abilities, resources, and strengths. No systematic review of strengths assessments for use within mental health populations has been published. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate strengths assessments for use within mental health services. A systematic review identified 12…

Bird, Victoria J.; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G.; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

2012-01-01

215

Measurement of breathlessness in advanced disease: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: There is a plethora of assessment tools available to measure breathlessness, the most common and disabling symptom of advanced cardio-respiratory disease. The aim of this systematic review was to identify all measures available via standard search techniques and review their usefulness for patients with advanced disease. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline. All studies focusing

C. Bausewein; M. Farquhar; S. Booth; M. Gysels; I. J. Higginson

2007-01-01

216

Using Scrum in Global Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in applying agile practices in global software development (GSD) projects. The literature on using Scrum, one of the most popular agile approaches, in distributed development projects has steadily been growing. However, there has not been any effort to systematically select, review, and synthesize the literature on this topic. We have conducted a systematic literature review

E. Hossain; M. A. Babar; Hye-young Paik

2009-01-01

217

Antipsychotic Therapy During Early and Late Pregnancy. A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: Both first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are routinely used in treating severe and persistent psychiatric disorders. However, until now no articles have analyzed systematically the safety of both classes of psychotropics during pregnancy. Data sources and search strategy: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, TOXNET, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of published articles. Bibliographical information, including contributory unpublished data, was also requested from companies developing drugs. Search terms were pregnancy, psychotropic drugs, (a)typical-first-second-generation antipsychotics, and neuroleptics. A separate search was also conducted to complete the safety profile of each reviewed medication. Searches were last updated on July 2008. Data selection: All articles reporting primary data on the outcome of pregnancies exposed to antipsychotics were acquired, without methodological limitations. Conclusions: Reviewed information was too limited to draw definite conclusions on structural teratogenicity of FGAs and SGAs. Both classes of drugs seem to be associated with an increased risk of neonatal complications. However, most SGAs appear to increase risk of gestational metabolic complications and babies large for gestational age and with mean birth weight significantly heavier as compared with those exposed to FGAs. These risks have been reported rarely with FGAs. Hence, the choice of the less harmful option in pregnancy should be limited to FGAs in drug-naive patients. When pregnancy occurs during antipsychotic treatment, the choice to continue the previous therapy should be preferred. PMID:18787227

Gentile, Salvatore

2010-01-01

218

Psychological resources in spinal cord injury: a systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Systematic literature review.Objectives:The purpose of this study was to gain a systematic overview of the role of psychological resources in the adjustment to spinal cord injury (SCI).Methods:A systematic literature review was performed. The literature search was conducted in the databases Pubmed, PsycINFO, the Social Sciences Citation Index, the Education Resources Information Center, Embase and the Citation Index of Nursing

C Peter; R Müller; A Cieza; S Geyh

2012-01-01

219

Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on sport performance. PMID:24352092

El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

2013-01-01

220

Suicide in India: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

2014-01-01

221

Probiotics for infantile colic: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Infantile colic is a common paediatric condition which causes significant parental distress. Increased intestinal coliform colonization in addition to alteration in Lactobacillus abundance and distribution may play an important role in its pathogenesis. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic supplementation in the reduction of crying time and successful treatment of infantile colic. Methods Literature searches were conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials enrolling term, healthy infants with colic were included. A meta-analysis of included trials was performed utilizing the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Results Three trials that enrolled 220 breastfed infants met inclusion criteria, of which 209 infants were available for analysis. Two of the studies were assessed as good quality. Lactobacillus reuteri (strains-American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730 and DSM 17 938) was the only species utilized in the therapeutic intervention. Two of the trials were industry funded. Probiotic supplementation compared to simethicone or placebo significantly and progressively shortened crying times to 7 days reaching a plateau at three weeks post initiation of therapy [mean difference ?56.03 minutes; 95% CI (?59.92, -52.15)]. Similarly, probiotics compared to placebo significantly increased the treatment success of infantile colic with a relative risk (RR) of 0.06; 95% CI (0.01, 0.25) and a number needed to treat of 2. Conclusions Although L. reuteri may be effective as a treatment strategy for crying in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, the evidence supporting probiotic use for the treatment of infant colic or crying in formula-fed infants remains unresolved. Results from larger rigorously designed studies will help draw more definitive conclusions. PMID:24238101

2013-01-01

222

Systematic review of zinc fortification trials.  

PubMed

Zinc is one of the essential trace elements required by the human body as it is present in more than a hundred specific enzymes and serves as an important structural ion in transcription factors. Around one third of the world population lives in countries with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food fortification with zinc seems to be an attractive public health strategy and a number of programs have been initiated, especially in developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of zinc fortification. A total of 11 studies with 771 participants were included in our analysis. Zinc fortification was associated with significant improvements in plasma zinc concentrations [standard mean difference (SMD) 1.28, 95% CI 0.56, 2.01] which is a functional indicator of zinc status. Significant improvement was observed for height velocity (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.01, 1.04); however, this finding was weak and based on a restricted analysis. Further subgroup analysis showed significant improvement in height velocity among very-low-birth-weight infants (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.02, 1.37), while for healthy newborns, the impact was insignificant. Zinc fortification had insignificant impacts on serum alkaline levels, serum copper levels, hemoglobin and weight gain. Although the findings highlight that zinc fortification is associated with an increased serum concentration of the micronutrient, overall evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is limited. Data on pregnant and lactating women is scarce. Large-scale fortification programs with robust impact assessment should be initiated to cover larger populations in all age groups. Mass fortification of zinc may be a cost-effective strategy to overcome zinc deficiency. PMID:23689112

Das, Jai K; Kumar, Rohail; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-01-01

223

The COPD assessment test: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The COPD assessment test (CAT) is a self-administered questionnaire that measures health-related quality of life. We aimed to systematically evaluate the literature for reliability, validity, responsiveness and minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of the CAT. Multiple databases were searched for studies analysing the psychometric properties of the CAT in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Two reviewers independently screened, selected and extracted data, and assessed methodological quality of relevant studies using the COSMIN checklist. From 792 records identified, 36 studies were included. The number of participants ranged from 45 to 6469, mean age from 56 to 73 years, and mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s from 39% to 98% predicted. Internal consistency (reliability) was 0.85-0.98, and test-retest reliability was 0.80-0.96. Convergent and longitudinal validity using Pearson's correlation coefficient were: SGRQ-C 0.69-0.82 and 0.63, CCQ 0.68-0.78 and 0.60, and mMRC 0.29-0.61 and 0.20, respectively. Scores differed with GOLD stages, exacerbation and mMRC grades. Mean scores decreased with pulmonary rehabilitation (2.2-3 units) and increased at exacerbation onset (4.7 units). Only one study with adequate methodology reported an MCID of 2 units and 3.3-3.8 units using the anchor-based approach and distribution-based approach, respectively. Most studies had fair methodological quality. We conclude that the studies support the reliability and validity of the CAT and that the tool is responsive to interventions, although the MCID remains debatable. PMID:24993906

Gupta, Nisha; Pinto, Lancelot M; Morogan, Andreea; Bourbeau, Jean

2014-10-01

224

A systematic review of integrative oncology programs  

PubMed Central

Objective This systematic review set out to summarize the research literature describing integrative oncology programs. Methods Searches were conducted of 9 electronic databases, relevant journals (hand searched), and conference abstracts, and experts were contacted. Two investigators independently screened titles and abstracts for reports describing examples of programs that combine complementary and conventional cancer care. English-, French-, and German-language articles were included, with no date restriction. From the articles located, descriptive data were extracted according to 6 concepts: description of article, description of clinic, components of care, administrative structure, process of care, and measurable outcomes used. Results Of the 29 programs included, most were situated in the United States (n = 12, 41%) and England (n = 10, 34%). More than half (n = 16, 55%) operate within a hospital, and 7 (24%) are community-based. Clients come through patient self-referral (n = 15, 52%) and by referral from conventional health care providers (n = 9, 31%) and from cancer agencies (n = 7, 24%). In 12 programs (41%), conventional care is provided onsite; 7 programs (24%) collaborate with conventional centres to provide integrative care. Programs are supported financially through donations (n = 10, 34%), cancer agencies or hospitals (n = 7, 24%), private foundations (n = 6, 21%), and public funds (n = 3, 10%). Nearly two thirds of the programs maintain a research (n = 18, 62%) or evaluation (n = 15, 52%) program. Conclusions The research literature documents a growing number of integrative oncology programs. These programs share a common vision to provide whole-person, patient-centred care, but each program is unique in terms of its structure and operational model. PMID:23300368

Seely, D.M.; Weeks, L.C.; Young, S.

2012-01-01

225

Topiramate for anger control: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Uncontrolled anger while being most commonly associated with personality disorders could also be part of many other conditions such as chronic low back ache and post-traumatic stress disorder. The intensity of anger as an emotional state at a particular time is known as “State Anger,” whereas how often angry feelings are experienced over time is known as “Trait Anger.” Anger could also manifest as expression of anger toward other persons or objects in the environment (Anger-Out), holding in or suppressing angry feelings (Anger-In) and controlling angry feelings by preventing the expression of anger toward other persons or objects in the environment or controlling suppressed angry feelings by calming down or cooling off (Anger Control). Objective: To prove the effectiveness of topiramate in the control of anger as compared to placebo and to disprove that its use leads to psychiatric adverse events by systematically reviewing the available randomized controlled trials. Materials and Methods: The basic search was performed in MEDLINE (1966 through November 2008) combined with the optimal search strategy for randomized controlled trials described in the Cochrane Reviewers’ Handbook. To update this search, we regularly screened citations from PubMed till November 2008 for eligible studies or reviews that might include eligible studies. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) was searched using the terms “topiramate” and “anger or aggression.” In addition, we screened bibliographies of reviews and identified articles. Randomized clinical trials wherein study participants were aggressive adults were included. Results: We could arrive at a weighted mean difference of ?3.16 (?3.64 to ?2.68) in State Anger. The reduction in the score was highest in borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients as compared to those with low back ache. Trait Anger dropped by ?2.93 (?3.49 to ?2.37), especially in female BPD patients. Anger In reduced more or less uniformly across the studies by ?1.43 (?1.84 to ?1.03). Anger Out decreased by ?2.8 (?3.19 to ?2.42). This effect was minimal among the male BPD patients. Anger Control uniformly increased across the four studies by 2.32 (2.00?2.64). There is sufficient evidence to suggest that topiramate is significantly effective in stabilizing the “trait anger” while reducing the “state anger.” “Anger Out” and “hostility” were significantly reduced. “Anger In” was the feature that was the least affected, although this was significant. This suggests that topiramate is effective in controlling anger. There was no suggestion of topiramate precipitating psychomorbidity. Conclusions: Topiramate appears to be a safe and effective drug in the management of anger/aggression. Additional research is needed to determine whether these results can be reproduced and how long lasting are the benefits of long-term treatment with topiramate. PMID:20871762

Varghese, Bindu Susan; Rajeev, A.; Norrish, Mark; Khusaiby, Saleh Bin Mohammed Al

2010-01-01

226

Clinical trials registries are under-utilized in the conduct of systematic reviews: a cross-sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Publication bias is a major threat to the validity of systematic reviews. Searches of clinical trials registries can help to identify unpublished trials, though little is known about how often these resources are utilized. We assessed the usage and results of registry searches reported in systematic reviews published in major general medical journals. Methods This cross-sectional analysis includes data from systematic reviews assessing medical interventions which were published in one of six major general medical journals between July 2012 and June 2013. Two authors independently examined each published systematic review and all available supplementary materials to determine whether at least one clinical trials registry was searched. Results Of the 117 included systematic reviews, 41 (35%) reported searching a trials registry. Of the 29 reviews which also provided detailed registry search results, 15 (52%) identified at least one completed trial and 18 (62%) identified at least one ongoing trial. Conclusions Clinical trials registry searches are not routinely included in systematic reviews published in major medical journals. Routine examination of registry databases may allow a more accurate characterization of publication and outcome reporting biases and improve the validity of estimated effects of medical treatments. PMID:25348628

2014-01-01

227

Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

2013-07-01

228

Podiatric Medical Education: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic curricular structure and courses deemed necessary to podiatric medical education are outlined and their rationale explained. Specialties appropriate to podiatric practice, such as electrophysiology and cardiovascular physiology, are noted, and the sequence of coursework suggested. (MSE)

Pollock, George P.

1980-01-01

229

Multimorbidity and quality of life in primary care: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many patients with several concurrent medical conditions (multimorbidity) are seen in the primary care setting. A thorough understanding of outcomes associated with multimorbidity would benefit primary care workers of all disciplines. The purpose of this systematic review was to clarify the relationship between the presence of multimorbidity and the quality of life (QOL) or health-related quality of life (HRQOL)

Martin Fortin; Lise Lapointe; Catherine Hudon; Alain Vanasse; Antoine L Ntetu; Danielle Maltais

2004-01-01

230

Systematic review to determine whether participation in a trial influences outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To systematically compare the outcomes of participants in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with those in comparable non-participants who received the same or similar treatment. Data sources Bibliographic databases, reference lists from eligible articles, medical journals, and study authors. Review methods RCTs and cohort studies that evaluated the clinical outcomes of participants in RCTs and comparable non-participants who received the

Gunn Elisabeth Vist; Kåre Birger Hagen; P J Devereaux; Dianne Bryant; Tove Kristoffersen; Andrew David Oxman

2005-01-01

231

Homeopathy for allergic rhinitis: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem that is often treated with homeopathy. The objective of this review will be to evaluate the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods/Design The authors will conduct a systematic review. We will search Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, CAM-Quest, Google Scholar and reference lists of identified studies up to December 2013. The review will include randomized controlled trials that evaluate homeopathic treatment of allergic rhinitis. Studies with participants of all ages, with acute or chronic comorbidities will be included. Patients with immunodeficiency will not be included. The diagnosis will be based on the published guidelines of diagnosis and classification. Studies of all homeopathy modalities (clinical, complex and classical homeopathy, and isopathy) will be included. We will include trials with both active controls (conventional therapy, standard care) and placebo controls. The primary outcomes are: an improvement of global symptoms recorded in validated daily or weekly diaries and any scores from validated visual analogue scales; the total Quality of Life Score (such as the Juniper RQLQ);individual symptoms scores which include any appropriate measures of nasal obstruction, runny nose, sneezing, itching, and eye symptoms; and number of days requiring medication. Secondary outcomes selected will include serum immunoglobin E (IgE) levels, individual ocular symptoms, adverse events, and the use of rescue medication. Treatment effects will be measured by calculating the mean difference and the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous data. Risk ratio or, if feasible, odds ratio will be calculated with 95% CI for dichotomous data. After assessing clinical and statistical heterogeneity, meta-analysis will be performed, if appropriate. The individual participant will be the unit of analysis. Descriptive information on missing data will be included about participants missing due to drop out, whether there was intention to treat or per protocol analysis and missing statistics. A number of subgroups, homeopathic potency, age groups, and types of allergic rhinitis (seasonal or perennial) will be analyzed. Sensitivity analysis will be performed to explore the impact of risk of bias on overall treatment effect. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42013006741 PMID:24913155

2014-01-01

232

Worksite primary care clinics: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Despite levels of health spending that are higher per capita and as share of gross domestic product than any country worldwide, the US health care system is fragmented, technology and administration heavy, and primary care deficient. Studies of regional variations in US health care show similar "disconnects" between higher spending and better health outcomes. Faced with rising health benefit costs and suboptimal workforce health amid economic downturn, concerned US employers have implemented innovative payment and health care delivery strategies such as consumer-driven health plans and targeted prevention programs. The former may impose undue cost shifting, prohibitive out-of-pocket expenses, and health literacy challenges, while the latter have shown inconsistent near-term economic returns and long-term clinical efficacy. Employers have begun exploring more comprehensive health delivery platforms such as integrated worksite primary care clinics that have potential to cost-effectively address several pressing problems with current US health care: the growing primary care physician shortage, poor access to routine care, lack of coordinated and patient-centered treatment models, low rates of childhood immunizations, and "quality-blind" fee-for-service payment mechanisms. Such on-site medical clinics exploit one of the rare comparative strengths of the US health care system-its plentiful supply of highly skilled registered nurses-to offer workers and their dependents convenient, high-quality, affordable care. A relatively recent health care paradigm, worksite clinics must yet develop consistent reporting strategies and credible demonstration of outcomes. This review explores available evidence regarding worksite primary care clinics, including current rationale, historical trends, prevalence and projected growth, expected health and financial benefits, challenges, and future research directions. (Population Health Management 2014;17:306-315). PMID:24835541

Shahly, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C; Duncan, Ian

2014-10-01

233

Burden of paediatric influenza in Western Europe: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health outcomes and economic burden) in children in Western Europe via a systematic literature review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1970-April 2011) and extracted data on influenza burden in children (defined as aged ? 18 years) from 50 publications (13 reporting laboratory-confirmed influenza; 37 reporting influenza-like illness). Results Children with laboratory-confirmed influenza experienced hospitalisations (0.3%-20%), medical visits (1.7-2.8 visits per case), antibiotic prescriptions (7%-55%), and antipyretic or other medications for symptomatic relief (76%-99%); young children and those with severe illness had the highest rates of health care use. Influenza in children also led to absenteeism from day care, school, or work for the children, their siblings, and their parents. Average (mean or median) length of absence from school or day care associated with confirmed influenza ranged from 2.8 to 12.0 days for the children, from 1.3 to 6.0 days for their siblings, and from 1.3 to 6.3 days for their parents. Influenza negatively affected health-related quality of life in children with asthma, including symptoms and activities; this negative effect was smaller in vaccinated children than in non-vaccinated children. Conclusions Influenza burden in children is substantial and has a significant direct impact on the ill children and an indirect impact on their siblings and parents. The identified evidence regarding the burden of influenza may help inform both influenza antiviral use in children and paediatric immunisation policies in European countries. PMID:23146107

2012-01-01

234

Clinical review: Medication errors in critical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication errors in critical care are frequent, serious, and predictable. Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as\\u000a many medications as patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-threatening\\u000a error at some point during their stay. The aim of this article is to provide a basic review of medication errors in the ICU,

Eric Moyen; Eric Camiré; Henry Thomas Stelfox

2008-01-01

235

Home Visiting and Outcomes of Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Home visiting is 1 strategy to improve child health and parenting. Since implementation of home visiting trials 2 decades ago, US preterm births (<37 weeks) have risen by 20%. The objective of this study was to review evidence regarding home visiting and outcomes of preterm infants METHODS: Searches of Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, PsycINFO, and Embase were conducted. Criteria for inclusion were (1) cohort or controlled trial designs; (2) home-based, preventive services for infants at medical or social risk; and (3) outcomes reported for infants born preterm or low birth weight (<2500 g). Data from eligible reports were abstracted by 2 reviewers. Random effects meta-analysis was used to synthesize data for developmental and parent interaction measures. RESULTS: Seventeen studies (15 controlled trials, 2 cohort studies) were reviewed. Five outcome domains were identified: infant development, parent-infant interaction, morbidity, abuse/neglect, and growth/nutrition. Six studies (n = 336) demonstrated a pooled standardized mean difference of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 1.02) in Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory scores at 1 year in the home-visited groups versus control. Evidence for other outcomes was limited. Methodological limitations were common. CONCLUSIONS: Reviewed studies suggest that home visiting for preterm infants promotes improved parent-infant interaction. Further study of interventions targeting preterm infants within existing programs may strengthen the impact and cost benefits of home visiting in at-risk populations. PMID:23940238

Teeters, Angelique; Ammerman, Robert T.

2013-01-01

236

Medical audible alarms: a review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

Edworthy, Judy

2013-01-01

237

Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires.

Phil Edwards; Ian Roberts; Mike Clarke; Carolyn DiGuiseppi; Sarah Pratap; Reinhard Wentz; Irene Kwan

2002-01-01

238

Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Aims: Previous comparisons of cognitive decline among patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) have found somehow quite similar profiles of deficits, but results have varied between studies. Therefore an extensive and thoughtful systematic review of the matter is warranted. Methods: Studies were found through systematic search (PubMed) following PRISMA guidelines. To be included, studies must have assessed the following cognitive functions: executive functions, memory, IQ, attention-concentration, and perceptuomotor function. In order to make comparison between the two entities, studies should include BD patients with operationally defined euthymia, schizophrenic patients in remission, and third group of healthy control patients. Comparisons were made after controlling for years of schooling and residual affective symptoms. Results: We found that overall both SZ and BD patients present deficits on all neurocognitive measures compared to healthy controls. In particular, SZ patients show more severe and pervasive cognitive deficits while BD patients present a milder and more confined impairment. In addition, evidence from the literature suggests that SZ and BD patients share a similar cognitive impairment profile with different degrees of deficits. Therefore, the difference between the two groups seems to be more quantitative (degree of deficit) rather than qualitative (profile), supporting a dimensional approach to the two clinical entities. Limitations of the present review includes the impossibility to control for effects of medication, varying time required for assessment across studies, illness diagnosis reliability, and course severity. Conclusion: Patients with BD might exhibit a cognitive impairment that could be similar to SZ in terms of their profile, although patients with SZ may have more severe and widespread impairments. PMID:23964248

Vöhringer, Paul A.; Barroilhet, Sergio A.; Amerio, Andrea; Reale, Maria Laura; Alvear, Katherine; Vergne, Derick; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

2013-01-01

239

Anaemia and cognitive performances in the elderly: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Anaemia defined as a haemoglobin level <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women is common in older people and associated with numerous health consequences. The aim of this study was to systematically review all published data from the past 30 years that studied the association between anaemia and cognitive performance in people aged 65 years and over. An English and French Medline and Cochrane Library search ranging from 1979 to 2011 indexed under the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms 'haemoglobin' or 'anaemia' combined with the terms 'dementia' or 'cognition disorders' or 'memory disorders' or 'orientation' or 'executive functions' or 'attention' or 'brain' or 'neuropsychological tests' was performed. Ninety-eight studies were selected. The following specific conditions were excluded: cancer, chronic kidney diseases, chronic heart disease and post-operative cognitive dysfunction. Five observational studies and six prospective cohort studies were included in the final analysis. According to the studies, the number of participants ranged from 302 to 2250 community-dwelling older people aged 55 years or over. Four studies considered the association between haemoglobin concentration and global cognitive functions, another three examined the association between haemoglobin concentration and the incidence of dementia, and four studies evaluated some specific aspects of cognition. A significant positive association was shown between anaemia and global cognitive decline as well as the incidence of dementia. A significant association was also shown between anaemia and executive functions. This systematic review shows a probable association between anaemia and cognitive performances, particularly with executive functions. PMID:23647493

Andro, M; Le Squere, P; Estivin, S; Gentric, A

2013-09-01

240

Methodological quality of systematic reviews of animal studies: a survey of reviews of basic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews can serve as a tool in translation of basic life sciences research from laboratory to human research and healthcare. The extent to which reviews of animal research are systematic and unbiased is not known. METHODS: We searched, without language restrictions, Medline, Embase, bibliographies of known reviews (1996–2004) and contacted experts to identify citations of reviews of basic

Luciano E Mignini; Khalid S Khan

2006-01-01

241

Using Systematic Reviews to Investigate Research in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how the evidence base for aspects of early childhood has been explored using systematic research synthesis methods developed at the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre (EPPI-Centre). Three early childhood systematic reviews have been carried out using EPPI-Centre procedures and tools. The…

Penn, Helen; Lloyd, Eva

2006-01-01

242

Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although guidelines for critical appraisal of diagnostic research and meta-analyses have already been published, these may be difficult to understand for clinical researchers or do not provide enough detailed information. METHODS: Development of guidelines based on a systematic review of the evidence in reports of systematic searches of the literature for diagnostic research, of methodological criteria to evaluate diagnostic

Walter L Devillé; Frank Buntinx; Lex M Bouter; Victor M Montori; Henrica CW de Vet; Danielle AWM van der Windt; P Dick Bezemer

2002-01-01

243

Book review Systematics: A Course of Lectures  

E-print Network

(Okay). Chapter 2 describes and discusses basic concepts, some of which are hard to understand outside they will turn off the average systematics student. As a user, I want to know why alignments are important, what where the relevance of these methods lies right now, something about which students might no

Garzón-Orduña, Ivonne

244

Childbirth experience of migrants in China: a systematic review.  

PubMed

As preliminary research into the childbirth experience of migrants in China, this paper presents a systematic review of Chinese and English literature published between 1999 and 2011 on childbirth in migrants in China. Electronic databases were accessed and papers were found by keyword search. A total of 132 Chinese and 9 English papers were catalogued for review. These papers address migrant maternity issues concerning antenatal, intrapartum, postnatal care, institutional issues, family planning or birth control. Since China's economic reforms, the healthcare infrastructure has been inadequate for childbirth in migrants. They experience more adverse birth outcomes than local residents. This suggests that the effects of change upon childbirth and the existing urban and rural care systems cannot meet the needs of the migrants. There is a lack of research in the childbirth experience of women. Knowledge of their childbirth experience will contribute to the understanding of these needs, informing systems' reform. The medical approach results in many unnecessary interventions and higher costs. It is argued here that a midwifery model of care is most appropriate for the childbirth experience of migrant women. PMID:22950617

Cheung, Ngai Fen; Pan, Anshi

2012-09-01

245

[Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].  

PubMed

A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered. PMID:24561837

Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

2014-01-01

246

Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence  

PubMed Central

Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

2013-01-01

247

Systematic review of the effectiveness of primary care nursing.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a systematic review that sought to answer the research question: What is the impact of the primary and community care nurse on patient health outcomes compared with usual doctor-led care in primary care settings? A range of pertinent text-words with medical subject headings were combined and electronic databases were searched. Because of the volume of published articles, the search was restricted to studies with high-level evidence. Overall, 31 relevant studies were identified and included in the review. We found modest international evidence that nurses in primary care settings can provide effective care and achieve positive health outcomes for patients similar to that provided by doctors. Nurses are effective in care management and achieve good patient compliance. Nurses are also effective in a more diverse range of roles including chronic disease management, illness prevention and health promotion. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence about primary care nurses' roles and impact on patient health outcomes. PMID:19187165

Keleher, Helen; Parker, Rhian; Abdulwadud, Omar; Francis, Karen

2009-02-01

248

Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

2013-01-01

249

The use of Facebook in medical education - A literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature and grade of evidence is provided, research gaps are identified, links to prior reviews are drawn and implications for the future are discussed. Method: The authors searched six databases. Inclusion criteria were defined and the authors independently reviewed the search results. The key information of the articles included was methodically abstracted and coded, synthesized and discussed in the categories study design, study participants’phase of medical education and study content. Results: 16 articles met all inclusion criteria. 45-96% of health care professionals in all phases of their medical education have a Facebook profile. Most studies focused on Facebook and digital professionalism. Unprofessional behavior and privacy violations occurred in 0.02% to 16%. In terms of learning and teaching environment, Facebook is well accepted by medical students. It is used to prepare for exams, share online material, discuss clinical cases, organize face-to-face sessions and exchange information on clerkships. A few educational materials to teach Facebook professionalism were positively evaluated. There seems to be no conclusive evidence as to whether medical students benefit from Facebook as a learning environment on higher competence levels. Discussion: Facebook influences a myriad of aspects of health care professionals, particularly at undergraduate and graduate level in medical education. Despite an increasing number of interventions, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in terms of its educational effectiveness. Furthermore, we suggest that digital professionalism be integrated in established and emerging competency-based catalogues. PMID:25228935

Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R.

2014-01-01

250

A systematic review of the quality of homeopathic clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background While a number of reviews of homeopathic clinical trials have been done, all have used methods dependent on allopathic diagnostic classifications foreign to homeopathic practice. In addition, no review has used established and validated quality criteria allowing direct comparison of the allopathic and homeopathic literature. Methods In a systematic review, we compared the quality of clinical-trial research in homeopathy to a sample of research on conventional therapies using a validated and system-neutral approach. All clinical trials on homeopathic treatments with parallel treatment groups published between 1945–1995 in English were selected. All were evaluated with an established set of 33 validity criteria previously validated on a broad range of health interventions across differing medical systems. Criteria covered statistical conclusion, internal, construct and external validity. Reliability of criteria application is greater than 0.95. Results 59 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 79% were from peer-reviewed journals, 29% used a placebo control, 51% used random assignment, and 86% failed to consider potentially confounding variables. The main validity problems were in measurement where 96% did not report the proportion of subjects screened, and 64% did not report attrition rate. 17% of subjects dropped out in studies where this was reported. There was practically no replication of or overlap in the conditions studied and most studies were relatively small and done at a single-site. Compared to research on conventional therapies the overall quality of studies in homeopathy was worse and only slightly improved in more recent years. Conclusions Clinical homeopathic research is clearly in its infancy with most studies using poor sampling and measurement techniques, few subjects, single sites and no replication. Many of these problems are correctable even within a "holistic" paradigm given sufficient research expertise, support and methods. PMID:11801202

Jonas, Wayne B; Anderson, Rachel L; Crawford, Cindy C; Lyons, John S

2001-01-01

251

Incidental findings in imaging diagnostic tests: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

The objective of this review is to summarise the available evidence on the frequency and management of incidental findings in imaging diagnostic tests. Original articles were identified by a systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Plus databases using appropriate medical headings. Extracted variables were study design; sample size; type of imaging test; initial diagnosis; frequency and location of incidental findings; whether clinical follow-up was performed; and whether a definitive diagnosis was made. Study characteristics were assessed by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Any disagreement was solved by consensus. The relationship between the frequency of incidental findings and the study characteristics was assessed using a one-way ANOVA test, as was the frequency of follow-up of incidental findings and the frequency of confirmation. 251 potentially relevant abstracts were identified and 44 articles were finally included in the review. Overall, the mean frequency of incidental findings was 23.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.8–31.3%). The frequency of incidental findings was higher in studies involving CT technology (mean 31.1%, 95% CI 20.1–41.9%), in patients with an unspecific initial diagnosis (mean 30.5, 95% CI 0–81.6) and when the location of the incidental findings was unspecified (mean 33.9%, 95% CI 18.1–49.7). The mean frequency of clinical follow-up was 64.5% (95% CI 52.9–76.1%) and mean frequency of clinical confirmation was 45.6% (95% CI 32.1–59.2%). Although the optimal strategy for the management of these abnormalities is still unclear, it is essential to be aware of the low clinical confirmation in findings of moderate and major importance. PMID:20335439

Lumbreras, B; Donat, L; Hernandez-Aguado, I

2010-01-01

252

Experience with Reviewing Bayesian Medical Device Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a statistical reviewer's perspective on some technical aspects of reviewing Bayesian medical device trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. The discussion reflects the experiences of the authors and should not be misconstrued as official guidance by the FDA. A variety of applications are described, reflecting our experience with therapeutic and

Gene Pennello; Laura Thompson

2007-01-01

253

Coronary heart disease in primary care: accuracy of medical history and physical findings in patients with chest pain - a study protocol for a systematic review with individual patient data  

PubMed Central

Background Chest pain is a common complaint in primary care, with coronary heart disease (CHD) being the most concerning of many potential causes. Systematic reviews on the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms and signs summarize the evidence about which of them are most useful in making a diagnosis. Previous meta-analyses are dominated by studies of patients referred to specialists. Moreover, as the analysis is typically based on study-level data, the statistical analyses in these reviews are limited while meta-analyses based on individual patient data can provide additional information. Our patient-level meta-analysis has three unique aims. First, we strive to determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for myocardial ischemia in primary care. Second, we investigate associations between study- or patient-level characteristics and measures of diagnostic accuracy. Third, we aim to validate existing clinical prediction rules for diagnosing myocardial ischemia in primary care. This article describes the methods of our study and six prospective studies of primary care patients with chest pain. Later articles will describe the main results. Methods/Design We will conduct a systematic review and IPD meta-analysis of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for diagnosing coronary heart disease in primary care. We will perform bivariate analyses to determine the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of individual symptoms and signs and multivariate analyses to explore the diagnostic value of an optimal combination of all symptoms and signs based on all data of all studies. We will validate existing clinical prediction rules from each of the included studies by calculating measures of diagnostic accuracy separately by study. Discussion Our study will face several methodological challenges. First, the number of studies will be limited. Second, the investigators of original studies defined some outcomes and predictors differently. Third, the studies did not collect the same standard clinical data set. Fourth, missing data, varying from partly missing to fully missing, will have to be dealt with. Despite these limitations, we aim to summarize the available evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for diagnosing CHD in patients presenting with chest pain in primary care. Review registration Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (University of York): CRD42011001170 PMID:22877212

2012-01-01

254

Thrombophilia and first arterial ischaemic stroke: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To undertake a systematic review of the literature reporting the prevalence of thrombophilia in children with a first arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS).Methods: Systematic review of case-control studies reporting data for prevalence of protein C, S, and antithrombin (AT) deficiencies, activated protein C resistance (APCr), total plasma homocysteine >95th centile, the thrombophilic mutations factor V1691 GA, prothrombin 20210GA, and MTHFR

S Haywood; R Liesner; S Pindora; V Ganesan

2005-01-01

255

Understanding and Evaluating Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses.  

PubMed

A systematic review is a summary of existing evidence that answers a specific clinical question, contains a thorough, unbiased search of the relevant literature, explicit criteria for assessing studies and structured presentation of the results. A systematic review that incorporates quantitative pooling of similar studies to produce an overall summary of treatment effects is a meta-analysis. A systematic review should have clear, focused clinical objectives containing four elements expressed through the acronym PICO (Patient, group of patients, or problem, an Intervention, a Comparison intervention and specific Outcomes). Explicit and thorough search of the literature is a pre-requisite of any good systematic review. Reviews should have pre-defined explicit criteria for what studies would be included and the analysis should include only those studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The quality (risk of bias) of the primary studies should be critically appraised. Particularly the role of publication and language bias should be acknowledged and addressed by the review, whenever possible. Structured reporting of the results with quantitative pooling of the data must be attempted, whenever appropriate. The review should include interpretation of the data, including implications for clinical practice and further research. Overall, the current quality of reporting of systematic reviews remains highly variable. PMID:24700930

Bigby, Michael

2014-03-01

256

Evidence of Effectiveness of Health Care Professionals Using Handheld Computers: A Scoping Review of Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Handheld computers and mobile devices provide instant access to vast amounts and types of useful information for health care professionals. Their reduced size and increased processing speed has led to rapid adoption in health care. Thus, it is important to identify whether handheld computers are actually effective in clinical practice. Objective A scoping review of systematic reviews was designed to provide a quick overview of the documented evidence of effectiveness for health care professionals using handheld computers in their clinical work. Methods A detailed search, sensitive for systematic reviews was applied for Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Global Health, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. All outcomes that demonstrated effectiveness in clinical practice were included. Classroom learning and patient use of handheld computers were excluded. Quality was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. A previously published conceptual framework was used as the basis for dual data extraction. Reported outcomes were summarized according to the primary function of the handheld computer. Results Five systematic reviews met the inclusion and quality criteria. Together, they reviewed 138 unique primary studies. Most reviewed descriptive intervention studies, where physicians, pharmacists, or medical students used personal digital assistants. Effectiveness was demonstrated across four distinct functions of handheld computers: patient documentation, patient care, information seeking, and professional work patterns. Within each of these functions, a range of positive outcomes were reported using both objective and self-report measures. The use of handheld computers improved patient documentation through more complete recording, fewer documentation errors, and increased efficiency. Handheld computers provided easy access to clinical decision support systems and patient management systems, which improved decision making for patient care. Handheld computers saved time and gave earlier access to new information. There were also reports that handheld computers enhanced work patterns and efficiency. Conclusions This scoping review summarizes the secondary evidence for effectiveness of handheld computers and mhealth. It provides a snapshot of effective use by health care professionals across four key functions. We identified evidence to suggest that handheld computers provide easy and timely access to information and enable accurate and complete documentation. Further, they can give health care professionals instant access to evidence-based decision support and patient management systems to improve clinical decision making. Finally, there is evidence that handheld computers allow health professionals to be more efficient in their work practices. It is anticipated that this evidence will guide clinicians and managers in implementing handheld computers in clinical practice and in designing future research. PMID:24165786

2013-01-01

257

Depressogenic effects of medications: a review  

PubMed Central

The literature is filled with reports that link medications with the onset or progression of depression. Because depression is so common in patients with medical illness, assessing whether a medication has in fact caused depression, or whether the relationship is coincidental, can be challenging. In this article, we review the literature on the association between medications and depression. For most agents, there are case reports or small studies linking the medication with the onset of depression, but more rigorous prospective studies are either lacking or found no association between the agent and depression. However, several medications, (eg, barbiturates, vigabatrin, topiramate, flunarizine, corticosteroids, mefloquine, efavirenz, and interferon-?) do appear to cause depression in some patients and should be used with caution in patients at risk for depression. PMID:21485751

Celano, Christopher M.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Fernandez-Robles, Carlos; Stern, Theodore A.; Caro, Mario A.; Huffman, Jeff C.

2011-01-01

258

Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts  

PubMed Central

Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions including Africa, Latin America and Southern Asia to further elucidate the global epidemiology of this disease. PMID:23347441

2013-01-01

259

Routine piloting in systematic reviews--a modified approach?  

PubMed Central

Background A continuous growth in the publication of research papers means that there is an expanding volume of data available to the systematic reviewer. Sometimes, researchers can become overwhelmed by the sheer volume of data being processed, leading to inefficient data extraction. This paper seeks to address this problem by proposing a modification to the current systematic review methodology. Proposed method This paper details the routine piloting of a systematic review all the way through to evidence-synthesis stage using data from a sample of included papers. Results and discussion The result of piloting a sample of papers through to evidence-synthesis stage is to produce a ‘mini systematic review’. Insights from such a pilot review may be used to modify the criteria in the data extraction form. It is proposed that this approach will ensure that in the full review the most useful and relevant information is extracted from all the papers in one phase without needing to re-visit the individual papers at a later stage. Conclusions Routine piloting in systematic reviews has been developed in response to advances in information technology and the subsequent increase in rapid access to clinical papers and data. It is proposed that the routine piloting of large systematic reviews will enable themes and meaning in the data to become apparent early in the review process. This, in turn, will facilitate the efficient extraction of data from all the papers in the full review. It is proposed that this approach will result in increased validity of the review, with potential benefits for increasing efficiency. PMID:25035096

2014-01-01

260

Homeopathic Treatment of Headaches: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To systematically review published prospective trials relating to the homeopathic treatment of tension type, cervicogenic, and migraine headache. Data Sources Pre-MEDLINE, MEDLINE, MANTIS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and AMED were searched from the initial indexing year of each database through May 2002. Studies were further identified through a manual search of obtained article references. Study Selection English and non-English randomized clinical trials and prospective observational trials were included if there were at least ten subjects in the homeopathic portion of the trial and, for randomized clinical trials, if there was a placebo group. Treatment in these studies included single dose and individualized homeopathic prescription. Case studies, homeopathic provings, unpublished material, non-peer reviewed papers, and studies that combined multiple homeopathic remedies, introduced other complementary and alternative medicine therapies and/or introduced additional medical therapy for patients in the homeopathic treatment groups were excluded. Data Extraction Qualitative data were extracted from each paper and entered into an evidence table. Data Synthesis A critical evaluation list of 20 methodological items and their operational definitions was used, resulting in a validity score determined for each paper. Results Six papers met criteria for inclusion. Three out of the six papers studied migraine headache, two studied cervicogenic and tension type headache, and one included all types of headaches. Four studies were randomized clinical trials, and two were prospective observational studies. Validity scores ranged from 25.0% to 63.4%. Homeopathy was superior to placebo in one randomized clinical trial and equal to placebo in three randomized trials. In no study was homeopathy less effective than placebo in treating headache, or harmful. Two prospective observational studies demonstrated improvement in patients receiving homeopathic care. Conclusion There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of homeopathy for managing tension type, cervicogenic, or migraine headache. The studies reviewed possessed several flaws in design. Given these findings, further research is warranted to better investigate the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment of headaches. PMID:19674623

Owen, Jonice M.; Green, Bart N.

2004-01-01

261

Low-dose dopamine: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the magnitude of the treatment effect of low-dose dopamine on renal function in patients at risk of and in patients with early renal injury. Data sources. MEDLINE, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, personal files, and contact with expert informants. Study selection. Randomized controlled studies that compared low-dose dopamine with placebo for the prevention or

P. E. Marik

2002-01-01

262

Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concerns about child vaccines continue to rise and it's great to have objective and thoughtful analysis of this matter from medical professionals. This systematic review was originally published in the August 2014 edition of the Pediatrics journal and now has found its way to the RAND CorporationâÂÂs website. Authored by a team of medical professionals, the report looks at a range of existing medical works, including the 2011 Institute of Medicine consensus report on vaccine safety. Key findings include observations that the MMR vaccine is not associated with autism in children and that serious side effects associated with vaccines are extremely rare.

2014-07-02

263

Adherence in the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Medication adherence and compliance are essential for disease management and can significantly improve outcomes and quality of patient care. The literature suggests that up to 40% of patients do not use their medication as intended. Objective: To elucidate current knowledge on adherence\\/compliance in psoriasis. In particular, methods of adherence\\/compliance evaluation and influencing factors were to be identified. Methods: Systematic

M. Augustin; B. Holland; D. Dartsch; A. Langenbruch; M. A. Radtke

2011-01-01

264

Barriers to the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses: a systematic review of decision makers’ perceptions  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the barriers to the uptake of research evidence from systematic reviews by decision makers. Search strategy We searched 19 databases covering the full range of publication years, utilised three search engines and also personally contacted investigators. Reference lists of primary studies and related reviews were also consulted. Selection criteria Studies were included if they reported on the views and perceptions of decision makers on the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews, meta-analyses and the databases associated with them. All study designs, settings and decision makers were included. One investigator screened titles to identify candidate articles then two reviewers independently assessed the quality and the relevance of retrieved reports. Data extraction Two reviewers described the methods of included studies and extracted data that were summarised in tables and then analysed. Using a pre-established taxonomy, the barriers were organised into a framework according to their effect on knowledge, attitudes or behaviour. Results Of 1726 articles initially identified, we selected 27 unique published studies describing at least one barrier to the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews. These studies included a total of 25 surveys and 2 qualitative studies. Overall, the majority of participants (n=10?218) were physicians (64%). The most commonly investigated barriers were lack of use (14/25), lack of awareness (12/25), lack of access (11/25), lack of familiarity (7/25), lack of usefulness (7/25), lack of motivation (4/25) and external barriers (5/25). Conclusions This systematic review reveals that strategies to improve the uptake of evidence from reviews and meta-analyses will need to overcome a wide variety of obstacles. Our review describes the reasons why knowledge users, especially physicians, do not call on systematic reviews. This study can inform future approaches to enhancing systematic review uptake and also suggests potential avenues for future investigation. PMID:22942232

Wallace, John; Nwosu, Bosah; Clarke, Mike

2012-01-01

265

Validated instruments used to measure attitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Instruments to detect changes in attitudes towards people with disabilities are important for evaluation of training programs and for research. While we were interested in instruments specific for medical students, we aimed to systematically review the medical literature for validated survey instruments used to measure attitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability. METHODS: We electronically

Wai Yim Lam; Sameer K Gunukula; Denise McGuigan; New Isaiah; Andrew B Symons; Elie A Akl

2010-01-01

266

Nursing student medication errors: a retrospective review.  

PubMed

This article presents the findings of a retrospective review of medication errors made and reported by nursing students in a 4-year baccalaureate program. Data were examined in relation to the semester of the program, kind of error according to the rights of medication administration, and contributing factors. Three categories of contributing factors were identified: rights violations, system factors, and knowledge and understanding. It became apparent that system factors, or the context in which medication administration takes place, are not fully considered when students are taught about medication administration. Teaching strategies need to account for the dynamic complexity of this process and incorporate experiential knowledge. This review raised several important questions about how this information guides our practice as educators in the clinical and classroom settings and how we can work collaboratively with practice partners to influence change and increase patient safety. PMID:18232615

Harding, Lorill; Petrick, Teresa

2008-01-01

267

Correlates of physical activity in youth: a review of quantitative systematic reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase young people's physical activity (PA) levels it is important to understand the correlates of PA in children and adolescents. We sought to identify factors associated with children's and adolescents’ PA by reviewing systematic quantitative reviews of non-intervention research. Systematic reviews examining associations between quantitatively measured variables and PA in young people (< 19 years) from 2000–2010 were identified

Stuart J. H. Biddle; Andrew J. Atkin; Nick Cavill; Charlie Foster

2011-01-01

268

Systematic reviews published in the july 2014 issue of the cochrane library.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The July 2014 issue (3rd DVD for 2014) contains 6050 complete reviews, 2,359 protocols for reviews in production, and 31,000 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 789,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 14,000 citations. Ninety-six new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months of which five have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.715. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:25338103

Wiffen, Philip J

2014-12-01

269

78 FR 5558 - Medical Review Board Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Medical Review Board (MRB) public meeting...SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Medical Review Board (MRB) will meet...identify relevant scientific and medical studies the Agency could rely upon in...

2013-01-25

270

Strength of Evidence in Systematic Reviews in Software Engineering  

E-print Network

[22], effect size [28], and quasi-experimentation [29], Such reviews are important, as the volume primary studies and for grading the overall strength of a body of evidence. We also present an example of the use of such systems based on a systematic review of empirical studies of agile software development

271

Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

2011-01-01

272

Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs. The comprehensive search for and review of literature found over 2000 abstracts and resulted in 25 eligible manuscripts (22 published, 3 unpublished: 8 randomized controlled trials, 7 controlled nonrandomized,

Aleksandra Zgierska; David Rabago; Neharika Chawla; Kenneth Kushner; Robert Koehler; Alan Marlatt

2009-01-01

273

Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

2013-01-01

274

Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM), and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting), and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups. PMID:25050345

2014-01-01

275

Hospital based alternatives to acute paediatric admission: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Aims: To synthesise published evidence of the impacts of introducing hospital based alternatives to acute paediatric admission. Methods: Systematic review of studies of interventions for children with acute medical problems. Main outcome measures were: admission or discharge, unscheduled returns to hospital, satisfaction of parents and general practitioners, effects on health service activity, and costs. Results: Twenty five studies were included: one randomised controlled trial, 23 observational or cross-sectional studies, and one qualitative study. Many studies were of uncertain quality or were open to significant potential bias. About 40% of children attending acute assessment units in paediatric departments, and over 60% of those attending acute assessment units in A&E departments, do not require inpatient admission. There is little evidence of serious clinical consequences in children discharged from these units, although up to 7% may subsequently return to hospital. There is some evidence that users are satisfied with these services and that they are associated with reductions in inpatient activity levels and certain hospital costs. Evidence about the impact of urgent outpatient clinics is very limited. Conclusions: Current evidence supports a view that acute paediatric assessment services are a safe, efficient, and acceptable alternative to inpatient admission, but this evidence is of limited quantity and quality. Further research is required to confirm that this type of service reorganisation does not disadvantage children and their families, particularly where inpatient services are withdrawn from a hospital. PMID:15665164

Ogilvie, D

2005-01-01

276

Erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Men with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis have been frequently associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), with an of between 20% to 87.7%. As a result of the multi-system disease processes present in many uremic men, it is apparent that the pathogenesis of ED is most probably multifactorial. Factors to be considered include peripheral vascular disease, neurogenic abnormalities, hormonal disturbances and medications used for treatment of conditions associated with CRF. These physiological abnormalities may be supplemented by significant psychological stresses and abnormalities resulting from chronic illness. Treatment must start with the determination and treatment of the underlying causes. In addition to psychological treatment, further lines of treatment of ED in CRF can be classified as 1st line (medical treatment which includes oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and hormone regulation), 2nd line (intracavernosal injection, vacuum constriction devices and alprostadil urethral suppositories) or 3rd line (surgical treatment). Renal transplantation improves the quality of life for some patients with CRF and subsequently it may improve erectile function in a significant number of them, however still there is high incidence of ED after transplantation. PMID:24175255

El-Assmy, Ahmed

2012-01-01

277

Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To systematically review the evidence for the effects of the herb valerian (Valeriana officinalis) on insomnia, based on randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials.Background: Valerian has long been advocated and used for promoting sleep but until quite recently evidence was solely anecdotal. However, during the last two decades a number of clinical trials have been conducted.Materials and methods: Systematic literature searches

Clare Stevinson; Edzard Ernst

2000-01-01

278

Motor recovery after stroke: A systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hendricks HT, van Limbeek J, Geurts AC, Zwarts MJ. Motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review of the literature. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1629-37. Objective: To collect and integrate existing data concerning the occurrence, extent, time course, and prognostic determinants of motor recovery after stroke using a systematic methodologic approach. Data Sources: A computer-aided search in bibliographic databases was done

Henk T. Hendricks; Jacques van Limbeek; Alexander C. Geurts; Machiel J. Zwarts

2002-01-01

279

Paediatric sutureless circumcision: a systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumcision can be undertaken using a variety of techniques. For the technique to be successful, it should be easy to perform,\\u000a avoid excessive haemorrhage and achieve a good cosmetic and functional result with minimal postoperative care. Naturally,\\u000a there are differences between circumcision in the paediatric and adult populations and here we review the literature on recent\\u000a advances that have been

Peter Vajda; Ramnath Subramaniam

2010-01-01

280

Sleep loss and hypertension: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Hypertension and insomnia are very common and often coexist. There is evidence to suggest that the increasing prevalence of arterial hypertension in the past decade might be related both to an increased prevalence of insomnia and to the decline of sleep duration due to modern lifestyle. The aim of this paper is to reconsider both the clinical evidence of the relationship between conditions of sleep loss and of perceived impairment in sleep quality with hypertension and the potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the biological plausibility of their relationship. Through a systematic search from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO we selected articles, which reported experimental sleep deprivation designs, or studied sleep duration or insomnia and their relationship with blood pressure or hypertension in participants over 18 years. This analysis shows that experimental sleep deprivation, short sleep duration, and persistent insomnia are associated with increased blood pressure and increased risk of hypertension, even after controlling for other risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association might be related to inappropriate arousal ("hyperarousal") due to an overactivation of stress system functions. According this hypothesis, prolonged sleep loss or alterations of sleep quality might act as a neurobiological and physiologic stressor that impair brain functions and contribute to allostatic load, compromising stress resilience and somatic health. PMID:23173590

Palagini, Laura; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Gemignani, Angelo; Baglioni, Chiara; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Riemann, Dieter

2013-01-01

281

Brain metastasis from ovarian cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

To review the existing literature on brain metastasis (BM) from ovarian cancer and to assess the frequency, anatomical, clinical and paraclinical information and factors associated with prognosis. Ovarian cancer is a rare cause of brain metastasis with a recently reported increasing prevalence. Progressive neurologic disability and poor prognosis is common. A comprehensive review on this subject has not been published previously. This systematic literature search used the Pubmed and Yale library. A total of 66 publications were found, 57 of which were used representing 591 patients with BM from ovarian cancer. The median age of the patients was 54.3 years (range 20-81). A majority of patients (57.3 %) had multiple brain lesions. The location of the lesion was cerebellar (30 %), frontal (20 %), parietal (18 %) and occipital (11 %). Extracranial metastasis was present in 49.8 % of cases involving liver (20.7 %), lung (20.4 %), lymph nodes (12.6 %), bones (6.6 %) and pelvic organs (4.3 %). The most common symptoms were weakness (16 %), seizures (11 %), altered mentality (11 %) visual disturbances (9 %) and dizziness (8 %). The interval from diagnosis of breast cancer to BM ranged from 0 to 133 months (median 24 months) and median survival was 8.2 months. Local radiation, surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery and medical therapy were used. Factors that significantly increased the survival were younger age at the time of ovarian cancer diagnosis and brain metastasis diagnosis, lower grade of the primary tumor, higher KPS score and multimodality treatment for the brain metastases. Ovarian cancer is a rare cause of brain metastasis. Development of brain metastasis among older patients and lower KPS score correlate with less favorable prognosis. The more prolonged survival after using multimodality treatment for brain metastasis is important due to potential impact on management of brain metastasis in future. PMID:24789253

Pakneshan, Shabnam; Safarpour, Damoun; Tavassoli, Fattaneh; Jabbari, Bahman

2014-08-01

282

Meta-Review: Systematic Assessment of Program Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…

Harlan, Brian

2012-01-01

283

Sedentary Behavior and Health Outcomes: An Overview of Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2) To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found. Methodology/Principal Findings Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase); PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers. Conclusions This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted. PMID:25144686

de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rodrigues Lopes, Mauricio; Rey-Lopez, Juan Pablo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

2014-01-01

284

Psychotropic medication and priapism: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Numerous reports have emphasized the association between priapism and the ingestion of psychotropic medication. Clinicians are becoming increasingly aware of this association and its subsequent severe morbidity. Review of the literature reveals that medications possessing alpha-adrenergic blocking properties are most frequently associated with priapism. These medications include trazodone, several antipsychotics, and the antihypertensive agent, prazosin. Awareness of these associations and an appreciation of potentially serious consequences of this disorder may assist clinicians in choosing psychotropic agents that minimize the risk of developing priapism. It is essential that patients who are to receive psychotropic medications be forewarned about priapism. In addition, patients should be questioned concerning prior occurrence of prolonged erections, since a past history of delayed detumescence is present in approximately 50% of subsequent cases of priapism. PMID:2211542

Thompson, J W; Ware, M R; Blashfield, R K

1990-10-01

285

Maximizing the Impact of Systematic Reviews in Health Care Decision Making: A Systematic Scoping Review of Knowledge-Translation Resources  

PubMed Central

Context: Barriers to the use of systematic reviews by policymakers may be overcome by resources that adapt and present the findings in formats more directly tailored to their needs. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify such knowledge-translation resources and evaluations of them. Methods: Resources were eligible for inclusion in this study if they were based exclusively or primarily on systematic reviews and were aimed at health care policymakers at the national or local level. Resources were identified by screening the websites of health technology assessment agencies and systematic review producers, supplemented by an email survey. Electronic databases and proceedings of the Cochrane Colloquium and HTA International were searched as well for published and unpublished evaluations of knowledge-translation resources. Resources were classified as summaries, overviews, or policy briefs using a previously published classification. Findings: Twenty knowledge-translation resources were identified, of which eleven were classified as summaries, six as overviews, and three as policy briefs. Resources added value to systematic reviews by, for example, evaluating their methodological quality or assessing the reliability of their conclusions or their generalizability to particular settings. The literature search found four published evaluation studies of knowledge-translation resources, and the screening of abstracts and contact with authors found three more unpublished studies. The majority of studies reported on the perceived usefulness of the service, although there were some examples of review-based resources being used to assist actual decision making. Conclusions: Systematic review producers provide a variety of resources to help policymakers, of which focused summaries are the most common. More evaluations of these resources are required to ensure users’ needs are being met, to demonstrate their impact, and to justify their funding. PMID:21418315

Chambers, Duncan; Wilson, Paul M; Thompson, Carl A; Hanbury, Andria; Farley, Katherine; Light, Kate

2011-01-01

286

Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics. PMID:24348712

Zhang, Dong-wei; Fu, Min; Gao, Si-Hua; Liu, Jun-Li

2013-01-01

287

Systematic review and recommendations for nonodontogenic toothache.  

PubMed

Nonodontogenic toothache is a painful condition that occurs in the absence of a clinically evident cause in the teeth or periodontal tissues. The purpose of this review is to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and the quality of dental treatment regarding nonodontogenic toothache. Electronic databases were searched to gather scientific evidence regarding related primary disorders and the management of nonodontogenic toothache. We evaluated the level of available evidence in scientific literature. There are a number of possible causes of nonodontogenic toothache and they should be treated. Nonodontogenic toothache can be categorised into eight groups according to primary disorders as follows: 1) myofascial pain referred to tooth/teeth, 2) neuropathic toothache, 3) idiopathic toothache, 4) neurovascular toothache, 5) sinus pain referred to tooth/teeth, 6) cardiac pain referred to tooth/teeth, 7) psychogenic toothache or toothache of psychosocial origin and 8) toothache caused by various other disorders. We concluded that unnecessary dental treatment should be avoided. PMID:25040436

Yatani, H; Komiyama, O; Matsuka, Y; Wajima, K; Muraoka, W; Ikawa, M; Sakamoto, E; De Laat, A; Heir, G M

2014-11-01

288

Psychosis risk screening: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Despite the wealth of evidence linking duration of untreated psychosis to critical illness outcomes, most clinicians do not utilize any formal evaluation tools to identify attenuated or emerging psychotic symptoms. Given the costs associated with training and administration, interview-based assessments such as the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes (SIPS) are not likely to be widely adopted for clinical use. The ability to identify high-risk individuals through low-cost, brief methods is essential to the success of scalable prevention efforts. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the use of self-report forms as psychosis risk "screeners." A literature search revealed 34 investigations in which authors used a self-report questionnaire as a first-step screener in a clinical high-risk assessment protocol. Information about each screener, including reported psychometric data, is presented within the review. Psychosis risk screeners have been used in diverse samples with the goals of validating assessments, screening populations for clinical referral, recruiting samples of interest for research participation, and estimating symptom prevalence and severity. Screeners focusing on attenuated psychotic experiences appear to measure a reliable construct with variable prevalence in help-seeking and general population samples. Administration of screeners to help-seeking populations can identify enriched samples with substantially elevated likelihood of meeting CHR criteria and transitioning to psychosis over time. More research is needed, however, to establish reliable norms and screening thresholds, as score elevations indicating a likely high-risk respondent appear to be unreliable across populations and settings. PMID:25034762

Kline, Emily; Schiffman, Jason

2014-09-01

289

Spinal Cystic Echinococcosis - A Systematic Analysis and Review of the Literature: Part 1. Epidemiology and Anatomy  

PubMed Central

Bone involvement in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is rare, but affects the spine in approximately 50% of cases. Despite significant advances in diagnostic imaging techniques as well as surgical and medical treatment of spinal CE, our basic understanding of the parasite's predilection for the spine remains incomplete. To fill this gap, we systematically reviewed the published literature of the last five decades to summarize and analyze the currently existing data on epidemiological and anatomical aspects of spinal CE. PMID:24086783

Neumayr, Andreas; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Blum, Johannes; Brunetti, Enrico

2013-01-01

290

Office of Adolescent Health medical accuracy review process--helping ensure the medical accuracy of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program materials.  

PubMed

The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) developed a systematic approach to review for medical accuracy the educational materials proposed for use in Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) programs. This process is also used by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) for review of materials used in the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program. This article describes the review process, explaining the methodology, the team implementing the reviews, and the process for distributing review findings and implementing changes. Provided also is the definition of "medically accurate and complete" as used in the programs, and a description of what constitutes "complete" information when discussing sexually transmitted infections and birth control methods. The article is of interest to program providers, curriculum developers and purveyors, and those who are interested in providing medically accurate and complete information to adolescents. PMID:24560071

Jensen, Jo Anne G; Moreno, Elizabeth L; Rice, Tara M

2014-03-01

291

A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews and Panoramic Meta-Analysis: Staples versus Sutures for Surgical Procedures  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically evaluate the evidence across surgical specialties as to whether staples or sutures better improve patient and provider level outcomes. Design A systematic review of systematic reviews and panoramic meta-analysis of pooled estimates. Results Eleven systematic reviews, including 13,661 observations, met the inclusion criteria. In orthopaedic surgery sutures were found to be preferable, and for appendicial stump sutures were protective against both surgical site infection and post surgical complications. However, staples were protective against leak in ilecolic anastomosis. For all other surgery types the evidence was inconclusive with wider confidence intervals including the possibly of preferential outcomes for surgical site infection or post surgical complication for either staples or sutures. Whilst reviews showed substantial variation in mean differences in operating time (I2 94%) there was clear evidence of a reduction in average operating time across all surgery types. Few reviews reported on length of stay, but the three reviews that did (I2 0%, including 950 observations) showed a non significant reduction in length of stay, but showed evidence of publication bias (P-value for Egger test 0.05). Conclusions Evidence across surgical specialties indicates that wound closure with staples reduces the mean operating time. Despite including several thousand observations, no clear evidence of superiority emerged for either staples or sutures with respect to surgical site infection, post surgical complications, or length of stay. PMID:24116028

Hemming, Karla; Pinkney, Thomas; Futaba, Kay; Pennant, Mary; Morton, Dion G.; Lilford, Richard J.

2013-01-01

292

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of fevers, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites, infertility, and problems with menstruation and labor during childbirth. The feverfew herb has a long history of use in traditional and folk medicine, especially among Greek and early European herbalists. Feverfew has also been used for psoriasis, allergies, asthma, tinnitus, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. The plant contains a large number of natural products, but the active principles probably include one or more of the sesquiterpene lactones known to be present, including parthenolide. Other potentially active constituents include flavonoid glycosides and pinenes. It has multiple pharmacologic properties, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, antispasmodic, an emmenagogue, and as an enema for worms. In this review, we have explored the various dimensions of the feverfew plant and compiled its vast pharmacologic applications to comprehend and synthesize the subject of its potential image of multipurpose medicinal agent. The plant is widely cultivated to large regions of the world and its importance as a medicinal plant is growing substantially with increasing and stronger reports in support of its multifarious therapeutic uses. PMID:22096324

Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S.; Bansal, Vijay

2011-01-01

293

Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985–2012) were surveyed using the terms “endometriosis and physical exercises”, “endometriosis and life style and physical exercises” in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293

2014-01-01

294

Mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review.  

PubMed

MCI is a nosological entity proposed as an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia. The syndrome can be divided into two broad subtypes: amnestic MCI (aMCI) characterized by reduced memory, and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) in which other cognitive functions rather than memory are mostly impaired. aMCI seems to represent an early stage of AD, while the outcomes of the naMCI subtypes appear more heterogeneous--including vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies--but this aspect is still under debate. MCI in fact represents a condition with multiple sources of heterogeneity, including clinical presentation, etiology, and prognosis. To improve classification and prognosis, there is a need for more sensitive instruments specifically developed for MCI as well as for more reliable methods to determine its progression or improvement. Current clinical criteria for MCI should be updated to include restriction in complex ADL; also the diagnostic and prognostic role of behavioral symptoms and motor dysfunctions should be better defined. A multidisciplinary diagnostic approach including biological and neuroimaging techniques may probably represent the best option to predict the conversion from MCI to dementia. In this review we discuss the most recent aspects related to the epidemiological, clinical, neuropathological, neuroimaging, biochemical and therapeutic aspects of MCI, with specific attention to possible markers of conversion to dementia. PMID:17851192

Mariani, Elena; Monastero, Roberto; Mecocci, Patrizia

2007-08-01

295

Anthrax: a systematic review of atypical presentations.  

PubMed

During the 2001 US anthrax attacks, mortality from inhalational anthrax was significantly lower than had been reported historically, which was attributed in part to early identification and timely treatment. During future attacks, clinicians will rely on published descriptions of the clinical features of inhalational anthrax to rapidly diagnose patients and institute appropriate treatment. Published descriptions of typical inhalation anthrax usually include patients presenting with cough, dyspnea, or chest pain and found to have abnormal lung examination results with pleural effusions or enlarged mediastinum. The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether atypical presentations of inhalational anthrax occur and to describe the features of these presentations. We define atypical presentations as those in patients with confirmed anthrax infection who do not have known cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational ports of entry. We reviewed the case reports of 42 patients with atypical anthrax (published between 1900 and 2004) that may have had an inhalational source of infection to evaluate whether their clinical presentations differed from the typical findings of inhalational anthrax. Patients with atypical anthrax were less likely to have cough, chest pain, or abnormal lung examination results than patients with typical inhalational anthrax (P<.05 for all comparisons). A previously published screening protocol for patients with suspected anthrax correctly identified 91% of patients with atypical presentations. We conclude that although uncommon, atypical presentations of inhalational anthrax likely occur. Timely diagnosis and treatment of patients with inhalational anthrax require clinical awareness of the full spectrum of signs and symptoms associated with inhalational anthrax. PMID:16857469

Holty, Jon-Erik C; Kim, Rebecca Y; Bravata, Dena M

2006-08-01

296

Yoga for Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Yoga is thought to be effective for health conditions. The article aims to assess the current clinical evidence of yoga for Essential hypertension (EH). Strategy MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched until June, 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing yoga against conventional therapy, yoga versus no treatment, yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy or conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results A total of 6 studies (involving 386 patients) were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. A total of 6 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. 4 of them compared yoga plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy. 1 RCT described yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. 2 RCT tested the effect of yoga versus conventional therapy alone. 1 RCT described yoga compared to no treatment. Only one trial reported adverse events without details, the safety of yoga is still uncertain. Conclusions There is some encouraging evidence of yoga for lowering SBP and DBP. However, due to low methodological quality of these identified trials, a definite conclusion about the efficacy and safety of yoga on EH cannot be drawn from this review. Therefore, further thorough investigation, large-scale, proper study designed, randomized trials of yoga for hypertension will be required to justify the effects reported here. PMID:24124549

Liu, Wei

2013-01-01

297

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review.  

PubMed

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of fevers, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites, infertility, and problems with menstruation and labor during childbirth. The feverfew herb has a long history of use in traditional and folk medicine, especially among Greek and early European herbalists. Feverfew has also been used for psoriasis, allergies, asthma, tinnitus, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. The plant contains a large number of natural products, but the active principles probably include one or more of the sesquiterpene lactones known to be present, including parthenolide. Other potentially active constituents include flavonoid glycosides and pinenes. It has multiple pharmacologic properties, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, antispasmodic, an emmenagogue, and as an enema for worms. In this review, we have explored the various dimensions of the feverfew plant and compiled its vast pharmacologic applications to comprehend and synthesize the subject of its potential image of multipurpose medicinal agent. The plant is widely cultivated to large regions of the world and its importance as a medicinal plant is growing substantially with increasing and stronger reports in support of its multifarious therapeutic uses. PMID:22096324

Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S; Bansal, Vijay

2011-01-01

298

Systematic review: conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema  

PubMed Central

Background Several conservative (i.e., nonpharmacologic, nonsurgical) treatments exist for secondary lymphedema. The optimal treatment is unknown. We examined the effectiveness of conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema, as well as harms related to these treatments. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials®, AMED, and CINAHL from 1990 to January 19, 2010. We obtained English- and non-English-language randomized controlled trials or observational studies (with comparison groups) that reported primary effectiveness data on conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema. For English-language studies, we extracted data in tabular form and summarized the tables descriptively. For non-English-language studies, we summarized the results descriptively and discussed similarities with the English-language studies. Results Thirty-six English-language and eight non-English-language studies were included in the review. Most of these studies involved upper-limb lymphedema secondary to breast cancer. Despite lymphedema's chronicity, lengths of follow-up in most studies were under 6 months. Many trial reports contained inadequate descriptions of randomization, blinding, and methods to assess harms. Most observational studies did not control for confounding. Many studies showed that active treatments reduced the size of lymphatic limbs, although extensive between-study heterogeneity in areas such as treatment comparisons and protocols, and outcome measures, prevented us from assessing whether any one treatment was superior. This heterogeneity also precluded us from statistically pooling results. Harms were rare (< 1% incidence) and mostly minor (e.g., headache, arm pain). Conclusions The literature contains no evidence to suggest the most effective treatment for secondary lymphedema. Harms are few and unlikely to cause major clinical problems. PMID:22216837

2012-01-01

299

Global disparities in the epilepsy treatment gap: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the magnitude and variation of the epilepsy treatment gap worldwide. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published from 1 January 1987 through 1 September 2007 in all languages using PubMed and EMBASE. The purpose was to identify population-based studies of epilepsy prevalence that reported the epilepsy treatment gap, defined as the proportion of

Ana-Claire Meyer; Tarun Dua; Juliana Ma; Shekhar Saxena; Gretchen Birbeck

2010-01-01

300

Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSelenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies.Methods and FindingsTwo independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and

Heidi Fritz; Deborah Kennedy; Dean Fergusson; Rochelle Fernandes; Kieran Cooley; Andrew Seely; Stephen Sagar; Raimond Wong; Dugald Seely

2011-01-01

301

Cigarette Smoking and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have examined the role of cigarette smoking in the development of renal disease in human populations. However, there have been no systematic reviews on the evidence linking smoking with incident renal disease. Methods: We performed an evidence-based evaluation of peer-reviewed research published during 1966–2005, from a search of five databases, including Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE. Results: Of

Charlotte Jones-Burton; Stephen L. Seliger; Roberta W. Scherer; Shiraz I. Mishra; Ghazal Vessal; Jeanine Brown; Matthew R. Weir; Jeffrey C. Fink

2007-01-01

302

An overview of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy  

PubMed Central

The Cochrane Collaboration says that the Cochrane handbook for diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTAR) is currently in development as per the Cochrane Collaboration. This implies that the methodology of systematic reviews (SR) of diagnostic test accuracy is still a matter of debate. At this point, comparison of methodologies for SR in case of interventions as against diagnostics would be helpful to understand DTAR. PMID:25209601

Bae, Jong-Myon

2014-01-01

303

Ultraweak Photon Emission as a Non-Invasive Health Assessment: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the peer reviewed scientific literature on ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) from humans. The question was: Can ultraweak photon emissions from humans be used as a non-invasive health assessment? A systematic search was conducted across eight relevant databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, BIOSIS, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, All of Cochrane EBM databases, GIDEON, DoD Biomedical Research, and clinicaltrials.gov from database inception to October 2011. Of the 1315 studies captured by the search strategy, 56 met the inclusion criteria, out of which 1 was a RCT, 27 were CCT, and 28 were observational and descriptive studies. There were no systematic reviews/meta-analyses that fit the inclusion criteria. In this report, the authors provide an assessment of the quality of the RCT included; describe the characteristics of all the included studies, the outcomes assessed, and the effectiveness of photon emission as a potential health assessment tool. This report demonstrates that the peer reviewed literature on UPE and human UPE measurement in particular is surprisingly large. Most of the human UPE literature is of good to high quality based on our systematic evaluation. However, an evaluation tool for systematically evaluating this type of “bio-evaluation” methodology is not currently available and would be worth developing. Publications in the peer reviewed literature over the last 50 years demonstrate that the use of “off-the-shelf” technologies and well described methodologies for the detection of human photon emissions are being used on a regular basis in medical and research settings. The overall quality of this literature is good and the use of this approach for determining inflammatory and oxidative states of patients indicate the growing use and value of this approach as both a medical and research tool. PMID:24586274

Ives, John A.; van Wijk, Eduard P. A.; Bat, Namuun; Crawford, Cindy; Walter, Avi; Jonas, Wayne B.; van Wijk, Roeland; van der Greef, Jan

2014-01-01

304

The global pharmacy workforce: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed). Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries) and work sector (private/public). Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrollments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures, complexity of medication therapy and increased prescriptions. To maintain and expand the future pharmacy workforce, increases in recruitment and retention will be essential, as will decreases in attrition, where possible. However, scaling up the global pharmacy workforce is a complex, multifactorial responsibility that requires coordinated action. Further research by means of prospective and comparative methods, not only surveys, is needed into feminization; decreasing demand for postgraduate training; graduate trends; job satisfaction and the impact of pharmacy technicians; and how effective existing interventions are at expanding the pharmacy workforce. More coordinated monitoring and modelling of the pharmacy workforce worldwide (particularly in developing countries) is required. PMID:19545377

Hawthorne, Nicola; Anderson, Claire

2009-01-01

305

Pharmacologic prevention of aspiration pneumonia: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Several approaches, inclu- ding bed positioning, dietary changes, and oral hygiene, have been proposed to prevent aspiration pneumonia, yet few data are available on the efficacy of pharmacologic interventions in reducing the rate of aspiration. Objective: This study was a systematic literature review of the pharmacologic prevention of aspiration

Ali A. El Solh; Ranime Saliba

2007-01-01

306

Occupational therapy for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Occupational therapy (OT) for cerebral palsy focuses on the development of skills necessary for the performance of activities of daily living. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether OT interventions improve outcome for children with cerebral palsy (CP).Methods: An extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED and SCISEARCH was performed. Studies with controlled and uncontrolled designs

Esther M. J. Steultjens; Joost Dekker; Lex M. Bouter; Brigitte L. M. Lambregts; Cornelia H. M. Van Den Ende

2004-01-01

307

Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

2004-01-01

308

Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Headache: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic headache is a preva- lent condition with substantial socioeco- nomic impact. Complementary or alterna- tive therapies are increasingly being used by patients to treat headache pain, and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is among the most common of these. Objective: To assess the efficacy\\/effectiveness of SMT for chronic headache through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Study Selection:

Gert Bronfort; Willem J. J. Assendelft; Roni Evans; Lex Bouter

309

Homeopathic Prophylaxis of Headaches and Migraine? A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeopathy is often advocated as a prophylaxis of migraine and headaches. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the clinical trials, testing the efficacy of homeopathy for these indications. Independent computerized literature searches were carried out in 4 databases. Only randomized, placebo-controlled trials were included. Four such studies were found. Their methodological quality was variable but, on average,

Edzard Ernst

1999-01-01

310

Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

2010-01-01

311

Effective Early Childhood Education Programs: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report systematically reviews research on the outcomes of programs that teach young children in a group setting before they begin kindergarten. Study inclusion criteria included the use of randomized or matched control groups, evidence of initial equality, and study duration of at least 12 weeks. Studies included valid measures of language,…

Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Slavin, Robert E.; Smith, Dewi; Laurenzano, Mary

2010-01-01

312

Occupational therapy for community dwelling elderly people: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: occupational therapy might play an important role in maintaining independent living for community dwelling elderly people. The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether occupational therapy improves outcome for people who are ?60 years and are living independently. Methods: an extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED and SCISEARCH until July 2002 was per- formed. Studies with

ESTHER M. J. STEULTJENS; JOOST DEKKER; LEX M. BOUTER; SANDRA JELLEMA; ERICA B. BAKKER; CORNELIA H. M. VAN DEN ENDE

313

A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Rumination and Suicidality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rumination has been persistently implicated in the etiology of hopelessness and depression, which are proximal predictors of suicidality. As a result, researchers have started to examine the role of rumination in suicidality. This systematic review provides a concise synopsis of the current progress in examining the relationship between rumination…

Morrison, Rebecca; O'Connor, Rory C.

2008-01-01

314

Retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the evidence for an association between cognitive impairment or dementia and the presence of retinal microvascular abnormalities. Methods: A systematic review of observational studies identified through searching five electronic databases and reference lists. Studies were required to have both a recognised cognitive function assessment (either a structured neuropsychological test or a clinical evaluation of dementia), and assessment

J Ding; N Patton; I J Deary; M W J Strachan; F G R Fowkes; R J Mitchell; J F Price

2008-01-01

315

Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of

Christine Schmucker; Robert Grosselfinger; Rob Riemsma; Gerd Antes; Stefan Lange; Wolf Lagrèze; Jos Kleijnen

2009-01-01

316

A Systematic Review of Action Imitation in Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving 281 cases of ASD. Overall, children with ASD performed worse on imitative tasks (Combined

Justin H. G. Williams; Andrew Whiten; Tulika Singh

2004-01-01

317

Role Reversals in the Life-Course: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this manuscript, we systematically review the literature on role reversals in the life-course. The term “role reversals” in this context means changes between the roles of offender and victim (and vice versa) over time. The majority of the literature focuses on the complex relationship between victim and offender in violent situations. The phrases “violence begets violence” or the “transgenerational

Laura J. Moriarty; Nicolle Parsons-Pollard

2008-01-01

318

Systematic reviews of strategies to prevent motor vehicle injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Information on which strategies have been shown to be effective, which are ineffective, and which strategies have been inadequately evaluated is important for both public policy and future research.Objective: To provide systematic reviews of the literature on important strategies to prevent motor vehicle injuries.Methods: The Injury Control Research Centers (ICRCs) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Frederick P. Rivara; Diane C. Thompson; Chris Beahler; Ellen J. MacKenzie

1999-01-01

319

Silymarin treatment of viral hepatitis: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Silymarin from the milk thistle herb (Silybum marianum) is used by many patients with chronic viral hepatitis, but its efficacy remains unknown. We performed a systematic review of silymarin for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B and C. An exhaustive search strategy identified 148 papers that studied silymarin compounds in liver disease. Of these, four trials included patients

K. E. Mayer; R. P. Myers; S. S. Lee

2005-01-01

320

An Updated Systematic Review of the Pharmacology of Silymarin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an explosion of scientific papers that deal with drugs from the fruits of milk thistle and its active substances silymarin (standardized mixture of flavonolignanes), thus justifying an updated systematic review. Methods: Electronic databases identified silymarin, silibinin, silicristin or milk thistle as descriptors in >700 papers (34% published in last 5 years; 92% dealt with animal pharmacological).

Reinhard Saller; Jörg Melzer; Jürgen Reichling; Reto Brignoli; Remy Meier

2007-01-01

321

Systematic review of adherence to infection control guidelines in dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of dental health care workers (DHCWs) towards infection control procedures, to examine DHCWs’ practising behaviour in respect of infection control, and to determine whether a relationship exists between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.Methods:Within this systematic review, study quality was assessed in line with selection criteria relating to study

B. L Gordon; F. J. T Burke; J Bagg; H. S Marlborough; E. S McHugh

2001-01-01

322

Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. METHOD: A systematic review has been prepared in which publications

Claudia Peters; Melanie Harling; Madeleine Dulon; Anja Schablon; José Torres Costa; Albert Nienhaus

2010-01-01

323

Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate whether funding of drug studies by the pharmaceutical industry is associated with outcomes that are favourable to the funder and whether the methods of trials funded by pharmaceutical companies differ from the methods in A recent systematic review of the impact of financial conflicts on biomedical research found that studies financed by industry, although as rigorous as

Joel Lexchin; Lisa A Bero; Benjamin Djulbegovic; Otavio Clark

2003-01-01

324

Does Being Overweight Impede Academic Attainment? A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine evidence from studies exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and educational attainment. Design: A systematic review of secondary analyses and observational studies published in English after 1997 examining attainment as measured by grade point average or other validated measure, in children aged 6 to 16 years,…

Caird, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Josephine; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Kathryn; Oliver, Sandy; Stansfield, Claire; Thomas, James

2014-01-01

325

Systematic Review: Noninvasive Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Testing of urine samples is noninvasive and could overcome several barriers to screening for chlamydial and gono- coccal infections, but most test samples are obtained directly from the cervix or urethra. Purpose: To systematically review studies that assessed the sen- sitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests for Chla- mydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine specimens and

Robert L. Cook; Shari L. Hutchison; Lars Østergaard; R. Scott Braithwaite; Roberta B. Ness

2005-01-01

326

Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…

Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

2011-01-01

327

Sugar Consumption and Caries Risk: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review addresses the question: In the modern age of extensive fluoride exposure, do individuals with a high level of sugar intake experience greater caries severity relative to those with a lower level of intake? The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language papers published between 1980 and 2000 using a search expression developed in conjunction with an

Brian A. Burt; Satishchandra Pai

2001-01-01

328

Combined hormonal contraception and bone health: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review examined whether women who use combined hormonal contraception experience changes in risk of fracture or bone mineral density (BMD) that differ from nonusers. We identified 86 articles from PubMed and EMBASE (published 1966 to August 2005) that reported on fracture or BMD outcomes by use of combined hormonal contraceptives. The evidence relating to combined oral contraceptives (COCs)

Summer L. Martins; Kathryn M. Curtis; Anna F. Glasier

2006-01-01

329

Acupuncture treatment for chronic knee pain: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the effects of acupuncture on pain and function in patients with chronic knee pain. Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adequate acupuncture. Computerized databases and reference lists of articles were searched in June 2006. Studies were selected in which adults with chronic knee pain or osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to receive

A. White; N. E. Foster; M. Cummings; P. Barlas

2007-01-01

330

Total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy. A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous osteotomy may compromise subsequent knee replacement, but no guidelines considering knee arthroplasty after prior osteotomy have been developed. We describe a systematic review of non-randomized studies to analyze the effect of high tibial osteotomy on total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: A computerized search for relevant studies published up to September 2007 was performed in Medline and Embase using a

Tom M van Raaij; Max Reijman; Andrea D Furlan; Jan AN Verhaar

2009-01-01

331

Using Agile Practices in Global Software Development: A Systematic Review  

E-print Network

agile practices can be used in a distributed setting is still open to debate. As mentioned beforeUsing Agile Practices in Global Software Development: A Systematic Review Emam Hossain1 Muhammad There is a growing interest in applying agile approaches in Global Software Development (GSD) projects. Recently

New South Wales, University of

332

Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

2014-01-01

333

Facial Emotion Recognition in Child Psychiatry: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…

Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

2013-01-01

334

Persuasive Technologies: A Systematic Literature Review and Application to PISA  

E-print Network

other studies in the field within context. The Persuasive Systems Design Model is then selected of Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.3.3 Persuasive Systems Design ModelPersuasive Technologies: A Systematic Literature Review and Application to PISA Roeland H.P. Kegel

Wieringa, Roel

335

Health benefits of Kung Fu: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu) have existed for centuries and are generally accepted as being beneficial for health without much empirical data. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the health effects of “hard” Kung Fu styles by performing electronic and manual searches of the literature. The aspects of health and the Kung Fu style examined varied

Tracey Wai Man Tsang; Michael Kohn; Chin Moi Chow; Maria Fiatarone Singh

2008-01-01

336

Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and

Kelly Russell; Donna M Dryden; Yuanyuan Liang; Carol Friesen; Kathleen O'Gorman; Tamara Durec; T Cameron Wild; Terry P Klassen

2008-01-01

337

Systematic Review of Prognostic Models in Patients with Acute Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prognostic models in stroke may be useful in clinical practice and research. We systematically reviewed the methodology and results of studies that have identified independent predictors of survival, independence in activities of daily living, and getting home in patients with acute stroke. Eligible studies (published in full in English) included at least 100 patients in whom at least 3 predictor

Carl Counsell; Martin Dennis

2001-01-01

338

Athletes' career transition out of sport: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of studies on athletes' career transition out of sport from 1968 until the end of 2010. A total of 126 studies were evaluated and reported in three sections: sample characteristics, research designs and correlates of athletes' career transition adjustment. Samples ranged from 1 to 1617. Investigators examined a wide

Sunghee Park; David Lavallee; David Tod

2012-01-01

339

Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and\\/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled

Jose-Ramon Rueda; Javier Ballesteros; Maria-Isabel Tejada

2009-01-01

340

Analgesic Therapy in Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Quantitative Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPostherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review

Kathleen Hempenstall; Turo J. Nurmikko; Robert W. Johnson; Roger P AHern; Andrew S. C. Rice

2005-01-01

341

Experimental manipulations of self-affirmation: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this systematic review of studies using self-affirmation manipulations was to identify research gaps and provide information to guide future research. We describe study characteristics, categories of manipulations, and report effects on various dependent variables. Our search strategies yielded 47 eligible articles (69 studies). Manipulations varied by affirmation domain (values or personal characteristics), attainment (participant- or investigator-identified), and

Amy MCQueen; William M. P. Klein

2006-01-01

342

Interventions for Individuals with Low Health Literacy: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently called for action on health literacy. An important first step is defining the current state of the literature about interventions designed to mitigate the effects of low health literacy. We performed an updated systematic review examining the effects of interventions that authors reported were specifically designed to mitigate the effects of

Stacey L. Sheridan; David J. Halpern; Anthony J. Viera; Nancy D. Berkman; Katrina E. Donahue; Karen Crotty

2011-01-01

343

Maternal age and risk of stillbirth: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The number of women who delay childbirth to their late 30s and beyond has increased significantly over the past several decades. Studies regarding the relation between older maternal age and the risk of stillbirth have yielded in- consistent conclusions. In this systematic review we explored whether older maternal age is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. Methods: We

Ling Huang; Reg Sauve; Dean Fergusson MHA; Carl van Walraven

2008-01-01

344

Classroom Dialogue: A Systematic Review across Four Decades of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that empirical research into classroom dialogue has been conducted for about 40?years, a review is reported of 225 studies published between 1972 and 2011. The studies were identified through systematic search of electronic databases and scrutiny of publication reference lists. They focus on classroom dialogue in primary and secondary…

Howe, Christine; Abedin, Manzoorul

2013-01-01

345

Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the relationship to the deceased. Factors associated

Elizabeth A. Lobb; Linda J. Kristjanson; Samar M. Aoun; Leanne Monterosso; Georgia K. B. Halkett; Anna Davies

2010-01-01

346

Communication intervention in Rett syndrome: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed communication intervention studies involving people with Rett syndrome. Systematic searches of five electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) target skills, (c) procedures, (d) main findings, and (e) certainty of evidence. Across the nine studies, intervention was provided to a

Jeff Sigafoos; Vanessa A. Green; Ralf Schlosser; Mark F. O’eilly; Giulio E. Lancioni; Mandy Rispoli; Russell Lang

2009-01-01

347

Communication Intervention in Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reviewed communication intervention studies involving people with Rett syndrome. Systematic searches of five electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) target skills, (c) procedures, (d) main…

Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa A.; Schlosser, Ralf; O'eilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

2009-01-01

348

Evidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews,  

E-print Network

-based personalized medicine becomes standard practice, it will be even Permission to make digital or hard copiesEvidence-Based Medicine, the Essential Role of Systematic Reviews, and the Need for Automated Text-based Medicine (EBM). EBM is dependent upon the wide availability and coverage of accurate, objective syntheses

Meng, Weiyi

349

A systematic review of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing meniscectomy.  

PubMed

Knee meniscectomy is the most common procedure performed by orthopaedic surgeons. While it is generally believed that loss of meniscal tissue leads to osteoarthritis and poor knee function, many variables may significantly influence this outcome. Through literature search engines including PubMed and Ovid, 4 randomized controlled trials, 2 prospective cohorts, and 23 retrospective cohorts that fit the criteria for level I, II, and III level of evidence were included in this systematic review. For the level III evidence studies, follow-up of 5 years or more was required. Preoperative and intraoperative predictors of poor clinical or radiographic outcomes included total meniscectomy or removal of the peripheral meniscal rim, lateral meniscectomy, degenerative meniscal tears, presence of chondral damage, presence of hand osteoarthritis suggestive of genetic predisposition, and increased body mass index. Variables that were not predictive of outcome or were inconclusive or had mixed results included meniscal tear pattern, age, mechanical alignment, sex of patient, activity level, and meniscal tears associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. While an intact meniscus or meniscal repair was generally favorable in the ACL-reconstructed knees, meniscal repair of degenerative meniscal tissue was not favorable. There is a lack of uniformity in the literature on this subject with a preponderance of lower level evidence. Although randomized controlled trials are considered to be the gold standard in medical research, a multicenter prospective cohort design may be more appropriate in assessing the long-term outcome of meniscal surgery and the role that multiple preoperative and intraoperative variables may play in clinical outcomes. In addition, future studies should include factors not assessed or adequately evaluated by several of the included studies, such as meniscal tear pattern, age, mechanical alignment, sex of the patient, activity level, meniscal tears associated with other injuries such as the ACL, smoking, and the effect of previous surgery. PMID:20587698

Salata, Michael J; Gibbs, Aimee E; Sekiya, Jon K

2010-09-01

350

Health status in the ambulance services: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Researchers have become increasingly aware that ambulance personnel may be at risk of developing work-related health problems. This article systematically explores the literature on health problems and work-related and individual health predictors in the ambulance services. Methods We identified the relevant empirical literature by searching several electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ISI Web of Science. Other relevant sources were identified through reference lists and other relevant studies known by the research group. Results Forty-nine studies are included in this review. Our analysis shows that ambulance workers have a higher standardized mortality rate, higher level of fatal accidents, higher level of accident injuries and a higher standardized early retirement on medical grounds than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Ambulance workers also seem to have more musculoskeletal problems than the general population. These conclusions are preliminary at present because each is based on a single study. More studies have addressed mental health problems. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptom caseness was > 20% in five of seven studies, and similarly high prevalence rates were reported for anxiety and general psychopathology in four of five studies. However, it is unclear whether ambulance personnel suffer from more mental health problems than the general working population. Conclusion Several indicators suggest that workers in the ambulance services experience more health problems than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Several methodological challenges, such as small sample sizes, non-representative samples, and lack of comparisons with normative data limit the interpretation of many studies. More coordinated research and replication are needed to compare data across studies. We discuss some strategies for future research. PMID:16817949

Sterud, Tom; Ekeberg, ?ivind; Hem, Erlend

2006-01-01

351

Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

2013-01-01

352

A practical guide to understanding systematic reviews and meta-analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review is a transparent and unbiased review of available information. The published systematic review must report the details of the conduct of the review as one might report the details of a primary research project. A meta-analysis is a powerful and rigorous statistical approach to synthesize data from multiple studies, preferably obtained from a systematic review, in order

J. Gail Neely; Anthony E. Magit; Jason T. Rich; Courtney C. J. Voelker; Eric W. Wang; Randal C. Paniello; Brian Nussenbaum; Joseph P. Bradley

2010-01-01

353

A review of systematic reviews on pain interventions in hospitalized infants  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized infants undergo multiple, repeated painful procedures. Despite continued efforts to prevent procedural pain and improve pain management, clinical guidelines and standards frequently do not reflect the highest quality evidence from systematic reviews. OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise all systematic reviews on the effectiveness of procedural pain interventions in hospitalized infants. METHODS: A structured review was conducted on published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions of acute procedural pain in hospitalized infants. Searches were completed in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Two reviewers independently selected articles for review and rated the methodological quality of the included reviews using a validated seven-point quality assessment measure. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. RESULTS: Of 1469 potential systematic reviews on interventions for painful procedures in hospitalized infants, 11 high-quality reviews were included in the analysis. Pharmacological interventions supported by research evidence included premedication for intubation, dorsal penile nerve block and EMLA (AstraZeneca Canada, Inc) for circumcision, and sucrose for single painful procedures. Non-nutritive sucking, swaddling, holding, touching, positioning, facilitative tucking, breast feeding and supplemental breast milk were nonpharmacological interventions supported for procedural pain. CONCLUSION: There is a growing number of high-quality reviews supporting procedural pain management in infants. Ongoing research of single, repeated and combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions is required to provide the highest quality evidence to clinicians for decision-making on optimal pain management. PMID:18958314

Yamada, Janet; Stinson, Jennifer; Lamba, Jasmine; Dickson, Alison; McGrath, Patrick J; Stevens, Bonnie

2008-01-01

354

Medical marijuana and driving: a review.  

PubMed

Medical marijuana remains a highly debated treatment regimen despite removal of state penalties against care providers prescribing the drug and patients treated with the drug in many areas of the USA. The utility of marijuana in specific medical conditions has been studied at length, but its effects on driving performance and risk of motor vehicle collision remain unclear. As with other medications that affect psychomotor function, the healthcare provider should be informed of the potential risks of driver safety prior to prescribing this psychotropic drug to give appropriate anticipatory guidance for appropriate use. The goal of this narrative review is to assess the current literature regarding marijuana as it relates to driving performance and traffic safety. With a foundation in the pharmacology of cannabinoids, we consider the limitations of testing cannabinoid and metabolite concentration. In addition, we will review studies on driving performance and epidemiological studies implicating marijuana in motor vehicle collisions. The increasing prevalence of medical marijuana laws in the USA suggests that clinicians should be aware of marijuana's influence on public safety. Patients should abstain from driving for 8 h if they achieve a subjective "high" from self-treatment with smoked marijuana and should be aware of the cumulative effects of alcohol and other psychoactive xenobiotics. PMID:24648180

Neavyn, Mark J; Blohm, Eike; Babu, Kavita M; Bird, Steven B

2014-09-01

355

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Africa: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of impaired glucose tolerance first recognised during pregnancy. Most women with GDM revert to normal glucose metabolism after delivery of their babies; however, they are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life as are their offspring. Determining a country’s GDM prevalence can assist with policy guidelines regarding GDM screening and management, and can highlight areas requiring research. This systematic review assesses GDM prevalence in Africa. Methods and Findings Three electronic databases were searched without language restrictions; PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library. Thirty-one search terms were searched. Eligible articles defined GDM, stated what GDM screening approaches were employed and reported GDM prevalence. The reporting quality and risk of bias within each study was assessed. The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. The literature search identified 466 unique records. Sixty full text articles were reviewed of which 14 were included in the systematic review. One abstract, for which the full text article could not be obtained, was also included. Information regarding GDM classification, screening methods and prevalence was obtained for six African countries; Ethiopia (n?=?1), Morocco (n?=?1), Mozambique (n?=?1), Nigeria (n?=?6), South Africa (n?=?4) and Tanzania (n?=?1). Prevalence figures ranged from 0% (Tanzania) to 13.9% (Nigeria) with some studies focussing on women with GDM risk factors. Most studies utilised the two hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and applied the World Health Organization’s diagnostic criteria. Conclusions Six countries, equating to 11% of the African continent, were represented in this systematic review. This indicates how little is known about GDM in Africa and highlights the need for further research. Considering the increasing public health burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is essential that the extent of GDM is understood in Africa to allow for effective intervention programmes. PMID:24892280

Macaulay, Shelley; Dunger, David B.; Norris, Shane A.

2014-01-01

356

The management of oesophageal soft food bolus obstruction: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Oesophageal soft food bolus obstruction (OSFBO) is a surgical emergency. However, no national guidelines exist regarding its management. This paper systematically reviews the literature with respect to the management of OSFBO. METHODS Relevant studies included were identified from the the Cochrane Library, the National Center for Biotechnology Information and the US National Library of Medicine resources. A systematic review was performed on 8 November 2010. RESULTS This systematic review of the management of OSFBO shows no evidence that any medical intervention is more effective than a ‘watch and wait’ policy in enabling spontaneous disimpaction. Furthermore, the use of hyoscine butylbromide for OSFBO probably stems from a misquoted textbook. Surgical removal of an OSFBO is effective but not without potential risk. There is some evidence to support surgical intervention within 24 hours to prevent complications deriving from the initial obstruction. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for large double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trials of drugs used in the medical management of OSFBO. Until the results from such trials are available, the treatment of OSFBO will remain based on inconsistent clinical judgement. PMID:21929913

Leopard, D; Fishpool, S; Winter, S

2011-01-01

357

A review of medical error taxonomies: A human factors perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a large number of medical error taxonomies have been published, there is little evidence to suggest that these taxonomies have been systematically compared. This paper describes a study comparing 26 medical error taxonomies using a human factors perspective. The taxonomies were examined to determine if they classified systemic factors of medical errors and if they utilized theoretical error concepts

Ibrahim Adham Taib; Andrew Stuart McIntosh; Carlo Caponecchia; Melissa T. Baysari

2011-01-01

358

Medication-overuse headache: a review  

PubMed Central

Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a worldwide health problem with a prevalence of 1%–2%. It is a severe form of headache where the patients often have a long history of headache and of unsuccessful treatments. MOH is characterized by chronic headache and overuse of different headache medications. Through the years, withdrawal of the overused medication has been recognized as the treatment of choice. However, currently, there is no clear consensus regarding the optimal strategy for management of MOH. Treatment approaches are based on expert opinion rather than scientific evidence. This review focuses on aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of MOH. We suggest that information and education about the risk of MOH is important since the condition is preventable. Most patients experience reduction of headache days and intensity after successful treatment. The first step in the treatment of MOH should be carried out in primary care and focus primarily on withdrawal, leaving prophylactic medication to those who do not manage primary detoxification. For most patients, a general practitioner can perform the follow-up after detoxification. More complicated cases should be referred to neurologists and headache clinics. Patients suffering with MOH have much to gain by an earlier treatment-focused approach, since the condition is both preventable and treatable. PMID:25061336

Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Lundqvist, Christofer

2014-01-01

359

Vibration response imaging: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of lung sounds conveying information regarding lung physiology has been used extensively in clinical practice, particularly with physical auscultation using a stethoscope. Advances in computer technology have facilitated the construction of dynamic visual images derived from recorded lung sounds. Arguably, the most significant progress in this field was the development of the commercially available vibration response imaging (VRI) (Deep Breeze Ltd, Or-Akiva, Israel). This device provides a non-invasive, dynamic image of both lungs constructed from sounds detected from the lungs using surface sensors. In the literature, VRI has been utilized in a multitude of clinical and research settings. This systematic review aims to address three study questions relating to whether VRI can be used as an evaluative device, whether the images generated can be characterized, and which tools and measures have been used to assess these images. Methods/Design This systematic review will involve implementing search strategies in five online journal databases in order to extract articles relating to the application of VRI. Appropriate articles will be identified against a set of pre-determined eligibility criteria and assessed for methodological quality using a standardized scale. Included articles will have data extracted by the reviewers using a standardized evidence table. A narrative synthesis based on a standardized framework will be conducted, clustering evidence into three main groups; one for each of the study questions. A meta-analysis will be conducted if two or more research articles meet pre-determined criteria that allow quantitative synthesis to take place. Discussion This systematic review aims to provide a complete overview of the scope of VRI in the clinical and research settings, as well as to discuss methods to interpret the data obtained from VRI. The systematic review intends to help clinicians to make informed decisions on the clinical applicability of the device, to allow researchers to identify further potential avenues of investigation, and to provide methods for the evaluation and interpretation of dynamic and static images. The publication and registration of this review with PROSPERO provides transparency and accountability, and facilitates the appraisal of the proposed systematic review against the original design. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013003751 PMID:24066696

2013-01-01

360

Dipyrone for acute primary headaches: a Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction: Headaches commonly affect working-age people. Dipyrone is largely used in many countries. Objectives: To determine effectiveness\\/safety of dipyrone for adults with acute primary headaches. Method: Double blind randomized controlled trials systematic review. Dichotomous data were expressed as relative risks and risk differences, and continuous data as weighted mean differences. If possible, numbers-needed-to-treat were calculated. Results: Four studies were

Adriana de Souza Ramacciotti; Álvaro Nagib Atallah; Bernardo Garcia de Oliveira Soares

2007-01-01

361

Efficacy of spinal manipulation for chronic headache: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic headache is a prevalent condition with substantial socioeconomic impact. Complementary or alternative therapies are increasingly being used by patients to treat headache pain, and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is among the most common of these.Objective: To assess the efficacy\\/effectiveness of SMT for chronic headache through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials on chronic

Gert Bronfort; Willem J. J. Assendelft; Roni Evans; Mitchell Haas; Lex Bouter

2001-01-01

362

Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk.Objective:To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether

L J Lloyd; S C Langley-Evans; S McMullen

2010-01-01

363

Breast-feeding and childhood obesity—a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between breast-feeding and obesity in childhood.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies (cohort, case–control or cross-sectional studies) comparing early feeding-mode and adjusting for potential confounding factors. Electronic databases were searched and reference lists of relevant articles were checked. Calculations of pooled estimates were conducted in fixed- and random-effects models. Heterogeneity was tested by

S Arenz; R Rückerl; B Koletzko; R von Kries

2004-01-01

364

A Systematic Review of Disability Management Interventions with Economic Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction We present the results of a systematic literature review of disability management interventions to answer the question: “what\\u000a is the credible evidence that incremental investment in disability management interventions is worth undertaking?” Methods We identified studies through searches in journal databases and requests to content experts. After assessing the quality\\u000a of studies that met content requirements, we employed a

Emile Tompa; Claire de Oliveira; Roman Dolinschi; Emma Irvin

2008-01-01

365

A Systematic Review of Psychological Therapies for Nonulcer Dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:We conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of psychological interventions including psychodrama, cognitive behavioral therapy, relaxation therapy, guided imagery, or hypnosis in the improvement of dyspepsia symptoms in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD).DESIGN:Trials were identified through electronic searches of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycLIT, using appropriate subject headings and text words and

Shelly Soo; David Forman; Brendan C. Delaney; Paul Moayyedi

2004-01-01

366

Neuroimaging and APOE Genotype: A Systematic Qualitative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has also been implicated in cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and cognitive changes in healthy ageing. The aim of this paper is to systematically review and critically assess the association between the APOE genotype and structural\\/functional cerebral changes as evidenced by brain imaging studies. A second

Nicolas Cherbuin; Liana S. Leach; Helen Christensen; Kaarin J. Anstey

2007-01-01

367

Interventions to improve transitional care between nursing homes and hospitals: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Transitions between healthcare settings are associated with errors in communication of information and treatment plans for frail older patients, but strategies to improve transitional care are lacking. A systematic review was conducted to identify and evaluate interventions to improve communication of accurate and appropriate medication lists and advance directives for elderly patients who transition between nursing homes and hospitals. MEDLINE, ISI Web, and EBSCO Host (from inception to June 2008) were searched for original, English-language research articles reporting interventions to improve communication of medication lists and advance directives. Five studies ultimately met all inclusion criteria. Two described interventions that enhanced transmission of advance directives, two described interventions that improved communication of medication lists, and one intervention addressed both goals. One study was a randomized controlled trial, whereas the remaining studies used historical or no controls. Study results indicate that a standardized patient transfer form may assist with the communication of advance directives and medication lists and that pharmacist-led review of medication lists may help identify omitted or indicated medications on transfer. Although preliminary evidence supports adoption of these methods to improve transitions between nursing home and hospital, further research is needed to define target populations and outcomes measures for high-quality transitional care. PMID:20398162

LaMantia, Michael A; Scheunemann, Leslie P; Viera, Anthony J; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Hanson, Laura C

2010-04-01

368

The impact of cosmetic breast implants on breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cosmetic breast augmentation (breast implants) is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures worldwide and uptake in high income countries has increased in the last two decades. Women need information about all associated outcomes in order to make an informed decision regarding whether to undergo cosmetic breast surgery. We conducted a systematic review to assess breastfeeding outcomes among women with breast implants compared to women without. Methods A systematic literature search of Medline, Pubmed, CINAHL and Embase databases was conducted using the earliest inclusive dates through December 2013. Eligible studies included comparative studies that reported breastfeeding outcomes (any breastfeeding, and among women who breastfed, exclusive breastfeeding) for women with and without breast implants. Pairs of reviewers extracted descriptive data, study quality, and outcomes. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled across studies using the random-effects model. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to critically appraise study quality, and the National Health and Medical Research Council Level of Evidence Scale to rank the level of the evidence. This systematic review has been registered with the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42014009074. Results Three small, observational studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was fair (NOS 4-6) and the level of evidence was low (III-2 - III-3). There was no significant difference in attempted breastfeeding (one study, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.76, 1.17). However, among women who breastfed, all three studies reported a reduced likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding amongst women with breast implants with a pooled rate ratio of 0.60 (95% CI 0.40, 0.90). Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that women with breast implants who breastfeed were less likely to exclusively feed their infants with breast milk compared to women without breast implants. PMID:25332722

2014-01-01

369

Research on injury prevention: topics for systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Duplication should be avoided in research and only effective intervention programs should be implemented. Objective: To arrive at a consensus among injury control investigators and practitioners on the most important research questions for systematic review in the area of injury prevention. Design: Delphi survey. Methods: A total of 34 injury prevention experts were asked to submit questions for systematic review. These were then collated; experts then ranked these on importance and availability of research. Results: Twenty one experts generated 79 questions. The prevention areas with the most number of questions generated were fires and burns, motor vehicle, and violence (other than intimate partner), and the least were other interventions (which included Safe Communities), and risk compensation. These were ranked by mean score. There was good agreement between the mean score and the proportion of experts rating questions as important or very important. Nine of the top 24 questions were rated as having some to a substantial amount of research available, and 15 as having little research available. Conclusions: The Delphi technique provided a useful means to develop consensus on injury prevention research needs and questions for systematic review. PMID:12120838

Rivara, F; Johansen, J; Thompson, D

2002-01-01

370

Ambulatory laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Ambulatory laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been developed in order to increase\\u000a patients’ satisfaction and to save bed costs. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the advantages and disadvantages\\u000a of ambulatory surgery in patients undergoing elective fundoplication for GERD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two reviewers independently searched and identified 15 prospective or retrospective nonrandomized studies dealing with ambulatory

Christophe Mariette; Patrick Pessaux

371

High-flexion total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

This study is a systematic literature review of outcomes following total knee arthroplasty with implants specifically designed to enable increased knee flexion. English language comparative studies without date restriction were identified through a computerised literature search and bibliography review. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria representing a total of 399 high-flexion knee arthroplasties in 370 patients. Five studies reported greater flexion or range of motion; however, the methodological rigour was questionable with inadequate blinding, flawed participant selection, short follow-up periods and functional outcomes which lacked sensitivity. There was insufficient evidence of improved range of motion or functional performance after high-flexion knee arthroplasty. PMID:19352655

Journeaux, Simon; Russell, Trevor

2009-01-01

372

Invasive placentation and uterus preserving treatment modalities: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We present a systematic review to evaluate failure rates (secondary hysterectomy or maternal mortality) and success rates\\u000a (subsequent menstruation or pregnancy) after different uterus preserving treatment modalities in women with invasive placentation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A review of English, German or Dutch language-published research, using Medline and Embase databases, was performed. Studies\\u000a of any design were included.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Ten cohort studies and 50 case

Charlotte N. Steins Bisschop; Timme P. Schaap; Tatjana E. Vogelvang; Piet C. Scholten

2011-01-01

373

Nutraceutical supplements for weight loss: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Obesity is a global public health issue. Although the etiology of this global epidemic is multifactorial, most sufferers would be delighted to find a relatively effortless way to lose weight. Herbal "weight loss pills" can fit the bill. The authors systematically review the scientific evidence concerning various weight loss agents that are available over the counter or in food stores. The review provides a starting point to make informed choices among nutraceutical agents promoted for weight loss, as well as advice for incorporating healthy alternatives in the diet. PMID:21947637

Poddar, Kavita; Kolge, Sanjivani; Bezman, Lena; Mullin, Gerard E; Cheskin, Lawrence J

2011-10-01

374

Assessment of Cosmesis After Breast Reconstruction Surgery: a Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Breast reconstruction (BR) is undertaken to improve cosmetic outcomes, but how this is optimally assessed is uncertain. This\\u000a review summarises current methods for assessing cosmesis after reconstructive surgery and makes recommendations for future\\u000a practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A comprehensive systematic review identified all studies with 20 or more participants that evaluated the cosmetic outcome\\u000a of BR. Four evaluation criteria (reporting of study inclusion

Shelley Potter; Diana Harcourt; Simon Cawthorn; Robert Warr; Nicola Mills; Daphne Havercroft; Jane Blazeby

2011-01-01

375

What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic reviews. This review served as the evidentiary foundation for an implementation guideline. Poor reporting, lack of precision and consistency in defining operational elements, and insufficient consideration of context and differences among populations are areas for additional research. PMID:21958556

2011-01-01

376

Treatment for Depression after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence on interventions for depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research. We reviewed pharmacological, other biological, psychotherapeutic, and rehabilitation interventions for depression following TBI from the following data sources: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We included studies written in English published since 1980 investigating depression and depressive symptomatology in adults with TBI; 658 articles were identified. After reviewing the abstracts, 57 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition to studies describing interventions designed to treat depression, we included intervention studies in which depressive symptoms were reported as a secondary outcome. At the end of a full review in which two independent reviewers extracted data, 26 articles met the final criteria that included reporting data on participants with TBI, and using validated depression diagnostic or severity measures pre- and post-treatment. Three external reviewers also examined the study methods and evidence tables, adding 1 article, for a total of 27 studies. Evidence was classified based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. The largest pharmacological study enrolled 54 patients, and none of the psychotherapeutic/rehabilitation interventions prospectively targeted depression. This systematic review documents that there is a paucity of randomized controlled trials for depression following TBI. Serotonergic antidepressants and cognitive behavioral interventions appear to have the best preliminary evidence for treating depression following TBI. More research is needed to provide evidence-based treatment recommendations for depression following TBI. PMID:19698070

Hart, Tessa; Schomer, Katherine G.

2009-01-01

377

Reducing systematic review workload through certainty-based screening  

PubMed Central

In systematic reviews, the growing number of published studies imposes a significant screening workload on reviewers. Active learning is a promising approach to reduce the workload by automating some of the screening decisions, but it has been evaluated for a limited number of disciplines. The suitability of applying active learning to complex topics in disciplines such as social science has not been studied, and the selection of useful criteria and enhancements to address the data imbalance problem in systematic reviews remains an open problem. We applied active learning with two criteria (certainty and uncertainty) and several enhancements in both clinical medicine and social science (specifically, public health) areas, and compared the results in both. The results show that the certainty criterion is useful for finding relevant documents, and weighting positive instances is promising to overcome the data imbalance problem in both data sets. Latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) is also shown to be promising when little manually-assigned information is available. Active learning is effective in complex topics, although its efficiency is limited due to the difficulties in text classification. The most promising criterion and weighting method are the same regardless of the review topic, and unsupervised techniques like LDA have a possibility to boost the performance of active learning without manual annotation. PMID:24954015

Miwa, Makoto; Thomas, James; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Ananiadou, Sophia

2014-01-01

378

Lifestyle risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically review the literature for evidence of smoking and alcohol intake as independent risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Design Systematic review. Methods MEDLINE (1946—May 2012) and EMBASE (1947—May 2012) were searched for studies investigating alcohol or smoking as risk factors for acquiring IPD and which reported results as relative risk. Studies conducted exclusively in clinical risk groups, those assessing risk factors for outcomes other than acquisition of IPD and studies describing risk factors without quantifying a relative risk were excluded. Results Seven observational studies were identified and reviewed; owing to the heterogeneity of study design, meta-analysis was not attempted. Five of six studies investigating smoking reported an increased risk of IPD in the range 2.2–4.1. Four of the six studies investigating alcohol intake reported a significant increased risk for IPD ranging from 2.9 to 11.4, while one reported a significant protective effect. Conclusions Overall, these observational data suggest that smoking and alcohol misuse may increase the risk of IPD in adults, but the magnitude of this risk remains unclear and should be explored with further research. The findings of this review will contribute to the debate on whether pneumococcal vaccine should be offered to smokers and people who misuse alcohol in addition to other clinically defined risk groups. PMID:24951110

Cruickshank, Helen C; Jefferies, Johanna M; Clarke, Stuart C

2014-01-01

379

Reducing systematic review workload through certainty-based screening.  

PubMed

In systematic reviews, the growing number of published studies imposes a significant screening workload on reviewers. Active learning is a promising approach to reduce the workload by automating some of the screening decisions, but it has been evaluated for a limited number of disciplines. The suitability of applying active learning to complex topics in disciplines such as social science has not been studied, and the selection of useful criteria and enhancements to address the data imbalance problem in systematic reviews remains an open problem. We applied active learning with two criteria (certainty and uncertainty) and several enhancements in both clinical medicine and social science (specifically, public health) areas, and compared the results in both. The results show that the certainty criterion is useful for finding relevant documents, and weighting positive instances is promising to overcome the data imbalance problem in both data sets. Latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) is also shown to be promising when little manually-assigned information is available. Active learning is effective in complex topics, although its efficiency is limited due to the difficulties in text classification. The most promising criterion and weighting method are the same regardless of the review topic, and unsupervised techniques like LDA have a possibility to boost the performance of active learning without manual annotation. PMID:24954015

Miwa, Makoto; Thomas, James; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Ananiadou, Sophia

2014-10-01

380

Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?  

PubMed Central

The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies. Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory’ and 'highly desirable’ standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training Materials for Cochrane Reviews and work on peer review of electronic search strategies. Almost all Cochrane Review Groups and some Cochrane Centres and Fields now have a Trials Search Co-ordinator responsible for study identification and medical librarians and other information specialists are increasingly experienced in searching for studies for systematic reviews. Prospective registration of clinical trials is increasing and searching trials registers is now mandatory for Cochrane Reviews, where relevant. Portals such as the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) are likely to become increasingly attractive, given concerns about the number of trials which may not be registered and/or published. The importance of access to information from regulatory and reimbursement agencies is likely to increase. Cross-database searching, gateways or portals and improved access to full-text databases will impact on how searches are conducted and reported, as will services such as Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Technologies such as textual analysis, semantic analysis, text mining and data linkage will have a major impact on the search process but efficient and effective updating of reviews may remain a challenge. In twenty years’ time, we envisage that the impact of universal social networking, as well as national and international legislation, will mean that all trials involving humans will be registered at inception and detailed trial results will be routinely available to all. Challenges will remain, however, to ensure the discoverability of relevant information in diverse and often complex sources and the availability of metadata to provide the most efficient access to information. We envisage an ongoing role for information professionals as experts in identifying new resources, researching efficient ways to link or mine them for relevant data and managing their content for the efficient production of systematic reviews. PMID:24066664

2013-01-01

381

Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?  

PubMed

The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training Materials for Cochrane Reviews and work on peer review of electronic search strategies. Almost all Cochrane Review Groups and some Cochrane Centres and Fields now have a Trials Search Co-ordinator responsible for study identification and medical librarians and other information specialists are increasingly experienced in searching for studies for systematic reviews.Prospective registration of clinical trials is increasing and searching trials registers is now mandatory for Cochrane Reviews, where relevant. Portals such as the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) are likely to become increasingly attractive, given concerns about the number of trials which may not be registered and/or published. The importance of access to information from regulatory and reimbursement agencies is likely to increase. Cross-database searching, gateways or portals and improved access to full-text databases will impact on how searches are conducted and reported, as will services such as Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Technologies such as textual analysis, semantic analysis, text mining and data linkage will have a major impact on the search process but efficient and effective updating of reviews may remain a challenge.In twenty years' time, we envisage that the impact of universal social networking, as well as national and international legislation, will mean that all trials involving humans will be registered at inception and detailed trial results will be routinely available to all. Challenges will remain, however, to ensure the discoverability of relevant information in diverse and often complex sources and the availability of metadata to provide the most efficient access to information. We envisage an ongoing role for information professionals as experts in identifying new resources, researching efficient ways to link or mine them for relevant data and managing their content for the efficient production of systematic reviews. PMID:24066664

Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

2013-01-01

382

Metadherin in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Metadherin (MTDH) has been identified as an important oncogene in carcinogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis in numerous malignancies, through signal transduction pathways. MTDH is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in cancers. The present systematic review was performed to search for studies regarding MTDH and prostate, bladder and kidney cancer using several databases and the eligible studies were reviewed. MTDH expression was found to significantly increase in prostate, bladder and kidney cancers, not only in clinical tissue samples, but also in cancer cell lines. Reviewing the clinical and statistical analysis revealed that MTDH may be involved in urologic cancer progression, metastasis and prognosis. MTDH may be an independent or one of the cofactors in urologic cancers for prediction of patient survival, and may be involved in potential anticancer strategies. MTDH may be associated with several signal transduction pathways in urologic cancers, indicating latent targets to develop anticancer therapeutic strategy. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

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