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1

Phenotypic Analyses of Arabidopsis T-DNA Insertion Lines and Expression Profiling Reveal That Multiple L-Type Lectin Receptor Kinases Are Involved in Plant Immunity.  

PubMed

L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRK) are membrane-spanning receptor-like kinases with putative roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses and in plant development. In Arabidopsis, 45 LecRK were identified but their functions are largely unknown. Here, a systematic functional analysis was carried out by evaluating phenotypic changes of Arabidopsis LecRK T-DNA insertion lines in plant development and upon exposure to various external stimuli. None of the LecRK T-DNA insertion lines showed clear developmental changes, either under normal conditions or upon abiotic stress treatment. However, many of the T-DNA insertion lines showed altered resistance to Phytophthora brassicae, Phytophthora capsici, Pseudomonas syringae, or Alternaria brassicicola. One mutant defective in LecRK-V.5 expression was compromised in resistance to two Phytophthora spp. but showed enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. LecRK-V.5 overexpression confirmed its dual role in resistance and susceptibility depending on the pathogen. Combined analysis of these phenotypic data and LecRK expression profiles retrieved from public datasets revealed that LecRK which are hardly induced upon infection or even suppressed are also involved in pathogen resistance. Computed coexpression analysis revealed that LecRK with similar function displayed diverse expression patterns. Because LecRK are widespread in plants, the results presented here provide invaluable information for exploring the potential of LecRK as novel sources of resistance in crops. PMID:25083911

Wang, Yan; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Beseh, Patrick; Shan, Weixing; Govers, Francine

2014-12-01

2

Intronic T-DNA insertion in Arabidopsis NBR1 conditionally affects wild-type transcript level.  

PubMed

Abstract The SALK_135513 line of Arabidopsis thaliana is annotated by GenBank to have the T-DNA insertion in the fourth exon of NBR1 (At4g24690). Careful molecular analyses of the homozygous plants of SALK_135513 line indicated the place of T-DNA insertion in the fourth intron. Unexpectedly, 2 kinds of NBR1 transcripts, the wild-type and the mutated, resulting from alternative splicing events, were detected in those plants. Our findings explain the problems encountered by us with phenotypic evaluation of this line and emphasize the necessity for independent verification of the exact insertion site followed by careful expression studies when working with Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. PMID:25482782

Rodríguez, Milagros Collados; Wawrzy?ska, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

2014-12-01

3

Generation and Characterization of the Western Regional Research Center Brachypodium T-DNA Insertional Mutant Collection  

PubMed Central

The model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is an excellent system for studying the basic biology underlying traits relevant to the use of grasses as food, forage and energy crops. To add to the growing collection of Brachypodium resources available to plant scientists, we further optimized our Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated high-efficiency transformation method and generated 8,491 Brachypodium T-DNA lines. We used inverse PCR to sequence the DNA flanking the insertion sites in the mutants. Using these flanking sequence tags (FSTs) we were able to assign 7,389 FSTs from 4,402 T-DNA mutants to 5,285 specific insertion sites (ISs) in the Brachypodium genome. More than 29% of the assigned ISs are supported by multiple FSTs. T-DNA insertions span the entire genome with an average of 19.3 insertions/Mb. The distribution of T-DNA insertions is non-uniform with a larger number of insertions at the distal ends compared to the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. Insertions are correlated with genic regions, but are biased toward UTRs and non-coding regions within 1 kb of genes over exons and intron regions. More than 1,300 unique genes have been tagged in this population. Information about the Western Regional Research Center Brachypodium insertional mutant population is available on a searchable website (http://brachypodium.pw.usda.gov) designed to provide researchers with a means to order T-DNA lines with mutations in genes of interest. PMID:23028431

Gordon, Sean P.; Guttman, Mara E.; Thilmony, Roger; Lazo, Gerard R.; Gu, Yong Q.; Vogel, John P.

2012-01-01

4

Spectrum of T-DNA integrations for insertional mutagenesis of Histoplasma capsulatum  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is being increasingly used for insertional mutagenesis of fungi. To better evaluate its effectiveness as a mutagen for the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, we analyzed a collection of randomly selected T-DNA insertion mutants. Testing of different T-DNA element vectors engineered for transformation of fungi showed that pBHt2 provides the highest transformation efficiency and the lowest rate of vector backbone carryover. Sixty-eight individual T-DNA integrations were characterized by recovery of T-DNA ends and flanking genomic sequences. The right border end of the T-DNA is largely preserved whereas the left border end is frequently truncated. Analysis of T-DNA insertion sites confirms the lack of any integration hotspots in the Histoplasma genome. Relative to genes, T-DNA integrations show significant bias towards promoter regions at the expense of coding sequences. With consideration for potential promoter interruption and the demonstrated efficacy of intronic insertions, 61% of mapped T-DNA insertions should impair gene expression or function. Mapping of T-DNA flanking sequences demonstrates 67% of T-DNA integrations are integrations at a single chromosomal site and 31% of T-DNA integrations are associated with large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. This characterization of T-DNA insertions in mutants selected without regard to phenotype supports application of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as an insertional mutagen for genome-based screens and functional discovery of genes in Histoplasma. PMID:23332832

Kemski, Megan M.; Stevens, Bryan; Rappleye, Chad A.

2012-01-01

5

T-DNA insertion alters the terpenoid content composition and bioactivity of transgenic Artemisia annua.  

PubMed

In this study, the interference of T-DNA insertion upon Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on the biochemical expression of the host genome is discussed. Plant extracts of transgenic Artemisia annua L. with or without an overexpressed famesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene have been investigated for their bioactivity and metabolic profile in comparison with wild type A. annua. The highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans was observed in the T253 transgenic lines. Moreover, the crude extract from T253 showed higher antimalarial activity against the Plasmodium faciparum K1 strain than those of the others. The terpenoid constituents and antimicrobial properties of the plant samples were grouped by hierarchical clustering analysis. The clustering showed that squalene is a putative compound that might be involved in increasing the bioactivity of the transgenic line. In addition, T253 had a triterpene content that was about twice as great as that of the T253-2 line, which had a higher content of sesquiterpenes. However, both lines were transformed by the same FPS gene. These results suggested that the different bioactive properties observed in each transgenic line may be caused by variations in their terpenoid composition, which is affected by T-DNA insertion at different positions in the host plant. PMID:24689216

Karaket, Netiya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

2014-03-01

6

FLAGdb\\/FST: a database of mapped flanking insertion sites (FSTs) of Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA transformants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large collection of T-DNA insertion transformants of Arabidopsis thaliana has been generated at the Institute of Agronomic Research, Versailles, France. The molecular characterisation of the insertion sites is currently performed by sequencing genomic regions flanking the inserted T-DNA (FST). The almost complete sequence of the nuclear genome of A.thaliana provides the framework for organising FSTs in a genome oriented

Franck Samson; Véronique Brunaud; Sandrine Balzergue; B. Dubreucq; L. Lepiniec; G. Pelletier; Michel Caboche; Alain Lecharny

2002-01-01

7

Bidirectional promoter trapping T-DNA for insertional mutagenesis in Verticillium dahliae.  

PubMed

Transfer DNA (T-DNA)-based random insertional mutagenesis is a universal forward genetic approach for gene identification and cloning in many phytopathogenic fungi. In a large number of randomly selected transformants, screening for mutants with a specific phenotype is laborious, especially for pathogenicity-defective mutants. To accelerate mutant screening and gene identification, a bidirectional promoter-trapping Ti binary vector, 1300-bisGFP-hyg, was constructed and deployed in this study. More than 6000 Verticillium dahliae transformants were obtained by the mediation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the vector. One thousand randomly selected transformants were cultured on Czapek-Dox and on Czapek-Dox plus cotton root extract media plates. The cultured transformants with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression or changes in phenotype were selected and used in virulence or promoter-trapping assays. Based on the virulence assay of 60 transformants, the pathogenicity of 17 of these mutants was compromised. Ten pathogenicity-defective mutants were found with GFP expression, and 6 with expression in Czapek-Dox plus cotton root extract media specifically. Using TAIL-PCR (thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction), the T-DNA insertion sites were identified in 8 GFP-expressing transformants, including 5 pathogenicity-defective mutants and 3 unaffected transformants. Promoters of 6 genes were successfully trapped using the T-DNA method in this study. The nonpathogenic transformant 24C9 was the subject of additional investigation. It displayed strong GFP expression on water agar medium supplemented with cotton root extracts and on cotton seedling stems. The results obtained by Southern blot and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the transcription level of VdUGPU (encoding UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase) was significantly reduced owing to T-DNA insertion in the gene promoter region. These results indicate that the bidirectional promoter-trapping Ti vector, combined with induction medium that contains root exudates, can be useful for identification of pathogenicity-related and functional genes in V. dahliae. PMID:24993736

Deng, Sheng; Wang, Cai-yue; Zhang, Xin; Lin, Ling

2014-07-01

8

Deep sequencing of the ancestral tobacco species Nicotiana tomentosiformis reveals multiple T-DNA inserts and a complex evolutionary history of natural transformation in the genus Nicotiana.  

PubMed

Nicotiana species carry cellular T-DNA sequences (cT-DNAs), acquired by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We characterized the cT-DNA sequences of the ancestral Nicotiana tabacum species Nicotiana tomentosiformis by deep sequencing. N. tomentosiformis contains four cT-DNA inserts derived from different Agrobacterium strains. Each has an incomplete inverted-repeat structure. TA is similar to part of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes 1724 mikimopine-type T-DNA, but has unusual orf14 and mis genes. TB carries a 1724 mikimopine-type orf14-mis fragment and a mannopine-agropine synthesis region (mas2-mas1-ags). The mas2' gene codes for an active enzyme. TC is similar to the left part of the A. rhizogenes A4 T-DNA, but also carries octopine synthase-like (ocl) and c-like genes normally found in A. tumefaciens. TD shows a complex rearrangement of T-DNA fragments similar to the right end of the A4 TL-DNA, and including an orf14-like gene and a gene with unknown function, orf511. The TA, TB, TC and TD insertion sites were identified by alignment with N. tabacum and Nicotiana sylvestris sequences. The divergence values for the TA, TB, TC and TD repeats provide an estimate for their relative introduction times. A large deletion has occurred in the central part of the N. tabacum cv. Basma/Xanthi TA region, and another deletion removed the complete TC region in N. tabacum. Nicotiana otophora lacks TA, TB and TD, but contains TC and another cT-DNA, TE. This analysis, together with that of Nicotiana glauca and other Nicotiana species, indicates multiple sequential insertions of cT-DNAs during the evolution of the genus Nicotiana. PMID:25219519

Chen, Ke; Dorlhac de Borne, François; Szegedi, Ernö; Otten, Léon

2014-11-01

9

A rice phenomics study—phenotype scoring and seed propagation of a T-DNA insertion-induced rice mutant population  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the completion of the rice genome sequencing project, the next major challenge is the large-scale determination of gene\\u000a function. As an important crop and a model organism, rice provides major insights into gene functions important for crop growth\\u000a or production. Phenomics with detailed information about tagged populations provides a good tool for functional genomics analysis.\\u000a By a T-DNA insertional

Chyr-Guan Chern; Ming-Jen Fan; Su-May Yu; Po-Chang Lu; Yao-Cheng Lin; Fu-Jin Wei; Sheng-Chung Huang; Shu Chen; Ming-Hsing Lai; Ching-Shan Tseng; Hsing-Mu Yen; Woei-Shyuan Jwo; Chen-Chia Wu; Tung-Lung Yang; Lung-Sheng Li; Yih-Cheng Kuo; Su-Mien Li; Charng-Pei Li; Chiu-Kai Wey; Arunee Trisiriroj; Hsing-Fang Lee; Yue-Ie C. Hsing

2007-01-01

10

Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines  

PubMed Central

Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA) and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression. PMID:24833334

Bartlett, Joanne G.; Smedley, Mark A.; Harwood, Wendy A.

2014-01-01

11

Reduced tillering in Basmati rice T-DNA insertional mutant OsTEF1 associates with differential expression of stress related genes and transcription factors.  

PubMed

A T-DNA insertional mutant OsTEF1 of rice gives 60-80% reduced tillering, retarded growth of seminal roots, and sensitivity to salt stress compared to wild type Basmati 370. The insertion occurred in a gene encoding a transcription elongation factor homologous to yeast elf1, on chromosome 2 of rice. Detailed transcriptomic profiling of OsTEF1 revealed that mutation in the transcription elongation factor differentially regulates the expression of more than 100 genes with known function and finely regulates tillering process in rice by inducing the expression of cytochrome P450. Along with different transcription factors, several stress associated genes were also affected due to a single insertion. In silico analysis of the TEF1 protein showed high conservation among different organisms. This transcription elongation factor predicted to interact with other proteins that directly or indirectly positively regulate tillering in rice. PMID:22367482

Paul, Priyanka; Awasthi, Anjali; Rai, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Prasad, R; Sharma, T R; Dhaliwal, H S

2012-06-01

12

The Chloroplast Function Database: a large-scale collection of Arabidopsis Ds/Spm- or T-DNA-tagged homozygous lines for nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins, and their systematic phenotype analysis.  

PubMed

A majority of the proteins of the chloroplast are encoded by the nuclear genome, and are post-translationally targeted to the chloroplast. From databases of tagged insertion lines at international seed stock centers and our own stock, we selected 3246 Ds/Spm (dissociator/suppressor-mutator) transposon- or T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis lines for genes encoding 1369 chloroplast proteins (about 66% of the 2090 predicted chloroplast proteins) in which insertions disrupt the protein-coding regions. We systematically observed 3-week-old seedlings grown on agar plates, identified mutants with abnormal phenotypes and collected homozygous lines with wild-type phenotypes. We also identified insertion lines for which no homozygous plants were obtained. To date, we have identified 111 lines with reproducible seedling phenotypes, 122 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes and 1290 homozygous lines without a visible phenotype. The Chloroplast Function Database presents the molecular and phenotypic information obtained from this resource. The database provides tools for searching for mutant lines using Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (AGI) locus numbers, tagged line numbers and phenotypes, and provides rapid access to detailed information on the tagged line resources. Moreover, our collection of insertion homozygotes provides a powerful tool to accelerate the functional analysis of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis. The Chloroplast Function Database is freely available at http://rarge.psc.riken.jp/chloroplast/. The homozygous lines generated in this project are also available from the various Arabidopsis stock centers. We have donated the insertion homozygotes to their originating seed stock centers. PMID:19912565

Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Akiyama, Kenji; Motohashi, Reiko; Kuromori, Takashi; Ito, Takuya; Iizumi, Haruko; Ryusui, Rie; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2010-02-01

13

Intronic T-DNA Insertion Renders Arabidopsis opr3 a Conditional Jasmonic Acid-Producing Mutant1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid and its derived metabolites (JAs) orchestrate plant defense against insects and fungi. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a JA precursor, has also been implicated in plant defense. We sought to define JAs and OPDA functions through comparative defense susceptibility characteristics of three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genotypes: aos, lacking JAs and OPDA; opda reductase3 (opr3), deficient in JA production but can accumulate OPDA; and transgenics that overexpress OPR3. opr3, like aos, is susceptible to cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni) but, relative to aos, opr3 has enhanced resistance to a necrotrophic fungus. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals that opr3 produces OPDA but no detectable JAs following wounding and looper infestation; unexpectedly, substantial levels of JAs accumulate in opr3 upon fungal infection. Full-length OPR3 transcripts accumulate in fungal-infected opr3, potentially through splicing of the T-DNA containing intron. Fungal resistance correlates with levels of JAs not OPDA; therefore, opr3 resistance to some pests is likely due to JA accumulation, and signaling activities ascribed to OPDA should be reassessed because opr3 can produce JAs. Together these data (1) reinforce the primary role JAs play in plant defense against insects and necrotrophic fungi, (2) argue for a reassessment of signaling activities ascribed to OPDA, and (3) provide evidence that mutants with intron insertions can retain gene function. PMID:21487047

Chehab, E. Wassim; Kim, Se; Savchenko, Tatyana; Kliebenstein, Daniel; Dehesh, Katayoon; Braam, Janet

2011-01-01

14

Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes.  

PubMed

The function of the extracytoplasmic AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is largely enigmatic. We complemented a homozygous T-DNA insertion null mutant of ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Wassilewskia with three mutated and one wild-type (wt) ABP1 cDNA, all tagged C-terminally with a strepII-FLAG tag upstream the KDEL signal. Based on in silico modelling, the abp1 mutants were predicted to have altered geometries of the auxin binding pocket and calculated auxin binding energies lower than the wt. Phenotypes linked to auxin transport were compromised in these three complemented abp1 mutants. Red light effects, such as elongation of hypocotyls in constant red (R) and far-red (FR) light, in white light supplemented by FR light simulating shade, and inhibition of gravitropism by R or FR, were all compromised in the complemented lines. Using auxin- or light-induced expression of marker genes, we showed that auxin-induced expression was delayed already after 10min, and light-induced expression within 60min, even though TIR1/AFB or phyB are thought to act as receptors relevant for gene expression regulation. The expression of marker genes in seedlings responding to both auxin and shade showed that for both stimuli regulation of marker gene expression was altered after 10-20min in the wild type and phyB mutant. The rapidity of expression responses provides a framework for the mechanics of functional interaction of ABP1 and phyB to trigger interwoven signalling pathways. PMID:25392478

Effendi, Yunus; Ferro, Noel; Labusch, Corinna; Geisler, Markus; Scherer, Günther F E

2015-01-01

15

In-depth molecular and phenotypic characterization in a rice insertion line library facilitates gene identification through reverse and forward genetics approaches.  

PubMed

We report here the molecular and phenotypic features of a library of 31,562 insertion lines generated in the model japonica cultivar Nipponbare of rice (Oryza sativa L.), called Oryza Tag Line (OTL). Sixteen thousand eight hundred and fourteen T-DNA and 12,410 Tos17 discrete insertion sites have been characterized in these lines. We estimate that 8686 predicted gene intervals--i.e. one-fourth to one-fifth of the estimated rice nontransposable element gene complement--are interrupted by sequence-indexed T-DNA (6563 genes) and/or Tos17 (2755 genes) inserts. Six hundred and forty-three genes are interrupted by both T-DNA and Tos17 inserts. High quality of the sequence indexation of the T2 seed samples was ascertained by several approaches. Field evaluation under agronomic conditions of 27,832 OTL has revealed that 18.2% exhibit at least one morphophysiological alteration in the T1 progeny plants. Screening 10,000 lines for altered response to inoculation by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae allowed to observe 71 lines (0.7%) developing spontaneous lesions simulating disease mutants and 43 lines (0.4%) exhibiting an enhanced disease resistance or susceptibility. We show here that at least 3.5% (four of 114) of these alterations are tagged by the mutagens. The presence of allelic series of sequence-indexed mutations in a gene among OTL that exhibit a convergent phenotype clearly increases the chance of establishing a linkage between alterations and inserts. This convergence approach is illustrated by the identification of the rice ortholog of AtPHO2, the disruption of which causes a lesion-mimic phenotype owing to an over-accumulation of phosphate, in nine lines bearing allelic insertions. PMID:22369597

Lorieux, Mathias; Blein, Mélisande; Lozano, Jaime; Bouniol, Mathieu; Droc, Gaétan; Diévart, Anne; Périn, Christophe; Mieulet, Delphine; Lanau, Nadège; Bès, Martine; Rouvière, Claire; Gay, Céline; Piffanelli, Pietro; Larmande, Pierre; Michel, Corinne; Barnola, Isabelle; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Sallaud, Christophe; Perez, Pascual; Bourgis, Fabienne; Ghesquière, Alain; Gantet, Pascal; Tohme, Joe; Morel, Jean Benoit; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel

2012-06-01

16

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOOL TO INSERT ABOMASAL INFUSION LINES INTO DAIRY COWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A tool was developed to aid in ruminal insertion of abomasal infusion lines into dairy cows. The tool consisted of two pieces cut from polyvinyl chloride pipe. The first piece of pipe, the insertion tool, contained a groove that held the flexible plastic flange that was on the end of the infusion ...

17

High-Frequency T-DNA-Mediated Gene Tagging in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insertion element [transferred DNA (T-DNA)], transferred by soil agrobacteria into the nuclear genome of plants, was used for induction of gene fusions in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. A promoterless aph(3')II (aminoglycoside phosphotransferase II) reporter gene was linked to the right end of the T-DNA and transformed into plants along with a plasmid replicon and a selectable

Csaba Koncz; Norbert Martini; Reinhold Mayerhofer; Zsuzsanna Koncz-Kalman; Henrike Korber; George P. Redei; Jeff Schell

1989-01-01

18

Branchio-oto-renal syndrome caused by partial EYA1 deletion due to LINE-1 insertion.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old Japanese girl with conductive deafness and preauricular fistulae developed proteinuria. She had renal insufficiency, and ultrasound revealed bilateral small kidneys. These findings indicated that she had branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome. In the present patient, we identified, by using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis, a heterozygous EYA1 gene deletion comprising at least exons 5 to 7. In her parents, we did not detect any deletion in EYA1 by MLPA, so the deletion was a de novo mutation. PCR analysis and sequencing of patient DNA revealed a heterozygous approximately 17 kb EYA1 deletion starting from the eight last bases of exon 4 and proceeding to base 1,217 of intron 7. Furthermore, in place of this deleted region was inserted a 3756-bp-long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1, L1). Accordingly, RT-PCR showed that exons 4-7 were not present in EYA1 mRNA expressed from the mutated allele. Although there are reports of L1 element insertion occurring in various human diseases, this is the first report of a large EYA1 deletion in combination with L1 element insertion. PMID:20130917

Morisada, Naoya; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Nozu, Kandai; Morishita, Takahiro; Miyakawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Tohru; Hisano, Satoshi; Iijima, Kazumoto; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Shirahata, Akira; Matsuo, Masafumi; Kusuhara, Koichi

2010-07-01

19

Increased Polyamine Biosynthesis Enhances Stress Tolerance by Preventing the Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species: T-DNA Mutational Analysis of Oryza sativa Lysine Decarboxylase-like Protein 1  

PubMed Central

A highly oxidative stress-tolerant japonica rice line was isolated by T-DNA insertion mutation followed by screening in the presence of 50 mM H2O2. The T-DNA insertion was mapped to locus Os09g0547500, the gene product of which was annotated as lysine decarboxylase-like protein (GenBank accession No. AK062595). We termed this gene OsLDC-like 1, for Oryza sativa lysine decarboxylase-like 1. The insertion site was in the second exon and resulted in a 27 amino acid N-terminal deletion. Despite this defect in OsLDC-like 1, the mutant line exhibited enhanced accumulation of the polyamines (PAs) putrescine, spermidine, and spermine under conditions of oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mutant line was assessed by qRT-PCR analysis of NADPH oxidase (RbohD and RbohF), and by DCFH-DA staining. Cellular levels of ROS in osldc-like 1 leaves were significantly lower than those in the wild-type (WT) rice after exposure to oxidative, high salt and acid stresses. Exogenously-applied PAs such as spermidine and spermine significantly inhibited the stress-induced accumulation of ROS and cell damage in WT leaves. Additionally, the activities of ROS-detoxifying enzymes were increased in the homozygous mutant line in the presence or absence of H2O2. Thus, mutation of OsLDC-like 1 conferred an oxidative stress-tolerant phenotype. These results suggest that increased cellular PA levels have a physiological role in preventing stress-induced ROS and ethylene accumulation and the resultant cell damage. PMID:22965749

Jang, Su Jin; Wi, Soo Jin; Choi, Yoo Jin; An, Gynheung; Park, Ky Young

2012-01-01

20

Cardiac tamponade secondary to perforation of innominate vein following central line insertion in a neonate  

PubMed Central

Cardiac tamponade following central line in a neonate is rare and an uncommon situation; however, it is potentially reversible when it is diagnosed in time. We report a case of cardiac tamponade following central line insertion. A 10-day-old 2.2 kg girl operated for obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connections had neckline slipped out during extubation. Attempted cannulations of right femoral vein were unsuccessful. At the end of the left internal jugular vein cannulaton, there was a sudden cardiorespiratory arrest. Immediate transthoracic echocardiogram showed left pleural and pericardial collection. Chest was opened and the catheter tip was seen in the thoracic cavity after puncturing the innominate vein. The catheter was removed and the vent was repaired. PMID:25624543

Dhanasekaran, Ramkumar; Karthekeyan, Ranjith B; Vakamudi, Mahesh

2014-01-01

21

Insertional Mutagenesis of Genes Required for Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to identify large numbers of Arabidopsis genes with essential functions during seed development. More than 120,000 T-DNA insertion lines were generated following Agrobacter- ium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants were screened for defective seeds and putative mutants were subjected to detailed analysis in subsequent generations. Plasmid rescue and TAIL-PCR were used to recover plant sequences flanking

John McElver; Iris Tzafrir; George Aux; Rebecca Rogers; Carl Ashby; Kelsey Smith; Carla Thomas; Amy Schetter; Qing Zhou; Mary Ann Cushman; John Tossberg; Todd Nickle; Joshua Z. Levin; Marcus Law; David Meinke; David Patton

2001-01-01

22

Methylation of the T-DNA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in several crown gall tumors.  

PubMed Central

Methylation of the T-DNA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in four octopine-type (A6S/2, E9, 15955/1, 15955/01) and one nopaline-type (HT37#15) crown gall tumors was investigated using the isoschizomeric restriction endonucleases Msp I and Hpa II. T-DNA in the octopine-type Ti-plasmid pTiB6(806) was not methylated at the sequence 5'CCGG3' in Agrobacterium. With two possible exceptions, neither was the T-DNA of the nopaline-type Ti-plasmid pTiT37 methylated in the bacterium. In all tumor lines investigated, at least one copy of the T-DNA was not methylated. DNA methylation was not detected in the lines A6S/2, 15955/1, HT37#15, and the TL region of E9. DNA methylation of some copies of TR in the E9 tumor line, and possibly in the 15955/01 line, was detected. The methylation of some copies of TR in the E9 line may indicate that not all copies of TR are transcribed in this tumor. Images PMID:6306562

Gelvin, S B; Karcher, S J; DiRita, V J

1983-01-01

23

An Entamoeba histolytica LINE/SINE Pair Inserts at Common Target Sites Cleaved by the Restriction Enzyme-Like LINE-Encoded Endonuclease  

PubMed Central

The non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons (also called long interspersed repetitive elements [LINEs]) are among the oldest retroelements. Here we describe the properties of such an element from a primitive protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, that infects the human gut. This 4.8-kb element, called EhLINE1, is present in about 140 copies dispersed throughout the genome. The element belongs to the R4 clade of non-LTR elements. It has a centrally located reverse transcriptase domain and a restriction enzyme-like endonuclease (EN) domain at the carboxy terminus. We have cloned and expressed a 794-bp fragment containing the EN domain in Escherichia coli. The purified protein could nick supercoiled pBluescript DNA to yield open circular and linear DNAs. The conserved PDX12-14D motif was required for activity. Genomic sequences flanking the sites of insertion of EhLINE1 and the putative partner short interspersed repetitive element (SINE), EhSINE1, were analyzed. Both elements resulted in short target site duplications (TSD) upon insertion. A common feature was the presence of a short T-rich stretch just upstream of the TSD in most insertion sites. By sequence analysis an empty target site in the E. histolytica genome, known to be occupied by EhSINE1, was identified. When a 176-bp fragment containing the empty site was used as a substrate for EN, it was prominently nicked on the bottom strand at the precise point of insertion of EhSINE1, showing that this SINE could use the LINE-encoded endonuclease for its insertion. The nick on the bottom strand was toward the right of the TSD, which is uncommon. The lack of strict target site-specificity of the restriction enzyme-like EN encoded by EhLINE1 is also exceptional. A model for retrotransposition of EhLINE1/SINE1 is presented. PMID:14871947

Mandal, Prabhat K.; Bagchi, Anindya; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

2004-01-01

24

Retroviral Elements and Their Hosts: Insertional Mutagenesis in the Mouse Germ Line  

PubMed Central

The inbred mouse is an invaluable model for human biology and disease. Nevertheless, when considering genetic mechanisms of variation and disease, it is important to appreciate the significant differences in the spectra of spontaneous mutations that distinguish these species. While insertions of transposable elements are responsible for only ~0.1% of de novo mutations in humans, the figure is 100-fold higher in the laboratory mouse. This striking difference is largely due to the ongoing activity of mouse endogenous retroviral elements. Here we briefly review mouse endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and their influence on gene expression, analyze mechanisms of interaction between ERVs and the host cell, and summarize the variety of mutations caused by ERV insertions. The prevalence of mouse ERV activity indicates that the genome of the laboratory mouse is presently behind in the “arms race” against invasion. PMID:16440055

Maksakova, Irina A; Romanish, Mark T; Gagnier, Liane; Dunn, Catherine A; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Mager, Dixie L

2006-01-01

25

Transgenic Arabidopsis tester lines with dominant marker genes.  

PubMed

The map positions of a set of eight T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis genome have been determined by using closely linked visible markers. The insertions are dispersed over four of the five chromosomes. Each T-DNA insert contains one or more of the chimeric marker genes neomycin phosphotransferase (neo), hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar), beta-glucuronidase (gusA) and indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH). The neo, hpt and bar marker genes are dominant in a selective germination assay or when used as DNA markers in a polymerase chain reaction. These dominant markers will allow recombinants to be discerned in a germinating F2 population, one generation earlier than with a conventional recessive marker. The transgenic marker lines will speed up and simplify the isolation of recombinants in small genetic intervals, a rate-limiting step in positional cloning strategies. The transgenic lines containing the hpt marker will also be of interest for the isolation of deletion mutants at the T-DNA integration sites. PMID:8676880

Van Lijsebettens, M; Wang, X; Cnops, G; Boerjan, W; Desnos, T; Höfte, H; Van Montagu, M

1996-06-12

26

Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Inés Marulanda, María; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

2014-01-01

27

T-DNA tagging in Brassica napus as an efficient tool for the isolation of new promoters for selectable marker genes.  

PubMed

A simple strategy to identify and isolate new promoters suitable for driving the expression of selectable marker genes is described. By employing a Brassica napus hypocotyl transformation protocol and a promoterless gus::nptII tagging construct, a series of 20 kanamycin-resistant tagged lines was produced. Most of the regenerated plants showed hardly any GUS activity in leaf, stem and root tissues. However, expression was readily restored in callus tissue induced on in vitro leaf segments. Genomic sequences upstream of the gus::nptII insertions were isolated via plasmid rescue. Three clones originating from single copy T-DNA lines were selected for further evaluation. The rescued plasmids were cloned as linear fragments in binary vectors and re-transformed to Brassica napus hypocotyl and Solanum tuberosum stem segments. The new sequences maintained their promoter activity, demonstrated by transient and stable GUS activity after transformation. Furthermore, the promoters provided sufficient expression of the nptII gene to yield transgenic plants when using kanamycin as selective agent. Database searching (BLASTN) revealed that the promoters have significant homology with three Arabidopsis BAC clones, one Arabidopsis cDNA and one Brassica napus cDNA. The results presented in this paper illustrate the strength of combined methods for identification, isolation and testing of new plant promoters. PMID:12825689

Bade, Jacob; van Grinsven, Emiel; Custers, Jerome; Hoekstra, Sietske; Ponstein, Anne

2003-05-01

28

Controlled insertional mutagenesis using a LINE-1 (ORFeus) gene-trap mouse model  

PubMed Central

A codon-optimized mouse LINE-1 element, ORFeus, exhibits dramatically higher retrotransposition frequencies compared with its native long interspersed element 1 counterpart. To establish a retrotransposon-mediated mouse model with regulatable and potent mutagenic capabilities, we generated a tetracycline (tet)-regulated ORFeus element harboring a gene-trap cassette. Here, we show that mice expressing tet-ORFeus broadly exhibit robust retrotransposition in somatic tissues when treated with doxycycline. Consistent with a significant mutagenic burden, we observed a reduced number of double transgenic animals when treated with high-level doxycycline during embryogenesis. Transgene induction in skin resulted in a white spotting phenotype due to somatic ORFeus-mediated mutations that likely disrupt melanocyte development. The data suggest a high level of transposition in melanocyte precursors and consequent mutation of genes important for melanoblast proliferation, differentiation, or migration. These findings reveal the utility of a retrotransposon-based mutagenesis system as an alternative to existing DNA transposon systems. Moreover, breeding these mice to different tet-transactivator/reversible tet-transactivator lines supports broad functionality of tet-ORFeus because of the potential for dose-dependent, tissue-specific, and temporal-specific mutagenesis. PMID:23818630

O’Donnell, Kathryn A.; An, Wenfeng; Schrum, Christina T.; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Boeke, Jef D.

2013-01-01

29

Resources for targeted insertional and deletional mutagenesis in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maize transposons Activator (Ac) and Dissociation (Ds) are active in many monocots and dicots, including Arabidopsis. We describe a new Ac-derived transposon construct, designated the Ds-loxP T-DNA, which can be used for both insertional and deletional mutagenesis. There are loxP sites in both orientations on both the transposon and the donor site T-DNA and an arrangement of marker genes

Sen Zhang; Surabhi Raina; Hong Li; Jun Li; Ewa Dec; Hong Ma; Hai Huang; Nina V. Fedoroff

2003-01-01

30

Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Developed by Retroviral Insertional Mutagenesis That Is Resistant to Sindbis Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alphavirus Sindbis virus (SV) has a wide host range and infects many types of cultured cells in vitro. The outcome of infection is dependent on the strain of virus used for infection and the properties of the cells infected. To identify cellular determinants of susceptibility to SV infection we mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by retroviral insertion with

JIA-TSRONG JAN; ANDREW P. BYRNES; DIANE E. GRIFFIN

1999-01-01

31

A LINE-1 insertion in DLX6 is responsible for cleft palate and mandibular abnormalities in a canine model of Pierre Robin sequence.  

PubMed

Cleft palate (CP) is one of the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. In order to study cleft palate in a naturally occurring model system, we utilized the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) dog breed. Micro-computed tomography analysis of CP NSDTR craniofacial structures revealed that these dogs exhibit defects similar to those observed in a recognizable subgroup of humans with CP: Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). We refer to this phenotype in NSDTRs as CP1. Individuals with PRS have a triad of birth defects: shortened mandible, posteriorly placed tongue, and cleft palate. A genome-wide association study in 14 CP NSDTRs and 72 unaffected NSDTRs identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 14 (24.2 Mb-29.3 Mb; p(raw?)=?4.64 × 10(-15)). Sequencing of two regional candidate homeobox genes in NSDTRs, distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5) and distal-less homeobox 6 (DLX6), identified a 2.1 kb LINE-1 insertion within DLX6 in CP1 NSDTRs. The LINE-1 insertion is predicted to insert a premature stop codon within the homeodomain of DLX6. This prompted the sequencing of DLX5 and DLX6 in a human cohort with CP, where a missense mutation within the highly conserved DLX5 homeobox of a patient with PRS was identified. This suggests the involvement of DLX5 in the development of PRS. These results demonstrate the power of the canine animal model as a genetically tractable approach to understanding naturally occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. PMID:24699068

Wolf, Zena T; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Arzi, Boaz; Jayashankar, Kartika; Karmi, Nili; Jia, Zhonglin; Rowland, Douglas J; Young, Amy; Safra, Noa; Sliskovic, Saundra; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wade, Claire M; Bannasch, Danika L

2014-04-01

32

A LINE-1 Insertion in DLX6 Is Responsible for Cleft Palate and Mandibular Abnormalities in a Canine Model of Pierre Robin Sequence  

PubMed Central

Cleft palate (CP) is one of the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. In order to study cleft palate in a naturally occurring model system, we utilized the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) dog breed. Micro-computed tomography analysis of CP NSDTR craniofacial structures revealed that these dogs exhibit defects similar to those observed in a recognizable subgroup of humans with CP: Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). We refer to this phenotype in NSDTRs as CP1. Individuals with PRS have a triad of birth defects: shortened mandible, posteriorly placed tongue, and cleft palate. A genome-wide association study in 14 CP NSDTRs and 72 unaffected NSDTRs identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 14 (24.2 Mb–29.3 Mb; praw?=?4.64×10?15). Sequencing of two regional candidate homeobox genes in NSDTRs, distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5) and distal-less homeobox 6 (DLX6), identified a 2.1 kb LINE-1 insertion within DLX6 in CP1 NSDTRs. The LINE-1 insertion is predicted to insert a premature stop codon within the homeodomain of DLX6. This prompted the sequencing of DLX5 and DLX6 in a human cohort with CP, where a missense mutation within the highly conserved DLX5 homeobox of a patient with PRS was identified. This suggests the involvement of DLX5 in the development of PRS. These results demonstrate the power of the canine animal model as a genetically tractable approach to understanding naturally occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. PMID:24699068

Wolf, Zena T.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Arzi, Boaz; Jayashankar, Kartika; Karmi, Nili; Jia, Zhonglin; Rowland, Douglas J.; Young, Amy; Safra, Noa; Sliskovic, Saundra; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wade, Claire M.; Bannasch, Danika L.

2014-01-01

33

Transformation of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) using T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to transfer parts of its tumor-inducing plasmid, the T-DNA, to plants, yeasts and filamentous fungi. We have used\\u000a this system to transform germinating basidiospores and vegetative mycelium of a commercial strain of the cultivated basidiomycete\\u000a Agaricus bisporus. Analysis of transformants shows that the T-DNA integrates at random sites into the host genome and that the selection

Thomas S. P. Mikosch; Brigitte Lavrijssen; Anton S. M. Sonnenberg

2001-01-01

34

Translation start sequences affect the efficiency of silencing of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes cause transformed plant cells to overproduce auxin and cytokinin. Two oncogenes encode enzymes that convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (auxin): iaaM (tryptophan mono-oxygenase) and iaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase). A third oncogene (ipt) encodes AMP isopentenyl transferase, which produces cytokinin (isopentenyl-AMP). Inactivation of ipt and iaaM (or iaaH) abolishes tumorigenesis. Because adequate means do not exist to control crown gall, we created resistant plants by introducing transgenes designed to elicit posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of iaaM and ipt. Transgenes that elicit silencing trigger sequence-specific destruction of the inducing RNA and messenger RNAs with related sequences. Although PTGS has proven effective against a variety of target genes, we found that a much higher percentage of transgenic lines silenced iaaM than ipt, suggesting that transgene sequences influenced the effectiveness of PTGS. Sequences required for oncogene silencing included a translation start site. A transgene encoding a translatable sense-strand RNA from the 5' end of iaaM silenced the iaaM oncogene, but deletion of the translation start site abolished the ability of the transgene to silence iaaM. Silencing A. tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes is a new and effective method to produce plants resistant to crown gall disease. PMID:12972655

Lee, Hyewon; Humann, Jodi L; Pitrak, Jennifer S; Cuperus, Josh T; Parks, T Dawn; Whistler, Cheryl A; Mok, Machteld C; Ream, L Walt

2003-11-01

35

Salvage of Gastric Restriction following Staple-Line Dehiscence after Vertical Banded Gastroplasty by Insertion of an Adjustable Gastric Band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) has been a common and safe surgical treatment for morbid obesity. However,\\u000a the complication of staple-line dehiscence (SLD) results in VBG failure. We present a minimally invasive revision procedure when SLD occurs: gastric restriction is\\u000a salvaged by adjustable gastric banding (AGB), usually laparoscopically, providing that the previous restriction had achieved\\u000a sufficient weight loss initially and

Markus Wenger; Grazyna Piec; Ruth Branson; Natascha Potoczna; Fritz F. Horber; Rudolf Steffen

2005-01-01

36

Gallery 31: mys inserted in chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Repetitive DNA can have preferred insertion sites. In this example, yellow represents the distribution of mys (a type of LINE) over a mouse genome where chromosomes are orange. There are more mys inserted in the sex (X) chromosomes.

2009-12-26

37

Identification of transposon insertion mutants of Francisella tularensis tularensis strain Schu S4 deficient in intracellular replication in the hepatic cell line HepG2  

PubMed Central

Background Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes tularemia. The subspecies tularensis is highly virulent and is classified as a category A agent of biological warfare because of its low infectious dose by an aerosol route, and its ability to cause severe disease. In macrophages F. tularensis exhibits a rather novel intracellular lifestyle; after invasion it remains in a phagosome for three to six hours before escaping to, and replicating in the cytoplasm. The molecular mechanisms that allow F. tularensis to invade and replicate within a host cell have not been well defined. Methods We constructed a stable transposon mutagenesis library of virulent strain Schu S4 using a derivative of the EZ::TN transposon system®. Approximately 2000 mutants were screened for the inability to invade, and replicate in the hepatic carcinoma cell line HepG2. These mutants were also tested for replication within the J774.1 macrophage-like cell line. Results Eighteen mutants defective in intracellular replication in HepG2 cells were identified. Eight of these mutants were auxotrophs; seven had mutations in nucleotide biosynthesis pathways. The remaining mutants had insertions in genes that were predicted to encode putative transporters, enzymes involved in protein modification and turnover, and hypothetical proteins. A time course of the intracellular growth of a pyrB mutant revealed that this mutant was only able to grow at low levels within HepG2 cells but grew like wild-type bacteria in J774.1 cells. This pyrB mutant was also attenuated in mice. Conclusion This is the first reported large-scale mutagenesis of a type A strain of F. tularensis and the first identification of mutants specifically defective in intracellular growth in a hepatic cell line. We have identified several genes and pathways that are key for the survival and growth of F. tularensis in a hepatic cell line, and a number of novel intracellular growth-defective mutants that have not been previously characterized in other pathogens. Further characterization of these mutants will help provide a better understanding of the pathogenicity of F. tularensis, and may have practical applications as targets for drugs or attenuated vaccines. PMID:16879747

Qin, Aiping; Mann, Barbara J

2006-01-01

38

Author's personal copy Epigenetic control of Agrobacterium T-DNA integration  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Review Epigenetic control of Agrobacterium T-DNA integration Shimpei Magori the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, play an important role in DNA repair. Thus, by implication, such epigenetic codes and the epigenetic information in the host chromatin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Epigenetic

Citovsky, Vitaly

39

Production of marker-free and RSV-resistant transgenic rice using a twin T-DNA system and RNAi.  

PubMed

A twin T-DNA system is a convenient strategy for creating selectable marker-free transgenic plants. The standard transformation plasmid, pCAMBIA 1300, was modified into a binary vector consisting of two separate T-DNAs, one of which contained the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) marker gene. Using this binary vector, we constructed two vectors that expressed inverted-repeat (IR) structures targeting the rice stripe virus (RSV) coat protein (CP) gene and the special-disease protein (SP) gene. Transgenic rice lines were obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Seven independent clones harbouring both the hpt marker gene and the target genes (RSV CP or SP) were obtained in the primary transformants of pDTRSVCP and pDTRSVSP, respectively. The segregation frequencies of the target gene and the marker gene in the T1 plants were 8.72 percent for pDTRSVCP and 12.33 percent for pDTRSVSP. Two of the pDTRSVCP lines and three pDTRSVSP lines harbouring the homozygous target gene, but not the hpt gene, were strongly resistant to RSV. A molecular analysis of the resistant transgenic plants confirmed the stable integration and expression of the target genes. The resistant transgenic plants displayed lower levels of the transgene transcripts and specific small interfering RNAs, suggesting that RNAi induced the viral resistance. PMID:23938389

Jiang, Yayuan; Sun, Lin; Jiang, Mingsong; Li, Kaidong; Song, Yunzhi; Zhu, Changxiang

2013-09-01

40

A simple and efficient method to identify replacements of P-lacZ by P-Gal4 lines allows obtaining Gal4 insertions in the bithorax complex of Drosophila.  

PubMed

The functional replacement of one gene product by another one is a powerful method to study specificity in development and evolution. In Drosophila, the Gal4/UAS method has been used to analyze in vivo such functional substitutions. To this aim, Gal4 lines that inactivate a gene and reproduce its expression pattern are required, and they can be frequently obtained by replacing pre-existing P-lacZ lines with such characteristics. We have devised a new method to quickly identify replacements of P-lacZ lines by P-Gal4 lines, and applied it successfully to obtain Gal4 insertions in the Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-B Hox genes. We have used these lines to study the functional replacement of a Hox gene by another one. Our experiments confirm that the abdominal-A gene can replace Ultrabithorax in haltere development but that it cannot substitute for Abdominal-B in the formation of the genitalia. PMID:16971094

de Navas, Luis; Foronda, David; Suzanne, Magali; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

2006-11-01

41

Interchromosomal insertions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five families with questionable chromosome rearrangements, we identified an interchromosomal insertion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In case 1 with a dir ins (5;11)(p14;q14q24) in three generations, the mentally retarded and microcephalic proband showed a 5p14Mpter deletion. In case 2, a duplication (13)(q21.31Mq31.2) combined with a deletion (11)(q14Mq22) segregated from a reciprocal ins(11;13)(q14q122)(q21.32q31.2), causing a mixed phenotype with

J. O. Van Hemel; H. J. Eussen

2000-01-01

42

Nucleotide sequence of the T-DNA region from the A grobacterium tumefaciens octopine Ti plasmid pTi15955  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the transferred region (T-DNA) of an octopine tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid fromAgrobacterium tumefaciens (pTi15955) has been determined. A total of 24 595 nucleotides extending approximately 900 bases to either side of the outermost, T-DNA boundaries was sequenced. Computer analysis of the sequenced portion of the Ti plasmid revealed that recognition sites for 72 restriction endonucleases

R. F. Barker; K. B. Idler; D. V. Thompson; J. D. Kemp

1983-01-01

43

Highly efficient production and characterization of T-DNA plants for rice ( Oryza sativa L.) functional genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential of an improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure of japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) for generating large numbers of T-DNA plants that are required for functional analysis of this model genome. Using a T-DNA construct bearing the hygromycin resistance (hpt), green fluorescent protein (gfp) and g-glucuronidase (gusA) genes, each individually driven by a CaMV 35S promoter, we

C. Sallaud; D. Meynard; J. van Boxtel; C. Gay; M. Bès; J. P. Brizard; P. Larmande; D. Ortega; M. Raynal; M. Portefaix; P. B. F. Ouwerkerk; S. Rueb; M. Delseny; E. Guiderdoni

2003-01-01

44

Insertion Sequences  

PubMed Central

Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

1998-01-01

45

Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

Goh, S. H.

1975-01-01

46

Polymorphic insertions/deletions of both 1550nt and 100nt in two microsatellite-containing, LINE-related intronic regions of the rabbit kappa-casein gene.  

PubMed

The most frequent allele of the rabbit kappa-casein (kappa-Cas)-encoding gene (A allele) has previously been shown to possess two sequences similar to those found in the 5' end of long interspersed repeated elements (LINE). Part of an inverted rabbit LINE is present in the first intron and part of a direct rabbit LINE in the fourth intron. We describe herewith a less frequent allele (B allele) that lacks both 100bp in the first intron and 1550bp in the fourth intron. It was not possible to identify any allele exhibiting only one of the deletions in a population of 55 rabbits. The 100bp present in the first intron of the A allele, but absent from the B allele, are located at the 5' end of the inverse complementary LINE and include the poly (T) track of the LINE. The 1550bp present in the fourth intron of the A allele, but absent from the B allele, include the entire direct LINE sequence. Therefore, the B allele only possesses one partial LINE sequence that is located in the first intron and is truncated when compared to the copy found in the first intron of the A allele. The B allele might thus be more recent than the A allele. Differences between the sequences of transcripts corresponding to each allele are limited to two silent mutations and three modifications in the 3' UTR. In the mammary glands of lactating rabbits, which are homozygous for both alleles, kappa-Cas mRNA accumulate to similar levels and are translated into identical kappa-Cas that are secreted at similar concentrations into milk. PMID:9630490

Hiripi, L; Devinoy, E; Rat, P; Baranyi, M; Fontaine, M L; Bösze, Z

1998-06-15

47

Application of Discrete Event Control to the Insertion Task of Electric Line Using 6Link Electro-Hydraulic Manipulators with Dual Arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uninterrupted power supply has become indispensable during the maintenance task of active electric power lines as a result of today's highly information-oriented society and increasing demand of electric utilities. The maintenance task has the risk of electric shock and the danger of falling from high place. Therefore it is necessary to realize an autonomous robot system using electro-hydraulic manipulator because

Kyoungkwan Ahn; Shinichi Yokota

2003-01-01

48

T-DNA-encoded auxin formation in crown-gall cells.  

PubMed

The T-region of Ti plasmids expresses two genes (No. 1 and 2) in crown-gall cells which are essential for auxin effects. It has been shown that gene 2 (=IaaH) codes for an amidohydrolase which converts indole-3-acetamide into indole-3-acetic acid and which is functional in bacteria and in crown-gall cells (Schröder et al. (1984), Eur. J. Biochem. 138, 387-391). In this report we describe a quantitative assay for the enzyme and its application to analyze the properties of the enzyme as expressed in plant cells and in Escherichia coli. The enzyme requires no cofactors, and the temperature optimum (30-37°C), pH optimum (8.5-9.5), and Km (about 1 ?M) were very similar in both systems. Besides indole-3-acetamide, the enzyme also hydrolyzed indole-3-acetonitrile, esters of indole-3-acetic acid with glucose and myo-inositol, a-naphthaleneacetamide, and phenylacetamide, indicating that it may have a general function in converting substances of low auxin activity into those with high auxin activity. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of T-DNA gene 1 which cooperates with gene 2 in evoking auxin effects in crown-gall cells. PMID:24249348

Kemper, E; Wafenschmidt, S; Weiler, E W; Rausch, T; Schröder, J

1985-02-01

49

Core Vessel Insert Handling Robot for the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source provides the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams for scientific research and industrial development. Its eighteen neutron beam lines will eventually support up to twenty-four simultaneous experiments. Each beam line consists of various optical components which guide the neutrons to a particular instrument. The optical components nearest the neutron moderators are the core vessel inserts. Located approximately 9 m below the high bay floor, these inserts are bolted to the core vessel chamber and are part of the vacuum boundary. They are in a highly radioactive environment and must periodically be replaced. During initial SNS construction, four of the beam lines received Core Vessel Insert plugs rather than functional inserts. Remote replacement of the first Core Vessel Insert plug was recently completed using several pieces of custom-designed tooling, including a highly complicated Core Vessel Insert Robot. The design of this tool are discussed.

Graves, Van B [ORNL; Dayton, Michael J [ORNL

2011-01-01

50

In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro?PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1?2 pro?GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

2014-03-01

51

T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in  

Microsoft Academic Search

A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3%)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3-35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

Csaba Mathea; Eva Horvath; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz

52

T-DNA gene 5 of Agrobacterium modulates auxin response by autoregulated synthesis of a growth hormone antagonist in plants.  

PubMed Central

Oncogenes carried by the transferred DNA (T-DNA) of Agrobacterium Ti plasmids encode the synthesis of plant growth factors, auxin and cytokinin, and induce tumour development in plants. Other T-DNA genes regulate the tumorous growth in ways that are not yet understood. To determine the function of T-DNA gene 5, its coding region was expressed in Escherichia coli. Synthesis of the gene 5 encoded protein (26 kDa) correlated with a 28-fold increase in conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-lactate (ILA), an auxin analogue. Expression of chimeric gene 5 constructs in transgenic tobacco resulted in overproduction of ILA that enhanced shoot formation in undifferentiated tissues and increased the tolerance of germinating seedlings to the inhibitory effect of externally supplied auxin. Promoter analysis of gene 5 in plants revealed that its expression was inducible by auxin and confined to the vascular phloem cells. cis-regulatory elements required for auxin regulation and phloem specific expression of gene 5 were mapped to a 90 bp promoter region that carried DNA sequence motifs common to several auxin induced plant promoters, as well as a binding site for a nuclear factor, Ax-1. ILA was found to inhibit the auxin induction of the gene 5 promoter and to compete with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for in vitro binding to purified cellular auxin binding proteins. It is suggested therefore that ILA autoregulates its own synthesis and thereby modulates a number of auxin responses in plants. Images PMID:1756712

Körber, H; Strizhov, N; Staiger, D; Feldwisch, J; Olsson, O; Sandberg, G; Palme, K; Schell, J; Koncz, C

1991-01-01

53

A gene required for transfer of T-DNA to plants encodes an ATPase with autophosphorylating activity.  

PubMed Central

The virB operon of the Agrobacterium tume-faciens pTiA6NC plasmid likely plays a role in directing T-DNA transfer events at the bacterial membrane, as determined previously by mutagenesis and cellular fractionation studies and by DNA sequence analysis of the approximately 12-kilobase-pair operon. The DNA sequence analysis also revealed consensus mononucleotide binding domains in the deduced virB5 and virB11 gene products, suggesting that one or both of these proteins couple energy, by means of nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) hydrolysis, to T-DNA transport. In this report, the product of virB11, an essential virulence gene, was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified by using immunoaffinity chromatography. The immunoaffinity purified protein, as well as NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel-eluted protein, bound and hydrolyzed ATP in the absence of DNA effectors. VirB11 protein also demonstrated in vitro autophosphorylation activity. VirB11 protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasmic membrane by immunoblot analysis of membrane fractions. The deduced VirB11 protein exhibits sequence similarity to comG ORF1, a protein required for uptake of DNA by competent Bacillus subtilis cells. These findings suggest that phosphorylation may serve to activate a component(s) of the A. tumefaciens T-DNA transport apparatus and may also represent a general activation mechanism of other bacterial DNA transport systems. Images PMID:2532360

Christie, P J; Ward, J E; Gordon, M P; Nester, E W

1989-01-01

54

Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion.  

PubMed

Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((P^O)PdMeCl)-?-M}(n)] ([{((X)1-Cl)-?-M}(n)], (P^O) = ?(2)-P,O-Ar(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(2)O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC(6)H(4), 2-CF(3)C(6)H(4), 2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3), 2,6-(iPrO)(2)C(6)H(3), 2-(2',6'-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3))C(6)H(4)) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar(1) = 2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3), Ar(2) = 2'-(2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3))C(6)H(4); Ar(1) = 2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3), Ar(2) = 2-cHexOC(6)H(4)) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ?G(‡) = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes (X)1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P^O) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. PMID:23256526

Neuwald, Boris; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Mecking, Stefan

2013-01-23

55

Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana lines with altered seed storage protein profiles using synchrotron-powered FT-IR spectromicroscopy.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing only one cruciferin subunit type (double-knockout; CRUAbc, CRUaBc, or CRUabC) or devoid of cruciferin (triple-knockout; CRU-) or napin (napin-RNAi) were generated using combined T-DNA insertions or RNA interference approaches. Seeds of double-knockout lines accumulated homohexameric cruciferin and contained similar protein levels as the wild type (WT). Chemical imaging of WT and double-knockout seeds using synchrotron FT-IR spectromicroscopy (amide I band, 1650 cm(-1), ?C?O) showed that proteins were concentrated in the cell center and protein storage vacuoles. Protein secondary structure features of the homohexameric cruciferin lines showed predominant ?-sheet content. The napin-RNAi line had lower ?-helix content than the WT. Lines entirely devoid of cruciferin had high ?-helix and low ?-sheet levels, indicating that structurally different proteins compensate for the loss of cruciferin. Lines producing homohexameric CRUC showed minimal changes in protein secondary structure after pepsin treatment, indicating low enzyme accessibility. The Synchrotron FT-IR technique provides information on protein secondary structure and changes to the structure within the cell. PMID:23298281

Withana-Gamage, Thushan S; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Qiu, Xiao; Yu, Peiqiang; May, Tim; Lydiate, Derek; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

2013-01-30

56

Effects of P Element Insertions on Quantitative Traits in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

P element mutagenesis was used to construct 94 third chromosome lines of Drosophila melanogaster which contained on average 3.1 stable P element inserts, in an inbred host strain background previously free of P elements. The homozygous and heterozygous effects of the inserts on viability and abdominal and sternopleural bristle number were ascertained by comparing the chromosome lines with inserts to

Trudy F. C. Mackay; Richard F. Lyman; Michael S. Jackson

57

Regulation of Oncogene Expression in T-DNA-Transformed Host Plant Cells  

PubMed Central

Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase), which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM) and cytokinin (Ipt). Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs) between the coding sequences (CDS) of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and balance cytokinin and auxin levels for further cell proliferation. PMID:25615824

Zhang, Yi; Lee, Chil-Woo; Wehner, Nora; Imdahl, Fabian; Svetlana, Veselova; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Deeken, Rosalia

2015-01-01

58

Regulation of Oncogene Expression in T-DNA-Transformed Host Plant Cells.  

PubMed

Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase), which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM) and cytokinin (Ipt). Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs) between the coding sequences (CDS) of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and balance cytokinin and auxin levels for further cell proliferation. PMID:25615824

Zhang, Yi; Lee, Chil-Woo; Wehner, Nora; Imdahl, Fabian; Svetlana, Veselova; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Deeken, Rosalia

2015-01-01

59

Hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 is encoded in a region of pTiBo542 outside of T-DNA  

SciTech Connect

A binary-vectory strategy was used to study the hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. Strain A281 is hypervirulent on several solanaceous plants. Plasmids were constructed (pCS65 and pCS277) carrying either the transferred DNA (T-DNA) or the remainder of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid (pEHA101) from this strain and tested each of these constructs were tested in trans with complementary each of regions from heterologous Ti plasmids. Hypervirulence on tobacco could be reconstructed in a bipartite strain with the L,L-succinamopine T-DNA and the vir region on separate plasmids. pEHA101 was able to complement octopine T-DNA to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants. Nopaline T-DNA was complemented better on tomato plants by pEHA101 than it was by its own nopaline vir region, but not to hypervirulence. L,L-Succinamopine T-DNA could not be complemented to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants with either heterologous vir region. From these results the authors suggest that the hypervirulence of strain A281 is due to non-T-DNA sequences on the Ti plasmid.

Hood, E.E.; Helmer, G.L.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

1986-12-01

60

Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

61

Insertion Order Virginia Tech Magazine  

E-print Network

Insertion Order Virginia Tech Magazine This Insertion Order constitutes an agreement between Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) and ___________________________ (Client) for advertising space in Virginia Tech Magazine, published by Virginia Tech. Edition(s): Summer 2014 Fall 2014

Buehrer, R. Michael

62

Cloning of insertion site flanking sequence and construction of transfer DNA insert mutant library in Stylosanthes colletotrichum.  

PubMed

Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens' AGL-1 concentration (OD(600)), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25 °C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300-400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant's pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region of the putative gene had 79% homology with the aspartate aminotransferase gene in Magnaporthe oryzae (XP_003719674.1). PMID:25361073

Chen, Helong; Hu, Caiping; Yi, Kexian; Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

2014-01-01

63

Remote Control Inserting the batteries  

E-print Network

Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

Kostic, Milivoje M.

64

The T-DNA oncogene A4-orf8 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 induces abnormal growth in tobacco.  

PubMed

The related orf8 and iaaM T-DNA genes from Agrobacterium are each composed of two distinct parts. The 5' parts (called Norf8 or NiaaM) encode a 200-amino-acid (aa) sequence with homology to various T-DNA oncoproteins such as RolB, RolC, and 6b. The 3' parts (Corf8 or CiaaM) encode a 550-aa sequence with homology to IaaM proteins from Pseudomonas and Pantoea spp. Whereas iaaM genes encode flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent tryptophan 2-monooxygenases that catalyze the synthesis of indole-3-acetamide (IAM), A4-orf8 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 does not. Plants expressing a 2x35S-A4-Norf8 construct accumulate soluble sugars and starch. We now have regenerated plants that express the full-size 2x35S-A4-orf8 and the truncated 2x35S-A4-Corf8 gene. 2x35S-A4-Corf8 plants accumulate starch and show reduced growth like 2x35S-A4-Norf8 plants but, in addition, display a novel set of characteristic growth modifications. These consist of leaf hypertrophy and hyperplasia (blisters); thick, dark-green leaves; thick stems; and swollen midveins. Mutations in the putative FAD-binding site of A4-Orf8 did not affect the blister syndrome. Plants expressing 2x35S-A4-Corf8 had a normal phenotype but contained less starch and soluble sugars than did wild-type plants. When 2x35S-A4-Corf8 plants were crossed to starch-accumulating 2x35S-A4-Norf8 plants with reduced growth, A4-Corf8 partially restored growth and reduced starch accumulation. A4-Corf8xA4-Norf8 crosses did not lead to the blister syndrome, suggesting that this requires physical linkage of the A4-NOrf8 and A4-COrf8 sequences. PMID:15782634

Umber, Marie; Clément, Bernadette; Otten, Léon

2005-03-01

65

Effect of medium on charge transport properties of modified poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA molecular wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using tight binding Hamiltonian approach, the medium's effect on charge transport properties of modified poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA molecular wire is studied. The DNA sequences used are modified poly(dA)-poly(dT) sequence by replacing 50 base pairs randomly with GC or CG base pairs. The DNA is contacted by metallic leads at both ends. The medium's effect on DNA is modeled as backbone onsite energy disorder. The DNA is taken to be at room temperature. The charge transport properties of the two sequences are studied by calculating the transmission probabilities of the charges using the scattering and transfer matrix methods simultaneously. Then the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics are calculated from the transmission probabilities using the Landauer-Büttiker Formalism. The theoretical differential conductance curve is then calculated from the I-V characteristic curve. The I-V results show that as the backbone disorder strength increases, the maximum current decreases for both sequences. However, the threshold voltage can increase or decrease with increasing backbone disorder depending on the sequence. The transmission results show that the position of transmission peaks changed with backbone disorder strength. Comparison with previous published results using poly(dG)-poly(dC) sequence shows that in contrast to that sequence, backbone disorder can decrease the threshold voltage in one of the sequences studied. This may point to a new understanding of the interplay between environmental and sequence disorder effect on charge transport in DNA.

Suhendro, D. K.; Yudiarsah, E.; Saleh, R.

2014-09-01

66

Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts  

SciTech Connect

Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

67

Insertion and excision of Caenorhabditis elegans transposable element Tc1.  

PubMed

The transposable element Tc1 is responsible for most spontaneous mutations that occur in Caenorhabditis elegans variety Bergerac. We investigated the genetic and molecular properties of Tc1 transposition and excision. We show that Tc1 insertion into the unc-54 myosin heavy-chain gene was strongly site specific. The DNA sequences of independent Tc1 insertion sites were similar to each other, and we present a consensus sequence for Tc1 insertion that describes these similarities. We show that Tc1 excision was usually imprecise. Tc1 excision was imprecise in both germ line and somatic cells. Imprecise excision generated novel unc-54 alleles that had amino acid substitutions, amino acid insertions, and, in certain cases, probably altered mRNA splicing. The DNA sequences remaining after Tc1 somatic excision were the same as those remaining after germ line excision, but the frequency of somatic excision was at least 1,000-fold higher than that of germ line excision. The genetic properties of Tc1 excision, combined with the DNA sequences of the resulting unc-54 alleles, demonstrated that excision was dependent on Tc1 transposition functions in both germ line and somatic cells. Somatic excision was not regulated in the same strain-specific manner as germ-line excision was. In a genetic background where Tc1 transposition and excision in the germ line was not detectable, Tc1 excision in the soma still occurred at high frequency. PMID:2832734

Eide, D; Anderson, P

1988-02-01

68

T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3?)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3–35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

László Ökrész; Csaba Máthé; Éva Horváth; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz; László Szabados

1998-01-01

69

Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through its C-terminal ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding fold.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 stimulates processing of single-stranded T-DNA that is translocated into plants to induce tumor formation, but how VirC2 functions is unclear. Here, we report the 1.7-A X-ray crystal structure of its trypsin-resistant C-terminal domain, VirC2(82-202), which reveals a form of the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) DNA-binding fold contained within a single polypeptide chain. DNA-binding assays and mutagenesis indicate that VirC2 uses this RHH fold to bind double-stranded DNA but not single-stranded DNA. Mutations that severely affect VirC2 DNA binding are highly deleterious for both T-DNA transfer into yeast and the virulence of A. tumefaciens in different plants including Nicotiana glauca and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. These data suggest that VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through DNA binding with its RHH fold. The RHH fold of VirC2 is the first crystal structure representing a group of predicted RHH proteins that facilitate endonucleolytic processing of DNA for horizontal gene transfer. PMID:19482939

Lu, Jun; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Glover, J N Mark

2009-06-16

70

Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

2004-09-01

71

COMPARISONS OF NEEDLE INSERTION IN  

E-print Network

: France (2007)" #12;PROSTATE BRACHYTHERAPY Prostate cancer is nowadays the most diagnosed cancer among men at comparing the results of different prostate brachytherapy protocols concerning needle insertion order and its influence on tissue deformations. Prostate brachytherapy consists in the insertion of radioactive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Tool Removes Coil-Spring Thread Inserts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool removes coil-spring thread inserts from threaded holes. Threads into hole, pries insert loose, grips insert, then pulls insert to thread it out of hole. Effects essentially reverse of insertion process to ease removal and avoid further damage to threaded inner surface of hole.

Collins, Gerald J., Jr.; Swenson, Gary J.; Mcclellan, J. Scott

1991-01-01

73

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Model Selection in Reinforcement Learning Amir massoud Farahmand1 , Csaba Szepesv´ari1 Department of Computing Science University of Alberta learning. More specifically, we consider the batch (off-line, non-interactive) reinforcement learning

Szepesvari, Csaba

74

Lipid-insertion enables targeting functionalization of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked nanoparticles.  

PubMed

RBC membrane-cloaked polymeric nanoparticles represent an emerging nanocarrier platform with extended circulation in vivo. A lipid-insertion method is employed to functionalize these nanoparticles without the need for direct chemical conjugation. Insertion of both folate and the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411 shows receptor-specific targeting against model cancer cell lines. PMID:23907698

Fang, Ronnie H; Hu, Che-Ming J; Chen, Kevin N H; Luk, Brian T; Carpenter, Cody W; Gao, Weiwei; Li, Shulin; Zhang, Dong-Er; Lu, Weiyue; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-10-01

75

Lipid-insertion enables targeting functionalization of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked nanoparticles†  

PubMed Central

RBC membrane-cloaked polymeric nanoparticles represent an emerging nanocarrier platform with extended circulation in vivo. A lipid-insertion method is employed to functionalize these nanoparticles without the need for direct chemical conjugation. Insertion of both folate and the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411 shows receptor-specific targeting against model cancer cell lines. PMID:23907698

Fang, Ronnie H.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Chen, Kevin N. H.; Luk, Brian T.; Carpenter, Cody W.; Gao, Weiwei; Li, Shulin; Zhang, Dong-Er; Lu, Weiyue; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-01-01

76

STP Widom Insertion Method Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP Widom Insertion Method program estimates the chemical potential of a Lennard-Jones fluid using the Widom insertion method. The default system is a box with linear dimension L = 20 with N =100 particles at a temperature T = 1.0. STP WidomInsertionMethod is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_WidomInsertionMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-06

77

Functional Analysis of an Arabidopsis T-DNA “Knockout” of the High-Affinity NH4+ Transporter AtAMT1;11  

PubMed Central

NH4+ acquisition by plant roots is thought to involve members of the NH4+ transporter family (AMT) found in plants, yeast, bacteria, and mammals. In Arabidopsis, there are six AMT genes of which AtAMT1;1 demonstrates the highest affinity for NH4+. Ammonium influx into roots and AtAMT1;1 mRNA expression levels are highly correlated diurnally and when plant nitrogen (N) status is varied. To further investigate the involvement of AtAMT1;1 in high-affinity NH4+ influx, we identified a homozygous T-DNA mutant with disrupted AtAMT1;1 activity. Contrary to expectation, high-affinity 13NH4+ influx in the amt1;1:T-DNA mutant was similar to the wild type when grown with adequate N. Removal of N to increase AtAMT1;1 expression decreased high-affinity 13NH4+ influx in the mutant by 30% compared with wild-type plants, whereas low-affinity 13NH4+ influx (250 ?m–10 mm NH4+) exceeded that of wild-type plants. In these N-deprived plants, mRNA copy numbers of root AtAMT1;3 and AtAMT2;1 mRNA were significantly more increased in the mutant than in wild-type plants. Under most growth conditions, amt1;1:T-DNA plants were indistinguishable from the wild type, however, leaf morphology was altered. However, when grown with NH4+ and sucrose, the mutant grew poorly and died. Our results are the first in planta evidence that AtAMT1;1 is a root NH4+ transporter and that redundancies within the AMT family may allow compensation for the loss of AtAMT1;1. PMID:12427993

Kaiser, Brent N.; Rawat, Suman R.; Siddiqi, M. Yaeesh; Masle, Josette; Glass, Anthony D.M.

2002-01-01

78

Insertional Mutagenesis Using Tnt1 Retrotransposon in Potato1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis using transfer DNA or transposable elements, which is an important tool in functional genomics and is well established in several crops, has not been developed in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here, we report the application of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Tnt1 retrotransposon as an insertional mutagen in potato. The Tnt1 retrotransposon was introduced into a highly homozygous and self-compatible clone, 523-3, of the diploid wild potato species Solanum chacoense. Transposition of the Tnt1 elements introduced into 523-3 can be efficiently induced by tissue culture. Tnt1 preferentially inserted into genic regions in the potato genome and the insertions were stable during sexual reproduction, making Tnt1 an ideal mutagen in potato. Several distinct phenotypes associated with plant stature and leaf morphology were discovered in mutation screening from a total of 38 families derived from Tnt1-containing lines. We demonstrate that the insertional mutagenesis system based on Tnt1 and the 523-3 clone can be expanded to the genome-wide level to potentially tag every gene in the potato genome. PMID:23898040

Duangpan, Saowapa; Zhang, Wenli; Wu, Yufang; Jansky, Shelley H.; Jiang, Jiming

2013-01-01

79

Formation of nanofilms on cell surfaces to improve the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles into fibroblast and neural cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms formed on cell surfaces improved the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms improved the insertion efficiency even in Y27632-treated cells. -- Abstract: A nanoneedle, an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip etched to 200 nm in diameter and 10 {mu}m in length, can be inserted into cells with the aid of an AFM and has been used to introduce functional molecules into cells and to analyze intracellular information with minimal cell damage. However, some cell lines have shown low insertion efficiency of the nanoneedle. Improvement in the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into such cells is a significant issue for nanoneedle-based cell manipulation and analysis. Here, we have formed nanofilms composed of extracellular matrix molecules on cell surfaces and found that the formation of the nanofilms improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into fibroblast and neural cells. The nanofilms were shown to improve insertion efficiency even in cells in which the formation of actin stress fibers was inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, suggesting that the nanofilms with the mesh structure directly contributed to the improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle.

Amemiya, Yosuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Kawano, Keiko [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-26 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-26 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakamura, Noriyuki [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-26 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-26 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Nakamura, Chikashi, E-mail: chikashi-nakamura@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan) [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-26 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

2012-04-13

80

Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care. PMID:25374804

Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

2014-11-01

81

Graft inserter for anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

The authors have developed a simple instrument for graft insertion in anterior cervical fusion. This device obviates the need for screw distraction of the adjacent vertebrae or the use of an impactor for insertion. This device simplifies graft insertion where the disc space is narrow, particularly in multilevel fusions, and reduces the risk of over-penetration of the graft. PMID:24974192

Hitchon, Patrick W; Kumar, Rajinder; Viljoen, Stephanus; Dahdaleh, Nader S

2014-11-01

82

JT/LJT connector insert material evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Different insert (insulator) materials are undergoing evaluation to replace the Fiberite E-3938 BE96 material currently used. Also being evaluated is the reconfiguration of the insert and metal shell-edge geometries for the purpose of reducing the alleged interference principally responsible for insert damage.

Baca, J.R.F.

1991-10-01

83

Ketamine improves nasogastric tube insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesNasogastric (NG) intubation is one of the most common procedures performed in the emergency department (ED) and other hospital settings. The aim of this study was to compare the level of pain during NG tube insertion in groups receiving local ketamine plus water-soluble lubricating gel and water-soluble lubricating gel alone (the latter is the common practice in our hospital). It

Amir Nejati; Keihan Golshani; Maziar Moradi Lakeh; Patricia Khashayar; Reza Shariat Moharari

2010-01-01

84

Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, QMI (Quench Module Insert) and DMI (Diffusion Module Insert) furnace development. The topics include: 1) Furnace Module in Rack; 2) Quench Module Insert; 3) QMI in MSL Core; 4) Diffusion Module Insert; 5) QMI; and 6) QMI Development and Testing.

Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, William; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

2000-01-01

85

International Journal of Computer Vision manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

International Journal of Computer Vision manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Face Schmid Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract In this paper, we present methods for face recog- nition of image and video data available both on-line and off-line, through digitalization efforts by broadcasting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Effects of Single P-Element Insertions on Bristle Number and Viability in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Single P-element mutagenesis was used to construct 1094 lines with P[lArB] inserts on all three major chromosomes in an isogenic background previously free of P elements. The effects of insertions on bristle number and on viability were assessed by comparison to 392 control lines. The variance and effects of P-element inserts on bristle number and viability were larger than those inferred from spontaneous mutations. The distributions of effects on bristle number were symmetrical and highly leptokurtic, such that a few inserts with large effects caused most of the increase in variance. The distribution of effects on viability were negatively skewed and platykurtic. On average, the effects of P-element insertions on bristle number were partly recessive and on viability were completely recessive. P-element inserts with large effects on bristle number tended to have reduced viability, but the correlation between the absolute value of the effects on bristle number and on viability was not strong. Fifty P-element inserts tagging quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with large effects on bristle number were mapped cytogenetically. Two P-element-induced scabrous alleles and five extramacrochaetae alleles were generated. Single P-element mutagenesis is a powerful method for identifying QTLs at the level of genetic locus. PMID:8722781

Lyman, R. F.; Lawrence, F.; Nuzhdin, S. V.; Mackay, TFC.

1996-01-01

87

Mono-allelic retrotransposon insertion addresses epigenetic transcriptional repression in human genome  

PubMed Central

Background Retrotransposons have been extensively studied in plants and animals and have been shown to have an impact on human genome dynamics and evolution. Their ability to move within genomes gives retrotransposons to affect genome instability. Methods we examined the polymorphic inserted AluYa5, evolutionary young Alu, in the progesterone receptor gene to determine the effects of Alu insertion on molecular environment. We used mono-allelic inserted cell lines which carry both Alu-present and Alu-absent alleles. To determine the epigenetic change and gene expression, we performed restriction enzyme digestion, Pyrosequencing, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Results We observed that the polymorphic insertion of evolutionally young Alu causes increasing levels of DNA methylation in the surrounding genomic area and generates inactive histone tail modifications. Consequently the Alu insertion deleteriously inactivates the neighboring gene expression. Conclusion The mono-allelic Alu insertion cell line clearly showed that polymorphic inserted repetitive elements cause the inactivation of neighboring gene expression, bringing aberrant epigenetic changes. PMID:22300442

2012-01-01

88

Motor coordination deficits in Alpk1 mutant mice with the inserted piggyBac transposon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: ALPK1 (?-kinase 1) is a member of an unconventional alpha-kinase family, and its biological function remains largely unknown. Here we report the phenotypic characterization of one mutant line, in which the piggyBac (PB) transposon is inserted into the Alpk1 gene. RESULTS: The piggyBac(PB) insertion site in mutants was mapped to the first intron of the Alpk1 gene, resulting in

Muyun Chen; Rener Xu

2011-01-01

89

Insertional mutagenesis by transposable elements in the mammalian genome.  

PubMed

Several mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements were characterized in recent years, and their role in mutagenesis is delineated in this review. Two main groups have been described: elements with symmetrical termini such as the murine IAP sequences and the human THE 1 elements and elements characterized by a poly-A rich tail at the 3' end such as the SINE and LINE sequences. The characteristic property of such mobile elements to spread and integrate in the host genome leads to insertional mutagenesis. Both germline and somatic mutations have been documented resulting from the insertion of the various types of mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements. As foreseen by Barbara McClintock, such genetic events can cause either the activation or the inactivation of specific genes, resulting in their identification via an altered phenotype. Several disease states, such as hemophilia and cancer, are the result of this apparent aspect of genome instability. PMID:8385004

Amariglio, N; Rechavi, G

1993-01-01

90

Localization properties of electronic states in a polaron model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers.  

PubMed

We numerically investigate localization properties of electronic states in a static model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers with realistic parameters obtained by quantum-chemical calculation. The randomness in the on-site energies caused by the electron-phonon coupling is completely correlated to the off-diagonal parts. In the single electron model, the effect of the hydrogen-bond stretchings, the twist angles between the base pairs and the finite system size effects on the energy dependence of the localization length and on the Lyapunov exponent are given. The localization length is reduced by the influence of the fluctuations in the hydrogen bond stretchings. It is also shown that the helical twist angle affects the localization length in the poly(dG)-poly(dC) DNA polymer more strongly than in the poly(dA)-poly(dT) one. Furthermore, we show resonance structures in the energy dependence of the localization length when the system size is relatively small. PMID:15906117

Yamada, H; Starikov, E B; Hennig, D; Archilla, J F R

2005-06-01

91

Insertion devices at the advanced photon source  

SciTech Connect

The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics.

Moog, E.R.

1996-07-01

92

Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2006-11-21

93

Insertion slanting strabismus surgical procedures.  

PubMed

Insertion slanting recessions or biased resections have been reported to be useful for treating A- and V-pattern strabismus, convergence insufficiency, and convergence excess esotropia. Paradoxically, good results have been reported with methods that are opposite in nature. For example, some researchers would recess the medial rectus muscles and slant the superior pole of each muscle back farther than the inferior pole (Simonsz/von Graefe method) for a V-pattern esotropia, and others would slant the inferior poles back farther (Bietti method). The Simonsz/von Graefe method seems to be based on sound concepts of oculomotor mechanics. The Bietti method has been justified based on a misquoting and misinterpretation of previous work by Alan Scott, MD. Probably neither method contributes substantially to the outcome of strabismus surgery because sarcomere remodeling should rapidly negate the effect of the slanting. Most likely it is the recession or resection itself that affects the outcome. PMID:22159685

Kushner, Burton J

2011-12-01

94

HF Low-loss Nanosecond Variable Delay Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been completed for the Air Force Rome Air Development Center [l] to investigate HF and UHF delay lines that are low-loss and nanosecond variable. The delay line developed f-or the HF hand is described here. The design principles for the delay line are discussed and the construction details are given. The line cllaracteristics, including group delay, insertion

DONALD E. CLARK

1981-01-01

95

Insertional Polymorphism and Antiquity of PDR1 Retrotransposon Insertions in Pisum Species  

PubMed Central

Sequences flanking 73 insertions of the retrotransposon PDR1 have been characterized, together with an additional 270 flanking regions from one side alone, from a diverse collection of Pisum germ plasm. Most of the identified flanking sequences are repetitious DNAs but more than expected (7%) lie within nuclear gene protein-coding regions. The approximate age of 52 of the PDR1 insertions has been determined by measuring sequence divergence among LTR pairs. These data show that PDR1 transpositions occurred within the last 5 MY, with a peak at 1–2.5 MYA. The insertional polymorphism of 68 insertions has been assessed across 47 selected Pisum accessions, representing the diversity of the genus. None of the insertions are fixed, showing that PDR1 insertions can persist in a polymorphic state for millions of years in Pisum. The insertional polymorphism data have been compared with the age estimations to ask what rules control the proliferation of PDR1 insertions in Pisum. Relatively recent insertions (< ?1.5MYA) tend to be found in small subsets of the Pisum accessions set, “middle-aged” insertions (between ?1.5 and 2.5 MYA) vary greatly in their occurrence, and older insertions (> ?2.5 MYA) are mostly found in small subsets of Pisum. Finally, the average age estimate for PDR1 insertions, together with an existing data set for PDR1 retrotransposon SSAP markers, has been used to derive an estimate of the effective population size for Pisum of ?7.5 × 105. PMID:16085698

Jing, Runchun; Knox, Maggie R.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Vershinin, Alexander V.; Ambrose, Michael; Ellis, T. H. Noel; Flavell, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

96

1. EI LDPC Erasure Insertion LDPC  

E-print Network

1. EI LDPC BFSK . Erasure Insertion LDPC Non-Coherent BFSK-Check) Non-coherent FSK Erasure Insertion(EI) . AWGN(Additive White Gaussian Noise) (Partial-Band Jamming) . AWGNPBJ EI . . (Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum: FHSS) [1]. FHSS

Song, Hong-Yeop

97

Insert presenter logo here on slide master.  

E-print Network

University of Auckland PKI: Lemon Markets and Lemonade Session ID: STAR-304 Session Classification: Intermediate Insert presenter logo here on slide master. See hidden slide 2 for directions Agenda 2 Lemon master. See hidden slide 2 for directions3 Lemon Markets / PKI Markets Insert presenter logo here

Gutmann, Peter

98

Novel insertion mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The mutation e1662 is an allele of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-54 gene induced with the difunctional alkylating agent 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane. unc-54 encodes the major myosin heavy chain isozyme of body wall muscle cells. Filter-transfer hybridization and DNA sequence analysis show that e1662 is an insertion of 288 base pairs of DNA within unc-54. The inserted DNA is identical to a 288-base pair region of unc-54 located ca. 600 base pairs from the insertion site. Thus, e1662 is a displaced duplication. A 14-base pair sequence located at one end of the duplicated segment is found adjacent to the site of insertion. These homologous sequences are juxtaposed head-to-tail by the insertion event. e1662 thus contains a tandem direct repeat extending across one of its junctions. PMID:3982411

Eide, D J; Anderson, P

1985-01-01

99

Inserting random and site-specific changes into the genome of chickens.  

PubMed

During the past decade, modifications to the chicken genome have evolved from random insertions of small transgenes using viral vectors to site-specific deletions using homologous recombination vectors and nontargeted insertions of large transgenes using phi-31 integrase. Primordial germ cells (PGC) and gonocytes are the germline-competent cell lines in which targeted modifications and large transgenes are inserted into the genome. After extended periods of in vitro culture, PGC retain their capacity to form functional gametes when reintroduced in vivo. Rates of stable germline modification vary from 1 × 10(-5) for nontargeted insertions to 1 × 10(-8) for targeted insertions. Following transfection, clonally derived cell lines are expanded, injected into Stage 13-15 Hamburger and Hamilton embryos, and putative chimeras are incubated to term in surrogate shells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is incorporated into transgenes to reveal the presence of genetically modified PGC in culture and the extent of colonization of the gonad during the first week posthatch. If the extent of colonization is adequate, cohorts of putative chimeras are reared to sexual maturity. Semen is collected and the contribution from donor PGC is estimated by evaluating GFP expression using flow cytometry and PCR. The most promising candidates are selected for breeding to obtain G1 heterozygote offspring. To date, this protocol has been used to (1) knockout the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes and produce chickens lacking humoral immunity, (2) insert human V genes and arrays of pseudo V genes into the heavy and light immunoglobulin loci to produce chickens making antibodies with human V regions, (3) insert GFP into nontargeted locations within the genome to produce chickens expressing GFP, and (4) insert Cre recombinase into the genome to produce chickens that excise sequences of DNA flanked by loxP sites. PMID:25332140

Collarini, Ellen; Leighton, Philip; Pedersen, Darlene; Harriman, Bill; Jacob, Roy; Mettler-Izquierdo, Shelley; Yi, Henry; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Etches, Robert J

2014-10-20

100

Human Lamina Cribrosa Insertion and Age  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To test the hypothesis that in healthy human eyes the lamina cribrosa (LC) insertion into the pia mater increases with age. Methods. The optic nerve heads (ONHs) of donor eyes fixed at either 5 or 50 mm Hg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under bright- and dark-field conditions. A 3-dimensional (3D) model of each ONH was reconstructed. From the 3D models we measured the area of LC insertion into the peripapillary scleral flange and into the pia, and computed the total area of insertion and fraction of LC inserting into the pia. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the measurements were associated with age or IOP. Results. We analyzed 21 eyes from 11 individuals between 47 and 91 years old. The LC inserted into the pia in all eyes. The fraction of LC inserting into the pia (2.2%–29.6%) had a significant decrease with age (P = 0.049), which resulted from a nonsignificant increase in the total area of LC insertion (P = 0.41) and a nonsignificant decrease in the area of LC insertion into the pia (P = 0.55). None of the measures was associated with fixation IOP (P values 0.44–0.81). Differences between fellow eyes were smaller than differences between unrelated eyes. Conclusions. The LC insertion into the pia mater is common in middle-aged and older eyes, and does not increase with age. The biomechanical and vascular implications of the LC insertion into the pia mater are not well understood and should be investigated further. PMID:22956611

Sigal, Ian A.; Flanagan, John G.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Tertinegg, Inka; Bilonick, Richard

2012-01-01

101

Mechanism of alamethicin insertion into lipid bilayers.  

PubMed Central

Alamethicin adsorbs on the membrane surface at low peptide concentrations. However, above a critical peptide-to-lipid ratio (P/L), a fraction of the peptide molecules insert in the membrane. This critical ratio is lipid dependent. For diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine it is about 1/40. At even higher concentrations P/L > or = 1/15, all of the alamethicin inserts into the membrane and forms well-defined pores as detected by neutron in-plane scattering. A previous x-ray diffraction measurement showed that alamethicin adsorbed on the surface has the effect of thinning the bilayer in proportion to the peptide concentration. A theoretical study showed that the energy cost of membrane thinning can indeed lead to peptide insertion. This paper extends the previous studies to the high-concentration region P/L > 1/40. X-ray diffraction shows that the bilayer thickness increases with the peptide concentration for P/L > 1/23 as the insertion approaches 100%. The thickness change with the percentage of insertion is consistent with the assumption that the hydrocarbon region of the bilayer matches the hydrophobic region of the inserted peptide. The elastic energy of a lipid bilayer including both adsorption and insertion of peptide is discussed. The Gibbs free energy is calculated as a function of P/L and the percentage of insertion phi in a simplified one-dimensional model. The model exhibits an insertion phase transition in qualitative agreement with the data. We conclude that the membrane deformation energy is the major driving force for the alamethicin insertion transition. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8913604

He, K; Ludtke, S J; Heller, W T; Huang, H W

1996-01-01

102

Quantitative analysis of human cruciate ligament insertions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to provide quantitative data on the insertion sites of the cruciate ligaments. In the first part of the study, we determined the shapes and sizes of the insertions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL), and further compared these data with the midsubstance cross-sectional areas of the ligaments. The cross-sectional area of the ACL and PCL midsubstance of 5 human knees was measured using a laser micrometer system. The insertion sites of each ligament were then digitized and the 2-dimensional insertion site areas were determined. Relative to the ligament midsubstance, the PCL tibial and femoral insertions were approximately 3 times larger, whereas those of the ACL were over 3.5 times larger. In the second part of the study, the ACLs and PCLs of 10 knees were each divided into their 2 components and the areas of each insertion were determined. Each component was approximately 50% of the total ligament insertion area and no significant difference between the 2 could be shown. PMID:10524822

Harner, C D; Baek, G H; Vogrin, T M; Carlin, G J; Kashiwaguchi, S; Woo, S L

1999-10-01

103

Insertion sequence elements in Lactococcus garvieae.  

PubMed

Insertion sequences are the simplest intracellular Mobile Genetic Elements which can occur in very high numbers in prokaryotic genomes, where they play an important evolutionary role by promoting genome plasticity. As such, the studies on the diversity and distribution of insertion sequences in genomes not yet investigated can contribute to improve the knowledge on a bacterial species and to identify new transposable elements. The present work describes the occurrence of insertion sequences in Lactococcus garvieae, an opportunistic emerging zoonotic and human pathogen, also associated with different food matrices. To date, no insertion elements have been described for L. garvieae in the IS element database. The analysis of the twelve published L. garvieae genomes identified 15 distinct insertion sequences that are members of the IS3, IS982, IS6, IS21 and IS256 families, including five new elements. Most of the insertion sequences in L. garvieae show substantial homology to the Lactococcus lactis elements, suggesting the movement of IS between these two species phylogenetically closely related. ISLL6 elements belonging to IS3 family were most abundant, with several copies distributed in 9 of the 12 genomes analyzed. An alignment analysis of two complete genomes carrying multi-copies of this insertion sequence indicates a possible involvement of ISLL6 in chromosomal rearrangement. PMID:25447909

Eraclio, Giovanni; Ricci, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

2015-01-25

104

Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane  

DOEpatents

A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

2014-11-04

105

Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device  

DOEpatents

An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

Carr, Roger (Redwood City, CA)

1995-01-01

106

FOA Lecture 16: Insertion Loss Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is Lecture 16 in the FOA series on fiber optics. This lecture is about insertion loss testing. Insertion loss testing tests an installed cable plant with a light source and power meter in a method that is similar to how a communications system transmits data over the cable plant. Insertion loss testing is used to test the cable plant and compare it to the loss budget calculated in the design phase to ensure the planned communications systems will work over the cable plant. Running time for the lecture is 15:50. Flash is required to view the video.

2013-06-20

107

Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane  

DOEpatents

A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

2014-04-01

108

Cervical cancer treatment with a locally insertable controlled release delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local delivery of cancer chemotherapeutics enables sustained drug levels at the site of action thereby reducing systemic side effects. A novel insertable polymeric drug delivery system for cervical cancer treatment is presented. Cisplatin, the first line of therapy employed for cervical cancers, was incorporated in a poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVAc) device that is similar to those currently used for vaginal contraceptive

Vandana Keskar; Prem S. Mohanty; Ernest J. Gemeinhart; Richard A. Gemeinhart

2006-01-01

109

The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes  

SciTech Connect

The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

2004-01-13

110

Insertion Sequence Diversity in Archaea  

PubMed Central

Insertion sequences (ISs) can constitute an important component of prokaryotic (bacterial and archaeal) genomes. Over 1,500 individual ISs are included at present in the ISfinder database (www-is.biotoul.fr), and these represent only a small portion of those in the available prokaryotic genome sequences and those that are being discovered in ongoing sequencing projects. In spite of this diversity, the transposition mechanisms of only a few of these ubiquitous mobile genetic elements are known, and these are all restricted to those present in bacteria. This review presents an overview of ISs within the archaeal kingdom. We first provide a general historical summary of the known properties and behaviors of archaeal ISs. We then consider how transposition might be regulated in some cases by small antisense RNAs and by termination codon readthrough. This is followed by an extensive analysis of the IS content in the sequenced archaeal genomes present in the public databases as of June 2006, which provides an overview of their distribution among the major archaeal classes and species. We show that the diversity of archaeal ISs is very great and comparable to that of bacteria. We compare archaeal ISs to known bacterial ISs and find that most are clearly members of families first described for bacteria. Several cases of lateral gene transfer between bacteria and archaea are clearly documented, notably for methanogenic archaea. However, several archaeal ISs do not have bacterial equivalents but can be grouped into Archaea-specific groups or families. In addition to ISs, we identify and list nonautonomous IS-derived elements, such as miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements. Finally, we present a possible scenario for the evolutionary history of ISs in the Archaea. PMID:17347521

Filée, J.; Siguier, P.; Chandler, M.

2007-01-01

111

Experience with Phase II insertion devices in the x-ray ring  

SciTech Connect

The installation of Phase II insertion devices in the NSLS x-ray ring was completed in February 1989, when the hybrid wiggler magnet (HBW) for beam line X21 and the superconducting wiggler (SCW) for beam line X17 were installed. Prior to this time, the soft x-ray undulator (SXU) and X1, another hybrid wiggler at X25, and the ten period mini-undulator at X13 had been installed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Krinsky, S.; Solomon, L.

1989-01-01

112

A transgenic tropical maize line generated by the direct transformation of the embryo-scutellum by A. tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system, from which transgenic tropical maize plants were directly generated without previous crosses\\u000a with laboratory or temperate lines, was established. Experimental evaluations were focused on two main issues: (i) establishment\\u000a of appropriate tissue culture conditions, which induced somatic embryogenesis from the scutellum-cells, and (ii) the delivery\\u000a of T-DNA toward these cells. High rates of embryogenic-calli, mainly

Angel Valdez-Ortiz; Sergio Medina-Godoy; M. Elena Valverde; Octavio Paredes-López

2007-01-01

113

COMPARISONS OF NEEDLE INSERTION IN BRACHYTHERAPY  

E-print Network

aims at comparing the results of different prostate brachytherapy protocols concerning needle insertion order and its influence on tissue deformations. Prostate brachytherapy of other parameters was also demonstrated through the different simulations. PROSTATE BRACHYTHERAPY

Promayon, Emmanuel

114

Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method  

DOEpatents

A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NV)

2000-01-01

115

euL1db: the European database of L1HS retrotransposon insertions in humans.  

PubMed

Retrotransposons account for almost half of our genome. They are mobile genetics elements-also known as jumping genes-but only the L1HS subfamily of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs) has retained the ability to jump autonomously in modern humans. Their mobilization in germline-but also some somatic tissues-contributes to human genetic diversity and to diseases, such as cancer. Here, we present euL1db, the European database of L1HS retrotransposon insertions in humans (available at http://euL1db.unice.fr). euL1db provides a curated and comprehensive summary of L1HS insertion polymorphisms identified in healthy or pathological human samples and published in peer-reviewed journals. A key feature of euL1db is its sample-wise organization. Hence L1HS insertion polymorphisms are connected to samples, individuals, families and clinical conditions. The current version of euL1db centralizes results obtained in 32 studies. It contains >900 samples, >140 000 sample-wise insertions and almost 9000 distinct merged insertions. euL1db will help understanding the link between L1 retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms and phenotype or disease. PMID:25352549

Mir, Ashfaq A; Philippe, Claude; Cristofari, Gaël

2015-01-28

116

TURNING PERFORMANCE OF DIAMOND-COATED INSERT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-coated tungsten carbide (WC) insert is used for machining of non-ferrous material such brass, bronze, aluminium alloy, and metal matrix composite. However in this study, diamond-coated insert was subjected to machine medium carbon steel at cutting speed of 60 mm\\/min, feed rate of 0.254 mm\\/rev, and depth of cut 2 mm. The machining test was performed on CNC turning machine.

R. J. Talib; M. Ariff

117

Gene Expression Variation in Drosophila melanogaster Due to Rare Transposable Element Insertion Alleles of Large Effect  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are a common source of genetic variation that may play a substantial role in contributing to gene expression variation. However, the contribution of transposable elements to expression variation thus far consists of a handful of examples. We used previously published gene expression data from 37 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to perform a genome-wide assessment of the effects of transposable elements on gene expression. We found thousands of transcripts with transposable element insertions in or near the transcript and that the presence of a transposable element in or near a transcript is significantly associated with reductions in expression. We estimate that within this example population, ?2.2% of transcripts have a transposable element insertion, which significantly reduces expression in the line containing the transposable element. We also find that transcripts with insertions within 500 bp of the transcript show on average a 0.67 standard deviation decrease in expression level. These large decreases in expression level are most pronounced for transposable element insertions close to transcripts and the effect diminishes for more distant insertions. This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of gene expression variation due to transposable elements and suggests that transposable elements are an important class of mutation underlying expression variation in Drosophila and likely in other systems, given the ubiquity of these mobile elements in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:25335504

Cridland, Julie M.; Thornton, Kevin R.; Long, Anthony D.

2015-01-01

118

Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.  

PubMed

Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

1991-09-28

119

Enhanced Transmission Line Theory: Frequency-Dependent Line Parameters And Their Insertion in a  

E-print Network

resistance; automotive electromagnetic compatibility; cable harnesses, electromagnetic interference. I. INTRODUCTION The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) characterization of a vehicle requires taking into account important point of automotive EMC investigations concerns the electromagnetic field coupling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

Reading between the LINEs: Human Genomic Variation Induced by LINE1 Retrotransposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insertion of mobile elements into the genome represents a new class of genetic markers for the study of human evolution. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) have amplified to a copy number of about 100,000 over the last 100 million years of mammalian evolution and comprise ?15% of the human genome. The majority of LINE-1 (L1) elements within the human genome

Fang-miin Sheen; Stephen T. Sherry; Gregory M. Risch; Myles Robichaux; Ivane Nasidze; Mark Stoneking; Mark A. Batzer; Gary D. Swergold

2000-01-01

121

Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification  

SciTech Connect

The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by the Company and ITER. The Fabrication Specifications may reflect some national requirements and regulations that are not fully provided here. This document presents the ITER CSI specifications.

Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

2011-09-01

122

Determining common insertion sites based on retroviral insertion distribution across tumors.  

PubMed

A CIS (common insertion site) indicates a genome region that is hit more frequently by retroviral insertions than expected by chance. Such a region is strongly related to cancer gene loci, which leads to the detection of cancer genes. An algorithm for detecting CISs should satisfy the following: (1) it does not require any prior knowledge of underlying insertion distribution; (2) it can resolve the insertion biases caused by hotspots; (3) it can detect CISs of any biological width; (4) it can identify noises resulting from statistic mistakes and non-CIS insertions; and (5) it can identify the widths of CISs as accurately as possible. We develop a method to resolve these difficulties. We verify a region's significance from two perspectives: distribution width and distribution depth. The former indicates how many insertions in a region while the latter evaluates the insertion distribution across the tumors in a region. We compare our method with kernel density estimation and sliding window on the simulated data, showing that our method not only identifies cancer-related insertions effectively, but also filters noises correctly. The experiments on the real data show that taking insertion distribution into account can highlight significant CISs. We detect 53 novel CISs, some of which have been proven correct by the biological literature. PMID:24675070

Chen, Feng; Li, Zhoufang; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

2014-08-01

123

Nozzle cavity impingement/area reduction insert  

DOEpatents

A turbine vane segment is provided that has inner and outer walls spaced from one another, a vane extending between the inner and outer walls and having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, the vane including discrete leading edge, intermediate, aft and trailing edge cavities between the leading and trailing edges and extending lengthwise of the vane for flowing a cooling medium; and an insert sleeve within at least one of the cavities and spaced from interior wall surfaces thereof. The insert sleeve has an inlet for flowing the cooling medium into the insert sleeve and has impingement holes defined in first and second walls thereof that respectively face the pressure and suction sides of the vane. The impingement holes of at least one of those first and second walls are defined along substantially only a first, upstream portion thereof, whereby the cooling flow is predominantly impingement cooling along a first region of the insert wall corresponding to the first, upstream portion and the cooling flow is predominantly convective cooling along a second region corresponding to a second, downstream portion of the at least one wall of the insert sleeve.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT)

2002-01-01

124

Sensing Membrane Stresses by Protein Insertions  

PubMed Central

Protein domains shallowly inserting into the membrane matrix are ubiquitous in peripheral membrane proteins involved in various processes of intracellular membrane shaping and remodeling. It has been suggested that these domains sense membrane curvature through their preferable binding to strongly curved membranes, the binding mechanism being mediated by lipid packing defects. Here we make an alternative statement that shallow protein insertions are universal sensors of the intra-membrane stresses existing in the region of the insertion embedding rather than sensors of the curvature per se. We substantiate this proposal computationally by considering different independent ways of the membrane stress generation among which some include changes of the membrane curvature whereas others do not alter the membrane shape. Our computations show that the membrane-binding coefficient of shallow protein insertions is determined by the resultant stress independently of the way this stress has been produced. By contrast, consideration of the correlation between the insertion binding and the membrane curvature demonstrates that the binding coefficient either increases or decreases with curvature depending on the factors leading to the curvature generation. To validate our computational model, we treat quantitatively the experimental results on membrane binding by ALPS1 and ALPS2 motifs of ArfGAP1. PMID:24722359

Campelo, Felix; Kozlov, Michael M.

2014-01-01

125

Peptide partitioning properties from direct insertion studies  

SciTech Connect

Partitioning properties of polypeptides are at the heart of biological membrane phenomena and their precise quantification is vital for ab-initio structure prediction and the accurate simulation of membrane protein folding and function. Recently the cellular translocon machinery has been employed to determine membrane insertion propensities and transfer energetics for a series of polyleucine segments embedded in a carrier sequence. We show here that the insertion propensity, pathway, and transfer energetics into synthetic POPC bilayers can be fully described by direct atomistic peptide partitioning simulations. The insertion probability as a function of peptide length follows two-state Boltzmann statistics, in agreement with the experiments. The simulations expose a systematic offset between translocon-mediated and direct insertion free energies. Compared to the experiment the insertion threshold is shifted toward shorter peptides by 2 leucine residues. The simulations reveal many hitherto unknown atomic-resolution details about the partitioning process and promise to provide a powerful tool for urgently needed calibration of lipid parameters to match experimentally observed peptide transfer energies.

Ulmschneider, Martin [University of Oxford; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ulmschneider, Jakob [University of Heidelberg

2010-06-01

126

Genome-wide insertional mutagenesis in human cells by the Drosophila mobile element Minos  

PubMed Central

The development of efficient non-viral methodologies for genome-wide insertional mutagenesis and gene tagging in mammalian cells is highly desirable for functional genomic analysis. Here we describe transposon mediated mutagenesis (TRAMM), using naked DNA vectors based on the Drosophila hydei transposable element Minos. By simple transfections of plasmid Minos vectors in HeLa cells, we have achieved high frequency generation of cell lines, each containing one or more stable chromosomal integrations. The Minos-derived vectors insert in different locations in the mammalian genome. Genome-wide mutagenesis in HeLa cells was demonstrated by using a Minos transposon containing a lacZ–neo gene-trap fusion to generate a HeLa cell library of at least 105 transposon insertions in active genes. Multiple gene traps for six out of 12 active genes were detected in this library. Possible applications of Minos-based TRAMM in functional genomics are discussed. PMID:11258481

Klinakis, Apostolos G.; Zagoraiou, Laskaro; Vassilatis, Demetrios K.; Savakis, Charalambos

2000-01-01

127

Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device  

DOEpatents

An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

Carr, R.

1995-01-17

128

Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

Malladi, Narasimha

1993-01-01

129

Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.  

PubMed

One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

2009-05-01

130

Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals  

PubMed Central

One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ?2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

2009-01-01

131

Insertion of silylene and dimethylsilylene into water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The insertion reactions of silylene and dimethylsilylene into water were examined with ab initio electronic structure theory. The activation enthalpy for the first reaction was estimated to be 9.5 kcal/mol at the highest level of theory, QCISD(T)/6-311++G(3df, 3pd)//MP2/6-31G(d, p). The activation enthalpy for the dimethylsilylene insertion at QCISD(T)/6-311++G(3df, 3pd)//MP2/6-31G(d) was predicted to be about 2.1 kcal/mol higher than the experimentally estimated upper limit.

Su, Shujun; Gordon, Mark S.

1993-03-01

132

RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01

133

Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters  

DOEpatents

Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14

134

Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters  

SciTech Connect

Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

2013-04-16

135

Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters  

SciTech Connect

Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

2013-02-12

136

Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters  

DOEpatents

Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-06-24

137

Viterbi decoding considering insertion\\/deletion errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High recording density is required in digital recording systems. However, as the recording density increases, the error rate also increases. It is known that burst errors called synchronization errors, caused by insertion\\/deletion errors, occur in optical recording systems more frequently than in other disk systems. We propose a Viterbi decoding method based on the Levenshtein distance. We show that the

T. Mori; H. Imai

1995-01-01

138

Embedded Multiprocessor Technology for VHSIC Insertion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on embedded multiprocessor technology for VHSIC insertion are presented. The objective was to develop multiprocessor system technology providing user-selectable fault tolerance, increased throughput, and ease of application representation for concurrent operation. The approach was to develop graph management mapping theory for proper performance, model multiprocessor performance, and demonstrate performance in selected hardware systems.

Hayes, Paul J.

1990-01-01

139

Frequency, Gradience, and Variation in Consonant Insertion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation addresses the extent to which linguistic behavior can be described in terms of the projection of patterns from existing lexical items, through an investigation of Korean reduplication. Korean has a productive pattern of reduplication in which a consonant is inserted in a vowel-initial base, illustrated by forms such as "alok"--"t…

An, Young-ran

2010-01-01

140

Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

1999-01-01

141

Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices.  

PubMed

Background The use of an effective contraceptive may be necessary after an abortion. Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) may be done the same day or later. Immediate IUD insertion is an option since the woman is not pregnant, pain of insertion is less because the cervical os is open, and her motivation to use contraception may be high. However, insertion of an IUD immediately after a pregnancy ends carries risks, such as spontaneous expulsion.Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after spontaneous or induced abortion.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov,and ICTRP in January 27, 2014. We also contacted investigators to identify other trials.Selection criteria We sought all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one treatment arm that involved IUD insertion immediately after an induced abortion or after curettage for spontaneous abortion.Data collection and analysis We evaluated the methodological quality of each report and abstracted the data. We focused on discontinuation rates for accidental pregnancy, perforation, expulsion, and pelvic inflammatory disease.We computed the weighted average of the rate ratios.We compute drisk ratios (RRs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs).We performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis by including all randomised participants in the analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.Main results We identified 12 trials most of which are of moderate risk of bias involving 7,119 participants which described random assignment.Five trials randomised to either immediate or delayed insertion of IUD. One of them randomised to immediate versus delayed insertion of Copper 7 showed immediate insertion of the Copper 7 was associated with a higher risk of expulsion than was delayed insertion(RR 11.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 89.35,1 study, 259 participants); the quality of evidence was moderate. Moderate quality of evidence also suggests that use and expulsion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or CuT380A was more likely for immediate compared to delayed insertion risk ratio (RR) 1.40 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.58; 3 studies; 878 participants) and RR 2.64 ( 95% CI 1.16 to 6.00; 3 studies; 878 participants) respectively. Another trial randomised to the levonorgestrel IUD or Nova T showed discontinuation rates due to pregnancy were likely to be higher for women in the Nova T group. (MD 8.70, 95% CI 3.92 to 13.48;1 study; 438 participants);moderate quality evidence.Seven trials examined immediate insertion of IUD only. From meta-analysis of two multicentre trials, pregnancy was less likely for the TCu 220C versus the Lippes Loop (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.75; 2 studies; 2257 participants ) as was expulsion (RR 0.61, 95% CI0.46 to 0.81; 2 studies; 2257 participants). Estimates for the TCu 220 versus the Copper 7 were RR 0.42 ( 95% CI 0.23 to 0.77; 2 studies, 2,274 participants) and RR 0.68, (95% CI 0.51 to 0.91); 2 studies, 2,274 participants), respectively. In other work, adding copper sleeves to the Lippes Loop improved efficacy (RR 3.40, 95% CI 1.28 to 9.04, 1 study, 400 participants) and reduced expulsion(RR 3.00, 95% CI 1.51 to 5.97; 1 study, 400 participants).Authors' conclusions Moderate quality evidence shows that insertion of an IUD immediately after abortion is safe and practical. IUD expulsion rates appear higher immediately after abortions compared to delayed insertions. However, at six months postabortion, IUD use is higher following immediate insertion compared to delayed insertion. PMID:25101364

Okusanya, Babasola O; Oduwole, Olabisi; Effa, Emmanuel E

2014-01-01

142

Analysis of Flexible Insertion Assembly of Polygonal Pegs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insertion assembly of polygonal pegs exhibits distinct mating process compared to that for conventional round pegs and holes. Their inherent orientation characteristic increases the degree of complexity of the assembly tasks and limits completion of the insertion assembly. This paper is devoted to analysis of motion behavior of the polygonal peg-hole insertion to clarify constraint conditions for successful insertion assembly. Effective regions for possibly successful insertion assembly on the chamfer surface will also be presented. Therefore, appropriate manipulation strategies can be concluded and automated polygonal insertion assembly becomes realizable in the future.

Cheng, Chi-Cheng; Chen, Gin-Shan

143

Location of P element insertions in the proximal promoter region of Hsp70A is consequential for gene expression and correlated with fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

We compared a series of Drosophila strains with P element insertions from ?28 to ?144 nucleotides 5? to the transcription start site of the Hsp70A genes—corresponding to the range of naturally occurring P element insertion sites—to elucidate the consequences of insertion site for Hsp70A gene expression. Although all insertions reduced Hsp70A expression below that of a control strain, the magnitude of the reduction was inversely related to the number of nucleotides between the transcription start site and the insertion site. A pre-existing hypothesis is that naturally occuring transposable element insertions in Hsp promoters may be beneficial in some circumstances, which may account for their retention in natural populations. In the present study, in a control line heat shock reduced fecundity, whereas in lines with P element insertions heat shock typically increased fecundity. Finally, according to cluster-specific quantitative RT-PCR, expression of the Hsp70A cluster genes was typically greater than that of the Hsp70B gene cluster genes, although the latter are more numerous and, in this case, free of P element insertions. PMID:18347937

Chen, Bing; Shilova, Victoria Y.; Zatsepina, Olga G.; Evgen’ev, Michael B.

2008-01-01

144

Synthesis of a Class of StripLine Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a design theory for a class of strip-line filters on an insertion loss basis. The important part of the paper is the equivalent transformations showing the close correspondence between lumped and coupled-line distributed parameter circuits. An introduction is provided for clarification. Line type, low-pass ladder, high-pass ladder, and band-pass ladder type filters are realized in coupled strip-lines.

H. Ozaki; J. Ishii

1958-01-01

145

21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover...Section 886.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover...exempt from the premarket notification procedures in...

2010-04-01

146

Measure Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

Crissman, Sally

2011-01-01

147

Applied Physics B manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Applied Physics B manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) An all-solid-state laser source an all solid-state narrow line- width laser source emitting 670 mW output power at 671 nm delivered-pumped solid state lasers · Frequency doubling PACS 37.10.De · 42.55.Xi · 42.60.By · 42.60.Pk · 42.62.Fi · 42

148

T-tube insertion for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

T-tube insertion is effective treatment for subglottic stenosis, but it is generally difficult due to bending of the T-tube. In a 52-year-old woman with relapsing polychondritis, a T-tube was inserted after predilatation using Hegar dilators. We describe the details of our T-tube insertion methods for sclerotic subglottic stenosis. PMID:24585799

Goto, Taichiro; Kato, Ryoichi

2014-02-01

149

Radiographic assessment of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the radiographic images of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), in order to assist the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels during surgeries, and to be used as parameters in postoperative evaluation of the location of these tunnels. Methods Thirty adult cadaver knees were used. The PCL anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles' center was marked with a metallic marker. Radiographs were taken and a grid system was established to locate the position of bundles insertion. The percentile in which the projection of each bundle's center was in relation to the Blumensaat line was also determined. Results In the anteroposterior view, AL and PM bundles' centers were on average, on the 42.5% and 38.18% percentiles of Blumensaat's line, respectively. In lateral views, the AL and PM bundles' centers corresponded to the 72.94% and 55.56% percentiles of the line, respectively. In 73.33% of the knees the AL bundle center was on the 3D quadrant and in 70% of samples the PM bundle center was in quadrant 2D. Conclusions We established an X-ray pattern of femoral insertion of PCL that may be of interest for intraoperative control, before tunnel drilling, and also for post-operative evaluation of tunnel location. Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:24453690

Gali, Julio Cesar; Soares, André Schmidt; de Lima, Bruno Spagnuolo; Vianna, Filippo Santos Zozoloto; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

2013-01-01

150

A small, insertable oven for boronization  

SciTech Connect

A small insertable oven for benchmarking the boronizing characteristics of solid compounds, such as decaborane and carborane, has been developed for the Phaedrus-T tokamak. Assembly and installation of the oven are relatively easy as the oven design utilizes a Langmuir probe drive assembly, which is standard equipment on most tokamaks and allows the oven to be inserted into the tokamak without requiring a vent. Films deposited by heating carborane into the vapor state with the oven are found to be spatially nonuniform in both thickness and in the ratio of boron to carbon as compared to films deposited with trimethylboron, a gaseous compound. Overall plasma performance is not found to be greatly affected by whether decaborane, carborane or trimethylboron is used for boronization in Phaedrus-T. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.} {lt}ii;010512{gt}

Brouchous, D.A.; Diebold, D.A.; Doczy, M.L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Johnson Drive, 337 ERB, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1687 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Johnson Drive, 337 ERB, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1687 (United States)

1996-04-01

151

A small, insertable oven for boronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small insertable oven for benchmarking the boronizing characteristics of solid compounds, such as decaborane and carborane, has been developed for the Phaedrus-T tokamak. Assembly and installation of the oven are relatively easy as the oven design utilizes a Langmuir probe drive assembly, which is standard equipment on most tokamaks and allows the oven to be inserted into the tokamak without requiring a vent. Films deposited by heating carborane into the vapor state with the oven are found to be spatially nonuniform in both thickness and in the ratio of boron to carbon as compared to films deposited with trimethylboron, a gaseous compound. Overall plasma performance is not found to be greatly affected by whether decaborane, carborane or trimethylboron is used for boronization in Phaedrus-T.

Brouchous, D. A.; Diebold, D. A.; Doczy, M. L.

1996-04-01

152

INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.  

SciTech Connect

National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

2007-06-25

153

Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.  

PubMed

This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. PMID:23685108

Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

2013-08-01

154

Generation and Analysis of End Sequence Database for T-DNA Tagging Lines in Rice --An et al. 133 (4): 2040 --PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Frame contained PDF file, click here to view  

E-print Network

-Gyu Kang, Jung-Hwa Yu, Junghe Hur, Sung-Ryul Kim, Young-Hea Kim, Miok Lee, Soonki Han, Soo-Jin Kim, Jungwon Yang, Eunjoo Kim, Soo Jin Wi, Hoo Sun Chung, Jong-Pil Hong, Vitnary Choe, Hak-Kyung Lee, Jung-Hee Choi, Seoul 121­742, Korea (S.H., S.-J.K., S.-R.K.); Department of Genetic Engineering, Suwon University

Nei, Masatoshi

155

Repair of DNA double-strand breaks by templated nucleotide sequence insertions derived from distant regions of the genome  

PubMed Central

We used the I-SceI endonuclease to produce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and observed that a fraction of these DSBs were repaired by insertion of sequences, which we termed “templated sequence insertions” (TSIs), derived from distant regions of the genome. These TSIs were derived from genic, retrotransposon, or telomere sequences and were not deleted from the donor site in the genome, leading to the hypothesis that they were derived from reverse-transcribed RNA. Cotransfection of RNA and an I-SceI expression vector demonstrated insertion of RNA-derived sequences at the DNA-DSB site, and TSIs were suppressed by reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Both observations support the hypothesis that TSIs were derived from RNA templates. In addition, similar insertions were detected at sites of DNA DSBs induced by transcription activator-like effector nuclease proteins. Whole-genome sequencing of myeloma cell lines revealed additional TSIs, demonstrating that repair of DNA DSBs via insertion was not restricted to experimentally produced DNA DSBs. Analysis of publicly available databases revealed that many of these TSIs are polymorphic in the human genome. Taken together, these results indicate that insertional events should be considered as alternatives to gross chromosomal rearrangements in the interpretation of whole-genome sequence data and that this mutagenic form of DNA repair may play a role in genetic disease, exon shuffling, and mammalian evolution. PMID:24821809

Onozawa, Masahiro; Zhang, Zhenhua; Kim, Yoo Jung; Goldberg, Liat; Varga, Tamas; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Kuehl, W. Michael; Aplan, Peter D.

2014-01-01

156

Pre-puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery.  

PubMed

Palpation method is widely used in clinical practice to identify the puncture site during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) blocks. Tuffier's line, is an anatomical landmark between two iliac crests (inter-cristal), which is widely used to identify the puncture site during CSE blocks is not always an indicator for specific vertebral level or inter-vertebral space. One hundred and Ten (110) women were scheduled for normal vaginal delivery and were randomized into two equal groups; palpation group and an ultrasound guided group to detect the efficacy of puncture ultrasound before CSE blocks to increase chances of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt and to reduce the number of attempts or punctures during insertion of CSE catheter. There were no significant differences between two studied groups regarding; maternal age, weight and height, while, there was a significant difference between two studied groups regarding; parity. Percentage of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt was significantly higher (67.27 %) in ultrasound compared to palpation group (40 %). Number of punctures (attempts) were significantly less in ultrasound (1.2 ± 0.6) compared to palpation group (2.3 ± 0.8) and the number of redirections was also significantly less in ultrasound (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to palpation group (2.8 ± 1.6). Although, time to identify puncture site was significantly longer in ultrasound compared to palpation group and total procedure time was longer in ultrasound (9.1 ± 1.5 min) compared to palpation group (6.2 ± 1.2 min), there was no significant difference between two studied groups regarding; time to identify puncture site and total procedure time. Two cases of dural puncture in palpation versus no cases in ultrasound group and two cases of intravascular catheter placement (one in each group), with no significant difference between two groups. Pre- puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery, increases the chance of a successful CSE procedure on the first attempt and reduces the number of attempts during insertion of CSE catheter. PMID:25348834

Nassar, Mahmoud; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

2014-10-28

157

Assembly and Insertion of a Self-Fitting Hearing Aid  

PubMed Central

A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were “very easy” to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content. PMID:22389434

Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

2011-01-01

158

A high-throughput Arabidopsis reverse genetics system.  

PubMed

A collection of Arabidopsis lines with T-DNA insertions in known sites was generated to increase the efficiency of functional genomics. A high-throughput modified thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR protocol was developed and used to amplify DNA fragments flanking the T-DNA left borders from approximately 100000 transformed lines. A total of 85108 TAIL-PCR products from 52964 T-DNA lines were sequenced and compared with the Arabidopsis genome to determine the positions of T-DNAs in each line. Predicted T-DNA insertion sites, when mapped, showed a bias against predicted coding sequences. Predicted insertion mutations in genes of interest can be identified using Arabidopsis Gene Index name searches or by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) search. Insertions can be confirmed by simple PCR assays on individual lines. Predicted insertions were confirmed in 257 of 340 lines tested (76%). This resource has been named SAIL (Syngenta Arabidopsis Insertion Library) and is available to the scientific community at www.tmri.org. PMID:12468722

Sessions, Allen; Burke, Ellen; Presting, Gernot; Aux, George; McElver, John; Patton, David; Dietrich, Bob; Ho, Patrick; Bacwaden, Johana; Ko, Cynthia; Clarke, Joseph D; Cotton, David; Bullis, David; Snell, Jennifer; Miguel, Trini; Hutchison, Don; Kimmerly, Bill; Mitzel, Theresa; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Glazebrook, Jane; Law, Marc; Goff, Stephen A

2002-12-01

159

Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators  

DOEpatents

A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

Brown, David L (Westfield, IN); Stabel, Gerald R (Swartz Creek, MI); Lawrence, Robert Anthony (Kokomo, IN)

2005-02-08

160

Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) are microgravity furnaces under development at Marshall Space Flight Center. The furnaces are being developed for the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), one of the first International Space Station (ISS) scientific payloads. QMI is a Bridgman furnace with quench capability for studying interface behavior during directional solidification of metallic and alloy materials. DMI will be a Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace to study diffusion processes in semiconductors. The design for each insert, both QMI and DMI, is driven by specific science, operations and safety requirements, as well as by constraints arising from resource limitations, such as volume, mass and power. Preliminary QMI analysis and testing indicates that the design meets these requirements.

Crouch, Myscha R.; Carswell, William E.; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul H., II

2000-01-01

161

Effect of the Starting Point of Half-Pin Insertion on the Insertional Torque of the Pin at the Tibia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The authors have observed a failure to achieve secure fixation in elderly patients when inserting a half-pin at the anteromedial surface of the tibia. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for inserting a half-pin at tibia diaphysis in elderly patients. Materials and Methods Twenty cadaveric tibias were divided into Group C or V. A half-pin was inserted into the tibias of Group C via the conventional method, from the anteromedial surface to the interosseous border of the tibia diaphysis, and into the tibias of Group V via the vertical method, from the anterior border to the posterior surface at the same level. The maximum insertion torque was measured during the bicortical insertion with a torque driver. The thickness of the cortex was measured by micro-computed tomography. The relationship between the thickness of the cortex engaged and the insertion torque was investigated. Results The maximum insertion torque and the thickness of the cortex were significantly higher in Group V than Group C. Both groups exhibited a statistically significant linear correlation between torque and thickness by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Conclusion Half-pins inserted by the vertical method achieved purchase of more cortex than those inserted by the conventional method. Considering that cortical thickness and insertion torque in Group V were significantly greater than those in Group C, we suggest that the vertical method of half-pin insertion may be an alternative to the conventional method in elderly patients. PMID:25510759

Kim, Sung-Jae; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hwan

2015-01-01

162

Zip Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a device to carry a Ping-Pong ball from the top of a zip line to the bottom in four seconds (or less!). Learners follow the design process to build the carrier that slides quickly down a zip line string, figure out how to keep something balanced, and identify ways to reduce friction.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

163

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY: Membrane Protein Insertion and Stability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The translocon is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein that has the dual ability to insert a newly synthesized polypeptide chain into a cell membrane or secrete it across a cell membrane. This process has been exploited to assess the energetics of transmembrane -helices, as described in two recent studies by the von Heijne and White groups (published here and elsewhere). In a Perspective, MacKinnon discusses the implications of this work for membrane protein structure and function.

Roderick MacKinnon (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University;)

2005-03-04

164

Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

2008-01-01

165

Photograph of moon after transearth insertion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the moon was taken after transearth insertion when the Apollo 10 spacecraft was high above the lunar equator near 27 degrees east longitude. North is about 20 degrees left of the top of the photograph. Apollo Landing Site 3 is on the lighted side of the terminator in a dark area just north of the equator. Apollo Landing Site 2 is near the lower left margin of the Sea of Tranquility (Mare Tranquillitatis), which is the large, dark area near the center of the photograph.

1969-01-01

166

Small insertions are more deleterious than small deletions in human genomes.  

PubMed

Although lines of evidence suggest that small insertions and deletions differ in their mechanisms of formation, there remains the debate on whether natural selection acts differently on the two indel types. Currently available personal genomes and the 1000 Genomes Project permit population level and genome scale comparison of the selection regimes on the two indel types. We first developed a statistical model to evaluate the indel frequency biases of the 1000 Genomes Project phase 1 data. We then identified four independent lines of evidence demonstrating that human small (1-4 bp) insertions are on average more deleterious than deletions. This genome-wide selection pattern is not affected by methodology, demography, and regional differences including indel density, introns versus exons, repeats versus nonrepeats, recombination rates, and the timing of DNA replication. This selection pattern has a profound effect on indel frequency spectra, deletional bias, and local single-nucleotide mutation rates. Finally, we observed that small insertions appear to be more actively implicated in shaping fast-evolving genomic sequences (or nonconserved regions). PMID:24000181

Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Jie; Xu, Anlong; Huang, Guangrui; You, Leiming

2013-12-01

167

Low-loss microdisk-based delay lines for narrowband optical filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over-coupled microdisk resonators with high intrinsic Qs are proposed as compact and low insertion-loss delay lines for narrowband optical filters. Design principles and preliminary experimental results are presented.

Qing Li; S. Yegnanarayanan; A. A. Eftekhar; A. Adibi

2010-01-01

168

Functional genomics of rice pollen and seed development by genome-wide transcript profiling and Ds insertion mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Rice pollen and seed development are directly related to grain yield. To further improve rice yield, it is important for us to functionally annotate the genes controlling pollen/seed development and to use them for rice breeding. Here we first carried out a genome-wide expression analysis with an emphasis on genes being involved in rice pollen and seed development. Based on the transcript profiling, we have identified and functionally classified 82 highly expressed pollen-specific, 12 developing seed-specific and 19 germinating seed-specific genes. We then presented the utilization of the maize transposon Dissociation (Ds) insertion lines for functional genomics of rice pollen and seed development and as alternative germplasm resources for rice breeding. We have established a two-element Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) gene trap tagging system and generated around 20,000 Ds insertion lines. We have subjected these lines for screens to obtain high and low yield Ds insertion lines. Some interesting lines have been obtained with higher yield or male sterility. Flanking Sequence Tags (FSTs) analyses showed that these Ds-tagged genes encoded various proteins including transcription factors, transport proteins, unknown functional proteins and so on. They exhibited diversified expression patterns. Our results suggested that rice could be improved not only by introducing foreign genes but also by knocking out its endogenous genes. This finding might provide a new way for rice breeder to further improve rice varieties. PMID:21209789

Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

2010-01-01

169

Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil.

The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long.

The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

170

A transgenic insertion causing cryptorchidism in mice.  

PubMed

A distinctive feature of gonadal maturation in mammals is the movement to an extraabdominal location. Testicular descent is a complex, multistage process whereby the embryonic gonads migrate from their initial abdominal position to the scrotum. Failure in this process results in cryptorchidism, a frequent congenital birth defect in humans. We report here a new mouse transgenic insertional mutation, cryptorchidism with white spotting (crsp). Males homozygous for crsp exhibit a high intraabdominal position of the testes, associated with complete sterility. Heterozygous males have a wild-type phenotype, and homozygous females are fertile. Surgically descended testes in crsp/crsp males show normal spermatogenesis. Using FISH and genetic analyses, the transgenic insert causing the crsp mutation has been mapped to the distal part of mouse chromosome 5. Transgene integration resulted in a 550-kb deletion located upstream of the Brca2 gene. A candidate gene encoding a novel G protein-coupled receptor (Great) with an expression pattern suggesting involvement in testicular descent has been identified. PMID:11353515

Overbeek, P A; Gorlov, I P; Sutherland, R W; Houston, J B; Harrison, W R; Boettger-Tong, H L; Bishop, C E; Agoulnik, A I

2001-05-01

171

Shapely Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students practice drawing straight lines with a ruler and looking for and categorizing shapes, for example, by the number of sides in polygons. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions and ideas for extension.

2010-06-01

172

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

Clarity Innovations, Inc.

2013-11-22

173

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brief article the numerous uses of the number line are detailed: counting, measurement, addition, subtraction, decimals, and fractions. The article contains visual representations of the some of the concepts and links to related topics.

2012-08-27

174

Insertional mutation in a transgenic mouse allelic with Purkinje cell degeneration.  

PubMed Central

Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) is an autosomal recessive mutation which maps to chromosome 13 in the mouse. The pcd mutation causes loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells, retinal photoreceptor cells, and olfactory bulb mitral cells, as well as abnormalities of spermatogenesis. pcd is among a number of autosomal recessive mutations in mice and humans that affect neurologic function and male fertility. The cloning of one or more of these loci would contribute significantly to our understanding of the genetic control of development and maintenance of affected cell types. We report here identification of a transgenic mouse line with an insertional mutation that is allelic with pcd and manifests histopathologic features indistinguishable from those of the spontaneous mutation. The creation of an allele of pcd by transgene insertion should make possible the cloning of the pcd locus. Images PMID:2726749

Krulewski, T F; Neumann, P E; Gordon, J W

1989-01-01

175

Relaxation phenomena in lithium-ion-insertion cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relaxation phenomena in lithium-ion-insertion cells are modeled. Simulation results are presented for a dual lithium-ion-insertion cell and for a cell using a lithium-foil negative electrode. A period of relaxation after a charge or discharge can cause appreciable changes in the distribution of material in the insertion electrodes. Local concentration cells in the solution phase and an open-circuit potential that depends

Thomas F. Fuller; M. Doyle; J. S. Newman

1994-01-01

176

Critical monitoring of the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will have spent seven years since launch by the time it reaches Saturn and its satellites. The primary mission will begin after the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) scheduled for early July 2004. the insertion will require a critical navigational maneuver that involves firing the orbiter's thrusters leading to the capture in the gravity well of the planet. This paper will describe the challenges and plans by the Cassini Program to monitor the Saturn Orbit Insertion Maneuver.

Asmar, S. W.; Johnston, D. V.; Maize, E.; Mitchell, R. T.

2004-01-01

177

NOTE: Development of collimator insert for linac based stereotactic irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop collimator inserts of various sizes which are either not commercially available or are expensive to import. The dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and output factor of the developed collimator insert are compared with that of the commercial collimator insert (Radionics). In order to check the suitability of the collimator insert developed locally for clinical use and to standardize the method of development, a collimator insert of 15 mm identical to the one supplied by Radionics is developed with low-melting alloy (Cerrobend). Moreover for the clinical use of the developed collimator insert, certain acceptance tests are performed which include a collimator concentricity test, beam size check and radiation leakage test. The dose verification is carried out with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (7LiF rods) and an FBX chemical dosimeter in a human-head-shaped Perspex phantom filled with water. The variation between the calculated and measured dose is found to be within +2.4% for 7LiF rods and -2.0% for the FBX chemical dosimeter thus ensuring the suitability of the developed collimator insert for clinical use. This has encouraged us to standardize the method adapted to develop the collimator insert and to develop collimator inserts of different field sizes.

Rabi Raja Singh, I.; Brindha, S.; Ravindran, B. Paul; John, Subhashini; Rajshekhar, V.; Rangad, Faith V.; Roul, R. K.

1999-10-01

178

Intrauterine device insertion in the postpartum period: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Objectives Given new research on postpartum placement of levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine devices (IUDs), our objective was to update a prior systematic review of the safety and expulsion rates of postpartum IUDs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS, POPLINE, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for articles between the database inception until July 2013. We included studies that compared IUD insertion time intervals and routes during the postpartum period. We used standard abstract forms and the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system to summarise and assess the quality of the evidence. Results We included 18 articles. New evidence suggests that a levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) insertion within 48 hours of delivery is safe. Postplacental insertion and insertion between 10 minutes and 48 hours after delivery result in higher expulsion rates than insertion 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, or non-postpartum insertion. Insertion at the time of caesarean section is associated with lower expulsion rates than postplacental insertion at the time of vaginal delivery. Conclusions This review supports the evidence that insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive within the first 48 hours of vaginal or caesarean delivery is safe. Expulsion rates should be further studied in larger randomised controlled trials. PMID:25397890

Sonalkar, Sarita; Kapp, Nathalie

2014-11-14

179

Robust cell line development using meganucleases.  

PubMed

Cell line development for protein production or for the screening of drug targets requires the reproducible and stable expression of transgenes. Such cell lines can be engineered with meganucleases, sequence-specific endonucleases that recognize large DNA target sites. These proteins are powerful tools for genome engineering because they can increase homologous gene targeting by several orders of magnitude in the vicinity of their cleavage site. Here, we describe in details the use of meganucleases for gene targeting in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells, with a special emphasis on a gene insertion procedure using a promoter-less marker gene for selection. We have also monitored the expression of genes inserted by meganucleases-induced recombination, and show that expression is reproducible among different targeted clones, and stable over a 4 mo period. These experiments were conducted with the natural yeast I-SceI meganuclease, but the general design and process can also be applied to engineered meganucleases. PMID:18370066

Cabaniols, Jean-Pierre; Pâques, Frédéric

2008-01-01

180

Non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: (1) Describe a previously unreported finding involving the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion. (2) Describe a novel classification system for the spectrum of non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. (3) Report the outcomes of surgical treatment of this spectrum of pathology. Materials and Methods: Outcomes of 34 patients (23 males and 11 females, mean age 60.5 ± 7.5) with non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis treated arthroscopically were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had anterior shoulder pain with no weakness during belly-press testing and no subscapularis footprint involvement on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were managed with subscapularis tendon debridement and side-to-side repair along with treatment of concomitant pathology. Results: Seven patients had a Type I lesion (so-called Conrad lesion) – a nodule on the leading edge of the subscapularis. Eighteen patients had a Type II lesion – a visible split tear with degeneration in the upper ½ of the intra-articular tendon. Nine patients had a Type III lesion – more extensive splitting in the tendon with advanced tendon degeneration. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, 97% of patients were completely satisfied. Significant improvements were seen in forward elevation (152 ± 12° to 172 ± 5°, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale pain scores (5.9 ± 1.7-0.6 ± 1.0, P < 0.001). Internal rotation strength and external rotation motion at the side were maintained. ASES scores averaged 95.4 ± 7.4, disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand scores averaged 6.19 ± 9.8, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff scores averaged 91.7 ± 9.3 and the average University of California at Los Angeles score was 33.1 ± 2.4. Conclusions: We present a previously unreported finding of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion, along with a novel classification system for non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. Arthroscopic treatment of this spectrum of tendinopathy along with concomitant shoulder pathology eliminated pain and improved patient outcomes without detrimental effects. Level of Evidence: IV, Retrospective Case Series. PMID:24167399

Dierckman, Brian D.; Shah, Nirav R.; Larose, Connor R.; Gerbrandt, Stacey; Getelman, Mark H.

2013-01-01

181

Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

1999-11-12

182

Role of suture diameter and vessel insertion position in the establishment of the middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to explore the role of suture diameter and vessel insertion position in the preparation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. A total of 84 Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 250–300 g) were randomly divided to three groups: group A (type 1.0, suture diameter 0.16–0.17 mm and tip 0.21–0.22 mm); group B (type 2.0; suture diameter, 0.22–0.23 mm; tip, 0.27–0.28 mm); and group C (type 3.0; suture diameter, 0.28–0.29 mm; and tip, 0.33–0.34 mm). The animals in each group were then subdivided into two subgroups, one of which received a nylon line inserted through the external carotid artery (ECA insertion), while the other received the nylon line through the common carotid artery (CCA insertion) subsequent to a middle or lateral neck incision. The neurological deficit score was evaluated at 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-surgery. The ischemic brain tissue was stained by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate the extent of the infarct volume. The cerebral edema rate, cerebral infarction volume rate, relative standard deviation (RSD) of the cerebral infarction rate and the success rate were also assessed. The rectal temperature, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, blood pressure and blood glucose levels were controlled and did not vary between the group types. The results suggested that suture diameter and insertion route affected the infarct volume and success rate in the establishment of the suture MCAO rat model. Furthermore, the MCAO model with a 0.22–0.23 mm diameter suture and CCA insertion route provided the highest success rate in the SD rats. PMID:23837039

TANG, QIQIANG; HAN, RUODONG; XIAO, HAN; SHI, LILI; SHEN, JILONG; LUN, QINGLI; LI, JUN

2013-01-01

183

Micromachined microwave transmission lines in CMOS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coplanar waveguides were designed and fabricated through a commercial CMOS process with post-processing micromachining. The transmission-line layouts were designed with commercial computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Integrated circuits (ICs) were fabricated through the MOSIS service, and subsequently suspended by top-side etching. The absence of the lossy silicon substrate after etching results in significantly improved insertion-loss characteristics, dispersion characteristics, and phase velocity.

V. Milanovic; M. Gaitan; E. D. Bowen; M. E. Zaghloul

1997-01-01

184

The Reveal LINQ insertable cardiac monitor.  

PubMed

Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are leadless subcutaneous devices that continuously monitor the heart rhythm and record events over a timeframe measured in years, allowing for the diagnosis of infrequent rhythm abnormalities that can be the cause of palpitations, syncope and stroke. To date, ICMs have primarily been used in the work-up and management of syncope; however, their use in other areas of rhythm evaluation, particularly atrial fibrillation monitoring, is increasing. The Reveal LINQ™ is the smallest and most versatile ICM available and represents a dramatic leap forward in ICM technology that has the potential to transform patient care in a number of circumstances. Device miniaturization, simplified implant procedure and enhanced automation vastly increase physician and patient acceptance. The next 5 years can be expected to bring a greatly increased use of ICMs for disease diagnosis and management in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25154970

Tomson, Todd T; Passman, Rod

2015-01-01

185

Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.

Thackeray, M. M.

1998-09-03

186

Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion  

PubMed Central

There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies. PMID:25436157

Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Nary Filho, Hugo; Borgo, Evandro José; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida

2014-01-01

187

An Unusual Complication of Crawford Tube Insertion.  

PubMed

The authors describe an unusual and challenging complication of bicanalicular (Crawford) stent insertion that has previously never been reported. A 27-year-old man sustained multiple lacerations to the left (L) periocular and facial areas with a glass bottle. He was admitted under the care of the Plastic Surgical team at another institution and underwent repair of the facial, eyelid, and canalicular lacerations in the operating room. During the surgery, a Crawford stylet was guided in the L inferior canaliculus but was not retrieved nasally. Neuroimaging revealed that the metallic stylet of the Crawford tube was within the orbit, extending via the superior orbital fissure into the middle cranial fossa. The patient was then transferred under the care of the neurosurgical team and underwent a combined orbital/neurosurgical procedure to retrieve the stylet. PMID:24867413

Fan Gaskin, Jennifer C; Gaskin, Brent J

2014-05-26

188

Roles of carboxyl groups in the transmembrane insertion of peptides  

PubMed Central

We have used the pHLIP® peptide to study the roles of carboxyl groups in transmembrane peptide insertion. The pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a disordered peptide at neutral pH, and when the pH is lowered it inserts across the membrane to form a transmembrane helix. Peptide insertion is reversed when the pH is raised above the characteristic pKa (6.0). A key event facilitating the membrane insertion is the protonation of aspartic (Asp) and/or glutamic (Glu) acid residues, since at neutral pH their negatively charged side chains hinder membrane insertion. In order to gain mechanistic understanding, we studied the membrane insertion and exit of a series of pHLIP variants where the four Asp residues were sequentially mutated to nonacidic residues, including histidine (His). Our results show that the presence of His residues does not prevent the pH-dependent peptide membrane insertion at ~pH 4 driven by the protonation of carboxyl groups at the inserting end of the peptide. A further pH drop leads to the protonation of His residues in the TM part of peptide, which induces peptide exit from the bilayer. We also find that the number of ionizable residues that undergo a change in protonation during membrane insertion correlates with the pH-dependent insertion into and exit from the lipid bilayer, and that cooperativity increases with their number. We expect that our understanding will be used to improve the targeting of acidic diseased tissue by pHLIP peptides. PMID:21888917

Barrera, Francisco N.; Weerakkody, Dhammika; Anderson, Michael; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.

2011-01-01

189

Peripherally inserted central catheter: compliance with evidence-based indications for insertion in an inpatient setting.  

PubMed

A randomized, retrospective chart review was conducted at a medium-sized community hospital to verify appropriateness of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in 49 inpatient patients. Study results support the Infusion Nurses Society recommendation to use PICCs to facilitate either short- or long-term intravenous therapy of vesicants, irritants, and any medications with a pH less than 5 or greater than 9 and osmolarity greater than 600 mOsm/L. All PICC insertion criteria recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were met except one--the intended duration of intravenous therapy of more than 6 days. Identical PICC selection criteria are needed to standardize clinical practice. PMID:23823005

Wojnar, Danuta G; Beaman, Margaret L

2013-01-01

190

Ethics inserts for syllabi and exams Department of Mathematics, JHU  

E-print Network

Ethics inserts for syllabi and exams Department of Mathematics, JHU Fall 2007 Richard Brown to be distributed to all students taking courses at Johns Hopkins. Ethics statement insert for your syllabus relevant to your course] For more information, see the guide on "Academic Ethics for Undergraduates

Niebur, Ernst

191

Supplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower,"  

E-print Network

full grown (http://entowww.tamu.edu/images/insects/fieldguide/bimg178.html). Biology and Life CycleSupplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower," Publication L-1488 (January February 2002 We are preparing this insert to update growers on additional sunflower insect concerns

Mukhtar, Saqib

192

Insertional mutagenesis in mice: new perspectives and tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertional mutagenesis has been at the core of functional genomics in many species. In the mouse, improved vectors and methodologies allow easier genome-wide and phenotype-driven insertional mutagenesis screens. The ability to generate homozygous diploid mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells allows prescreening for specific null phenotypes prior to in vivo analysis. In addition, the discovery of active transposable elements in

Corey M. Carlson; David A. Largaespada

2005-01-01

193

Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle

Ron Alterovitz; Kenneth Y. Goldberg; Jean Pouliot; I-Chow Hsu

2009-01-01

194

Interface study of insertion layers in organic semiconductor devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inserting an ultra-thin interlayer has been an important means in modifying the performance of organic semiconductor devices. Using photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (UPS, XPS and IPES), we have investigated the electronic structure of a number of insertion layers widely used in organic semiconductor devices. We found that inserting alkali metal compound thin layers such as LiF between the electron transport layer (ETL) and the cathode can induce energy level shift in the ETL that reduces the electron injection barrier. The reduction is attributed to the release of the alkali metal that n-doped the ETL, and as such it depends on the cathode material deposited on top of the insertion layer. For thin metal oxide insertion layers, such as MoO3, between the anode and the hole transport layer (HTL), reduction of the hole injection barrier is also observed. This reduction, however, is due to the large workfunction of the oxide that subsequently moves the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) toward the anode Fermi level. Effects of other insertion layers, such as metal insertion layer in organic bistable device (OBD) and organic insertion layer in bipolar organic thin film transistors (OTFT) will also be discussed.

Ding, Huanjun; Irfan, "; So, Franky; Gao, Yongli

2009-08-01

195

Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps  

DOEpatents

A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

2012-11-13

196

Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study  

E-print Network

Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study Qianfan Zhang, Wenxing Zhang, Wenhui Wan, and § School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China ABSTRACT The ultrahigh specific lithium ion opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains

Cui, Yi

197

Management of insertional Achilles tendinopathy through a Cincinnati incision  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: About 10% of patients not responding to 3–6 months of conservative management for insertional Achilles tendinopathy undergo surgery. Traditionally, surgery of the Achilles tendon is performed through longitudinal extensile incisions. Such surgery is prone to the complications of wound healing, wound breakdown and iatrogenic nerve injury. METHODS: We describe our current method of exposure of the Achilles tendon insertion

Michael R Carmont; Nicola Maffulli

2007-01-01

198

Interactive needle insertions in 3D nonlinear material  

E-print Network

directly in the tumor. The primary application of brachytherapy is prostate cancer. In this application] also simulate needle insertion using the FEM, and specifically target brachytherapy for prostate cancer a tissue specimen. Another application is brachytherapy, treating cancer by inserting radioactive seeds

Utrecht, Universiteit

199

Interactive simulation of surgical needle insertion and steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for simulating and visualizing the insertion and steering of needles through deformable tissues for surgical training and planning. Needle insertion is an essential component of many clinical procedures such as biopsies, injections, neurosurgery, and brachytherapy cancer treatment. The success of these procedures depends on accurate guidance of the needle tip to a clinical target while avoiding vital

Nuttapong Chentanez; Ron Alterovitz; Daniel Ritchie; Lita Cho; Kris K. Hauser; Ken Goldberg; Jonathan R. Shewchuk; James F. O'Brien

2009-01-01

200

21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515 Section 310.515 Food...310.515 Patient package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package...effective use of drug products containing estrogens requires that patients be fully...

2010-04-01

201

Postpartum bleeding and infection after post-placental IUD insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of excessive bleeding and endometritis in 145 women who accepted post-placental insertion of a copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD) was compared with that of 157 subjects who did not accept the insertion of the IUD. The subjects delivered at the Maternidade da Encruzilhada, Recife, Brazil in the period from March 30, 1994, to December 15, 1995. A blood

Stefan Welkovic; Laura Olinda Bregiero Fernandes Costa; Anibal Faúndes; Ricardo de Alencar Ximenes; C??cero Ferreira F. Costa

2001-01-01

202

Crossing the Hydrophobic Barrier--Insertion of Membrane Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In this issue of Science, Song et al. (p. 1859) provide the first high-resolution x-ray view of a transmembrane protein that spontaneously inserts into the lipid bilayer. In his Perspective, Engelman discusses what these results mean for our understanding of protein insertion into membranes.

Donald M. Engelman (Yale University;Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry)

1996-12-13

203

Assembly Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work individually to assemble a product and then work in teams to design, construct, test, and redesign an assembly line process whose product must meet specific quality control criteria. Learners reflect and compare the two approaches. Note: Page 14 is not in the correct position. It should actually be between pages 2 and 3.

Ieee

2014-05-22

204

Pi Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Illuminations asks students to measure the diameter and circumference of various circular objects, plot the measurements on a graph, and relate the slope of the line to ÃÂ, the ratio of circumference to diameter. A student activity sheet is included. The material is appropriate for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

2011-01-19

205

Method for improving the durability of ion insertion materials  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of electrodes, a pair of solid ion conducting layers sandwiched between the ion insertion layers, and a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material disposed between the solid ion conducting layers, where the solid ion conducting layer minimizes or prevents degradation of the faces of the ion insertion materials facing the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. Electrochemical cells of this invention having increased durability include secondary lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Cheong, Hyeonsik M. (Seoul, KR)

2002-01-01

206

Metallic glass mold insert for hot embossing of polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molding of micro components from thermoplastic polymers (TPs) has become a routinely used industrial production process. To find hard, ductile and durable material for mold insert and to fabricate the mold insert are two big challenges for the thermoplastic polymers fabrication techniques. We report that a Pd-based metallic glass (MG) mold insert was readily fabricated in its supercooled liquid region, and the atomic force microscope measurement and time-temperature-transformation analysis show that the metallic glass mold insert has very fine surface quality and long service life. We show that the metallic glasses, which have remarkable mechanical properties and excellent thermoplastic forming ability, are new ideal materials for hot embossing mold insert of thermoplastic polymers.

Ma, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, W. H.

2012-07-01

207

Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation  

DOEpatents

A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

Miller, William John (Simpsonville, SC); Predmore, Daniel Ross (Clifton Park, NY); Placko, James Michael (West Chester, OH)

2002-01-01

208

Severe defect in thymic development in an insertional mutant mouse model.  

PubMed

Transgenic mice were generated expressing NK1.1, an NK cell-associated receptor, under control of the human CD2 promoter. Unexpectedly, one of the founder lines, Tg66, showed a marked defect in thymic development characterized by disorganized architecture and small size. Mapping of the transgene insertion by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed integration in chromosome 2, band G. Already from postnatal day 3, the thymic architecture was disturbed with a preferential loss of cortical thymic epithelial cells, a feature that became more pronounced over time. Compared with wild-type mice, total thymic cell numbers decreased dramatically between 10 and 20 days of age. Thymocytes isolated from adult Tg66 mice were predominantly immature double-negative cells, indicating a block in thymic development at an early stage of differentiation. Consequently, Tg66 mice had reduced numbers of peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Bone marrow from Tg66 mice readily reconstituted thymi of irradiated wild-type as well as RAG-deficient mice. This indicates that the primary defect in Tg66 mice resided in nonhemopoietic stromal cells of the thymus. The phenotype is observed in mice heterozygous for the insertion and does not resemble any known mutations affecting thymic development. Preliminary studies in mice homozygous for transgene insertion reveal a more accelerated and pronounced phenotype suggesting a semidominant effect. The Tg66 mice may serve as a useful model to identify genes regulating thymic epithelial cell differentiation, thymic development, and function. PMID:17404284

Assarsson, Erika; Chambers, Benedict J; Högstrand, Kari; Berntman, Emma; Lundmark, Carin; Fedorova, Ludmila; Imreh, Stefan; Grandien, Alf; Cardell, Susanna; Rozell, Björn; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf

2007-04-15

209

Motor coordination deficits in Alpk1 mutant mice with the inserted piggyBac transposon  

PubMed Central

Background ALPK1 (?-kinase 1) is a member of an unconventional alpha-kinase family, and its biological function remains largely unknown. Here we report the phenotypic characterization of one mutant line, in which the piggyBac (PB) transposon is inserted into the Alpk1 gene. Results The piggyBac(PB) insertion site in mutants was mapped to the first intron of the Alpk1 gene, resulting in the effective disruption of the intact Alpk1 transcript expression. The transposon-inserted Alpk1 homozygous mutants (Alpk1PB/PB) displayed severe defects in motor coordination in a series of behavioral analysis, including dowel test, hanging wire test, rotarod analysis and footprint analysis. However, the cerebellar architecture, Purkinje cell morphology and electrophysiology of the Purkinje cells appeared normal in mutants. The motor coordination deficits in the Alpk1PB/PB mice were rescued by transgenic mice expressing the full-length Alpk1-coding sequence under the control of the ubiquitous expression promoter. Conclusions Our results indicate that ALPK1 plays an important role in the regulation of motor coordination. Alpk1PB/PB mice would be a useful model to provide a clue to the better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ALPK1 in the control of fine motor activities. PMID:21208416

2011-01-01

210

Washing Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can use this interactive applet to practice counting and ordering numbers up to 24 in groups of 10 at a time. An empty clothesline appears along with 9 number cards and a mystery card. Students drag the numbers onto the line in the correct sequence and then determine the mystery number. After the first round, 1 - 10, users may select from three ranges, starting at 1, 7, or 15.

2009-01-01

211

Replicative resolution of integron cassette insertion  

PubMed Central

Site-specific recombination catalyzed by tyrosine recombinases follows a common pathway consisting of two consecutive strand exchanges. The first strand exchange generates a Holliday junction (HJ), which is resolved by a second strand exchange. In integrons, attC sites recombine as folded single-stranded substrates. Only one of the two attC site strands, the bottom one, is efficiently bound and cleaved by the integrase during the insertion of gene cassettes at the double-stranded attI site. Due to the asymmetry of this complex, a second strand exchange on the attC bottom strand (bs) would form linearized abortive recombination products. We had proposed that HJ resolution would rely on an uncharacterized mechanism, probably replication. Using an attC site carried on a plasmid with each strand specifically tagged, we followed the destiny of each strand after recombination. We demonstrated that only one strand, the one carrying the attC bs, is exchanged. Furthermore, we show that the recombination products contain the attC site bs and its entire de novo synthesized complementary strand. Therefore, we demonstrate the replicative resolution of single-strand recombination in integrons and rule out the involvement of a second strand exchange of any kind in the attC?×?attI reaction. PMID:22740653

Loot, Céline; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Escudero, José Antonio; Bouvier, Marie; Mazel, Didier

2012-01-01

212

Deep Insertion Probe Measurements on MST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements and numerical simulations expose the importance of multiple fluctuation-induced forces and stresses in the self-organization processes of the RFP. Probe measurements in the region ra > 0.8 show that the MHD and Hall dynamo terms ( |and |) are both large, but with opposite trends in their radial profiles. Two-fluid NIMROD simulations predict complex radial profiles for these quantities, where one dominates the other in different regions. Fluctuation measurements deeper in the plasma would be valuable, and a magnetic probe for measuring | is first in development. Aided by MST's new programmable toroidal field power supply, RFP plasmas are reliably produced at low plasma current, allowing probe insertion to ra > 0.6. The plasma parameters (e.g., Lundquist number) are closer to simulation values, making direct comparison with simulation more straightforward. Pseudo-spectral analysis will be used to measure the radial profile of the tearing mode structure, to compare with predictions from NIMROD and DEBS (single-fluid MHD).

Triana, J. C.; Almagri, A. F.; Holly, D. J.; King, J. R.; McCollam, K. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Sovinec, C. R.

2011-11-01

213

APS Insertion Devices: Recent Developments and Results.  

PubMed

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) now has a total of 23 insertion devices (IDs). Over two-thirds of them are installed on the storage ring. The installed devices include 18, 27 and 55 mm-period undulators; an 85 mm-period wiggler; a 16 cm-period elliptical multipole wiggler; and many 33 mm-period undulators. Most of the IDs occupy storage-ring straight sections equipped with 8 mm vertical-aperture vacuum chambers. All of the IDs were measured magnetically at the APS and, in most cases, underwent a final magnetic tuning in order to minimize variation in the various integrals of the field through the ID over the full gap range. Special shimming techniques to correct magnetic field parameters in appropriate gap-dependent ways were developed and applied. Measurements of the closed-orbit distortion as a function of the ID gap variation have been completed, and results are in a good agreement with magnetic measurements. Spectral diagnostics of the ID radiation, including measurements of the absolute spectral flux, brilliance and polarization, show excellent agreement between calculated and measured results. Studies of the sensitivity of IDs to radiation exposure and measurements of the dose rate received by the IDs are in progress. PMID:15263477

Gluskin, E

1998-05-01

214

Insertion elements on lactococcal proteinase plasmids.  

PubMed Central

DNA segments of 809 and 808 nucleotides, with 18-base-pair terminal inverted repeats, are present on the proteinase plasmids pWV05 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 and pSK111 from L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11, respectively. These DNA segments are highly similar: 77% identical nucleotides and both contain an open reading frame that can encode a protein of 226 amino acids. Furthermore, both DNA segments are located downstream of the proteinase maturation gene prtM, but they differ individually in their orientation with respect to the prtM gene. On the basis of the striking similarity between ISS1, an 808-base-pair insertion sequence (IS) from L. lactis subsp. lactis ML3 lactose plasmid pSK08, and the DNA segments of pWV05 and pSK111, we propose that these DNA segments comprise IS elements. The IS elements from strains Wg2 and SK11 were named ISS1W and ISS1N, respectively. On pWV05, ISS1W is flanked on one side by only part of a second IS element, indicating that pWV05 evolved as a deletion derivative of a precursor plasmid that carried at least two IS elements. Images PMID:2166472

Haandrikman, A J; van Leeuwen, C; Kok, J; Vos, P; de Vos, W M; Venema, G

1990-01-01

215

Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

216

The efficacy of immediate post-abortion intrauterine device insertion.  

PubMed

Ovulation returns soon after abortion, with half of the women ovulating by 21 days after the procedure. Immediate post-abortion insertion provides immediate contraceptive protection. Clinicians have feared that rates of uterine perforation due to intrauterine devices (IUDs) and expulsion of IUDs may be higher in the post-abortal uterus due to its softness and enlargement. This study was carried out to assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after induced abortion compared with insertion during the first menstrual cycle after abortion. All women were counseled about a method of contraception, particularly copper T-380A, and divided into two groups: Group 1 included 226 women who preferred immediate IUD insertion, and Group 2 included 100 women who opted for interval-IUD insertion during the first menstrual cycle after abortion. All women were followed-up at two and eight weeks after insertion of the IUDs. Severe bleeding was observed 10.62% in Group 1 and 6% in Group 2. Expulsion rate was 7.08% and 8% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was observed in one case in Group 1. However uterine perforation was not noted in either group. In conclusion, insertion of an IUD immediately after an induced abortion is safe and if a woman asks for a modern contraceptive method it could be offered. PMID:12635744

Göçmen, A; Demirpolat, N; Ay?in, H

2002-01-01

217

21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

2010-04-01

218

Insertion and excision of Bacteroides conjugative chromosomal elements.  

PubMed Central

Many strains of Bacteroides harbor large chromosomal elements that can transfer themselves from the chromosome of the donor to the chromosome of the recipient. Most of them carry a tetracycline resistance (Tcr) gene and have thus been designated Tcr elements. In the present study, we have used transverse alternating field electrophoresis to show that all but one of the Tcr elements screened were approximately 70 to 80 kbp in size. The exception (Tcr Emr 12256) was 150 to 200 kbp in size and may be a hybrid element. All of the Tcr elements inserted in more than one site, but insertion was not random. The Tcr elements sometimes cotransfer unlinked chromosomal segments, or nonreplicating Bacteroides units (NBUs). Transverse alternating field electrophoresis analysis showed that insertion of NBUs was not random and that the NBUs did not insert near the Tcr element. Although attempts to clone one or both ends of a Tcr element have not been successful, ends of a cryptic element (XBU4422) were cloned previously and shown to be homologous to the ends of Tcr elements. We have obtained DNA sequences of junction regions between XBU4422 and its target from several different insertions. Comparison of junction sequences with target sequences showed that no target site duplication occurred during insertion and that XBU4422 carried 4 to 5 bp of adjacent chromosomal DNA when it excised from the chromosome and inserted in a plasmid. We identified a short region of sequence similarity between one of the ends of XBU4422 and its target site that may be important for insertion. This sequence contained an 8-bp segment that was identical to the recombinational hot spot sequence on Tn21. XBU4422 could exise itself from plasmids into which it inserted. In most cases, the excision left a single additional A behind in the target site, but precise excision was seen in one case. Images PMID:1309516

Bedzyk, L A; Shoemaker, N B; Young, K E; Salyers, A A

1992-01-01

219

A Miniaturized Branch Line Coupler with Harmonic Suppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a miniaturized branch-line coupler with harmonic suppression is presented. Approximately 80% size reduction in comparison with the conventional branch-line coupler is achieved using the step impedance bent transmission line, loaded by in-line beeline structure. Experimental result shows more than 24 dB suppression for primary odd harmonics (3rd, 5th, and 7th). The measured relative low insertion loss (3.2 dB) and desired coupling (3.1 dB) as well as 89.7° phase difference between through and coupled ports for the center frequency are verified.

Hayati, Mohsen; Ehteshami, Mahin

2014-07-01

220

International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices was held at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, on September 28--29, 1993. The workshop brought together scientists and engineers from Europe, Japan, and the United States to discuss the following topics: Special techniques for magnetic measurements of insertion devices, magnetic tolerances of the insertion devices for third generation synchrotron radiation sources, methods for and accuracy of the multipole moments measurements, magnetic sensors, among other topics. The workshop included thirteen presentations that are collected in this volume.

Not Available

1993-10-01

221

Mobilizing diversity: transposable element insertions in genetic variation and disease  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a large fraction of mammalian genomes. A number of these elements are actively jumping in our genomes today. As a consequence, these insertions provide a source of genetic variation and, in rare cases, these events cause mutations that lead to disease. Yet, the extent to which these elements impact their host genomes is not completely understood. This review will summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying transposon regulation and the contribution of TE insertions to genetic diversity in the germline and in somatic cells. Finally, traditional methods and emerging technologies for identifying transposon insertions will be considered. PMID:20813032

2010-01-01

222

A postimplantation lethal mutation induced by transgene insertion on mouse chromosome 8  

SciTech Connect

We have produced three lines of transgenic mice that contain additional copies of the mouse phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1) gene. Two of these lines, 94-A and 94-K, which are descendants of a common founder, did not produce liveborn progeny carrying two copies of these transgenes (i.e., A/A, K/K, or A/K). Genotyping of midgestation embryos showed that A/K embryos are dead by Embryonic Day 10. Comparison of the level of transgene expression in the three transgenic lines ruled out PGK1 toxicity as the cause of death of A/A, A/K, and K/K embryos. The death of A/A, K/K, and A/K transgenic mice was therefore attributed to an insertional mutation disrupting a gene or genes essential for normal embryogenesis. Analysis of the structure of the 94-A and 94-K transgenes indicated that they differ in the number of tandem repeats and in the positions of the transgene-cellular DNA junctions. To determine if the two transgenes represent a single integration followed by a rearrangement or two independent integration events, we cloned the endogenous sequences surrounding the 94-A and 94-K transgene insertion sites. Restriction analysis of the isolated genomic clones indicated that the endogenous sequences abutting the 3{prime} ends of the 94-A and 94-K transgenes are separated by less than 20 kb, providing strong support for the single integration model. Further analysis indicated that the 94-A transgene is associated with a deletion of at least 18 kb and is located in the vicinity of a widely transcribed endogenous gene. Chromosomal mapping of the endogenous sequences flanking the 94-A and 94-K transgene insertions using mouse -hamster somatic cell hybrids and a (C57BL/6J X SPRET/Ei)F1 X SPRET/Ei backcross panel allowed us to assign the 94-A(K) transgene insertion to the subcentral region of mouse chromosome 8. 100 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Pravtcheva, D.D.; Wise, T.L. [Saint Louis Univ., MO (United States)] [Saint Louis Univ., MO (United States)

1995-12-10

223

Theory of a StripLine Cavity for Measurement of Dielectric Constants and Gyromagnetic-Resonance Line-Widths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cavity consists of a half-wavelength or wavelength of strip-line, short-circuited at both ends, and open along the sides. For measurements of dielectric and magnetic properties of samples, it has two apparent advantages over the more usual coaxial line method: the sample is simpler in shape, and it can be inserted without dismantling the cavity. Perturbation formulas are obtained for

R. A. Waldron

1964-01-01

224

Water exchange vs. water immersion during colonoscope insertion.  

PubMed

Water exchange (water infusion with water removal primarily during insertion) and water immersion (water infusion with water removal during withdrawal) reduce patient discomfort during colonoscope insertion compared with air insufflation, and represent a major achievement in colonoscopy. Hsieh et al. found that water exchange, relative to water immersion, resulted in more painless insertions to the cecum and improved adenoma detection in the right colon. However, water exchange is also associated with better bowel cleansing and longer insertion and procedure times. These factors are not specific to water exchange, but could account for all or part of the better results with water exchange. Additional controlled investigation is needed to define the benefits of water exchange compared with water immersion. PMID:25196871

Rex, Douglas K

2014-09-01

225

21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration... [55 FR 18723, May 4, 1990, as amended at 74 FR...

2013-04-01

226

21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration... [55 FR 18723, May 4, 1990, as amended at 74 FR...

2014-04-01

227

21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration... [55 FR 18723, May 4, 1990, as amended at 74 FR...

2011-04-01

228

21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration... [55 FR 18723, May 4, 1990, as amended at 74 FR...

2012-04-01

229

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) EChO Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory), Griffin M. J. (Cardiff ), Griffith C. A. (UoA), Gr¨ozinger U. (MPIA), Guedel M. (Un. Vienna), Guio P. (UCL

Henning, Thomas

230

Myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major  

PubMed Central

We report on a rare case of myositis ossificans of the humeral insertion of pectoralis major muscle following a single episode of trauma which, to our knowledge, has not previously been documented. PMID:25114419

Mogere, Viga; Thyagarajan, David S. K.; Fairbairn, K. Julia; Wallace, Angus

2014-01-01

231

Ureteric access sheath aided insertion of resonance metal ureteric stent.  

PubMed

Ureteral obstruction caused by malignancy is a challenging and often complicated problem for urologists. We present a novel technique of ureteric access sheath aided insertion of a Resonance metal ureteric stent in the setting of a difficult obstruction. PMID:24879725

Winter, Matthew; Strahan, Stephen; Wines, Michael

2014-01-01

232

Effectiveness Review Analysis (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) Root Cause  

E-print Network

Effectiveness Review Analysis ­ (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) 1 of 1 Root Cause: Corrective action address the root cause? 2. Does the corrective action prevent recurrence of similar conditions due

233

Distributed Computing manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Distributed Computing manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Joan Feigenbaum · Rahul Sami · Scott Shenker Mechanism Design for Policy Routing Received: Accepted: Abstract The Border Gateway

Feigenbaum, Joan

234

Retrotransposon-Induced Heterochromatin Spreading in the Mouse Revealed by Insertional Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

The “arms race” relationship between transposable elements (TEs) and their host has promoted a series of epigenetic silencing mechanisms directed against TEs. Retrotransposons, a class of TEs, are often located in repressed regions and are thought to induce heterochromatin formation and spreading. However, direct evidence for TE–induced local heterochromatin in mammals is surprisingly scarce. To examine this phenomenon, we chose two mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that possess insertionally polymorphic retrotransposons (IAP, ETn/MusD, and LINE elements) at specific loci in one cell line but not the other. Employing ChIP-seq data for these cell lines, we show that IAP elements robustly induce H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 marks in flanking genomic DNA. In contrast, such heterochromatin is not induced by LINE copies and only by a minority of polymorphic ETn/MusD copies. DNA methylation is independent of the presence of IAP copies, since it is present in flanking regions of both full and empty sites. Finally, such spreading into genes appears to be rare, since the transcriptional start sites of very few genes are less than one Kb from an IAP. However, the B3galtl gene is subject to transcriptional silencing via IAP-induced heterochromatin. Hence, although rare, IAP-induced local heterochromatin spreading into nearby genes may influence expression and, in turn, host fitness. PMID:21980304

Rebollo, Rita; Karimi, Mohammad M.; Bilenky, Misha; Gagnier, Liane; Miceli-Royer, Katharine; Zhang, Ying; Goyal, Preeti; Keane, Thomas M.; Jones, Steven; Hirst, Martin; Lorincz, Matthew C.; Mager, Dixie L.

2011-01-01

235

Metal-Matrix Composite Parts With Metal Inserts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developmental fabrication process produces metal-matrix composite (MMC) parts with integral metal inserts. With inserts, MMC parts readily joined to similar parts by use of brazing, welding, or mechanical fasteners. Process conceived to make strong, lightweight components of structures erected in outer space. Also useful on Earth, in such automotive parts as rocker arms, cylinder liners, and pistons. Potential industrial applications include parts subjected to high stresses at high temperatures, as in power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment.

Majkowski, T.; Kashalikar, U.

1995-01-01

236

Simulation and optimization of the dual lithium ion insertion cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The galvanostatic charge and discharge of a dual lithium ion insertion (rocking-chair) cell are modeled. Transport in the electrolyte is described with concentrated solution theory. Insertion of lithium into and out of the active electrode material is simulated using superposition, greatly simplifying the numerical calculations. Simulations results are presented for the LiâCâ{vert_bar}propylene carbonate + 1M LiClOâ{vert_bar}Li{sub y}MnâOâ cell, and these

Thomas F. Fuller; M. Doyle; J. Newman

1994-01-01

237

MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO AN MTR BEAM HOLE. ONE MAN CHECKS RADIATION LEVEL AT THE END OF THE UNIVERSAL COFFIN, WHILE ANOTHER USES TOOL TO INSERT PLUG INTO HOLE THROUGH COFFIN. MEN WEAR "ANTI-C" (ANTI-CONTAMINATION) CLOTHING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6198. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

238

Equilibrium insertion of nanoscale objects into phospholipid bilayers  

E-print Network

Certain membrane proteins, peptides, nanoparticles and nanotubes have rigid structure and fixed shape. They are often viewed as spheres and cylinders with certain surface properties. Single Chain Mean Field theory is used to model the equilibrium insertion of nanoscale spheres and rods into the phospholipid bilayer. The equilibrium structures and the resulting free energies of the nano-objects in the bilayer allow to distinguish different orientations in the bilayer and estimate the energy barrier of insertion.

Sergey Pogodin; Vladimir A. Baulin

2011-08-30

239

Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

2009-01-01

240

Viral insertion in Evi12 causes expression of aberrant Grp94 mRNAs containing the viral gag myristylation motif.  

PubMed

Ecotropic Virus Integration site 12 (Evi12) is a common virus insertion site (cVIS) in retrovirally induced murine models of leukemia and lymphoma, suggesting an important role for this locus in these hematopoietic disorders. Evi12 is located near the promoter of the ER chaperone protein and Hsp90 family member Grp94. Here we show that viral insertion in Evi12 results in the expression of aberrant Grp94 transcripts in Cas-Br-MuLV as well as in AKXD induced hematopoietic tumors, demonstrating that Grp94 is a common viral target gene. While most transcripts encode for truncated forms of Grp94, transcripts containing viral gag sequences were detected in the leukemia cell line NFS107. Interestingly, these fusion transcripts encode for myristylated viral-Grp94 fusion proteins that localize to the plasma membrane. Combined with recent evidence that myristylated forms of Hsp90 transform cells, our data suggest that myristylation of target genes may be an important mechanism in retrovirally mediated oncogenesis. Since retroviral insertion in Evi12 also affects the expression of a recently identified novel gene Grp94 neighboring nucleotidase (Gnn), located at the other side of Evi12, it appears that proviral insertion can lead to deregulation of two genes present in the same locus. PMID:17543366

van den Akker, Eric; Aarts, Lambertus H J; Delwel, Ruud

2007-09-30

241

The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes.  

PubMed Central

A fundamental goal of genetics and functional genomics is to identify and mutate every gene in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) gene disruption project generates single P-element insertion strains that each mutate unique genomic open reading frames. Such strains strongly facilitate further genetic and molecular studies of the disrupted loci, but it has remained unclear if P elements can be used to mutate all Drosophila genes. We now report that the primary collection has grown to contain 1045 strains that disrupt more than 25% of the estimated 3600 Drosophila genes that are essential for adult viability. Of these P insertions, 67% have been verified by genetic tests to cause the associated recessive mutant phenotypes, and the validity of most of the remaining lines is predicted on statistical grounds. Sequences flanking >920 insertions have been determined to exactly position them in the genome and to identify 376 potentially affected transcripts from collections of EST sequences. Strains in the BDGP collection are available from the Bloomington Stock Center and have already assisted the research community in characterizing >250 Drosophila genes. The likely identity of 131 additional genes in the collection is reported here. Our results show that Drosophila genes have a wide range of sensitivity to inactivation by P elements, and provide a rationale for greatly expanding the BDGP primary collection based entirely on insertion site sequencing. We predict that this approach can bring >85% of all Drosophila open reading frames under experimental control. PMID:10471706

Spradling, A C; Stern, D; Beaton, A; Rhem, E J; Laverty, T; Mozden, N; Misra, S; Rubin, G M

1999-01-01

242

Gastrostomy insertion in head and neck cancer patients: a 3 year review of insertion method and complication rates.  

PubMed

Patients with head and neck cancer who have resection, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or a combination of these require nutritional support to be implemented before treatment, and this may involve insertion of a prophylactic gastrostomy feeding tube. The aim of this study was to compare the use and complication rates of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) in these patients at a tertiary referral centre. We retrospectively reviewed gastrostomy data forms completed by nutritional support nursing staff over a recent 34-month period, which included information on method of insertion, 30-day postoperative serious and minor complications, and mortality. A total of 110 patients had prophylactic insertion of a gastrostomy (21 PEG, 89 RIG) over the study period. In the first 12 months 13 (31%) PEG feeding tubes were placed but in the last 12 months none were inserted using an endoscopic approach. Serious complications occurred with 2 (10%) PEG and 12 (13%) RIG; the most common cause was accidental removal of the tube (n=13, 12%). Minor complications of peristomal infection, leakage, or blockage of the tube occurred in 6 (5%) gastrostomies. No patients died during the study period. In recent years, and in the absence of recommended guidelines, there has been an increase in the elective insertion of RIG in patients with head and neck cancer. Serious complications for both methods of insertion in this study are comparable with similar reports. However, with RIG there is a high rate of tubes becoming dislodged with the potential for serious consequences. The most appropriate method to insert a gastrostomy tube in patients with head and neck cancer remains unclear. PMID:23954134

McAllister, P; MacIver, C; Wales, C; McMahon, J; Devine, J C; McHattie, G; Makubate, B

2013-12-01

243

The nature of the transition mismatches with Watson-Crick architecture: the G*·T or G·T* DNA base mispair or both? A QM/QTAIM perspective for the biological problem.  

PubMed

This study provides the first accurate investigation of the tautomerization of the biologically important guanine*·thymine (G*·T) DNA base mispair with Watson-Crick geometry, involving the enol mutagenic tautomer of the G and the keto tautomer of the T, into the G·T* mispair (?G?=?.99?kcal?mol(-1), population?=?15.8% obtained at the MP2 level of quantum-mechanical theory in the continuum with ??=?4), formed by the keto tautomer of the G and the enol mutagenic tautomer of the T base, using DFT and MP2 methods in vacuum and in the weakly polar medium (??=?4), characteristic for the hydrophobic interfaces of specific protein-nucleic acid interactions. We were first able to show that the G*·T?G·T* tautomerization occurs through the asynchronous concerted double proton transfer along two antiparallel O6H···O4 and N1···HN3 H-bonds and is assisted by the third N2H···O2 H-bond, that exists along the entire reaction pathway. The obtained results indicate that the G·T* base mispair is stable from the thermodynamic point of view complex, while it is dynamically unstable structure in vacuum and dynamically stable structure in the continuum with ??=?4 with lifetime of 6.4·10(-12)?s, that, on the one side, makes it possible to develop all six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations, but, on the other side, it is by three orders less than the time (several ns) required for the replication machinery to forcibly dissociate a base pair into the monomers during DNA replication. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that the short-lived G·T* base mispair, which electronic interaction energy between the bases (-23.76?kcal?mol(-1)) exceeds the analogical value for the G·C Watson-Crick nucleobase pair (-20.38?kcal?mol(-1)), "escapes from the hands" of the DNA replication machinery by fast transforming into the G*·T mismatch playing an indirect role of its supplier during the DNA replication. So, exactly the G*·T mismatch was established to play the crucial role in the spontaneous point mutagenesis. PMID:24842163

Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

2015-05-01

244

Mechanisms of Integral Membrane Protein Insertion and Folding.  

PubMed

The biogenesis, folding, and structure of ?-helical membrane proteins (MPs) are important to understand because they underlie virtually all physiological processes in cells including key metabolic pathways, such as the respiratory chain and the photosystems, as well as the transport of solutes and signals across membranes. Nearly all MPs require translocons-often referred to as protein-conducting channels-for proper insertion into their target membrane. Remarkable progress toward understanding the structure and functioning of translocons has been made during the past decade. Here, we review and assess this progress critically. All available evidence indicates that MPs are equilibrium structures that achieve their final structural states by folding along thermodynamically controlled pathways. The main challenge for cells is the targeting and membrane insertion of highly hydrophobic amino acid sequences. Targeting and insertion are managed in cells principally by interactions between ribosomes and membrane-embedded translocons. Our review examines the biophysical and biological boundaries of MP insertion and the folding of polytopic MPs in vivo. A theme of the review is the under-appreciated role of basic thermodynamic principles in MP folding and assembly. Thermodynamics not only dictates the final folded structure but also is the driving force for the evolution of the ribosome-translocon system of assembly. We conclude the review with a perspective suggesting a new view of translocon-guided MP insertion. PMID:25277655

Cymer, Florian; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H

2014-09-30

245

GAPDH regulates cellular heme insertion into inducible nitric oxide synthase  

PubMed Central

Heme proteins play essential roles in biology, but little is known about heme transport inside mammalian cells or how heme is inserted into soluble proteins. We recently found that nitric oxide (NO) blocks cells from inserting heme into several proteins, including cytochrome P450s, hemoglobin, NO synthases, and catalase. This finding led us to explore the basis for NO inhibition and to identify cytosolic proteins that may be involved, using inducible NO synthase (iNOS) as a model target. Surprisingly, we found that GAPDH plays a key role. GAPDH was associated with iNOS in cells. Pure GAPDH bound tightly to heme or to iNOS in an NO-sensitive manner. GAPDH knockdown inhibited heme insertion into iNOS and a GAPDH mutant with defective heme binding acted as a dominant negative inhibitor of iNOS heme insertion. Exposing cells to NO either from a chemical donor or by iNOS induction caused GAPDH to become S-nitrosylated at Cys152. Expressing a GAPDH C152S mutant in cells or providing a drug to selectively block GAPDH S-nitrosylation both made heme insertion into iNOS resistant to the NO inhibition. We propose that GAPDH delivers heme to iNOS through a process that is regulated by its S-nitrosylation. Our findings may uncover a fundamental step in intracellular heme trafficking, and reveal a mechanism whereby NO can govern the process. PMID:20921417

Chakravarti, Ritu; Aulak, Kulwant S.; Fox, Paul L.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

2010-01-01

246

Informed peg-in-hole insertion using optical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peg-in-hole insertion is not only a longstanding problem in robotics but the most common automated mechanical assembly task. In this paper we present a high precision, self-calibrating peg-in-hole insertion strategy using several very simple, inexpensive, and accurate optical sensors. The self-calibrating feature allows us to achieve successful dead-reckoning insertions with tolerances of 25 microns without any accurate initial position information for the robot, pegs, or holes. The program we implemented works for any cylindrical peg, and the sensing steps do not depend on the peg diameter, which the program does not know. The key to the strategy is the use of a fixed sensor to localize both a mobile sensor and the peg, while the mobile sensor localizes the hole. Our strategy is extremely fast, localizing pegs as they are in route to their insertion location without pausing. The result is that insertion times are dominated by the transport time between pick and place operations.

Paulos, Eric; Canny, John F.

1993-08-01

247

Lithium insertion mechanism in tin-based spinel sulfides  

SciTech Connect

Cu{sub 2}MSn{sub 3}S{sub 8} (M = Fe, Co) spinel compounds have been studied as cathode materials in Li/LiPF{sub 6}(1M)-PC-EC/spinel sulfide cells. To understand the lithium insertion mechanism, both pristine compounds and chemically inserted products were characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at the sulfur K-edge. To accommodate the inserted lithium ions, two steps of reduction have been observed. First, for a low lithium content (up to 2 Li per formula), a copper reduction is occurring. Moreover, for the iron-based compound the copper atoms extraction is associated with a migration of iron atoms from the 16c octahedral sites toward the 8a tetrahedral sites. Second, for a high lithium content (above 2 Li per formula) a complex and simultaneous reduction of tin(IV) toward tin(II) and tin(0) has been clearly observed as well as a distortion of sulfur coordination polyhedra during the insertion process. From an electrochemical point of view, these spinels are rather interesting as model compounds regarding the lithium insertion study.

Branci, C.; Sarradin, J.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.

1999-10-01

248

Phase II beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of the National Synchrotron Light Source has been funded by the US Department of Energy. The Phase II program consists of both increased conventional facilities and six new beam lines. In this paper, an overview of the six beam lines which will be constructed during Phase II is presented. For five of the lines special radiation sources are necessary and the designs of four of the devices are complete. The relevant parameters of the insertion devices under construction and development are presented.

Thomlinson, W.

1984-06-01

249

Aberrant Splicing and Transcription Termination Caused by P Element Insertion into the Intron of a Drosophila Gene  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis screens using the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] (PZ) transposable element have provided thousands of mutant lines for analyzing genes of varied function in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. As has been observed with other P elements, many of the PZ-induced mutations result from insertion of the P element into the promoter or 5' untranslated regions of the affected gene. We document here a novel mechanism for mutagenesis by this element. We show that sequences present within the element direct aberrant splicing and termination events that produce a mRNA composed of 5' sequences from the mutated gene (in this case, pipsqueak) and 3' sequences from within the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] element. These truncated RNAs could yield proteins with dominant mutant effects. PMID:7705633

Horowitz, H.; Berg, C. A.

1995-01-01

250

Fabrication of replicated high-precision insert elements for micro-optical bench arrangements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent polymer elements, containing both 3D-positioning structures and planar optical elements made by surface structuring, open the way for the mutual passive alignment of optical elements with respect to fibers, detectors and light sources in micro-optical benches with sub-micron precision. A fabrication process is presented for polymer inserts in micro-optical benches, which combines the mechanical precision of the LIGA-process with the wide variety of optical functions offered by diffractive optical elements. For this purpose, metal masters with lens elements made by surface structuring, and frame structures made with deep X-ray lithography and electroplating were used in a combined molding tool, and precision micro-optical elements were replicated by injection molding. The fabrication of the different parts of the mold insert and the alignment and fixing schemes for metal plates forming the micro cavity is described in detail. Injection molding experiments have been carried out using polycarbonate, a polymer known for its good optical properties. We discuss the different designs of mold inserts and injection geometries used for the mold, which were chosen in order to control the shrinkage of the molded element, to restrict damages during demolding, and to avoid inhomogeneities in the area of the lenses due to flow anisotropies and seam lines. We report on the characterization of the molded lens components. Injection molded lens structures are compared with hot embossed replicas, and used for the purpose of collimation applications. The imaging properties of these optical elements from single mode fibers onto single mode fibers is discussed. The miniature optical elements are arranged in arrays with 250 micrometers pitch which make them well suited for applications with fiber ribbons. Various positioning schemes and bench arrangements are under development.

Schift, Helmut; Soechtig, Juergen; Glaus, Fredy; Vonlanthen, A.; Westenhoefer, S.

1998-09-01

251

Optical Performance of the GM/CA-CAT Canted Undulator Beam lines for Protein Crystallography  

SciTech Connect

A new macromolecular crystallographic facility developed by GM/CA-CAT is operational at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The facility consists of three beamlines: two lines based on the first 'hard' dual canted undulators and one bending magnet beamline. The ID lines are operational, and the BM line is being commissioned. Both insertion device (ID) beamlines are independently tunable over a wide energy range. The inboard ID lines have been upgraded with a new insertion device to provide enhanced performance for MAD phasing experiments near the selenium and bromine K-edges. The ID line monochromators' crystals are indirectly, cryogenically cooled for improved performance and reliability. Focusing is achieved by long bimorph mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry. This paper describes the design of the beam lines and the optical characterization of the mirrors and monochromators.

Fischetti, Robert F.; Yoder, Derek W.; Xu Shenglan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Benn, Richard; Corcoran, Stephen [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Diete, Wolfgang; Schwoerer-Boehing, Markus; Signorato, Riccardo; Schroeder, Leif [ACCEL Instruments GmbH, Friedrich-Ebert Strasse 1, D-51429 Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Berman, Lonny [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Viccaro, P. James [University of Chicago, CARS-CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Smith, Janet L. [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2007-01-19

252

Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a "master" controlling the undulator "slave" energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

Krempaský, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

2010-06-01

253

Tool Life Detecting System Using Damage Sensor-Integrated Insert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-process tool life detecting system has been developed. In order to detect tool life, we monitored breakage of an electrical conductive thin film band of titanium nitride (TiN) on flank faces of a ceramic insert that was an insulation material. The conductive band was parallel to the cutting edge and was broken by fracture of the cutting edge or excessive tool wear. A coil and a capacitor were connected in series to the band on an insert to make a series resonance circuit in a tool holder for turning, or in an arbor for face milling. A detecting coil with high frequency oscillator was coupled to the coil in the holder/arbor electromagnetically. An electromagnetic induction between two coils was used to take the signal from the insert. The system developed in this study showed good stability against electric noises radiated from electrical devices of machine tools.

Sekiya, Katsuhiko; Yamane, Yasuo; Torimoto, Ayumu

254

Characterisation of protein stability in rod-insert vaginal rings.  

PubMed

A major goal in vaccine development is elimination of the 'cold chain', the transport and storage system for maintenance and distribution of the vaccine product. This is particularly pertinent to liquid formulation of vaccines. We have previously described the rod-insert vaginal ring (RiR) device, comprising an elastomeric body into which are inserted lyophilised, rod-shaped, solid drug dosage forms, and having potential for sustained mucosal delivery of biomacromolecules, such as HIV envelope protein-based vaccine candidates. Given the solid, lyophilised nature of these insert dosage forms, we hypothesised that antigen stability may be significantly increased compared with more conventional solubilised vaginal gel format. In this study, we prepared and tested vaginal ring devices fitted with lyophilised rod inserts containing the model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both the RiRs and the gels that were freeze-dried to prepare the inserts were evaluated for BSA stability using PAGE, turbidimetry, microbial load, MALDI-TOF and qualitative precipitate solubility measurements. When stored at 4 °C, but not when stored at 40 °C/75% RH, the RiR formulation offered protection against structural and conformational changes to BSA. The insert also retained matrix integrity and release characteristics. The results demonstrate that lypophilised gels can provide relative protection against degradation at lower temperatures compared to semi-solid gels. The major mechanism of degradation at 40 °C/75% RH was shown to be protein aggregation. Finally, in a preliminary study, we found that addition of trehalose to the formulation significantly reduces the rate of BSA degradation compared to the original formulation when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. Establishing the mechanism of degradation, and finding that degradation is decelerated in the presence of trehalose, will help inform further development of RiRs specifically and polymer based freeze-dried systems in general. PMID:22486955

Pattani, Aditya; Lowry, Deborah; Curran, Rhonda M; McGrath, Stephanie; Kett, Vicky L; Andrews, Gavin P; Malcolm, R Karl

2012-07-01

255

Sequence and Insertion Sites of Murine Melanoma-Associated Retrovirus  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that B16 melanoma cells produce ecotropic melanoma-associated retrovirus (MelARV) which encodes a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by MM2-9B6 monoclonal antibody. The biological significance of MelARV in melanoma formation remains unknown. We found that infection of normal melanocytes with MelARV resulted in malignant transformation. It is likely that MelARV emerged from the defective Emv-2 provirus, a single copy of ecotropic provirus existing in the genome of C57BL/6 mice. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced the full-length MelARV genome and its insertion sites and we completed sequencing of the Emv-2 provirus. Our data show that MelARV has a typical full-length retroviral genome with high homology (98.54%) to Emv-2, indicating a close relationship between both viruses. MelARV probably emerged as a result of recombination between Emv-2 and an endogenous nonecotropic provirus. Some observed differences in the gag and pol regions of MelARV might account for the restoration of productivity and infectivity of a novel retrovirus that somatically emerged during melanoma formation. MelARV does not contain any oncogene and therefore might induce transformation by insertional mutagenesis. We sequenced two insertion sites of MelARV. The first insertion site represents the 3? coding region of the c-maf proto-oncogene at 67.0 centimorgans (cM) on chromosome 8. The c-maf proto-oncogene encodes a basic leucine zipper protein homologous to c-fos and c-jun. Insertion of MelARV in BL6 melanoma cells resulted in the up-regulation of c-maf. It is noteworthy that the Emv-2 provirus is also inserted into a noncoding region at 61.0 cM on the same chromosome 8. The second insertion site is the 3? noncoding region of the DNA polymerase gamma (PolG) gene on chromosome 7. The expression of PolG was not affected by the MelARV insertion. Further investigation of the biological significance of MelARV in melanoma formation is being undertaken. PMID:10516025

Li, Mengfeng; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Gorelik, Elieser

1999-01-01

256

Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion  

DOEpatents

A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

Borden, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Shepherd, Jason F. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-29

257

Colon injury following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion.  

PubMed

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is used to provide a safe route for enteral feeding. However, serious complications may occur during the procedure, such as transverse colon injuries. It can be difficult to diagnose a colon injury after the procedure in a patient with cobormidities. Herein, we present a case of transverse colon injury following insertion of a PEG tube, discuss the possible complications of PEG, and review the recent literature. This case demonstrates the importance of careful PEG tube insertion and close follow-up of the patient's clinical status after a PEG procedure. PMID:12676027

Guloglu, Recep; Taviloglu, Korhan; Alimoglu, Orhan

2003-02-01

258

Analysis of transposon insertion mutants highlights the diversity of mechanisms underlying male progamic development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

To identify genes with essential roles in male gametophytic development, including postpollination (progamic) events, we have undertaken a genetic screen based on segregation ratio distortion of a transposon-borne kanamycin-resistance marker. In a population of 3359 Arabidopsis Ds transposon insertion lines, we identified 20 mutants with stably reduced segregation ratios arising from reduced gametophytic transmission. All 20 mutants showed strict cosegregation of Ds and the reduced gametophytic transmission phenotype. Among these, 10 mutants affected both male and female transmission and 10 mutants showed male-specific transmission defects. Four male and female (ungud) mutants and 1 male-specific mutant showed cellular defects in microspores and/or in developing pollen. The 6 remaining ungud mutants and 9 male-specific (seth) mutants affected pollen functions during progamic development. In vitro and in vivo analyses are reported for 5 seth mutants. seth6 completely blocked pollen germination, while seth7 strongly reduced pollen germination efficiency and tube growth. In contrast, seth8, seth9, or seth10 pollen showed reduced competitive ability that was linked to slower rates of pollen tube growth. Gene sequences disrupted in seth insertions suggest essential functions for putative SETH proteins in diverse processes including protein anchoring, cell wall biosynthesis, signaling, and metabolism. PMID:15342534

Lalanne, Eric; Michaelidis, Christos; Moore, James M; Gagliano, Wendy; Johnson, Andrew; Patel, Ramesh; Howden, Ross; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Phillippe; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Twell, David

2004-01-01

259

Subcloning Plus Insertion (SPI) - A Novel Recombineering Method for the Rapid Construction of Gene Targeting Vectors.  

PubMed

Gene targeting refers to the precise modification of a genetic locus using homologous recombination. The generation of novel cell lines and transgenic mouse models using this method necessitates the construction of a 'targeting' vector, which contains homologous DNA sequences to the target gene, and has for many years been a limiting step in the process. Vector construction can be performed in vivo in Escherichia coli cells using homologous recombination mediated by phage recombinases using a technique termed recombineering. Recombineering is the preferred technique to subclone the long homology sequences (>4kb) and various targeting elements including selection markers that are required to mediate efficient allelic exchange between a targeting vector and its cognate genomic locus. Typical recombineering protocols follow an iterative scheme of step-wise integration of the targeting elements and require intermediate purification and transformation steps. Here, we present a novel recombineering methodology of vector assembly using a multiplex approach. Plasmid gap repair is performed by the simultaneous capture of genomic sequence from mouse Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries and the insertion of dual bacterial and mammalian selection markers. This subcloning plus insertion method is highly efficient and yields a majority of correct recombinants. We present data for the construction of different types of conditional gene knockout, or knock-in, vectors and BAC reporter vectors that have been constructed using this method. SPI vector construction greatly extends the repertoire of the recombineering toolbox and provides a simple, rapid and cost-effective method of constructing these highly complex vectors. PMID:25590226

Reddy, Thimma R; Kelsall, Emma J; Fevat, Léna M S; Munson, Sarah E; Cowley, Shaun M

2015-01-01

260

Laser-induced defect insertion in DNA-linked 2D colloidal crystal array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insertion of vacancies at predetermined sites within the lattice of colloidal crystals is a prerequisite in order to realize high-quality, opaline-based photonic devices. In this contribution, we demonstrate a novel methodology to afford controlled insertion of vacancies within two-dimensional (2D) opaline arrays. These 2D opaline arrays have been substrate-anchored with the help of DNA hybridization. This provides a heat-sensitive ‘adhesive’ between substrate and microspheres within a surrounding aqueous medium that enables tuning the hybridization strength of DNA linker as well as a mechanism to facilitate the removal of unbound microspheres. Focusing a laser beam onto the substrate/microsphere interface induces a localized heating event that detaches the irradiated microspheres, leaving behind vacancies. By repeating this process, line vacancies were successfully obtained. The effects of salt concentration, laser power, light-absorbing dyes, DNA length and refractive-index mismatch were investigated and found to correlate with heat-induced microsphere release.

Geiss, Erik; Kim, Sejong; Marcus, Harris L.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

2009-02-01

261

Analysis of cell poration by femtosecond laser for particle insertion by optical manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction and subsequent expression of external DNA inside single living mammalian cell (transfection) can be achieved by photoporation with femtosecond laser. After photoporation, external DNA can be introduced by trapping and successive insertion of DNA coated nanoparticle in the cell using optical tweezers. To maximize the transfection efficiency, one of the major aspects is that the photoporated cell should not be damaged and cell membrane should heal itself immediately or after sometime while the cells are healed in the CO2 incubator. Furthermore, the size of hole created as a result of photoporation should be more than the size of DNA coated nanoparticle to be inserted inside the cell. In this paper, an analysis has been done on single cell of important breast cancer cell lines named MCF-7 and MDAMB231. Size of holes created in cell membrane after photoporation has been measured and the required optimum energy with sustained cell life were determined. Using this analysis, most favorable conditions for maximum transfection efficiency can be determined.

Muhammad, Waleed; Kim, Jung-Dae; Lee, Yong-Gu

2012-10-01

262

Ka-band full-360° analog phase shifter with low insertion loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reflection-type wideband 360° monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) analog phase shifter at the Ka-band is proposed. The phase shifter is designed based on the principle of vector synthesis. Three Lange couplers are employed in the phase shifter, which is fabricated by the standard 0.25-?m GaAs process. We use four 4 × 40 ?m GaAs HEMTs as the reflection loads. A microstrip line in parallel with the device is used as an inductance to counteract the parasitic capacitance of the device so that the reflection load performs like a pure resistance and the insertion loss can be decreased. In this phase shifter, a folded Lange coupler is utilized to reduce the size of the chip. The size of the proposed MMIC phase shifter is only 2.0 × 1.2 mm2. The measurement results show that the insertion loss is 5.0 ± 0.8 dB and a 360° continuously tunable range across 27–32 GHz is obtained with miniscule DC power consumption.

Mengyi, Cao; Yang, Lu; Jiaxing, Wei; Jiaxin, Zheng; Xiaohua, Ma; Yue, Hao

2014-10-01

263

Activation Tagging in Tomato Identifies a Transcriptional Regulator of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis, Modification, and Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a high-throughput T-DNA insertional mutagenesis program in tomato using activation tagging to identify genes that regulate metabolic pathways. One of the activation-tagged insertion lines ( ant1 ) showed intense purple pigmentation from the very early stage of shoot formation in culture, reflecting activation of the biosynthetic pathway leading to anthocyanin accumulation. The purple coloration resulted from the

Helena Mathews; Stephanie K. Clendennen; Colby G. Caldwell; Xing Liang Liu; Karin Connors; Nikolaus Matheis; Debra K. Schuster; D. J. Menasco; Wendy Wagoner; Jonathan Lightner; D. Ry

2003-01-01

264

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

· wireless network 1 Introduction Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) teams are excellent candidates for im the information exchange topology. The distributed nature of multiple robot control system over wireless networksNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Quadrotors Formation Control A Wireless

Boyer, Edmond

265

Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion  

E-print Network

and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cyclingFracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion Seok Woo Leea is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate. anisotropy lithium

Cui, Yi

266

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) PAutomaC: a PFA/HMM Learning involve using finite state machines as models and attempt- ing to learn these; these machines can either the problems dealing with learning grammars and finite state machines and the relevant litera- ture. This paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Learning near-optimal policies Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique Sequential Learning (SequeL) project, INRIA Lille, France e theoretical result for off-policy control learning over continuous state-spaces using a single trajectory. Key

Powell, Warren B.

268

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Preference-Based Reinforcement This paper makes a first step toward the integration of two subfields of machine learning, namely preference Learning: A Formal Framework and a Policy Iteration Algorithm Johannes F¨urnkranz, Eyke H

Hüllermeier, Eyke

269

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Training Parsers by Inverse Reinforcement Learning Gergely Neu1,2 , Csaba Szepesv´ari3,2 1 Department of Computing Science, Budapest learning (IRL) where one is given an environment and a set of trajectories and the problem is to find

Szepesvari, Csaba

270

Solving Witten's SFT by insertion of operators on projectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist

Haitang Yang

2004-01-01

271

Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace, which will fly in the Materials Science Research Facility. The QMI provides high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. This paper will describe the capabilities and present of on-going analysis and development testing.

Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

272

Biological Cybernetics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

and stored as ``snapshot image'' in the insect's brain. On the journey home, a matching process establishesBiological Cybernetics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Insect visual homing abilities of insects can be ex­ plained by the snapshot hypothesis. It asserts that an animal is guided

Moeller, Ralf

273

Biological Cybernetics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

image" in the insect's brain. On the journey home, a matching process establishes correspondencesBiological Cybernetics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Insect visual homing abilities of insects can be ex- plained by the snapshot hypothesis. It asserts that an animal is guided

Moeller, Ralf

274

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Diffusion and Localization of Cold Atoms in 3D edge and fraction of localized atoms have been investigated numerically. PACS. 72.15.Rn Localization, ultrasound [1], and cold atoms [2]. To understand Anderson localization and to provide quantitative

Boyer, Edmond

275

External Tank (ET) Bipod Fitting Bolted Attachment Locking Insert Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following STS-107, the External Tank (ET) Project implemented corrective actions and configuration changes at the ET bipod fitting. Among the corrective actions, the existing bolt lock wire which provided resistance to potential bolt rotation was removed. The lock wire removal was because of concerns with creating voids during foam application and potential for lock wire to become debris. The bolts had been previously lubricated to facilitate assembly but, because of elimination of the lock wire, the ET Project wanted to enable the locking feature of the insert. Thus, the lubrication was removed from bolt threads and instead applied to the washer under the bolt head. Lubrication is necessary to maximize joint pre-load while remaining within the bolt torque specification. The locking feature is implemented by thread crimping in at four places in the insert. As the bolt is torqued into the insert the bolt threads its way past the crimped parts of the insert. This provides the locking of the bolt, as torque is required to loosen the joint after clamping.

Larsen, Curtis E.; Wilson, Tim R.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; McManamen, John

2008-01-01

276

Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis  

SciTech Connect

Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

Mahnke, Lisa A. [Department of Medicine, Divisions of Oncology and Infections Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, PO Box 8069, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110 (United States)]. E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael [Department of Medicine, Divisions of Oncology and Infections Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, PO Box 8069, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Department of Medicine, Divisions of Oncology and Infections Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, PO Box 8069, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110 (United States)]. E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

2006-04-25

277

Further results on insertion\\/deletion correcting codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship between cyclic shifts and the codebook Levenshtein distance is presented. This relationship is explored to show that Levenshtein distance-based codebooks have limited comma-freedom. This result is further used to devise a neural net-based decoder for insertion\\/deletion correction code books.

W. A. Clarke; H. C. Ferreira

2002-01-01

278

Some journal manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Some journal manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Broadcast Psi, Uppsala University, Sweden 2 Peking University, China Aug 15, 2013 Abstract Psi-calculi is a parametric wireless protocols. The additions preserve the purity of the psi-calculi semantics, and we formally prove

Parrow, Joachim

279

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

of weightlessness and confinement on the cardiovascular regulation system. Methods: Autonomic cardiovascular control of long-term exposure to microgravity, but also the response of the cardiovascular system to confinementNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Cardiovascular Autonomic Adaptation

280

Prediction tool for thrombi associated with peripherally inserted central catheters.  

PubMed

The upper extremity deep vein thrombosis rate is increasing at the same time that the rate for insertions of peripherally inserted central catheters is on the rise. There is little information on whether the established risk factors for lower extremity deep vein thromboses are effective to predict the occurrence of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to identify patients at highest risk for upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in order to initiate effective prophylaxis. A retrospective review was undertaken of medical records of all patients with peripherally inserted central catheters inserted in a 6-month period at a Midwestern US hospital. Of the 233 charts reviewed, 17 (7.3%) recorded an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis during the patient's hospital stay. Of the multiple factors identified with deep vein thrombosis in the literature, a weighted risk factor measure, the upper extremity deep vein thrombosis prediction tool, was developed. Sensitivity of the instrument for upper extremity deep vein thrombosis is high (88%), as are its specificity (82%) and negative predictive value (99%), whereas the positive predictive value is low (28%). The total percentage of cases correctly classified is 82%. Further testing is indicated on a larger sample to extend the validity of this instrument. PMID:17895807

Seeley, Maria A; Santiago, Mary; Shott, Susan

2007-01-01

281

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Amplifying Limited Expert Input to Sanitize approach in which most packet inspection is done by less-trained workers whose des- ignations of sensitive; that solicits these workers' designations of sensitive data in a larger (but still minuscule) subset of packets

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

282

Automatic Insertion of DPA Countermeasures Andrew Moss1  

E-print Network

involves manual manipulation of low-level assembly language to insert random masking. This paper introduces, instruction selection and scheduling often depend on knowledge of the operational details of memory latency-channel) attacks on crypto- graphic implementations offers an interesting extension of the above security case

283

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

by means of fuzzy triangular numbers and treating the budget constraint as a soft constraint, a modiNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Fuzzy Bi-objective Preventive Health Care...ts, the cost e¤ectiveness is still a factor that should be considered. In this paper, a fuzzy bi

Yanikoglu, Berrin

284

Insertion and expansion operations for n-Dimensional Generalized Maps  

E-print Network

to refer to the pyramids built by using "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches, respectively. hal-00305482://www.springerlink.com/content/t2486l2838326207/ 4 In the following sections, we use the terms "top-down" and "bottom-up" pyramids "bottom-up" and "top-down" irregular pyramids. Indeed, insertion and expansion operations (basic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Insights on human evolution: an analysis of Alu insertion polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the genetic profile of 563 individuals from 12 geographically targeted human populations from Europe, Asia and Africa using 27 human-specific polymorphic Alu insertions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a clear correspondence between genetic profiles and historical patterns of gene flow and genetic drift. Sub-Saharan African populations (Benin, Cameroon, Kenya and Rwanda) formed a visibly differentiated cluster, indicating the role of

Maria C Terreros; Miguel A Alfonso-Sánchez; Gabriel E Novick; Javier R Luis; Harlette Lacau; Robert K Lowery; Maria Regueiro; Rene J Herrera

2009-01-01

286

Inference of human geographic origins using Alu insertion polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inference of an individual's geographic ancestry or origin can be critical in narrowing the field of potential suspects in a criminal investigation. Most current technologies rely on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes to accomplish this task. However, SNPs can introduce homoplasy into an analysis since they can be identical-by-state. We introduce the use of insertion polymorphisms based on short

David A. Ray; Jerilyn A. Walker; Ashley Hall; Barbara Llewellyn; Jack Ballantyne; Allen T. Christian; Kenneth Turteltaub; Mark A. Batzer

2005-01-01

287

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Simulations of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Measurements with a Goal-Oriented hp Finite-Element Method. Part II: Through-Casing Resistivity Instruments D potential. We assume a homogeneous 1.27 cm thick steel-casing with resistivity equal to 10-5 · m

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

288

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Development of a ReaxFF description for gold T by the lack of interatomic interaction models for the involved elements. The ReaxFF framework already has, an interatomic potential for gold, based on the ReaxFF framework, is presented and compared to existing gold

Nordlund, Kai

289

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

· articulated robotics 1 Introduction Motion planning is a fundamental issue in articulated roboticsNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Fast Motion Planning from Experience / Accepted: date Abstract Trajectory planning and optimization is a fundamental problem in articulated

Toussaint, Marc

290

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

diffusion is conducted using the weighted heat kernel convolution governed by local geometry retrieval [2], etc. A typical dif- fusion process is conducted by convoluting an initial scalar/heat fieldNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Multi-scale anisotropic heat diffusion based

Qin, Hong

291

RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION*  

E-print Network

RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION* J. Schmalzle, M. Anerella, G. Ganetis under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016. Abstract Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were

Gupta, Ramesh

292

Insertion of pea lectin into a phospholipid monolayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea lectin (PSL) is a secretory sugar-binding protein, readily soluble in aqueous solutions of low osmolarity. However, PSL also appears to be associated with the plasma membrane at the tip of young pea root hairs. By using the Wilhelmy plate method, we found that PSL can insert into a lipid monolayer. This property appeared to be independent of the sugar-binding

Pettie Booij; Rudy A. Demel; B. Sylvia de Pater; Jan W. Kijne

1996-01-01

293

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

. The space semi-discrete problem is equivalent to a Lipschitz system of ordinary differential equations Introduction The modified mass method is a new approach for solving computationally dynamic problemsNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Analysis of the modified mass method

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) How to Integrate Legal Requirements into A Requirements Engineering Methodology for the Development of Security and Privacy Patterns Luca Compagna · Paul Abstract Laws set requirements that force organizations to assess the security and privacy

Massacci, Fabio

295

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Proposal for a Raman X-ray Free Electron Laser-ray free electron laser is proposed, based on a Raman process occurring during the interaction between a moderately relativistic bunch of free electrons, and twin intense short pulse lasers interfering to form

Boyer, Edmond

296

Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the

John Grimmer; Mohan Ramanathan; Martin Smith; Michael Merritt

2002-01-01

297

VME insertion device control at the Advanced Photon Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed and operating. The need to remotely diagnose and correct problems has become increasingly important. This has been accomplished through the development of a new control system with greatly enhanced input\\/output (I\\/O) capabilities specifically targeted to this control task. The system features a custom VME control card and three

M. Smith; M. Ramanathan; J. Grimmer; M. Merritt

2002-01-01

298

Physical defect modeling for fault insertion in system reliability test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware fault-insertion test (FIT) is a promising method for system reliability test and diagnosis coverage measurement. It improves the speed of releasing a quality diagnostic program before manufacturing and provides feedbacks of fault tolerance of a very complicated large system. Certain level insufficient fault tolerance can be fixed in the current system but others may require ASIC or overall system

Zhaobo Zhang; Zhanglei Wang; Xinli Gu; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2009-01-01

299

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

of the strong polarization transfer. In- stanton induced interactions transform initial-state quarks with left polarization The recoil (or induced) polarization P can be orien- ted parallel or antiEPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Baryon resonances and polarization transfer

Bonn, Universität

300

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

the emergence and maintenance of diversity in microbial ecosys- tems. Keywords emergence · diversity · adaptive#12;Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Diversity Emerging: From Competitive the emergence and maintenance of diversity in ecological systems. We do this by developing a deterministic

301

31. Photocopy of map. Insert from Master Plan Notes Prepared ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Photocopy of map. Insert from Master Plan Notes Prepared by Environmental Planning and Design, Pittsburgh, Pa. Original at Missouri Botanical Garden. 1972 MASTER PLAN 32. 'THE TREE,' SCULPTURE BY ALEXANDER CALDER, 1966 - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

302

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

and implement a non-transferable re-encryption based encrypted PC/USB file system. Performance measurementsNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Non-Transferable Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme schemes gener- ally suffer from at least one of the followings. Some schemes fail to provide the non-transferable

303

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Critical behaviour near the metal. Bulla, A. C. Hewson, M. Potthoff: Critical behaviour near the Mott metal­insulator transition of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo­cho, Chikusa­ku, Nagoya 464­8602, JAPAN 2 Theoretische Physik III

Hewson, Alex C.

304

Inserting and Manipulating DNA in a Nanopore with Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Inserting and Manipulating DNA in a Nanopore with Optical Tweezers U. F. Keyser, J. van that a combination of optical tweezers, single solid-state nanopores, and electrophysiological ionic current the experimental procedures that are neces- sary to manipulate single biopolymers in a single nanopore, not only

Dekker, Nynke

305

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Strain localization in polyurethane foams Abstract Strain localization has been observed in polyurethane foams subjected to confined compression up is attributed to progressive phase transition. Keywords polyurethane foams · strain localization · non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Cognitive Computation manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

, for a given saccade with a specific metric, the trajec- tory and the dynamics are generally stereotyped. HenceCognitive Computation manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A dynamic neural field search task with saccadic eye movements. Keywords visual attention · eye movements · dynamic neural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissue  

E-print Network

such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error prostate cancer treatment, an experienced physician implanting radioactive seeds in 20 patients using

O'Brien, James F.

308

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

include brachytherapy of cervical, prostate and breast cancers [3]. Imaging modalities such as ultrasound and therapeutic purposes such as biopsy and brachytherapy, re- spectively. Examples of diagnostic needle insertion may result in misdiagnosis and unsuccessful treatment during biopsy and brachytherapy, respectively

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

309

Placental and cord insertion pathologies: screening, diagnosis, and management.  

PubMed

Placenta previa, low-lying placenta, and placenta accreta are aberrations in the normal development of the placenta. Diagnosis in the prenatal period is essential because each of these pathologies can have a profound impact on the management of labor, birth, and the third stage. In recent years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of these placental abnormalities, with the increase in the cesarean rate considered to be a main cause of this phenomenon. Comprehensive risk assessment, combined with recent advances in ultrasonography, can provide earlier detection of impaired placental implantation. Umbilical cord insertion pathologies are also of concern. Velamentous cord insertion is a defect in the insertion site of the umbilical cord resulting from the atrophy of portions of the developing placenta. In this condition, the blood vessels of the umbilical cord are not protected by Wharton's jelly, resulting in a potential for increased risk of breakage when the amniotic membranes rupture. Vasa previa is a velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord in which the blood vessels are present over the cervical os. If these blood vessels rupture during labor, it can have catastrophic effects on the fetus. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition can allow the certified nurse-midwife/certified midwife (CNM/CM) to plan for the safe birth of the newborn and avoid fetal hemorrhage. This article provides a review of risk factors, diagnosis pathophysiology, and management options for these conditions, thus enabling the CNM/CM to provide safe, effective care and management. PMID:24751147

Wiedaseck, Susan; Monchek, Ruth

2014-01-01

310

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Estimating Deep Web Data Source Size the size of a deep web data source that is accessible by queries only. Since most deep web data sources. The results show that our method has small bias and standard deviation. Keywords Deep web, estimators, capture

Lu, Jianguo

311

Atropine for the Treatment of Hiccup After Laryngeal Mask Insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

fter laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion, hic- cups is observed in 1%-14% of patients (1,2). Although hiccups is a common and benign phe- nomenon, it may disturb surgery. We describe three patients in whom hiccups were treated successfully by atropine.

Noriaki Kanaya; Masayasu Nakayama; Junko Kanaya; Akiyoshi Namiki

2001-01-01

312

Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans are generated by injecting DNA into the germline. The DNA assembles into a semistable extrachromosomal array composed of many copies of injected DNA. These transgenes are typically overexpressed in somatic cells and silenced in the germline. We have developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization

Christian Frøkjær-Jensen; M Wayne Davis; Christopher E Hopkins; Blake J Newman; Jason M Thummel; Søren-Peter Olesen; Morten Grunnet; Erik M Jorgensen

2008-01-01

313

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

systems) allows the modeling of repetitive structures such as the NoC topologies which are based for designing embedded systems in order to increase perfor- mance and reduce power consumption. The onNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) System Level Modeling Methodology of No

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Postplacental or delayed levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breastfeeding duration  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The objective was to assess the effect of timing of postpartum levonorgestrel-releasing IUD insertion on breastfeeding continuation. STUDY DESIGN Women interested in using a levonorgestrel IUD postpartum were randomized to immediate postplacental insertion (postplacental group) or insertion 6–8 weeks after vaginal delivery (delayed group). Duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding were assessed at 6–8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Only women who received an IUD were included in this analysis. RESULTS Breastfeeding was initiated by 32/50 (64%) of women receiving a postplacental IUD and 27/46 (58.7%) of women receiving a delayed IUD (p=0.59). More women in the delayed group compared to the postplacental group continued to breastfeed at 6–8 weeks (16/46 vs 15/50, p=0.62), 3 months (13/46 vs 7/50, p=0.13), and 6 months postpartum (11/46 vs 3/50, p=0.02). The results did not differ when only women who initiated breastfeeding or only primiparous women with no prior breastfeeding experience were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS Immediate postplacental insertion of the levonorgestrel IUD is associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding and less exclusive breastfeeding. Further studies are needed of the effects of early initiation of progestin-only methods on women’s lactation experience. PMID:22018124

Chen, Beatrice A.; Reeves, Matthew F.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, E. Bimla

2011-01-01

315

Extending molecular modeling methodology to study insertion of membrane nanopores  

E-print Network

method to accel- erate events along the path connecting the initial and final states of a process, cannot through an internal channel (10, 11). In contrast, the nonconstitutive membrane proteins, such as toxins microscopic simulations. Even when biased by an external electri- cal field, insertion of a small protein

Nielsen, Steven O.

316

Virtual Reality manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) The Design Space of Dynamic Environments have become a key component of many fields and the critical component of Virtual Reality, Steffi Beckhaus 1 Introduction Statements like "in Virtual Reality anything is possible" and "the

Beckhaus, Steffi

317

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Algorithms for multiplayer multicommodity ow investigate the Multiplayer Multicommodity Flow Prob- lem (MMFP): several players have dierent networks guarantee its existence. Keywords optimization · multicommodity ows · equilibria 1 Introduction The Directed

Gergely, Mádi-Nagy

318

MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars  

E-print Network

MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars Application Note Srinivas.nasr@lif.univ-mrs.fr rambow@ccls.columbia.edu benoit.sagot@inria.fr Abstract MICA is a dependency parser which returns deep This application note presents a freely avail- able parser, MICA (Marseille-INRIA-Columbia- AT&T).1 MICA has

Boyer, Edmond

319

BIT manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

BIT manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Stability Ordinates of Adams Predictor equations; this maximum extent is termed the stability ordinate, also known as the imaginary stability Adams-Bashforth meth- ods have nonzero stability ordinates. In this paper, we consider two categories

Fornberg, Bengt

320

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

· Umberto Rivieccio the date of receipt and acceptance should be inserted later Abstract We introduce a new-mail: jansana@ub.edu Umberto Rivieccio School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, Edg- baston B15 2TT in- #12;2 Ramon Jansana, Umberto Rivieccio troduced bilattice-based logics [Arieli and Avron 1996

Priestley, Hilary

321

Choice of Tevatron tune with matched low-. beta. insertions  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron lattice, following closely the Main Ring lattice, is made up of approximately 90 FODO cells with six straight sections equally spaced. The straight sections are identical (neglecting the special high-..beta.. straight section used for resonant extraction) providing six-fold symmetry. Each straight section is comprised mainly of a pair of doublets, one at each end, in an antisymmetric configuration. The ..beta..-functions are matched to the building block cells but the dispersion function is not. The ..beta..-function matching implies that the structure is not sensitive to the tune of the sextant (i.e., structure resonances); however, the dispersion mismatch excites off-momentum dipole resonances and the dispersion structure of the ring is therefore sensitive to sextant tunes near an integer. The introduction of low-..beta.. insertions can be accomplished by replacing a standard insertion (expanded somewhat from the doublet pair straight section) with a low-..beta.. insertion. By matching the ends of the replacement units with respect to ..beta..-functions and dispersion function, the full lattice is made insensitive to linear structure resonances. Procedures are described here for introducing into the idealized Tevatron lattice considered here a single matched low-..beta.. insertion at BO, and two matched low-..beta.. insertions at BO and DO. The main consequence is the need for a significant number of independently powered quadrupoles. Another conclusion is related to the choice of tune, where it is found that the arbitrary rule of maintaining a fixed tune for all configurations should be modified.

Month, M.

1984-06-20

322

A Transposable Element Insertion Confers Xenobiotic Resistance in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The increase in availability of whole genome sequences makes it possible to search for evidence of adaptation at an unprecedented scale. Despite recent progress, our understanding of the adaptive process is still very limited due to the difficulties in linking adaptive mutations to their phenotypic effects. In this study, we integrated different levels of biological information to pinpoint the ecologically relevant fitness effects and the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms of a putatively adaptive TE insertion in Drosophila melanogaster: the pogo transposon FBti0019627. We showed that other than being incorporated into Kmn1 transcript, FBti0019627 insertion also affects the polyadenylation signal choice of CG11699 gene. Consequently, only the short 3?UTR transcript of CG11699 gene is produced and the expression level of this gene is higher in flies with the insertion. Our results indicated that increased CG11699 expression leads to xenobiotic stress resistance through increased ALDH-III activity: flies with FBti0019627 insertion showed increased survival rate in response to benzaldehyde, a natural xenobiotic, and to carbofuran, a synthetic insecticide. Although differences in survival rate between flies with and without the insertion were not always significant, when they were, they were consistent with FBti0019627 mediating resistance to xenobiotics. Taken together, our results provide a plausible explanation for the increase in frequency of FBti0019627 in natural populations of D. melanogaster and add to the limited number of examples in which a natural genetic mutation has been linked to its ecologically relevant phenotype. Furthermore, the widespread distribution of TEs across the tree of life and conservation of stress response pathways across organisms make our results relevant not only for Drosophila, but for other organisms as well. PMID:25122208

Mateo, Lidia; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa

2014-01-01

323

An improved in-line uninterruptible power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved in-line uninterruptible power supply system, which has voltage sag compensation and power factor improvement. The system employs a voltage-source voltage-controlled converter with battery storage. The converter voltage is synchronised to the grid voltage and a link inductor is inserted between the converter and the grid. The load is connected directly to the converter output voltage.

M. Ashari; C. V. Nayar; Syed Islam

2000-01-01

324

Microcalorimeter for 3.5 mm 50 ? coaxial transmission line  

Microsoft Academic Search

At PTB a microcalorimeter has been installed for calibrating RF power mounts with 3.5 mm precision 50 ? coaxial connectors (PC-3.5) to be used as power standards up to 26.5 GHz. Two detachable inserts with 3.5 mm coaxial transmission lines for a twin-type microcalorimeter have been developed. Measurements of bolometer mounts fitted with PC-3.5 adaptors and of a PC-3.5 power

D. Janik

1996-01-01

325

A simple baseband transmission scheme for power line channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)-based coded modulation scheme that overcomes two major constraints of power line channels, viz., severe insertion-loss and impulsive noise. The scheme combines low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, along with cyclic random-error and burst-error correction codes to achieve high-spectral efficiency, low decoding complexity, and a high degree of immunity to impulse noise. To achieve good performance

Raju Hormis; Inaki Berenguer; Xiaodong Wang

2006-01-01

326

De novo alu-element insertions in FGFR2 identify a distinct pathological basis for Apert syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Apert syndrome, one of five craniosynostosis syndromes caused by allelic mutations of fibroblast growth-factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), is characterized by symmetrical bony syndactyly of the hands and feet. We have analyzed 260 unrelated patients, all but 2 of whom have missense mutations in exon 7, which affect a dipeptide in the linker region between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. Hence, the molecular mechanism of Apert syndrome is exquisitely specific. FGFR2 mutations in the remaining two patients are distinct in position and nature. Surprisingly, each patient harbors an Alu-element insertion of approximately 360 bp, in one case just upstream of exon 9 and in the other case within exon 9 itself. The insertions are likely to be pathological, because they have arisen de novo; in both cases this occurred on the paternal chromosome. FGFR2 is present in alternatively spliced isoforms characterized by either the IIIb (exon 8) or IIIc (exon 9) domains (keratinocyte growth-factor receptor [KGFR] and bacterially expressed kinase, respectively), which are differentially expressed in mouse limbs on embryonic day 13. Splicing of exon 9 was examined in RNA extracted from fibroblasts and keratinocytes from one patient with an Alu insertion and two patients with Pfeiffer syndrome who had nucleotide substitutions of the exon 9 acceptor splice site. Ectopic expression of KGFR in the fibroblast lines correlated with the severity of limb abnormalities. This provides the first genetic evidence that signaling through KGFR causes syndactyly in Apert syndrome. PMID:9973282

Oldridge, M; Zackai, E H; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Iseki, S; Morriss-Kay, G M; Twigg, S R; Johnson, D; Wall, S A; Jiang, W; Theda, C; Jabs, E W; Wilkie, A O

1999-01-01

327

Personal Time Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in groups to create a time line representing significant moments in their lives. Learners use scientific suffixes and prefixes to label their time lines, modeling the Geologic Time Line (i.e. Mesozoic, Paleozoic).

Muller, Eric

2003-01-01

328

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 227 - Use of Insert Earphones for Audiometric Testing  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of Insert Earphones for Audiometric Testing E Appendix E to Part 227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. E Appendix E to Part 227—Use of Insert Earphones for...

2010-10-01

329

21 CFR 876.5830 - Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inserts (Kiil type) is a device that is used as a part of an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that includes disposable inserts consisting of layers of semipermeable membranes...

2010-04-01

330

Functional Genomics of Eukaryotic Photosynthesis Using Insertional Mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1  

E-print Network

Functional Genomics of Eukaryotic Photosynthesis Using Insertional Mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas photosynthesis in eukaryotes. Here we describe the development of a resource for functional genomics of photosynthesis using insertional mutagenesis of the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome. Chlamydomonas cells were

331

Ultrasound-Guided (Needle In-Plane) Perineural Catheter Insertion: The Effect of Catheter Insertion Distance on Postoperative Analgesia  

PubMed Central

Background When using ultrasound guidance to place a perineural catheter for a continuous peripheral nerve block, keeping the needle-in plane and nerve in short-axis results in a perpendicular needle-to-nerve orientation. Many have opined that when placing a perineural catheter via the needle, the acute angle may result in the catheter bypassing the target nerve when advanced beyond the needle tip. Theoretically, greater catheter tip-to-nerve distances result in less local anesthetic-to-nerve contact during the subsequent perineural infusion, leading to inferior analgesia. While a potential solution may appear obvious—advancing the catheter tip only to the tip of the needle, leaving the catheter tip at the target nerve—this technique has not been prospectively evaluated. We therefore hypothesized that during needle in-plane ultrasound-guided perineural catheter placement, inserting the catheter a minimum distance (0-1 cm) past the needle tip is associated with improved postoperative analgesia compared with inserting the catheter a more-traditional 5-6 cm past the needle tip. Methods Preoperatively, subjects received a popliteal-sciatic perineural catheter for foot or ankle surgery using ultrasound guidance exclusively. Subjects were randomly assigned to have a single-orifice, flexible catheter inserted either 0-1 (n=50) or 5-6 cm (n=50) past the needle tip. All subjects received a single-injection mepivacaine (40 mL of 1.5% with epinephrine) nerve block via the needle, followed by catheter insertion and a ropivacaine 0.2% infusion (basal 6 mL/h, bolus 4 mL, 30 min lockout), through at least the day following surgery. The primary end point was average surgical pain as measured with a 0-10 numeric rating scale the day following surgery. Secondary end points included time for catheter insertion, incidence of catheter dislodgement, maximum (“worst”) pain scores, opioid requirements, fluid leakage at the catheter site, and the subjective degree of an insensate extremity. Results Average pain scores the day following surgery for subjects of the 0-1 cm group was a median (interquartile) of 2.5 (0.0-5.0), compared with 2.0 (0.0-4.0) for subjects of the 5-6 cm group (p=0.42). Similarly, among the secondary end points, no statistically significant differences were found between the two treatment groups. There was a trend of more catheter dislodgements in the minimum-insertion group (5 vs. 1; p=0.20). Conclusions This study did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that for popliteal-sciatic perineural catheters placed using ultrasound guidance and a needle in-plane technique, inserting the catheter a minimum distance (0-1 cm) past the needle tip improves (or worsens) postoperative analgesia compared with inserting the catheter a more-traditional distance (5-6 cm). Caution is warranted if extrapolating these results to other catheter designs, ultrasound approaches, or anatomic insertion sites. PMID:21519311

Ilfeld, Brian M.; Sandhu, NavParkash S.; Loland, Vanessa J.; Madison, Sarah J.; Suresh, Preetham J.; Mariano, Edward R.; Bishop, Michael L.; Schwartz, Alexandra K.; Lee, Daniel K.

2011-01-01

332

Impact biomechanics and pelvic deformation during insertion of press-fit acetabular cups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five fresh cadaver pelves were cleaned of soft tissue and instrumented with strain gauges. The acetabula were reamed, and a cementless cup, oversized at the periphery, was inserted. The applied force and cup acceleration were measured during insertion and used to calculate an effective mass of the cup, insertion device, and pelvis during each impact. Periacetabular strains increased variably during

Markus Kroeber; Michael D. Ries; Yoshihiro Suzuki; Glen Renowitzky; Frank Ashford; Jeff Lotz

2002-01-01

333

The insertion sequence IS200 fingerprints chromosomal genotypes and epidemiological relationships in Salmonella heidelberg  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Salmonella heidelberg the copy number of the Salmonella-specific insertion element IS200 was found to vary from four to six. All strains tested contained at least one common insertion site which was serovar specific, and most strains contained three common sites. Concurrent analysis of plasmids indicated that all insertion sequence copies were chromosomally located, and also supported the equivalence of

JOHN STANLEY; A. Burnens; NEVILLE POWELL; NAMOOS CHOWDRY; CLIVE JONES

1992-01-01

334

Modeling of galvanostatic charge and discharge of the lithium\\/polymer\\/insertion cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The galvanostatic charge and discharge of a lithium anode\\/solid polymer separator\\/insertion cathode cell is modeled using concentrated solution theory. The model is general enough to include a wide range of polymeric separator materials, lithium salts, and composite insertion cathodes. Insertion of lithium into the active cathode material is simulated using superposition, thus greatly simplifying the numerical calculations. Variable physical properties

Marc Doyle; T. F. Fuller; J. S. Newman

1993-01-01

335

Direct tool steel injection mould inserts through the Arcam EBM free-form fabrication process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to demonstrate the benefit of design flexibility afforded by the Arcam free-form fabrication process in the direct manufacture of injection mould inserts with complex cooling channel configurations and the process efficiency and quality gains achieved through using such inserts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The manufacturing process of a flood cooled injection mould insert using

Gregory J. Gibbons; Robert G. Hansell

2005-01-01

336

Combinatorial Multilevel Mold Insert Using Micromachining and X-ray Lithography  

E-print Network

Combinatorial Multilevel Mold Insert Using Micromachining and X-ray Lithography V. Singh1 , J-level, high aspect ratio and complex microstructures which in turn requires high quality mold inserts with all these features. This research addressed fabrication challenges of a PMMA mold insert template containing multi

337

Efficacy of tympanostomy tube insertion for otitis media with effusion in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although the insertion of tympanostomy tubes is regarded as an effective treatment for otitis media with effusion in the general population, it remains to be determined whether tympanostomy tube insertion is also effective for otitis media with effusion in children with Down syndrome. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of tympanostomy tube insertion in children

Yukiko Iino; Yukako Imamura; Shigeko Harigai; Yoshisato Tanaka

1999-01-01

338

Membrane insertion profiles of peptides probed by molecular dynamics simulations In-Chul Yeh,*  

E-print Network

Membrane insertion profiles of peptides probed by molecular dynamics simulations In-Chul Yeh,* Mark synthetic peptides. Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are useful tools to study membrane insertion on molecular dynamics simulation techniques to probe the insertion profiles of small peptides across

339

Micro-optical insertion system for WDM transceiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the design of an micro-optical part of a WDM transceiver based on the circle volume holographic grating triplexer (VHGT) topology. The work is focused on detail description of the bidirectional micro-optical insertion system, especially on the coupling in the transmission direction of the WDM transceiver optical part. This micro-optical wavelength distribution system is imagine transmission system consisted of collimating cylindrical lenses set in the circle topology with the VHGT filter placed in the middle of the circle. The topology is described by ray matrices equations, calculated using analytic and numeric methods and optically measured. Considering simulation and measurement results of micro-optical insertion system the influence of these characteristics on ray path attenuation, diffraction efficiency and transceiver performance is estimated. The paper also discusses limits and conditions of the laser asymmetrical beam focus into the input/output optical fiber.

Bakala, Bretislav; Jerabek, Vitezslav; Mares, David; Prajzler, Vaclav

2015-01-01

340

Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (A? ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long A? in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

2010-03-01

341

Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.  

PubMed

To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance. PMID:25415397

Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

2015-01-01

342

Case reports: pediatric PCL insufficiency from tibial insertion osteochondral avulsions.  

PubMed

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) insertion-site osteochondral avulsions in children, particularly from the tibia, are not commonly seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Because of the rarity of these injuries, careful attention to the specific physical examination and imaging findings seen with these injuries is necessary so that the proper diagnosis can be made. Osteochondral avulsions of the PCL can be missed on plain radiographs in skeletally immature patients, and therefore magnetic resonance imaging is necessary for proper diagnosis. With this knowledge, clinicians can formulate treatment plans which can return their patients to activities while avoiding potential morbidity resulting from missed diagnoses or improper treatment. We report two rare cases of PCL insufficiency stemming from tibial insertion osteochondral avulsions. Both patients underwent subsequent open reduction and internal fixation of the avulsion using two different fixation methods (bioabsorbable anchors versus cannulated screw and washer) and have returned to full sporting activities. PMID:18648903

Pandya, Nirav K; Janik, Luke; Chan, Gilbert; Wells, Lawrence

2008-11-01

343

Wear mechanisms of milling inserts: Dry and wet cutting  

SciTech Connect

There is less literature on wear of milling tools than on wear of turning tools because milling is one of the most complicated machining operations. The intermittent milling action creates mechanical and thermal surges that distinguish milling from single-point machining. A systematic tool life study for face milling inserts was conducted with and without coolant. Workpieces made of 4140 steel were cut by C5 grade carbide inserts under various cutting conditions. The comparison between dry and wet cutting shows that caution should be taken when applying a coolant for milling operations. Special tests should be carried out in evaluating potential coolant candidates. It is not always true that coolant enhances tool life for milling. Wear mechanisms are presented by means of war maps. Identified wear mechanisms are: micro-attrition, micro-abrasion, mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermal pitting, and edge chipping.

Gu, J.; Tung, S.C.; Barber, G.C.

1998-07-01

344

Large-scale, saturating insertional mutagenesis of the mouse genome  

PubMed Central

We describe the construction of a large-scale, orderly assembly of mutant ES cells, generated with retroviral insertions and having mutational coverage in >90% of mouse genes. We also describe a method for isolating ES cell clones with mutations in specific genes of interest from this library. This approach, which combines saturating random mutagenesis with targeted selection of mutations in the genes of interest, was successfully applied to the gene families of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nuclear receptors. Mutant mouse strains in 60 different GPCRs were generated. Applicability of the technique for the GPCR genes, which on average represent fairly small targets for insertional mutagenesis, indicates the general utility of our approach for the rest of the genome. The method also allows for increased scale and automation for the large-scale production of mutant mice, which could substantially expedite the functional characterization of the mouse genome. PMID:17720809

Gragerov, Alexander; Horie, Kyoji; Pavlova, Maria; Madisen, Linda; Zeng, Hongkui; Gragerova, Galina; Rhode, Alex; Dolka, Io; Roth, Patricia; Ebbert, Amanda; Moe, Stephanie; Navas, Christopher; Finn, Eric; Bergmann, John; Vassilatis, Demetrios K.; Pavlakis, George N.; Gaitanaris, George A.

2007-01-01

345

A training simulator for ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrostomy insertion.  

PubMed

Increasing trainee numbers and changes to working patterns have resulted in a scarcity of training opportunities for training-grade doctors wishing to learn nephrostomy tube insertion techniques. A method of introducing trainees to the skills required to perform percutaneous nephrostomy in a safe, non-threatening environment, without risk to patients, is desirable. Commercial and biological nephrostomy phantoms are available, but they are expensive and not widely available, and a cheap, safe, valid alternative is desirable. We describe a simple technique for producing a gelatin-based phantom, which we suggest has face and content simulator validity. The use of this nephrostomy phantom could optimise existing clinical training opportunities through familiarisation with nephrostomy technique and equipment, and development of the psychomotor skills required for successful nephrostomy insertion prior to undertaking supervised procedures on patients. PMID:20603411

Rock, B G; Leonard, A P; Freeman, S J

2010-07-01

346

Retroposon insertions provide insights into deep lagomorph evolution.  

PubMed

The homogenous mammalian order Lagomorpha comprises about 80 species in two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (rabbits and hares). However, the phylogenetic relationships among leporids are controversial. Molecular data, particularly from mitochondrial sequences, give highly homoplasious signals. To resolve the controversy between mitochondrial and nuclear data, we analyzed genomic orthologous retroposon insertion sites, a virtually homoplasy-free marker system. From a differential screen of rabbit genomic data for intronic retroposon insertions of CSINE elements, we polymerase chain reaction-amplified and sequenced 11 retroposons in eight representative lagomorphs. We found three retroposons shared among all lagomorphs but absent in outgroups, four confirmed the monophyly of leporids, and three significantly supported Pronolagus as the sister group to all other leporids. One retroposon supported the monophyly of Lepus. The position of Pronolagus outside of the remaining leporids supports the sequence-based signals of nuclear genes and clearly refutes the misleading signals of mitochondrial genes. PMID:20584773

Kriegs, Jan Ole; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Matzke, Andreas; Ohme, Martina; Zischler, Hans; Brosius, Jürgen; Kryger, Ute; Schmitz, Jürgen

2010-12-01

347

The pattern of insertion\\/deletion polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about variation of nucleotide insertion\\/deletions (indels) within species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated indel polymorphism patterns between two genome sequences and among 96 accessions at 1215 loci. Our study\\u000a identified patterns in the variation of indel density, size, GC content and distribution, and a correlation between indels\\u000a and substitutions. We found that the GC content in indel

Wen Zhang; Xiaoqin Sun; Huizhong Yuan; Hitoshi Araki; Jue Wang; Dacheng Tian

2008-01-01

348

A male-sterile insertion in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is(7;l)40H was found in the daughter of a male mouse given spermatozoal X-irradiation. It is a non-inverted insertion of about half of chromosome 7 into chromosome 1, generating a long somatic marker chromosome. Breakpoints are in bands IB, 7B1, and 7F1; linkage tests show that these breakpoints are about midway between fz and In on the 1, and 0.2 units

A. G. Searle; C. V. Beechey; P. de Boer; D. G. de Rooij; E. P. Evans; M. Kirk

1983-01-01

349

Developmental Outcomes after Early or Delayed Insertion of Tympanostomy Tubes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND To prevent later developmental impairments, myringotomy with the insertion of tympanostomy tubes has often been undertaken in young children who have persistent otitis media with effusion. We previously reported that prompt as compared with delayed insertion of tympanostomy tubes in children with persistent effusion who were younger than three years of age did not result in improved developmental outcomes at three or four years of age. However, the effect on the outcomes of school-age children is unknown. METHODS We enrolled 6350 healthy infants younger than 62 days of age and evaluated them regularly for middle-ear effusion. Before three years of age, 429 children with persistent middle-ear effusion were randomly assigned to have tympanostomy tubes inserted either promptly or up to nine months later if effusion persisted. We assessed developmental outcomes in 395 of these children at six years of age. RESULTS At six years of age, 85 percent of children in the early-treatment group and 41 percent in the delayed-treatment group had received tympanostomy tubes. There were no significant differences in mean (±SD) scores favoring early versus delayed treatment on any of 30 measures, including the Wechsler Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (98±13 vs. 98±14); Number of Different Words test, a measure of word diversity (183±36 vs. 175±36); Percentage of Consonants Correct–Revised test, a measure of speech-sound production (96±2 vs. 96±3); the SCAN test, a measure of central auditory processing (95±15 vs. 96±14); and several measures of behavior and emotion. CONCLUSIONS In otherwise healthy children younger than three years of age who have persistent middle-ear effusion within the duration of effusion that we studied, prompt insertion of tympanostomy tubes does not improve developmental outcomes at six years of age. PMID:16093466

Paradise, Jack L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Bernard, Beverly S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Rockette, Howard E.; Janosky, Janine E.; Pitcairn, Dayna L.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Sabo, Diane L.; Smith, Clyde G.

2005-01-01

350

High Throughput Fingerprint Analysis of Large-Insert Clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Human Genome Project, the Washington University Genome Sequencing Center has commenced systematic sequencing of human chromsome 7. To organize and supply the effort, we have undertaken the construction of sequence-ready physical maps for defined chromosomal intervals. Map construction is a serial process composed of three main activities. First, candidate STS-positive large-insert PAC and BAC clones are

Marco A. Marra; Tamara A. Kucaba; Nicole L. Dietrich; Eric D. Green; Buddy Brownstein; Richard K. Wilson; Ken M. McDonald; LaDeana W. Hillier; John D. McPherson; Robert H. Waterston

1997-01-01

351

One-Turn Map of Storage Ring with Insertion Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering that the one-turn map can provide a useful and powerful tool to understand the nonlinear dynamics in a designing storage ring dedicated to synchrotron radiation and in a damping ring used as the pre-injector of linear collider, we first expand the Hamiltonian of a charged particle moving along the insertion device (ID) axis to the fourth-order Taylor series, and

Yong-Jun Li

2003-01-01

352

Abstract Line Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

Nevinskas, Nancy

2011-01-01

353

The Language of Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project about lines in the environment used with 2- and 3-year olds and based on the Reggio Emilia approach. Activities included making tracks with riding toys, drawing lines on papers, seeing cloud lines, and making lines with yarn and Cuisenaire rods. Shows how young children's observations and ongoing discoveries can uncover their…

Breig-Allen, Cheryl; Hill, Janet; Geismar-Ryan, Lori; Cadwell, Louise Boyd

1998-01-01

354

ADC's Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems Capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Advance Design Consulting USA, Inc. (ADC) will discuss ADC's major improved capabilities for building Wiggler Insertion Devices, Undulator Planar Devices, Elliptical Polarizing Undulators (EPU), In-Vacuum Undulators (IVU), Cryogenically Cooled in-vacuum Undulators (CPMU), Super Conductive Undulator, and Insertion Device Magnetic Measurement Systems. ADC has designed, built and delivered Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems to such facilities as MAX-lab (two EPUs, a Planar, and Measurement System), ALBA and ASP (Wigglers), BNL (CPMU), SSRF (two IVUs and a Measurement System), PAL (one IVU and Measurement System), NSRRC (one 4m EPU), and SRC (Planar and EPU). ADC's magnetic field measurement system is a sophisticated and sensitive machine for the measurement of magnetic fields in undulators (Planar and EPU), wigglers and in-vacuum ID units. The magnetic fields are measured using 3 axis hall-effect probes, mounted orthogonally, to a thin wand. The wand is mounted to a carriage that rides on vacuum air bearings. The base is granite. A flip coil is provided on two vertical towers with X, Y and Theta axes. Special software is provided to assist in homing, movement, and data collection and analysis.

Deyhim, A.; Kulesza, J.

2013-03-01

355

Local Dispersion Insert: The {gamma}T knob for accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The Local Dispersion Insert is a novel three-quadrupole cell which produces local dispersion and beta waves while leaving all other beam parameters unchanged. The obtained dispersion bump can be effectively used to control the transition energy and the so-called {gamma}T jump of an accelerator. Since the induced beta wave is local and the tune shift is zero, the Local Dispersion Insert is an extremely efficient cell, typically requiring only a small number of magnets in order to achieve a {gamma}T jump. Since the desired {gamma}T jump can be obtained by locally decreasing the dispersion, the well known problems which accompany the conventional {gamma}T jump schemes, like large maximal dispersion, transverse emittance growth etc. are absent. The paper contains three applications of the Local Dispersion Insert: the {gamma}T jump in the Main Injector, the {eta} adjustment in the Antiproton Debuncher (both at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), and the {gamma}T jump in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Visnjic, V.

1994-05-01

356

Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

357

A Comprehensive Map of Mobile Element Insertion Polymorphisms in Humans  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of the accumulation of insertion events over evolutionary time, mobile elements now comprise nearly half of the human genome. The Alu, L1, and SVA mobile element families are still duplicating, generating variation between individual genomes. Mobile element insertions (MEI) have been identified as causes for genetic diseases, including hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and various cancers. Here we present a comprehensive map of 7,380 MEI polymorphisms from the 1000 Genomes Project whole-genome sequencing data of 185 samples in three major populations detected with two detection methods. This catalog enables us to systematically study mutation rates, population segregation, genomic distribution, and functional properties of MEI polymorphisms and to compare MEI to SNP variation from the same individuals. Population allele frequencies of MEI and SNPs are described, broadly, by the same neutral ancestral processes despite vastly different mutation mechanisms and rates, except in coding regions where MEI are virtually absent, presumably due to strong negative selection. A direct comparison of MEI and SNP diversity levels suggests a differential mobile element insertion rate among populations. PMID:21876680

Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Stütz, Adrian M.; Urban, Alexander E.; Grubert, Fabian; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Lee, Wan-Ping; Busby, Michele; Indap, Amit R.; Garrison, Erik; Huff, Chad; Xing, Jinchuan; Snyder, Michael P.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Batzer, Mark A.; Korbel, Jan O.; Marth, Gabor T.

2011-01-01

358

Insertable system for fast turnaround time microwave experiments in a dilution refrigerator.  

PubMed

Microwave experiments in dilution refrigerators are a central tool in the field of superconducting quantum circuits and other research areas. This type of experiments relied so far on attaching a device to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. The minimum turnaround time in this case is a few days as required by cooling down and warming up the entire refrigerator. We developed a new approach, in which a suitable sample holder is attached to a cold-insertable probe and brought in contact with transmission lines permanently mounted inside the cryostat. The total turnaround time is 8 h if the target temperature is 80 mK. The lowest attainable temperature is 30 mK. Our system can accommodate up to six transmission lines, with a measurement bandwidth tested from zero frequency to 12 GHz. This bandwidth is limited by low-pass components in the setup; we expect the intrinsic bandwidth to be at least 18 GHz. We present our setup, discuss the experimental procedure, and give examples of experiments enabled by this system. This new measurement method will have a major impact on systematic ultra-low temperature studies using microwave signals, including those requiring quantum coherence. PMID:23020391

Ong, Florian R; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc; de Waard, Arlette; Frossati, Giorgio; Lupascu, Adrian

2012-09-01

359

Insertable system for fast turnaround time microwave experiments in a dilution refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave experiments in dilution refrigerators are a central tool in the field of superconducting quantum circuits and other research areas. This type of experiments relied so far on attaching a device to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. The minimum turnaround time in this case is a few days as required by cooling down and warming up the entire refrigerator. We developed a new approach, in which a suitable sample holder is attached to a cold-insertable probe and brought in contact with transmission lines permanently mounted inside the cryostat. The total turnaround time is 8 h if the target temperature is 80 mK. The lowest attainable temperature is 30 mK. Our system can accommodate up to six transmission lines, with a measurement bandwidth tested from zero frequency to 12 GHz. This bandwidth is limited by low-pass components in the setup; we expect the intrinsic bandwidth to be at least 18 GHz. We present our setup, discuss the experimental procedure, and give examples of experiments enabled by this system. This new measurement method will have a major impact on systematic ultra-low temperature studies using microwave signals, including those requiring quantum coherence.

Ong, Florian R.; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc; de Waard, Arlette; Frossati, Giorgio; Lupascu, Adrian

2012-09-01

360

Miniaturized overlapped LC phase delay line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel miniaturized ultra-wide bandwidth (DC-35 GHz) LC phase delay line (PDL) based on overlapped meander inductors and air-bridge capacitors is proposed and fabricated. Two 45° and 90° PDLs were designed using a semi-lumped model, and the parameters were calculated and optimized based on transmission line theory and 3D simulations. The lengths of the 45° and 90° delay lines are 110 ?m and 286 ?m, respectively, which represent respective length reductions of 50% and 75% when compared with the corresponding conventional transmission lines. Over the entire operating band, the phase error is less than 0.6° for the 45° PDL and 2.5° for the 90° PDL. The return loss (S11) for both PDLs is better than 15.5 dB, while the insertion loss (S21) is less than 0.62 dB for both devices. Measured results show perfect consistency with the simulation results for these PDLs, and demonstrate the validity of the corresponding model.

Guo, Xin; Li, Ling; Zhao, Chenxu; Liu, Zewen

2014-03-01

361

Identification of Sleeping Beauty transposon insertions in solid tumors using linker-mediated PCR.  

PubMed

Genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic analyses of human tumors indicate that there are thousands of anomalies within each cancer genome compared to matched normal tissue. Based on these analyses it is evident that there are many undiscovered genetic drivers of cancer(1). Unfortunately these drivers are hidden within a much larger number of passenger anomalies in the genome that do not directly contribute to tumor formation. Another aspect of the cancer genome is that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity within similar tumor types. Each tumor can harbor different mutations that provide a selective advantage for tumor formation(2). Performing an unbiased forward genetic screen in mice provides the tools to generate tumors and analyze their genetic composition, while reducing the background of passenger mutations. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is one such method(3). The SB system utilizes mobile vectors (transposons) that can be inserted throughout the genome by the transposase enzyme. Mutations are limited to a specific cell type through the use of a conditional transposase allele that is activated by Cre Recombinase. Many mouse lines exist that express Cre Recombinase in specific tissues. By crossing one of these lines to the conditional transposase allele (e.g. Lox-stop-Lox-SB11), the SB system is activated only in cells that express Cre Recombinase. The Cre Recombinase will excise a stop cassette that blocks expression of the transposase allele, thereby activating transposon mutagenesis within the designated cell type. An SB screen is initiated by breeding three strains of transgenic mice so that the experimental mice carry a conditional transposase allele, a concatamer of transposons, and a tissue-specific Cre Recombinase allele. These mice are allowed to age until tumors form and they become moribund. The mice are then necropsied and genomic DNA is isolated from the tumors. Next, the genomic DNA is subjected to linker-mediated-PCR (LM-PCR) that results in amplification of genomic loci containing an SB transposon. LM-PCR performed on a single tumor will result in hundreds of distinct amplicons representing the hundreds of genomic loci containing transposon insertions in a single tumor(4). The transposon insertions in all tumors are analyzed and common insertion sites (CISs) are identified using an appropriate statistical method(5). Genes within the CIS are highly likely to be oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, and are considered candidate cancer genes. The advantages of using the SB system to identify candidate cancer genes are: 1) the transposon can easily be located in the genome because its sequence is known, 2) transposition can be directed to almost any cell type and 3) the transposon is capable of introducing both gain- and loss-of-function mutations(6). The following protocol describes how to devise and execute a forward genetic screen using the SB transposon system to identify candidate cancer genes (Figure 1). PMID:23407503

Janik, Callie L; Starr, Timothy K

2013-01-01

362

A large-scale gene-trap screen for insertional mutations in developmentally regulated genes in mice  

SciTech Connect

We have used a gene-trap vector and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to screen for insertional mutations in genes developmentally regulated at 8.5 days of embryogenesis (dpc). From 38,730 cell lines with vector insertions, 393 clonal integrations had disrupted active transcription units, as assayed by {beta}-galactosidase reporter gene expression. From these lines, 290 clones were recovered and injected into blastocysts to assay for reporter gene expression in 8.5-dpc chimeric mouse embryos. Of these, 279 clones provided a sufficient number of chimeric embryos for analysis. Thirty-six (13%) showed restricted patterns of reporter-gene expression, 88 (32%) showed widespread expression and 155 (55%) failed to show detectable levels of expression. Further analysis showed that approximately one-third of the clones that did not express detectable levels of the reporter gene at 8.5 dpc displayed reporter gene activity at 12.5 dpc. Thus, a large proportion of the genes that are expressed in ES cells are either temporally or spatially regulated during embryogenesis. These results indicate that gene-trap mutageneses in embryonic stem cells provide an effective approach for isolating mutations in a large number of developmentally regulated genes. 40 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Wurst, W.; Rossant, J.; Prideaux, V.; Kownacka, M.; Hill, D.P.; Guillemot, F.; Auerbach, A.; Cado, D.; Ang, S.L. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

1995-02-01

363

Line Scanners Basic line-scanner principle  

E-print Network

bit #12;Example · Leica ADS80 #12;Comparison to frame sensor · Three-line · 3 rays/strip for every% overlap · 4 for 80% overlap #12;Comparison to frame sensor · Three-line · parallax angle given by interior orientation · Frame · parallax angle depending on base length #12;Comparison to frame sensor · Three

Giger, Christine

364

Microfluidic transwell inserts for generation of tissue culture-friendly gradients in well plates.  

PubMed

Gradients of biochemical molecules play a key role in many physiological processes such as axon growth, tissue morphogenesis, and trans-epithelium nutrient transport, as well as in pathophysiological phenomena such as wound healing, immune response, bacterial invasion, and cancer metastasis. In this paper, we report a microfluidic transwell insert for generating quantifiable concentration gradients in a user-friendly and modular format that is compatible with conventional cell cultures and with tissue explant cultures. The device is simply inserted into a standard 6-well plate, where it hangs self-supported at a distance of ~250 ?m above the cell culture surface. The gradient is created by small microflows from the device, through an integrated track-etched porous membrane, into the cell culture well. The microfluidic transwell can deliver stable, quantifiable gradients over a large area with extremely low fluid shear stress to dissociated cells or tissue explants cultured independently on the surface of a 6-well plate. We used finite-element modeling to describe the porous membrane flow and molecular transport and to predict gradients generated by the device. Using the device, we applied a gradient of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP) to a large population of HL-60 cells (a neutrophil cell line) and directly observed the migration with time-lapse microscopy. On quantification of the chemotactic response with an automated tracking algorithm, we found 74% of the cells moving towards the gradient. Additionally, the modular design and low fluid shear stress made it possible to apply gradients of growth factors and second messengers to mouse retinal explant cultures. With a simplified interface and well-defined gradients, the microfluidic transwell device has potential for broad applications to gradient-sensing biology. PMID:24225908

Sip, Christopher G; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Folch, Albert

2014-01-21

365

An intermediate cobalt(IV) nitrido complex and its N-migratory insertion product.  

PubMed

Low-temperature photolysis experiments (T = 10 K) on the tripodal azido complex [(BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(II)(N3)] (1) were monitored by EPR spectroscopy and support the formation of an exceedingly reactive, high-valent Co nitrido species [(BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(IV)(N)] (2). Density functional theory calculations suggest a low-spin d(5), S = 1/2, electronic configuration of the central cobalt ion in 2 and, thus, are in line with the formulation of complex 2 as a genuine, low-spin Co(IV) nitride species. Although the reactivity of this species precludes handling above 50 K or isolation in the solid state, the N-migratory insertion product [(NH-BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(II)](BPh4) (3) is isolable and was reproducibly synthesized as well as fully characterized, including CHN elemental analysis, paramagnetic (1)H NMR, IR, UV-vis, and EPR spectroscopy as well as SQUID magnetization and single-crystal X-ray crystallography studies. A computational analysis of the reaction pathway 2 ? 3 indicates that the reaction readily occurs via N-migratory insertion into the Co-C bond (activation barrier of 2.2 kcal mol(-1)). In addition to the unusual reactivity of the nitride 2, the resulting divalent cobalt complex 3 is a rare example of a trigonal pyramidal complex with four different donor ligands of a tetradentate chelate-an N-heterocyclic carbene, a phenolate, an imine, and an amine-binding to a high-spin Co(II) ion. This renders complex 3 chiral-at-metal. PMID:25243488

Zolnhofer, Eva M; Käß, Martina; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Heinemann, Frank W; Maron, Laurent; van Gastel, Maurice; Bill, Eckhard; Meyer, Karsten

2014-10-22

366

Assembly and insertion of a self-fitting hearing aid: design of effective instruction materials.  

PubMed

A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were "very easy" to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content. PMID:22389434

Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

2011-12-01

367

Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Insertion in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients and Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1) ALI distance (ALID)—the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) to the ALI; and (2) marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD)—the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian. Results Both ALID (256±54 vs. 209±37 µm, mean ± SD, p<0.001) and mALCSD (232±63 vs. 187±40 µm, p<0.001) were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o?clock and 11.5 o?clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group. Conclusions The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation. PMID:25531761

Lee, Kyoung Min; Kim, Tae-Woo; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Eun Ji; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial

2014-01-01

368

Assembly of non-unique insertion content using next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

Recent studies in genomics have highlighted the significance of sequence insertions in determining individual variation. Efforts to discover the content of these sequence insertions have been limited to short insertions and long unique insertions. Much of the inserted sequence in the typical human genome, however, is a mixture of repeated and unique sequence. Current methods are designed to assemble only unique sequence insertions, using reads that do not map to the reference. These methods are not able to assemble repeated sequence insertions, as the reads will map to the reference in a different locus. In this paper, we present a computational method for discovering the content of sequence insertions that are unique, repeated, or a combination of the two. Our method analyzes the read mappings and depth of coverage of paired-end reads to identify reads that originated from inserted sequence. We demonstrate the process of assembling these reads to characterize the insertion content. Our method is based on the idea of segment extension, which progressively extends segments of known content using paired-end reads. We apply our method in simulation to discover the content of inserted sequences in a modified mouse chromosome and show that our method produces reliable results at 40x coverage. PMID:21989261

2011-01-01

369

The human genome in the LINE of fire Richard Cordaux1  

E-print Network

The human genome in the LINE of fire Richard Cordaux1 Universite´ de Poitiers, Centre National de of the human genome was that nearly half of our DNA is derived from transposable element (TE) insertions). Remarkably, the vast major- ity of human TE sequences result from the activity of a single class of TEs known

Cordaux, Richard

370

A Manually Operated, Advance Off-Stylet Insertion Tool for Minimally Invasive Cochlear Implantation Surgery  

PubMed Central

The current technique for cochlear implantation (CI) surgery requires a mastoidectomy to gain access to the cochlea for electrode array insertion. It has been shown that microstereotactic frames can enable an image-guided, minimally invasive approach to CI surgery called percutaneous cochlear implantation (PCI) that uses a single drill hole for electrode array insertion, avoiding a more invasive mastoidectomy. Current clinical methods for electrode array insertion are not compatible with PCI surgery because they require a mastoidectomy to access the cochlea; thus, we have developed a manually operated electrode array insertion tool that can be deployed through a PCI drill hole. The tool can be adjusted using a preoperative CT scan for accurate execution of the advance off-stylet (AOS) insertion technique and requires less skill to operate than is currently required to implant electrode arrays. We performed three cadaver insertion experiments using the AOS technique and determined that all insertions were successful using CT and microdissection. PMID:22851233

Kratchman, Louis B.; Schurzig, Daniel; McRackan, Theodore R.; Balachandran, Ramya; Noble, Jack H.; Webster, Robert J.; Labadie, Robert F.

2014-01-01

371

The design of test-section inserts for higher speed aeroacoustic testing in the Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80- by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal was to find test-section modifications that would allow improved aeroacoustic testing at airspeeds equal to and above the current 100 knots limit. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed drives the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis led to a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open-jet test section, and a 70 x 110 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoustic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 ft test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5-ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test-section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustics studies of large helicopter models, jets and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs.

Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E.

1992-01-01

372

Ribosomal DNA insertion elements R1Bm and R2Bm can transpose in a sequence specific manner to locations outside the 28S genes.  

PubMed Central

A fraction of the ribosomal 28S genes in some insects are interrupted at specific sites by insertion elements R1 and R2 (also called Type I and II). These elements contain long open-reading frames with homology to reverse transcriptase. We have identified in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, copies of these elements which have inserted into sites outside the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units. The 3' ends of all "non-rDNA" elements are identical to the elements within the 28S genes; however their 5' ends are often truncated. Each non-rDNA copy has inserted into sequences that exhibit similarity to their target sites in the 28S gene. We also demonstrate by genomic blot analysis of different strains of B. mori that insertions of R1 and R2 outside the rDNA units have been infrequent, while considerable turnover of elements has occurred within the rDNA locus. One race of B. mori has lost all copies of R1 from its rDNA units, while retaining normal levels of R2. The level of both R1 and R2 have significantly increased in a tissue culture line. These findings add considerable support to the model that R1 and R2 are retrotransposable elements that utilize sequence specific endonucleases in their integration into the genome. Images PMID:2849750

Xiong, Y; Burke, W D; Jakubczak, J L; Eickbush, T H

1988-01-01

373

ANNEX P GOVERNMENT ACCEPTANCE LETTER TEMPLATE ATZH-DTU (Insert Date Here) MEMORANDUM FOR RECORD SUBJECT: GOVERNMENT ACCEPTANCE OF THE (INSERT SIMULATOR NAME  

E-print Network

Report Here). (If there multiple Group Trials occurred reference their reports as well). 2. PURPOSE: This Memorandum of Record (MOR) is to certify that all of the (Insert Simulator Name Here) lessons have validated IAW TRADOC Regulation 350-70-10. This Simulator is ready for use in training. 3. BACKGROUND: The period of performance for the (Insert Simulator Name Here) was (Insert Contract Period of Performance Dates Here). This Simulator consisted of a total of (Insert Total Number of Simulator Lessons Here) lessons. (Insert the total number of Group Trials that occurred here) Group Trials were conducted over a period of one year to validate these Simulator lessons. These Group Trials were conducted utilizing Soldiers from (State where the Soldiers that participated from the Group Trials came from, for example Hold-Under Soldiers from “X ” location or Soldiers enrolled in a certain ongoing SIGCEN resident training class). 4. Group Trial Results: a. Group Trial #1 was conducted on (Insert the date of the Group Trial here). (Insert number of lessons that validated here) lessons validated, (Insert the number of lessons that

unknown authors

374

Tool wear and machining performance of cBN–TiN coated carbide inserts and PCBN compact inserts in turning AISI 4340 hardened steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCBN is the dominant tool material for hard turning applications due to its high hardness, high wear resistance, and high thermal stability. However, the inflexibility of fabricating PCBN inserts with complex tool geometries and the prohibitive cost of PCBN inserts are some of the concerns in furthering the implementation of CBN based materials for hard turning. In this paper, we

Abhijeet S. More; Wenping Jiang; W. D. Brown; Ajay P. Malshe

2006-01-01

375

Efficient Merge and Insert Operations for Binary Heaps and Trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Binary heaps and binary search trees merge efficiently. We introduce a new amortized analysis that allows us to prove the cost of merging either binary heaps or balanced binary trees is O(l), in the amortized sense. The standard set of other operations (create, insert, delete, extract minimum, in the case of binary heaps, and balanced binary trees, as well as a search operation for balanced binary trees) remain with a cost of O(log n). For binary heaps implemented as arrays, we show a new merge algorithm that has a single operation cost for merging two heaps, a and b, of O(absolute value of a + min(log absolute value of b log log absolute value of b. log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). This is an improvement over O(absolute value of a + log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). The cost of the new merge is so low that it can be used in a new structure which we call shadow heaps. to implement the insert operation to a tunable efficiency. Shadow heaps support the insert operation for simple priority queues in an amortized time of O(f(n)) and other operations in time O((log n log log n)/f (n)), where 1 less than or equal to f (n) less than or equal to log log n. More generally, the results here show that any data structure with operations that change its size by at most one, with the exception of a merge (aka meld) operation, can efficiently amortize the cost of the merge under conditions that are true for most implementations of binary heaps and search trees.

Kuszmaul, Christopher Lee; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

376

Rest insertion combined with high-frequency loading enhances osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Mechanical loading can significantly affect skeletal adaptation. High-frequency loading can be a potent osteogenic stimulus. Additionally, insertion of rest periods between consecutive loading bouts can be a potent osteogenic stimulus. Thus we investigated whether the insertion of rest-periods between short-term high-frequency loading bouts would augment adaptation in the mature murine skeleton. Right tibiae of skeletally mature (16 wk) female C57BL/6 mice were loaded in cantilever bending at peak of 800 microepsilon, 30 Hz, 5 days/wk for 3 wk. Left tibiae were the contralateral control condition. Mice were randomly assigned into one of two groups: continuous high-frequency (CT) stimulation for 100 s (n = 9), or 1-s pulses of high-frequency stimuli followed by 10 s of rest (RI) for 100 s (n = 9). Calcein labels were administered on days 1 and 21; label incorporation was used to histomorphometrically assess periosteal and endosteal indexes of adaptation. Periosteal surface referent bone formation rate (pBFR/BS) was significantly enhanced in CT (>88%) and RI (>126%) loaded tibiae, relative to control tibiae. Furthermore, RI tibiae had significantly greater pBFR/BS, relative to CT tibiae (>72%). The endosteal surface was not as sensitive to mechanical loading as the periosteal surface. Thus short-term high-frequency loading significantly elevated pBFR/BS, relative to control tibiae. Furthermore, despite the 10-fold reduction in cycle number, the insertion of rest periods between bouts of high-frequency stimuli significantly augmented pBFR/BS, relative to tibiae loaded continually. Optimization of osteogenesis in response to mechanical loading may underpin the development of nonpharmacological regiments designed to increase bone strength in individuals with compromised bone structures. PMID:14707150

LaMothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F

2004-05-01

377

Solving Witten's SFT by Insertion of Operators on Projectors  

E-print Network

Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist invariant projector, the energy density can account for at most 68.46% of the D25-brane tension. The general results are then applied to regulated slivers and butterflies, and the next-to-leading order solution for regulated sliver states is constructed.

Yang, H

2004-01-01

378

Solving Witten's SFT by Insertion of Operators on Projectors  

E-print Network

Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist invariant projector, the energy density can account for at most 68.46% of the D25-brane tension. The general results are then applied to regulated slivers and butterflies, and the next-to-leading order solution for regulated sliver states is constructed.

Haitang Yang

2004-06-02

379

Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems  

SciTech Connect

Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

Nijs, Els L. F., E-mail: nijs@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Clinical Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Cahill, Anne Marie, E-mail: cahill@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States)

2010-12-15

380

Severe epistaxis after nasogastric tube insertion requiring arterial embolisation  

PubMed Central

A 53-year-old dialysis patient was admitted with symptoms of a respiratory tract infection, abdominal pain and vomiting. She aspirated and required intubation. A nasogastric tube was placed with slight difficulty and the patient developed severe epistaxis. The bleeding could not be controlled with mechanical pressure and nasal packing. Angiography revealed extravasation from a pseudoaneurysm arising from the inferior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal trunk. The vessel was successfully embolised with cessation of bleeding. We emphasise that even a seemingly easy procedure like insertion of a nasogastric tube, can lead to a life-threatening complication. PMID:23334489

Paul, Vishesh; Kupfer, Yizhak; Tessler, Sidney

2013-01-01

381

Staphylococcal septicaemia after insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device.  

PubMed

Your recent lead article on toxic shock and tampons (November 1, p. 1161) prompts me to report a case of pelvic infection and staphylococcal septicemia 8 days after the insertion of a Lippes loop. Pelvic infection is a recognized complication of IUDs; although there have been 2 reports of endocarditis occurring in susceptible patients following the insertion of an IUD, septicemia is rare. A previously healthy 31-year old married woman had a loop inserted at a family planning clinic. 3 days later she developed sweating, vomiting, confusion, and cough and during the following 48 hours became disoriented with hallucinations. She was referred to the hospital with suspected encephalitis and on admission was febrile (38.8 degrees Celsius) and stuporose but responded to simple commands. Blood pressure was 95/60 mmHg but there were no other abnormal signs. Hemoglobin was 12.2 g/dl, white blood count 4.0x109/1 (80% neutrophils), erythrocyte sedimentation rate 70mm in the 1st hour; cerebrospinal fluid normal. Chest x-ray examination revealed patchy consolidation in the upper lobes of both lungs and an electroencephalogram showed bilateral nonspecific abnormality. 3 blood cultures taken on admission yielded penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. She was treated with high-dose intravenous cloxacillin and 24 hours after starting the antibiotic had improved markedly and the IUD was removed. Culture from the coil and also from a high vaginal swab yielded Staph aureus with a similar antibiogram to that of the organism cultured from the blood. Subsequent recovery was uneventful, although repeat chest x-ray examination showed small abscess cavities in the upper lobes of both lungs. The patient was discharged 4 weeks after admission and serial chest radiographs have confirmed complete resolution of the pneumonia and abscesses. There is little doubt that this patients' septicemia with lung abscess formation and encephalopathy originated in the genital tract. The patient was both toxic and shocked but was different from patients with the recently described toxic shock syndrome in that her blood culture was positive for Staph aureus. The case provides another example of the importance of this organism as a cause of infection associated with the insertion of foreign bodies into or through the vagina. PMID:7448549

Geddes, A M

1980-12-13

382

Points, Lines, and Planes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will define the important basics of Geometry: Points, Lines, and Planes Let's take notes on our first lesson! Click on the link below to get started: Points, Lines, and Planes Now, here is an activity to check your understanding: Points, Lines and Planes Activity OK! Now, here is a quiz to really see if you got it: Points, Lines, and Planes Quiz! Good Job! Now, your homework can be found on your Canvas account or my website calendar on ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-08-18

383

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of salbutamol sulphate in situ gelling nasal inserts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to formulate salbutamol sulfate (SS), a model drug, as mucoadhesive in situ gelling inserts having a high potential as nasal drug delivery system bypassing the first-pass metabolism. In situ gelling inserts, each containing 1.4% SS and 2% gel-forming polymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC Na), sodium alginate (AL), and chitosan (CH) were prepared. The inserts were investigated for their different physicochemical properties. The weight of inserts was 16-27 mg, drug content was 3.9-4.2 mg, thickness ranged between 15 and 28 ?m and surface pH was 5-7. Cumulative drug released from the inserts exhibited extended release for more than 10 h following the decreasing order: CH>AL>CMC Na>HPMC. The drug release from CMC Na and AL inserts followed zero-order kinetics while HPMC and CH inserts exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The inserts exhibited different water uptake (7-23%) with the smallest values for CH. Differential scanning calorimetry study pointed out possible interaction of SS and oppositely charged anionic polymers (CMC Na and AL). The mucoadhesive in situ gelling inserts exhibited satisfactory mucoadhesive and extended drug release characteristics. The inserts could be used for nasal delivery of SS over about 12 h; bypassing the hepatic first-pass metabolism without potential irritation. PMID:23516112

Farid, Ragwa M; Etman, Mohamed A; Nada, Aly H; Ebian, Abd El Azeem R

2013-06-01

384

Emission and Absorption Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the University of California, Riverside offers an explanation of emission and absorption lines. A diagram, with descriptive text, shows how light from a star can produce each type of line. Also, an image of solar absorption lines is provided.

Wudka, Jose

2007-12-20

385

Basic Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Line plots are a useful way to display data especially change over time. In this lesson, students learn basic line plot analysis using authentic NASA wind speed data from two locations. In the extensions sections, there is an opportunity to build upon basic line plot analysis skills and opportunities for further assessment.

386

Algebraic curve for a cusped Wilson line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the classical limit of the recently obtained exact near-BPS result for the anomalous dimension of a cusped Wilson line with the insertion of an operator with L units of R-charge at the cusp in planar = 4 SYM. The classical limit requires taking both the 't Hooft coupling and L to infinity. Since the formula for the cusp anomalous dimension involves determinants of size proportional to L, the classical limit requires a matrix model reformulation of the result. Building on results of Gromov and Sever, we construct such a matrix model-like representation and find the corresponding classical algebraic curve. Using this we find the classical value of the cusp anomalous dimension and the 1-loop correction to it. We check our results against the energy of the classical solution and numerically by extrapolating from the quantum regime of finite L.

Sizov, Grigory; Valatka, Saulius

2014-05-01

387

Building a Zip Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A zip line is a way to glide from one point to another while hanging from a cable. Design and create a zip line that is safe for a hard-boiled egg. After designing a safety egg harness, connect the harness to fishing line or wire connected between two chairs of different heights using a paper clip. Learn to improve your zip line based on data. Attach a motion sensor at the bottom of your zip line and display a graph to show how smooth a ride your egg had!

2012-07-19

388

Slope of a Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this project is to provide resources for practicing graphing a line in slope-intercept form. Work through each step and make sure you do the assessment at the end. [Utah State Algebra 1 Core Curriculum - Standard II, Objectives 1-3.] S tep 1: Watch the video. Slope-Intercept Video Step 2: Click on the link to practice graphing lines. Try at least 10 different equations. Do more if you want to. Graphing Lines Practice Step 3: Learn a little bit more about graphs of lines. Use this link to focus more on the equations of veertical and horizontal line. Answer the questions ...

Edwards, Mr.

2010-10-26

389

Line of Best Fit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When data is displayed with a scatter plot, it is often useful to attempt to represent that data with the equation of a straight line for purposes of predicting values that may not be displayed on the plot. Such a straight line is called the "line of best fit." In this activity, students discover the relationship between the fat grams and the total calories in fast food by graphing the given data, estimate the line of best fit using a strand of spaghetti, calculate the slope of that line, and translate it into an equation. Then, they use that equation to predict information not originally included in the scatter plot.

2012-08-13

390

Be Careful with an IV Line  

PubMed Central

Obtaining an intravenous (IV) access is a simple procedure which can be done in almost any hospital setting. One of the most dreaded complications of this procedure is an inadvertent intra-arterial cannulation. This can result in an accidental injection of medications intra-arterially, which can potentially lead to life altering consequences. In the hope that these types of events can be prevented, we are presenting a case of a 57-year-old male who underwent bougie dilatation for an oesophageal stricture and was accidentally given medication for pain management intra-arterially through an improperly placed IV line, which resulted in ischaemia, gangrene and subsequent loss of the hand. Those who try to obtain an IV access should always be on the lookout for possible clues that can prevent an inadvertent IA injection, especially if cannulation is in an area where an artery is in close proximity to a vein; these clues include but are not limited to the following: a bright-red flash of blood in the cannula, pulsatile movement of blood in the IV line, and intense pain or burning at the site of injection. These signs, as well as educating the patient on early symptoms of ischaemia, may allow early action to be taken, to prevent irreparable damage. We always have to be careful when we insert an I.V line. PMID:24783122

Prabhu, Raghunath; Shenoy, Rajgopal; Thinda, Nitin; Patel, Anisha; Sadhu, Sakshi

2014-01-01

391

Modification of a Hewlett-Packard 5971/5972 MSD to accept a direct insertion capillary membrane probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for conversion of a Hewlett-Packard 5971 or 5972 MSD to allow the use of direct insertion probes (DIPs) is presented. All instructions for the electrical and mechanical modifications are explained in detail. Blueprint drawings of all necessary modification parts are included with the text. A comprehensive summary of the performance of the modified HP 5972 MSD using direct insertion capillary membrane probes is also presented. The HP 5972 series mass spectrometers are the most popular GC/MS systems in use world-wide. Occasionally, one of these spectrometers is sitting idle in a laboratory where it might be applied to experiments outside its original GC/MS purpose. Unfortunately, the HP MSD is not easily converted to alternative use because the source heating capability is supplied by the GC transfer line. Without source heat the spectrometer does not function properly. The GC transfer line temperature control is furnished by the gas chromatograph rather than the mass spectrometer data system. Therefore, removal of the gas chromatograph and GC transfer line results in the loss of heating capability for the ion source. This problem has prevented most MSD users from applying this inexpensive, yet highly functional, mass spectrometer to applications outside GC/MS. There seems to be a great deal of interest in the utilization of the HP MSD in applications that are precluded by the original instrument design. This paper is written as an instruction manual for users who wish to enable the use of DIPs in the MSD. A table is included that demonstrates the performance of a modified HP 5972 MSD in applications involving the direct analysis of volatile organic compounds in water using membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS).

Bauer, Scott; Griffin, Timothy; Bauer, Jan

1996-10-01

392

Corrugated fiberboard as a positioning insert for patients undergoing radiotherapy.  

PubMed

We have developed a new body fixation system for single patient use, which consists of a vacuum cushion, a thermoplastic fixation sheet which is used to suppress involuntary and voluntary patient movement, and a triple-wall corrugated fiberboard base plate to which both the vacuum cushion and the thermoplastic sheet are affixed. To evaluate the characteristics of the fiberboard as a patient-positioning insert, the photon beam attenuation of a fiberboard base plate, a carbon-fiber base plate, and a vacuum-formed cushion were compared. The strength of the fiberboard was also evaluated. The attenuation for the carbon-fiber base plate was 3.7% and 2.6% in 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively, while the results were less for the fiberboard base plate, i.e. 1.9% and 1.6%. The vacuum-formed cushion had a minimal effect on transmission. None of the materials subsided under the weight loading of 20 g/cm(2). There was no difference between the thicknesses of the fiberboard before and after a 50 times daily load with the 60 kg weight of a volunteer. Corrugated fiberboard is a robust and low attenuating material that functions well as a patient-positioning insert. PMID:19755802

Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshikawa, Haruo; Akai, Tomoharu; Nomoto, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Yoshimitsu, Kengo

2010-01-01

393

The structure of hobo transposable elements and their insertion sites  

PubMed Central

The hobo transposable elements of Drosophila form a family of 3.0-kb elements and their deletion derivatives. Their distribution is consistent with the model that 3.0-kb elements are functionally complete but that smaller hobos are defective and require complete elements in trans for transposition. The sequence of one 3.0-kb element is presented; it has several interesting features, including a 1.9-kb open reading frame downstream from potential TATA and CAT sequences. Comparison of 11 independent insertion sites shows that in every case the hobo element has integrated at and duplicated either the sequence NNNNNNAC or CTTTNNNN. There is evidence that an eight nucleotide sequence internal to hobo that matches both of these sequences has been used as an insertion site for a second hobo element, as the first step in the creation of an internal deletion derivative. Structural similarities between hobo and the eukaryotic transposable elements P, Ac, 1723, and Tam3, found in widely divergent host organisms, suggest that they all transpose by a common mechanism. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:16453744

Streck, R. D.; MacGaffey, J. E.; Beckendorf, S. K.

1986-01-01

394

The structure of hobo transposable elements and their insertion sites.  

PubMed

The hobo transposable elements of Drosophila form a family of 3.0-kb elements and their deletion derivatives. Their distribution is consistent with the model that 3.0-kb elements are functionally complete but that smaller hobos are defective and require complete elements in trans for transposition. The sequence of one 3.0-kb element is presented; it has several interesting features, including a 1.9-kb open reading frame downstream from potential TATA and CAT sequences. Comparison of 11 independent insertion sites shows that in every case the hobo element has integrated at and duplicated either the sequence NNNNNNAC or CTTTNNNN. There is evidence that an eight nucleotide sequence internal to hobo that matches both of these sequences has been used as an insertion site for a second hobo element, as the first step in the creation of an internal deletion derivative. Structural similarities between hobo and the eukaryotic transposable elements P, Ac, 1723, and Tam3, found in widely divergent host organisms, suggest that they all transpose by a common mechanism. PMID:16453744

Streck, R D; Macgaffey, J E; Beckendorf, S K

1986-12-20

395

Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

2013-08-01

396

Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J; Nguyen, Diep M; Lipscomb, Gina L; Benn, Robert A; Prybol, Cameron J; Vaccaro, Brian J; Poole, Farris L; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

2014-12-01

397

Early metamorphic insertion technology for insect flight behavior monitoring.  

PubMed

Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing "only" while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

Verderber, Alexander; McKnight, Michael; Bozkurt, Alper

2014-01-01

398

Functional Analysis of Unique Class II Insertion Sequence IS1071  

PubMed Central

Various xenobiotic-degrading genes on many catabolic plasmids are often flanked by two copies of an insertion sequence, IS1071. This 3.2-kb IS element has long (110-bp) terminal inverted repeats (IRs) and a transposase gene that are phylogenetically related to those of the class II transposons. However, the transposition mechanism of IS1071 has remained unclear. Our study revealed that IS1071 was only able to transpose at high frequencies in two environmental ?-proteobacterial strains, Comamonas testosteroni and Delftia acidovorans, and not in any of the bacteria examined which belong to the ?- and ?-proteobacteria. IS1071 was found to have the functional features of the class II transposons in that (i) the final product of the IS1071 transposition was a cointegrate of its donor and target DNA molecules connected by two directly repeated copies of IS1071, one at each junction; (ii) a 5-bp duplication of the target sequence was observed at the insertion site; and (iii) a tnpA mutation of IS1071 was efficiently complemented by supplying the wild-type tnpA gene in trans. Deletion analysis of the IS1071 IR sequences indicated that nearly the entire region of the IRs was required for its transposition, suggesting that the interaction between the transposase and IRs of IS1071 might be different from that of the other well-characterized class II transposons. PMID:16391056

Sota, Masahiro; Yano, Hirokazu; Nagata, Yuji; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Genka, Hiroyuki; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Kawasaki, Haruhiko; Tsuda, Masataka

2006-01-01

399

Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.  

PubMed

Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by ?-? interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material. PMID:23027798

Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

2012-11-01

400

Lithium insertion/extraction in pyrolyzed phenolic resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms for the high capacity of lithium insertion in low-temperature pyrolytic carbons are not fully understood though several models have been proposed. None of the existing models considers the reversible crystalline structural changes within a graphene layer in the discharge-charge processes. In this report, low-temperature pyrolytic phenolic resin and lithium ion cells made of it are characterized by Raman spectroscopy, XRD and elemental analysis as well as discharge/charge measurements. The linear relation is confirmed between the specific capacity of the low-temperature pyrolytic carbon and its H/C atomic ratio after eliminating the influence of the crystallite size to the capacity. It is found that the evolution of the Raman spectrum of the pyrolytic carbon electrode upon discharge and charge is quite different from that of the other forms of carbonaceous electrodes. Based on the characteristic Raman spectra and the discharge-charge curves of the carbon electrode, a breaking-recovery model of the weak C⋯H bond is suggested for the lithium insertion/extraction processes in the low-temperature pyrolytic carbon electrodes.

Wang, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Xuejie; Chen, Liquan

401

Ionic conductivity, lithium insertion and extraction of lanthanum lithium titanate.  

SciTech Connect

The lithium ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability of perovskite La{sub 2/3-x}Li{sub 3x}TiO{sub 3} (LLTO) have been determined with AC impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling. Ionic conductivity of La{sub 0.55}Li{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.57}Li{sub 0.29}TiO{sub 3} pellets sintered from four different powders was measured in the temperature range from 30 to 110 C. Bulk conductivity was found to be closely related to the calcination temperature of the powders. Pellets from 1100 C-calcined powders had higher bulk conductivity than from 1200 C-calcined powders. The grain-boundary conductivity was mainly determined by the sample composition. The activation energies were 0.14-0.18 eV for bulk conduction and 0.41-0.43 eV for grain-boundary conduction. Lithium was intercalated into LLTO below about 1.8 V vs. Li. With addition of acetylene black, about 0.48 Li was reversibly inserted into and extracted out of La{sub 0.55}Li{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}. A phase transition is proposed to take place during the lithium insertion.

Chen, C. H.; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering

2001-09-01

402

Nosocomial meningitis in children after ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion.  

PubMed

This study reviews 33 cases of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) meningitis among 415 children after 540 shunt insertions within 8 y, in 9 paediatric intensive care units from 5 centres in Slovakia. The incidence of VPS meningitis was 6.3% per insertion. The most common organisms isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and shunt were coagulase-negative staphylococci (52.8%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (13.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%). Seven of 15 assessed risk factors were significantly associated with VPS meningitis, compared with non-VPS meningitis: prior meningitis with hydrocephalus (15.1 vs 1.5%, p < 0.015), perinatal pathology (51.1 vs 1.5%, p < 0.001), very low birthweight (66.6 vs 16.2%, p < 0.001), polymicrobial nosocomial meningitis (30.3 vs 5.9%, p < 0.002), S. aureus (21.2 vs 7.3%, p < 0.05), coagulase-negative staphylococci (84.8 vs 30.9%, p < 0.001) and P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (30.3 vs 4.5%, p < 0.001) in aetiology. PMID:10426184

Filka, J; Huttova, M; Tuharsky, J; Sagat, T; Kralinsky, K; Krcmery, V

1999-05-01

403

Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

2014-03-01

404

Long Interspersed Element–1 (LINE-1): Passenger or Driver in Human Neoplasms?  

PubMed Central

LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons make up a significant portion of human genomes, with an estimated 500,000 copies per genome. Like other retrotransposons, L1 retrotransposons propagate through RNA sequences that are reverse transcribed into DNA sequences, which are integrated into new genomic loci. L1 somatic insertions have the potential to disrupt the transcriptome by inserting into or nearby genes. By mutating genes and playing a role in epigenetic dysregulation, L1 transposons may contribute to tumorigenesis. Studies of the “mobilome” have lagged behind other tumor characterizations at the sequence, transcript, and epigenetic levels. Here, we consider evidence that L1 retrotransposons may sometimes drive human tumorigenesis. PMID:23555307

Rodi?, Nemanja; Burns, Kathleen H.

2013-01-01

405

Using ?C31 integrase to mediate insertion of DNA in Xenopus embryos.  

PubMed

The two most common methods used to generate transgenic Xenopus embryos, restriction enzyme-mediated insertion, and I-SceI meganuclease take advantage of relatively common but spatially unpredictable double-stranded breaks in sperm, egg, or early embryo genomes. These methods also tend to insert multimeric copies of the transgene. An alternative is to use bacteriophage- or transposon-derived integrase or recombinase to mediate more site-specific insertion of the transgene. The use of phiC31 integrase requires a defined sequence for insertion and is compatible with insertion of a single copy of the transgene. We describe the protocol we use to facilitate phiC31 integrase transgene insertion including the use of insulator sequences to reduce position effect disruption of transgene activity. PMID:22956091

Li, You E; Allen, Bryan G; Weeks, Daniel L

2012-01-01

406

Nature screen: an efficient method for screening natural populations of Drosophila for targeted P-element insertions.  

PubMed Central

The efficiency of molecular techniques is making it increasingly necessary to rely on reverse genetics to understand the function of genes. Tissue-specific libraries allow one to identify numerous genes that can be cloned, sequenced, and mapped and whose temporal and tissue-specific pattern of expression are well characterized but whose function remains unknown. In such cases, it is desirable to generate targeted mutations to examine the phenotype of loss-of-function lesions. Here we describe a method for identifying naturally occurring variants of Drosophila melanogaster with specific genes tagged by a nearby P element. Imprecise P-element excision can then be used to generate a series of small deletions in or near the gene. In the method described here, large numbers of wild-caught males were crossed to balancer females, and inserts were identified in pooled samples by the polymerase chain reaction with one primer from each target gene and one primer from the P-element terminal repeat. We present the calculations for the probability of successfully tagging a gene and show that it is greatly improved by simultaneously screening inserts into several genes. If a large natural population is available, a nature screen is faster and easier than inducing P-element transposition in the laboratory, but the resulting lines, being genetically heterogeneous, may require more subsequent work to isolate. Using this method to screen the genomes of approximately 10,400 males, we found P-element inserts in close proximity to 3 of 10 genes that were screened. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8290588

Clark, A G; Silveria, S; Meyers, W; Langley, C H

1994-01-01

407

Coding for synchronous, fixed length decoding windows in the presence of insertion\\/deletion errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is firstly shown that the use of a fixed length decoding window in a channel that introduces insertions\\/deletions can propagate the errors to such an extent that stronger insertion\\/deletion correcting codes must be used. It is further shown that random insertion\\/deletion correcting codes based on the Levenshtein distance are not optimal for such channels. A modification to the Levenshtein

W. Clarke; H. Ferreira

2004-01-01

408

Coding for insertion\\/deletion error propagation effects associated with fixed length decoding windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is firstly shown that the use of a fixed length decoding window in a channel that introduces insertions\\/deletions can propagate the errors to such an extent that stronger insertion\\/deletion correcting codes must be used. It is further shown that random insertion\\/deletion correcting codes based on the Levenshtein distance are not optimal for such channels. A modification to the Levensthein

Willem A Clarke; Hendrik C Ferreira

2004-01-01

409

Lithium insertion\\/extraction reaction on crystalline MoO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical lithium insertion\\/extraction reaction on three MoO3 samples with different crystallinity, which were heat-treated at 300, 600, and 750°C, was studied, and the structural change of the host MoO3 during the lithium insertion\\/extraction process was followed by XRD measurements on the oriented cathode plates in a reflection and transmission arrangement. The possibility of the insertion of solvated lithium ions into

T Tsumura; M Inagaki

1997-01-01

410

Large-scale aeroacoustic research feasibility and conceptual design of test-section inserts for the Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80 by 120 foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The advantages and disadvantages of likely designs were analyzed. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed leads to the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis indicated a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open jet test section, and a 70 x 100 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining, respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoutic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5 ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustic studies of large helicopter models, jets, and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs. In all designs studied, the existing structure would have to be reinforced. Successful development of acoustically transparent walls, though not strictly necessary to the project, would lead to a porous-wall test section that could be substituted for any of the open-jet designs, and thereby eliminate many aerodynamic and acoustic problems characteristic of open-jet shear layers. The larger size of the facility would make installation and removal of the insert components difficult. Consequently, scheduling of the existing 80 x 120 aerodynamic test section and scheduling of the open-jet test section would likely be made on an annual or longer basis. The enhanced wall-lining insert would likely be permanent. Although the modifications are technically feasible, the economic practicality of the project was not evaluated.

Soderman, Paul T.; Olsen, Larry E.

1990-01-01

411

Near-isogenic lines for measuring phenotypic effects of DIMBOA-Glc methyltransferase activity in maize  

PubMed Central

Three O-methyltransferases (BX10a, b, c) catalyze the conversion of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside (DIMBOA-Glc) to 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside (HDMBOA-Glc) in maize (Zea mays). Variation in benzoxazinoid accumulation and resistance to Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) was attributed to a natural CACTA family transposon insertion that inactivates Bx10c. Whereas maize inbred line B73 has this transposon insertion, line CML277 does not. To characterize the phenotypic effects of DIMBOA-Glc methyltransferase activity, we created near-isogenic lines derived from B73 and CML277 that do or do not contain the transposon insertion. Bx10c inactivation causes high DIMBOA-Glc, low HDMBOA-Glc, and decreased aphid reproduction relative to near-isogenic lines that have a functional Bx10c gene. These results confirm the importance of this locus in maize aphid resistance. The availability of Bx10c near-isogenic lines will facilitate further research on the function of different benzoxazinoids and DIMBOA-Glc methyltransferase activity in maize defense against herbivores and pathogens.

Mijares, Valeria; Meihls, Lisa; Jander, Georg; Tzin, Vered

2013-01-01

412

Interfacial folding and membrane insertion of designed peptides studied by molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

The mechanism of interfacial folding and membrane insertion of designed peptides is explored by using an implicit membrane generalized Born model and replica-exchange molecular dynamics. Folding/insertion simulations initiated from fully extended peptide conformations in the aqueous phase, at least 28 A away from the membrane interface, demonstrate a general mechanism for structure formation and insertion (when it occurs). The predominately hydrophobic peptides from the synthetic WALP and TMX series first become localized at the membrane-solvent interface where they form significant helical secondary structure via a helix-turn-helix motif that inserts the central hydrophobic residues into the membrane interior, and then fluctuations occur that provide a persistent helical structure throughout the peptide and it inserts with its N-terminal end moving across the membrane. More specifically, we observed that: (i) the WALP peptides (WALP16, WALP19, and WALP23) spontaneously insert in the membrane as just noted; (ii) TMX-1 also inserts spontaneously after a similar mechanism and forms a transmembrane helix with a population of approximately 50% at 300 K; and (iii) TMX-3 does not insert, but exists in a fluctuating membrane interface-bound form. These findings are in excellent agreement with available experimental data and demonstrate the potential for new implicit solvent/membrane models together with advanced simulation protocols to guide experimental programs in exploring the nature and mechanism of membrane-associated folding and insertion of biologically important peptides. PMID:15860587

Im, Wonpil; Brooks, Charles L

2005-05-10

413

[Anesthetic management of tracheobronchial stent insertion and extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA)].  

PubMed

We experienced eight cases of general anesthesia for tracheobronchial stent insertion. All stents were Ultraflex stent (Boston Scientific, Tokyo), and they were inserted guided by bronchofiberscopy under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with patients under spontaneous breathing, and we inserted a tracheal tube or a laryngeal mask airway. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and sevoflurane. In four cases with severe tracheobronchial stenosis, we used venovenous extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) before general anesthesia induction. Oxygenation during stent insertion was well-maintained in all patients. We must evaluate the severity of tracheobronchial stenosis preoperatively. In high risk cases anticipated of airway obstruction, ECLA should be used for safe anesthetic management. PMID:18546898

Nagamine, Yusuke; Harada, Takashi; Asada, Mieko; Sumitomo, Masakazu

2008-06-01

414

Synthesis and insertion chemistry of mixed tether uranium metallocene complexes.  

PubMed

The synthesis of mixed tethered alkyl uranium metallocenes has been investigated by examining the reactivity of the bis(tethered alkyl) metallocene [(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)-?C)(2)U] (1) with substrates that react with only one of the U-C linkages. The effect of these mixed tether coordination environments on the reactivity of the remaining U-C bond has been studied by using CO insertion chemistry. One equivalent of azidoadamantane (AdN(3)) reacts with 1 to yield the mixed tethered alkyl triazenido complex [(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)-?C)U(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)-CH(2)NNN-Ad-?(2)N(1,3))]. Similarly, a single equivalent of CS(2) reacts with 1 to form the mixed tethered alkyl dithiocarboxylate complex [(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)-?C)U(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)-CH(2)C(S)(2)-?(2)S,S')], a reaction that constitutes the first example of CS(2) insertion into a U(4+)-C bond. Complex 1 reacts with one equivalent of pyridine N-oxide by C-H bond activation of the pyridine ring to form a mixed tethered alkyl cyclometalated pyridine N-oxide complex [(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)-?C)(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(3))U(C(6)H(4)NO-?(2)C,O)]. The remaining (?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)-?C)(2-) ligand in each of these mixed tethered species show reactivity towards CO and tethered enolate ligands form by insertion. Subsequent rearrangement have been identified in [(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(3))U(C(5)H(4)NO-?(2)C,O)(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)C(=CH(2))O-?O)] and [(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)NNN-Ad-?(2)N(1,3))U(?(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)C(=CH(2))O-?O)]. PMID:23047764

Siladke, Nathan A; LeDuc, Jennifer; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

2012-11-12

415

Lentiviral vector-based insertional mutagenesis identifies genes involved in the resistance to targeted anticancer therapies.  

PubMed

The high transduction efficiency of lentiviral vectors in a wide variety of cells makes them an ideal tool for forward genetics screenings addressing issues of cancer research. Although molecular targeted therapies have provided significant advances in tumor treatment, relapses often occur by the expansion of tumor cell clones carrying mutations that confer resistance. Identification of the culprits of anticancer drug resistance is fundamental for the achievement of long-term response. Here, we developed a new lentiviral vector-based insertional mutagenesis screening to identify genes that confer resistance to clinically relevant targeted anticancer therapies. By applying this genome-wide approach to cell lines representing two subtypes of HER2(+) breast cancer, we identified 62 candidate lapatinib resistance genes. We validated the top ranking genes, i.e., PIK3CA and PIK3CB, by showing that their forced expression confers resistance to lapatinib in vitro and found that their mutation/overexpression is associated to poor prognosis in human breast tumors. Then, we successfully applied this approach to the identification of erlotinib resistance genes in pancreatic cancer, thus showing the intrinsic versatility of the approach. The acquired knowledge can help identifying combinations of targeted drugs to overcome the occurrence of resistance, thus opening new horizons for more effective treatment of tumors. PMID:25195596

Ranzani, Marco; Annunziato, Stefano; Calabria, Andrea; Brasca, Stefano; Benedicenti, Fabrizio; Gallina, Pierangela; Naldini, Luigi; Montini, Eugenio

2014-12-01

416

Intragenic integration in DLC1 sustains factor VIII expression in primary human cells without insertional oncogenicity  

PubMed Central

Techniques enabling precise genome modifications enhance the safety of gene-based therapy. DLC1 is a hot spot for phiC31 integrase-mediated transgene integration in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that integration of a coagulation factor VIII transgene into intron 7 of DLC1 supports durable expression of factor VIII in primary human umbilical cord-lining epithelial cells. Oligoclonal cells with factor VIII transgene integrated in DLC1 did not have altered expression of DLC1 or neighbouring genes within a 1-Mb interval. Only 1.9% of all expressed genes were transcriptionally altered; most were downregulated and mapped to cell cycle and DNA repair pathways. DLC1-integrated cells were not tumourigenic in vivo and were normal by high-resolution genomic DNA copy number analysis. Our data identify DLC1 as a locus for durable transgene expression that does not incur features of insertional oncogenesis, thus expanding options for developing ex vivo cell therapy mediated by site-specific integration methods. PMID:24553346

Sivalingam, J; Phan, T T; Kon, O L

2014-01-01

417

piggyBac Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis in Mouse Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells.  

PubMed

Forward genetic screening is a powerful non-hypothesis-driven approach to unveil the molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying phenotypes of interest. In this approach, a genome-wide mutant library is first generated and then screened for a phenotype of interest. Subsequently, genes responsible for the phenotype are identified. There have been a number of successful screens in yeasts, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. These model organisms all allow loss-of-function mutants to be generated easily on a genome-wide scale: yeasts have a haploid stage in their reproductive cycles and the latter two organisms have short generation times, allowing mutations to be systematically bred to homozygosity. However, in mammals, the diploid genome and long generation time have always hampered rapid and efficient production of homozygous mutant cells and animals. The recent discovery of several haploid mammalian cell lines promises to revolutionize recessive genetic screens in mammalian cells. In this protocol, we describe an overview of insertional mutagenesis, focusing on DNA transposons, and provide a method for an efficient generation of genome-wide mutant libraries using mouse haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:25408399

Pettitt, Stephen J; Tan, E-Pien; Yusa, Kosuke

2015-01-01

418

Why Insertion Turbine Meters are Replacing Orifice Plates for Steam Flow Measurement  

E-print Network

to the cost or shut down, this is universally true. ORIFICE METER o o o TION TURBINE METER 6 10 16 LINE SI ZE (INCHES) Figure 2. Metering cost - Orifice vs. Insertion Turbine. Not to be forgotten, is yet another cost - the hidden or phantom cost... B 6.9 3.8 9.3 4.0 12.5 4.2 13.9 4.3 16.7 4.5 Figure 4B A B 10.0 3.8 13.8 4.0 17.4 4.2 19.0 4.3 22.0 4.5 Figure 4C A B 20.8 3.8 25.0 4.0 28.8 4.2 31.0 4.3 35.2 4.5 Figure 4D A B 7.5 3.8 9.7 4.1 11.8 4.2 12...

Rusnak, J. J.

1983-01-01

419

Identifying pathogenicity genes in the rubber tree anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides through random insertional mutagenesis.  

PubMed

To gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenesis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to identify mutants of C. gloeosporioides impaired in pathogenicity. An ATMT library of 4128 C. gloeosporioides transformants was generated. Transformants were screened for defects in pathogenicity with a detached copper brown leaf assay. 32 mutants showing reproducible pathogenicity defects were obtained. Southern blot analysis showed 60.4% of the transformants had single-site T-DNA integrations. 16 Genomic sequences flanking T-DNA were recovered from mutants by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and were used to isolate the tagged genes from the genome sequence of wild-type C. gloeosporioides by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches against the local genome database of the wild-type C. gloeosporioides. One potential pathogenicity genes encoded calcium-translocating P-type ATPase. Six potential pathogenicity genes had no known homologs in filamentous fungi and were likely to be novel fungal virulence factors. Two putative genes encoded Glycosyltransferase family 28 domain-containing protein and Mov34/MPN/PAD-1 family protein, respectively. Five potential pathogenicity genes had putative function matched with putative protein of other Colletotrichum species. Two known C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity genes were also identified, the encoding Glomerella cingulata hard-surface induced protein and C. gloeosporioides regulatory subunit of protein kinase A gene involved in cAMP-dependent PKA signal transduction pathway. PMID:23602122

Cai, Zhiying; Li, Guohua; Lin, Chunhua; Shi, Tao; Zhai, Ligang; Chen, Yipeng; Huang, Guixiu

2013-07-19

420

Directed line liquids  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point.

Kamien, R.D.

1992-01-01

421

Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent. In the present study, we found a new natural recessive purple eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, Hn ( bp ), which was a 45-nt insertion mutant in the second exon of Henna. The insertion resulted in a predicted protein with 15 additional amino acids as compared to the wild-type protein. Further analysis of protein structure showed that the predicted mutant protein probably had two more beta-sheets, which may cause instability of two alpha-helices near the catalytic centre of the enzyme in the Biopterin-Hydroxyl binding domain. Hn ( bp ) mutant showed eye color defect with decrease of mRNA level, as well as drosopterin content reduction. The drosopterin defect could be fully rescued by expression of wild type Henna in the Hn ( bp ) background by GMR-GAL4 UAS-Henna/UAS-Henna:Hn ( bp )/Hn ( bp ) transgenic line. All taken together, it can be concluded that the mutation in Henna is responsible for drosopterin reduction in mutant Hn ( bp ), which provides key in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that Henna is involved in drosopterin synthesis. PMID:18677598

Wang, Qin; Zhao, Chunjiang; Bai, Lihua; Deng, Xuemei; Wu, Changxin

2008-08-01

422

Interactive Fraction Number Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students make models of fractions, including a human number line. Using a number line, students develop conceptual understanding of fractions. Students use the number line to represent and compare fractions less than one. The activities are engaging and include full participation/engagement of all students. The fractions are limited to positive fractions less than one with a denominator of 2 or 4 including 0 and 1 whole.

Green, Michael

2012-05-25

423

Text Steganography using LSB insertion method along with Chaos Theory  

E-print Network

The art of information hiding has been around nearly as long as the need for covert communication. Steganography, the concealing of information, arose early on as an extremely useful method for covert information transmission. Steganography is the art of hiding secret message within a larger image or message such that the hidden message or an image is undetectable; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscure. The goal of a steganographic method is to minimize the visually apparent and statistical differences between the cover data and a steganogram while maximizing the size of the payload. Current digital image steganography presents the challenge of hiding message in a digital image in a way that is robust to image manipulation and attack. This paper explains about how a secret message can be hidden into an image using least significant bit insertion method along with chaos.

S., Bhavana

2012-01-01

424

Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace that will operate in the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) on the International Space Station. It will provide high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. Numerical analyses and breadboard testing conducted to date show that the QMI can produce an axial temperature gradient approaching 150 C per centimeter in a 1 centimeter diameter aluminum sample with a maximum molten sample temperature of 1100 C. Breadboard testing and analysis have also shown that the quench capabilities of the furnace are sufficient to rapidly solidify at least a 5mm axial portion of a 1 centimeter diameter molten aluminum sample in significantly less than the required 2 seconds and prevent significant backmelt. This paper presents the furnace requirements and capabilities and a status of the associated development testing and analyses.

Carswell, William E.; Crouch, M. R.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

425

Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.  

PubMed

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups. PMID:19341319

Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

2008-10-01

426

RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.  

SciTech Connect

Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.

SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.

1997-05-12

427

Assessment of a percutaneous iliosacral screw insertion simulator  

E-print Network

BACKGROUND: Navigational simulator use for specialized training purposes is rather uncommon in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. However, it reveals providing a valuable tool to train orthopaedic surgeons and help them to plan complex surgical procedures. PURPOSE: This work's objective was to assess educational efficiency of a path simulator under fluoroscopic guidance applied to sacroiliac joint percutaneous screw fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 23 surgeons' accuracy inserting a guide-wire in a human cadaver experiment, following a pre-established procedure. These medical trainees were defined in three prospective respects: novice or skilled; with or without theoretical knowledge; with or without surgical procedure familiarity. Analysed criteria for each tested surgeon included the number of intraoperative X-rays taken in order to achieve the surgical procedure as well as an iatrogenic index reflecting the surgeon's ability to detect any hazardous trajectory at the time of performing said procedu...

Tonetti, J; Girard, P; Dubois, M; Merloz, P; Troccaz, Jocelyne; 10.1016/j.otsr.2009.07.005

2009-01-01

428

Radiation doses to insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure.

Moog, E.R.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Semones, E.J.; Job, P.K.

1997-09-01

429

INSERTION DEVICES R AND Ds FOR NSLS-II.  

SciTech Connect

NSLS-II is a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also for broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based Elliptically Polarized Undulators (EPUs) are for polarization control. Rigorous R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the above devices as well as building new types of insertion devices such as high temperature superconducting wiggler/undulators. This paper describes the details of these activities and discuss technical issues.

TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SHAFTAN, T.; SKARITKA, J.

2007-06-25

430

Software technology insertion: A study of success factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Managing software development in large organizations has become increasingly difficult due to increasing technical complexity, stricter government standards, a shortage of experienced software engineers, competitive pressure for improved productivity and quality, the need to co-develop hardware and software together, and the rapid changes in both hardware and software technology. The 'software factory' approach to software development minimizes risks while maximizing productivity and quality through standardization, automation, and training. However, in practice, this approach is relatively inflexible when adopting new software technologies. The methods that a large multi-project software engineering organization can use to increase the likelihood of successful software technology insertion (STI), especially in a standardized engineering environment, are described.

Lydon, Tom

1990-01-01

431

Implementing a new urinary catheter insertion and removal pack.  

PubMed

This article describes the implementation of a community urinary catheter insertion and removal pack that provides equipment to maintain safe and effective practice at a cost-effective price within Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. This development was achieved through service integration as a result of two large trusts amalgamating, offering the opportunity for practice development resulting in the development of a joint catheter product formulary, the implementation of a patient catheter record booklet and the design of a community urinary catheterisation pack. The impact of service integration has provided scope for proactive working between acute and community continence services, resulting in innovative approaches generating better quality outcomes for patients who require urinary catheterisation. PMID:25345452

Laws, Alyson

2014-10-23

432

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides information and a graphical exercise for students regarding the interaction between magnetic field lines and a plasma. The activity involves tracing a typical interplanetary magnetic field line, dragged out of a location on the Sun by the radial flow of the solar wind. This illustrates the way magnetic field lines are "frozen to the plasma" and the wrapping of field lines due to the rotation of the sun. This is part of the work "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere". A Spanish translation is available.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

433

Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 ?m. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

2002-03-01

434

Velamentous cord insertion: is it associated with adverse perinatal outcomes?  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction: Velamentous cord insertion (VCI) can be identified on prenatal ultrasound with an incidence of around 1%. We set out to examine the association between VCI and perinatal outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 482?812 pregnancies using the California vital statistics birth cohort dataset linked with patient discharge dataset from 2006 during which 2327 (0.48%) were complicated by VCI. Outcomes examined included intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm delivery, manual removal of the placenta and cesarean delivery. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Pregnancies with VCI, compared to those without, were associated with an increased risk of IUFD (2.6% versus 0.28%, p?=?0.001), SGA (16.93% versus 10.17%, p?=?0.001), preterm delivery <37 weeks (12.5% versus 9.10%, p?=?0.001), manual removal of placenta (14.47% versus 0.76%, p?=?0.01) and postpartum hemorrhage (6.66% versus 2.88%, p?=?0.001). Adjusting for confounders, the adjusted odds of IUFD were more than nine times in pregnancies with VCI (aOR 9.56; 95% CI 6.76-13.5) than those without. Discussion: VCI is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as IUFD, SGA, preterm delivery <37 weeks, need for manual removal of placenta and post-partum hemorrhage. Routine identification of the placental cord insertion site should be considered. Close surveillance of these pregnancies should be undertaken. Future research should focus on the optimal management including the gestational age for delivery of these pregnancies. PMID:24758363

Esakoff, Tania F; Cheng, Yvonne W; Snowden, Jonathan M; Tran, Susan H; Shaffer, Brian L; Caughey, Aaron B

2014-05-27

435

Tracking marsupial evolution using archaic genomic retroposon insertions.  

PubMed

The Australasian and South American marsupial mammals, such as kangaroos and opossums, are the closest living relatives to placental mammals, having shared a common ancestor around 130 million years ago. The evolutionary relationships among the seven marsupial orders have, however, so far eluded resolution. In particular, the relationships between the four Australasian and three South American marsupial orders have been intensively debated since the South American order Microbiotheria was taxonomically moved into the group Australidelphia. Australidelphia is significantly supported by both molecular and morphological data and comprises the four Australasian marsupial orders and the South American order Microbiotheria, indicating a complex, ancient, biogeographic history of marsupials. However, the exact phylogenetic position of Microbiotheria within Australidelphia has yet to be resolved using either sequence or morphological data analysis. Here, we provide evidence from newly established and virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertion markers for the basal relationships among marsupial orders. Fifty-three phylogenetically informative markers were retrieved after in silico and experimental screening of approximately 217,000 retroposon-containing loci from opossum and kangaroo. The four Australasian orders share a single origin with Microbiotheria as their closest sister group, supporting a clear divergence between South American and Australasian marsupials. In addition, the new data place the South American opossums (Didelphimorphia) as the first branch of the marsupial tree. The exhaustive computational and experimental evidence provides important insight into the evolution of retroposable elements in the marsupial genome. Placing the retroposon insertion pattern in a paleobiogeographic context indicates a single marsupial migration from South America to Australia. The now firmly established phylogeny can be used to determine the direction of genomic changes and morphological transitions within marsupials. PMID:20668664

Nilsson, Maria A; Churakov, Gennady; Sommer, Mirjam; Tran, Ngoc Van; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

2010-01-01

436

Tracking Marsupial Evolution Using Archaic Genomic Retroposon Insertions  

PubMed Central

The Australasian and South American marsupial mammals, such as kangaroos and opossums, are the closest living relatives to placental mammals, having shared a common ancestor around 130 million years ago. The evolutionary relationships among the seven marsupial orders have, however, so far eluded resolution. In particular, the relationships between the four Australasian and three South American marsupial orders have been intensively debated since the South American order Microbiotheria was taxonomically moved into the group Australidelphia. Australidelphia is significantly supported by both molecular and morphological data and comprises the four Australasian marsupial orders and the South American order Microbiotheria, indicating a complex, ancient, biogeographic history of marsupials. However, the exact phylogenetic position of Microbiotheria within Australidelphia has yet to be resolved using either sequence or morphological data analysis. Here, we provide evidence from newly established and virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertion markers for the basal relationships among marsupial orders. Fifty-three phylogenetically informative markers were retrieved after in silico and experimental screening of ?217,000 retroposon-containing loci from opossum and kangaroo. The four Australasian orders share a single origin with Microbiotheria as their closest sister group, supporting a clear divergence between South American and Australasian marsupials. In addition, the new data place the South American opossums (Didelphimorphia) as the first branch of the marsupial tree. The exhaustive computational and experimental evidence provides important insight into the evolution of retroposable elements in the marsupial genome. Placing the retroposon insertion pattern in a paleobiogeographic context indicates a single marsupial migration from South America to Australia. The now firmly established phylogeny can be used to determine the direction of genomic changes and morphological transitions within marsupials. PMID:20668664

Nilsson, Maria A.; Churakov, Gennady; Sommer, Mirjam; Tran, Ngoc Van; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

2010-01-01

437

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

of the excavation room of a tunnel boring machine (Fig. 1). The robot is teleoperated to perform inspections´ebastien Rubrecht et al. Fig. 1 Tunnel Boring Machine. The red line encircles the cutter head and the excavation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

438

An Algorithm for the Optimization of Insertion Devices to Increase Useful Flux and to Decrease Useless Radiation Power  

SciTech Connect

A continuous spectrum of synchrotron radiation in the hard x-ray region, 5-20 keV, is necessary for the special demand of users, but the high radiation power in that continuous spectrum adversely affects the design of optical components in the beam line. A compromise between photon flux and radiation power of insertion devices should hence be considered. An algorithm and code for spectrum optimization was hence developed using program Mathematica. A wiggler-like undulator with a continuous spectrum was investigated with this code. An optimization algorithm for continuous spectra in the energy range 5-20 keV is presented, and features of the wiggler-like undulator with a continuous spectrum are discussed herein.

Chen, S. D. [Department of of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hwang, C. S. [NSRRC, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Liang, K. S. [Department of of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); NSRRC, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2010-06-23

439

Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

1969-01-01

440

Coolant line hydrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein

M. D. Barber; W. G. Kipp

1987-01-01

441

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

ScienceCinema

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

442

Tangent Lines without Calculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a problem that can help high school students develop the concept of instantaneous velocity and connect it with the slope of a tangent line to the graph of position versus time. It also gives a method for determining the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial function at any point without using calculus. (Contains 1 figure.)

Rabin, Jeffrey M.

2008-01-01

443

CLE: Coronal line synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLE, written in Fortran 77, synthesizes Stokes profiles of forbidden lines such as Fe XIII 1074.7nm, formed in magnetic dipole transitions under coronal conditions. The lines are assumed to be optically thin, excited by (anisotropic) photospheric radiation and thermal particle collisions.

Judge, Philip G.; Casini, Roberto

2014-07-01

444

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2011-01-01

445

Non-Insertional Code-Switching in English-Japanese Bilingual Children: Alternation and Congruent Lexicalisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates English-Japanese children's code-switching (CS) from the structural point of view. Muysken categorises it into three types, that is, insertion, alternation and congruent lexicalisation. Regarding insertion, using Myers-Scotton's matrix language frame (MLF) model, for example, the matrix language (ML) of a bilingual clause…

Namba, Kazuhiko

2012-01-01

446

Nebulized lidocaine decreases the discomfort of nasogastric tube insertion: a randomized, double-blind trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectiveNasogastric tube insertion is a common emergency department (ED) procedure that is associated with considerable patient discomfort. The safety and efficacy of nebulized lidocaine for upper airway anesthesia have previously been demonstrated. We determine whether nebulized lidocaine administered before nasogastric tube insertion significantly reduces patient discomfort.

Louise Cullen; David Taylor; Simone Taylor; Kevin Chu

2004-01-01

447

Fast Energy Loss Computation and Fuzzy-Based Shunt Capacitor Insertion  

E-print Network

Fast Energy Loss Computation and Fuzzy-Based Shunt Capacitor Insertion Dr. W. F. Mohammad, Dr. N power, reactive power, load voltage, load current, power factor, and the shunt capacitors current. It is found that when 2.7 MVAR bank capacitor is inserted in the network the load current is decreased from

448

Minimum Decoupling Capacitor Insertion in VLSI Power/Ground Supply Networks by Semidefinite  

E-print Network

1 Minimum Decoupling Capacitor Insertion in VLSI Power/Ground Supply Networks by Semidefinite-scale VLSI design demands reliable on- chip power/ground (P/G) supply. Decoupling capacitors effec- tively decoupling capacitor insertion techniques are based on sensitivity analysis and greedy optimization

Liu, Bao

449

ANL/APS/TB-21 Radiation Shielding of Insertion Device Beamlines  

E-print Network

ANL/APS/TB-21 Radiation Shielding of Insertion Device Beamlines Using a Mirror as the First Optical Abstract The radiation shielding for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) insertion device beamline using, and the methodology used to determine the radiation shielding is presented. Results indicate that, by using a x

Kemner, Ken

450

Characterization of collagens and proteoglycans at the insertion of the human achilles tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a unique correlation between a molecular biological and biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules in one half of 28 human Achilles tendons with an immunohistochemical study of the other. Both the insertion site and the mid-tendon were studied. The insertion (enthesis) is characterized by three distinctive fibrocartilages, two in the tendon (enthesial and sesamoid) and

Andrew D. Waggett; James R. Ralphs; Alvin P. L. Kwan; David Woodnutt; Michael Benjamin

1998-01-01

451

Role of positively charged transmembrane segments in the insertion and assembly of mitochondrial  

E-print Network

Role of positively charged transmembrane segments in the insertion and assembly of mitochondrial) The biogenesis of membrane oligomeric complexes is an intricate process that requires the insertion and assembly hydrophobic TM domains from the translocation site into the lipid bilayer. The biogenesis of membrane

Meier, Iris

452

Identification of a Targeting Factor for Posttranslational Membrane Protein Insertion into the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Hundredsofproteinsareanchoredinintracellu- lar membranes by a single transmembrane do- main (TMD) close to the C terminus. Although these tail-anchored (TA) proteins serve numer- ous essential roles in cells, components of their targeting and insertion pathways have long re- mained elusive. Here we reveal a cytosolic TMD recognition complex (TRC) that targets TA proteins for insertion into the ER membrane. The

Sandra Stefanovic; Ramanujan S. Hegde

2007-01-01

453

Test Point Insertion with Control Points Driven by Existing Functional Flip-Flops  

E-print Network

it by inserting test points [6]. Test point insertion (TPI) involves adding control and observation points], a number of TPI methods have been proposed using fault simulation [3], [12] and testability measures [26]. Two general strategies for TPI have been widely studied to overcome the overhead issues: 1) TPI

Touba, Nur A.

454

Family of pH (low) insertion peptides for tumor targeting  

E-print Network

Family of pH (low) insertion peptides for tumor targeting Dhammika Weerakkodya , Anna Moshnikovaa marker for cancer imaging and the delivery of therapeutic molecules, but its promise as a cancer of acidic tissue using the pH-sensitive folding and transmembrane in- sertion of pH (low) insertion peptide

Rhode Island, University of

455

Fresnel patterns insertion on image for data encoding and robust perceptual image hashing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piling of Fresnel patterns is inserted in an image for data encoding and image hashing synchronization, dedicated to local authentication. Beyond, the problem is to preserve both decoding and image content perception. Besides this, the insertion must not too much alter perceptual image hashing.

Fournel, T.; Rivoire, A.; Becker, J. M.; Javidi, B.

2010-04-01

456

Velamentous and Furcate Cord Insertion with Placenta Accreta in an IVF Pregnancy with Unicornuate Uterus  

PubMed Central

Velamentous and furcate cord insertion with concomitant placenta accreta is a very rare and life-threatening event of pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus. Obstetricians should be cautious about umbilical cord insertion and placental adherence abnormalities in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) particularly in women with Müllerian anomalies. PMID:24455351

Canda, Mehmet Tunç; Demir, Nam?k; Doganay, Latife

2013-01-01

457

Severe Intraperitoneal Haemorrhage following Suprapubic Catheter Insertion in a Patient Treated with Iloprost  

PubMed Central

Suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion is a common urological procedure, performed both in the elective and emergency settings. The authors present an unusual case of severe intraperitoneal bleeding following the insertion of an SPC under direct vision, where the use of prostacyclin analogue may have been a contributing factor. PMID:24058740

Spence, R. A. J.; Thwaini, A.; O'Brien, Aidan

2013-01-01

458

Severe Intraperitoneal Haemorrhage following Suprapubic Catheter Insertion in a Patient Treated with Iloprost.  

PubMed

Suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion is a common urological procedure, performed both in the elective and emergency settings. The authors present an unusual case of severe intraperitoneal bleeding following the insertion of an SPC under direct vision, where the use of prostacyclin analogue may have been a contributing factor. PMID:24058740

Spence, R A J; Thwaini, A; O'Brien, Aidan

2013-01-01

459

MMTV insertional mutagenesis identifies genes, gene families and pathways involved in mammary cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a high-throughput retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced mammary tumors and identified 33 common insertion sites, of which 17 genes were previously not known to be associated with mammary cancer and 13 had not previously been linked to cancer in general. Although members of the Wnt and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf) families were frequently

Vassiliki Theodorou; Melanie A Kimm; Mandy Boer; Lodewyk Wessels; Wendy Theelen; Jos Jonkers; John Hilkens

2007-01-01

460

Wear and wear mechanism simulation of heavy-duty engine intake valve and seat inserts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon-chromium alloy frequently used for heavy-duty diesel engine intake valves was tested against eight different insert materials with a valve seat wear simulator. Wear resistance of these combinations was ranked. For each test, the valve seat temperature was controlled at approximately 510 °C, the number of cycles was 864,000 (or 24 h), and the test load was 17,640 N. The combination of the silicon-chromium valve against a cast iron insert produced the least valve seat wear, whereas a cobalt-base alloy insert produced the highest valve seat wear. In the overall valve seat recession ranking, however, the combination of the silicon-chromium valve and an iron-base chromium-nickel alloy insert had the least total seat recession, whereas the silicon-chromium valve against cobalt-base alloy, cast iron, and nickel-base alloy inserts had significant seat recession. Hardness and microstructure compatibility of valve and insert materials are believed to be significant factors in reducing valve and insert wear. The test results indicate that the mechanisms of valve seat and insert wear are a complex combination of adhesion and plastic deformation. Adhesion was confirmed by material transfer, while plastic deformation was verified by shear strain (or radial flow) and abrasion. The oxide films formed during testing also played a significant role. They prevented direct metal-to-metal contact and reduced the coefficient of friction on seat surfaces, thereby reducing adhesive and deformation-controlled wear.

Wang, Y. S.; Narasimhan, S.; Larson, J. M.; Schaefer, S. K.

1998-02-01

461

The Effectiveness of Commercial Haptic Devices for Use in Virtual Needle Insertion Training Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A needle insertion is a widely performed procedure used either to inject fluids, to retrieve samples or as an introducing conduit for more advanced procedures.Needle insertions, like most medical procedures, pose an inherent risk of complication to the patient. This risk has prompted the development of a variety of haptic training simulators to aid in the education of practitioners before

Timothy Richard Coles; Nigel W. John

2010-01-01

462

Flytrap, a database documenting a GFP protein-trap insertion screen in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flytrap is a web-enabled relational database of transposable element insertions in Drosophila melanogaster. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) artificial exon carried by a transposable P-element is mobilized and inserted into a host gene intron creating a GFP fusion protein. The sequence of the tagged gene is determined by sequencing inverse- PCR products derived from genomic DNA. Flytrap contains two principle

Reed J. Kelso; Michael Buszczak; Ana T. Quiñones; Claudia Castiblanco; Stacy Mazzalupo; Lynn Cooley

2004-01-01

463

A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies  

PubMed Central

A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M®, a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M® (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M® was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M®, in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

2014-01-01

464

Estimating Rates of Fault Insertion and Test Effectiveness in Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In developing a software system, we would like to estimate the total number of faults inserted into a software system, the residual fault content of that system at any given time, and the efficacy of the testing activity in executing the code containing the newly inserted faults.

Nikora, A.; Munson, J.

1998-01-01

465

Transfemoral insertion of a bifurcated endovascular graft for aortic aneurysm repair: the first 22 patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and optimize a system of transfemoral bifurcated graft insertion for endovascular repair of infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Grafts were inserted through bilateral femoral arteriotomies in 22 patients. Placement was guided by fluoroscopy. Results were assessed by completion angiography, with computed tomography scanning or duplex ultrasonography at 1, 3 and 6 months. The first 11 insertions were complicated by failed insertion in two cases, proximal leakage in one, graft limb thrombosis in five and wound infection in one. The second 11 insertions were complicated by retrograde leakage around the distal graft orifice in two patients. One of these was associated with aneurysm rupture, leading to the sole mortality of the series. There were no instances of graft migration or embolism. In conclusion, the lessons learned during the first 11 insertions were responsible for the improved results apparent in the second 11 insertions. When applied in properly selected patients, transfemoral insertion of a bifurcated graft is a reliable method of isolating an aortic aneurysm from the circulation. PMID:7606396

Chuter, T A; Wendt, G; Hopkinson, B R; Scott, R A; Risberg, B; Walker, P J; White, G

1995-04-01