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1

Implementing reverse genetics in Rosaceae: analysis of T-DNA flanking sequences of insertional mutant lines in the diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics is used for functional genomics research in model plants. To establish a model system for the systematic reverse genetics research in the Rosaceae family, we analyzed genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA insertions in 191 transgenic plants of the diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca. One hundred and seventy-six T-DNA flanking sequences were amplified from the right border (RB) and 37 from the left border (LB) by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Analysis of the T-DNA nick positions revealed that T-DNA was most frequently nicked at the cleavage sites. Analysis of 11 T-DNA integration sites indicated that T-DNA was integrated into the F. vesca genome by illegitimate recombination, as reported in other model plants: Arabidopsis, rice and tobacco. First, deletion of DNA was found at T-DNA integration target sites in all transgenic plants tested. Second, microsimilarities of a few base pairs between the left and/or right ends of the T-DNA and genomic sites were found in all transgenic plants tested. Finally, filler DNA was identified in four break-points. Out of 191 transgenic plants, T-DNA flanking sequences of 79 plants (41%) showed significant similarity to genes, elements or proteins of other plant species and 67 (35%) of the sequences are still unknown strawberry gene fragments. T-DNA flanking sequences of 126 plants (66%) showed homology to plant ESTs. This is the first report of T-DNA integration in a sizeable population of a rosaceous species. We have shown in this paper that T-DNA integration in strawberry is not random but directed by sequence microsimilarities in the host genome. PMID:20444194

Oosumi, Teruko; Ruiz-Rojas, Juan Jairo; Veilleux, Richard E; Dickerman, Allan; Shulaev, Vladimir

2010-09-01

2

SNP discovery and genetic mapping of T-DNA insertional mutants in Fragaria vesca L  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program to develop forward and reverse genetics platforms in the diploid strawberry [Fragaria vesca L.; (2n = 2x = 14)] we have generated insertional mutant lines by T-DNA mutagenesis using pCAMBIA vectors. To characterize the T-DNA insertion\\u000a sites of a population of 108 unique single copy mutants, we utilized thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR) to amplify\\u000a the flanking region surrounding

J. J. Ruiz-Rojas; D. J. Sargent; V. Shulaev; A. W. Dickerman; J. Pattison; S. H. Holt; A. Ciordia; Richard E. Veilleux

2010-01-01

3

Molecular analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants identified putative regulatory elements in the AtTERT gene.  

PubMed

Analysis of plants bearing a T-DNA insertion is a potent tool of modern molecular biology, providing valuable information about the function and involvement of genes in metabolic pathways. A collection of 12 Arabidopsis thaliana lines with T-DNA insertions in the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of telomerase (AtTERT) and in adjacent regions was screened for telomerase activity [telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay], telomere length (terminal restriction fragments), and AtTERT transcription (quantitative reverse transcription-PCR). Lines with the insertion located upstream of the start codon displayed unchanged telomere stability and telomerase activity, defining a putative minimal AtTERT promoter and the presence of a regulatory element linked to increased transcription in the line SALK_048471. Lines bearing a T-DNA insertion inside the protein-coding region showed telomere shortening and lack of telomerase activity. Transcription in most of these lines was unchanged upstream of the T-DNA insertion, while it was notably decreased downstream. The expression profile varied markedly in mutant lines harbouring insertions at the 5' end of AtTERT which showed increased transcription and abolished tissue specificity. Moreover, the line FLAG_385G01 (T-DNA insertion inside intron 1) revealed the presence of a highly abundant downstream transcript with normal splicing but without active telomerase. The role of regulatory elements found along the AtTERT gene is discussed in respect to natural telomerase expression and putative intron-mediated enhancement. PMID:21865176

Fojtová, Miloslava; Peška, Vratislav; Dobšáková, Zuzana; Mozgová, Iva; Fajkus, Ji?í; Sýkorová, Eva

2011-11-01

4

SNP discovery and genetic mapping of T-DNA insertional mutants in Fragaria vesca L.  

PubMed

As part of a program to develop forward and reverse genetics platforms in the diploid strawberry [Fragaria vesca L.; (2n = 2x = 14)] we have generated insertional mutant lines by T-DNA mutagenesis using pCAMBIA vectors. To characterize the T-DNA insertion sites of a population of 108 unique single copy mutants, we utilized thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR) to amplify the flanking region surrounding either the left or right border of the T-DNA. Bioinformatics analysis of flanking sequences revealed little preference for insertion site with regard to G/C content; left borders tended to retain more of the plasmid backbone than right borders. Primers were developed from F. vesca flanking sequences to attempt to amplify products from both parents of the reference F. vesca 815 x F. bucharica 601 mapping population. Polymorphism occurred as: presence/absence of an amplification product for 16 primer pairs and different size products for 12 primer pairs, For 46 mutants, where polymorphism was not found by PCR, the amplification products were sequenced to reveal SNP polymorphism. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence/derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS/dCAPS) strategy was then applied to find restriction endonuclease recognition sites in one of the parental lines to map the SNP position of 74 of the T-DNA insertion lines. BLAST search of flanking regions against GenBank revealed that 46 of 108 flanking sequences were close to presumed strawberry genes related to annotated genes from other plants. PMID:20349033

Ruiz-Rojas, J J; Sargent, D J; Shulaev, V; Dickerman, A W; Pattison, J; Holt, S H; Ciordia, A; Veilleux, Richard E

2010-08-01

5

Bidirectional promoter trapping T-DNA for insertional mutagenesis in Verticillium dahliae.  

PubMed

Transfer DNA (T-DNA)-based random insertional mutagenesis is a universal forward genetic approach for gene identification and cloning in many phytopathogenic fungi. In a large number of randomly selected transformants, screening for mutants with a specific phenotype is laborious, especially for pathogenicity-defective mutants. To accelerate mutant screening and gene identification, a bidirectional promoter-trapping Ti binary vector, 1300-bisGFP-hyg, was constructed and deployed in this study. More than 6000 Verticillium dahliae transformants were obtained by the mediation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the vector. One thousand randomly selected transformants were cultured on Czapek-Dox and on Czapek-Dox plus cotton root extract media plates. The cultured transformants with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression or changes in phenotype were selected and used in virulence or promoter-trapping assays. Based on the virulence assay of 60 transformants, the pathogenicity of 17 of these mutants was compromised. Ten pathogenicity-defective mutants were found with GFP expression, and 6 with expression in Czapek-Dox plus cotton root extract media specifically. Using TAIL-PCR (thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction), the T-DNA insertion sites were identified in 8 GFP-expressing transformants, including 5 pathogenicity-defective mutants and 3 unaffected transformants. Promoters of 6 genes were successfully trapped using the T-DNA method in this study. The nonpathogenic transformant 24C9 was the subject of additional investigation. It displayed strong GFP expression on water agar medium supplemented with cotton root extracts and on cotton seedling stems. The results obtained by Southern blot and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the transcription level of VdUGPU (encoding UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase) was significantly reduced owing to T-DNA insertion in the gene promoter region. These results indicate that the bidirectional promoter-trapping Ti vector, combined with induction medium that contains root exudates, can be useful for identification of pathogenicity-related and functional genes in V. dahliae. PMID:24993736

Deng, Sheng; Wang, Cai-yue; Zhang, Xin; Lin, Ling

2014-07-01

6

An easy-to-use primer design tool to address paralogous loci and T-DNA insertion sites in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background More than 90% of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes are members of multigene families. DNA sequence similarities present in such related genes can cause trouble, e.g. when molecularly analysing mutant alleles of these genes. Also, flanking-sequence-tag (FST) based predictions of T-DNA insertion positions are often located within paralogous regions of the genome. In such cases, the prediction of the correct insertion site must include careful sequence analyses on the one hand and a paralog specific primer design for experimental confirmation of the prediction on the other hand. Results GABI-Kat is a large A. thaliana insertion line resource, which uses in-house confirmation to provide highly reliable access to T-DNA insertion alleles. To offer trustworthy mutant alleles of paralogous loci, we considered multiple insertion site predictions for single FSTs and implemented this 1-to-N relation in our database. The resulting paralogous predictions were addressed experimentally and the correct insertion locus was identified in most cases, including cases in which there were multiple predictions with identical prediction scores. A newly developed primer design tool that takes paralogous regions into account was developed to streamline the confirmation process for paralogs. The tool is suitable for all parts of the genome and is freely available at the GABI-Kat website. Although the tool was initially designed for the analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants, it can be used for any experiment that requires locus-specific primers for the A. thaliana genome. It is easy to use and also able to design amplimers with two genome-specific primers as required for genotyping segregating families of insertion mutants when looking for homozygous offspring. Conclusions The paralog-aware confirmation process significantly improved the reliability of the insertion site assignment when paralogous regions of the genome were affected. An automatic online primer design tool that incorporates experience from the in-house confirmation of T-DNA insertion lines has been made available. It provides easy access to primers for the analysis of T-DNA insertion alleles, but it is also beneficial for other applications as well.

2014-01-01

7

The ben1-1 brassinosteroid-catabolism mutation is unstable due to epigenetic modifications of the intronic T-DNA insertion.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function genetic analysis plays a pivotal role in elucidating individual gene function as well as interactions among gene networks. The ease of gene tagging and cloning provided by transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutants have led to their heavy use by the Arabidopsis research community. However, certain aspects of T-DNA alleles require caution, as highlighted in this study of an intronic insertion mutant (ben1-1) in the BEN1 (BRI1-5 ENHANCED 1) gene. As a part of our analysis of brassinosteroid catabolic enzymes, we generated a genetic triple-mutant from a cross between the bas1-2 sob7-1 double-null (T-DNA exonic insertion mutants of phyB-4 ACTIVATION TAGGED SUPPRESSOR 1 and SUPPRESSOR OF phyB-4 7) and ben1-1. As previously described, the single ben1-1 line behaves as a transcript null. However, in the triple-mutant background ben1-1 was reverted to a partial loss-of-function allele showing enhanced levels of the wild-type-spliced transcript. Interestingly, the enhanced expression of BEN1 remained stable when the ben1-1 single-mutant was reisolated from a cross with the wild type. In addition, the two genetically identical pretriple and posttriple ben1-1 mutants also differed phenotypically. The previously functional NPTII (NEOMYCIN PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE II) T-DNA marker gene (which encodes kanamycin resistance) was no longer functional in the recovered ben1-1 allele, though the length of the T-DNA insertion and the NPTII gene sequence did not change in the pretriple and posttriple ben1-1 mutants. Methylation analysis using both restriction endonuclease activity and bisulfite conversion followed by sequencing showed that the methylation status of the T-DNA is different between the original and the recovered ben1-1. These observations demonstrate that the recovered ben1-1 mutant is epigenetically different from the original ben1-1 allele. PMID:23893742

Sandhu, Kulbir Singh; Koirala, Pushpa Sharma; Neff, Michael M

2013-09-01

8

A candidate gene OsAPC6 of anaphase-promoting complex of rice identified through T-DNA insertion.  

PubMed

A dwarf mutant (Oryza sativa anaphase-promoting complex 6 (OsAPC6)) of rice cultivar Basmati 370 with 50% reduced plant height as compared to the wild type was isolated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using Hm(R) Ds cassette. This mutant was found to be insensitive to exogenous gibberellic acid (GA(3)) application. Homozygous mutant plants showed incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity for plant height and pleiotropic effects including gibberellic acid insensitivity, reduced seed size, panicle length, and female fertility. Single copy insertion of T-DNA and its association with OsAPC6 was confirmed by Southern hybridization, germination on hygromycin, and 3:1 segregation of HPT gene in F(2) from OsAPC6 x Basmati 370 cross. The T-DNA flanking region sequenced through thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction showed a single hit on chromosome 3 of japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare in the second exonic region of a gene which encodes for sixth subunit of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. The candidate gene of 8.6-kb length encodes a 728-amino acid protein containing a conserved tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain and has only a paralog, isopenicillin N-synthase family protein on the same chromosome without the TPR domain. There was no expression of the gene in the mutant while in Basmati 370, it was equal in both roots and shoots. The knockout mutant OsAPC6 interferes with the gibberellic acid signaling pathway leading to reduced height and cell size probably through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Further functional validation of the gene through RNAi is in progress. PMID:20091079

Kumar, Mankesh; Basha, P Osman; Puri, Anju; Rajpurohit, Deepak; Randhawa, Gursharn Singh; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Dhaliwal, Harcharan Singh

2010-08-01

9

T-DNA insertion mutants reveal complex expression patterns of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 3H1 locus in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana aldehyde dehydrogenase 3H1 gene (ALDH3H1; AT1G44170) belongs to family 3 of the plant aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. The full-length transcript of the corresponding gene comprises an open reading frame of 1583 bp and encodes a protein of 484 amino acid residues. Gene expression studies have shown that this transcript accumulates mainly in the roots of 4-week-old plants following abscisic acid, dehydration, and NaCl treatments. The current study provided experimental data that the ALDH3H1 locus generates at least five alternative transcript variants in addition to the previously described ALDH3H1 mRNA. The alternative transcripts accumulated in wild-type plants at a low level but were upregulated in a mutant that carried a T-DNA insertion in the first exon of the gene. Expression of the transcript isoforms involved alternative gene splicing combined with an alternative promoter. The transcript isoforms were differentially expressed in the roots and shoots and showed developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression patterns. These data support the hypothesis that alternative isoforms produced by gene splicing or alternative promoters regulate the abundance of the constitutively spliced and functional variants. PMID:22442412

Missihoun, Tagnon D.; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Bartels, Dorothea

2012-01-01

10

A rice phenomics study—phenotype scoring and seed propagation of a T-DNA insertion-induced rice mutant population  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the completion of the rice genome sequencing project, the next major challenge is the large-scale determination of gene\\u000a function. As an important crop and a model organism, rice provides major insights into gene functions important for crop growth\\u000a or production. Phenomics with detailed information about tagged populations provides a good tool for functional genomics analysis.\\u000a By a T-DNA insertional

Chyr-Guan Chern; Ming-Jen Fan; Su-May Yu; Po-Chang Lu; Yao-Cheng Lin; Fu-Jin Wei; Sheng-Chung Huang; Shu Chen; Ming-Hsing Lai; Ching-Shan Tseng; Hsing-Mu Yen; Woei-Shyuan Jwo; Chen-Chia Wu; Tung-Lung Yang; Lung-Sheng Li; Yih-Cheng Kuo; Su-Mien Li; Charng-Pei Li; Chiu-Kai Wey; Arunee Trisiriroj; Hsing-Fang Lee; Yue-Ie C. Hsing

2007-01-01

11

Analysis of the early-flowering mechanisms and generation of T-DNA tagging lines in Kitaake, a model rice cultivar  

PubMed Central

As an extremely early flowering cultivar, rice cultivar Kitaake is a suitable model system for molecular studies. Expression analyses revealed that transcript levels of the flowering repressor Ghd7 were decreased while those of its downstream genes, Ehd1, Hd3a, and RFT1, were increased. Sequencing the known flowering-regulator genes revealed mutations in Ghd7 and OsPRR37 that cause early translation termination and amino acid substitutions, respectively. Genetic analysis of F2 progeny from a cross between cv. Kitaake and cv. Dongjin indicated that those mutations additively contribute to the early-flowering phenotype in cv. Kitaake. Because the short life cycle facilitates genetics research, this study generated 10 000 T-DNA tagging lines and deduced 6758 flanking sequence tags (FSTs), in which 3122 were genic and 3636 were intergenic. Among the genic lines, 367 (11.8%) were inserted into new genes that were not previously tagged. Because the lines were generated by T-DNA that contained the promoterless GUS reporter gene, which had an intron with triple splicing donors/acceptors in the right border region, a high efficiency of GUS expression was shown in various organs. Sequencing of the GUS-positive lines demonstrated that the third splicing donor and the first splicing acceptor of the vector were extensively used. The FST data have now been released into the public domain for seed distribution and facilitation of rice research. PMID:23966593

An, Gynheung

2013-01-01

12

Selection of T-DNA-Tagged Male and Female Gametophytic Mutants by Segregation Distortion in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a strategy for the identification of T-DNA-tagged gametophytic mutants, we have used T-DNA inser- tional mutagenesis based on screening for distorted segregation ratios by antibiotic selection. Screening of z1000 transgenic Arabidopsis families led to the isolation of eight lines showing reproducible segregation ratios of z1:1, suggesting that these lines are putative gametophytic mutants caused by T-DNA insertion at a

Ross Howden; Soon Ki Park; James M. Moore; James Orme; Ueli Grossniklaus; David Twell

13

Localization of T-DNA Insertions in Petunia by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization: Physical Evidence for Suppression of Recombination.  

PubMed Central

Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with metaphase preparations, we localized a 4-kb single-copy T-DNA sequence in a group of petunia transformants. The selected T-DNAs previously had been shown to be linked to the phenotypic marker FI on chromosome II. Linkage analysis had revealed that recombination around the FI locus is suppressed in a wide cross relative to an inbred recombination assay. The localization of six FI-linked T-DNAs and the FI locus itself, using FISH, revealed a number of aspects of recombination in petunia: (1) the central region of chromosome II showed at least a 10-fold suppression of recombination in wide crosses relative to the distal region; (2) recombination in wide hybrids over two-thirds of the chromosome was extremely low; and (3) recombination between completely homologous chromosomes in an inbred cross also was suppressed in the central region. In addition, the T-DNAs were not evenly distributed along the chromosome, suggesting a possible preference for a distal position for T-DNA integration. Implications for such a preference are discussed. PMID:12239403

Ten Hoopen, R.; Robbins, T. P.; Fransz, P. F.; Montijn, B. M.; Oud, O.; Gerats, AGM.; Nanninga, N.

1996-01-01

14

T-DNA-Associated Duplication/Translocations in Arabidopsis. Implications for Mutant Analysis and Functional Genomics1  

PubMed Central

T-DNA insertion mutants have become a valuable resource for studies of gene function in Arabidopsis. In the course of both forward and reverse genetic projects, we have identified novel interchromosomal rearrangements in two Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion lines. Both rearrangements were unilateral translocations associated with the left borders of T-DNA inserts that exhibited normal Mendelian segregation. In one study, we characterized the embryo-defective88 mutation. Although emb88 had been mapped to chromosome I, molecular analysis of DNA adjacent to the T-DNA left border revealed sequence from chromosome V. Simple sequence length polymorphism mapping of the T-DNA insertion demonstrated that a >40-kbp region of chromosome V had inserted with the T-DNA into the emb88 locus on chromosome I. A similar scenario was observed with a prospective T-DNA knockout allele of the LIGHT-REGULATED RECEPTOR PROTEIN KINASE (LRRPK) gene. Whereas wild-type LRRPK is on lower chromosome IV, mapping of the T-DNA localized the disrupted LRRPK allele to chromosome V. In both these cases, the sequence of a single T-DNA-flanking region did not provide an accurate picture of DNA disruption because flanking sequences had duplicated and inserted, with the T-DNA, into other chromosomal locations. Our results indicate that T-DNA insertion lines—even those that exhibit straightforward genetic behavior—may contain an unexpectedly high frequency of rearrangements. Such duplication/translocations can interfere with reverse genetic analyses and provide misleading information about the molecular basis of mutant phenotypes. Simple mapping and polymerase chain reaction methods for detecting such rearrangements should be included as a standard step in T-DNA mutant analysis. PMID:11500551

Tax, Frans E.; Vernon, Daniel M.

2001-01-01

15

Selective methylation of one of the two promoters residing in T-DNA inserted in a retroelement of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upstream sequence of pinb previously isolated from rice and confirmed to be a wound-inducible promoter by detecting GUS in T0 transgenic rice transformed\\u000a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated procedures. In a transgenic line (pinb-16), the selectable marker hptII driven by CaMV35S promoter was completely silenced in T2 sublines; but the uidA gene driven by pinb promoter was expressed without being affected,

H. Zhang; H. Y. Pan; Y. Wei; V. Bhadauria

2006-01-01

16

A T-DNA Insertion Knockout of the Bifunctional Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase Gene Elevates Lysine Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds1  

PubMed Central

Plants possess both anabolic and catabolic pathways for the essential amino acid lysine (Lys). However, although the biosynthetic pathway was clearly shown to regulate Lys accumulation in plants, the functional significance of Lys catabolism has not been experimentally elucidated. To address this issue, we have isolated an Arabidopsis knockout mutant with a T-DNA inserted into exon 13 of the gene encoding Lys ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase. This bifunctional enzyme controls the first two steps of Lys catabolism. The phenotype of the LKR/SDH knockout was indistinguishable from wild-type plants under normal growth conditions, suggesting that Lys catabolism is not an essential pathway under standard growth conditions. However, mature seeds of the knockout mutant over-accumulated Lys compared with wild-type plants. This report provides the first direct evidence for the functional significance of Lys catabolism in regulating Lys accumulation in seeds. Such a knockout mutant may also provide new perspectives to improve the level of the essential amino acid Lys in plant seeds. PMID:11500552

Zhu, Xiaohong; Tang, Guiliang; Granier, Fabienne; Bouchez, David; Galili, Gad

2001-01-01

17

Generation and Analysis of End Sequence Database for T-DNA Tagging Lines in Rice --An et al. 133 (4): 2040 --PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Frame contained PDF file, click here to view  

E-print Network

Generation and Analysis of End Sequence Database for T-DNA Tagging Lines in Rice -- An et al. 133)9/20/2006 3:15:37 PM #12;Generation and Analysis of End Sequence Database for T-DNA Tagging Lines in Rice for T-DNA Tagging Lines in Rice1 Suyoung An2 , Sunhee Park2 , Dong-Hoon Jeong, Dong-Yeon Lee, Hong

Nei, Masatoshi

18

An intron sense suppression construct targeting soybean FAD2-1 requires a double-stranded RNA-producing inverted repeat T-DNA insert.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that the transformation of soybean (Glycine max) with sense suppression constructs using intron sequences from the fatty acid oleyl Delta12 desaturase gene FAD2-1A leads to efficient and specific reduction of FAD2-1 transcripts in developing seeds, increased oleic acid, and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids. The related FAD2-2 transcripts are only marginally affected. Despite screening a large number of independent transformants, no single-copy efficacious transformants could be found. Invariably, all the least complex transgenic loci have two T-DNA copies in an inverted repeat configuration, centered at the right borders. We show that this T-DNA configuration produces an inverted repeat transcript and that small interfering RNAs accumulate against the target sequence. PMID:20424004

Mroczka, Andrew; Roberts, Peter D; Fillatti, Joanne J; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ulmasov, Tim; Voelker, Toni

2010-06-01

19

Forward genetics screening of Medicago truncatula Tnt1 insertion lines.  

PubMed

A large population of Medicago truncatula insertion lines has been generated using the Tnt1 retrotransposon. More than 21,000 insertion lines have been generated, representing more than 500,000 insertion events. This mutant population is being used by the legume research community to screen for various different mutants using a forward genetics approach. Some of the phenotypes that have been screened using this population include developmentally abnormal phenotypes in leaves, stem, flowers, and roots. In addition to these, mutants with defects in symbiosis with Rhizobium and mycorrhiza, mutants with altered nonhost resistance against Asian Soybean Rust and switch grass rust pathogens, mutants with altered lignin content, mutants with altered cell wall structure, etc. have been identified. Here, we describe the high throughput methodology that is being used to identify these M. truncatula mutants. PMID:23996311

Yarce, Juan Carlos Serrani; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S

2013-01-01

20

Reciprocal chromosome translocation associated with TDNA-insertion mutation in Arabidopsis: genetic and cytological analyses of consequences for gametophyte development and for construction of doubly mutant lines  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal rearrangements may complicate construction of Arabidopsis with multiple TDNA-insertion mutations. Here, crossing two lines homozygous for insertions in AtREV3 and AtPOLH (chromosomes I and V, respectively) and selfing F1 plants yielded non-Mendelian F2 genotype distributions: frequencies of +/++/+ and 1/1 2/2 progeny were only 0.42 and 0.25%. However, the normal development and fertility of double mutants showed AtPOLH-1 and AtREV3-2 gametes and 1/1 2/2 embryos to be fully viable. F2 distributions could be quantitatively predicted by assuming that F1 selfing produced inviable (1,2) and (+,+) gametophytes 86% of the time. Some defect intrinsic to the F1 selfing process itself thus appeared responsible. In selfing AtREV3 +/2 single mutants, imaging of ovules and pollen showed arrest or abortion, respectively, of half of gametophytes; however, gametogenesis was normal in AtREV3 2/2 homozygotes. These findings, taken together, suggested that T-DNA insertion at AtREV3 on chromosome I had caused a reciprocal I–V translocation. Spreads of meiosis I chromosomes in selfing AtREV3 +/2 heterozygotes revealed the predicted cruciform four-chromosome structures, which fluorescence in situ hybridization showed to invariably include both translocated and normal chromosomes I and V. Sequencing of the two junctions of T-DNA with AtREV3 DNA and the two with gene At5g59920 suggested translocation via homologous recombination between independent inverted-repeat T-DNA insertions. Thus, when crosses between TDNA-insertion mutants yield anomalous progeny distributions, TDNA-linked translocations should be considered. PMID:19082841

Curtis, Marc J.; Belcram, Katia; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Tominey, Colin M.; Hoffman, Peter D.; Mercier, Raphael; Hays, John B.

2014-01-01

21

The impact of central line insertion bundle on central line-associated bloodstream infection  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge about the impact of each central line insertion bundle on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is limited. Methods A quality-improvement intervention, including education, central venous catheter (CVC) insertion bundle, process and outcome surveillance, have been introduced since March 2013. Outcome surveillances, including CLABSI per 1,000 catheter-days, CLABSI per 1,000 inpatient-days, and catheter utilization rates (days of catheter use divided by total inpatient-days), were measured. As a baseline measurement for a comparison, we retrospectively collected data from March 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Results During this 10-month period, there were a total of 687 CVC insertions, and 627 (91.2%) insertions were performed by intensivists. The rate of CLABSI significantly declined from 1.65 per 1000 catheter-day during the pre-intervention period to 0.65 per 1000 catheter-day post-intervention period (P?=?0.039). CLABSI more likely developed in subjects in which a maximal sterile barrier was not used compared with subjects in which it was used (P?=?0.03). Moreover, CVC inserted by non-intensivists were more likely to become infected than CVC inserted by intensivists (P?=?0.010). Conclusions This multidisciplinary infection control intervention, including a central line insertion care bundle, can effectively reduce the rate of CLABSI. The impact of different care bundle varies, and a maximal sterile barrier precaution during catheter insertion is an essential component of the care line insertion bundle. PMID:24985729

2014-01-01

22

Analysis of Flanking Sequences from Dissociation Insertion Lines: A Database for Reverse Genetics in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have generated Dissociation ( Ds ) element insertions throughout the Arabidopsis genome as a means of random mutagenesis. Here, we present the molecular analysis of genomic sequences that flank the Ds insertions of 931 inde- pendent transposant lines. Flanking sequences from 511 lines proved to be identical or homologous to DNA or protein sequences in public databases, and disruptions

Serguei Parinov; Mayalagu Sevugan; Wei-Cai Yang; Mande Kumaran; Venkatesan Sundaresan

1999-01-01

23

High-efficiency transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with a selectable marker gene regulated by the T-DNA 1' promoter.  

PubMed

Two selectable marker genes harbouring the bar coding region but differing in their promoters were compared in an Arabidopsis thaliana transformation assay using in planta infiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Surprisingly, in four Arabidopsis ecotypes examined, the 1' promoter from the right T-DNA was superior to the most commonly used 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). The ecotype Wassilewskija gave the highest transformation frequencies, with an average of between 5.3 and 6.3% of the seedlings subjected to the selection. This is approximately 30-fold higher than previously reported results. Analysis of T-DNA integration patterns in single transformed plants or pooled populations revealed independent T-DNA integration events in each case. Results show that the 1' promoter is an attractive alternative to the 35S promoter for the generation of T-DNA insertion lines. The 1' promoter may be especially beneficial for the secondary transformation of transgenic strains containing the 35S promoter to exclude homology-mediated gene silencing. PMID:9375405

Mengiste, T; Amedeo, P; Paszkowski, J

1997-10-01

24

Genome-wide analysis of T-DNA integration into the chromosomes of Magnaporthe oryzae.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) has become a prevalent tool for functional genomics of fungi, but our understanding of T-DNA integration into the fungal genome remains limited relative to that in plants. Using a model plant-pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, here we report the most comprehensive analysis of T-DNA integration events in fungi and the development of an informatics infrastructure, termed a T-DNA analysis platform (TAP). We identified a total of 1110 T-DNA-tagged locations (TTLs) and processed the resulting data via TAP. Analysis of the TTLs showed that T-DNA integration was biased among chromosomes and preferred the promoter region of genes. In addition, irregular patterns of T-DNA integration, such as chromosomal rearrangement and readthrough of plasmid vectors, were also observed, showing that T-DNA integration patterns into the fungal genome are as diverse as those of their plant counterparts. However, overall the observed junction structures between T-DNA borders and flanking genomic DNA sequences revealed that T-DNA integration into the fungal genome was more canonical than those observed in plants. Our results support the potential of ATMT as a tool for functional genomics of fungi and show that the TAP is an effective informatics platform for handling data from large-scale insertional mutagenesis. PMID:17850257

Choi, Jaehyuk; Park, Jongsun; Jeon, Junhyun; Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Goh, Jaeduk; Yoo, Sung-Yong; Park, Jaejin; Jung, Kyongyong; Kim, Hyojeong; Park, Sook-Young; Rho, Hee-Sool; Kim, Soonok; Kim, Byeong Ryun; Han, Seong-Sook; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

2007-10-01

25

Odyssey of agrobacterium T-DNA.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, is characterized by the unique feature of interkingdom DNA transfer. This soil bacterium is able to transfer a fragment of its DNA, called T-DNA (transferred DNA), to the plant cell where T-DNA is integrated into the plant genome leading to "genetic colonization" of the host. The fate of T-DNA, its processing, transfer and integration, resembles the journey of Odysseus, although our hero returns from its long trip in a slightly modified form. PMID:11833771

Ziemienowicz, A

2001-01-01

26

Paramutation-Like Interaction of T-DNA Loci in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

In paramutation, epigenetic information is transferred from one allele to another to create a gene expression state which is stably inherited over generations. Typically, paramutation describes a phenomenon where one allele of a gene down-regulates the expression of another allele. Paramutation has been described in several eukaryotes and is best understood in plants. Here we describe an unexpected paramutation-like trans SALK T-DNA interaction in Arabidopsis. Unlike most of the previously described paramutations, which led to gene silencing, the trans SALK T-DNA interaction caused an increase in the transcript levels of the endogenous gene (COBRA) where the T-DNA was inserted. This increased COBRA expression state was stably inherited for several generations and led to the partial suppression of the cobra phenotype. DNA methylation was implicated in this trans SALK T-DNA interaction since mutation of the DNA methyltransferase 1 in the suppressed cobra caused a reversal of the suppression. In addition, null mutants of the DNA demethylase ROS1 caused a similar COBRA transcript increase in the cobra SALK T-DNA mutant as the trans T-DNA interaction. Our results provide a new example of a paramutation-like trans T-DNA interaction in Arabidopsis, and establish a convenient hypocotyl elongation assay to study this phenomenon. The results also alert to the possibility of unexpected endogenous transcript increase when two T-DNAs are combined in the same genetic background. PMID:23272131

Xue, Weiya; Ruprecht, Colin; Street, Nathaniel; Hematy, Kian; Chang, Christine; Frommer, Wolf B.; Persson, Staffan; Niittyla, Totte

2012-01-01

27

High-frequency T-DNA-mediated gene tagging in plants.  

PubMed Central

An insertion element [transferred DNA (T-DNA)], transferred by soil agrobacteria into the nuclear genome of plants, was used for induction of gene fusions in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. A promoterless aph(3')II (aminoglycoside phosphotransferase II) reporter gene was linked to the right end of the T-DNA and transformed into plants along with a plasmid replicon and a selectable hygromycin-resistance gene. Transcriptional and translational reporter gene fusions were identified by screening for APH(3')II enzyme activity in diverse tissues of transgenic plants. The frequency of gene fusions, estimated by determination of the copy number of T-DNA insertions, showed that on average 30% of T-DNA inserts induced gene fusions in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana. Gene fusions were rescued from plants by transformation of the T-DNA-linked plasmid and flanking plant DNA into Escherichia coli. By dissection of gene fusions and construction of chimeric genes, callus- and root-specific promoters were identified that showed an altered tissue specificity in the presence of a 3'-downstream-located 35S promoter. Transcript mapping of a gene fusion and expression of a non-frame transcriptional fusion of bacterial luciferase luxA and luxB genes demonstrated that dicistronic transcripts are translated in tobacco. Images PMID:2554318

Koncz, C; Martini, N; Mayerhofer, R; Koncz-Kalman, Z; Korber, H; Redei, G P; Schell, J

1989-01-01

28

Formation of Complex Extrachromosomal T-DNA Structures in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Infected Plants1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a unique plant pathogenic bacterium renowned for its ability to transform plants. The integration of transferred DNA (T-DNA) and the formation of complex insertions in the genome of transgenic plants during A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that complex extrachromosomal T-DNA structures form in A. tumefaciens-infected plants immediately after infection. Furthermore, these extrachromosomal complex DNA molecules can circularize in planta. We recovered circular T-DNA molecules (T-circles) using a novel plasmid-rescue method. Sequencing analysis of the T-circles revealed patterns similar to the insertion patterns commonly found in transgenic plants. The patterns include illegitimate DNA end joining, T-DNA truncations, T-DNA repeats, binary vector sequences, and other unknown “filler” sequences. Our data suggest that prior to T-DNA integration, a transferred single-stranded T-DNA is converted into a double-stranded form. We propose that termini of linear double-stranded T-DNAs are recognized and repaired by the plant’s DNA double-strand break-repair machinery. This can lead to circularization, integration, or the formation of extrachromosomal complex T-DNA structures that subsequently may integrate. PMID:22797657

Singer, Kamy; Shiboleth, Yoel M.; Li, Jianming; Tzfira, Tzvi

2012-01-01

29

On-scene intravenous line insertion adversely impacts prehospital time in rural vehicular trauma.  

PubMed

Fatality rates from rural vehicular trauma are almost double those found in urban settings. Increased emergency medical services (EMS) prehospital time has been implicated as one of the causative factors for higher rural fatality rates. Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines suggest scene time should not be extended to insert an intravenous catheter (IV). The purpose of this study was to assess the association between intravenous line placement and motor vehicle crash (MVC) scene time in rural and urban settings. An imputational methodology using the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System permitted linkage of data from police motor vehicle crash and EMS records. Intergraph GeoMedia software permitted this linked data to be plotted on digital maps for segregation into rural and urban groups. MVCs were defined as rural or urban by location of the accident using the U.S. Bureau of Census Criteria. Linked data were analyzed to assess for EMS time on-scene, on-scene IV insertion, on-scene IV insertion attempts, and patient mortality. Over a 2-year period from January 2001 through December 2002, data were collected from Alabama EMS patient care reports (PCRs) and police crash reports. A total of 45,763 police crash reports were linked to EMS PCRs. Of these linked crash records, 34,341 (75%) and 11,422 (25%) were injured in rural and urban settings, respectively. Six hundred eleven (1.78%) mortalities occurred in rural settings and 103 (0.90%) in urban settings (P < 0.005). There were 6273 (18.3%) on-scene IV insertions in the rural setting and 1,290 (11.3%) in the urban setting (P < 0.005). Mean EMS time on-scene when single IV insertion attempts occurred was 16.9 minutes in the rural setting and 14.5 minutes in the urban setting (P < 0.0001). When two attempts of on-scene IV insertion were made, mean EMS time on-scene in the rural setting (n = 891 [2.6%]) was 18.4 minutes and 15.7 minutes in the urban setting (n = 142 [1.2%; P < 0.005). Excluding dead on-scene patients, mean EMS time on-scene when mortalities occurred in rural and urban settings was 18.9 minutes and 10.8 minutes, respectively (P < 0.005). On-scene IV insertion occurred with significantly greater frequency in rural than urban settings. This incurs greater EMS time on-scene and prehospital time that may be associated with increased vehicular fatality rates in rural settings. PMID:19062666

Gonzalez, Richard P; Cummings, Glenn R; Phelan, Herbert A; Mulekar, Madhuri S; Rodning, Charles B

2008-11-01

30

T-DNA Organization in Tumor Cultures and Transgenic Plants of the Monocotyledon Asparagus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asparagus officinalis was the first monocotyledonous plant from which hormone-independent and opine-producing crown gall tissue could be isolated. We confirm by DNA hybridization that tumor lines obtained after infection of this plant by Agrobacterium strains harboring wild-type nopaline and octopine tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids are stably transformed and contain transferred DNA (T-DNA) segments identical to the T-DNA found in dicotyledonous plants.

Benny Bytebier; Francine Deboeck; Henri de Greve; Marc van Montagu; Jean-Pierre Hernalsteens

1987-01-01

31

Identification and characterization of novel polymorphic LINE1 insertions through comparison of two human genome sequence assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile elements represent a relatively new class of markers for the study of human evolution. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) belong to a group of retrotransposons comprising approximately 21% of the human genome. Young LINE-1 (L1) elements that have integrated recently into the human genome can be polymorphic for insertion presence\\/absence in different human populations at particular chromosomal locations. To identify

Miriam K. Konkel; Jianxin Wang; Ping Liang; Mark A. Batzer

2007-01-01

32

Correction of deep static glabellar lines with acellular dermal matrix insertion.  

PubMed

The glabellar rhytid has not only dynamic but also static cause, which is usually achieved by injection of filler. Deep glabellar rhytides, however, are difficult to correct with filler. Therefore, the authors introduce a novel method of inserting a small strip of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) underneath the wrinkle line. From May 2009 to March 2012, 30 patients were treated for deep glabellar wrinkles with ADM augmentation by the senior author. The surgical outcomes were evaluated by the physician using the Lemperle scale and questionnaires filled out by the patients. The deep rhytides were significantly improved after the procedure, as evaluated by objective and subjective measurements, and their improvement lasted for a long period. No complications such as hematomas or infection were seen on postoperative follow-up. Augmentation with ADM provides a simple, easy, and minimally invasive option for the treatment of deep glabellar wrinkles. In cases of deep glabellar lines that cannot be corrected by filler injection, this procedure can be recommended as another option. PMID:23884161

Lee, Jang Hyun; Choi, Matthew Seung Suk; Kim, Youn Hwan

2014-12-01

33

Generation of Single-Copy T-DNA Transformants in Arabidopsis by the CRE/loxP Recombination-Mediated Resolution System1  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether complex T-DNA loci, often resulting in low transgene expression, can be resolved efficiently into single copies by CRE/loxP-mediated recombination. An SB-loxP T-DNA, containing two invertedly oriented loxP sequences located inside and immediately adjacent to the T-DNA border ends, was constructed. Regardless of the orientation and number of SB-loxP-derived T-DNAs integrated at one locus, recombination between the outermost loxP sequences in direct orientation should resolve multiple copies into a single T-DNA copy. Seven transformants with a complex SB-loxP locus were crossed with a CRE-expressing plant. In three hybrids, the complex T-DNA locus was reduced efficiently to a single-copy locus. Upon segregation of the CRE recombinase gene, only the simplified T-DNA locus was found in the progeny, demonstrating DNA had been excised efficiently in the progenitor cells of the gametes. In the two transformants with an inverted T-DNA repeat, the T-DNA resolution was accompanied by at least a 10-fold enhanced transgene expression. Therefore, the resolution of complex loci to a single-copy T-DNA insert by the CRE/loxP recombination system can become a valuable method for the production of elite transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that are less prone to gene silencing. PMID:17693537

De Buck, Sylvie; Peck, Ingrid; De Wilde, Chris; Marjanac, Gordana; Nolf, Jonah; De Paepe, Annelies; Depicker, Ann

2007-01-01

34

An Entamoeba histolytica LINE/SINE Pair Inserts at Common Target Sites Cleaved by the Restriction Enzyme-Like LINE-Encoded Endonuclease  

PubMed Central

The non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons (also called long interspersed repetitive elements [LINEs]) are among the oldest retroelements. Here we describe the properties of such an element from a primitive protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, that infects the human gut. This 4.8-kb element, called EhLINE1, is present in about 140 copies dispersed throughout the genome. The element belongs to the R4 clade of non-LTR elements. It has a centrally located reverse transcriptase domain and a restriction enzyme-like endonuclease (EN) domain at the carboxy terminus. We have cloned and expressed a 794-bp fragment containing the EN domain in Escherichia coli. The purified protein could nick supercoiled pBluescript DNA to yield open circular and linear DNAs. The conserved PDX12-14D motif was required for activity. Genomic sequences flanking the sites of insertion of EhLINE1 and the putative partner short interspersed repetitive element (SINE), EhSINE1, were analyzed. Both elements resulted in short target site duplications (TSD) upon insertion. A common feature was the presence of a short T-rich stretch just upstream of the TSD in most insertion sites. By sequence analysis an empty target site in the E. histolytica genome, known to be occupied by EhSINE1, was identified. When a 176-bp fragment containing the empty site was used as a substrate for EN, it was prominently nicked on the bottom strand at the precise point of insertion of EhSINE1, showing that this SINE could use the LINE-encoded endonuclease for its insertion. The nick on the bottom strand was toward the right of the TSD, which is uncommon. The lack of strict target site-specificity of the restriction enzyme-like EN encoded by EhLINE1 is also exceptional. A model for retrotransposition of EhLINE1/SINE1 is presented. PMID:14871947

Mandal, Prabhat K.; Bagchi, Anindya; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

2004-01-01

35

Human Population Genetic Structure and Diversity Inferred from Polymorphic L1(LINE1) and Alu Insertions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The L1 retrotransposable element family is the most successful self-replicating genomic parasite of the human genome. L1 elements drive replication of Alu elements, and both have had far-reaching impacts on the human genome. We use L1 and Alu insertion polymorphisms to analyze human population structure. Methods: We genotyped 75 recent, polymorphic L1 insertions in 317 individuals from 21 populations

D. J. Witherspoon; E. E. Marchani; W. S. Watkins; C. T. Ostler; S. P. Wooding; B. A. Anders; J. D. Fowlkes; S. Boissinot; A. V. Furano; D. A. Ray; A. R. Rogers; M. A. Batzer; L. B. Jorde

2006-01-01

36

Segregation distortion of T-DNA markers linked to the self-incompatibility (S) locus in Petunia hybrida.  

PubMed Central

In plants with a gametophytic self-incompatibility system the specificity of the pollen is determined by the haploid genotype at the self-incompatibility (S) locus. In certain crosses this can lead to the exclusion of half the gametes from the male parent carrying a particular S-allele. This leads to pronounced segregation distortion for any genetic markers that are linked to the S-locus. We have used this approach to identify T-DNA insertions carrying a maize transposable element that are linked to the S-locus of Petunia hybrida. A total of 83 T-DNA insertions were tested for segregation distortion of the selectable marker used during transformation with Agrobacterium. Segregation distortion was observed for 12 T-DNA insertions and at least 8 of these were shown to be in the same linkage group by intercrossing. This indicates that differential transmission of a single locus (S) is probably responsible for all of these examples of T-DNA segregation distortion. The identification of selectable markers in coupling with a functional S-allele will allow the preselection of recombination events around the S-locus in petunia. Our approach provides a general method for identifying transgenes that are linked to gametophytic self-incompatibility loci and provides an opportunity for transposon tagging of the petunia S-locus. PMID:10757773

Harbord, R M; Napoli, C A; Robbins, T P

2000-01-01

37

Reversal of cystic fibrosis phenotype in a cultured ?508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator cell line by oligonucleotide insertion  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder that is due to mutations in the gene encoding the cAMP-activated anion CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. A three-nucleotide base deletion (TTT), encoding phenylalanine in position 508 of the translatable CFTR sequence (accompanied by a C to T replacement immediately 5? to the deletion), accounts for ?75% of cases of the disease. In the present study, an oligonucleotide complex (CF4–CF6, 2?-0-methyl RNA–unmodified RNA oligonucleotide duplex, respectively) was used to restore CFTR function by insertion of missing bases in ?508 CFTR mRNA from a cultured (?508) cell line. cAMP-activated whole-cell currents and Cl– transport were detected in CF4–CF6-treated, but not control ?508, cells by patch-clamp and 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium fluorescence (SPQ) quenching analyses, respectively. Further, the nucleotide addition in the deleted region of ?508 CFTR was determined after amplification by RT-PCR. Insertion of UGU and replacement of U by C immediately 5? to the deletion site in ?508 mRNA appear to have taken place, with phenotypic but not genotypic reversion in tissue culture of treated cells. The mechanism of insertion of nucleotides has yet to be determined. PMID:15148387

Zamecnik, Paul C.; Raychowdhury, Malay K.; Tabatadze, David R.; Cantiello, Horacio F.

2004-01-01

38

Automatic computation of wing-fuselage intersection lines and fillet inserts with fixed-area constraint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for automatic computation of wing-fuselage juncture geometry are described. These procedures begin with a geometry in wave-drag format. First, an intersection line is computed by extrapolating the wing to the fuselage. Then two types of filleting procedures are described, both of which utilize a combination of analytical and numerical techniques appropriate for automatic calculation. An analytical technique for estimating the added volume due to the fillet is derived, and an iterative procedure for revising the fuselage to compensate for this additional volume is given. Sample results are included in graphical form.

Barger, Raymond L.; Adams, Mary S.

1993-01-01

39

Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Ines Marulanda, Maria; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

2014-01-01

40

Transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan application.  

PubMed

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Marulanda, María Inés; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

2014-04-01

41

Analysis of two P-element enhancer-trap insertion lines that show expression in the giant fibre neuron of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The giant fibre system (GFS) of Drosophila is a simple neural circuit that mediates escape responses in adult flies. Here we report the initial characterization of two genes that are preferentially expressed in the GFS. Two P-element insertion lines, carrying the GAL4 transcriptional activator, were identified that exhibited pronounced expression in elements of the GFS and relatively low levels elsewhere within the adult central nervous system. Genomic DNA flanking the P-element insertion site was recovered from each of these lines, sequenced, and nearby transcripts identified and confirmed to exhibit GFS expression by in situ hybridization. This analysis revealed that these P-elements were in previously characterized genes. Line P[GAL4]-A307 has an insert in the gene short stop for which we have identified a novel transcript, while line P[GAL4]-141 has an insert in the transcription factor ken and barbie. Here we show that ken and barbie mutants have defects in escape behaviour, behavioural responses to visual stimuli and synaptic functions in the GFS. We have therefore revealed a neural role for a transcription factor that previously had no implicated neural function. PMID:16879616

Allen, M J; Drummond, J A; Sweetman, D J; Moffat, K G

2007-06-01

42

A transgenic mutant of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) with a T-DNA tightly linked to loss of downy mildew resistance.  

PubMed

One hundred and ninety-two independent primary transformants of lettuce cv. Diana were obtained by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying constructs containing maize Ac transposase and Ds. R2 families were screened for mutations at four genes (Dm) for resistance to downy mildew. One family, designated dm3t524, had lost resistance to an isolate of Bremia lactucae expressing the avirulence gene Avr3. Loss of resistance segregated as a single recessive allele of Dm3. The mutation was not due to a large deletion as all molecular markers flanking Dm3 were present. Loss of Dm3 activity co-segregated with a T-DNA from which Ds had excised. Genomic DNA flanking the right border of this T-DNA was isolated by inverse polymerase chain reaction. This genomic sequence was present in four to five copies in wild-type cv. Diana. One copy was missing in all eight deletion mutants of Dm3 and altered in dm3t524, indicating tight physical linkage to Dm3. Three open reading frames (ORFs) occurred in a 6.6-kb region flanking the insertion site; however, expression of these ORFs was not detected. No similarities were detected between these ORFs and resistance genes cloned from other species. Transgenic complementation with 11-to 27-kb genomic fragments of Diana spanning the insertion site failed to restore Dm3 function to two ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants of Dm3 or to cv. Cobham Green, which naturally lacks Dm3 activity. Therefore, either the T-DNA inserted extremely close to, but not within, Dm3 and the mutation may have been caused by secondary movement of Ds, or Dm3 activity is encoded by a gene extending beyond the fragments used for complementation. PMID:9353944

Okubara, P A; Arroyo-Garcia, R; Shen, K A; Mazier, M; Meyers, B C; Ochoa, O E; Kim, S; Yang, C H; Michelmore, R W

1997-11-01

43

Details of T-DNA structural organization from a transgenic Petunia population exhibiting co-suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of Agrobacterium-transferred DNA (T-DNA) revealed strong correlations between transgene structures and floral pigmentation patterns from chalcone synthase (chs) co-suppression among 47 Petunia transformants. Presented here are the full details of T-DNA structural organization in that population. Sixteen transformants (34%) carried one T-DNA copy while 31 (66%) carried 106 complete and partial T-DNA elements in 54 linkage groups. Thirty linkage

Paul D. Cluster; Michael O'Dell; Michael Metzlaff; Richard B. Flavell

1996-01-01

44

Clones from a shooty tobacco crown gall tumor I: deletions, rearrangements and amplifications resulting in irregular T-DNA structures and organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformed clones from a shooty tobacco crown gall tumor, induced byAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA1501, having a Tn1831 insertion in the auxin locus, were investigated for their T-DNA structure and expression. In addition to clones with the expected phenotype, i.e. phytohormone autonomy, regeneration of non-rooting shoots and octopine synthesis (Aut+Reg+Ocs+ 'type I' clones), clones were obtained with an aberrant phenotype. Among

R. Peerbolte; K. Leenhouts; G. M. S. Hooykaas-van Slogteren; J. H. C. Hoge; G. J. Wullems; R. A. Schilperoort

1986-01-01

45

A LINE-1 Insertion in DLX6 Is Responsible for Cleft Palate and Mandibular Abnormalities in a Canine Model of Pierre Robin Sequence  

PubMed Central

Cleft palate (CP) is one of the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. In order to study cleft palate in a naturally occurring model system, we utilized the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) dog breed. Micro-computed tomography analysis of CP NSDTR craniofacial structures revealed that these dogs exhibit defects similar to those observed in a recognizable subgroup of humans with CP: Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). We refer to this phenotype in NSDTRs as CP1. Individuals with PRS have a triad of birth defects: shortened mandible, posteriorly placed tongue, and cleft palate. A genome-wide association study in 14 CP NSDTRs and 72 unaffected NSDTRs identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 14 (24.2 Mb–29.3 Mb; praw?=?4.64×10?15). Sequencing of two regional candidate homeobox genes in NSDTRs, distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5) and distal-less homeobox 6 (DLX6), identified a 2.1 kb LINE-1 insertion within DLX6 in CP1 NSDTRs. The LINE-1 insertion is predicted to insert a premature stop codon within the homeodomain of DLX6. This prompted the sequencing of DLX5 and DLX6 in a human cohort with CP, where a missense mutation within the highly conserved DLX5 homeobox of a patient with PRS was identified. This suggests the involvement of DLX5 in the development of PRS. These results demonstrate the power of the canine animal model as a genetically tractable approach to understanding naturally occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. PMID:24699068

Wolf, Zena T.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Arzi, Boaz; Jayashankar, Kartika; Karmi, Nili; Jia, Zhonglin; Rowland, Douglas J.; Young, Amy; Safra, Noa; Sliskovic, Saundra; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wade, Claire M.; Bannasch, Danika L.

2014-01-01

46

?-Thalassemia due to intronic LINE-1 insertion in the ?-globin gene (HBB): molecular mechanisms underlying reduced transcript levels of the ?-globin(L1) allele.  

PubMed

We describe the molecular etiology of ?(+)-thalassemia that is caused by the insertion of the full-length transposable element LINE-1 (L1) into the intron-2 of the ?-globin gene (HBB). The transcript level of the affected ?-globin gene was severely reduced. The remaining transcripts consisted of full-length, correctly processed ?-globin mRNA and a minute amount of three aberrantly spliced transcripts with a decreased half-life due to activation of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. The lower steady-state amount of mRNA produced by the ?-globin(L1) allele also resulted from a reduced rate of transcription and decreased production of full-length ?-globin primary transcripts. The promoter and enhancer sequences of the ?-globin(L1) allele were hypermethylated; however, treatment with a demethylating agent did not restore the impaired transcription. A histone deacetylase inhibitor partially reactivated the ?-globin(L1) transcription despite permanent ?-globin(L1) promoter CpG methylation. This result indicates that the decreased rate of transcription from the ?-globin(L1) allele is associated with an altered chromatin structure. Therefore, the molecular defect caused by intronic L1 insertion in the ?-globin gene represents a novel etiology of ?-thalassemia. PMID:23878091

Lanikova, Lucie; Kucerova, Jana; Indrak, Karel; Divoka, Martina; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Prchal, Josef T; Divoky, Vladimir

2013-10-01

47

The angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism alters the response of muscle energy supply lines to exercise.  

PubMed

The presence of a silencing sequence (the I-allele) in the gene for the upstream regulator of blood flow, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), is associated with superior endurance performance and its trainability. We tested in a retrospective study with 36 Caucasian men of Swiss descent whether carriers of the ACE I-allele demonstrate a modified adaptive response of energy supply lines in knee extensor muscle, and aerobic fitness, to endurance training based on 6 weeks of supervised bicycle exercise or 6 months of self-regulated running (p value

Vaughan, David; Huber-Abel, Felicitas A; Graber, Franziska; Hoppeler, Hans; Flück, Martin

2013-07-01

48

Gallery 31: mys inserted in chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Repetitive DNA can have preferred insertion sites. In this example, yellow represents the distribution of mys (a type of LINE) over a mouse genome where chromosomes are orange. There are more mys inserted in the sex (X) chromosomes.

2009-12-26

49

An intronic LINE-1 element insertion in the dystrophin gene aborts dystrophin expression and results in Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy in the corgi breed  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a dystrophin-deficient lethal muscle disease. To date, the catastrophic muscle wasting phenotype has only been seen in dystrophin-deficient humans and dogs. While Duchenne-like symptoms have been observed in more than a dozen dog breeds, the mutation is often not known and research colonies are rarely established. Here we report an independent canine DMD model originally derived from the Pembroke Welsh corgi breed. The affected dogs presented clinical signs of muscular dystrophy. Immunostaining revealed the absence of dystrophin and up-regulation of utrophin. Histopathologic examination showed variable fiber size, central nucleation, calcification, fibrosis, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and cardiac focal vacuolar degeneration. Carrier dogs also displayed mild myopathy. The mutation was identified as a long interspersed repetitive element-1 (LINE-1) insertion in intron 13 which introduced a new exon containing an in-frame stop codon. Similar mutations have been seen in human patients. A colony was generated by crossing carrier females with normal males. Affected puppies had a normal birth weight but they experienced a striking growth delay in the first 5 days. In summary, the new corgi DMD model offers an excellent opportunity to study DMD pathogenesis and to develop novel therapies. PMID:20714321

Smith, Bruce F.; Yue, Yongping; Woods, Philip R.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Shin, Jin-Hong; Williams, Regina R.; Duan, Dongsheng

2010-01-01

50

Insertion element IS1296 in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony identifies a European clonal line distinct from African and Australian strains.  

PubMed

Strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type, the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), were analysed with respect to the polymorphism of distribution of a newly discovered insertion element, IS1296, on the chromosome. Analysis of 64 strains isolated from Europe, Africa and Australia, including four vaccine strains and the type strain PG1, revealed ten different IS patterns, forming two main clusters. The European strains originated from outbreaks of CBPP in different countries, and from various other sources such as semen and preputial washings from cattle, lungs from goats and buffalo, and milk from sheep. They showed identical IS1296 patterns, except one strain which had an additional IS1296 element, but the pattern belonged to the same cluster. This shows that the strains from Europe form a clonal lineage. The strains originating from different geographical parts of the African continent and from Australia showed four closely related IS1296 patterns which belong to a separate cluster. This indicates that strains from Africa and Australia form a clonal lineage different from that of the European strains, suggesting that the sporadic cases of CBPP that have re-emerged in Europe almost 15 years after the last declared endemic case in 1967 arose from an established reservoir within Europe rather than being the result of repeated importation from Africa and Australia. While most strains from Africa and Australia had the same IS1296 pattern, all vaccine strains could be distinguished by an individual pattern. The type strain PG1 also had a particular IS1296 pattern which belongs to the cluster of the strains from Africa and Australia. The molecular definition of clonality of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains with IS1296 represents a rapid and reproducible method for subtyping and differentiation of vaccine strains. It permits at the present time the definition of two main clonal lines, one including the strains from the European continent and a second with strains from Africa and Australia. PMID:8574413

Cheng, X; Nicolet, J; Poumarat, F; Regalla, J; Thiaucourt, F; Frey, J

1995-12-01

51

A Resource of Mapped Dissociation Launch Pads for Targeted Insertional Mutagenesis in the Arabidopsis Genome1  

PubMed Central

We describe a new resource for targeted insertional mutagenesis in Arabidopsis using a maize (Zea mays) Activator/Dissociation (Ds) two-element system. The two components of the system, T-DNA vectors carrying a Ds launch pad and a stable Activator transposase source, were designed to simplify selection of transposition events and maximize their usefulness. Because Ds elements preferentially transpose to nearby genomic sites, they can be used in targeted mutagenesis of linked genes. To efficiently target all genes throughout the genome, we generated a large population of transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing the Ds launch pad construct, identified lines containing single Ds launch pad inserts, and mapped the positions of Ds launch pads in 89 lines. The integration sites of the Ds launch pads were relatively evenly distributed on all five chromosomes, except for a region of chromosomes 2 and 4 and the centromeric regions. This resource therefore provides access to the majority of the Arabidopsis genome for targeted tagging. PMID:12805583

Muskett, Paul R.; Clissold, Leah; Marocco, Adriano; Springer, Patricia S.; Martienssen, Robert; Dean, Caroline

2003-01-01

52

Author's personal copy Epigenetic control of Agrobacterium T-DNA integration  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Review Epigenetic control of Agrobacterium T-DNA integration Shimpei Magori Control of cellular and developmental processes in plants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved the ability to transform virtually anyeukaryotic species, from fungal to humancells (reviewed in [1

Citovsky, Vitaly

53

Insertion Sequences  

PubMed Central

Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

1998-01-01

54

The distribution of T-DNA in the genomes of transgenic Arabidopsis and rice.  

PubMed

Almost all the nuclear genes of four Gramineae (maize, wheat, barley, rice) and pea are located in DNA fractions covering only a 1-2% GC range and representing between 10 and 25% of the different genomes. These DNA fractions comprise large gene-rich regions (collectively called the 'gene space') separated by vast gene-empty, repeated sequences. In contrast, in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes are distributed in DNA fractions covering an 8% GC range and representing 85% of the genome. Here, we investigated the integration of a transferred DNA (T-DNA) in the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice and found different patterns of integration, which are correlated with the different gene distributions. While T-DNA integrates essentially everywhere in the Arabidopsis genome, integration was detected only in the gene space, namely in the gene-rich, transcriptionally active, regions of the rice genome. The implications of these results for the integration of foreign DNA are discussed. PMID:10767414

Barakat, A; Gallois, P; Raynal, M; Mestre-Ortega, D; Sallaud, C; Guiderdoni, E; Delseny, M; Bernardi, G

2000-04-14

55

Identification of T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis mutants that are resistant to transformation by Agrobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis mutants that are resistant to transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (rat mutants). These mutants are highly recalcitrant to the induction of both crown gall tumors and phosphinothricin-resistant\\u000a calli. The results of transient GUS (?-glucuronidase) assays suggest that some of these mutants are blocked at an early step\\u000a in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation process, whereas others are

J. Nam; K. S. Mysore; C. Zheng; M. K. Knue; A. G. Matthysse; S. B. Gelvin

1999-01-01

56

New plant binary vectors with selectable markers located proximal to the left T-DNA border  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new binary vectors have been constructed which have the following features: (1) different plant selectable markers including neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (bar), and bleomycin resistance (ble); (2) selectable markers are located near the T-DNA left border and; (3) selectable marker and ß-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter genes are divergently organized for efficient expression,

Detlef Becker; Elke Kemper; Jeff Schell; Robert Masterson

1992-01-01

57

A T-DNA transfer stimulator sequence in the vicinity of the right border of pRi8196  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8 bp sequence repeated 6 times is present to the right of the mannopine type pRi8196 T-DNA righ-border sequence. Experiments were designed to test whether these repeats have a role in T-DNA transfer. Several constructs in which different lengths of pRi8196 right-border region were linked to the cucumopine synthesis gene on anAgrobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector were made. The recombinant

Geneviève Hansen; Jacques Tempé; Jean Brevet

1992-01-01

58

Analysis of the T-DNA structure in a large number of transgenic petunias generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern hybridisation was performed on ninety-six transgenic petunias that had been selected for resistance to kanamycin. Just over half of the plants contained intact copies of the T-DNA. The most common rearrangements (at least 24 plants out of 96) were simple deleted derivatives that had lost one or both ends of the T-DNA. T-DNAs lacking the left border occurred at

Simon C. Deroles; Richard C. Gardner

1988-01-01

59

Genetic transformation in two potato cultivars with T-DNA from disarmed Agrobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derivatives of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv.'s ‘Maris Bard’ and ‘Desiree’) transformed with disarmed T-DNA from genetically engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains were isolated. The transformed plants were recovered from shoot-forming tumours induced by infection of wounds with mixedcultures of shoot-inducing A. tumefaciens strains T37 and either Agrobacterium strain LBA1834(pRAL1834), (Hille et al. 1983) or LBA4404(pBIN6; pRAL4404), (Bevan 1984). Two small-scale feasibility

G. Ooms; M. M. Burrell; A. Karp; M. Bevan; J. Hille

1987-01-01

60

Differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis ecotypes to crown gall disease may result from a deficiency in T-DNA integration.  

PubMed Central

We show that among ecotypes of Arabidopsis, there is considerable variation in their susceptibility to crown gall disease. Differences in susceptibility are heritable and, in one ecotype, segregate as a single major contributing locus. In several ecotypes, recalcitrance to tumorigenesis results from decreased binding of Agrobacterium to inoculated root explants. The recalcitrance of another ecotype occurs at a late step in T-DNA transfer. Transient expression of a T-DNA-encoded beta-glucuronidase gusA gene is efficient, but the ecotype is deficient in crown gall tumorigenesis, transformation to kanamycin resistance, and stable GUS expression. This ecotype is also more sensitive to gamma radiation than is a susceptible ecotype. DNA gel blot analysis showed that after infection by Agrobacterium, less T-DNA was integrated into the genome of the recalcitrant ecotype than was integrated into the genome of a highly susceptible ecotype. PMID:9090878

Nam, J; Matthysse, A G; Gelvin, S B

1997-01-01

61

Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

Mires, Peter B.

2006-01-01

62

Characterisation of the Roundup Ready soybean insert  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we describe the isolation and characterisation of the junction between insert DNA and plant DNA in the transgenic Roundup Ready soybean line event 40-3-2. Our results establish that during integration of the insert DNA several rearrangements occurred at the 3' NOS junction and that the genomic plant DNA at the pre-integration site may have been rearranged. These

Pieter Windels; Isabel Taverniers; Ann Depicker; Erik Van Bockstaele; Marc De Loose

2001-01-01

63

Optics for insertion-device beam lines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of optical, thermal, and mechanical problems encountered with optical elements in beams of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by electron sidewinders such as wigglers, undulators, and free electron lasers (FELs). Perhaps the most challenging problem is the management of the high power densities from wigglers without degradation of the optical quality of the beam. Another challenging problem is the reduction of near-specular scattering by surface microroughness on the mirrors. Near-specular scattering becomes more important as the degree of coherence and collimation to be maintained increases from bend magnet SR to undulator and FEL radiation. It is emphasized that the surface autocovariance length of the mirror is the determiner of the angular distribution of scattering, and that very long autocovariance lengths are required for highly coherent SR beams.

Rehn, V.

1985-10-01

64

In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro?PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1?2 pro?GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

2014-03-01

65

T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in  

Microsoft Academic Search

A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3%)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3-35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

Csaba Mathea; Eva Horvath; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz

66

Core Vessel Insert Handling Robot for the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source provides the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams for scientific research and industrial development. Its eighteen neutron beam lines will eventually support up to twenty-four simultaneous experiments. Each beam line consists of various optical components which guide the neutrons to a particular instrument. The optical components nearest the neutron moderators are the core vessel inserts. Located approximately 9 m below the high bay floor, these inserts are bolted to the core vessel chamber and are part of the vacuum boundary. They are in a highly radioactive environment and must periodically be replaced. During initial SNS construction, four of the beam lines received Core Vessel Insert plugs rather than functional inserts. Remote replacement of the first Core Vessel Insert plug was recently completed using several pieces of custom-designed tooling, including a highly complicated Core Vessel Insert Robot. The design of this tool are discussed.

Graves, Van B [ORNL; Dayton, Michael J [ORNL

2011-01-01

67

Cloning of insertion site flanking sequence and construction of transfer DNA insert mutant library in stylosanthes colletotrichum.  

PubMed

Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens' AGL-1 concentration (OD600), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1×106 conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25°C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300-400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant's pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region of the putative gene had 79% homology with the aspartate aminotransferase gene in Magnaporthe oryzae (XP_003719674.1). PMID:25361073

Chen, Helong; Hu, Caiping; Yi, Kexian; Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

2014-01-01

68

Pearls Educator's Guide Insert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-page PDF insert takes an informative look at pearls, oysters, and mollusks. Useful to both educators and students, it includes information and images from the Pearls exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History.

69

Nanopattern insert molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method was investigated to produce nanopatterns on polymeric surfaces with high resolution, good productivity, and low cost. It has certain advantages when compared with such conventional techniques as nanoimprint lithography (NIL), hot embossing, and injection molding. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was utilized for preparation of the stamp with nanopatterns on its surface. The nanoimprinted PVA film was inserted into the cavity and the polymer melt was injected into the mold. Nanopatterns with pillars smaller than 100 nm were produced on the polymeric surface. The water soluble PVA film was used as the inserted template to overcome the difficulties of releasing the nanopatterned film from the substrate.

Kim, S. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Youn, J. R.

2010-05-01

70

Hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 is encoded in a region of pTiBo542 outside of T-DNA  

SciTech Connect

A binary-vectory strategy was used to study the hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. Strain A281 is hypervirulent on several solanaceous plants. Plasmids were constructed (pCS65 and pCS277) carrying either the transferred DNA (T-DNA) or the remainder of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid (pEHA101) from this strain and tested each of these constructs were tested in trans with complementary each of regions from heterologous Ti plasmids. Hypervirulence on tobacco could be reconstructed in a bipartite strain with the L,L-succinamopine T-DNA and the vir region on separate plasmids. pEHA101 was able to complement octopine T-DNA to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants. Nopaline T-DNA was complemented better on tomato plants by pEHA101 than it was by its own nopaline vir region, but not to hypervirulence. L,L-Succinamopine T-DNA could not be complemented to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants with either heterologous vir region. From these results the authors suggest that the hypervirulence of strain A281 is due to non-T-DNA sequences on the Ti plasmid.

Hood, E.E.; Helmer, G.L.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

1986-12-01

71

Insertion in Persian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

2011-01-01

72

Ear tube insertion  

MedlinePLUS

... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk of ear infections. ... do not have long-term damage to their hearing or speech, even when ... many months. Ear tube insertion may be done when fluid builds ...

73

Method of inserting nuclear fuel rods in grid assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of inserting metal alloy clad nuclear fuel rods in a fuel rod ; spacer grid assembly without scratching the clad material is described. A ; hoarfrost-line coating on the rods is applied before inserting them in the ; assembly. (Official Gazette);

Bleiberg

1973-01-01

74

Accelerated Insertion of Materials - Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Accelerated Insertion of Materials - Composites (AIM-C) program is to develop and validate new approaches for materials development that will accelerate the insertion of materials into production hardware.

G. Havskjold

2001-01-01

75

Remote Control Inserting the batteries  

E-print Network

Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

Kostic, Milivoje M.

76

[Insertion and removal of Norplant].  

PubMed

The family planning service at Aristide Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, has begun inserting and removing the contraceptive implant system Norplant. A local anesthetic is injected in the arm, then a trocar (sometimes a scalpel) is used to make a 2 mm incision in the skin of the inner arm. One then inserts the six capsules subdermally through the trocar. After inserting the first capsule, it is necessary to pivot the trocar at a 15 degree angle in order to insert the next capsules. After Norplant insertion and removal of the trocar, health workers wrap gauze around a bandage to secure the site rather than use sutures. The insertion procedure takes only 13 minutes. Norplant protects against pregnancy for five years. The Family Planning Association of the Dominican Republic has trained more than 100 physicians at an international training center in Santo Domingo in the insertion and removal of Norplant. Norplant should be inserted during menstruation or immediately after delivery to assure absence of pregnancy. It should be inserted in lactating women six weeks after delivery. Possible insertion-related complications include pain and itching. They tend to be rare, however, (1%, according to Family Health International's experience), and vary considerably from country to country and from clinic to clinic. An infection at the insertion site and expulsion of implants tend to occur two months after insertion. 37.5% of local reactions occur after the fourth month. Most complications are directly attributable to inexperience, inadequate training, or lack of sterile insertion technique. Malplaced implants are difficult to remove. A 4 mm long incision at the insertion site is required for implant removal. Removal lasts 15-20 minutes. Capsules must be removed at five years and new capsules inserted (usually at the same site) if one still wants to use Norplant. A local anesthetic is needed for removal. PMID:12319670

Townsend, S

1991-05-01

77

Ac-Ds solutions for rice insertion mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Rice is the model plant for monocotyledons. Since the completion of the high-quality sequence of its genome, the international community is deploying efforts to identify the function of the 30-40,000 nontransposable element genes of rice. These efforts comprise the creation of large collections of rice mutants accessible to the international scientific community. In addition to loss of function mutants, insertion mutagenesis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and engineered mobile elements allows the identification of genes through enhancer or gene trapping or activation tagging. The maize transposable element Ac-Ds is known to be active in rice since the early 1990s and it does not interfere with endogenous rice transposons. This is the guaranty that induced mutation obtained with the mobility of the Ds element will be stable when the source of Ac transposase is removed from the mutated genome. In this paper, we describe single- or double-component T-DNA constructs that have been used to introduce a functional Ac-Ds system in rice and allowed the generation and selection of different type of Ds insertion mutations in the rice genome. PMID:22367872

Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Gantet, Pascal

2012-01-01

78

Cloning of Insertion Site Flanking Sequence and Construction of Transfer DNA Insert Mutant Library in Stylosanthes Colletotrichum  

PubMed Central

Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens’ AGL-1 concentration (OD600), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1×106 conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25°C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300–400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant’s pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region of the putative gene had 79% homology with the aspartate aminotransferase gene in Magnaporthe oryzae (XP_003719674.1). PMID:25361073

Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

2014-01-01

79

Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the first part of this briefing, see NONP-NASA-VT-2000081556. Marvin Traxler continues his discussion on signal tracking from the Mars Observer. Julie Webster, Lead Engineer, Telecommunications Subsystem, is introduced. She explains how signals coming back from Mars are detected. Dr. Pasquale Esposito talks about flyby orbits and capture orbits. He says that frequencies coming from the spacecraft can determine if the spacecraft has flown by Mars, or if a capture orbit has occurred. Charles Whetsel, System Engineer Spacecraft Team, presents a computer program. He shows where the signal will appear on the computer from the Spacecraft. Suzanne Dodd presents orbit insertion geometry. Dr. Arden Albee, Project Scientist Mars Observer Project, Cal Tech tech, says that Mars is studied to get more data to confirm their hypotheses derived from previous Mars Missions such as the Viking Mars Program and the Mariner Program. Dr. Albee also describes instrumentation on the Mars Observer such as the Ultra Stable Oscillator, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and Magnetometer. The camera on the spacecraft is similar to a fax machine because it scans one line at a time as the spacecraft orbits Mars. Dr. Michael Malin, Principle Investigator Mars Observer Camera, Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., describe this process.

1993-01-01

80

Effect of medium on charge transport properties of modified poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA molecular wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using tight binding Hamiltonian approach, the medium's effect on charge transport properties of modified poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA molecular wire is studied. The DNA sequences used are modified poly(dA)-poly(dT) sequence by replacing 50 base pairs randomly with GC or CG base pairs. The DNA is contacted by metallic leads at both ends. The medium's effect on DNA is modeled as backbone onsite energy disorder. The DNA is taken to be at room temperature. The charge transport properties of the two sequences are studied by calculating the transmission probabilities of the charges using the scattering and transfer matrix methods simultaneously. Then the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics are calculated from the transmission probabilities using the Landauer-Büttiker Formalism. The theoretical differential conductance curve is then calculated from the I-V characteristic curve. The I-V results show that as the backbone disorder strength increases, the maximum current decreases for both sequences. However, the threshold voltage can increase or decrease with increasing backbone disorder depending on the sequence. The transmission results show that the position of transmission peaks changed with backbone disorder strength. Comparison with previous published results using poly(dG)-poly(dC) sequence shows that in contrast to that sequence, backbone disorder can decrease the threshold voltage in one of the sequences studied. This may point to a new understanding of the interplay between environmental and sequence disorder effect on charge transport in DNA.

Suhendro, D. K.; Yudiarsah, E.; Saleh, R.

2014-09-01

81

Method of insertion of keratoprostheses  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a method of insertion of keratoprostheses, and in particular, a method of surgical insertion and placement of a soft hydrogel prosthetic corneal device into the host cornea. The method of the invention provides a greatly improved rate of success for the implantation and retention of the device.

2002-07-23

82

Wave transmission through structural inserts.  

PubMed

The transmission of waves through two discontinuities in a one-dimensional waveguide system is considered. Attention is focused on transmission through a structural insert, which is defined here to be a waveguide segment which is inserted into an otherwise continuous structural member with different properties. A general expression for the net transmission through the insert is found. It has bandpass/stop characteristics and its frequency average is somewhat greater than that normally assumed due to the coherent interaction of the waves in the insert. The particular case is then considered where the insert comprises a three-layer composite beam inserted in a thin beam which vibrates in bending. The composite beam comprises two elastic faceplates and a core filled with a tunable electro- or magneto-rheological fluid. The net transmission and the stop bands depend on the properties of the insert. Since these properties are tunable by adjusting the field to which the tunable fluid is exposed, then so too are the transmission characteristics of the insert. PMID:11325113

Mace, B R; Jones, R W; Harland, N R

2001-04-01

83

Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

2004-09-01

84

STP Widom Insertion Method Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP Widom Insertion Method program estimates the chemical potential of a Lennard-Jones fluid using the Widom insertion method. The default system is a box with linear dimension L = 20 with N =100 particles at a temperature T = 1.0. STP WidomInsertionMethod is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_WidomInsertionMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-06

85

Growth and terpenoid indole alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus hairy root clones in relation to left- and right-termini-linked Ri T-DNA gene integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy root cultures of Catharanthus roseus var. Prabal were established by infecting the leaves with Agrobacterium rhizogenes agropine-type A4 strain. Two hundred and fifty independent root clones were evaluated for growth, morphology, number of integration of Ri T-DNA genes and alkaloid contents. On the basis of growth pattern, type of branching and number of lateral roots we were able to separate

Jyoti Batra; Ajaswrata Dutta; Digvijay Singh; Sushil Kumar; Jayanti Sen

2004-01-01

86

T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3?)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3–35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

László Ökrész; Csaba Máthé; Éva Horváth; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz; László Szabados

1998-01-01

87

Role of the host cell cycle in the Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation of Petunia : Evidence of an S-phase control mechanism for T-DNA transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimeric ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression in an efficientAgrobacterium-mediated transformation system utilising mesophyll cells ofPetunia hybrida synchronized with cell cycle phase-specific inhibitors (mimosine and colchicine) was used to show the absolute requirement of S-phase for transfer and\\/or integration of the transferred DNA (T-DNA). Flow-cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content and immunohistological detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation showed that, prior to phytohormone

Estelle Villemont; Frédéric Dubois; Rajbir S. Sangwan; Gérard Vasseur; Yvan Bourgeois; Brigitte S. Sangwan-Norreel

1997-01-01

88

INSERTING SIMULATED TRACKS INTO SAR CCD IMAGERY Eric Turner  

E-print Network

INSERTING SIMULATED TRACKS INTO SAR CCD IMAGERY Eric Turner University of California, Berkeley.phillips,chiang,miriam.cha}@ll.mit.edu Keywords: Synthetic aperture radar, line detection, SAR simulation, change detection Abstract Synthetic challenging to in- terpret, making human analyst training essential. Simulating a SAR and CCD dataset

Zakhor, Avideh

89

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Model Selection in Reinforcement Learning Amir massoud Farahmand1 , Csaba Szepesv´ari1 Department of Computing Science University of Alberta learning. More specifically, we consider the batch (off-line, non-interactive) reinforcement learning

Szepesvari, Csaba

90

A coumaroyl-ester-3-hydroxylase Insertion Mutant Reveals the Existence of Nonredundant meta-Hydroxylation Pathways and Essential Roles for Phenolic Precursors in Cell Expansion and Plant Growth1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 monooxygenases from the CYP98 family catalyze the meta-hydroxylation step in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. The ref8 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, with a point mutation in the CYP98A3 gene, was previously described to show developmental defects, changes in lignin composition, and lack of soluble sinapoyl esters. We isolated a T-DNA insertion mutant in CYP98A3 and show that this mutation leads to a more drastic inhibition of plant development and inhibition of cell growth. Similar to the ref8 mutant, the insertion mutant has reduced lignin content, with stem lignin essentially made of p-hydroxyphenyl units and trace amounts of guaiacyl and syringyl units. However, its roots display an ectopic lignification and a substantial proportion of guaiacyl and syringyl units, suggesting the occurrence of an alternative CYP98A3-independent meta-hydroxylation mechanism active mainly in the roots. Relative to the control, mutant plantlets produce very low amounts of sinapoyl esters, but accumulate flavonol glycosides. Reduced cell growth seems correlated with alterations in the abundance of cell wall polysaccharides, in particular decrease in crystalline cellulose, and profound modifications in gene expression and homeostasis reminiscent of a stress response. CYP98A3 thus constitutes a critical bottleneck in the phenylpropanoid pathway and in the synthesis of compounds controlling plant development. CYP98A3 cosuppressed lines show a gradation of developmental defects and changes in lignin content (40% reduction) and structure (prominent frequency of p-hydroxyphenyl units), but content in foliar sinapoyl esters is similar to the control. The purple coloration of their leaves is correlated to the accumulation of sinapoylated anthocyanins. PMID:16377748

Abdulrazzak, Nawroz; Pollet, Brigitte; Ehlting, Jurgen; Larsen, Kim; Asnaghi, Carole; Ronseau, Sebastien; Proux, Caroline; Erhardt, Mathieu; Seltzer, Virginie; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Ullmann, Pascaline; Pauly, Markus; Lapierre, Catherine; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele

2006-01-01

91

Gas turbine vane cooling air insert  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gas turbine. It comprises turbine vanes, each of the vanes supplied with cooling air and having: an airfoil portion forming a first cavity having an insert disposed therein for directing the flow of the cooling air, the insert having first and second insert ends; a shroud portion from which the airfoil portion extends, the insert attached

W. E. North; K. G. Hultgren; C. D. Dishman; G. S. Van Heusden

1992-01-01

92

Precise-Conductance Valve Insert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Valve modification provides two operating modes fully open and small, precise leak. Copper insert with radially oriented holes allows small, controllable, precise effusion rate when valve closed or nearly unobstructed flow when valve open. Numerous applications in surface physics, vacuum physics, materials science, gas kinetics, thin films, and other areas of research requiring measured flows of gas into or out of system.

Outlaw, R. A.; Hoyt, R. F.

1986-01-01

93

Biomechanical Analysis of Differing Pedicle Screw Insertion Angles  

PubMed Central

Background Pedicle screw fixation to stabilize lumbar spinal fusion has become the gold standard for posterior stabilization. A significant percentage of surgical candidates are classified as obese or morbidly obese. For these patients, the depth of the incisions and soft tissue makes it extremely difficult to insert pedicle screws along the pedicle axis. As such, the pedicle screws could only be inserted in a much more sagittal axis. However, biomechanical stability of the angled screw insertion has been controversial. We hypothesized that the straight or parallel screw was a more stable construct compared to the angled or axially inserted screw when subjected to caudal cyclic loading. Methods We obtained 12 fresh frozen lumbar vertebrae from L3 to L5 from five cadavers. Schantz screws (6.0mm) were inserted into each pedicle, one angled and along the axis of the pedicle and the other parallel to the spinous process. Fluoroscopic imaging was used to guide insertion. Each screw was then subjected to caudal cyclic loads of 50N for 2000 cycles at 2Hz. Analysis of initial damage, initial rate, and total damage during cyclic loading was undertaken. Findings Average total fatigue damage for straight screws measured 0.398±0.38 mm, and 0.689±0.96 mm for angled screws. Statistical analysis for total fatigue damage ratio of angled to straight screws revealed that a significant stability was achieved in straight- screw construct (p<0.03). Interpretation This study showed that straight screw insertion results in a more stable pedicle-screw construct. The angled screw insertion technique resulted in more scattered values of damage indicating that the outcome from the angled screw fixation is less predictable. This validates the use of this technique to implant pedicle screws across the axis of the pedicle rather than along the axis, (parallel to the midline sagittal line), and has broad implications in instrumented posterior lumbar spinal surgery. PMID:17208340

Sterba, William; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Fyhrie, David P.; Yeni, Yener N.; Vaidya, Rahul

2007-01-01

94

Insertion device calculations with mathematica  

SciTech Connect

The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

95

Insertional mutagenesis in transgenic mice  

SciTech Connect

The molecular analysis of mutations in the mouse is an ideal way of establishing structure-function relationships between individual genes and complex developmental phenotypes. Insertional mutations, caused by the integration of a transgene, are advantageous because the mutant locus is tagged' with the exogenously added DNA and can be accessed with existing cloning and molecular analysis techniques. The authors have implemented a large-scale insertional mutagenesis program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to identify numerous mutations with developmental phenotypes. Several of these mutations are currently being subjected to an in-depth molecular analysis involving the characterization of the structure and expression of the mutant locus. Additionally, the authors are mapping transgene integration sites with in situ hybridization procedures, which will result in additional well-characterized molecular access points for the mouse genome.

Woychik, R.P.; Bultman, S.J.; Schrick, J.J.; Moyer, J.H.; Beatty, B.R.; Godfrey, V.L.; Selby, P.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-03-11

96

Edge Insertion for Optional Triangulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edge-insertion paradigm improves a triangulation of a finite point set in !2iteratively byadding a new edge, deleting intersecting old edges, and retriangulating the resulting two polygonalregions. After presenting an abstract view of the paradigm, this paper shows that it can be usedto obtain polynomial time algorithms for several types of optimal triangulations.Keywords. Computational geometry, optimization, two and three dimensions,

Marshall W. Bern; Herbert Edelsbrunner; David Eppstein; Sandra L. Mitchell; Tiow Seng Tan

1992-01-01

97

Development of control system to automate the PCB pin insertion process  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of the control system that runs the automated pin insertion machine in a surface mount technology assembly line. The control system is divided into 2 subsystems viz. pin sorting and ...

Isaac, Rejin

2012-01-01

98

Large-scale mapping of transposable element insertion sites using digital encoding of sample identity.  

PubMed

Determining the genomic locations of transposable elements is a common experimental goal. When mapping large collections of transposon insertions, individualized amplification and sequencing is both time consuming and costly. We describe an approach in which large numbers of insertion lines can be simultaneously mapped in a single DNA sequencing reaction by using digital error-correcting codes to encode line identity in a unique set of barcoded pools. PMID:24374352

Gohl, Daryl M; Freifeld, Limor; Silies, Marion; Hwa, Jennifer J; Horowitz, Mark; Clandinin, Thomas R

2014-03-01

99

BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http:\\/\\/ baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of

Doug Stryke; Michiko Kawamoto; Conrad C. Huang; Susan J. Johns; Leslie A. King; Courtney A. Harper; Elaine C. Meng; Roy E. Lee; Alice Yee; Larry L'italien; Pao-tien Chuang; Stephen G. Young; William C. Skarnes; Patricia C. Babbitt; Thomas E. Ferrin

2003-01-01

100

Mail-System insert.remove.BUFFER  

E-print Network

Beispiel: Mail-System MS := (FILE j BUFFER[f FM ] j BUFFER[f MF ] j MAIL j DELIVER j BUFFER[f CM : insert 7! xy insert remove 7! xy remove empty 7! xy empty #12; BUFFER := insert.remove.BUFFER + empty.BUFFER.DELIVER) COLLECT := letter posted .cm insert.COLLECT #12; Beispiel: Mail-System FILE BUFFER[f MF ] BUFFER[f FM

Popeea, Corneliu - Chair for Foundations of Software Reliability and Theoretical Computer Science

101

Needle insertion into soft tissue: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle insertion in soft tissue has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its application in minimally invasive percutaneous procedures such as biopsies and brachytherapy. This paper presents a survey of the current state of research on needle insertion in soft tissue. It examines the topic from several aspects, e.g. modeling needle insertion forces, modeling tissue deformation and needle

Niki Abolhassani; Rajni Patel; Mehrdad Moallem

2007-01-01

102

A HTS dipole insert coil constructed  

E-print Network

This report is the deliverable report 7.4.1 “A HTS dipole insert coil constructed“. The report has three parts: “Design report for the HTS dipole insert”, “One insert pancake prototype coil constructed with the setup for a high field test”, and “All insert components ordered”. The three report parts show that, although the insert construction will be only completed by end 2013, all elements are present for a successful completion and that, given the important investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment of all of them to finish the project

Ballarino, A; Rey, J M; Stenvall, A; Sorbi, M; Tixador, P

2013-01-01

103

Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

2014-11-01

104

Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

2014-01-01

105

Accumulation of New Polypeptides in Ri T-DNA-Transformed Roots of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during the Development of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae  

PubMed Central

Root-inducing transferred-DNA (Ri T-DNA)-transformed roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were in vitro inoculated with surface-sterilized vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal leek root pieces. About 1 week after inoculation, the infection of the transformed root culture by the fungal endophyte was confirmed by photonic microscopy. Total proteins were extracted from the mycorrhizal roots and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Control gels were run with proteins extracted from noninoculated roots mixed with purified intraradical vesicles and extraradical hyphae. Comparison of the resulting patterns revealed the presence of two polypeptides with estimated apparent masses of 24 and 39 kDa that were detected only in infected roots. Polypeptides with similar migration parameters were not detected in roots challenged with spore extracts, suggesting that the accumulation of the polypeptides was directly linked to root colonization by the fungus rather than to induction by fungus-derived elicitors. Images PMID:16349273

Simoneau, Philippe; Louisy-Louis, Nathalie; Plenchette, Christian; Strullu, Desire Georges

1994-01-01

106

A High-Throughput Arabidopsis Reverse Genetics System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of Arabidopsis lines with T-DNA insertions in known sites was generated to increase the efficiency of func- tional genomics. A high-throughput modified thermal asymetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR protocol was developed and used to amplify DNA fragments flanking the T-DNA left borders from ? 100,000 transformed lines. A total of 85,108 TAIL-PCR products from 52,964 T-DNA lines were sequenced and

Allen Sessions; Ellen Burke; Gernot Presting; John McElver; David Patton; Bob Dietrich; Patrick Ho; Johana Bacwaden; Cynthia Ko; Joseph D. Clarke; David Cotton; David Bullis; Jennifer Snell; Trini Miguel; Theresa Mitzel; Fumiaki Katagiri; Jane Glazebrook; Marc Law; Stephen A. Goff

2002-01-01

107

Insertional Mutation of the Collagen Genes Col4a3 and Col4a4 in a Mouse Model of Alport Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice homozygous for the transgenic insertion in line OVE250 exhibit severe progressive glomerulonephritis. Ultrastructural changes in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) at 2 weeks of age resemble those in Alport syndrome. The transgenic insertion site was mapped by FISH to mouse chromosome 1 close to Pax3. Genetic and molecular analyses identified a deletion of genomic DNA at the transgene insertion

Wei Lu; Carrie L. Phillips; Paul D. Killen; Tommy Hlaing; Wilbur R. Harrison; F. F. B. Elder; Jeffrey H. Miner; Paul A. Overbeek; Miriam H. Meisler

1999-01-01

108

Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.

1993-01-01

109

The distribution of transgene insertion sites in barley determined by physical and genetic mapping.  

PubMed Central

The exact site of transgene insertion into a plant host genome is one feature of the genetic transformation process that cannot, at present, be controlled and is often poorly understood. The site of transgene insertion may have implications for transgene stability and for potential unintended effects of the transgene on plant metabolism. To increase our understanding of transgene insertion sites in barley, a detailed analysis of transgene integration in independently derived transgenic barley lines was carried out. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to physically map 23 transgene integration sites from 19 independent barley lines. Genetic mapping further confirmed the location of the transgenes in 11 of these lines. Transgene integration sites were present only on five of the seven barley chromosomes. The pattern of transgene integration appeared to be nonrandom and there was evidence of clustering of independent transgene insertion events within the barley genome. In addition, barley genomic regions flanking the transgene insertion site were isolated for seven independent lines. The data from the transgene flanking regions indicated that transgene insertions were preferentially located in gene-rich areas of the genome. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the barley genome. PMID:15280249

Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Travella, Silvia; Bilham, Lorelei J; Harwood, Wendy A; Snape, John W

2004-01-01

110

Insertion devices at the advanced photon source  

SciTech Connect

The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics.

Moog, E.R.

1996-07-01

111

Automatic Steering of Manually Inserted Needles  

PubMed Central

Bevel-tipped flexible needles can be robotically steered to reach clinical targets along curvilinear paths in 3D. Manual needle insertion allows the clinician to control the insertion speed, ensuring patient safety. This paper presents a control law for automatic 3D steering of manually inserted flexible needles, enabling path-following control. A look-ahead proportional controller for position and orientation is presented. The look-ahead distance is a linear function of insertion speed. Simulations in a 3D brain-like environment demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller. Experimental results also show the feasibility of this technique in 2D and 3D environments. PMID:24752485

Wu, Guofan; Li, Xiao; Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

2014-01-01

112

Microneedle Insertion Force Reduction Using Vibratory Actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vibratory actuation on microneedle insertion force was investigated. Hollow micro hypodermic injection needles were fabricated by a two-wafer polysilicon micromolding process. A vibratory actuator operating in the kHz range was coupled with the hypodermic microneedles. The force to insert microneedles into excized animal tissue was measured with a load cell. Results showed a greater than 70% reduction

Ming Yang; Jeffrey D. Zahn

2004-01-01

113

Buffer insertion for noise and delay optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer insertion has successfully been applied to reduce delay in global interconnect paths; however, existing techniques only optimize delay and timing slack. With the increasing ratio of coupling to total capacitance and the use of aggressive dynamic logic circuit families, noise is becoming a major design bottleneck. We present comprehensive buffer insertion techniques for noise and delay optimization. Our experiments

Charles J. Alpert; Anirudh Devgan; Stephen T. Quay

1998-01-01

114

Inserting a Flash Animation Into Powerpoint  

E-print Network

Inserting a Flash Animation Into Powerpoint Jo Wozniak, Research Programmer, Imaging Technology 61801 techreports@itg.uiuc.edu http://www.itg.uiuc.edu #12;Inserting a Flash animation into PowerPoint Embedding a Shockwave document into Microsoft PowerPoint is a bit tricky and involves numerous steps

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

115

Insertional Polymorphism and Antiquity of PDR1 Retrotransposon Insertions in Pisum Species  

PubMed Central

Sequences flanking 73 insertions of the retrotransposon PDR1 have been characterized, together with an additional 270 flanking regions from one side alone, from a diverse collection of Pisum germ plasm. Most of the identified flanking sequences are repetitious DNAs but more than expected (7%) lie within nuclear gene protein-coding regions. The approximate age of 52 of the PDR1 insertions has been determined by measuring sequence divergence among LTR pairs. These data show that PDR1 transpositions occurred within the last 5 MY, with a peak at 1–2.5 MYA. The insertional polymorphism of 68 insertions has been assessed across 47 selected Pisum accessions, representing the diversity of the genus. None of the insertions are fixed, showing that PDR1 insertions can persist in a polymorphic state for millions of years in Pisum. The insertional polymorphism data have been compared with the age estimations to ask what rules control the proliferation of PDR1 insertions in Pisum. Relatively recent insertions (< ?1.5MYA) tend to be found in small subsets of the Pisum accessions set, “middle-aged” insertions (between ?1.5 and 2.5 MYA) vary greatly in their occurrence, and older insertions (> ?2.5 MYA) are mostly found in small subsets of Pisum. Finally, the average age estimate for PDR1 insertions, together with an existing data set for PDR1 retrotransposon SSAP markers, has been used to derive an estimate of the effective population size for Pisum of ?7.5 × 105. PMID:16085698

Jing, Runchun; Knox, Maggie R.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Vershinin, Alexander V.; Ambrose, Michael; Ellis, T. H. Noel; Flavell, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

116

Insertion Sequence Diversity in Archaea  

PubMed Central

Insertion sequences (ISs) can constitute an important component of prokaryotic (bacterial and archaeal) genomes. Over 1,500 individual ISs are included at present in the ISfinder database (www-is.biotoul.fr), and these represent only a small portion of those in the available prokaryotic genome sequences and those that are being discovered in ongoing sequencing projects. In spite of this diversity, the transposition mechanisms of only a few of these ubiquitous mobile genetic elements are known, and these are all restricted to those present in bacteria. This review presents an overview of ISs within the archaeal kingdom. We first provide a general historical summary of the known properties and behaviors of archaeal ISs. We then consider how transposition might be regulated in some cases by small antisense RNAs and by termination codon readthrough. This is followed by an extensive analysis of the IS content in the sequenced archaeal genomes present in the public databases as of June 2006, which provides an overview of their distribution among the major archaeal classes and species. We show that the diversity of archaeal ISs is very great and comparable to that of bacteria. We compare archaeal ISs to known bacterial ISs and find that most are clearly members of families first described for bacteria. Several cases of lateral gene transfer between bacteria and archaea are clearly documented, notably for methanogenic archaea. However, several archaeal ISs do not have bacterial equivalents but can be grouped into Archaea-specific groups or families. In addition to ISs, we identify and list nonautonomous IS-derived elements, such as miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements. Finally, we present a possible scenario for the evolutionary history of ISs in the Archaea. PMID:17347521

Filee, J.; Siguier, P.; Chandler, M.

2007-01-01

117

Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification  

SciTech Connect

The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by the Company and ITER. The Fabrication Specifications may reflect some national requirements and regulations that are not fully provided here. This document presents the ITER CSI specifications.

Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

2011-09-01

118

FOA Lecture 16: Insertion Loss Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is Lecture 16 in the FOA series on fiber optics. This lecture is about insertion loss testing. Insertion loss testing tests an installed cable plant with a light source and power meter in a method that is similar to how a communications system transmits data over the cable plant. Insertion loss testing is used to test the cable plant and compare it to the loss budget calculated in the design phase to ensure the planned communications systems will work over the cable plant. Running time for the lecture is 15:50. Flash is required to view the video.

2013-06-20

119

Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device  

DOEpatents

An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

Carr, Roger (Redwood City, CA)

1995-01-01

120

Target Site Specificity of the Tos17 Retrotransposon Shows a Preference for Insertion within Genes and against Insertion in Retrotransposon-Rich Regions of the Genome  

PubMed Central

Because retrotransposons are the major component of plant genomes, analysis of the target site selection of retrotransposons is important for understanding the structure and evolution of plant genomes. Here, we examined the target site specificity of the rice retrotransposon Tos17, which can be activated by tissue culture. We have produced 47,196 Tos17-induced insertion mutants of rice. This mutant population carries ?500,000 insertions. We analyzed >42,000 flanking sequences of newly transposed Tos17 copies from 4316 mutant lines. More than 20,000 unique loci were assigned on the rice genomic sequence. Analysis of these sequences showed that insertion events are three times more frequent in genic regions than in intergenic regions. Consistent with this result, Tos17 was shown to prefer gene-dense regions over centromeric heterochromatin regions. Analysis of insertion target sequences revealed a palindromic consensus sequence, ANGTT-TSD-AACNT, flanking the 5-bp target site duplication. Although insertion targets are distributed throughout the chromosomes, they tend to cluster, and 76% of the clusters are located in genic regions. The mechanisms of target site selection by Tos17, the utility of the mutant lines, and the knockout gene database are discussed. PMID:12897251

Miyao, Akio; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Murata, Kazumasa; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Takeda, Shin; Abe, Kiyomi; Shinozuka, Yoriko; Onosato, Katsura; Hirochika, Hirohiko

2003-01-01

121

Numerical simulation of microneedles' insertion into skin.  

PubMed

Microneedles have recently received much attention as a novel way for transdermal drug delivery. In this paper, a numerical simulation of the insertion process of the microneedle into human skin is reported using the finite element method. A multilayer skin model consisting of the stratum corneum, dermis and underlying hypodermis has been developed. The effective stress failure criterion has been coupled with the element deletion technique to predict the complete insertion process. The numerical results show a good agreement with the reported experimental data for the deformation and failure of the skin and the insertion force. The influences of the mechanical properties of the skin and the microneedle geometry (e.g. tip area, wall angle and wall thickness) on the insertion force are discussed. The numerical results are helpful for the optimum design of the microneedles for the transdermal drug delivery system. PMID:21480017

Kong, X Q; Zhou, P; Wu, C W

2011-09-01

122

Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics  

MedlinePLUS

... supports that you can order online or at retail stores. Unless the device has been prescribed by ... cost more than shoe inserts purchased in a retail store, but the additional cost is usually well ...

123

Genic DNA methylation changes during in vitro organogenesis: organ specificity and conservation between parental lines of epialleles.  

PubMed

During differentiation, in vitro organogenesis calls for the adjustment of the gene expression program toward a new fate. The role of epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation is suggested but little is known about the loci affected by DNA methylation changes, particularly in agronomic plants for witch in vitro technologies are useful such as sugar beet. Here, three pairs of organogenic and non-organogenic in vitro cell lines originating from different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima) cultivars were used to assess the dynamics of DNA methylation at the global or genic levels during shoot or root regeneration. The restriction landmark genome scanning for methylation approach was applied to provide a direct quantitative epigenetic assessment of several CG methylated genes without prior knowledge of gene sequence that is particularly adapted for studies on crop plants without a fully sequenced genome. The cloned sequences had putative roles in cell proliferation, differentiation or unknown functions and displayed organ-specific DNA polymorphism for methylation and changes in expression during in vitro organogenesis. Among them, a potential ubiquitin extension protein 6 (UBI6) was shown, in different cultivars, to exhibit repeatable variations of DNA methylation and gene expression during shoot regeneration. In addition, abnormal development and callogenesis were observed in a T-DNA insertion mutant (ubi6) for a homologous sequence in Arabidopsis. Our data showed that DNA methylation is changed in an organ-specific way for genes exhibiting variations of expression and playing potential role during organogenesis. These epialleles could be conserved between parental lines opening perspectives for molecular markers. PMID:22486767

Maury, Stéphane; Trap-Gentil, Marie-Véronique; Hébrard, Claire; Weyens, Guy; Delaunay, Alain; Barnes, Steve; Lefebvre, Marc; Joseph, Claude

2012-11-01

124

Low thrust insertion into orbit around Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspects of the low-thrust insertion of the Mars Observer spacecraft from its approach trajectory into an orbit around Mars, using four 110-lb(f) thrusters, are discussed. The strategy includes insertion into an elliptical capture orbit (4100 x 20,000 km), targeting for a 4150-km periapsis to compensate for reduction in periapsis altitude during burn, initiating the burn at about 20 deg

S. Parvez; J. M. L. Holman

1987-01-01

125

Retroviral-mediated Insertional Mutagenesis in Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the initial publication of this chapter in 2004, additional methodologies have been developed which could improve and\\/or complement the original retroviral-mediated insertional mutagenesis. Retroviral vectors have also been shown to be useful for goals other than mutagenesis. In addition, retroviral-mediated insertional mutagenesis has been applied to zebrafish for use in reverse genetics as well as forward screening. Finally, the

Adam Amsterdam; Gaurav Kumar Varshney; Shawn Michael Burgess

2011-01-01

126

Bioinformatics of High-Throughput Insertional Mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bioinformatics plays critical roles to handle large amount of sequence data from insertional mutagenesis. First, computational\\u000a approaches are used to develop rapid sequence analysis pipelines and biological databases. Millions of reads from an insertion\\u000a mutagenesis screening are mapped to genomic locations and be annotated to their target genes rapidly by pipeline, and such\\u000a sequence-based data is stored and managed in

Keiko Akagi; Ming Yi; Jean Roayaei; Robert M. Stephens

127

Redundant via insertion based on conflict removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of via defects increases due to the shrinking size in integrated circuit manufacturing. Double-via insertion is an effective and recommended method for improving chip yield and reliability and reducing the yield loss caused by via failures. In this paper we present a genetic algorithm based method to do the double-via insertion for layouts with grid-less or grid-based routing.

Jia Liang; Song Chen; Takeshi Yoshimura

2010-01-01

128

Cassini/Huygens nears insertion into Saturn's orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1 July CEST (30 June Pacific Daylight Time), after a journey of almost seven years and four gravity-assist swing-by manoeuvres, the spacecraft will be inserted into its orbit around Saturn and will reach its closest approach to the planet. The Huygens probe will be detached from the mother ship on 25 December and is due to land on Titan in January next year. The Saturn orbit insertion event can be followed at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) at Darmstadt, Germany, on 1 July, from 05:00 to 09:00. Several project representatives will be present. The event can also be followed at ESA HQ in Paris and at ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, in Italy. At each site, ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Those wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the communications office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV service will provide extensive live coverage of all international press conferences, the orbital insertion operations on the night of 30 June to 1 July, and the presentation of the first images and results at JPL. All transmission and satellite details are published online and will be continuously updated at http://television.esa.int. The ESA live TV line transmission of the orbital insertion will also be transmitted on Astra 2C, the satellite reception details being as follows: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Transponder 57, horizontal, MPEG-2, MCPC Frequency 10832 MHz, Symbol rate 22000 MS/sec. FEC=5/6. (*) The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperation between NASA, ESA (European Space Agency) and ASI (Italian Space Agency). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is managing the mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington

2004-06-01

129

Protein Switch Engineering by Domain Insertion  

PubMed Central

The switch-like regulation of protein activity by molecular signals is abundant in native proteins. The ability to engineer proteins with novel regulation has applications in bio-sensors, selective protein therapeutics, and basic research. One approach to building proteins with novel switch properties is creating combinatorial libraries of gene fusions between genes encoding proteins that have the prerequisite input and output functions of the desired switch. These libraries are then subjected to selections and/or screens to identify those rare gene fusions that encode functional switches. Combinatorial libraries in which an insert gene is inserted randomly into an acceptor gene have been useful for creating switches, particularly when combined with circular permutation of the insert gene. Methods for creating random domain insertion libraries are described. Three methods for creating a diverse set of insertion sites in the acceptor gene are presented and compared: DNase I digestion, S1 nuclease digestion, and multiplex inverse PCR. A PCR-based method for creating a library of circular permutations of the insert gene is also presented. PMID:23422439

Kanwar, Manu; Wright, R. Clay; Date, Amol; Tullman, Jennifer; Ostermeier, Marc

2014-01-01

130

Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.  

PubMed

Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

1991-09-28

131

Human gene targeting favors insertions over deletions.  

PubMed

Gene targeting is a powerful technique for manipulating the human genome, but few studies have directly compared the targeting frequencies of various types of vector constructs. Here we show that similar targeting constructs are able to insert nucleotides at the homologous chromosomal target locus more efficiently than they can delete nucleotides, and combination insertion/deletion vectors appear to target at intermediate frequencies. This holds true for deletions ranging from 1 to 334 bp and insertions ranging from 1 to 1332 bp. In addition, vectors designed to inactivate the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (HPRT) by deleting nucleotides often produced rearrangements at the target locus that in many cases were due to insertions of multimerized vector constructs, effectively converting a deletion vector into an insertion vector. These findings were obtained when adeno-associated virus vectors were used to efficiently deliver single-stranded DNA targeting constructs, but the same phenomenon was also observed when transfecting linearized double-stranded plasmids. Thus human cells distinguish between deletion and insertion vectors and process their recombination intermediates differently, presumably at the heteroduplex stage, with implications for the design of gene-targeting vectors and the evolution of human genomes. PMID:18680404

Russell, David W; Hirata, Roli K

2008-09-01

132

BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice. PMID:12520002

Stryke, Doug; Kawamoto, Michiko; Huang, Conrad C.; Johns, Susan J.; King, Leslie A.; Harper, Courtney A.; Meng, Elaine C.; Lee, Roy E.; Yee, Alice; L'Italien, Larry; Chuang, Pao-Tien; Young, Stephen G.; Skarnes, William C.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Ferrin, Thomas E.

2003-01-01

133

21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld...

2011-04-01

134

21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld...

2010-04-01

135

Asymptotically Good Codes Correcting Insertions, Deletions, and Transpositions  

E-print Network

Asymptotically Good Codes Correcting Insertions, Deletions, and Transpositions Leonard J. Schulman are asymptotically good for channels allowing insertions, deletions and transpositions. As a corollary, they achieve, insertion, deletion, transposition, edit distance, asymptotically good, asynchronous communication. \\Lambda

Schulman, Leonard

136

Determining common insertion sites based on retroviral insertion distribution across tumors.  

PubMed

A CIS (common insertion site) indicates a genome region that is hit more frequently by retroviral insertions than expected by chance. Such a region is strongly related to cancer gene loci, which leads to the detection of cancer genes. An algorithm for detecting CISs should satisfy the following: (1) it does not require any prior knowledge of underlying insertion distribution; (2) it can resolve the insertion biases caused by hotspots; (3) it can detect CISs of any biological width; (4) it can identify noises resulting from statistic mistakes and non-CIS insertions; and (5) it can identify the widths of CISs as accurately as possible. We develop a method to resolve these difficulties. We verify a region's significance from two perspectives: distribution width and distribution depth. The former indicates how many insertions in a region while the latter evaluates the insertion distribution across the tumors in a region. We compare our method with kernel density estimation and sliding window on the simulated data, showing that our method not only identifies cancer-related insertions effectively, but also filters noises correctly. The experiments on the real data show that taking insertion distribution into account can highlight significant CISs. We detect 53 novel CISs, some of which have been proven correct by the biological literature. PMID:24675070

Chen, Feng; Li, Zhoufang; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

2014-08-01

137

Enhanced Transmission Line Theory: Frequency-Dependent Line Parameters And Their Insertion in a  

E-print Network

resistance; automotive electromagnetic compatibility; cable harnesses, electromagnetic interference. I. INTRODUCTION The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) characterization of a vehicle requires taking into account important point of automotive EMC investigations concerns the electromagnetic field coupling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Cancer gene discovery: exploiting insertional mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Insertional mutagenesis has been used as a functional forward genetics screen for the identification of novel genes involved in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Different insertional mutagens have been successfully used to reveal new cancer genes. For example, retroviruses are integrating viruses with the capacity to induce the deregulation of genes in the neighborhood of the insertion site. Retroviruses have been used for more than 30 years to identify cancer genes in the hematopoietic system and mammary gland. Similarly, another tool that has revolutionized cancer gene discovery is the cut-and-paste transposons. These DNA elements have been engineered to contain strong promoters and stop cassettes that may function to perturb gene expression upon integration proximal to genes. In addition, complex mouse models characterized by tissue-restricted activity of transposons have been developed to identify oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that control the development of a wide range of solid tumor types, extending beyond those tissues accessible using retrovirus-based approaches. Most recently, lentiviral vectors have appeared on the scene for use in cancer gene screens. Lentiviral vectors are replication-defective integrating vectors that have the advantage of being able to infect nondividing cells, in a wide range of cell types and tissues. In this review, we describe the various insertional mutagens focusing on their advantages/limitations, and we discuss the new and promising tools that will improve the insertional mutagenesis screens of the future. PMID:23928056

Ranzani, Marco; Annunziato, Stefano; Adams, David J; Montini, Eugenio

2013-10-01

139

Transposon insertional mutagenesis models of cancer.  

PubMed

Transposon-based insertional mutagenesis in the mouse provides a powerful approach for identifying new cancer genes. Transposon insertions in cancer genes are selected during tumor development because of their positive effect on tumor growth, and the transposon insertion sites in tumors thus serve as tags for identifying new cancer genes. Direct comparisons of transposon-mutated genes in mouse tumors with mutated genes in human tumors can lend insight into the genes and signaling pathways that drive tumorigenesis. This is critical for prioritizing genes for further study, either for their efficacy as biomarkers or drug targets. In this article, we will introduce DNA transposon-based systems used for gene discovery in mice and discuss their application to identify candidate cancer genes in light of recently published tumor studies. PMID:24591685

Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Mann, Michael B

2014-03-01

140

The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes  

SciTech Connect

The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

2004-01-13

141

The BDGP gene disruption project: single transposon insertions associated with 40% of Drosophila genes.  

PubMed Central

The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in >30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39%). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene misexpression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool. PMID:15238527

Bellen, Hugo J; Levis, Robert W; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P Robin; Schulze, Karen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Hoskins, Roger A; Spradling, Allan C

2004-01-01

142

Experience with Phase II insertion devices in the x-ray ring  

SciTech Connect

The installation of Phase II insertion devices in the NSLS x-ray ring was completed in February 1989, when the hybrid wiggler magnet (HBW) for beam line X21 and the superconducting wiggler (SCW) for beam line X17 were installed. Prior to this time, the soft x-ray undulator (SXU) and X1, another hybrid wiggler at X25, and the ten period mini-undulator at X13 had been installed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Krinsky, S.; Solomon, L.

1989-01-01

143

Traumatic insertion of eyelashes into corneal stroma.  

PubMed

An unusual case of eyelashes being traumatically inserted into the corneal stroma is presented. A 75-year-old hit her right eye with her own fist, presenting with intra-corneal eyelashes. All remained entirely within the cornea, with no breach of the endothelium. They seemed to have tracked there first through the superior conjunctiva and then the superior limbus. The lashes were surgically removed, with good visual recovery. The authors present a short review of intra-ocular eyelash insertion. PMID:24947123

Casswell, Edward J; Anikina, Evgenia V; Mearza, Ali A

2014-10-01

144

Functional genomics of eukaryotic photosynthesis using insertional mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a widely used model organism for studies of oxygenic photosynthesis in eukaryotes. Here we describe the development of a resource for functional genomics of photosynthesis using insertional mutagenesis of the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome. Chlamydomonas cells were transformed with either of two plasmids conferring zeocin resistance, and insertional mutants were selected in the dark on acetate-containing medium to recover light-sensitive and nonphotosynthetic mutants. The population of insertional mutants was subjected to a battery of primary and secondary phenotypic screens to identify photosynthesis-related mutants that were pigment deficient, light sensitive, nonphotosynthetic, or hypersensitive to reactive oxygen species. Approximately 9% of the insertional mutants exhibited 1 or more of these phenotypes. Molecular analysis showed that each mutant line contains an average of 1.4 insertions, and genetic analysis indicated that approximately 50% of the mutations are tagged by the transforming DNA. Flanking DNA was isolated from the mutants, and sequence data for the insertion sites in 50 mutants are presented and discussed. PMID:15653810

Dent, Rachel M; Haglund, Cat M; Chin, Brian L; Kobayashi, Marilyn C; Niyogi, Krishna K

2005-02-01

145

Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion  

SciTech Connect

Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

Barnacle, Alex M., E-mail: alexbarnacle@yahoo.co.uk; Kleidon, Tricia M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

146

Wire segmenting for improved buffer insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer insertion seeks to place buffers on the wires of a signal netto minimize delay. Van Ginneken [Buffer Placement in Distributed RC-tree Networks for Minimal Elmore Delay] proposed an optimal dynamicprogramming solution (with extensions proposed by [7] [8][9] [12]) such that at most one buffer can be placed on a singlewire. This constraint can hurt solution quality, but it may

Charles J. Alpert; Anirudh Devgan

1997-01-01

147

Hall of Ocean Life Educator's Guide Insert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The museum's Milstein Family Hall of Ocean Life explores the diverse, complex web of life supported by the ocean and the vital inter-relationships between human and aquatic systems. This insert to the hall guide is designed to help you maximize your trip to the museum.

148

Mars Observer Lecture: Mars Orbit Insertion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a lecture by Suzanne R. Dodd, the Mission Planning Team Chief for the Mars Observer Project. Ms Dodd begins with a brief overview of the mission and the timeline from the launch to orbital insertion. Ms Dodd then reviews slides showing the trajectory of the spacecraft on its trip to Mars. Slides of the spacecraft being constructed are also shown. She then discusses the Mars orbit insertion and the events that will occur to move the spacecraft from the capture orbit into a mapping orbit. During the trip to Mars, scientists at JPL had devised a new strategy, called Power In that would allow for an earlier insertion into the mapping orbit. The talk summarizes this strategy, showing on a slide the planned transition orbits. There are shots of the Martian moon, Phobos, taken from the Viking spacecraft, as Ms Dodd explains that the trajectory will allow the orbiter to make new observations of that moon. She also explains the required steps to prepare for mapping after the spacecraft has achieved the mapping orbit around Mars. The lecture ends with a picture of Mars from the Observer on its approach to the planet.

Dodd, Suzanne R. (Personal Name)

1993-01-01

149

Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices.  

PubMed

Background The use of an effective contraceptive may be necessary after an abortion. Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) may be done the same day or later. Immediate IUD insertion is an option since the woman is not pregnant, pain of insertion is less because the cervical os is open, and her motivation to use contraception may be high. However, insertion of an IUD immediately after a pregnancy ends carries risks, such as spontaneous expulsion.Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after spontaneous or induced abortion.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov,and ICTRP in January 27, 2014. We also contacted investigators to identify other trials.Selection criteria We sought all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one treatment arm that involved IUD insertion immediately after an induced abortion or after curettage for spontaneous abortion.Data collection and analysis We evaluated the methodological quality of each report and abstracted the data. We focused on discontinuation rates for accidental pregnancy, perforation, expulsion, and pelvic inflammatory disease.We computed the weighted average of the rate ratios.We compute drisk ratios (RRs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs).We performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis by including all randomised participants in the analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.Main results We identified 12 trials most of which are of moderate risk of bias involving 7,119 participants which described random assignment.Five trials randomised to either immediate or delayed insertion of IUD. One of them randomised to immediate versus delayed insertion of Copper 7 showed immediate insertion of the Copper 7 was associated with a higher risk of expulsion than was delayed insertion(RR 11.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 89.35,1 study, 259 participants); the quality of evidence was moderate. Moderate quality of evidence also suggests that use and expulsion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or CuT380A was more likely for immediate compared to delayed insertion risk ratio (RR) 1.40 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.58; 3 studies; 878 participants) and RR 2.64 ( 95% CI 1.16 to 6.00; 3 studies; 878 participants) respectively. Another trial randomised to the levonorgestrel IUD or Nova T showed discontinuation rates due to pregnancy were likely to be higher for women in the Nova T group. (MD 8.70, 95% CI 3.92 to 13.48;1 study; 438 participants);moderate quality evidence.Seven trials examined immediate insertion of IUD only. From meta-analysis of two multicentre trials, pregnancy was less likely for the TCu 220C versus the Lippes Loop (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.75; 2 studies; 2257 participants ) as was expulsion (RR 0.61, 95% CI0.46 to 0.81; 2 studies; 2257 participants). Estimates for the TCu 220 versus the Copper 7 were RR 0.42 ( 95% CI 0.23 to 0.77; 2 studies, 2,274 participants) and RR 0.68, (95% CI 0.51 to 0.91); 2 studies, 2,274 participants), respectively. In other work, adding copper sleeves to the Lippes Loop improved efficacy (RR 3.40, 95% CI 1.28 to 9.04, 1 study, 400 participants) and reduced expulsion(RR 3.00, 95% CI 1.51 to 5.97; 1 study, 400 participants).Authors' conclusions Moderate quality evidence shows that insertion of an IUD immediately after abortion is safe and practical. IUD expulsion rates appear higher immediately after abortions compared to delayed insertions. However, at six months postabortion, IUD use is higher following immediate insertion compared to delayed insertion. PMID:25101364

Okusanya, Babasola O; Oduwole, Olabisi; Effa, Emmanuel E

2014-01-01

150

Calibration of Tangential Paddlewheel Insertion Flowmeters  

E-print Network

This paper reports on the efforts to calibrate flow sensors that are being used to monitor building thermal energy use in a large scale monitoring project. Several insertion-type paddlewheel meters are being tested with a dynamic-weight flowloop...

Robinson, J.; Bryant, J.; Haberl, J.; Turner, D.

151

Online Advertising Insertion Order Form Company name  

E-print Network

Online Advertising Insertion Order Form Advertiser Company name: Address: City: State: Zip: Contact: Billing Instructions Gross Amount : $ Net Amount: $ Please refer to 2014 Advertising Rate Sheet Less 15% agency discount or other applicable discount (please specify below): Send invoices to: Advertiser

Butler, Laurie J.

152

A NASA Discovery Mission Mercury Orbit Insertion  

E-print Network

A NASA Discovery Mission Mercury Orbit Insertion March 18, 2011 UTC (March 17, 2011 EDT) #12;Media regarding Mercury's characteristics and environment during these two complementary mission phases. Data.C.Brown@nasa.gov The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Mission Management, Spacecraft Operations Paulette W

153

A Shoulder Pad Insert Vibrotactile Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is the most intimate and inherently private human sense and provides the potential for discrete, low social weight human computer interaction. This paper presents initial research findings on issues of integrating a vibrotatcitle display and support electronics into a standard clothing insert, the shoulder pad. Research on construction methods is presented along with a discussion of the merits and

Aaron Toney; Lucy E. Dunne; Bruce H. Thomas; Susan P. Ashdown

2003-01-01

154

[Complication due to intraperitoneal dialysis catheter insertion].  

PubMed

During the last 6 years 300 stylet and Tenckhoff catheters were inserted into the peritoneal cavity. In 5 cases an abdominal viscus has been perforated or injured. The complications were twice a perforation of bowel, twice a perforation of bladder and once an injury of aorta. The authors discussed the therapeutic procedure (conservative or operative) and the late consequences of those complications. PMID:8756747

Majdan, M; Or?owska-Kowalik, G; Jaroszy?ski, A; Ksiazek, A

1996-02-01

155

Repeater Insertion in Tree Structured Inductive Interconnect  

E-print Network

of the interconnect with technology scaling. Meanwhile, the gate parasitic impedances decrease due to the shrinking of this paper. An algorithm is introduced to insert and size repeaters within an RLC tree to optimize a variety.7%, respectively, for a variety of copper­based interconnect trees from a 0.25 µµm CMOS technology. The average

Ismail, Yehea

156

Endotoxin Removal Kit Product Insert Product # 21900  

E-print Network

Endotoxin Removal Kit Product Insert Product # 21900 Norgen's Endotoxin Removal Kit is designed for the rapid removal of endotoxins from up to 1 mg of previously purified DNA. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are cell- membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli. Endotoxins are released

Lebendiker, Mario

157

Sex-specific aspects of endogenous retroviral insertion and deletion  

PubMed Central

Background We wish to understand how sex and recombination affect endogenous retroviral insertion and deletion. While theory suggests that the risk of ectopic recombination will limit the accumulation of repetitive DNA in areas of high meiotic recombination, the experimental evidence so far has been inconsistent. Under the assumption of neutrality, we examine the genomes of eighteen species of animal in order to compute the ratio of solo-LTRs that derive from insertions occurring down the male germ line as opposed to the female one (male bias). We also extend the simple idea of comparing autosome to allosome in order to predict the ratio of full-length proviruses we would expect to see under conditions of recombination linked deletion or otherwise. Results Using our model, we predict the ratio of allosomal to autosomal full-length proviruses to lie between 32 and 23 under increasing male bias in mammals and between 1 and 2 under increasing male bias in birds. In contrast to our expectations, we find that a pattern of male bias is not universal across species and that there is a frequent overabundance of full-length proviruses on the allosome beyond the ratios predicted by our model. Conclusions We use our data as a whole to argue that full-length proviruses should be treated as deleterious mutations or as effectively neutral mutations whose persistence in a full-length state is linked to the rate of meiotic recombination and whose origin is not universally male biased. These conclusions suggest that retroviral insertions on the allosome may be more prolific and that it might be possible to identify mechanisms of replication that are enhanced in the female sex. PMID:24195754

2013-01-01

158

Analysis of structure-borne noise in ship cabins using a floating floor with an inserted viscoelastic layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model was developed for a floating floor with an inserted viscoelastic layer to predict the structure-borne noise\\u000a (SBN) in ship cabins. In cabins, high-density mineral wool is usually used as an impact-absorbing material. The theoretical\\u000a model consisted of multipanel structures lined with high-density mineral wool. The predicted results for SBN when a floating\\u000a floor with an inserted viscoelastic

Jee-Hun Song; Suk-Yoon Hong; Won-Ho Joo

2009-01-01

159

Toolbox for Mobile-Element Insertion Detection on Cancer Genomes  

PubMed Central

Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram.

Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

2014-01-01

160

Guided modes in shielded slot transmission line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guided modes in a shielded slot transmission line were analyzed. This transmission line consists of slotted metal strips inserted in a below cutoff parallel metal plate waveguide. The TEM mode can propagate in the slot area as the lowest dominant mode, while the higher modes may propagate in the metal strip regions from the calculated results based on the transverse

Futoshi KUROKI; Kazuya MIYAMOTO

2006-01-01

161

A Monte Carlo study of peptide insertion into lipid bilayers: equilibrium conformations and insertion mechanisms.  

PubMed Central

The membrane insertion behavior of two peptides, Magainin2 and M2 delta, was investigated by applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique to a theoretical model. The model included many novel aspects, such as a new semi-empirical lipid bilayer model and a new set of semi-empirical transfer energies, which reproduced the experimental insertion behavior of Magainin2 and M2 delta without parameter fitting. Additionally, we have taken into account diminished internal (intramolecular) hydrogen bonding at the N- and C-termini of helical peptides. All simulations were carried out at 305 K, above the membrane thermal phase transition temperature, and at pH 7.0. The peptide equilibrium conformations are discussed for a range of bilayers with tail polarities varying from octanol-like to alkane-like. Probability distributions of the individual amino-acid-residue positions show the dynamic nature of these equilibrium conformations. Two different insertion mechanisms for M2 delta, and a translocation mechanism for Magainin2, are described. A study of the effect of bilayer thickness on M2 delta insertion suggests a critical thickness above which insertion is unfavorable. Additionally, we did not need to use an orientational potential or array of hard cylinders to persuade M2 delta to insert perpendicular to the membrane surface. Instead, we found that diminished internal hydrogen bonding in the helical conformation anchored the termini in the headgroups and resulted in a nearly perpendicular orientation. PMID:11751313

Maddox, Michael W; Longo, Marjorie L

2002-01-01

162

Complex central venous catheter insertion for hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Despite the introduction of payment by results in the UK, there has been no decrease in central venous catheter (CVC) use. In part, this may relate to a requirement to dialyse through a CVC while autogenous access matures. Mortality data have improved in parallel and patients on hemodialysis live longer, which may lead to an increased exposure to CVCs.Exposure to CVCs carries a significant risk of infection and occlusion requiring their repositioning or exchange. The mid to long-term sequelae of CVC use is central venous occlusion leaving clinical teams with an ever increasing challenge to find adequate venous access.In this article, we will discuss the challenges faced by operators inserting CVCs into the hemodialysis-dependent patient who has exhausted more tradition insertion sites. These include translumbar caval catheters, transocclusion and transcollateral catheters, transjugular Inferior Vena Cava catheter positioning, and transhepatic catheters. We will demonstrate the techniques employed, complications, and anticipated longevity of function. PMID:24817471

Powell, Steven; Belfield, Jane

2014-01-01

163

Thermally Activated Retainers For Insertion In Gaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical retainers of new type for use with gap filler easy to install and to attach themselves securely. Concept based on shape-memory properties of metal alloy Nitinol, alloy of nickel and titanium. Retainers conceived for use with Space Shuttle insulating tiles but used on other assemblies of blocks or tiles configured similarly. Tabs bent outward made flush by cooling below memory transition temperature. After insertion in gap and reheating, tabs spring outward.

Grimaldi, Margaret E.; Hartz, Leslie S.

1992-01-01

164

Inserting new technology into small missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. However, in order to create many small missions, new technology must be developed, applied, and assimilated. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper (FBC) missions.

Deutsch, L. J.

2001-01-01

165

Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-KSC has developed a mechanism to handle and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic Modules. This mechanism consists of a Base with 3 motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized Boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. During the 1993 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at KSC, I designed an Active Vision (Camera) Arrangement and developed an algorithm to determine (1) the displacements required by the Room for its initial positioning and (2) the rotations required at the five hand-wheels of the RIEE, for the insertion of the Rack, using the centroids fo the Camera Images of the Location Targets in the Logistic Module. Presently, during the summer of '94, I completed the preliminary design of an easily portable measuring instrument using encoders to obtain the 3-Dimensional Coordinates of Location Targets in the Logistics Module relative to the RIEE mechanism frame. The algorithm developed in '93 can use the output of this instrument also. Simplification of the '93 work and suggestions for the future work are discussed.

Malladi, Narasimha S.

1994-01-01

166

Probabilistic phylogenetic inference with insertions and deletions.  

PubMed

A fundamental task in sequence analysis is to calculate the probability of a multiple alignment given a phylogenetic tree relating the sequences and an evolutionary model describing how sequences change over time. However, the most widely used phylogenetic models only account for residue substitution events. We describe a probabilistic model of a multiple sequence alignment that accounts for insertion and deletion events in addition to substitutions, given a phylogenetic tree, using a rate matrix augmented by the gap character. Starting from a continuous Markov process, we construct a non-reversible generative (birth-death) evolutionary model for insertions and deletions. The model assumes that insertion and deletion events occur one residue at a time. We apply this model to phylogenetic tree inference by extending the program dnaml in phylip. Using standard benchmarking methods on simulated data and a new "concordance test" benchmark on real ribosomal RNA alignments, we show that the extended program dnamlepsilon improves accuracy relative to the usual approach of ignoring gaps, while retaining the computational efficiency of the Felsenstein peeling algorithm. PMID:18787703

Rivas, Elena; Eddy, Sean R

2008-01-01

167

Software-implemented fault insertion: An FTMP example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a model for fault insertion through software; describes its implementation on a fault-tolerant computer, FTMP; presents a summary of fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration data collected with software-implemented fault insertion; and compares the results to hardware fault insertion data. Experimental results show detection time to be a function of time of insertion and system workload. For the fault detection time, there is no correlation between software-inserted faults and hardware-inserted faults; this is because hardware-inserted faults must manifest as errors before detection, whereas software-inserted faults immediately exercise the error detection mechanisms. In summary, the software-implemented fault insertion is able to be used as an evaluation technique for the fault-handling capabilities of a system in fault detection, identification and recovery. Although the software-inserted faults do not map directly to hardware-inserted faults, experiments show software-implemented fault insertion is capable of emulating hardware fault insertion, with greater ease and automation.

Czeck, Edward W.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.; Segall, Zary Z.

1987-01-01

168

Technology assessment for CVD-diamond-coated cutting tool inserts  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the potential for manufacturing diamond-coated, cutting tool inserts by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PA-CVD), an emerging technology expected to compete with the static, high-pressure sintering method presently used for the commercial production of polycrystalline diamond composite (PDC) coatings on tool inserts. Using a 4-step manufacturing model based upon microwave PA-CVD for diamond growth, insert manufacturing costs were estimated for three technology scenarios, representing the present (1988, 1st generation) near-term (1990-1999, 2nd generation), and possible long-term (2,000+, 3rd generation) development of diamond PA-CVD technology. Model calculations were then analyzed to provide research guidance on insert manufacturing characteristics, insert performance, and insert life required for the development of markets for thin (1-25 micron) and thick (500-1,000 micron) CVD-diamond-coated inserts. Analysis shows that present technology requires a prohibitively large investment in multiple reactors to grow thin-diamond-coated inserts in commercial quantities. However, technology now under development shows promise for the economical manufacture of thin-diamond-coated inserts, provided tough, adherent coatings can be achieved at high yield. The US market for thin-diamond-coated WC-Co inserts could approach 2M inserts ($25M) by the year 2000. Thick, CVD-diamond-coated inserts (500-1,000 microns), necessary for the most demanding cutting applications, will require development of new technology to be competitive with sintered PDC inserts.

Walton, K.R.; Dismukes, J.P. (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)); Krueger, R.A.; Field, F.R. III; Clark, J.P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))

1989-01-01

169

A MANUAL INSERTION MECHANISM FOR PERCUTANEOUS COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION  

E-print Network

forward by the surgeon while holding the stylet in place. Figure 4: The insertion tool of Advanced Bionics mechanism for an electrode array made by Advanced Bionics involves the manual insertion tool shown

Webster III, Robert James

170

Transposon Insertion Finder (TIF): a novel program for detection of de novo transpositions of transposable elements  

PubMed Central

Background Transposition event detection of transposable element (TE) in the genome using short reads from the next-generation sequence (NGS) was difficult, because the nucleotide sequence of TE itself is repetitive, making it difficult to identify locations of its insertions by alignment programs for NGS. We have developed a program with a new algorithm to detect the transpositions from NGS data. Results In the process of tool development, we used next-generation sequence (NGS) data of derivative lines (ttm2 and ttm5) of japonica rice cv. Nipponbare, regenerated through cell culture. The new program, called a transposon insertion finder (TIF), was applied to detect the de novo transpositions of Tos17 in the regenerated lines. TIF searched 300 million reads of a line within 20 min, identifying 4 and 12 de novo transposition in ttm2 and ttm5 lines, respectively. All of the transpositions were confirmed by PCR/electrophoresis and sequencing. Using the program, we also detected new transposon insertions of P-element from NGS data of Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusion TIF operates to find the transposition of any elements provided that target site duplications (TSDs) are generated by their transpositions. PMID:24629057

2014-01-01

171

Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders

William John Miller; Daniel Ross Predmore; James Michael Placko

2002-01-01

172

Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion  

E-print Network

performance. For long-term battery cycling with good capacity retention, cycli- cal insertion and extractionFracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion Seok Woo Leea of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations

Cui, Yi

173

Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) are microgravity furnaces under development at Marshall Space Flight Center. The furnaces are being developed for the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), one of the first International Space Station (ISS) scientific payloads. QMI is a Bridgman furnace with quench capability for studying interface behavior during directional solidification of metallic and alloy materials. DMI will be a Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace to study diffusion processes in semiconductors. The design for each insert, both QMI and DMI, is driven by specific science, operations and safety requirements, as well as by constraints arising from resource limitations, such as volume, mass and power. Preliminary QMI analysis and testing indicates that the design meets these requirements.

Crouch, Myscha R.; Carswell, William E.; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul H., II

2000-01-01

174

Artists's Conception of Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. The spacecraft is moving out of the plane of the page and to the right (firing to reduce its spacecraft velocity with respect to Saturn) and has just crossed the ring plane.

The SOI maneuver, which is approximately 90 minutes long, will allow Cassini to be captured by Saturn's gravity into a five-month orbit.Cassini's close proximity to the planet after the maneuver offers a unique opportunity to observe Saturn and its rings at extremely high resolution.

2002-01-01

175

Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

2008-01-01

176

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY: Membrane Protein Insertion and Stability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The translocon is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein that has the dual ability to insert a newly synthesized polypeptide chain into a cell membrane or secrete it across a cell membrane. This process has been exploited to assess the energetics of transmembrane -helices, as described in two recent studies by the von Heijne and White groups (published here and elsewhere). In a Perspective, MacKinnon discusses the implications of this work for membrane protein structure and function.

Roderick MacKinnon (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University;)

2005-03-04

177

Recessed impingement insert metering plate for gas turbine nozzles  

DOEpatents

An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second diametrically opposed, perforated side walls. A metering plate having at least one opening defined therethrough for coolant flow is mounted to the side walls to generally transverse a longitudinal axis of the insert, and is disposed downstream from said inlet end. The metering plate improves flow distribution while reducing ballooning stresses within the insert and allowing for a more flexible insert attachment.

Itzel, Gary Michael (218 Quail Ridge Dr., Greenville, SC 29680); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (7006 Kevin La., Schenectady, NY 12303)

2002-01-01

178

Insertion of coherence requests for debugging a multiprocessor  

DOEpatents

A method and system are disclosed to insert coherence events in a multiprocessor computer system, and to present those coherence events to the processors of the multiprocessor computer system for analysis and debugging purposes. The coherence events are inserted in the computer system by adding one or more special insert registers. By writing into the insert registers, coherence events are inserted in the multiprocessor system as if they were generated by the normal coherence protocol. Once these coherence events are processed, the processing of coherence events can continue in the normal operation mode.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

2010-02-23

179

Single connector provides safety fuses for multiple lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuse-bearing sleeve which is inserted between the male and female members of a multiple-line connector contains a safety fuse for each pin of the connector assembly. The sleeve is easily and quickly opened for fuse replacement.

Weber, G. J.

1966-01-01

180

Assembly and Insertion of a Self-Fitting Hearing Aid  

PubMed Central

A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were “very easy” to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content. PMID:22389434

Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

2011-01-01

181

Insertional mutagenesis and illegitimate recombination in mycobacteria.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and Mycobacterium avium, are major pathogens of man. Although insertional mutagenesis has been an invaluable genetic tool for analyzing the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, it has not yet been possible to apply it to the mycobacteria. To overcome intrinsic difficulties in directly manipulating the genetics of slow-growing mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains, we developed a system for random shuttle mutagenesis. A genomic library of Mycobacterium smegmatis was subjected to transposon mutagenesis with Tn5 seq1, a derivative of Tn5, in Escherichia coli and these transposon-containing recombinant plasmids were reintroduced into mycobacterial chromosomes by homologous recombination. This system has allowed us to isolate several random auxotrophic mutants of M. smegmatis. To extend this strategy to M. tuberculosis and BCG, targeted mutagenesis was performed using a cloned BCG methionine gene that was subjected to Tn5 seq1 mutagenesis in E. coli and reintroduced into the mycobacteria. Surprisingly for prokaryotes, both BCG and M. tuberculosis were found to incorporate linear DNA fragments into illegitimate sites throughout the mycobacterial genomes at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-4) relative to the number of transformants obtained with autonomously replicating vectors. Thus the efficient illegitimate recombination of linear DNA fragments provides the basis for an insertional mutagenesis system for M. tuberculosis and BCG. Images PMID:2052623

Kalpana, G V; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

1991-01-01

182

Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil.

The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long.

The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

183

Black hole on film following catheter insertion.  

PubMed

Vascular accesses both permanent and temporary play an essential role in the procedure of hemodialysis (HD). The double lumen catheter (DLC) is one form of temporal vascular access which may produce different complications based on where the DLC is inserted. Here, we report a case of a cirrhotic patient receiving HD. The DLC was inserted through the left femoral vein. Later on, an unusual catheter position, mimicking a perforation in the iliac vessel, was noted in the incidental image finding. After venography, we concluded that this DLC had entered the dilated left gonadal vein, and was working well. This condition may be explained by portal hypertension leading to increased frequency of collateral branches and easy dilatation of the left gonadal vein. This condition may develop in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension, but there is no harm to a patient. However, this condition leads to an interesting computed tomography image, which may result in misinterpretation of the imaging reports and a clinical misdiagnosis. PMID:22304472

Chen, Hsuan-Wei; Chen, Jin-Shuen

2012-07-01

184

Mammalian NUMT insertion is non-random  

PubMed Central

It is well known that remnants of partial or whole copies of mitochondrial DNA, known as Nuclear MiTochondrial sequences (NUMTs), are found in nuclear genomes. Since whole genome sequences have become available, many bioinformatics studies have identified putative NUMTs and from those attempted to infer the factors involved in NUMT creation. These studies conclude that NUMTs represent randomly chosen regions of the mitochondrial genome. There is less consensus regarding the nuclear insertion sites of NUMTs — previous studies have discussed the possible role of retrotransposons, but some recent ones have reported no correlation or even anti-correlation between NUMT sites and retrotransposons. These studies have generally defined NUMT sites using BLAST with default parameters. We analyze a redefined set of human NUMTs, computed with a carefully considered protocol. We discover that the inferred insertion points of NUMTs have a strong tendency to have high-predicted DNA curvature, occur in experimentally defined open chromatin regions and often occur immediately adjacent to A?+?T oligomers. We also show clear evidence that their flanking regions are indeed rich in retrotransposons. Finally we show that parts of the mitochondrial genome D-loop are under-represented as a source of NUMTs in primate evolution. PMID:22761406

Tsuji, Junko; Frith, Martin C.; Tomii, Kentaro; Horton, Paul

2012-01-01

185

Mapping Ds insertions in barley using a sequence-based approach.  

PubMed

A transposon tagging system, based upon maize Ac/Ds elements, was developed in barley (Hordeum vulgaresubsp. vulgare). The long-term objective of this project is to identify a set of lines with Ds insertions dispersed throughout the genome as a comprehensive tool for gene discovery and reverse genetics. AcTPase and Ds-bar elements were introduced into immature embryos of Golden Promise by biolistic transformation. Subsequent transposition and segregation of Ds away from AcTPase and the original site of integration resulted in new lines, each containing a stabilized Ds element in a new location. The sequence of the genomic DNA flanking the Ds elements was obtained by inverse PCR and TAIL-PCR. Using a sequence-based mapping strategy, we determined the genome locations of the Ds insertions in 19 independent lines using primarily restriction digest-based assays of PCR-amplified single nucleotide polymorphisms and PCR-based assays of insertions or deletions. The principal strategy was to identify and map sequence polymorphisms in the regions corresponding to the flanking DNA using the Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population. The mapping results obtained by the sequence-based approach were confirmed by RFLP analyses in four of the lines. In addition, cloned DNA sequences corresponding to the flanking DNA were used to assign map locations to Morex-derived genomic BAC library inserts, thus integrating genetic and physical maps of barley. BLAST search results indicate that the majority of the transposed Ds elements are found within predicted or known coding sequences. Transposon tagging in barley using Ac/Ds thus promises to provide a useful tool for studies on the functional genomics of the Triticeae. PMID:15449176

Cooper, L D; Marquez-Cedillo, L; Singh, J; Sturbaum, A K; Zhang, S; Edwards, V; Johnson, K; Kleinhofs, A; Rangel, S; Carollo, V; Bregitzer, P; Lemaux, P G; Hayes, P M

2004-09-01

186

Multiple Cellular Phenotypes in an Insertional Mutation in Mouse Affecting Bone Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The 6093 line of transgenic mice exhibits altered bone development as a result of an insertional mutation by the transgene.\\u000a Female transgenic mice show a marked kyphosis as early as 2 weeks of age. Vertebrae from female mice have lower total bone\\u000a area and mineral content than age-matched, gender-matched controls, although the bone mineral density is not changed. The

N. L. Nadon; C.-J. Doersen; D. A. Lade; K. Medina; L. Thompson; M. Rohrer; J. M. Gimble

2000-01-01

187

Helix insertion into bilayers and the evolution of membrane proteins  

PubMed Central

Polytopic ?-helical membrane proteins cannot spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers without assistance from polytopic ?-helical membrane proteins that already reside in the membrane. This raises the question of how these proteins evolved. Our current knowledge of the insertion of ?-helices into natural and model membranes is reviewed with the goal of gaining insight into the evolution of membrane proteins. Topics include: translocon-dependent membrane protein insertion, antibiotic peptides and proteins, in vitro insertion of membrane proteins, chaperone-mediated insertion of transmembrane helices, and C-terminal tail-anchored (TA) proteins. Analysis of the E. coli genome reveals several predicted C-terminal TA proteins that may be descendents of proteins involved in pre-cellular membrane protein insertion. Mechanisms of pre-translocon polytopic ?-helical membrane protein insertion are discussed. PMID:20039094

2010-01-01

188

Coupling impedances of a resistive insert in a vacuum chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a theory to calculate both longitudinal and transverse impedances of a resistive short (typically shorter than the chamber radius) insert with cylindrical symmetry, sandwiched by perfectly conductive chambers on both sides. It is found that unless the insert becomes extremely thin (typically a few nm for a metallic insert) the entire image current runs on the thin insert, even in the frequency range where the skin depth exceeds the insert thickness, and therefore the impedance increases drastically from the conventional resistive-wall impedance. In other words, the wakefields do not leak out of the insert unless it is extremely thin. Formulas of the impedance valid for various cases of the insert are categorized in summary.

Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Chin, Yong Ho; Takata, Koji

2009-09-01

189

Radiographic assessment of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the radiographic images of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), in order to assist the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels during surgeries, and to be used as parameters in postoperative evaluation of the location of these tunnels. Methods Thirty adult cadaver knees were used. The PCL anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles' center was marked with a metallic marker. Radiographs were taken and a grid system was established to locate the position of bundles insertion. The percentile in which the projection of each bundle's center was in relation to the Blumensaat line was also determined. Results In the anteroposterior view, AL and PM bundles' centers were on average, on the 42.5% and 38.18% percentiles of Blumensaat's line, respectively. In lateral views, the AL and PM bundles' centers corresponded to the 72.94% and 55.56% percentiles of the line, respectively. In 73.33% of the knees the AL bundle center was on the 3D quadrant and in 70% of samples the PM bundle center was in quadrant 2D. Conclusions We established an X-ray pattern of femoral insertion of PCL that may be of interest for intraoperative control, before tunnel drilling, and also for post-operative evaluation of tunnel location. Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:24453690

Gali, Julio Cesar; Soares, Andre Schmidt; de Lima, Bruno Spagnuolo; Vianna, Filippo Santos Zozoloto; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

2013-01-01

190

Insertion of microneedles into skin: measurement and prediction of insertion force and needle fracture force  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a hybrid between a hypodermic needle and transdermal patch, we have used microfabrication technology to make arrays of micron-scale needles that transport drugs and other compounds across the skin without causing pain. However, not all microneedle geometries are able to insert into skin at reasonable forces and without breaking. In this study, we experimentally measured and theoretically modeled two

Shawn P. Davis; Benjamin J. Landis; Zachary H. Adams; Mark G. Allen; Mark R. Prausnitz

2004-01-01

191

INCA: an expert system for process planning in PCB assembly line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of INCA, an expert system that tackles the problem of optimization of the automatic insertion of components on printed circuit board (PCB) in the production assembly line. The authors describe the present situation in the PCB assembly line for component insertion, why an expert system has been chosen and the benefits expected from its introduction, how

Patrizia Cavalloro; Emanuela Cividati

1988-01-01

192

Non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: (1) Describe a previously unreported finding involving the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion. (2) Describe a novel classification system for the spectrum of non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. (3) Report the outcomes of surgical treatment of this spectrum of pathology. Materials and Methods: Outcomes of 34 patients (23 males and 11 females, mean age 60.5 ± 7.5) with non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis treated arthroscopically were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had anterior shoulder pain with no weakness during belly-press testing and no subscapularis footprint involvement on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were managed with subscapularis tendon debridement and side-to-side repair along with treatment of concomitant pathology. Results: Seven patients had a Type I lesion (so-called Conrad lesion) – a nodule on the leading edge of the subscapularis. Eighteen patients had a Type II lesion – a visible split tear with degeneration in the upper ½ of the intra-articular tendon. Nine patients had a Type III lesion – more extensive splitting in the tendon with advanced tendon degeneration. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, 97% of patients were completely satisfied. Significant improvements were seen in forward elevation (152 ± 12° to 172 ± 5°, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale pain scores (5.9 ± 1.7-0.6 ± 1.0, P < 0.001). Internal rotation strength and external rotation motion at the side were maintained. ASES scores averaged 95.4 ± 7.4, disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand scores averaged 6.19 ± 9.8, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff scores averaged 91.7 ± 9.3 and the average University of California at Los Angeles score was 33.1 ± 2.4. Conclusions: We present a previously unreported finding of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion, along with a novel classification system for non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. Arthroscopic treatment of this spectrum of tendinopathy along with concomitant shoulder pathology eliminated pain and improved patient outcomes without detrimental effects. Level of Evidence: IV, Retrospective Case Series. PMID:24167399

Dierckman, Brian D.; Shah, Nirav R.; Larose, Connor R.; Gerbrandt, Stacey; Getelman, Mark H.

2013-01-01

193

Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

1999-11-12

194

Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion  

PubMed Central

There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies.

Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Nary Filho, Hugo; Borgo, Evandro José; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida

2014-01-01

195

Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.

Thackeray, M. M.

1998-09-03

196

Lining up your service lines.  

PubMed

Steps in implementing a service line approach include: Defining the service line. Allocating service line revenue and expense. Analyzing service line contribution margin and profitability. Determining the value of other factors. Creating standards for investment decisions, benchmarking, and ranking. PMID:17687972

Bilsky, Steven D; Aber, Jeffrey M

2007-07-01

197

Increasing Prion Propensity by Hydrophobic Insertion  

PubMed Central

Prion formation involves the conversion of proteins from a soluble form into an infectious amyloid form. Most yeast prion proteins contain glutamine/asparagine-rich regions that are responsible for prion aggregation. Prion formation by these domains is driven primarily by amino acid composition, not primary sequence, yet there is a surprising disconnect between the amino acids thought to have the highest aggregation propensity and those that are actually found in yeast prion domains. Specifically, a recent mutagenic screen suggested that both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues strongly promote prion formation. However, while aromatic residues are common in yeast prion domains, non-aromatic hydrophobic residues are strongly under-represented. Here, we directly test the effects of hydrophobic and aromatic residues on prion formation. Remarkably, we found that insertion of as few as two hydrophobic residues resulted in a multiple orders-of-magnitude increase in prion formation, and significant acceleration of in vitro amyloid formation. Thus, insertion or deletion of hydrophobic residues provides a simple tool to control the prion activity of a protein. These data, combined with bioinformatics analysis, suggest a limit on the number of strongly prion-promoting residues tolerated in glutamine/asparagine-rich domains. This limit may explain the under-representation of non-aromatic hydrophobic residues in yeast prion domains. Prion activity requires not only that a protein be able to form prion fibers, but also that these fibers be cleaved to generate new independently-segregating aggregates to offset dilution by cell division. Recent studies suggest that aromatic residues, but not non-aromatic hydrophobic residues, support the fiber cleavage step. Therefore, we propose that while both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues promote prion formation, aromatic residues are favored in yeast prion domains because they serve a dual function, promoting both prion formation and chaperone-dependent prion propagation. PMID:24586661

Petri, Michelina; Flores, Noe; Rogge, Ryan A.; Cascarina, Sean M.; Ross, Eric D.

2014-01-01

198

A large-scale collection of phenotypic data describing an insertional mutant population to facilitate functional analysis of rice genes  

PubMed Central

In order to facilitate the functional analysis of rice genes, we produced about 50,000 insertion lines with the endogenous retrotransposon Tos17. Phenotypes of these lines in the M2 generation were observed in the field and characterized based on 53 phenotype descriptors. Nearly half of the lines showed more than one mutant phenotype. The most frequently observed phenotype was low fertility, followed by dwarfism. Phenotype data with photographs of each line are stored in the Tos17 mutant panel web-based database with a dataset of sequences flanking Tos17 insertion points in the rice genome (http://tos.nias.affrc.go.jp/). This combination of phenotypic and flanking sequence data will stimulate the functional analysis of rice genes. PMID:17180734

Iwasaki, Yukimoto; Kitano, Hidemi; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Maekawa, Masahiko; Murata, Kazumasa; Yatou, Osamu; Nagato, Yasuo; Hirochika, Hirohiko

2006-01-01

199

Association between angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion\\/deletion gene functional polymorphism and novelty seeking personality in healthy females  

Microsoft Academic Search

A certain type of personality is at risk for developing psychiatric diseases. Several lines of evidence support the interaction between brain angiotensins and central catecholamine systems, and suggest that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) may be a reasonable candidate gene for psychiatric disorders. The present study examined the possibility that ACE insertion (I)\\/deletion (D) functional polymorphism might be associated with particular

Eiji Shimizu; Kenji Hashimoto; Shintaro Ohgake; Hiroki Koizumi; Naoe Okamura; Kaori Koike; Mihisa Fujisaki; Masaomi Iyo

2006-01-01

200

Detecting Statistically Significant Common Insertion Sites in Retroviral Insertional Mutagenesis Screens  

PubMed Central

Retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens, which identify genes involved in tumor development in mice, have yielded a substantial number of retroviral integration sites, and this number is expected to grow substantially due to the introduction of high-throughput screening techniques. The data of various retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens are compiled in the publicly available Retroviral Tagged Cancer Gene Database (RTCGD). Integrally analyzing these screens for the presence of common insertion sites (CISs, i.e., regions in the genome that have been hit by viral insertions in multiple independent tumors significantly more than expected by chance) requires an approach that corrects for the increased probability of finding false CISs as the amount of available data increases. Moreover, significance estimates of CISs should be established taking into account both the noise, arising from the random nature of the insertion process, as well as the bias, stemming from preferential insertion sites present in the genome and the data retrieval methodology. We introduce a framework, the kernel convolution (KC) framework, to find CISs in a noisy and biased environment using a predefined significance level while controlling the family-wise error (FWE) (the probability of detecting false CISs). Where previous methods use one, two, or three predetermined fixed scales, our method is capable of operating at any biologically relevant scale. This creates the possibility to analyze the CISs in a scale space by varying the width of the CISs, providing new insights in the behavior of CISs across multiple scales. Our method also features the possibility of including models for background bias. Using simulated data, we evaluate the KC framework using three kernel functions, the Gaussian, triangular, and rectangular kernel function. We applied the Gaussian KC to the data from the combined set of screens in the RTCGD and found that 53% of the CISs do not reach the significance threshold in this combined setting. Still, with the FWE under control, application of our method resulted in the discovery of eight novel CISs, which each have a probability less than 5% of being false detections. PMID:17154714

de Ridder, Jeroen; Uren, Anthony; Kool, Jaap; Reinders, Marcel; Wessels, Lodewyk

2006-01-01

201

Target frequency and integration pattern for insertion and replacement vectors in embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Gene targeting has been used to direct mutations into specific chromosomal loci in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. The altered locus can be studied in vivo with chimeras and, if the mutated cells contribute to the germ line, in their offspring. Although homologous recombination is the basis for the widely used gene targeting techniques, to date, the mechanism of homologous recombination between a vector and the chromosomal target in mammalian cells is essentially unknown. Here we look at the nature of gene targeting in ES cells by comparing an insertion vector with replacement vectors that target hprt. We found that the insertion vector targeted up to ninefold more frequently than a replacement vector with the same length of homologous sequence. We also observed that the majority of clones targeted with replacement vectors did not recombine as predicted. Analysis of the recombinant structures showed that the external heterologous sequences were often incorporated into the target locus. This observation can be explained by either single reciprocal recombination (vector insertion) of a recircularized vector or double reciprocal recombination/gene conversion (gene replacement) of a vector concatemer. Thus, single reciprocal recombination of an insertion vector occurs 92-fold more frequently than double reciprocal recombination of a replacement vector with crossover junctions on both the long and short arms. PMID:1875936

Hasty, P; Rivera-Pérez, J; Chang, C; Bradley, A

1991-09-01

202

Design and evaluation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride ocular inserts.  

PubMed

The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate ocular inserts of moxifloxacin. An ocular insert was made from an aqueous dispersion of moxifloxacin, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, and dibutyl phthalate by the film casting method. The ocular insert (5.5 mm diameter) was cross-linked by CaCl2 and was coated with Eudragit S-100, RL-100, RS-100, E-100 or L-100. The in vitro drug drainage/permeation studies were carried out using an all-glass modified Franz diffusion cell. The drug concentration and mucoadhesion time of the ocular insert were found satisfactory. Cross-linking and coating with polymers extended the drainage from inserts. The cross-linked ocular insert coated with Eudragit RL-100 showed maximum drug permeation compared to other formulations. PMID:22472452

Pawar, Pravin K; Katara, Rajesh; Majumdar, Dipak K

2012-03-01

203

Relaxation phenomena in lithium-ion-insertion cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relaxation phenomena in lithium-ion-insertion cells are modeled. Simulation results are presented for a dual lithium-ion-insertion cell and for a cell using a lithium-foil negative electrode. A period of relaxation after a charge or discharge can cause appreciable changes in the distribution of material in the insertion electrodes. Local concentration cells in the solution phase and an open-circuit potential that depends

Thomas F. Fuller; M. Doyle; J. S. Newman

1994-01-01

204

Critical monitoring of the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will have spent seven years since launch by the time it reaches Saturn and its satellites. The primary mission will begin after the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) scheduled for early July 2004. the insertion will require a critical navigational maneuver that involves firing the orbiter's thrusters leading to the capture in the gravity well of the planet. This paper will describe the challenges and plans by the Cassini Program to monitor the Saturn Orbit Insertion Maneuver.

Asmar, S. W.; Johnston, D. V.; Maize, E.; Mitchell, R. T.

2004-01-01

205

Does VDAC insert into membranes in random orientation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) inserts into planar lipid bilayers in a random orientation. This is in contrast to the well-documented oriented insertion of various channel-forming proteins. Because of the potential importance of this issue, we have examined the orientation of VDAC inserted in membranes. The time constants of the VDAC-current relaxation in response to applied

Edson J. Marques; Carlos M. Carneiro; André S Silva; Oleg V Krasilnikov

2004-01-01

206

A new insertion sequence IS1452 from Acetobacter pasteurianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new insertion sequence element 151452, was found to be associated with inactivation of the alcohol dehydrogenase by insertion in the adhS gene encoding subunit 111 of the three-component membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase complex in Acetobacter pasteurianus. Cloning and sequencing analyses of the mutated subunit 111 gene locus revealed that 151452 was inserted at or near the ribosome-binding sequence of adhS.

Koichi Kondo; Sueharu Horinouchi

1997-01-01

207

Targeting and insertion of heterologous membrane proteins in E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane targeting and insertion of the archaeal Halobacter halobium proton pump bacterioopsin (Bop) and the human melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) were studied in vitro, using E. coli components for protein synthesis, membrane targeting and insertion. These heterologous proteins are targeted to E. coli membranes in a signal recognition particle (SRP) dependent manner and inserted into the membrane co-translationally. Furthermore, we demonstrate

Amanda Raine; Ronald Ullers; Michael Pavlov; Joen Luirink; Jarl E. S. Wikberg; Måns Ehrenberg

2003-01-01

208

Tool-life reliability of cermet inserts in milling tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven commercial cermet inserts of similar ISO grades (P05-40) were used in face milling operations, in the dry cutting of a carbon steel (AISI-SAE 1045). All of the inserts were produced by different tool manufacturers, from Europe, USA and Japan. The inserts were first characteristed by their material composition, mechanical properties and cutting-edge preparation. Then they were used in various

Giampaolo E D'Errico; Sante Bugliosi; Emanuele Guglielmi

1998-01-01

209

Repair of DNA double-strand breaks by templated nucleotide sequence insertions derived from distant regions of the genome.  

PubMed

We used the I-SceI endonuclease to produce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and observed that a fraction of these DSBs were repaired by insertion of sequences, which we termed "templated sequence insertions" (TSIs), derived from distant regions of the genome. These TSIs were derived from genic, retrotransposon, or telomere sequences and were not deleted from the donor site in the genome, leading to the hypothesis that they were derived from reverse-transcribed RNA. Cotransfection of RNA and an I-SceI expression vector demonstrated insertion of RNA-derived sequences at the DNA-DSB site, and TSIs were suppressed by reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Both observations support the hypothesis that TSIs were derived from RNA templates. In addition, similar insertions were detected at sites of DNA DSBs induced by transcription activator-like effector nuclease proteins. Whole-genome sequencing of myeloma cell lines revealed additional TSIs, demonstrating that repair of DNA DSBs via insertion was not restricted to experimentally produced DNA DSBs. Analysis of publicly available databases revealed that many of these TSIs are polymorphic in the human genome. Taken together, these results indicate that insertional events should be considered as alternatives to gross chromosomal rearrangements in the interpretation of whole-genome sequence data and that this mutagenic form of DNA repair may play a role in genetic disease, exon shuffling, and mammalian evolution. PMID:24821809

Onozawa, Masahiro; Zhang, Zhenhua; Kim, Yoo Jung; Goldberg, Liat; Varga, Tamas; Bergsagel, P Leif; Kuehl, W Michael; Aplan, Peter D

2014-05-27

210

Accurate consent for insertion and later removal of grommets.  

PubMed

Each year in the UK over 30,000 patients undergo insertion of grommets. The grommet insertion may cause many problems like persistent otorrhoea, scarred drum, retraction pockets and retention. The grommets may be extruded from the middle ears by the normal epithelial migration mechanism once they have served their purpose. These may become infected and require removal. We have analysed the Department of Health Hospital Episode Statistics relating to the insertion and removal of grommets (ventilation tubes). We have shown that 7.6 per cent of patients who have grommets inserted will have grommets removed. PMID:17403263

Sood, S; Waddell, A

2007-04-01

211

NOTE: Development of collimator insert for linac based stereotactic irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop collimator inserts of various sizes which are either not commercially available or are expensive to import. The dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and output factor of the developed collimator insert are compared with that of the commercial collimator insert (Radionics). In order to check the suitability of the collimator insert developed locally for clinical use and to standardize the method of development, a collimator insert of 15 mm identical to the one supplied by Radionics is developed with low-melting alloy (Cerrobend). Moreover for the clinical use of the developed collimator insert, certain acceptance tests are performed which include a collimator concentricity test, beam size check and radiation leakage test. The dose verification is carried out with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (7LiF rods) and an FBX chemical dosimeter in a human-head-shaped Perspex phantom filled with water. The variation between the calculated and measured dose is found to be within +2.4% for 7LiF rods and -2.0% for the FBX chemical dosimeter thus ensuring the suitability of the developed collimator insert for clinical use. This has encouraged us to standardize the method adapted to develop the collimator insert and to develop collimator inserts of different field sizes.

Rabi Raja Singh, I.; Brindha, S.; Ravindran, B. Paul; John, Subhashini; Rajshekhar, V.; Rangad, Faith V.; Roul, R. K.

1999-10-01

212

Measure Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measu

Crissman, Sally

2011-01-01

213

Particles as Wilson lines of gravitational field  

E-print Network

Since the work of Mac-Dowell-Mansouri it is well known that gravity can be written as a gauge theory for the de Sitter group. In this paper we consider the coupling of this theory to the simplest gauge invariant observables that is, Wilson lines. The dynamics of these Wilson lines is shown to reproduce exactly the dynamics of relativistic particles coupled to gravity, the gauge charges carried by Wilson lines being the mass and spin of the particles. Insertion of Wilson lines breaks in a controlled manner the diffeomorphism symmetry of the theory and the gauge degree of freedom are transmuted to particles degree of freedom.

L. Freidel; J. Kowalski--Glikman; A. Starodubtsev

2006-07-04

214

Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses  

PubMed Central

The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

215

The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer  

E-print Network

During the first shutdown of LHC, the ATLAS detector is undergoing an upgrade of the Pixel Detector in preparation for high luminosity LHC. This upgrade consists of a new pixel layer, called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), which is positioned between the former inner layer of the Pixel Detector (B-Layer) and a new, smaller, beam pipe, at a radial distance of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. The realization of the IBL required the development of several new technologies and solutions in order to overcome the challenges introduced by the extreme environment and working conditions, such as the high radiation levels, the high pixel occupancy and the need of an exceptionally low material budget. Two silicon sensor technologies have been adopted for the IBL modules: planar n-in-n and 3D. Both of these are connected via bump bonding to the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 front-end read-out chip. An overview of the IBL project, module design, the qualification tests, data acquisition, results and performance is presente...

Alkire, S P; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

216

IYA2009 newspaper insert in your community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini PIO (Public Information Officer) offers suggestions on how to approach your local newspaper about a newspaper insert for your community being published during IYA2009. Local government support, articles by astronomers, advertisers, and appointing someone within your organisation to manage the content will be discussed. We will explain the timeline required, the number of personnel hours required, developmental stages and income a local newspaper would have to generate to produce a quality, table-top supplement. In 2003, over 30,000 copies of Stars over Mauna Kea, a special supplement in tabloid format were produced and distributed in the local newspapers in Hilo, Hawaii. The publication, 48 pages in total, featured profiles of the observatories on Mauna Kea, stories about the geology and legends of Mauna Kea, and historical information about the evolution of astronomy in Hawaii. In additionthe publication included a series of essays titled In their own words. These articles were written by key members of the astronomy community. Sixty thousand copies of Stars over Mauna Kea II were printed as a follow-up to the first edition in 2005. This second edition included an article on the `Imiloa Astronomy Education Center, explanations about the types of telescopes on Mauna Kea and columns written by scientists about the fascinating and significant discoveries made on Hawaii. Personal stories about careers in astronomy were also highlighted. In Chile, a similar eight-page supplement, featuring Gemini, CTIO and SOAR telescopes, was published in 2005 and 5000 copies were distributed throughout the country.

Harvey, J.

2008-06-01

217

Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

218

Insertion sequence IST3091 of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

An insertion sequence, designated as IST3091, was located adjacent to the putative origin of replication region of plasmid pTFI91 of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans TFI-91. The DNA sequence of the transposase gene of IST3091 revealed similarity with that of IS30, IS1086, IS4351, and the integrase gene of SpV1-R8A2 B (a bacteriophage of Spiroplasma citri). The sequence of IST3091 is 1063 bp long with partially matched 30-bp terminal inverted repeats. Several restriction fragments of plasmid pTFI91 of T. ferrooxidans containing the IST3091 element were cloned into the vector pHSG398. The hybrid plasmids (pBTL) were transformed into Escherichia coli NK7379 containing a miniF plasmid, which was devoid of transposable elements. The transposition function of the IST3091 element was confirmed by mobilizing hybrid plasmids via conjugation from transformed E. coli NK7379 (donor) to E. coli M8820 (recipient). The presence of the transposed element in transconjugants was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:9226869

Chakravarty, L; Kittle, J D; Tuovinen, O H

1997-06-01

219

Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps  

DOEpatents

A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

2012-11-13

220

A Study of Package Inserts in Southern India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Package insert is an officially approved document that accompanies a drug. It is intended to provide information for the safe and effective use of a drug and contains information based on regulatory guidelines. Sometimes, information provided in the package inserts is suboptimal which can led to medication errors. This study was undertaken to assess the presentation and completeness of clinical information provided in the currently available package inserts for anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and hypolipedemic drugs in India. Material and Methods: Around 130 package inserts were collected from pharmacies located at different areas of Bangalore. They were analyzed based on criteria mentioned in Schedule D of Drug and Cosmetic act 1945. Results and Observations: Out of 134 package inserts, 64 were anti-diabetics, 40 anti-hypertensives, and 30 hypolipedemics. Out of them, 31 (23.14%) belonged to Grade ‘A’ (including all injectable preparations) and remaining 76.86% to Grade ‘B’. None of the PIs belonged to Grade ‘C’. The inserts were inadequate in many aspects; for example, they had unclear instructions about generic name of other ingredients used, about handling, undesirable effects, pediatric and geriatric use, and guidelines for use of the drugs. Conclusion: This study indicated that information relevant to the safe and effective use of medication was not mentioned in the analyzed package inserts. It is, therefore, recommended to update the existing package inserts based on criteria mentioned in the Schedule D of Drug and Cosmetic Act, 1945. PMID:24392376

Ramdas, Deepak; Chakraborty, Ananya; HS, Swaroop; Faizan, Syed; Kumar V, Praveen; BN, Srinivas

2013-01-01

221

Multiobjective optimization of distributed generation portfolio insertion strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an optimal insertion strategy model of power plant units from a Distributed Generation portfolio is proposed. The study is based on a multiobjective formulation involving economical, technical and environmental aspects, and it consists of determining the quantity of units of each power plant that will be inserted in a distribution network by planning stage, considering some known

G. A. A. Brigatto; C. C. B. Carmargo; E. T. Sica

2010-01-01

222

Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study  

E-print Network

Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study Qianfan Zhang, Wenxing Zhang, Wenhui Wan, and § School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China ABSTRACT The ultrahigh specific lithium ion opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains

Cui, Yi

223

Orbit Insertion by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Artist's Concept)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artist's concept of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during the critical process of Mars orbit insertion. In order to be captured into orbit around Mars, the spacecraft must conduct a 25-minute rocket burn when it is just shy of reaching the planet. As pictured, it will pass under the red planet's southern hemisphere as it begins the insertion burn.

2005-01-01

224

A microscopic view of phospholipid insertion into biological membranes.  

PubMed

Understanding the process of membrane insertion is an essential step in developing a detailed mechanism, for example, for peripheral membrane protein association and membrane fusion. The highly mobile membrane mimetic (HMMM) has been used to accelerate the membrane association and binding of peripheral membrane proteins in simulations by increasing the lateral diffusion of phospholipid headgroups while retaining an atomistic description of the interface. Through a comparative study, we assess the difference in insertion rate of a free phospholipid into an HMMM as well as into a conventional phospholipid bilayer and develop a detailed mechanistic model of free phospholipid insertion into biological membranes. The mechanistic insertion model shows that successful irreversible association of the free phospholipid to the membrane interface, which results in its insertion, is the rate-limiting step. Association is followed by independent, sequential insertion of the acyl tails of the free phospholipid into the membrane, with splayed acyl tail intermediates. Use of the HMMM is found to replicate the same intermediate insertion states as in the full phospholipid bilayer; however, it accelerates overall insertion by approximately a factor of 3, with the probability of successful association of phospholipid to the membrane being significantly enhanced. PMID:24313792

Vermaas, Josh V; Tajkhorshid, Emad

2014-02-20

225

Design and Evaluation of Diclofenac Sodium Ophthalmic Inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diclofenac sodium ophthalmic inserts were prepared by using methyl cellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) alone and in combination. Weight variation, thickness, drug content, ocular irritation and stability of medicated inserts were evaluated. In vitro study was carried out by using a semipermeable dialysis membrane. According to the results, 97 % of drug was released from the formulation containing 4%

V. Sankar; A. K. Chandrasekaran; S. Durga; G. Geetha; V. Ravichandran

2006-01-01

226

Combined plasma and thermal hollow cathode insert model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present the first results from a Hollow Cathode Thermal (HCThermal) model that uses the spatially distributed plasma fluxes calculated by the InsertRegion of an Orificed Cathode (IROrCa2D) code as the heat source to predict the hollow cathode and insert temperatures.

Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ionnis G.; Goebel, Dan m.; Hornbeck, Sarah E.

2005-01-01

227

Large Scale Screen for Transposon Insertions into Cloned Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method of screening for transposon insertions in or near Drosophila loci that correspond to cloned DNA sequences. We mobilize a modified P element transposon that carries a bacterial plasmid origin of replication and a drug-resistance marker. The genomic sequences flanking each transposon insertion site can then be rescued as a plasmid in Escherichia coli. Libraries of such

Bruce A. Hamilton; Michael J. Palazzolo; Joo H. Chang; K. Vijayraghavan; Carol A. Mayeda; Michael A. Whitney; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1991-01-01

228

Study on a New Type of Rotated Insertion Colonovideoscope Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional colonoscopy frequently causes pains to patients and sometimes even leads to enterobrosis and other medical accidents. This occurs mainly because the operation technique of colonoscopy is so complicated that there are only a small amount of professional doctors can complete the insertion procedure in a short time. Therefore, a new type of rotated insertion Colonovideoscope robot is developed. The

Liu Qingkai; Xie Tianyu

2009-01-01

229

Metallic Mg insertion in rf deposited MgO barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic Mg insertions in rf deposited MgO barrier of magnetic tunnel junctions structures were investigated in a resistance-area (RA) range from 1 to 1000 ? ?m2. For the first time, investigations on Mg insertions above the MgO barrier and simultaneously on both sides of the barrier are reported. It is shown that for RA larger than 5 ? ?m2, a bottom Mg insertion does not improve the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio compared to a sample with no Mg insertion. Furthermore, a top Mg insertion yields a lower TMR ratio decreasing as the Mg thickness is increased. On the other side, for RA lower than 5 ? ?m2, there is no significant difference between top and bottom Mg insertions indicating that in this region, the MgO crystallization occurs mainly during the annealing process. In the RA range investigated, there is no significant difference in coupling field for different insertions. In very low RA regions between 1 and 10 ? ?m2, an increase in TMR is observed for 0.3 nm insertions simultaneously below an above the barrier.

Souza, M. M. C.; Sousa, R. C.; Ducruet, C.; Auffret, S.; Dieny, B.

2010-05-01

230

Metallic glass mold insert for hot embossing of polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molding of micro components from thermoplastic polymers (TPs) has become a routinely used industrial production process. To find hard, ductile and durable material for mold insert and to fabricate the mold insert are two big challenges for the thermoplastic polymers fabrication techniques. We report that a Pd-based metallic glass (MG) mold insert was readily fabricated in its supercooled liquid region, and the atomic force microscope measurement and time-temperature-transformation analysis show that the metallic glass mold insert has very fine surface quality and long service life. We show that the metallic glasses, which have remarkable mechanical properties and excellent thermoplastic forming ability, are new ideal materials for hot embossing mold insert of thermoplastic polymers.

Ma, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, W. H.

2012-07-01

231

Method for improving the durability of ion insertion materials  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of electrodes, a pair of solid ion conducting layers sandwiched between the ion insertion layers, and a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material disposed between the solid ion conducting layers, where the solid ion conducting layer minimizes or prevents degradation of the faces of the ion insertion materials facing the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. Electrochemical cells of this invention having increased durability include secondary lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Cheong, Hyeonsik M. (Seoul, KR)

2002-01-01

232

Method of joining a vane cavity insert to a nozzle segment of a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

An insert containing apertures for impingement cooling a nozzle vane of a nozzle segment in a gas turbine is inserted into one end of the vane. The leading end of the insert is positioned slightly past a rib adjacent the opposite end of the vane through which the insert is inserted. The end of the insert is formed or swaged into conformance with the inner margin of the rib. The insert is then brazed or welded to the rib.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01

233

Zip Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a device to carry a Ping-Pong ball from the top of a zip line to the bottom in four seconds (or less!). Learners follow the design process to build the carrier that slides quickly down a zip line string, figure out how to keep something balanced, and identify ways to reduce friction.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

234

The genomic landscape of polymorphic human nuclear mitochondrial insertions  

PubMed Central

The transfer of mitochondrial genetic material into the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes is a well-established phenomenon that has been previously limited to the study of static reference genomes. The recent advancement of high throughput sequencing has enabled an expanded exploration into the diversity of polymorphic nuclear mitochondrial insertions (NumtS) within human populations. We have developed an approach to discover and genotype novel Numt insertions using whole genome, paired-end sequencing data. We have applied this method to a thousand individuals in 20 populations from the 1000 Genomes Project and other datasets and identified 141 new sites of Numt insertions, extending our current knowledge of existing NumtS by almost 20%. We find that recent Numt insertions are derived from throughout the mitochondrial genome, including the D-loop, and have integration biases that differ in some respects from previous studies on older, fixed NumtS in the reference genome. We determined the complete inserted sequence for a subset of these events and have identified a number of nearly full-length mitochondrial genome insertions into nuclear chromosomes. We further define their age and origin of insertion and present an analysis of their potential impact to ongoing studies of mitochondrial heteroplasmy and disease. PMID:25348406

Dayama, Gargi; Emery, Sarah B.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Mills, Ryan E.

2014-01-01

235

Genome-wide analysis of mobile genetic element insertion sites.  

PubMed

Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) account for a significant fraction of eukaryotic genomes and are implicated in altered gene expression and disease. We present an efficient computational protocol for MGE insertion site analysis. ELAN, the suite of tools described here uses standard techniques to identify different MGEs and their distribution on the genome. One component, DNASCANNER analyses known insertion sites of MGEs for the presence of signals that are based on a combination of local physical and chemical properties. ISF (insertion site finder) is a machine-learning tool that incorporates information derived from DNASCANNER. ISF permits classification of a given DNA sequence as a potential insertion site or not, using a support vector machine. We have studied the genomes of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster and Entamoeba histolytica via a protocol whereby DNASCANNER is used to identify a common set of statistically important signals flanking the insertion sites in the various genomes. These are used in ISF for insertion site prediction, and the current accuracy of the tool is over 65%. We find similar signals at gene boundaries and splice sites. Together, these data are suggestive of a common insertion mechanism that operates in a variety of eukaryotes. PMID:21609951

Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram

2011-09-01

236

Bax inserts into the mitochondrial outer membrane by different mechanisms.  

PubMed

Bax insertion into the mitochondrial outer membrane is essential for the implementation of apoptosis. However, little is known about the first stage of Bax integration into the mitochondrial outer membrane. We have recently shown that TOM22, a mitochondrial outer membrane receptor, is important for insertion, although other reports have suggested that only mitochondrial lipids are involved in this process. Here, we show that monomers, but not dimers, of Bax require the presence of TOM22 and TOM40 to integrate into mitochondria. In addition we show that once inserted into the membrane, Bax can act as a receptor for cytosolic Bax. PMID:18687331

Cartron, Pierre-François; Bellot, Grégory; Oliver, Lisa; Grandier-Vazeille, Xavier; Manon, Stephen; Vallette, François M

2008-09-01

237

World lines.  

PubMed

In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making. PMID:20975187

Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribici?, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

2010-01-01

238

HIV-1 promotor insertion revealed by selective detection of chimeric provirus-host gene transcripts.  

PubMed Central

To study host gene activation by retroviral promotor insertion, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed. This method allows a sensitive and selective detection of chimeric provirus-host gene transcripts, hallmarks of insertional activation events, which does not rely on an induction of tumor cell growth. We analysed HIV-1 infected cells of a CD4+ T-cell line (H9), infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cells in broncho-alveolar washes of AIDS patients. In each case, a variety of chimeric mRNA molecules were detected using a PCR amplification reaction and 5' primers specific to the HIV-1 LTR and 3' primers specific to poly A of mRNA. In infected H9 lymphocytes, a mRNA was identified encoding a putative protein of 145 amino-acids that was not expressed in uninfected H9 cells. This shows for the first time that HIV-1 can activate transcription of host cellular genes by promotor insertion in a fashion similar to slow-transforming avian and murine retroviruses. Images PMID:1475186

Raineri, I; Senn, H P

1992-01-01

239

The use of a newspaper insertion to promote DIY testing of vision in India  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The mass media have the potential to motivate people to participate in self appraisal of their own health status. An innovative communication package was designed to help people to examine vision at home. The impact of publishing the "do it yourself" (DIY) kit in Indian newspapers was evaluated.?METHODS—A pretested bilingual vision testing kit was published in three newspapers. The kit comprised four tumbling Es corresponding to 6/12 line of Snellen's optotypes. Directions on using the kit were enclosed. 3 -7 days after publication of the kit, a telephone survey of newspaper readers was undertaken to evaluate the impact and cost effectiveness.?RESULTS—603 people were contacted over the telephone. 125 (20.73%) subscribed to the newspaper carrying the DIY insertion. 43.2% (54) noticed the insertion of which 88.89% (48) read the enclosed instructions carefully. 58.33% respondents felt sufficiently motivated to contact an ophthalmologist. Graduates had a 3.83 times higher probability of reading the communication insertion compared with others. Differences in relation to other demographic variables were not statistically significant.?CONCLUSIONS—Newspapers are an excellent medium for communicating self appraisal kits for vision testing. The medium is cost effective and has significant reach in the urban agglomerates of India.?? PMID:11466254

Murthy, G; Gupta, S. K.; Dada, V. K.; Pant, T. D.; Savita, C.; Sanga, L.; Neena, J.

2001-01-01

240

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

Clarity Innovations, Inc.

2013-11-22

241

Distributed Computing manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Distributed Computing manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Joan Feigenbaum · Rahul Sami · Scott Shenker Mechanism Design for Policy Routing Received: Accepted: Abstract The Border Gateway

Feigenbaum, Joan

242

The use of dimorphic Alu insertions in human DNA fingerprinting  

SciTech Connect

We have characterized certain Human Specific Alu Insertions as either dimorphic (TPA25, PV92, APO), sightly dimorphic (C2N4 and C4N4) or monomorphic (C3N1, C4N6, C4N2, C4N5, C4N8), based on studies of Caucasian, Asian, American Black and African Black populations. Our approach is based upon: (1) PCR amplification using primers directed to the sequences that flank the site of insertion of the different Alu elements studied; (2) gel electrophoresis and scoring according to the presence or absence of an Alu insertion in one or both homologous chromosomes; (3) allelic frequencies calculated and compared according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Our DNA fingerprinting procedure using PCR amplification of dimorphic Human Specific Alu insertions, is stable enough to be used not only as a tool for genetic mapping but also to characterize populations, study migrational patterns and track the inheritance of human genetic disorders.

Novick, G.E.; Gonzalez, T.; Garrison, J.; Novick, C.C.; Herrera, R.J. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center

1992-12-04

243

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Vision Based Tracking for a Quadrotor Using Vision based control · Quadrotor · Tracking · Vanishing points · Nonlinear control 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

TEST manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

be inserted later We are very grateful to the Editors, Maria Angeles Gil and Leandro Pardo, for organizing of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA #12;2 one may ask if the stock price dynamics follow the geometric

Fan, Jianqing

245

Pressure molding of powdered materials improved by rubber mold insert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure molding tungsten microspheres is accomplished by applying hydraulic pressure to a silicone rubber mold insert with several barrel shaped chambers which is placed in a steel die cavity. This technique eliminates castings containing shear fractures.

1964-01-01

246

Myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major  

PubMed Central

We report on a rare case of myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major muscle following a single episode of trauma which, to our knowledge, has not previously been documented. PMID:25114419

Mogere, Viga; Thyagarajan, David S. K.; Fairbairn, K. Julia; Wallace, Angus

2014-01-01

247

Myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major.  

PubMed

We report on a rare case of myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major muscle following a single episode of trauma which, to our knowledge, has not previously been documented. PMID:25114419

Mogere, Viga; Thyagarajan, David S K; Fairbairn, K Julia; Wallace, Angus

2014-04-01

248

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) The chemistry of multiply abundances of gas-phase NH 3 , CH 3 OH, H 2 CO and H 2 S (among others) are observed in warmer regions around

Millar, Tom

249

Editorial: Water Exchange vs. Water Immersion During Colonoscope Insertion.  

PubMed

Water exchange (water infusion with water removal primarily during insertion) and water immersion (water infusion with water removal during withdrawal) reduce patient discomfort during colonoscope insertion compared with air insufflation, and represent a major achievement in colonoscopy. Hsieh et al. found that water exchange, relative to water immersion, resulted in more painless insertions to the cecum and improved adenoma detection in the right colon. However, water exchange is also associated with better bowel cleansing and longer insertion and procedure times. These factors are not specific to water exchange, but could account for all or part of the better results with water exchange. Additional controlled investigation is needed to define the benefits of water exchange compared with water immersion. PMID:25196871

Rex, Douglas K

2014-09-01

250

Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices  

SciTech Connect

Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

Geoffrey Krafft

2005-09-15

251

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

, we expect to find functions with low differential uniformity and high nonlinearity, because finding differential 4 uniform permutation functions with high nonlinearity on even degree fieldsNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Constructing differential 4-uniform

252

Shoe inserts and orthotics for sport and physical activities.  

PubMed

The purposes of this paper were to discuss the perceived benefits of inserts and orthotics for sport activities and to propose a new concept for inserts and orthotics. There is evidence that inserts or orthotics reduce or prevent movement-related injuries. However, there is limited knowledge about the specific functioning an orthotic or insert provides. The same orthotic or insert is often proposed for different problems. Changes in skeletal movement due to inserts or orthotics seem to be small and not systematic. Based on the results of a study using bone pins, one may question the idea that a major function of orthotics or inserts consists in aligning the skeleton. Impact cushioning with shoe inserts or orthotics is typically below 10%. Such small reductions might not be important for injury reduction. It has been suggested that changes in material properties might produce adjustments in the muscular response of the locomotor system. The foot has various sensors to detect input signals with subject specific thresholds. Subjects with similar sensitivity threshold levels seem to respond in their movement pattern in a similar way. Comfort is an important variable. From a biomechanical point of view, comfort may be related to fit, additional stabilizing muscle work, fatigue, and damping of soft tissue vibrations. Based on the presented evidence, the concept of minimizing muscle work is proposed when using orthotics or inserts. A force signal acts as an input variable on the shoe. The shoe sole acts as a first filter, the insert or orthotic as a second filter, the plantar surface of the foot as a third filter for the force input signal. The filtered information is transferred to the central nervous system that provides a subject specific dynamic response. The subject performs the movement for the task at hand. For a given movement task, the skeleton has a preferred path. If an intervention supports/counteracts the preferred movement path, muscle activity can/must be reduced/increased. Based on this concept, an optimal insert or orthotic would reduce muscle activity, feel comfortable, and should increase performance. PMID:10416543

Nigg, B M; Nurse, M A; Stefanyshyn, D J

1999-07-01

253

Simulation and optimization of the dual lithium ion insertion cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The galvanostatic charge and discharge of a dual lithium ion insertion (rocking-chair) cell are modeled. Transport in the electrolyte is described with concentrated solution theory. Insertion of lithium into and out of the active electrode material is simulated using superposition, greatly simplifying the numerical calculations. Simulations results are presented for the LiâCâ{vert_bar}propylene carbonate + 1M LiClOâ{vert_bar}Li{sub y}MnâOâ cell, and these

Thomas F. Fuller; M. Doyle; J. Newman

1994-01-01

254

Predicting Insertion Loss of Common-Core Powerline Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the propagation mode and the source impedance is necessary in order to predict the insertion loss of common-core powerline filters. If these quantities are standardized, the transition-band insertion loss corresponding to two test modes can be accurately calculated by use of only a programmable hand calculator, such as the Hewlett-Packard HP65 or Texas Instruments SR56. Such predictions of

John Hornsby

1979-01-01

255

Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients. PMID:24803817

Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

256

Measured and simulated reactivity insertion transients characteristics of NIRR-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power excursion characteristics of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) under different reactivity insertion transients have been calculated using PARET\\/ANL 7.3 code. Experimental data of dynamic experiments performed in NIRR-1 facility during initial startup were used to benchmark the calculated data. For ramp insertion of total cold core excess reactivity of 3.77mK, the reactor quickly reaches a maximum power of

S. A. Jonah

2011-01-01

257

Exploring the nature of the translocon-assisted protein insertion.  

PubMed

The elucidation of the molecular nature of the translocon-assisted protein insertion is a challenging problem due to the complexity of this process. Furthermore, the limited availability of crucial structural information makes it hard to interpret the hints about the insertion mechanism provided by biochemical studies. At present, it is not practical to explore the insertion process by brute force simulation approaches due to the extremely lengthy process and very complex landscape. Thus, this work uses our previously developed coarse-grained model and explores the energetics of the membrane insertion and translocation paths. The trend in the calculated free-energy profiles is verified by evaluating the correlation between the calculated and observed effect of mutations as well as the effect of inverting the signal peptide that reflects the "positive-inside" rule. Furthermore, the effect of the tentative opening induced by the ribosome is found to reduce the kinetic barrier. Significantly, the trend of the forward and backward energy barriers provides a powerful way to analyze key energetics information. Thus, it is concluded that the insertion process is most likely a nonequilibrium process. Moreover, we provided a general formulation for the analysis of the elusive apparent membrane insertion energy, ?G(app), and conclude that this important parameter is unlikely to correspond to the free-energy difference between the translocon and membrane. Our formulation seems to resolve the controversy about ?G(app) for Arg. PMID:23269832

Rychkova, Anna; Warshel, Arieh

2013-01-01

258

FISHES OF HAWAllAN ISLANDS. Page 197. After line 17 insert  

E-print Network

-like teeth; upper jaw with an outer row of small conical teeth, inside of which is a double row of fine teeth; broad bands of villiform teeth on vomer, and 3 patches of villiform teeth OIl tongue; preopercle-half of the isthmus uncovered; vent a little in advance of the vertical from the root of the pectoral; teeth. small

259

Pat Hock, RN, PICU Nurse Educator, Lucille Packard Children's Hospital CVP lines are frequently inserted in  

E-print Network

of intravenous fluids and medications, blood products, TPN, and fat emulsion. They may also be used for drawing blood samples. Hemodynamic monitoring of central venous pressure reflects intravascular volume status. High CVP measurements indicate hypervolemia or elevated RV end-diastolic pressure. Pulmonary disease

Kay, Mark A.

260

Study of Insertion Characteristics of Si Neural Probe with Sharpened Tip for Minimally Invasive Insertion to Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated various types of Si neural probe for in vivo and in vitro neuronal signal recordings by combining standard photolithography with a bulk micromachining process. To place the probe tip at target areas in the brain precisely, the mechanical properties of the Si neural probes with various tip shapes were carefully investigated under different insertion conditions to brain phantoms. As results, the minimum length and penetration force of the Si neural probe were determined from conditions where the Si neural probe began to penetrate the surface of the brain phantom. To control buckling of the Si neural probe, it is necessary to optimize the insertion rate in accordance with the conditions of the Si neural probe. Although the insertion forces of the Si neural probe with a sharpened tip were smaller than those of the Si neural probe with a normal tip, the effect of the probe tip shape became small with increased insertion speeds.

Lee, Sanghoon; Kanno, Soichiro; Kino, Hisashi; Tanaka, Tetsu

2013-04-01

261

P-Element Insertion Alleles of Essential Genes on the Third Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster: Correlation of Physical and Cytogenetic Maps in Chromosomal Region 86e-87f  

PubMed Central

We have established a collection of 2460 lethal or semi-lethal mutant lines using a procedure thought to insert single P elements into vital genes on the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. More than 1200 randomly selected lines were examined by in situ hybridization and 90% found to contain single insertions at sites that mark 89% of all lettered subdivisions of the Bridges' map. A set of chromosomal deficiencies that collectively uncover ~25% of the euchromatin of chromosome 3 reveal lethal mutations in 468 lines corresponding to 145 complementation groups. We undertook a detailed analysis of the cytogenetic interval 86E-87F and identified 87 P-element-induced mutations falling into 38 complementation groups, 16 of which correspond to previously known genes. Twenty-one of these 38 complementation groups have at least one allele that has a P-element insertion at a position consistent with the cytogenetics of the locus. We have rescued P elements and flanking chromosomal sequences from the 86E-87F region in 35 lines with either lethal or genetically silent P insertions, and used these as probes to identify cosmids and P1 clones from the Drosophila genome projects. This has tied together the physical and genetic maps and has linked 44 previously identified cosmid contigs into seven ``supercontigs'' that span the interval. STS data for sequences flanking one side of the P-element insertions in 49 lines has identified insertions in the ?? element at 87C, two known transposable elements, and the open reading frames of seven putative single copy genes. These correspond to five known genes in this interval, and two genes identified by the homology of their predicted products to known proteins from other organisms. PMID:9409831

Deak, P.; Omar, M. M.; Saunders, RDC.; Pal, M.; Komonyi, O.; Szidonya, J.; Maroy, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ashburner, M.; Benos, P.; Savakis, C.; Siden-Kiamos, I.; Louis, C.; Bolshakov, V. N.; Kafatos, F. C.; Madueno, E.; Modolell, J.; Glover, D. M.

1997-01-01

262

Specific binding of MobA, a plasmid-encoded protein involved in the initiation and termination of conjugal DNA transfer, to single-stranded oriT DNA.  

PubMed Central

MobA protein, encoded by the broad host-range plasmid R1162, is required for conjugal mobilization of this plasmid. The protein is an essential part of the relaxosome, and is also necessary for the termination of strand transfer. In vitro, MobA is a nuclease specific for one of the two DNA strands of the origin of transfer (oriT). The protein can cleave this strand at the same site that is nicked in the relaxosome, and can also ligate the DNA. We show here that purified MobA protein forms a complex that is specific for this single oriT strand. The complex is unusually stable, with a half-life of approximately 95 min, is not disrupted by hybridization with the complementary strand, and reforms rapidly after boiling. Both the inverted repeat within oriT, and the eight bases between this repeat and the site cleaved by MobA, are required for binding by the protein. Mutations reducing base complementarity between the arms of the inverted repeat also decrease binding. This effect is partially suppressed by second-site mutations restoring complementarity. These results parallel the effects of these mutations on termination. Footprinting experiments with P1 nuclease indicate that the DNA between the inverted repeat and the nick site is protected by MobA, but that pairing between the arms of the repeat, which occurs in the absence of protein, is partially disrupted. Our results suggest that termination of strand transfer during conjugation involves tight binding of the MobA protein to the inverted repeat and adjacent oriT DNA. This complex positions the protein for ligation of the ends of the transferred strand, to reform a circular plasmid molecule. Images PMID:8233790

Bhattacharjee, M K; Meyer, R J

1993-01-01

263

Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K. [Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

264

[Cycloplegia using a conjunctival insert - comparison to standard procedures].  

PubMed

The widespread combination of tropicamide and phenylephrine eye drops for preoperative mydriasis und cycloplegia is completed by a conjunctival insert called Mydriasert (Théa Pharma GmbH, Berlin) as medicament tracer. This offers potential cycloplegia in a new application form. We tested 10 patients aged 5-41 years (medium 18) with good residual accommodation power. The study design was prospective. We compared the cycloplegic power of either eye drops or conjunctival insert given each at one eye at the same starting point. Then we measured every 15 minutes the pupil width and the accommodation by nearpoint testing. Refraction was measured at the point of smallest accommodation power. As result we found less cycloplegic power of the conjunctival insert (accommodation lag with Mydriasert 3.16 versus tropicamide/phanylephrine eye drops 2.61 D; atropine 1.5 D). The effect of maximal cycloplegia was delayed using the insert (Mydriasert 60 min vs. eye drops 45 min). The subjectively noted comfort for the patients of both application forms is the same using a short interview directly after the testing procedure. In conclusion, the conjuctival medicament insert offers a new application form to induce cycloplegia. The effect is less effective compared to the clinically used standard procedures using eye drops, but should be considered for special patients when eye drop instillation is problematic. PMID:24146421

Leu, J; Schaal, J

2013-10-01

265

Lithium insertion in carbonaceous materials containing silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different series of silicon-containing carbonaceous materials were synthesized for use as anodes in lithium ion cells. Disordered (or pregraphitic) carbons containing nanodispersed silicon were prepared by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of various chlorosilanes (SiClsb4, (CHsb3)sb2Clsb2Si, and (CHsb3)sb3ClSi) with benzene in two different apparatuses. Silicon oxycarbide glasses were synthesized by the pyrolysis of over 50 silicon-containing polymers at various temperatures, although the principal materials in the study were prepared at 1000sp°C. Finally, materials which we believe to be similar to disordered carbons containing nanodispersed silicon were prepared by the pyrolysis of various blends of pitches with polysilanes. Powder X-ray diffraction was used to learn about the structure of all the materials made. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to determine the silicon content in the CVD materials and, when coupled to a residual gas analyzer, to study the decomposition process of the polymers. Near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of the silicon L- and K-edges of CVD materials and the silicon K-edges of silicon oxycarbides were used to learn about local chemical environments of the silicon atoms. Lithium metal electrochemical test cells of the silicon-containing CVD materials showed larger capacities (up to 500 mAh/g) than pure carbons prepared in the same way (˜300 mAh/g). The additional capacity was observed to be centered near 0.4 V on charge, the average voltage observed for the removal of lithium from a silicon-lithium alloy. Chemical analysis showed that the stoichiometries of materials made by polymer pyrolysis were distributed over a well-defined region in the Si-O-C Gibbs phase diagram. An interesting series of materials is found near the line in the Si-O-C Gibbs triangle connecting carbon to SiOsb{1.3}. Lithium metal electrochemical test cells made using all the silicon oxycarbides synthesized showed that a stoichiometry of about Sisb{.25}Csb{.45}Osb{.30} gave the maximum reversible capacity (about 900 mAh/g). However, materials near this stoichiometry exhibit large irreversible capacities (>350 mAh/g) and significant hysteresis (the voltage difference between charge and discharge) in the voltage profile (˜0.8 V). In an attempt to reduce the oxygen content in one of the silicon oxycarbide glasses, a sample was washed in a dilute solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) for times ranging from 2 minutes to 24 hours. The material lost, at most, 40 percent of its initial mass, although there was only a small change in its stoichiometry. In addition to the techniques mentioned above, small angle X-ray scattering and BET surface area measurements were used to study the microscopic pore network that was created by the HF washing. Lithium metal electrochemical test cells made using the product of pyrolysing pitch-polysilane blends showed that the capacity increased with silicon content from 340 mAh/g for pure carbon to a maximum of 600 mAh/g for samples with about 15 atomic % silicon (Sisb{.14}Osb{.09}Csb{.77}). The capacity then decreased to near zero as the composition approached SiC. These materials contain oxygen which is correlated to irreversible capacity loss. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wilson, Alfred Macdonald

266

A Nasogastric Tube Inserted into the Gastrocutaneous Fistula  

PubMed Central

We reported a case in which a nasogastric tube was inserted into the gastrocutaneous fistula, diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography. A 78-year-old man with a history of recurrent cerebral hemorrhage had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube due to dysphagia for 2 years. However, soft tissue infection at the gastrostomy site caused the removal of the tube. Immediately, antibiotic agents were infused. For appropriate hydration and medication, a nasogastric tube was inserted. However, there was no significant improvement of the soft tissue infection. Moreover, the amount of bloody exudate increased. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the nasogastric tube placed under the patient's skin via gastrocutaneous fistula. The nasogastric tube was removed, and an antibiotic agents were maintained. After 3 weeks, the signs of infection fully improved, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed again. This case shows necessities of an appropriate interval between removal of the gastrostomy tube and insertion of a nasogastric tube, and suspicion of existence of gastrocutaneous fistula. PMID:22506228

Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Joon Sung; Yu, In Hee; Jeong, Ji Young; Jung, Sung Hee; Jo, Yil Ryun

2011-01-01

267

Purification and characterization of YACs containing large inserts.  

PubMed

This unit provides protocols for characterizing DNA segments cloned in YACs and for purifying YACs from yeast chromosomes. The first basic protocol describes Southern blotting and partial-digest restriction analysis of YACs. These methods are useful for determining the size and complexity of the cloned insert DNA, the presence and location of particular restriction sites or sequences, and even the species of origin of the insert DNA (indicated by hybridization to species-specific repetitive elements such as Alu repeats). The second basic protocol describes gel purification of YACs for use in procedures requiring pure YAC DNA, such as mammalian-cell transformation and subcloning into smaller insert vectors. The third basic protocol details characterizing and analyzing YACs: in vivo fragmentation via homologous recombination with specialized fragmentation vectors containing specific probe sequences or repetitive elements, followed by Southern blotting with YAC- and human-derived probes. PMID:18428294

Gemmill, R M; Bolin, R; Strauss, W M; Pavan, W

2001-05-01

268

Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS  

SciTech Connect

Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Swiss Light Source, 5235 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2010-06-23

269

Definition of Metrics to Evaluate Cochlear Array Insertion Forces Performed with Forceps, Insertion Tool, or Motorized Tool in Temporal Bone Specimens  

PubMed Central

Introduction. In order to achieve a minimal trauma to the inner ear structures during array insertion, it would be suitable to control insertion forces. The aim of this work was to compare the insertion forces of an array insertion into anatomical specimens with three different insertion techniques: with forceps, with a commercial tool, and with a motorized tool. Materials and Methods. Temporal bones have been mounted on a 6-axis force sensor to record insertion forces. Each temporal bone has been inserted, with a lateral wall electrode array, in random order, with each of the 3 techniques. Results. Forceps manual and commercial tool insertions generated multiple jerks during whole length insertion related to fits and starts. On the contrary, insertion force with the motorized tool only rose at the end of the insertion. Overall force momentum was 1.16 ± 0.505?N (mean ± SD, n = 10), 1.337 ± 0.408?N (n = 8), and 1.573 ± 0.764?N (n = 8) for manual insertion with forceps and commercial and motorized tools, respectively. Conclusion. Considering force momentum, no difference between the three techniques was observed. Nevertheless, a more predictable force profile could be observed with the motorized tool with a smoother rise of insertion forces. PMID:25126565

Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

2014-01-01

270

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

271

Washing Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can use this interactive applet to practice counting and ordering numbers up to 24 in groups of 10 at a time. An empty clothesline appears along with 9 number cards and a mystery card. Students drag the numbers onto the line in the correct sequence and then determine the mystery number. After the first round, 1 - 10, users may select from three ranges, starting at 1, 7, or 15.

2009-01-01

272

Spot welding of steel and aluminum using insert sheet  

SciTech Connect

Automobile industries have been increasingly interested in the use of aluminum and thus joining of steel and aluminum becomes of importance. The joining of the two types of metal raises a problem of brittle welds caused by the formation of intermetallic compounds. The authors solved the problem by using an insert sheet. This paper deals with the resistance spot welding of steel and aluminum sheets using insert sheets. The insert sheet used in the present development was a steel/aluminum clad sheet of the 0.8 mm thickness with 50% steel and 50% aluminum. The clad sheet was produced by warm rolling of steel and aluminum with a direct resistance heating process. Steel to be warm rolled was of EDDQ of the 0.4 mm thickness and aluminum was of JIS A1050 of 0.6 mm thickness. The mechanical properties of the insert clad sheets were in between those of the steel sheets and the aluminum sheets, while the clad sheets showed much better formability than the aluminum sheets. Resistance spot welding was conducted for 0.8 mm thick EDDQ steel sheets and 1.0 mm thick aluminum alloy (AL-5.5%Mg) sheets under the welding force of 1.96 kN, welding current ranging between 4.2 and 20.1 kA, and welding time from 0.5 to 10 cycles. The steel was spot welded to the steel side of the insert sheet while the aluminum was welded to the aluminum side. What the authors investigated were the applicable welding current range, nugget diameter, tensile shear strength, U-tension strength, and macro- and microstructures. In conclusion, steel sheets can be spot welded to aluminum sheets without difficulty by using clad sheets as insert materials while the strength level of the dissimilar metal spot welds is close to that of aluminum joints.

Oikawa, H.; Saito, T.; Yoshimura, T. [and others

1994-12-31

273

Mechanics of the mitral valve strut chordae insertion region.  

PubMed

Interest in developing durable mitral valve repair methods is growing, underscoring the need to better understand the native mitral valve mechanics. In this study, the authors investigate the dynamic deformation of the mitral valve strut chordae-to-anterior leaflet transition zone using a novel stretch mapping method and report the complex mechanics of this region for the first time. Eight structurally normal porcine mitral valves were studied in a pulsatile left heart simulator under physiological hemodynamic conditions -120 mm peak transvalvular pressure, 5 l/min cardiac output at 70 bpm. The chordal insertion region was marked with a structured array of 31 miniature markers, and their motions throughout the cardiac cycle were tracked using two high speed cameras. 3D marker coordinates were calculated using direct linear transformation, and a second order continuous surface was fit to the marker cloud at each time frame. Average areal stretch, principal stretch magnitudes and directions, and stretch rates were computed, and temporal changes in each parameter were mapped over the insertion region. Stretch distribution was heterogeneous over the entire strut chordae insertion region, with the highest magnitudes along the edges of the chordal insertion region and the least along the axis of the strut chordae. At early systole, radial stretch was predominant, but by mid systole, significant stretch was observed in both radial and circumferential directions. The compressive stretches measured during systole indicate a strong coupling between the two principal directions, explaining the small magnitude of the systolic areal stretch. This study for the first time provides the dynamic kinematics of the strut chordae insertion region in the functioning mitral valve. A heterogeneous stretch pattern was measured, with the mechanics of this region governed by the complex underlying collagen architecture. The insertion region seemed to be under stretch during both systole and diastole, indicating a transfer of forces from the leaflets to the chordae and vice versa throughout the cardiac cycle, and demonstrating its role in optimal valve function. PMID:20670053

Padala, Muralidhar; Sacks, Michael S; Liou, Shasan W; Balachandran, Kartik; He, Zhaoming; Yoganathan, Ajit P

2010-08-01

274

Insertion Paddlewheel Flowmeters: An Evaluation After Two Years of Use  

E-print Network

all magnetic, tangential paddle-wheel insertion m~ters. Pipe diameters in these facilities ranged from 4 to 12 inches and operating temperatures of the chilled w.ater typically varied from 38 to 60? F. The meters hadlbeen installed through "hot... all magnetic, tangential paddle-wheel insertion m~ters. Pipe diameters in these facilities ranged from 4 to 12 inches and operating temperatures of the chilled w.ater typically varied from 38 to 60? F. The meters hadlbeen installed through "hot...

Robinson, J.; Bryant, J.; Turner, W. D.

275

Desflurane requirements for laryngeal mask airway insertion during inhalation induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We hypothesized that the simultaneous use of low concentrations (2O), and fentanyl would allow a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) to be inserted safely with inhalation induction of desflurane,\\u000a even in nonparalyzed patients. This prospective, observational study was performed to determine the 50% effective concentration\\u000a (EC50) of desflurane for LMA insertion in such patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-two adult patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures

Hwa-Yong Shin; Jung-Ae Lim; Seong-Hyop Kim; Seung-Woo Baek; Duk-Kyung Kim

2009-01-01

276

Analysis of Early-Insertion Standard Coalesced Hashing  

E-print Network

SIAM J. COMPUT.Vol. 12, No. 4, November 1983 1982 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics 0097-5397/83/1204-0006 $01.25/0 ANALYSIS OF EARLY-INSERTION STANDARD COALESCED HASHING* WEN-CHIN CHEN- AND JEFFREY SCOTT VITTERtt Abstract. This paper... analyzes the early-insertion standard coalesced hashing method (EISCH), which is a variant of the standard coalesced hashing algorithm (SCH) described in [Knu73], [Vit80] and [Vit82b]. The analysis answers the open problem posed in [Vit80]. The number...

Chen, Wen-Chin; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1983-01-01

277

Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion  

DOEpatents

A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

Borden, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Shepherd, Jason F. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-29

278

Line Defaults Modify Line/Shipping/Accounting  

E-print Network

Line Defaults and Modify Line/Shipping/Accounting NUFinancials Supply Chain FMS815 03/31/2010 --rkw, vlr Line Defaults & Modify Line/Shipping/Accounting © 2010 Northwestern University FMS815­ Job Aid Page 1 of 5 This job aid describes how and when to use Line Defaults and Modify Line/Shipping/Accounting

Shull, Kenneth R.

279

Solving Witten's SFT by insertion of operators on projectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist

Haitang Yang

2004-01-01

280

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

on Kad Ghulam Memon · Jun Li · Reza Rejaie the date of receipt and acceptance should be inserted later botnet and many P2P botnets, the botmaster here does not need to be always online. It can simply inject its command and run away. This new botnet is also more dangerous than today's peer-to-peer botnets

Rejaie, Reza

281

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

HASSAN · Mounir MOKHTARI the date of receipt and acceptance should be inserted later Abstract In smart Computing (2012) OnlineFirst" DOI : 10.1007/s00779-012-0548-8 #12;present critical challenges at many levels and actuators distributed in space expose a great danger to user privacy since the information collected can

Boyer, Edmond

282

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Development of a ReaxFF description for gold T by the lack of interatomic interaction models for the involved elements. The ReaxFF framework already has, an interatomic potential for gold, based on the ReaxFF framework, is presented and compared to existing gold

Nordlund, Kai

283

Fixing Antenna Problem by Dynamic Diode Dropping and Jumper Insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three ways to fix antenna problems: (1) diode dropping, (2) jumper insertion, and (3) diode dropping with extension wires. Basic principles of these methods are compared and results are presented. Diode structures, SPIC simulation, and diode slicing are also discussed in this paper

Peter H. Chen; Sunil Malkani; Chun-mou Peng; James Lin

2000-01-01

284

Modeling of external ear acoustics for insert headphone usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although acoustics of the external ear has been studied extensively for auralization and hearing aids, the acoustic behavior with insert headphones is not as well known. Our research focused on the eects of outer ear physical dimensions, particularly to sound pressure at the eardrum. The main parameter was the length of the canal, but eardrum's damping of resonances was also

Marko Hiipakka; Miikka Tikander; Matti Karjalainen

285

Mathematical Programming manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Mathematical Programming manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Branching on General This paper considers a modification of the branch-and-cut algorithm for Mixed Integer Linear Programming where branching is performed on general dis- junctions rather than on variables. We select promising

Cornuejols, Gerard P.

286

Mechanism of fluid infusion during microneedle insertion and retraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that infusion flow rates can be increased by an order of magnitude by partially retracting microneedles after insertion into the skin. This study sought to determine the mechanism by which retraction increases fluid infusion by piercing human cadaver skin with single microneedles, fixing the skin after retracting microneedles to different distances, and examining skin microstructure by

Wijaya Martanto; Jason S. Moore; Tracey Couse; Mark R. Prausnitz

2006-01-01

287

Fast, Completely Reversible Li Insertion in Vanadium Pentoxide Nanoribbons  

E-print Network

lengths are promising candidates for Li battery applications. Here we studied at the single nanostructure of structuring material in the nanoscale has also gained attention for improved lithium batteries. BecauseFast, Completely Reversible Li Insertion in Vanadium Pentoxide Nanoribbons Candace K. Chan, Hailin

Cui, Yi

288

Molecular archeology of L1 insertions in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the rough draft of the human genome sequence nears a finished product and other genome-sequencing projects accumulate sequence data exponentially, bioinformatics is emerging as an important tool for studies of transposon biology. In particular, L1 elements exhibit a variety of sequence structures after insertion into the human genome that are amenable to computational analysis. We carried out a

Suzanne T Szak; Oxana K Pickeral; Wojciech Makalowski; Mark S Boguski; David Landsman; Jef D Boeke

2002-01-01

289

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

of the are area. The existence of a #12;tting model demonstrates that nano are heating of the corona is a viable for heating the solar corona (e.g. reviews in Ulmschneider, Rosner, & Priest, 1991). Most popular at presentAstronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) A nano are heating model

290

Insights on human evolution: an analysis of Alu insertion polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the genetic profile of 563 individuals from 12 geographically targeted human populations from Europe, Asia and Africa using 27 human-specific polymorphic Alu insertions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a clear correspondence between genetic profiles and historical patterns of gene flow and genetic drift. Sub-Saharan African populations (Benin, Cameroon, Kenya and Rwanda) formed a visibly differentiated cluster, indicating the role of

Maria C Terreros; Miguel A Alfonso-Sánchez; Gabriel E Novick; Javier R Luis; Harlette Lacau; Robert K Lowery; Maria Regueiro; Rene J Herrera

2009-01-01

291

Insertion loss prediction of floating floors used in ship cabins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, vibration reduction in ship cabins by using floating floor is studied. Two theoretical models are developed and predicted insertion losses of floating floors are compared to experimental results, where measurements are done in the mock-up built for simulating typical ship cabins. The floating floor consists of upper board and mineral wool, which is in turn laid on

Sun-Il Cha; Ho-Hwan Chun

2008-01-01

292

Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification).

A A Polydorou; S R Cairns; J F Dowsett; A R Hatfield; P R Salmon; P B Cotton; R C Russell

1991-01-01

293

A Sensorless Insertion Strategy for Rigid Planar Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The companion paper (2) derives an algorithm that deter- mines the external wrenches consistent with constraints on the contact interactions between two rigid planar bod- ies. In this paper, we show how this algorithm may be used to create sensorless plans that guarantee that a work- piece is correctly inserted into a fixture. Our method ex- plicitly removes all wrenches

Devin J. Balkcom; E. J. Gottlieb; Jeffrey C. Trinkle

2002-01-01

294

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

acquisition based on refraction of light. A scene is captured directly by a camera and by placing a transpar Introduction Depth from refraction is a depth acquisition method based on refraction of light. A sceneNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Depth from Refraction Using a Transparent

Wong, Kenneth K.Y.

295

Inference of human geographic origins using Alu insertion polymorphisms  

E-print Network

the geographic origin of the Louisiana serial killer in 2003 (www.dnaprint.com). Although emerging SNP 60608, USA d Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence Livermore National, Laboratory, PO Box to genotype using a variety of approaches. Herein, we present results of a blind study using 100 Alu insertion

Ray, David

296

Basis of Identities of the Algebra of Simplified Insertions  

E-print Network

for words of length ,k k . 1. Introduction Given a free associative algebra [ ]Ass X on a set of generators in [ ]Ass X , and if s sb u= , where s F and su are monomials in [ ]Ass X , then ( )s sb a u (see [2, 3]). Let's call the new algebra [ ], ,Ass X + the algebra of simplified insertions on the set

297

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Proposal for a Raman X-ray Free Electron Laser-ray free electron laser is proposed, based on a Raman process occurring during the interaction between- and gamma-ray laser ­ 41.60.Cr Free-electron lasers ­ 42.65.Dr Stimulated Raman Scattering 1 Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

298

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) Catalogue of cataclysmic on this catalogue: 1. The online and current edition of A Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables by Downes et al and Atlas of Galactic Novae by Duerbeck (1987), and is supplemented by or­ bital period information

Kolb, Ulrich

299

Fluid flow in a tube with an elastic membrane insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in a circular tube with an elastic insertion is studied numerically. The deformation of the elastic membrane is obtained by the theory of nite elasticity whose equations are solved simultaneously with the fluid equations in the axisymmetric approximation. The elastic wall expands outwards due to the positive transmural pressure and represents an

G IANNI P EDRIZZETTI; Ingegneria Civile

1998-01-01

300

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A Quasi-Random-Walk to model a biological formalization of such dynamics as a random pro- cess which is a extension of Random Walks, to which we add, this motor performs a random walk in one dimension with a drift on the microtubule possibly stopped

Baer, Christian

301

ARMA manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

ARMA manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Discrete Crystal Plasticity M. P. ARIZA AND M by means of locally lattice-invariant­but glob- ally incompatible­eigendeformations. The geometrical of a plastically deformed crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.2. Examples of dislocation systems

Barr, Al

302

myjournal manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

for a conventional index, such as a B-tree. How- ever, there is an additional cost of processing the search overmyjournal manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Using Bitmap Indexing Technology In this paper, we describe a strategy of us- ing compressed bitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

303

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

be inserted later Abstract Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented proliferation of social media. People that capture popular attention. Sto- ries can be identified via groups of tightly-coupled real- world entities Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented prolif- eration of social media. Millions of people around

Fisher, Kathleen

304

Effectiveness Review Analysis (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) Root Cause  

E-print Network

Effectiveness Review Analysis ­ (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) 1 of 1 Root Cause: Corrective: · Effective (Yes)--Corrective actions are implemented as intended, have addressed the causes of the issue the causes of the issue / finding, does not effectively prevent recurrence of the issue / finding, and does

305

Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissue  

E-print Network

for the success of these procedures. However, significant errors are common in current practice. For brachytherapy1 Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissue Ron Alterovitz, Ken Goldberg, Fellow, IEEE, Jean Pouliot, I-Chow Hsu Abstract--Minimally invasive medical procedures

O'Brien, James F.

306

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

, and packet loss caused by such errors seriously limits the maximum achievable throughput of wireless networksNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A Two-State Markov-based Wireless Error Data transmission over wireless networks is challenging due to the occurrence of burst errors

Chen, Ling-Jyh

307

Autonomous Robots manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Autonomous Robots manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Recognition, Prediction: The approach of inferring user's intended task and optimizing low-level robot motions has promise for mak- ing robot teleoperation interfaces more intuitive and respon- sive. But most existing methods assume

Indiana University

308

30. Photocopy of map. Insert, p. 138, Master Plan Report, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Photocopy of map. Insert, p. 138, Master Plan Report, 1960, Vol. II. Layton, Layton and Rohrbach, General Planning and Resource Consultants. 1960 MASTER PLAN, SHOWING PROPOSED LOCATION OF LINNAEAN HOUSE - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

309

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

and acceptance should be inserted later Abstract Conventional training simulators commonly use a hexapod configuration to provide motion cues. While widely used, studies have shown that hexapods are incapable (Hayes and Langlois, 2005) was introduced as a practical alternative to the Gough hexapod architecture

Hayes, John

310

Cannulated screw with solid core insert: stronger than cannulated screws.  

PubMed

We conducted a study to determine if there is a significant difference in ultimate load, yield strength, and fatigue strength between solid core screws and cannulated screws and if a solid core insert placed inside a cannulated screw would have biomechanical effects similar to those of a solid core screw. Five screw designs were tested: Synthes 4.5-mm solid core and 4.5-mm cannulated and our prototype 4.0-mm solid core, 4.0-mm cannulated, and 4.0-mm cannulated with solid core insert. Biomechanical testing with 3-point bending was used to determine ultimate load, yield strength, and cycles to failure for 6 screws of each design. Ultimate load, yield strength, and cycles to failure were significantly (P < .05) lower in the Synthes 4.5-mm cannulated screws than in the Synthes solid core screws and significantly lower in the prototype cannulated screws than in the prototype solid core screws (P < .05) and prototype cannulated screws with solid core inserts (P < .05). There was no significant difference (P > .05) in ultimate load, yield strength, or cycles to failure between the prototype cannulated screws with solid core inserts and the prototype solid core screws. PMID:25251531

Dundon, John M; Gould, Gregory C; Herbenick, Michael A; Hamilton, J Adam

2014-09-01

311

Trans Edutainment manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

high performance object contour tracking. Keywords Tracking · Discriminative methods · Snake model for the object contour; this energy depends on internal spline forces and external image forces. Nu- merousTrans Edutainment manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Multiple-Cue-Based Visual Object

Martin, Ralph R.

312

The Early Phase of a Bacterial Insertion Sequence Manuel Bichsela  

E-print Network

to infect and persist in bacterial populations, or whether horizontal gene transfer suffices a modest population size is very long. We conclude that horizontal gene transfer is strong enough to allow, Insertion sequence, Horizontal gene transfer, Branching process Preprint submitted to Theoretical Population

Barbour, Andrew

313

Technical note Insertion loss testing of active noise reduction  

E-print Network

measured insertion losses of four types of commercially avail- able ANR headsets using an Acoustic Test Fixture (ATF) to examine the feasibility of using ATF for this kind of measurement. The measurement], the technique of Active Noise Reduction (ANR) did not find practical application in the hearing protection field

Wong, Willy

314

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Threat Modeling for Electronic Health Record Systems Ahmad Almulhem Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract The security of electronic health record Electronic Health Record · EHR · Electronic Medical Record · EMR · Attack Tree · Threat Model 1 Introduction

Almulhem, Ahmad

315

People, events, and technology insertion in the Ada program  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three components of the Ada program that I want to mention in this panel - dedicated people, major milestone events, and technology insertion.Ada is succeeding because of the participation, hard work, and enthusiastic support by many hundreds of dedicated professionals. During the time I was associated with the AJPO, I had the very good fortune to work with

Robert Mathis

1990-01-01

316

Failure behaviour of honeycomb sandwich corner joints and inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nearly all sandwich constructions certain types of joints have to be used for assembly, but little is known about their failure behaviour. This paper deals with the investigation of the mechanical behaviour of three different corner joints as a right-angled connection of two sandwich panels and of two different potted inserts as a localised load introduction in Nomex® honeycomb

Sebastian Heimbs; Marc Pein

2009-01-01

317

Type Policy Title Here Effective Date: [Insert Date  

E-print Network

Type Policy Title Here Effective Date: [Insert Date] Policy Statement [Type Statement Text Here] Reason(s) for the Policy [Type Reason Text Here] Primary Guidance to Which This Policy Responds [Type Primary Policy Here ­ If there is NOT a Primary Policy indicate that] Responsible University Office

Salzman, Daniel

318

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) ECM-Aware Cell-Graph Mining for Bone Tissue method, called extra- cellular matrix (ECM)-aware cell-graph mining, that combines the ECM for- mation-graph.Upon segmentation a color code is assigned to each node based on the composition of its surrounding ECM. An edge

Bystroff, Chris

319

Characterization of an insertion sequence, IS12528, from Gluconobacter suboxydans.  

PubMed Central

A novel insertion sequence element, IS12528, was found to be associated with inactivation of the alcohol dehydrogenase by insertion in the adhA gene, which encodes the primary dehydrogenase subunit of the three-component membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase complex in Gluconobacter suboxydans. Cloning and sequencing analyses revealed that IS12528 was 905 bp in length and had a terminal inverted repeat of 18 bp. In addition, IS12528 was found to generate a 3-bp duplication (TMA, where M represents C or A) at the inserted site upon transposition. IS12528 encoded one long product of 274 amino acids that was rich in basic amino acids. This protein showed significant homology with putative transposases of the IS1031 family isolated from Acetobacter xylinum, which belongs to another genus of acetic acid bacteria. IS12528-like sequences were distributed in a wide variety of acetic acid bacteria, as determined by Southern hybridization and PCR. These observations suggest that IS12528 is one of the insertion sequences that are responsible for genetic instability leading to deficiencies in various physiological properties in a variety of acetic acid bacteria. PMID:9055428

Kondo, K; Horinouchi, S

1997-01-01

320

Postplacental or delayed levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breastfeeding duration  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The objective was to assess the effect of timing of postpartum levonorgestrel-releasing IUD insertion on breastfeeding continuation. STUDY DESIGN Women interested in using a levonorgestrel IUD postpartum were randomized to immediate postplacental insertion (postplacental group) or insertion 6–8 weeks after vaginal delivery (delayed group). Duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding were assessed at 6–8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Only women who received an IUD were included in this analysis. RESULTS Breastfeeding was initiated by 32/50 (64%) of women receiving a postplacental IUD and 27/46 (58.7%) of women receiving a delayed IUD (p=0.59). More women in the delayed group compared to the postplacental group continued to breastfeed at 6–8 weeks (16/46 vs 15/50, p=0.62), 3 months (13/46 vs 7/50, p=0.13), and 6 months postpartum (11/46 vs 3/50, p=0.02). The results did not differ when only women who initiated breastfeeding or only primiparous women with no prior breastfeeding experience were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS Immediate postplacental insertion of the levonorgestrel IUD is associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding and less exclusive breastfeeding. Further studies are needed of the effects of early initiation of progestin-only methods on women’s lactation experience. PMID:22018124

Chen, Beatrice A.; Reeves, Matthew F.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, E. Bimla

2011-01-01

321

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

, predicting the popularity of online content is valuable for different stakeholders: news sites and newsNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) From Popularity Prediction to Ranking Online News Alexandru Tatar · Panayotis Antoniadis · Marcelo Dias de Amorim · Serge Fdida Received: date

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Patchiness of murein insertion into the sidewall of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends, with computer techniques, the authors' previous work on the kinetics of pole wall and sidewall synthesis in Escherichia coli. These findings extend the conclusion that the nascent poles are made of entirely new material and that no new material is inserted into old poles. This requires re-evaluation of ideas in the literature about wall growth and cell

Miguel A. De Pedro; Heinz Schwarz; Arthur L. Koch

2003-01-01

323

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

. This subspace constraint effectively acts as a trajectory regularization term leading to temporally con- sistentNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A Variational Approach to Video Registration the sequence can be expressed in a compact way as a linear combination of a low-rank motion basis

Agapito, Lourdes

324

The thermodynamics of the insertion electrochemistry of solid metal hexacyanometallates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strict treatment of the thermodynamics of the electrochemical reactions of solid metal hexacyanometallates is given. For the first time the relations between the formal potentials of the insertion electrochemical reactions and their solubility products are reported as well as their relation with structure parameters such as ion potentials and lattice constants. All derived relationships are proved by experimental data

Maximiliano Bárcena Soto; Fritz Scholz

2002-01-01

325

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Strain localization in polyurethane foams Abstract Strain localization has been observed in polyurethane foams subjected to confined compression up is attributed to progressive phase transition. Keywords polyurethane foams · strain localization · non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

EPJ Applied Physics proofs (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

optimal health safety), the compressive strength, independent of age, sex and the height of the sample (orEPJ Applied Physics proofs (will be inserted by the editor) Compressive strength of human regression) allowed final selection of 29 samples having a mean compressive strength max = 103 MPa ± 26

Boyer, Edmond

327

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

the video game industry, recent GPUs are very powerful and flexible processors, while their price remains be inserted later Abstract The availability of low cost powerful parallel graphics cards has stimulated primitives in parallel to produce pixels for the video screen. Driven by ever increasing requirements from

Fernandez, Thomas

328

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Interactive Image Retrieval using M Banerjee Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract We propose an interactive content based image retrieval · MD · CBD 1 Introduction Automatic image retrieval is an important research problem considering its

Kundu, Malay Kumar

329

Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis  

SciTech Connect

Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

Mahnke, Lisa A. [Department of Medicine, Divisions of Oncology and Infections Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, PO Box 8069, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110 (United States)]. E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael [Department of Medicine, Divisions of Oncology and Infections Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, PO Box 8069, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Department of Medicine, Divisions of Oncology and Infections Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, PO Box 8069, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110 (United States)]. E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

2006-04-25

330

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

without wasted areas (white space). In this setting, the best known algorithm for proportional contactNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Linear-Time Algorithms for Hole are not possible unless we allow holes, but 6-sided polygons can be achieved with arbitrarily small holes

Felsner, Stefan

331

Special Insert of Classroom Materials from the Population Reference Bureau  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 12-page insert contains materials from the Population Reference Bureau. Included are charts, statistics and readings to help secondary teachers and students explore such areas as food balance, energy, mortality, age structure, status of women, and school enrollments in the United States. (Author/RM)

Social Education, 1977

1977-01-01

332

Functional Plasmonic Nanocircuits with Low Insertion and Propagation Losses  

E-print Network

Functional Plasmonic Nanocircuits with Low Insertion and Propagation Losses Arian Kriesch Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We experimentally demonstrate plasmonic nanocircuits operating-Uda style antennas at 0 = 1550 nm. The optical Yagi-Uda style antennas are designed to feed channel plasmon

Atwater, Harry

333

How do insertions affect green fluorescent protein? Murat Cetinkaya a  

E-print Network

are inserted into individual loops of the GFP. Amino acid sequences and fluorescence levels of clones from each of the GFP but not the absorption wavelength. Ã? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2005.11.046 * Corresponding author. Fax

Demirel, Melik C.

334

Insertion of an articulated human into a networked virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most distributed interactive simulation (DIS) technology demonstrated in recent years has focused on vehicle interaction. The dismounted infantryman-the individual soldier-has been largely ignored or represented by static models. In six weeks of development, the Naval Postgraduate School, SARCOS Inc., and University of Pennsylvania, under Army Research Laboratory sponsorship, demonstrated the insertion of a fully articulated human figure into a DIS

David R. Pratt; Paul T. Barham; John Locke; Michael J. Zyda; Bryant Eastman; Timothy Moore; Klaus Biggers; Robert Douglass; Stephen Jacobsen; Michael Hollick; John Granieri; Hyeongseok Ko; Norman I. Badler

1994-01-01

335

Selective insertion of sulfur dioxide reduction intermediates on graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 ?m) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 °C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 °C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide. PMID:24605942

Humeres, Eduardo; Debacher, Nito A; Smaniotto, Alessandra; de Castro, Karen M; Benetoli, Luís O B; de Souza, Eduardo P; Moreira, Regina de F P M; Lopes, Cristiane N; Schreiner, Wido H; Canle, Moisés; Santaballa, J Arturo

2014-04-22

336

Acceptance of Advertising A written insertion order is  

E-print Network

Acceptance of Advertising A written insertion order is required for all advertisements. All advertisements are subject to approval. The University of Chicago Press reserves the right to reject advertising for any reason. The advertiser and/or its advertising agency are entirely responsible for the lawfulness

McReynolds, Ben

337

Force modeling for needle insertion into soft tissue.  

PubMed

The modeling of forces during needle insertion into soft tissue is important for accurate surgical simulation, preoperative planning, and intelligent robotic assistance for percutaneous therapies. We present a force model for needle insertion and experimental procedures for acquiring data from ex vivo tissue to populate that model. Data were collected from bovine livers using a one-degree-of-freedom robot equipped with a load cell and needle attachment. computed tomography imaging was used to segment the needle insertion process into phases identifying different relative velocities between the needle and tissue. The data were measured and modeled in three parts: 1) capsule stiffness, a nonlinear spring model; 2) friction, a modified Karnopp model; and 3) cutting, a constant for a given tissue. In addition, we characterized the effects of needle diameter and tip type on insertion force using a silicone rubber phantom. In comparison to triangular and diamond tips, a bevel tip causes more needle bending and is more easily affected by tissue density variations. Forces for larger diameter needles are higher due to increased cutting and friction forces. PMID:15490818

Okamura, Allison M; Simone, Christina; O'Leary, Mark D

2004-10-01

338

Effectiveness of Control Rods Partially Inserted into a Reflected Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of evaluating the effectiveness of cylindrical control rods for the general case where multiple control rods of various effective lengths affecting epithermal and thermal neutrons are arbitrarily distributed and partially inserted to mutually independent positions in a reflected reactor. This method is a generalization of the technique introduced by Nordheim & Scalettar (N-S method), employing

Fumio AMANO; Shuji INOUE; Fujiyoshi AKINO

1972-01-01

339

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Learning near-optimal policies Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique Sequential Learning (SequeL) project, INRIA Lille, France e theoretical result for off-policy control learning over continuous state-spaces using a single trajectory. Key

Powell, Warren B.

340

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Preference-Based Reinforcement This paper makes a first step toward the integration of two subfields of machine learning, namely preference Learning: A Formal Framework and a Policy Iteration Algorithm Johannes F¨urnkranz, Eyke H

Hüllermeier, Eyke

341

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Training Parsers by Inverse Reinforcement Learning Gergely Neu1,2 , Csaba Szepesv´ari3,2 1 Department of Computing Science, Budapest learning (IRL) where one is given an environment and a set of trajectories and the problem is to find

Szepesvari, Csaba

342

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) PAutomaC: a PFA/HMM Learning involve using finite state machines as models and attempt- ing to learn these; these machines can either the problems dealing with learning grammars and finite state machines and the relevant litera- ture. This paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

A Computer Based Simulator for Ultrasound Guided Needle Insertion Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for the simulation of needle insertion procedures under ultrasound guidance is presented. This is a core skill in interventional radiology, currently acquired on an apprenticeship basis. The system is designed to improve the early stages of training, and detect people with poor natural ability. The simulator is based on a volumetric data set which is non-rigidly aligned to

D. Magee; D. Kessel

344

Roles of Carboxyl Groups in the Transmembrane Insertion of Peptides  

E-print Network

in transmembrane (TM) peptide insertion. pHLIP binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a disordered peptide Extracellular acidification is a hallmark of differ- ent pathologies, including cancer, inflammation, ischemic not have obvious acute toxicity in cells3 or in mice.2 pHLIP is monomeric at low concentrations

345

Rheologica Acta manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

shear-induced transition from a given microscopic organization of the fluid structure to another in the flow curve, i.e., to a shear-thickening transition. Figure 1 illustrates the gradient and vorticityRheologica Acta manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Recent experimental probes of shear

Boyer, Edmond

346

Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

2007-09-01

347

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization  

E-print Network

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization Yanbin Jiang y Sachin S are signi - cantly better than the results given by merely using a TILOS-like transistor sizing algorithm alone. 1 Introduction The transistor sizing problem 1, 2, 3 is often formulated as Minimize Area subject

Sapatnekar, Sachin

348

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

as a momentous influencing factor and point out the role of individual- ity for the way of interaction, while on Multimodal User Interfaces for the final version. ing factors (e.g. the role of gender) that we are goingNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Influencing Factors on Multimodal

Pfeifer, Holger

349

Endotoxin Removal Kit (Mini) Product Insert Product # 21800  

E-print Network

1 Endotoxin Removal Kit (Mini) Product Insert Product # 21800 Norgen's Endotoxin Removal Kit (Mini) is designed for the rapid removal of endotoxins from up to 40 µg of previously purified DNA. Endotoxins, also. Endotoxins are released during the lysis step of plasmid purification and significantly reduce transfection

Lebendiker, Mario

350

Long acting betaxolol ocular inserts based on polymer composite.  

PubMed

Poor bioavailability and therapeutic response of conventional therapy due to many pre-corneal constraints necessitate the development of novel controlled and sustained ocular drug delivery to become a standard one in modern pharmaceutical era. This investigation aimed to study the drug release kinetics of betaxolol hydrochloride from a hydrophobic matrix system of PMMA cast with incorporating different proportions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and evaluate its ability to improve ocular bioavailability and duration of action for the drug. Matrix type ocular inserts were prepared by the film casting technique and characterized in vitro by drug release studies using a flow through apparatus that simulated the eye conditions. All the formulations were subjected to physicochemical evaluation. Rabbit model with steroid induced glaucoma was used to establish in vivo efficacy of inserts. Polymer composition and concentration significantly affected the drug release based on change in diffusional path length and formation of gelaneous pores by polymer erosion. Formulations released the drug by non-fickian diffusion including anomalous transport (0.51). It was also observed that increasing the proportion of PEO in to PMMA does not affect the blend miscibility. IVIVC suggested no significant difference (P< 0.001) between in vitro and in vivo release of drug from inserts. In vivo IOP lowering activity was better for optimized insert F8 (for 24 h) as compared to eye drops (10 h). This ocular insert could be a promising once-a-day sustained release formulation for treating glaucoma. PMID:23909665

Gevariya, Hitesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K

2013-08-01

351

Reversible insertion of carbenes into ruthenium-silicon bonds.  

PubMed

The five-coordinate carbene complexes [Ru{?P,P,Si-Si(Me)(C6H4-2-PiPr2)2}Cl(?CHR)] (2, R = Ph; 3, R = SiMe3), analogues of the Grubbs catalyst, were prepared from the dimer [Ru(?-Cl){?P,P,Si-Si(Me)(C6H4-2-PiPr2)2}]2 (1) and the corresponding diazoalkane N2CHR. The particular structural features that result from the presence of a strongly trans directing silyl group at the pincer ligand of these complexes are discussed on the basis of NMR information and the crystal structure of the vinylidene analogue [Ru{?P,P,Si-Si(Me)(C6H4-2-PiPr2)2}Cl(?C?CHPh)] (4), which was also obtained from 1 and phenylacetylene. The reactions of 3 with reagents such as P(OMe)3, CO, NCMe, and K(acac) illustrate that the first response of these carbene complexes to an increase of the coordination number around ruthenium is the insertion of the carbene ligand into the Ru-Si bond. These reactions also indicate that the insertion process is reversible and allows typical transformations of carbene ligands such as C-H functionalizations via carbene insertion (in the acac ligand) or the formation of ketene from CO. In addition, the reactions of 3 with terminal alkynes such as phenylacetylene or 3,3-dimethyl-1-butyne show that the inserted carbenes can also undergo reactions typical of metal-bound alkyls such as alkyne insertion and C-H reductive elimination. PMID:24289787

Bernal, María J; Torres, Olga; Martín, Marta; Sola, Eduardo

2013-12-18

352

Ka-band full-360° analog phase shifter with low insertion loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reflection-type wideband 360° monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) analog phase shifter at the Ka-band is proposed. The phase shifter is designed based on the principle of vector synthesis. Three Lange couplers are employed in the phase shifter, which is fabricated by the standard 0.25-?m GaAs process. We use four 4 × 40 ?m GaAs HEMTs as the reflection loads. A microstrip line in parallel with the device is used as an inductance to counteract the parasitic capacitance of the device so that the reflection load performs like a pure resistance and the insertion loss can be decreased. In this phase shifter, a folded Lange coupler is utilized to reduce the size of the chip. The size of the proposed MMIC phase shifter is only 2.0 × 1.2 mm2. The measurement results show that the insertion loss is 5.0 ± 0.8 dB and a 360° continuously tunable range across 27–32 GHz is obtained with miniscule DC power consumption.

Mengyi, Cao; Yang, Lu; Jiaxing, Wei; Jiaxin, Zheng; Xiaohua, Ma; Yue, Hao

2014-10-01

353

Analysis of transposon insertion mutants highlights the diversity of mechanisms underlying male progamic development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

To identify genes with essential roles in male gametophytic development, including postpollination (progamic) events, we have undertaken a genetic screen based on segregation ratio distortion of a transposon-borne kanamycin-resistance marker. In a population of 3359 Arabidopsis Ds transposon insertion lines, we identified 20 mutants with stably reduced segregation ratios arising from reduced gametophytic transmission. All 20 mutants showed strict cosegregation of Ds and the reduced gametophytic transmission phenotype. Among these, 10 mutants affected both male and female transmission and 10 mutants showed male-specific transmission defects. Four male and female (ungud) mutants and 1 male-specific mutant showed cellular defects in microspores and/or in developing pollen. The 6 remaining ungud mutants and 9 male-specific (seth) mutants affected pollen functions during progamic development. In vitro and in vivo analyses are reported for 5 seth mutants. seth6 completely blocked pollen germination, while seth7 strongly reduced pollen germination efficiency and tube growth. In contrast, seth8, seth9, or seth10 pollen showed reduced competitive ability that was linked to slower rates of pollen tube growth. Gene sequences disrupted in seth insertions suggest essential functions for putative SETH proteins in diverse processes including protein anchoring, cell wall biosynthesis, signaling, and metabolism. PMID:15342534

Lalanne, Eric; Michaelidis, Christos; Moore, James M; Gagliano, Wendy; Johnson, Andrew; Patel, Ramesh; Howden, Ross; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Phillippe; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Twell, David

2004-01-01

354

Analysis of cell poration by femtosecond laser for particle insertion by optical manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction and subsequent expression of external DNA inside single living mammalian cell (transfection) can be achieved by photoporation with femtosecond laser. After photoporation, external DNA can be introduced by trapping and successive insertion of DNA coated nanoparticle in the cell using optical tweezers. To maximize the transfection efficiency, one of the major aspects is that the photoporated cell should not be damaged and cell membrane should heal itself immediately or after sometime while the cells are healed in the CO2 incubator. Furthermore, the size of hole created as a result of photoporation should be more than the size of DNA coated nanoparticle to be inserted inside the cell. In this paper, an analysis has been done on single cell of important breast cancer cell lines named MCF-7 and MDAMB231. Size of holes created in cell membrane after photoporation has been measured and the required optimum energy with sustained cell life were determined. Using this analysis, most favorable conditions for maximum transfection efficiency can be determined.

Muhammad, Waleed; Kim, Jung-Dae; Lee, Yong-Gu

2012-10-01

355

Force of cochlear implant electrode insertion performed by a robotic insertion tool: comparison of traditional versus Advance  

E-print Network

of traditional versus Advance Off-Stylet techniques Daniel Schurzig, M.S., Research and Development Engineer to analyze force profiles during deployment of stylet-containing electrode arrays using either traditional which forces were similar averaging approximately 0.006N. For insertion from 7�17mm, traditional

Simaan, Nabil

356

Analysis of Primary Stability of Dental Implants Inserted in Different Substrates Using the Pullout Test and Insertion Torque  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate mechanical behavior of implants inserted in three substrates, by measuring the pullout strength and the relative stiffness. 32 implants (Master Porous-Conexao, cylindrical, external hexagon, and surface treatment) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): pig rib bone, polyurethane Synbone, polyurethane Nacional 40 PCF, and pinus wood. Implants were installed with the exact distance of 5?mm of another implant. The insertion torque (N·cm) was quantified using the digital Kratos torque meter and the pullout test (N) was performed by an axial traction force toward the long axis of the implant (2?min/mm) through mount implant devices attached to a piece adapted to a load cell of 200?Kg of a universal testing machine (Emic DL10000). Data of insertion torque and maximum pullout force were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (? = 0.05). Polyurethane Nacional 40 PCF and pinus wood showed the highest values of insertion torque and pullout force, with significant statistical difference (P < 0.05) with other groups. The analysis showed stiffness materials with the highest values for primary stability. PMID:23431301

Oliscovicz, Nathalia Ferraz; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio; Lepri, Cesar Penazzo; dos Reis, Andrea Candido

2013-01-01

357

Particles as Wilson lines of the gravitational field  

SciTech Connect

Since the work of Mac-Dowell-Mansouri it is well known that gravity can be written as a gauge theory for the de Sitter group. In this paper we consider the coupling of this theory to the simplest gauge invariant observables that is, Wilson lines. The dynamics of these Wilson lines is shown to reproduce exactly the dynamics of relativistic particles coupled to gravity, the gauge charges carried by Wilson lines being the mass and spin of the particles. Insertion of Wilson lines breaks in a controlled manner the diffeomorphism symmetry of the theory and the gauge degree of freedom are transmuted to particles degree of freedom.

Freidel, L.; Kowalski-Glikman, J.; Starodubtsev, A. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo (Canada); Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht (Netherlands)

2006-10-15

358

False-positive pH aspirates after nasogastric tube insertion in head and neck tumour.  

PubMed

Nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes are commonly inserted to supplement enteral nutrition in certain patient groups, including those with head and neck cancers where swallowing may be compromised. An NHS National Patient Safety Alert was released in 2011 detailing ongoing cases of significant morbidity and mortality attached to the incorrect placement of NG feeding tubes in hospital inpatients. Since 2005, there were 21 deaths and 79 cases of harm nationally due to feeding into the lung through misplaced tubes. pH testing remains the first-line method of placement confirmation, with chest x-ray used when no aspirate is gained or where pH testing fails to confirm suitable acidity. We present a case report describing false-positive NG tube placement confirmation tests in a patient with head and neck cancer, who was administered feed into lung parenchyma with significant morbidity. We discuss the case for specific NG tube placement protocols in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:22927281

Sellers, Claudia Kate

2012-01-01

359

New chicane magnet design for insertion device straights at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

A chicane magnet incorporating counter-rotating permanent magnet pairs together with trim coils has been designed for use in the Advanced Light Source (ALS) straights in conjunction with two insertion devices. In particular, this design is being developed for use in the existing beam line (BL) 4 elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) straight and in the BL11 EPU straight, currently under design and construction. The purpose of the chicane is to provide a fixed angular separation between two successive EPU photon fans, and to correct steering perturbations resulting from EPU polarization state changes. Polarization changes occur on the time scale of one second; associated steering corrections must be accomplished in less than a second. Hysteresis associated with conventional iron core electromagnets prevents fast steering correction to the required precision. This consideration motivated the iron-free design presented here.

Marks, Steve; Schlueter, Ross; Anderson, David; Gath, William; Jung, Jin-Young; Robin, David; Steier, Christoph; Stevens, Troy

2001-12-10

360

A Medicago truncatula Tobacco Retrotransposon Insertion Mutant Collection with Defects in Nodule Development and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

A Tnt1-insertion mutant population of Medicago truncatula ecotype R108 was screened for defects in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Primary screening of 9,300 mutant lines yielded 317 lines with putative defects in nodule development and/or nitrogen fixation. Of these, 230 lines were rescreened, and 156 lines were confirmed with defective symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutants were sorted into six distinct phenotypic categories: 72 nonnodulating mutants (Nod?), 51 mutants with totally ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix?), 17 mutants with partially ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix+/?), 27 mutants defective in nodule emergence, elongation, and nitrogen fixation (Nod+/? Fix?), one mutant with delayed and reduced nodulation but effective in nitrogen fixation (dNod+/? Fix+), and 11 supernodulating mutants (Nod++Fix+/?). A total of 2,801 flanking sequence tags were generated from the 156 symbiotic mutant lines. Analysis of flanking sequence tags revealed 14 insertion alleles of the following known symbiotic genes: NODULE INCEPTION (NIN), DOESN’T MAKE INFECTIONS3 (DMI3/CCaMK), ERF REQUIRED FOR NODULATION, and SUPERNUMERARY NODULES (SUNN). In parallel, a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy was used to identify Tnt1 insertions in known symbiotic genes, which revealed 25 additional insertion alleles in the following genes: DMI1, DMI2, DMI3, NIN, NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1 (NSP1), NSP2, SUNN, and SICKLE. Thirty-nine Nod? lines were also screened for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis phenotypes, and 30 mutants exhibited defects in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Morphological and developmental features of several new symbiotic mutants are reported. The collection of mutants described here is a source of novel alleles of known symbiotic genes and a resource for cloning novel symbiotic genes via Tnt1 tagging. PMID:22679222

Pislariu, Catalina I.; D. Murray, Jeremy; Wen, JiangQi; Cosson, Viviane; Muni, RajaSekhara Reddy Duvvuru; Wang, Mingyi; A. Benedito, Vagner; Andriankaja, Andry; Cheng, Xiaofei; Jerez, Ivone Torres; Mondy, Samuel; Zhang, Shulan; Taylor, Mark E.; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Chen, Rujin; Udvardi, Michael K.

2012-01-01

361

Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.  

PubMed

Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements-ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice. PMID:24975032

Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

2014-09-01

362

Neurosteroids promote phosphorylation and membrane insertion of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.  

PubMed

Neurosteroids are synthesized within the brain and act as endogenous anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and sedative agents, actions that are principally mediated via their ability to potentiate phasic and tonic inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Although neurosteroids are accepted allosteric modulators of GABAARs, here we reveal they exert sustained effects on GABAergic inhibition by selectively enhancing the trafficking of GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition. We demonstrate that neurosteroids potentiate the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of S443 within ?4 subunits, a component of GABAAR subtypes that mediate tonic inhibition in many brain regions. This process enhances insertion of ?4 subunit-containing GABAAR subtypes into the membrane, resulting in a selective and sustained elevation in the efficacy of tonic inhibition. Therefore, the ability of neurosteroids to modulate the phosphorylation and membrane insertion of ?4 subunit-containing GABAARs may underlie the profound effects these endogenous signaling molecules have on neuronal excitability and behavior. PMID:24778259

Abramian, Armen M; Comenencia-Ortiz, Eydith; Modgil, Amit; Vien, Thuy N; Nakamura, Yasuko; Moore, Yvonne E; Maguire, Jamie L; Terunuma, Miho; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

2014-05-13

363

Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media  

PubMed Central

Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

2012-01-01

364

Enantioselective iron-catalysed O-H bond insertions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ready availability, low price and environmentally benign character of iron mean that it is an ideal alternative to precious metals in catalysis. Recent growth in the number of iron-catalysed reactions reported reflects an increasing demand for sustainable chemistry. Only a limited number of chiral iron catalysts have been reported and these have, in general, proven less enantioselective than other transition-metal catalysts, thus limiting their appeal. Here, we report that iron complexes of spiro-bisoxazoline ligands are highly efficient catalysts for asymmetric O-H bond insertion reactions. These complexes catalyse insertions into the O-H bond of a wide variety of alcohols and even water, with exceptional enantioselectivities under mild reaction conditions. The selectivities surpass those obtained with other transition-metal catalysts. This study should inspire and encourage the use of iron instead of traditional precious metals in the development of greener catalysts for catalytic asymmetric synthesis.

Zhu, Shou-Fei; Cai, Yan; Mao, Hong-Xiang; Xie, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Qi-Lin

2010-07-01

365

Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex  

PubMed Central

The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion. PMID:21546912

Popov-Celeketic, Dusan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

2011-01-01

366

Selection analyses of insertional mutants using subgenic-resolution arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method of genome-wide analysis of quantitative growth phenotypes using insertional mutagenesis and DNA microarrays. We applied the method to assess the fitness contributions of Escherichia coli gene domains under specific growth conditions. A transposon library was subjected to competitive growth selection in Luria–Bertani (LB) and in glucose minimal media. Transposon-containing genomic DNA fragments from the selected libraries

Vasudeo Badarinarayana; Preston W. Estep III; Jay Shendure; Jeremy Edwards; Saeed Tavazoie; Felix Lam; George M. Church

2001-01-01

367

High Throughput Fingerprint Analysis of Large-Insert Clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Human Genome Project, the Washington University Genome Sequencing Center has commenced systematic sequencing of human chromsome 7. To organize and supply the effort, we have undertaken the construction of sequence-ready physical maps for defined chromosomal intervals. Map construction is a serial process composed of three main activities. First, candidate STS-positive large-insert PAC and BAC clones are

Marco A. Marra; Tamara A. Kucaba; Nicole L. Dietrich; Eric D. Green; Buddy Brownstein; Richard K. Wilson; Ken M. McDonald; LaDeana W. Hillier; John D. McPherson; Robert H. Waterston

1997-01-01

368

Protease-sensitive prions with 144-bp insertion mutations  

PubMed Central

Insertion of 144-base pair (bp) containing six extra octapeptide repeats between residues 51 and 91 of prion protein (PrP) gene is associated with inherited prion diseases. Most cases linked to this insertion examined by Western blotting showed detectable proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (rPrPSc) resembling PrPSc type 1 and type 2 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), or PrP7-8 in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. However, cases lacking detectable rPrPSc also have been reported. Which PrP conformer is associated with neuropathological changes in the cases without detectable rPrPSc remains to be determined. Here we report that while all six but one subjects with the 144-bp insertion mutations examined display the pathognomonic PrP patches in the cerebellum, one of them exhibits no detectable typical rPrPSc even in PrPSc-enriched preparations. Instead, a large amount of abnormal PrP is captured from this case by gene 5 protein and sodium phosphotungstate, reagents that have been proved to specifically capture abnormal PrP. All captured abnormal PrP from the cerebellum and other brain regions is virtually sensitive to PK-digestion (termed sPrPSc). The presence of the predominant sPrPSc but absence of rPrPSc in this 144-bp insertion-linked inherited CJD case suggests that mutant sPrPSc is the main component of the PrP deposit patches and sPrPSc is sufficient to cause neurotoxicity and prion disease. PMID:23515139

Puoti, Gianfranco; Yuan, Jue; Qing, Liuting; Wang, Heming; Kong, Qingzhong; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Zou, Wen-Quan

2013-01-01

369

High Field Insert Coils From Bi2212\\/Ag Round Wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi-2212\\/Ag round wire is a promising and practical material for extending high field superconducting magnets beyond the limits of Nb3Sn. Efforts to develop superconducting magnets in the 25 to 30 T range include fabrication and test of practical size insert coils using this wire. Recent studies have focused on improvements in wire performance, wire insulation, and coil fabrication for wind-and-react

Hanping Miao; Kenneth R. Marken; Maarten Meinesz; Boleslaw Czabaj; Seung Hong; Andrew Twin; Paul Noonan; Ulf P. Trociewitz; Justin Schwartz

2007-01-01

370

Designing and constructing cardboard chair inserts for young handicapped children  

E-print Network

for an optimal sitting position) and to guar- antee accurate chair measurements. Design Steps Adaptive equipment is, by definition, customized to meet the physical needs of individual children. In order to customize the equipment, a blueprint... for construction must first be devel- oped. This involves three steps: (a) assessing current sitting status; (b) designing equipment that provides a balance of support; and (c) obtaining the measurements for the insert. The design should prevent the child from...

Horn, Eva; Millen, Caren E.; Cavanaugh, Christie Lee; Komisar, Shelley

1987-01-01

371

Tail-anchored membrane protein insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane proteins are inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by two highly conserved parallel pathways. The well-studied co-translational pathway uses signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor for targeting and the SEC61 translocon for membrane integration. A recently discovered post-translational pathway uses an entirely different set of factors involving transmembrane domain (TMD)-selective cytosolic chaperones and an accompanying receptor at the

Ramanujan S. Hegde; Robert J. Keenan

2011-01-01

372

The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections  

SciTech Connect

The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

Winick, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

373

Cyclization of ?(3)-Benzylpalladium Intermediates Derived from Carbene Insertion.  

PubMed

Migratory insertion of benzylidene carbene ligands into arylpalladium(II) species generates ?(3)-benzylpalladium intermediates that can cyclize to generate five- and six-membered rings with new sp(3) centers. The reaction tolerates a range of arene functional groups and stabilized enolates. The products generated through this reaction are 1-arylindanes and 1-aryltetralins that are common to a range of natural products. PMID:25279856

Gutman, Eugene S; Arredondo, Vanessa; Van Vranken, David L

2014-10-17

374

Ultrasonic welding of ceramics\\/metals using inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a description of an experimental study of the ultrasonic welding of ceramics and metals using inserts. Ultrasonic welding has made it possible to weld various ceramics such as Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4, AlN, to metals at room temperature, quickly and easily compared to other welding methods. For example, the ultrasonic welding of Si3N4\\/Al\\/Cu can be accomplished under the

Shin-ichi Matsuoka

1998-01-01

375

TVC manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

-mail: ardeshir@cs.wright.edu Key words B´ezier curve ­ B´ezier surface ­ B-spline curve ­ rational Gaussian (Ra´ezier and B-spline curves will be called B´ezier+ and B-spline+ curves. Then, the formulations for BTVC manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Plus Curves and Surfaces A. Ardeshir Goshtasby

Goshtasby, Arthur Ardeshir

376

Non-rotating cementing plug with molded inserts  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an anti-rotation plug set for use with cementing equipment having an insert seat therein, the anti-rotation plug set and the cementing equipment for use in cementing a string of casing into a well bore. It comprises an upper plug including: a non-metallic body member having a plurality of teeth integrally formed on the lower end thereof and an elastomeric covering thereon having, in turn, wipers which engage the interior of the string of casing; and a lower plug including: a non-metallic body member having a bore therethrough, having teeth integrally formed on the upper end thereof which mate with the teeth integrally formed on the lower end of the nonmetallic body member of the upper plug when the upper plug engages the lower plugs, having teeth integrally formed on the lower end thereof, having an insert member in a portion of the bore through the non-metallic body member, and the cementing equipment comprising: an insert seat having teeth thereon which mate with the integrally formed teeth on the lower end of the non-metallic body member of the lower plug of the anti-rotation plug set when the lower plug of the anti-rotation plug set engages the cementing equipment during the cementing of the string of casing into a well bore.

Watson, B.W.

1992-03-17

377

Localized control of the orbit in the RHIC insertions  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed here that, for RHIC92 insertions, we remove the corrector from Ql and the beam position monitor (BPM) from Q2 in order to alleviate difficulties associated with the physical layout of the quadrupole triplet (Ql-Q2-Q3). Furthermore, it is suggested that there should be both (horizontal and vertical) types of BPMs at each end of the free space between Q3 and Q4 and between Q7 and Q8 so that one can measure the direction of the closed orbit. With this model, a localized control of the beam position and angle at the interaction point (IP) with either four or six correctors has been investigated. Similarly, a control of the orbit within an insertion for minimizing the orbit displacements at seven (or eight) BPM locations with nine (or ten) correctors in each transverse direction has been studied. Examples are given for the beta at IP = 2m, 10m, 20m, and 200m. It is shown that the design value of the integrated field strength of 0.3 T-m for each corrector should be sufficient for the tasks considered here except for some cases with extreme parameter values. At the same time, it is emphasized that the overall correction of the closed orbit for the entire ring (arcs and insertions) should be re-examined for RHIC92 lattice with the proposed arrangement of correctors and BPMS.

Ohnuma, S.

1992-08-01

378

Apparatus to test insertion and removal torque of bone screws.  

PubMed

This paper describes affordable equipment for testing bone screw torque, corresponding to ASTM standard F543-00 for testing metallic medical bone screws. Correct testing of thin and long bone screws is essential due to screw failures during insertion and removal of the screws. Furthermore, insertion torque is an important factor in predicting fixation strength, screw pull-out force and effects of surface treatment of screws. The capability of the custom-built tester was determined using polytetrafluoroethylene and wood disc samples and bone screws. Bovine cortical bones allowed testing to the failure limit, i.e. the torque increased in long screws to the fracture limit. For 2.7 and 3.5 mm thick self-tapping cortical bone screws, the failure torques were 30-50 per cent higher than the minimum values required by the standard (1.0 and 2.3 N m respectively). The equipment provided reproducible results and fulfilled the ASTM standard very well. Preliminary testing with amorphous diamond coated bone screws showed good durability of the coating and on average 10-15 per cent lower torque values compared with uncoated screws. The equipment can be used to measure insertion and removal torques as described in the standard. Furthermore, it also allows testing of normal screws and bolts. PMID:14702987

Koistinen, A; Santavirta, S; Lappalainen, R

2003-01-01

379

Thermodynamic study of benzocaine insertion into different lipid bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the general consensus concerning the role played by sodium channels in the molecular mechanism of local anesthetics, the potency of anaesthetic drugs also seems to be related with their solubility in lipid bilayers. In this respect, this work represents a thermodynamic study of benzocaine insertion into lipid bilayers of different compositions by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Thus, the free energy profiles associated with benzocaine insertion into symmetric lipid bilayers composed of different proportions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine were studied. From the simulation results, a maximum in the free energy (?G) profile was measured in the region of the lipid/solution interface. This free energy barrier appears to be very much dependent on the lipid composition of the membrane. On the other hand, the minimum free energy (?G) within the bilayer remained almost independent of the lipid composition of the bilayer. By repeating the study at different temperatures, it was seen how the spontaneity of benzocaine insertion into the lipid bilayer is due to an increase in the entropy associated with the process.

Cascales, J. J. López; Costa, S. D. Oliveira; Porasso, R. D.

2011-10-01

380

Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

2013-06-01

381

Membrane perturbation by carbon nanotube insertion: pathways to internalization.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can penetrate the membranes of cells, offering prospects for nanomedicine but problems for nanotoxicity. Molecular simulations are used to provide a systematic analysis of the interactions of single-walled and multi-walled CNTs of different radii with a model lipid bilayer membrane. The simulations allow characterization of the mechanism of spontaneous exothermic insertion of CNTs into lipid bilayer membranes. The size and type of CNT determine the nature and extent of the local perturbation of the bilayer. Single-walled CNTs are shown to insert via a two-step mechanism with initial transient formation of a water filled pore followed by full insertion of the CNT into the bilayer. The latter stage is associated with formation of a persistent inverted micelle arrangement of lipid molecules trapped inside the CNT. This suggests a possible vehicle for nano-encapsulation of drugs, enabling their entry into and subsequent release within cells following endocytosis of CNT-containing membranes. PMID:23418066

Lelimousin, Mickaël; Sansom, Mark S P

2013-11-11

382

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

Hydrogen Ly as a prominent emission line of high redshift galaxies is important for the understanding with Finite Elements II. Ly Line Transfer in Moving Media E. Meink¨ohn ¡£¢ ¤ and S. Richling ¡ ¥ Institut f Day, 2002; accepted Month Day, 2002 Abstract. A finite element method for solving the resonance line

383

Functional Genomics of Eukaryotic Photosynthesis Using Insertional Mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1  

E-print Network

Functional Genomics of Eukaryotic Photosynthesis Using Insertional Mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas photosynthesis in eukaryotes. Here we describe the development of a resource for functional genomics of photosynthesis using insertional mutagenesis of the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome. Chlamydomonas cells were

384

Buffer insertion in large circuits using look-ahead and back-off techniques  

E-print Network

Buffer insertion is an essential technique for reducing interconnect delay in submicron circuits. Though it is a well researched area, there is a need for robust and effective algorithms to perform buffer insertion at the circuit level. This thesis...

Waghmode, Mandar

2007-04-25

385

21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501 Section 310...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement for...safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug products requires...

2012-04-01

386

21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501 Section 310...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement for...safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug products requires...

2011-04-01

387

21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501 Section 310...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement for...safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug products requires...

2010-04-01

388

21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501 Section 310...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement for...safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug products requires...

2013-04-01

389

21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.  

...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501 Section 310...Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement for...safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug products requires...

2014-04-01

390

Greedy Heuristics with Regret, with Application to the Cheapest Insertion Algorithm for the TSP  

E-print Network

Greedy Heuristics with Regret, with Application to the Cheapest Insertion Algorithm for the TSP Refael Hassin Ariel Keinan Abstract We considers greedy algorithms that allow partial regret is quite small. Keywords: Cheapest insertion heuristic, greedy algorithm with regret, traveling salesman

Hassin, Refael

391

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2012-04-01

392

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

...2014-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2014-04-01

393

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2011-04-01

394

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2010-04-01

395

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2013-04-01

396

Excitation of toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes by the electrodes inserted in a heliotron/torsatron plasma.  

PubMed

A novel method of exciting shear Alfvén waves using electrodes inserted in a plasma was developed for basic study of Alfvén eigenmodes in a heliotron/torsatron plasma. The electrodes can induce excitation current along the confinement field line, and generate magnetic perturbations perpendicular to the confinement field. By sweeping the frequency of the current in a cold plasma, the toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmode was resonantly excited at the predicted frequency and radial location. Plasma response to the applied magnetic perturbations indicates a fairly large damping rate caused by continuum damping. PMID:16090408

Matsunaga, G; Toi, K; Kawada, S; Kotani, J; Suzuki, C; Matsuoka, K

2005-06-10

397

Experimental Investigation of Strain Concentrations Caused by Inserts in Sandwich Beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study of the strain concentrations developing across the insert-core junctions in a sandwich beam with an implanted stiff insert into its core. Strain measurements were carried out at several positions on the skins and across the insert-core junc- tion, for several sandwich beam specimens loaded in 3-points bending and having inserts with various geometries. The

N. G. Tsouvalis; M. J. Kollarini

2008-01-01

398

Modeling of galvanostatic charge and discharge of the lithium\\/polymer\\/insertion cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The galvanostatic charge and discharge of a lithium anode\\/solid polymer separator\\/insertion cathode cell is modeled using concentrated solution theory. The model is general enough to include a wide range of polymeric separator materials, lithium salts, and composite insertion cathodes. Insertion of lithium into the active cathode material is simulated using superposition, thus greatly simplifying the numerical calculations. Variable physical properties

Marc Doyle; T. F. Fuller; J. S. Newman

1993-01-01

399

Cholecystoduodenal fistula: A complication of inserted self-expandable metallic bilitary stents  

SciTech Connect

We encountered a case of hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma resulting in cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of self-expandable metallic biliary stents (EMBSs). To our knowledge, there has been no report of cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of EMBSs. This case suggests that immediate gallbladder decompression may be necessary if acute cholecystitis occurs after insertion of EMBSs.

Nishida, Hirotoshi; Inoue, Hiroki; Ueno, Kazuto; Nagata, Yukitaka; Kato, Takeshi; Miyazono, Nobuaki; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)

1998-05-15

400

Cholecystoduodenal Fistula: A Complication of Inserted Self-Expandable Metallic Biliary Stents  

SciTech Connect

We encountered a case of hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma resulting in cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of self-expandable metallic biliary stents (EMBSs). To our knowledge, there has been no report of cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of EMBSs. This case suggests that immediate gallbladder decompression may be necessary if acute cholecystitis occurs after insertion of EMBSs.

Nishida, Hirotoshi; Inoue, Hiroki; Ueno, Kazuto; Nagata, Yukitaka; Kato, Takeshi; Miyazono, Nobuaki; Nakajo, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima 890 (Japan)

1998-05-15

401

Fast Buffer Insertion for Yield Optimization Under Process Ruiming Chen and Hai Zhou  

E-print Network

Fast Buffer Insertion for Yield Optimization Under Process Variations Ruiming Chen and Hai Zhou- come prohibitive. Buffer insertion is a very useful technique for timing optimization. In this paper, we propose a buffer insertion algorithm with the consideration of process varia- tions. We use

Zhou, Hai

402

An Time Algorithm for Optimal Buffer Insertion with b Buffer Types *  

E-print Network

An Time Algorithm for Optimal Buffer Insertion with b Buffer Types * Zhuo Dept. of Electrical Engineering Texas University College Station,Texas 77843,USA. zhuoli@ee.tamu.edu Abstract Buffer insertion is apopular technique to reduce the in- terconnect delay. The classic buffer insertion algorithm of van has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Genetic determinants of feline leukemia virus-induced lymphoid tumors: patterns of proviral insertion and gene rearrangement.  

PubMed Central

The genetic basis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-induced lymphoma was investigated in a series of 63 lymphoid tumors and tumor cell lines of presumptive T-cell origin. These were examined for virus-induced rearrangements of the c-myc, flvi-2 (bmi-1), fit-1, and pim-1 loci, for T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements, and for the presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B). The myc locus was most frequently affected in naturally occurring lymphomas (32%; n = 38) either by transduction (21%) or by proviral insertion (11%). Proviral insertions were also common at flvi-2 (24%). The two other loci were occupied in a smaller number of the naturally occurring tumors (fit-1, 8%; pim-1, 5%). Examination of the entire set of tumors showed that significant numbers were affected at two (19%) or three (5%) of the loci. Occupation of the fit-1 locus was observed most frequently in tumors induced by FeLV-myc strains, while flvi-2 insertions occurred with similar frequency in the presence or absence of obvious c-myc activation. These results suggest a hierarchy of mutational events in the genesis of feline T-cell lymphomas by FeLV and implicate insertion at fit-1 as a late progression step. The strongest links observed were with T-cell development, as monitored by rearrangement status of the TCR beta-chain gene, which was positively associated with activation of myc (P < 0.001), and with proviral insertion at flvi-2 (P = 0.02). This analysis also revealed a genetically distinct subset of thymic lymphomas with unrearranged TCR beta-chain genes in which the known target loci were involved very infrequently. The presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B) showed a negative correlation with proviral insertion at fit-1, possibly due to the rapid onset of these tumors. These results shed further light on the multistep process of FeLV leukemogenesis and the relationships between lymphoid cell maturation and susceptibility to FeLV transformation. Images PMID:7966623

Tsatsanis, C; Fulton, R; Nishigaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Levy, L; Terry, A; Spandidos, D; Onions, D; Neil, J C

1994-01-01

404

Solving Witten's SFT by Insertion of Operators on Projectors  

E-print Network

Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist invariant projector, the energy density can account for at most 68.46% of the D25-brane tension. The general results are then applied to regulated slivers and butterflies, and the next-to-leading order solution for regulated sliver states is constructed.

Yang, H

2004-01-01

405

Solving Witten's SFT by Insertion of Operators on Projectors  

E-print Network

Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist invariant projector, the energy density can account for at most 68.46% of the D25-brane tension. The general results are then applied to regulated slivers and butterflies, and the next-to-leading order solution for regulated sliver states is constructed.

Haitang Yang

2004-06-02

406

Development and testing of the rack insertion device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Installing and removing experiment racks in a Space Station Logistics Module will become a repetitive operation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the near future. A Rack Insertion Device (RID) consisting of an Extendible Boom, End Effector, and Positioning Base is being developed for the task. This paper discusses the key elements of the RlD's function and design. Prototype test results for the RlD's Extendible Boom and End Effector are presented. Also discussed are future end effectors that will further enhance the RlD's Space Station processing capability.

Strickland, G. Scott

1995-01-01

407

Inserting one single Mn ion into a quantum dot  

SciTech Connect

A method of growth to get one single Mn in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot is presented. With a simple quantitative model, the appropriate low Mn density needed prior to the quantum dot nucleation is estimated. Such a low Mn concentration was reached by inserting a thin ZnTe spacer between a Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te buffer and the CdTe quantum dot layer. The control of Mn density is made by changing the thickness of the ZnTe spacer, with good reproducibility. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of optical spectra for different samples assess the relevance of this growth method.

Maingault, Laurent; Besombes, L.; Leger, Y.; Bougerol, C.; Mariette, H. [CEA-CNRS-UJF Group Nanophysics and Semiconductor, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d'Heres, France and CEA/DRFMC/SP2M, 17 Av. des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

2006-11-06

408

Inserting one single Mn ion into a quantum dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of growth to get one single Mn in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot is presented. With a simple quantitative model, the appropriate low Mn density needed prior to the quantum dot nucleation is estimated. Such a low Mn concentration was reached by inserting a thin ZnTe spacer between a Zn1-xMnxTe buffer and the CdTe quantum dot layer. The control of Mn density is made by changing the thickness of the ZnTe spacer, with good reproducibility. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of optical spectra for different samples assess the relevance of this growth method.

Maingault, Laurent; Besombes, L.; Léger, Y.; Bougerol, C.; Mariette, H.

2006-11-01

409

Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems  

SciTech Connect

Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

Nijs, Els L. F., E-mail: nijs@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Clinical Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Cahill, Anne Marie, E-mail: cahill@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States)

2010-12-15

410

Functional plasmonic nanocircuits with low insertion and propagation losses.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate plasmonic nanocircuits operating as subdiffraction directional couplers optically excited with high efficiency from free-space using optical Yagi-Uda style antennas at ?0 = 1550 nm. The optical Yagi-Uda style antennas are designed to feed channel plasmon waveguides with high efficiency (45% in coupling, 60% total emission), narrow angular directivity (<40°), and low insertion loss. SPP channel waveguides exhibit propagation lengths as large as 34 ?m with adiabatically tuned confinement and are integrated with ultracompact (5 × 10 ?m(2)), highly dispersive directional couplers, which enable 30 dB discrimination over ?? = 200 nm with only 0.3 dB device loss. PMID:23962146

Kriesch, Arian; Burgos, Stanley P; Ploss, Daniel; Pfeifer, Hannes; Atwater, Harry A; Peschel, Ulf

2013-09-11

411

A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.  

SciTech Connect

A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

1999-10-25

412

Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

1993-01-01

413

Expression and inheritance of inserted markers in binary vector carrying Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).  

PubMed

Transgenic shoots were regenerated from eight diploid potato hairy root clones obtained by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring next to its wild-type Ri-plasmid a binary vector containing the neomycin phosphotransferase and the ?-glucuronidase genes. The plants exhibited the typical hairy root phenotype. Of the plants isolated, 58% were tetraploid and 38% were diploid. Flowering and tuberization was much better in the diploid than in the tetraploid plants. Transgenic plants formed a significantly larger root system when grown on kanamycin-containing medium as compared to growth on kanamycin-free medium. Direct evidence for genetic transformation was obtained by opine, neomycin phosphotransferase and ?-glucuronidase assays, and by molecular hybridization. Fourteen flowering diploid plants were reciprocally crossed with untransformed S. tuberosum plants, but only six were successful. Seedlings obtained from four crosses showed that all traits were transmitted to the offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of multiple integrations (copies) of both vector T-DNA and Ri-T-DNA. The genetic data, furthermore, suggest that the traits derived from Ri-T-DNA and binary vector T-DNA are linked, as no recombination between the different traits was observed. PMID:24225832

Visser, R G; Hesseling-Meinders, A; Jacobsen, E; Nijdam, H; Witholt, B; Feenstra, W J

1989-11-01

414

Identification of Sleeping Beauty transposon insertions in solid tumors using linker-mediated PCR.  

PubMed

Genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic analyses of human tumors indicate that there are thousands of anomalies within each cancer genome compared to matched normal tissue. Based on these analyses it is evident that there are many undiscovered genetic drivers of cancer(1). Unfortunately these drivers are hidden within a much larger number of passenger anomalies in the genome that do not directly contribute to tumor formation. Another aspect of the cancer genome is that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity within similar tumor types. Each tumor can harbor different mutations that provide a selective advantage for tumor formation(2). Performing an unbiased forward genetic screen in mice provides the tools to generate tumors and analyze their genetic composition, while reducing the background of passenger mutations. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is one such method(3). The SB system utilizes mobile vectors (transposons) that can be inserted throughout the genome by the transposase enzyme. Mutations are limited to a specific cell type through the use of a conditional transposase allele that is activated by Cre Recombinase. Many mouse lines exist that express Cre Recombinase in specific tissues. By crossing one of these lines to the conditional transposase allele (e.g. Lox-stop-Lox-SB11), the SB system is activated only in cells that express Cre Recombinase. The Cre Recombinase will excise a stop cassette that blocks expression of the transposase allele, thereby activating transposon mutagenesis within the designated cell type. An SB screen is initiated by breeding three strains of transgenic mice so that the experimental mice carry a conditional transposase allele, a concatamer of transposons, and a tissue-specific Cre Recombinase allele. These mice are allowed to age until tumors form and they become moribund. The mice are then necropsied and genomic DNA is isolated from the tumors. Next, the genomic DNA is subjected to linker-mediated-PCR (LM-PCR) that results in amplification of genomic loci containing an SB transposon. LM-PCR performed on a single tumor will result in hundreds of distinct amplicons representing the hundreds of genomic loci containing transposon insertions in a single tumor(4). The transposon insertions in all tumors are analyzed and common insertion sites (CISs) are identified using an appropriate statistical method(5). Genes within the CIS are highly likely to be oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, and are considered candidate cancer genes. The advantages of using the SB system to identify candidate cancer genes are: 1) the transposon can easily be located in the genome because its sequence is known, 2) transposition can be directed to almost any cell type and 3) the transposon is capable of introducing both gain- and loss-of-function mutations(6). The following protocol describes how to devise and execute a forward genetic screen using the SB transposon system to identify candidate cancer genes (Figure 1). PMID:23407503

Janik, Callie L; Starr, Timothy K

2013-01-01

415

Chloroplast NADPH-Thioredoxin Reductase Interacts with Photoperiodic Development in Arabidopsis1[W][OA  

E-print Network

Chloroplast NADPH-Thioredoxin Reductase Interacts with Photoperiodic Development in Arabidopsis1[W Joensuu, Finland (N.S., M. Keina¨nen) Chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) belongs, by characterization of T-DNA insertion lines of NTRC gene, we uncover a novel connection between chloroplast thiol

Palva, Tapio

416

Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylase 1 (AtHD1) and epigenetic regulation  

E-print Network

in the transgenic plants.We also identified a T-DNA insertion line in exon 2 of AtHD1 gene (athd1-t1), resulting in a null allele at the locus. The complete inhibition of the AtHD1 expression induced growth and developmental defects similar to those of CASH...

Tian, Lu

2004-09-30

417

Survey of Heat Use During Peripheral IV Insertion by Health Care Workers.  

PubMed

Health care workers at an academic medical center in the Midwest were surveyed to identify common practices regarding heat use during peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter insertion. Of the 907 who responded, the majority used heat to facilitate PIV insertion at least sometimes, when veins were not easily seen or not palpable, applying a commercial dry hot pack for 2 to 5 minutes before selecting an insertion site. Heat use correlated with practice role and population, frequency of PIV insertion, and perceived PIV skill. Findings will guide development of a research protocol to compare the effects of dry heat, moist heat, and no heat on PIV insertion success. PMID:25376320

Kiger, Tammy; Knudsen, Elise Arsenault; Curran, Wendy; Hunter, Julia; Schaub, Anna; Williams, Mary Jane; Zechel, Janet; Kwekkeboom, Kristine

2014-01-01

418

Diamond studded insert drag bit with strategically located hydraulic passages for mud motors  

SciTech Connect

A diamond studded insert drag bit is disclosed having a multiplicity of individual diamond insert cutter blanks inserted in the face of the bit. The diamond insert blanks are so positioned to maximize penetration of the bit in a borehole. The bit further includes fluid passages strategically located in the bit face to provide uniform flow, cooling and continuous cleaning of each of the diamond cutter insert blanks. The fluid passages are so sized to cause minimum bit pressure drop. Bits with minimum pressure losses from fluid flow are best suited for positive displacement mud motors that cannot tolerate downstream pressures in excess of 50 to 500 pounds per square inch.

Allen, J.H.

1981-01-27

419

Flow cytometry sorting of recombinant mycobacterial species yields bacterial clones with enhanced insert expression.  

PubMed

Recombinant mycobacteria hold promise as vectors for delivery of HIV-1 and other pathogen antigen inserts for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In general, the immunogenicity of the recombinant mycobacterial insert is proportional to the level of insert expression. In this study, a novel flow cytometry-based assay has been developed to sort live recombinant mycobacterial mutants with high expression of foreign inserts and to enrich those sorted bacterial populations. Sorted recombinant mycobacterial clones expressed higher levels of the ovalbumin SIINFEKL epitope, and select sorted clones showed better immunogenicity than unsorted recombinant mycobacteria. Thus, flow cytometry-based sorting can isolate recombinant mycobacteria enriched for higher insert expression. PMID:21068210

Yu, Jae-Sung; Whitesides, John; Lee, Sun-Hee; Taylor, Natalie; Jacobs, William R; Letvin, Norman L; Haynes, Barton F

2011-01-01

420

Assembly and insertion of a self-fitting hearing aid: design of effective instruction materials.  

PubMed

A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were "very easy" to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content. PMID:22389434

Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

2011-12-01

421

An Intermediate Cobalt(IV) Nitrido Complex and its N-Migratory Insertion Product.  

PubMed

Low-temperature photolysis experiments (T = 10 K) on the tripodal azido complex [(BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(II)(N3)] (1) were monitored by EPR spectroscopy and support the formation of an exceedingly reactive, high-valent Co nitrido species [(BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(IV)(N)] (2). Density functional theory calculations suggest a low-spin d(5), S = 1/2, electronic configuration of the central cobalt ion in 2 and, thus, are in line with the formulation of complex 2 as a genuine, low-spin Co(IV) nitride species. Although the reactivity of this species precludes handling above 50 K or isolation in the solid state, the N-migratory insertion product [(NH-BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(II)](BPh4) (3) is isolable and was reproducibly synthesized as well as fully characterized, including CHN elemental analysis, paramagnetic (1)H NMR, IR, UV-vis, and EPR spectroscopy as well as SQUID magnetization and single-crystal X-ray crystallography studies. A computational analysis of the reaction pathway 2 ? 3 indicates that the reaction readily occurs via N-migratory insertion into the Co-C bond (activation barrier of 2.2 kcal mol(-1)). In addition to the unusual reactivity of the nitride 2, the resulting divalent cobalt complex 3 is a rare example of a trigonal pyramidal complex with four different donor ligands of a tetradentate chelate-an N-heterocyclic carbene, a phenolate, an imine, and an amine-binding to a high-spin Co(II) ion. This renders complex 3 chiral-at-metal. PMID:25243488

Zolnhofer, Eva M; Käß, Martina; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Heinemann, Frank W; Maron, Laurent; van Gastel, Maurice; Bill, Eckhard; Meyer, Karsten

2014-10-22

422

Microfluidic transwell inserts for generation of tissue culture-friendly gradients in well plates.  

PubMed

Gradients of biochemical molecules play a key role in many physiological processes such as axon growth, tissue morphogenesis, and trans-epithelium nutrient transport, as well as in pathophysiological phenomena such as wound healing, immune response, bacterial invasion, and cancer metastasis. In this paper, we report a microfluidic transwell insert for generating quantifiable concentration gradients in a user-friendly and modular format that is compatible with conventional cell cultures and with tissue explant cultures. The device is simply inserted into a standard 6-well plate, where it hangs self-supported at a distance of ~250 ?m above the cell culture surface. The gradient is created by small microflows from the device, through an integrated track-etched porous membrane, into the cell culture well. The microfluidic transwell can deliver stable, quantifiable gradients over a large area with extremely low fluid shear stress to dissociated cells or tissue explants cultured independently on the surface of a 6-well plate. We used finite-element modeling to describe the porous membrane flow and molecular transport and to predict gradients generated by the device. Using the device, we applied a gradient of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP) to a large population of HL-60 cells (a neutrophil cell line) and directly observed the migration with time-lapse microscopy. On quantification of the chemotactic response with an automated tracking algorithm, we found 74% of the cells moving towards the gradient. Additionally, the modular design and low fluid shear stress made it possible to apply gradients of growth factors and second messengers to mouse retinal explant cultures. With a simplified interface and well-defined gradients, the microfluidic transwell device has potential for broad applications to gradient-sensing biology. PMID:24225908

Sip, Christopher G; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Folch, Albert

2014-01-21

423

{sup 7}Li-nuclear magnetic resonance observation of lithium insertion into mesocarbon microbeads  

SciTech Connect

The stacking order of graphite layers in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) heat-treated between 700 and 3,000 C was examined by analyses of X-ray diffraction measurements, and lithium insertion into the MCMBs has been observed using solid-state {sup 7}Li-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 7}Li-NMR) spectroscopy. In MCMBs heat-treated above 2,000 C, the fully lithiated MCMBs showed two bands at ca. 45 ppm (vs. KiCl) and ca. 27 ppm in their {sup 7}Li-NMR spectra. The profile of the band at 45 ppm was very close to that for the first-stage lithium graphite intercalation compound (Li-GIC), though the other band at 27 ppm could not be assigned to any phases of Li-GICs. From these results, it is suggested that the structures of the MCMBs heat-treated above 2,000 C for lithium insertion are classified as graphitic structure, which has the AB stacking order of graphite layers, and turbostatic structure with a random stacking sequence of graphite layers; the fully lithiated compositions of both structures were estimated as LiC{sub 6} and ca. Li{sub 0.2}C{sub 6}, respectively. Although MCMB heat-treated at 700 C gave a higher capacity than LiC{sub 6}, the line shift in the {sup 7}Li-NMR spectra indicated that lithium stored in the MCMB displayed an ionic character. Capacity change of the MCMBs during charge-discharge cycling up to 20 cycles and capacity loss at higher current densities (<200 mA/g) were also examined.

Tatsumi, K.; Akai, T.; Imamura, T.; Zaghib, K.; Iwashita, N.; Higuchi, S.; Sawada, Y. [Osaka National Research Inst., Ikeda, Osaka (Japan)

1996-06-01

424

Cation insertion reactions of electrochromic tungsten and iridium oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical coloration mechanisms of electrochromic (EC), amorphous tungsten and iridium oxide films have been investigated by direct elemental analysis of their compositions in oxidized and reduced states. Combined Rutherford backscattering and nuclear-reaction-analysis techniques were employed to determine the identities and concentrations of ions injected as charge compensators from the contacting electrolyte during EC redox reactions. In aqueous electrolytes, the cathodic coloration of an anodically formed, hydrous tungsten oxide film (composition ~WO3.H2O), is accompanied by injection of protons, in accordance with mechanisms determined for anhydrous WO3. The anodic coloration and coloration bleaching of an anodically formed, hydrous iridium oxide (IROX) film, which has a varying degree of hydration throughout its thickness, is accompanied by ejection and injection of H+ and H3O+ ions. In nonaqueous aprotic electrolytes, the slow but reversible insertion of Li+ (r=0.60 Å) and Na+ (r=0.95 Å) ions into IROX films has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Li+ ions were found to exchange with H+ ions in these hydrous films. No evidence could be found for insertion of K+ (r=1.33 Å), F- (r=1.36 Å), or OH- (r=1.55 Å) ions as charge compensators. These results provide a measure of the size and concentration of vacancies and defects in amorphous IROX films.

McIntyre, J. D. E.; Basu, S.; Peck, W. F., Jr.; Brown, W. L.; Augustyniak, W. M.

1982-06-01

425

Pyoderma gangrenosum after totally implanted central venous access device insertion  

PubMed Central

Background Pyoderma gangrenosum is an aseptic skin disease. The ulcerative form of pyoderma gangrenosum is characterized by a rapidly progressing painful irregular and undermined bordered necrotic ulcer. The aetiology of pyoderma gangrenosum remains unclear. In about 70% of cases, it is associated with a systemic disorder, most often inflammatory bowel disease, haematological disease or arthritis. In 25–50% of cases, a triggering factor such as recent surgery or trauma is identified. Treatment consists of local and systemic approaches. Systemic steroids are generally used first. If the lesions are refractory, steroids are combined with other immunosuppressive therapy or to antimicrobial agents. Case presentation A 90 years old patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, seeking regular transfusions required totally implanted central venous access device (Port-a-Cath®) insertion. Fever and inflammatory skin reaction at the site of insertion developed on the seventh post-operative day, requiring the device's explanation. A rapid progression of the skin lesions evolved into a circular skin necrosis. Intravenous steroid treatment stopped the necrosis' progression. Conclusion Early diagnosis remains the most important step to the successful treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum. PMID:18325095

Inan, Ihsan; Myers, Patrick O; Braun, Rolf; Hagen, Monica E; Morel, Philippe

2008-01-01

426

Mechanics of Dynamic Needle Insertion into a Biological Material  

PubMed Central

During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue. PMID:19932986

Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E.

2010-01-01

427

Dissecting membrane insertion of mitochondrial beta-barrel proteins.  

PubMed

Communication of mitochondria with the rest of the cell requires beta-barrel proteins of the outer membrane. All beta-barrel proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and imported into mitochondria by the general translocase TOM and the sorting machinery SAM. The SAM complex contains two proteins essential for cell viability, the channel-forming Sam50 and Sam35. We have identified the sorting signal of mitochondrial beta-barrel proteins that is universal in all eukaryotic kingdoms. The beta-signal initiates precursor insertion into a hydrophilic, proteinaceous membrane environment by forming a ternary complex with Sam35 and Sam50. Sam35 recognizes the beta-signal, inducing a major conductance increase of the Sam50 channel. Subsequent precursor release from SAM is coupled to integration into the lipid phase. We propose that a two-stage mechanism of signal-driven insertion into a membrane protein complex and subsequent integration into the lipid phase may represent a general mechanism for biogenesis of beta-barrel proteins. PMID:18358813

Kutik, Stephan; Stojanovski, Diana; Becker, Lars; Becker, Thomas; Meinecke, Michael; Krüger, Vivien; Prinz, Claudia; Meisinger, Chris; Guiard, Bernard; Wagner, Richard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils

2008-03-21

428

Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

2014-03-01

429

Automated synthesis, insertion and detection of polyps for CT colonography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT Colonography (CTC) is a new non-invasive colon imaging technique which has the potential to replace conventional colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. A novel system which facilitates automated detection of colorectal polyps at CTC is introduced. As exhaustive testing of such a system using real patient data is not feasible, more complete testing is achieved through synthesis of artificial polyps and insertion into real datasets. The polyp insertion is semi-automatic: candidate points are manually selected using a custom GUI, suitable points are determined automatically from an analysis of the local neighborhood surrounding each of the candidate points. Local density and orientation information are used to generate polyps based on an elliptical model. Anomalies are identified from the modified dataset by analyzing the axial images. Detected anomalies are classified as potential polyps or natural features using 3D morphological techniques. The final results are flagged for review. The system was evaluated using 15 scenarios. The sensitivity of the system was found to be 65% with 34% false positive detections. Automated diagnosis at CTC is possible and thorough testing is facilitated by augmenting real patient data with computer generated polyps. Ultimately, automated diagnosis will enhance standard CTC and increase performance.

Sezille, Nicolas; Sadleir, Robert J. T.; Whelan, Paul F.

2003-03-01

430

Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

2013-08-01

431

Lithium insertion chemistry of phosphate phases with thelipscombite structure  

SciTech Connect

The lithium insertion chemistry of an iron phosphate withthe lipscombite structure, Fe1.19PO4F0.11(OH)0.46(H2O)0.43, wasinvestigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic cycling, andpotentiostatic intermittent titration. The compound, prepared by a simplehydrothermal method, contains interconnecting chains of face-sharing FeO6octahedra with about 60 percent Fe occupancy. Assuming that all the ironmay bereduced, the theoretical capacity is about 180 mAh g?1, similar tothat of olivine-type LiFePO4. Reversible intercalation was found toproceed via a single-phase reaction at an average potential of 2.8Vversus Li+/Li. Good structural stability uponntercalation/deintercalation was observed. The unit cell volume increasedlinearly and isotropically with increasing lithium content, reaching 10percent for a Li:Fe ratio of 0.96.XRD peak widths increased onlithiation, presumably due to disorder created by conversion of Fe3+ tothe larger Fe2+, but decreased onsubsequent delithiation. The ratecapability of this material appears to be diffusion-limited, and maybenefit from a decrease in particle size. The lithium insertion behaviorof a related compound, Ti5O4(PO4)4, was also investigated.

Dolle, Mickael; Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

2004-12-05

432

A survey of bacterial insertion sequences using IScan.  

PubMed

Bacterial insertion sequences (ISs) are the simplest kinds of bacterial mobile DNA. Evolutionary studies need consistent IS annotation across many different genomes. We have developed an open-source software package, IScan, to identify bacterial ISs and their sequence elements--inverted and target direct repeats--in multiple genomes using multiple flexible search parameters. We applied IScan to 438 completely sequenced bacterial genomes and 20 IS families. The resulting data show that ISs within a genome are extremely similar, with a mean synonymous divergence of K(s) = 0.033. Our analysis substantially extends previously available information, and suggests that most ISs have entered bacterial genomes recently. By implication, their population persistence may depend on horizontal transfer. We also used IScan's ability to analyze the statistical significance of sequence similarity among many IS inverted repeats. Although the inverted repeats of insertion sequences are evolutionarily highly flexible parts of ISs, we show that this ability can be used to enrich a dataset for ISs that are likely to be functional. Applied to the thousands of genomes that will soon be available, IScan could be used for many purposes, such as mapping the evolutionary history and horizontal transfer patterns of different ISs. PMID:17686783

Wagner, Andreas; Lewis, Christopher; Bichsel, Manuel

2007-01-01

433

Early metamorphic insertion technology for insect flight behavior monitoring.  

PubMed

Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing "only" while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

Verderber, Alexander; McKnight, Michael; Bozkurt, Alper

2014-01-01

434

Launch vehicle and power level impacts on electric GEO insertion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) has been shown to increase net geosynchronous spacecraft mass when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion. The impact of launch vehicle selection and power level on the benefits of this approach were examined for 20 and 25 kW systems launched using the Ariane 5, Atlas IIAR, Long March, Proton, and Sea Launch vehicles. Two advanced on-board propulsion technologies, 5 kW ion and Hall thruster systems, were used to establish the relative merits of the technologies and launch vehicles. GaAs solar arrays were assumed. The analysis identifies the optimal starting orbits for the SEP orbit raising/plane changing while considering the impacts of radiation degradation in the Van Allen belts, shading, power degradation, and oblateness. This use of SEP to provide part of the orbit insertion results in net mass increases of 15 - 38% and 18 - 46% for one to two month trip times, respectively, over just using SEP for 15 years of north/south station keeping. SEP technology was shown to have a greater impact on net masses of launch vehicles with higher launch latitudes when avoidance of solar array and payload degradation is desired. This greater impact of SEP could help reduce the plane changing disadvantage of high latitude launch sites. Comparison with results for 10 and 15 kW systems show clear benefits of incremental increases in SEP power level, suggesting that an evolutionary approach to high power SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft is possible.

Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.

1996-01-01

435

Case Reports: Pediatric PCL Insufficiency from Tibial Insertion Osteochondral Avulsions  

PubMed Central

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) insertion-site osteochondral avulsions in children, particularly from the tibia, are not commonly seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Because of the rarity of these injuries, careful attention to the specific physical examination and imaging findings seen with these injuries is necessary so that the proper diagnosis can be made. Osteochondral avulsions of the PCL can be missed on plain radiographs in skeletally immature patients, and therefore magnetic resonance imaging is necessary for proper diagnosis. With this knowledge, clinicians can formulate treatment plans which can return their patients to activities while avoiding potential morbidity resulting from missed diagnoses or improper treatment. We report two rare cases of PCL insufficiency stemming from tibial insertion osteochondral avulsions. Both patients underwent subsequent open reduction and internal fixation of the avulsion using two different fixation methods (bioabsorbable anchors versus cannulated screw and washer) and have returned to full sporting activities. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0373-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18648903

Pandya, Nirav K.; Janik, Luke; Chan, Gilbert

2008-01-01

436

Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.  

PubMed

Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by ?-? interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material. PMID:23027798

Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

2012-11-01

437

Proofreading of ribonucleotides inserted into DNA by yeast DNA polymerase ?  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the ability of the 3? exonuclease activity of S. cerevisiae DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) to proofread newly inserted ribonucleotides (rNMPs). During DNA synthesis in vitro, Pol ? proofreads ribonucleotides with apparent efficiencies that vary from none at some locations to more than 90% at others, with rA and rU being more efficiently proofread than rC and rG. Previous studies show that failure to repair ribonucleotides in the genome of rnh201? strains that lack RNase H2 activity elevates the rate of short deletions in tandem repeat sequences. Here we show that this rate is increased by 2–4-fold in pol2–4 rnh201? strains that are also defective in Pol ? proofreading. In comparison, defective proofreading in these same strains increases the rate of base substitutions by more than 100-fold. Collectively, the results indicate that although proofreading of an ‘incorrect’ sugar is less efficient than is proofreading of an incorrect base, Pol ? does proofread newly inserted rNMPs to enhance genome stability. PMID:22682724

Williams, Jessica S.; Clausen, Anders R.; Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A.; Watts, Brian E.; Johansson, Erik; Kunkel, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

438

Surface heat transfer in a channel with porous insert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the possible ways of the effective intensification is the realization of heat carrier flows in porous structures. For this purpose inserts are placed in moving heat carrier channels. Despite a large number of publications, net-like, fibrous, brush, caked and powder structures of low and mean porosity (epsilon less than or equal to 0.6) are studied. Application of high-porous permeable honeycomb materials (HPHM) shows, that among the the well-known porous materials possessing maximal permeability (penetrability factors are 10(exp -8) ...10(exp -9) sq m). HPHM's have a characteristic three-dimensional net-like honeycomb structure with high repeatability of cells. All the frame substance is concentrated in stripping ribs, which bound each separate cell. In coolant flowing in the channel with porous insert the transfer of energy from the heated wall into the channel interior originates at the expense of the frame material heat conduction and lateral conduction and lateral convective mixing of flow. In this paper we present the results of analytical and experimental heat transfer investigation at forced heat carrier, flowing in the channel that is filled-in by porous HPHM medium.

Gortyshov, Yu. F.

1993-05-01

439

Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications  

SciTech Connect

Hollow Carbon Nanowires (HCNWs) were prepared through pyrolyzation of hollow polyaniline nanowires precursor. The HCNWs used as anode material for Na-ion batteries delivers a high reversible capacity of 251 mAh g{sup -1} and 82.2% capacity retention over 400 charge/discharge cycles between 1.2 and 0.01 V (vs. Na{sup +}/Na) at a constant current of 50 mA g{sup -1} (0.2 C). Excellent cycling stability is also observed at even higher charge-discharge rate. A high reversible capacity of 149 mAh g{sup -1} also can be obtained at a current rate of 500 mA g{sup -1} (2C). The good Na ion insertion property is attributed to the short diffusion distance in the HCNWs, and the large interlayer distance (0.37 nm) between the graphitic sheets, which agrees with the interlayered distance predicted by theoretical calculation to enable Na ion insertion in carbon materials.

Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Sushko, Maria L.; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

2012-07-11

440

Corrugated fiberboard as a positioning insert for patients undergoing radiotherapy.  

PubMed

We have developed a new body fixation system for single patient use, which consists of a vacuum cushion, a thermoplastic fixation sheet which is used to suppress involuntary and voluntary patient movement, and a triple-wall corrugated fiberboard base plate to which both the vacuum cushion and the thermoplastic sheet are affixed. To evaluate the characteristics of the fiberboard as a patient-positioning insert, the photon beam attenuation of a fiberboard base plate, a carbon-fiber base plate, and a vacuum-formed cushion were compared. The strength of the fiberboard was also evaluated. The attenuation for the carbon-fiber base plate was 3.7% and 2.6% in 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively, while the results were less for the fiberboard base plate, i.e. 1.9% and 1.6%. The vacuum-formed cushion had a minimal effect on transmission. None of the materials subsided under the weight loading of 20 g/cm(2). There was no difference between the thicknesses of the fiberboard before and after a 50 times daily load with the 60 kg weight of a volunteer. Corrugated fiberboard is a robust and low attenuating material that functions well as a patient-positioning insert. PMID:19755802

Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshikawa, Haruo; Akai, Tomoharu; Nomoto, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Yoshimitsu, Kengo

2010-01-01

441

Control system for insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen insertion devices (IDs) are installed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), and three more are scheduled for installation by the end of this year. A distributed control system for insertion devices at the APS storage ring was created with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The basic components of this system are operator interfaces (OPIs), input output controllers (IOCs), and a local area network that allows the OPI and IOC to communicate. The IOC operates under the VxWorks OS with an EPICS database and a sequencer. The sequencer runs an ID control program written in State Notation Language. The OPI is built with the EPICS tool MEDM and provides display screens with input and output fields and buttons for gap control of the IDs. Global commands like ``open all IDs`` are C-shell scripts invoked from the display menu. The algorithms for control and protection of the ID and ID vacuum chamber and the accuracy of gap control are discussed.

Makarov, O.A.; Den Hartog, P.; Moog, E.R.; Smith, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

1997-09-01

442

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

mechanism of He i 10830 š A profiles observed in a limb flare Hui Li and Jianqi You Purple Mountain solar limb flare of 16 August 1989 show unusually broad profiles, and most of the profiles are blue of the blue­ shift of EUV lines and the red asymmetry of the H# line, respectively (Fisher et al. 1985). Large

Li, Hui

443

Adaptive evolution involving gene duplication and insertion of a novel Ty1/copia-like retrotransposon in soybean.  

PubMed

Gene duplication is a major force for generating evolutionary novelties that lead to adaptations to environments. We previously identified two paralogs encoding phytochrome A (phyA), GmphyA1 and GmphyA2, in soybean, a paleopolyploid species. GmphyA2 is encoded by the E4 locus responsible for photoperiod sensitivity. In photoperiod insensitive lines, GmphyA2 is inactivated by the insertion of a retrotransposon in exon 1. Here, we describe the detailed characterization of the element and its evolutionary significance inferred from the distribution of the allele that harbors the element. Structural characteristics indicated that the element, designated SORE-1, is a novel Ty1/copia-like retrotransposon in soybean, which was phylogenetically related to the Sto-4, BARE-1, and RIRE1 elements. The element was transcriptionally active, and the transcription was partially repressed by an epigenetic mechanism. Sequences homologous with SORE-1 were detected in a genome sequence database of soybean, most of which appeared silent. GmphyA2 that harbors the SORE-1 insertion was detected only in cultivated soybean lines grown in northern regions of Japan, consistent with the notion that photoperiod insensitivity caused by the dysfunction of GmphyA2 is one of genetic changes that allowed soybean cultivation at high latitudes. Taking into account that genetic redundancy is conferred by the two phyA genes, we propose a novel model for the consequences of gene duplication and transposition of retrotransposons: when the gene is duplicated, retrotransposon insertion that causes the loss of a gene function can lead to adaptive evolution while the organism is sustained by the buffering effect brought about by gene duplication. PMID:19629571

Kanazawa, Akira; Liu, Baohui; Kong, Fanjiang; Arase, Sachiko; Abe, Jun

2009-08-01

444

A large-scale gene-trap screen for insertional mutations in developmentally regulated genes in mice  

SciTech Connect

We have used a gene-trap vector and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to screen for insertional mutations in genes developmentally regulated at 8.5 days of embryogenesis (dpc). From 38,730 cell lines with vector insertions, 393 clonal integrations had disrupted active transcription units, as assayed by {beta}-galactosidase reporter gene expression. From these lines, 290 clones were recovered and injected into blastocysts to assay for reporter gene expression in 8.5-dpc chimeric mouse embryos. Of these, 279 clones provided a sufficient number of chimeric embryos for analysis. Thirty-six (13%) showed restricted patterns of reporter-gene expression, 88 (32%) showed widespread expression and 155 (55%) failed to show detectable levels of expression. Further analysis showed that approximately one-third of the clones that did not express detectable levels of the reporter gene at 8.5 dpc displayed reporter gene activity at 12.5 dpc. Thus, a large proportion of the genes that are expressed in ES cells are either temporally or spatially regulated during embryogenesis. These results indicate that gene-trap mutageneses in embryonic stem cells provide an effective approach for isolating mutations in a large number of developmentally regulated genes. 40 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Wurst, W.; Rossant, J.; Prideaux, V.; Kownacka, M.; Hill, D.P.; Guillemot, F.; Auerbach, A.; Cado, D.; Ang, S.L. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

1995-02-01

445

Optical Performance of the GM/CA-CAT Canted Undulator Beam lines for Protein Crystallography  

SciTech Connect

A new macromolecular crystallographic facility developed by GM/CA-CAT is operational at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The facility consists of three beamlines: two lines based on the first 'hard' dual canted undulators and one bending magnet beamline. The ID lines are operational, and the BM line is being commissioned. Both insertion device (ID) beamlines are independently tunable over a wide energy range. The inboard ID lines have been upgraded with a new insertion device to provide enhanced performance for MAD phasing experiments near the selenium and bromine K-edges. The ID line monochromators' crystals are indirectly, cryogenically cooled for improved performance and reliability. Focusing is achieved by long bimorph mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry. This paper describes the design of the beam lines and the optical characterization of the mirrors and monochromators.

Fischetti, Robert F.; Yoder, Derek W.; Xu Shenglan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Benn, Richard; Corcoran, Stephen [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Diete, Wolfgang; Schwoerer-Boehing, Markus; Signorato, Riccardo; Schroeder, Leif [ACCEL Instruments GmbH, Friedrich-Ebert Strasse 1, D-51429 Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Berman, Lonny [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Viccaro, P. James [University of Chicago, CARS-CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Smith, Janet L. [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2007-01-19

446

Mars Observer mission status and orbit insertion phase planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Observer spacecraft will reach Mars on August 24, 1993. Launch and cruise phase operations have gone smoothly, with few spacecraft anomalies. The orbit insertion phase, which spans a three month period and involves a series of seven maneuvers, has been redesigned postlaunch making use of excess spacecraft velocity change (Delta V) capability to advance the mapping phase, now planned to begin November 24, 1993. This is highly desirable since it moves the start of the mapping phase away from solar conjunction and the expected dust storm disturbances. The redesign process involved making tradeoffs between science, operations, and maneuver requirements. At Mars, the spacecraft will continuously record data with a single daily playback through the Deep Space Network's 34-meter high-efficiency antennas for one Martian year.

Dodd, Suzanne R.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

1993-01-01

447

Text Steganography using LSB insertion method along with Chaos Theory  

E-print Network

The art of information hiding has been around nearly as long as the need for covert communication. Steganography, the concealing of information, arose early on as an extremely useful method for covert information transmission. Steganography is the art of hiding secret message within a larger image or message such that the hidden message or an image is undetectable; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscure. The goal of a steganographic method is to minimize the visually apparent and statistical differences between the cover data and a steganogram while maximizing the size of the payload. Current digital image steganography presents the challenge of hiding message in a digital image in a way that is robust to image manipulation and attack. This paper explains about how a secret message can be hidden into an image using least significant bit insertion method along with chaos.

S., Bhavana

2012-01-01

448

The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparing for the high luminosity LHC phase, the ATLAS experiment will upgrade its Pixel Detector with the installation of a new pixel layer. The new sub detector, called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be installed during the LHC first shut down in 2013-2014, in between the innermost current pixel layer and the beampipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new readout chip FE-I4 and two different silicon sensor technologies, planar and 3D have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size and a new mechanical support using lightweight staves. Two pre-series staves were made in order to qualify the assembly procedure, the loaded module electrical integrity and the readout chain before going into production.

Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.

2013-12-01

449

INSERTION DEVICES R AND Ds FOR NSLS-II.  

SciTech Connect

NSLS-II is a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also for broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based Elliptically Polarized Undulators (EPUs) are for polarization control. Rigorous R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the above devices as well as building new types of insertion devices such as high temperature superconducting wiggler/undulators. This paper describes the details of these activities and discuss technical issues.

TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SHAFTAN, T.; SKARITKA, J.

2007-06-25

450

Study of Hts Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (Ic) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

Lombardo, V.; Barzi, E.; Norcia, G.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Van Raes, T.; Zlobin, A. V.

2010-04-01

451

Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

452

Hardware fault insertion and instrumentation system: Mechanization and validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated test capability for extensive low-level hardware fault insertion testing is developed. The test capability is used to calibrate fault detection coverage and associated latency times as relevant to projecting overall system reliability. Described are modifications made to the NASA Ames Reconfigurable Flight Control System (RDFCS) Facility to fully automate the total test loop involving the Draper Laboratories' Fault Injector Unit. The automated capability provided included the application of sequences of simulated low-level hardware faults, the precise measurement of fault latency times, the identification of fault symptoms, and bulk storage of test case results. A PDP-11/60 served as a test coordinator, and a PDP-11/04 as an instrumentation device. The fault injector was controlled by applications test software in the PDP-11/60, rather than by manual commands from a terminal keyboard. The time base was especially developed for this application to use a variety of signal sources in the system simulator.

Benson, J. W.

1987-01-01

453

Normal Conducting Separation Dipoles for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions  

E-print Network

In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two straight sections, IR3 and IR7, will be dedicated to beam cleaning. These cleaning insertions will be equipped with normal conducting magnets. MBW magnets are dipole magnets used to increase the separation of the two beams. They have a core length of 3.4 m and a gap height of 52 mm and will operate at a magnetic field ranging from 0.09 T to 1.53 T. Limitations on the dimensions and total weight of the magnet resulted in a special design with a common yoke for the two beams. The orbits of the two beams will be separated horizontally by a distance between 194 mm and 224 mm in the gap of the magnet. The magnet was designed in collaboration between CERN and BINP. The report presents the main design issues and results of the pre-series acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements.

Bidon, S; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Petrov, V; Protopopov, I V; Pupkov, Yu A; Ramberger, S; de Rijk, G; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A

2004-01-01

454

The thermodynamic origin of hysteresis in insertion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium batteries are considered the key storage devices for most emerging green technologies such as wind and solar technologies or hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. Despite the tremendous recent advances in battery research, surprisingly, several fundamental issues of increasing practical importance have not been adequately tackled. One such issue concerns the energy efficiency. Generally, charging of 1010-1017 electrode particles constituting a modern battery electrode proceeds at (much) higher voltages than discharging. Most importantly, the hysteresis between the charge and discharge voltage seems not to disappear as the charging/discharging current vanishes. Herein we present, for the first time, a general explanation of the occurrence of inherent hysteretic behaviour in insertion storage systems containing multiple particles. In a broader sense, the model also predicts the existence of apparent equilibria in battery electrodes, the sequential particle-by-particle charging/discharging mechanism and the disappearance of two-phase behaviour at special experimental conditions.

Dreyer, Wolfgang; Jamnik, Janko; Guhlke, Clemens; Huth, Robert; Moškon, Jože; Gaberš?ek, Miran

2010-05-01

455

Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil, Sol 46  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), at the end of the Robotic Arm, on the 46th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 11, 2008).

The TECP is inserted at a site called Vestri, which was monitored several times over the course of the mission. The probe's measurements at this site yielded evidence that water was exchanged, daily and seasonally, between the soil and atmosphere.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

456

Interactions between cochlear implant electrode insertion depth and frequency-place mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While new electrode designs allow deeper insertion and wider coverage in the cochlea, there is still considerable variation in the insertion depth of the electrode array among cochlear implant users. The present study measures speech recognition as a function of insertion depth, varying from a deep insertion of 10 electrodes at 28.8 mm to a shallow insertion of a single electrode at 7.2 mm, in four Med-El Combi 40+ users. Short insertion depths were simulated by inactivating apical electrodes. Speech recognition increased with deeper insertion, reaching an asymptotic level at 21.6 or 26.4 mm depending on the frequency-place map used. Ba?kent and Shannon [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3130-3140 (2004)] showed that speech recognition by implant users was best when the acoustic input frequency was matched onto the cochlear location that normally processes that frequency range, minimizing the spectral distortions in the map. However, if an electrode array is not fully inserted into the cochlea, a matched map will result in the loss of considerable low-frequency information. The results show a strong interaction between the optimal frequency-place mapping and electrode insertion depth. Consistent with previous studies, frequency-place matching produced better speech recognition than compressing the full speech range onto the electrode array for full insertion ranges (20 to 25 mm from the round window). For shallower insertions (16.8 and 19.2 mm) a mild amount of frequency-place compression was better than truncating the frequency range to match the basal cochlear location. These results show that patients with shallow electrode insertions might benefit from a map that assigns a narrower frequency range than patients with full insertions. .

Ba?kent, Deniz; Shannon, Robert V.

2005-03-01

457

Computational studies of colicin insertion into membranes: The closed state  

PubMed Central

Colicins are water-soluble toxins that, upon interaction with membranes, undergo a conformational change, insert, and form pores in them. Pore formation activity is localized in a bundle of 10 ?-helices named the pore-forming domain (PFD). There is evidence that colicins attach to the membrane via a hydrophobic hairpin embedded in the core of the PFD. Two main models have been suggested for the membrane-bound state: penknife and umbrella, differing in regard to the orientation of the hydrophobic hairpin with respect to the membrane. The arrangement of the amphipathic helices has been described as either a compact three-dimensional structure or a two-dimensional array of loosely interacting helices on the membrane surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations with an implicit membrane model, we studied the structure and stability of the conformations proposed above for four colicins. We find that colicins are initially driven towards the membrane by electrostatic interactions between basic residues and the negatively charged membrane surface. They do not have a unique binding orientation, but in the predominant orientations the central hydrophobic hairpin is parallel to the membrane. In the inserted state, the estimated free energy tends to be lower for the compact arrangements of the amphipathic helix, but the more expanded ones are in better agreement with experimental distance distributions. The difference in energy between penknife and umbrella conformations is small enough for equilibrium to exist between them. Elongation of the hydrophobic hairpin helices and membrane thinning were found unable to produce stabilization of the transmembrane configuration of the hydrophobic hairpin. PMID:20941706

Prieto, Lidia

2010-01-01

458