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Sample records for t-dna insertion line

  1. GABI-Kat SimpleSearch: an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant database with detailed information for confirmed insertions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Rosso, Mario G; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis approaches, especially by T-DNA, play important roles in gene function studies of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. GABI-Kat SimpleSearch (http://www.GABI-Kat.de) is a Flanking Sequence Tag (FST)-based database for T-DNA insertion mutants generated by the GABI-Kat project. Currently, the database contains >108,000 mapped FSTs from approximately 64,000 lines which cover 64% of all annotated A.thaliana protein-coding genes. The web interface allows searching for relevant insertions by gene code, keyword, line identifier, GenBank accession number of the FST, and also by BLAST. A graphic display of the genome region around the gene or the FST assists users to select insertion lines of their interests. About 3500 insertions were confirmed in the offspring of the plant from which the original FST was generated, and the seeds of these lines are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre. The database now also contains additional information such as segregation data, gene-specific primers and confirmation sequences. This information not only helps users to evaluate the usefulness of the mutant lines, but also covers a big part of the molecular characterization of the insertion alleles. PMID:17062622

  2. GABI-Kat SimpleSearch: an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant database with detailed information for confirmed insertions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Rosso, Mario G.; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis approaches, especially by T-DNA, play important roles in gene function studies of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. GABI-Kat SimpleSearch () is a Flanking Sequence Tag (FST)-based database for T-DNA insertion mutants generated by the GABI-Kat project. Currently, the database contains >108 000 mapped FSTs from ?64 000 lines which cover 64% of all annotated A.thaliana protein-coding genes. The web interface allows searching for relevant insertions by gene code, keyword, line identifier, GenBank accession number of the FST, and also by BLAST. A graphic display of the genome region around the gene or the FST assists users to select insertion lines of their interests. About 3500 insertions were confirmed in the offspring of the plant from which the original FST was generated, and the seeds of these lines are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre. The database now also contains additional information such as segregation data, gene-specific primers and confirmation sequences. This information not only helps users to evaluate the usefulness of the mutant lines, but also covers a big part of the molecular characterization of the insertion alleles. PMID:17062622

  3. T-DNA insertion in aquaporin gene AtPIP1;2 generates transcription profiles reminiscent of a low CO2 response.

    PubMed

    Boudichevskaia, Anastassia; Heckwolf, Marlies; Kaldenhoff, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Results from CO2 diffusion studies and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana aquaporin AtPIP1;2?T-DNA insertion lines support the idea that specific aquaporins facilitate the diffusion of CO2 through biological membranes. However, their function as CO2 diffusion facilitators in plant physiology is still a matter of debate. Assuming that a lack of AtPIP1;2 causes a characteristic transcriptional response, we compared data from a AtPIP1;2?T-DNA insertion line obtained by Illumina sequencing, Affymetrix chip analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to the transcriptome of plants grown under drought stress or under low CO2 conditions. The plant reaction to the deficit of AtPIP1;2 was unlike drought stress responses but comparable with that of low CO2 conditions. In addition, we observed a phenotype characteristic to plants grown under low CO2 . The findings support the hypothesis that the AtPIP1;2 function in plant physiology is not to facilitate water but CO2 diffusion. PMID:25850563

  4. High-Throughput Analysis of T-DNA Location and Structure Using Sequence Capture

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Soichi; Henry, Isabelle M.; Lieberman, Meric C.; Comai, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plants with T-DNA is used both to introduce transgenes and for mutagenesis. Conventional approaches used to identify the genomic location and the structure of the inserted T-DNA are laborious and high-throughput methods using next-generation sequencing are being developed to address these problems. Here, we present a cost-effective approach that uses sequence capture targeted to the T-DNA borders to select genomic DNA fragments containing T-DNA—genome junctions, followed by Illumina sequencing to determine the location and junction structure of T-DNA insertions. Multiple probes can be mixed so that transgenic lines transformed with different T-DNA types can be processed simultaneously, using a simple, index-based pooling approach. We also developed a simple bioinformatic tool to find sequence read pairs that span the junction between the genome and T-DNA or any foreign DNA. We analyzed 29 transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana, each containing inserts from 4 different T-DNA vectors. We determined the location of T-DNA insertions in 22 lines, 4 of which carried multiple insertion sites. Additionally, our analysis uncovered a high frequency of unconventional and complex T-DNA insertions, highlighting the needs for high-throughput methods for T-DNA localization and structural characterization. Transgene insertion events have to be fully characterized prior to use as commercial products. Our method greatly facilitates the first step of this characterization of transgenic plants by providing an efficient screen for the selection of promising lines. PMID:26445462

  5. Genetics, structure, and prevalence of FP967 (CDC Triffid) T-DNA in flax.

    PubMed

    Young, Lester; Hammerlindl, Joseph; Babic, Vivijan; McLeod, Jamille; Sharpe, Andrew; Matsalla, Chad; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Marquess, Leigh; Booker, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    The detection of T-DNA from a genetically modified flaxseed line (FP967, formally CDC Triffid) in a shipment of Canadian flaxseed exported to Europe resulted in a large decrease in the amount of flax planted in Canada. The Canadian flaxseed industry undertook major changes to ensure the removal of FP967 from the supply chain. This study aimed to resolve the genetics and structure of the FP967 transfer DNA (T-DNA). The FP967 T-DNA is thought to be inserted in at single genomic locus. The junction between the T-DNA and genomic DNA consisted of two inverted Right Borders with no Left Border (LB) flanking genomic DNA sequences recovered. This information was used to develop an event-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. This assay and an existing assay specific to the T-DNA construct were used to determine the genetics and prevalence of the FP967 T-DNA. These data supported the hypothesis that the T-DNA is present at a single location in the genome. The FP967 T-DNA is present at a low level (between 0.01 and 0.1%) in breeder seed lots from 2009 and 2010. None of the 11,000 and 16,000 lines selected for advancement through the Flax Breeding Program in 2010 and 2011, respectively, tested positive for the FP967 T-DNA, however. Most of the FP967 T-DNA sequence was resolved via PCR cloning and next generation sequencing. A 3,720 bp duplication of an internal portion of the T-DNA (including a Right Border) was discovered between the flanking genomic DNA and the LB. An event-specific assay, SAT2-LB, was developed for the junction between this repeat and the LB. PMID:25883881

  6. An Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutagenized population (GABI-Kat) for flanking sequence tag-based reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Mario G; Li, Yong; Strizhov, Nicolai; Reiss, Bernd; Dekker, Koen; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2003-09-01

    The GABI-Kat population of T-DNA mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana lines with sequence-characterized insertion sites is used extensively for efficient progress in plant functional genomics. Here we provide details about the establishment of the material, demonstrate the population's functionality and discuss results from quality control studies. T-DNA insertion mutants of the accession Columbia (Col-0) were created by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. To allow selection of transformed plants under greenhouse conditions, a sulfadiazine resistance marker was employed. DNA from leaves of T1 plants was extracted and used as a template for PCR-based amplification of DNA fragments spanning insertion site borders. After sequencing, the data were placed in a flanking sequence tag (FST) database describing which mutant allele was present in which line. Analysis of the distribution of T-DNA insertions revealed a clear bias towards intergenic regions. Insertion sites appeared more frequent in regions in front of the ATG and after STOP codons of predicted genes. Segregation analysis for sulfadiazine resistance showed that 62% of the transformants contain an insertion at only one genetic locus. In quality control studies with gene-specific primers in combination with T-DNA primers, 76% of insertions could be confirmed. Finally, the functionality of the GABI-Kat population was demonstrated by exemplary confirmation of several new transparent testa alleles, as well as a number of other mutants, which were identified on the basis of the FST data. PMID:14756321

  7. GABI-Kat SimpleSearch: new features of the Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant database

    PubMed Central

    Kleinboelting, Nils; Huep, Gunnar; Kloetgen, Andreas; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    T-DNA insertion mutants are very valuable for reverse genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several projects have generated large sequence-indexed collections of T-DNA insertion lines, of which GABI-Kat is the second largest resource worldwide. User access to the collection and its Flanking Sequence Tags (FSTs) is provided by the front end SimpleSearch (http://www.GABI-Kat.de). Several significant improvements have been implemented recently. The database now relies on the TAIRv10 genome sequence and annotation dataset. All FSTs have been newly mapped using an optimized procedure that leads to improved accuracy of insertion site predictions. A fraction of the collection with weak FST yield was re-analysed by generating new FSTs. Along with newly found predictions for older sequences about 20?000 new FSTs were included in the database. Information about groups of FSTs pointing to the same insertion site that is found in several lines but is real only in a single line are included, and many problematic FST-to-line links have been corrected using new wet-lab data. SimpleSearch currently contains data from ?71?000 lines with predicted insertions covering 62.5% of the 27?206 nuclear protein coding genes, and offers insertion allele-specific data from 9545 confirmed lines that are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre. PMID:22080561

  8. GABI-Kat SimpleSearch: new features of the Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant database.

    PubMed

    Kleinboelting, Nils; Huep, Gunnar; Kloetgen, Andreas; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    T-DNA insertion mutants are very valuable for reverse genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several projects have generated large sequence-indexed collections of T-DNA insertion lines, of which GABI-Kat is the second largest resource worldwide. User access to the collection and its Flanking Sequence Tags (FSTs) is provided by the front end SimpleSearch (http://www.GABI-Kat.de). Several significant improvements have been implemented recently. The database now relies on the TAIRv10 genome sequence and annotation dataset. All FSTs have been newly mapped using an optimized procedure that leads to improved accuracy of insertion site predictions. A fraction of the collection with weak FST yield was re-analysed by generating new FSTs. Along with newly found predictions for older sequences about 20,000 new FSTs were included in the database. Information about groups of FSTs pointing to the same insertion site that is found in several lines but is real only in a single line are included, and many problematic FST-to-line links have been corrected using new wet-lab data. SimpleSearch currently contains data from ~71,000 lines with predicted insertions covering 62.5% of the 27,206 nuclear protein coding genes, and offers insertion allele-specific data from 9545 confirmed lines that are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre. PMID:22080561

  9. Forward genetics screening of Medicago truncatula Tnt1 insertion lines.

    PubMed

    Yarce, Juan Carlos Serrani; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2013-01-01

    A large population of Medicago truncatula insertion lines has been generated using the Tnt1 retrotransposon. More than 21,000 insertion lines have been generated, representing more than 500,000 insertion events. This mutant population is being used by the legume research community to screen for various different mutants using a forward genetics approach. Some of the phenotypes that have been screened using this population include developmentally abnormal phenotypes in leaves, stem, flowers, and roots. In addition to these, mutants with defects in symbiosis with Rhizobium and mycorrhiza, mutants with altered nonhost resistance against Asian Soybean Rust and switch grass rust pathogens, mutants with altered lignin content, mutants with altered cell wall structure, etc. have been identified. Here, we describe the high throughput methodology that is being used to identify these M. truncatula mutants. PMID:23996311

  10. Generation of insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant rice by introduction of a T-DNA containing two Bt insecticidal genes and an EPSPS gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi-Chao; Liu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Xian-Wen; Lin, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance have been two of the most important traits in the genetic improvement of various crops. In this study, two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal genes, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ig, and a modified glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene (G10) were combined into a single transferred DNA (T-DNA) fragment and introduced into rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transgenic line with single-copy T-DNA insertion named GAI-14 was found to be highly resistant to striped stem borer and rice leaf roller, and tolerant to glyphosate. Analysis of T-DNA border sequence suggested that the transgenes were inserted at the chromosome 3 and appeared to have not interrupted any known or putative genes. A field trial observed no significant difference in the basic agronomic traits between GAI-14 and the recipient rice. PMID:26465130

  11. Generation of insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant rice by introduction of a T-DNA containing two Bt insecticidal genes and an EPSPS gene*

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Qi-chao; LIU, Ming-hong; ZHANG, Xian-wen; LIN, Chao-yang; ZHANG, Qing; SHEN, Zhi-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance have been two of the most important traits in the genetic improvement of various crops. In this study, two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal genes, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ig, and a modified glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene (G10) were combined into a single transferred DNA (T-DNA) fragment and introduced into rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transgenic line with single-copy T-DNA insertion named GAI-14 was found to be highly resistant to striped stem borer and rice leaf roller, and tolerant to glyphosate. Analysis of T-DNA border sequence suggested that the transgenes were inserted at the chromosome 3 and appeared to have not interrupted any known or putative genes. A field trial observed no significant difference in the basic agronomic traits between GAI-14 and the recipient rice. PMID:26465130

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOOL TO INSERT ABOMASAL INFUSION LINES INTO DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tool was developed to aid in ruminal insertion of abomasal infusion lines into dairy cows. The tool consisted of two pieces cut from polyvinyl chloride pipe. The first piece of pipe, the insertion tool, contained a groove that held the flexible plastic flange that was on the end of the infusion ...

  13. Trans-Repression of Gene Activity Upstream of T-DNA Tagged RLK902 Links Arabidopsis Root Growth Inhibition and Downy Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Dmitry; Andel, Annemiek; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino F.; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Heidstra, Renze; van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) constitute a large family of signal perception molecules in Arabidopsis. The largest group of RLKs is the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class that has been described to function in development and defense. Of these, CLAVATA1 (CLV1) and ERECTA (ER) receptors function in maintaining shoot meristem homeostasis and organ growth, but LRR RLKs with similar function in the root remain unknown. For the interaction of Arabidopsis with the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis the involvement of LRR RLKs has not been demonstrated. A set of homozygous T-DNA insertion lines mutated in LRR RLKs was investigated to assess the potential role of these receptors in root meristem maintenance and compatibility. One mutant line, rlk902, was discovered that showed both reduced root growth and resistance to downy mildew in a recessive manner. The phenotypes of this mutated line could not be rescued by complementation, but are nevertheless linked to the T-DNA insertion. Microarray studies showed that gene expression spanning a region of approximately 84 kb upstream of the mutated gene was downregulated. The results suggest T-DNA mediated trans-repression of multiple genes upstream of the RLK902 locus links both phenotypes. PMID:21532992

  14. Plenum window insertion loss in the presence of a line source--a scale model study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y G; Tang, S K

    2013-03-01

    The acoustical insertion losses of plenum windows installed on a building facade in the presence of a non-parallel line source are studied by using a 1:4 scaled down model in a semi-anechoic chamber in the present investigation. Two types of insertion losses, weighted by the normalized traffic noise spectrum (from the 100 Hz to 5000 Hz one-third octave bands), are defined with different references. The first one is for the case where the orientation of the building facade relative to the line source is fixed. The reference case is the opened window having the same orientation angle as the plenum window. The maximum and minimum insertion losses under this condition across the orientations tested are found to be around 14 dB and 5 dB, respectively. The other is the opposite situation where such orientation is allowed to change because of practical purposes and the reference for this condition is the opened window with its width span parallel to the line source. The corresponding maximum and minimum insertion losses are found to be around 18 dB and 8 dB, respectively. There are evidences showing that the lower order plenum acoustic modes are responsible for the relatively high low frequency insertion loss. PMID:23464017

  15. Comparison of different platelet transfusion thresholds prior to insertion of central lines in patients with thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Desborough, Michael; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of different platelet transfusion thresholds prior to the insertion of a central line in patients with thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). PMID:26627708

  16. Bacterial Transposons Are Co-Transferred with T-DNA to Rice Chromosomes during Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely utilized for delivering a foreign gene into a plant’s genome. We found the bacterial transposon Tn5393 in transgenic rice plants. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) identified that a portion of the Tn5393 sequence was present immediately next to the end of the T-DNA. Because this transposon was present in A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, but not in EHA105 and GV3101, our findings indicated that Tn5393 was transferred from LBA4404 into the rice genome during the transformation process. We also noted that another bacterial transposon, Tn5563, is present in transgenic plants. Analyses of 331 transgenic lines revealed that 26.0% carried Tn5393 and 2.1% contained Tn5563. In most of the lines, an intact transposon was integrated into the T-DNA and transferred to the rice chromosome. More than one copy of T-DNA was introduced into the plants, often at a single locus. This resulted in T-DNA repeats of normal and transposon-carrying T-DNA that generated deletions of a portion of the T-DNA, joining the T-DNA end to the bacterial transposon. Based on these data, we suggest that one should carefully select the appropriate Agrobacterium strain to avoid undesirable transformation of such sequences. PMID:22570148

  17. Increased Polyamine Biosynthesis Enhances Stress Tolerance by Preventing the Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species: T-DNA Mutational Analysis of Oryza sativa Lysine Decarboxylase-like Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Su Jin; Wi, Soo Jin; Choi, Yoo Jin; An, Gynheung; Park, Ky Young

    2012-01-01

    A highly oxidative stress-tolerant japonica rice line was isolated by T-DNA insertion mutation followed by screening in the presence of 50 mM H2O2. The T-DNA insertion was mapped to locus Os09g0547500, the gene product of which was annotated as lysine decarboxylase-like protein (GenBank accession No. AK062595). We termed this gene OsLDC-like 1, for Oryza sativa lysine decarboxylase-like 1. The insertion site was in the second exon and resulted in a 27 amino acid N-terminal deletion. Despite this defect in OsLDC-like 1, the mutant line exhibited enhanced accumulation of the polyamines (PAs) putrescine, spermidine, and spermine under conditions of oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mutant line was assessed by qRT-PCR analysis of NADPH oxidase (RbohD and RbohF), and by DCFH-DA staining. Cellular levels of ROS in osldc-like 1 leaves were significantly lower than those in the wild-type (WT) rice after exposure to oxidative, high salt and acid stresses. Exogenously-applied PAs such as spermidine and spermine significantly inhibited the stress-induced accumulation of ROS and cell damage in WT leaves. Additionally, the activities of ROS-detoxifying enzymes were increased in the homozygous mutant line in the presence or absence of H2O2. Thus, mutation of OsLDC-like 1 conferred an oxidative stress-tolerant phenotype. These results suggest that increased cellular PA levels have a physiological role in preventing stress-induced ROS and ethylene accumulation and the resultant cell damage. PMID:22965749

  18. An Entamoeba histolytica LINE/SINE Pair Inserts at Common Target Sites Cleaved by the Restriction Enzyme-Like LINE-Encoded Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Prabhat K.; Bagchi, Anindya; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2004-01-01

    The non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons (also called long interspersed repetitive elements [LINEs]) are among the oldest retroelements. Here we describe the properties of such an element from a primitive protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, that infects the human gut. This 4.8-kb element, called EhLINE1, is present in about 140 copies dispersed throughout the genome. The element belongs to the R4 clade of non-LTR elements. It has a centrally located reverse transcriptase domain and a restriction enzyme-like endonuclease (EN) domain at the carboxy terminus. We have cloned and expressed a 794-bp fragment containing the EN domain in Escherichia coli. The purified protein could nick supercoiled pBluescript DNA to yield open circular and linear DNAs. The conserved PDX12-14D motif was required for activity. Genomic sequences flanking the sites of insertion of EhLINE1 and the putative partner short interspersed repetitive element (SINE), EhSINE1, were analyzed. Both elements resulted in short target site duplications (TSD) upon insertion. A common feature was the presence of a short T-rich stretch just upstream of the TSD in most insertion sites. By sequence analysis an empty target site in the E. histolytica genome, known to be occupied by EhSINE1, was identified. When a 176-bp fragment containing the empty site was used as a substrate for EN, it was prominently nicked on the bottom strand at the precise point of insertion of EhSINE1, showing that this SINE could use the LINE-encoded endonuclease for its insertion. The nick on the bottom strand was toward the right of the TSD, which is uncommon. The lack of strict target site-specificity of the restriction enzyme-like EN encoded by EhLINE1 is also exceptional. A model for retrotransposition of EhLINE1/SINE1 is presented. PMID:14871947

  19. GAL4 GFP enhancer trap lines for analysis of stomatal guard cell development and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Michael J.; Baker, Andrew J.; Assie, Jean-Maurice; Poethig, R. Scott; Haseloff, Jim P.; Webb, Alex A. R.

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate the monitoring of guard cells during development and isolation, a population of 704 GAL4 GFP enhancer trap lines was screened and four single insert lines with guard cell GFP expression and one with developmentally-regulated guard cell GFP expression were identified. The location of the T-DNA inserts, the expression of the flanking genes, and the promoter activity of the genomic DNA upstream of the T-DNA were characterized. The results indicated that the GFP expression pattern in at least one of the lines was due to elements in the intergenic DNA immediately upstream of the T-DNA, rather than due to the activity of the promoters of genes flanking the insert, and provide evidence for the involvement of Dof elements in regulating guard cell gene expression. It is shown further that the GAL4 GFP lines can be used to track the contribution of guard cell material in vitro, and this method was used to assess the purity of guard cell samples obtained using two methods of guard cell isolation. PMID:19033548

  20. T-strand integration in maize protoplasts after codelivery of a T-DNA substrate and virulence?genes

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Genevičve; Shillito, Raymond D.; Chilton, Mary-Dell

    1997-01-01

    We describe a plant protoplast transformation method that provides transformants with a simple pattern of integration of a foreign gene. The approach is to deliver into plant protoplasts by direct gene transfer the Agrobacterium virulence genes virD1 and virD2 with or without virE2, together with a target plasmid containing a gene of interest flanked by Agrobacterium T-DNA border repeat sequences of 25 bp. We present evidence of T-DNA formation in maize protoplasts and its integration into the maize genome. The frequency of VirD1-VirD2-mediated integration events was about 20–35% of the total number of transformants. The addition of virE2 doubled the transformation efficiency. The method described here is of sufficient efficiency and simplicity to be useful for the production of transgenic plants with single-copy well-defined transgenic inserts. PMID:9326678

  1. A feasibility study of a PET/MRI insert detector using strip-line and waveform sampling data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Eclov, N.; Ronzhin, A.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Los, S.; Wyrwicz, A. M.; Li, L.; Kao, C.-M.

    2015-06-01

    We are developing a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector by using silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) on a strip-line and high speed waveform sampling data acquisition. In this design, multiple SiPMs are connected on a single strip-line and signal waveforms on the strip-line are sampled at two ends of the strip to reduce readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time response of SiPMs. In addition to the deposited energy and time information, the position of the hit SiPM along the strip-line is determined by the arrival time difference of the waveform. Due to the insensitivity of the SiPMs to magnetic fields and the compact front-end electronics, the detector approach is highly attractive for developing a PET insert system for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to provide simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To investigate the feasibility, experimental tests using prototype detector modules have been conducted inside a 9.4 T small animal MRI scanner (Bruker BioSpec 94/30 imaging spectrometer). On the prototype strip-line board, 16 SiPMs (5.2 mm pitch) are installed on two strip-lines and coupled to 2×8 LYSO scintillators (5.0×5.0×10.0 mm3 with 5.2 mm pitch). The outputs of the strip-line boards are connected to a Domino-Ring-Sampler (DRS4) evaluation board for waveform sampling. Preliminary experimental results show that the effect of interference on the MRI image due to the PET detector is negligible and that PET detector performance is comparable with the results measured outside the MRI scanner.

  2. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA): Venezuelan Application

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Hamdy, Osama; Marante, Daniel; Inés Marulanda, María; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a necessary component of comprehensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) management, but optimal outcomes require culturally-sensitive implementation. Accordingly, international experts created an evidence-based transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm (tDNA) to improve understanding of MNT and to foster portability of current guidelines to various dysglycemic populations worldwide. This report details the development of tDNA-Venezuelan via analysis of region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyles, anthropometrics, and resultant tDNA algorithmic modifications. Specific recommendations include: screening for prediabetes (for biochemical monitoring and lifestyle counseling); detecting obesity using Latin American cutoffs for waist circumference and Venezuelan cutoffs for BMI; prescribing MNT to people with prediabetes, T2D, or high CVD risk; specifying control goals in prediabetes and T2D; and describing regional differences in prevalence of CVD risk and lifestyle. Venezuelan deliberations involved evaluating typical food-based eating patterns, correcting improper dietary habits through adaptation of the Mediterranean diet with local foods, developing local recommendations for physical activity, avoiding stigmatizing obesity as a cosmetic problem, avoiding misuse of insulin and metformin, circumscribing bariatric surgery to appropriate indications, and using integrated health service networks to implement tDNA. Finally, further research, national surveys, and validation protocols focusing on CVD risk reduction in Venezuelan populations are necessary. PMID:24699193

  3. An inner-membrane-associated virulence protein essential for T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plants exhibits ATPase activity and similarities to conjugative transfer genes.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, K; Koukolíková-Nicola, Z; Hohn, B; Kado, C I

    1994-02-01

    The 9.5 kb virB operon is the largest of the six major operons in the Ti plasmid vir region. This operon contains eleven genes, the largest of which is virB4. This gene encodes an 84 kDa protein whose function has not been identified. Its roles in conferring virulence on Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in the T-DNA transfer process were determined by generating non-polar mutants by using the Tn5pvirB transposon in which the virB promoter is transcribed downstream of its position of insertion. Several independent mutants were isolated and each insertion site in virB4 was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis. These mutants were tested for T-DNA transfer ability by agroinfection and for tumorigenicity by inoculation in Brassica and Datura. All mutants were agroinfection- and tumorigenicity-negative. These data strongly suggest that virB4 is essential for both the interkingdom transfer of the T-DNA and virulence. Furthermore, by using anti-VirB4 serum, the protein product of virB4 was localized to the inner-membrane fraction of A. tumefaciens. Purified VirB4 protein hydrolyses ATP and this activity was quenched by the anti-VirB4 serum. The energy generated by VirB4 ATPase therefore may be used to transfer T-DNA or to assemble the T-DNA transfer apparatus on the bacterial membrane. Protein sequence analyses revealed striking similarities between VirB4 protein and the proteins required for conjugative transfer, which include TraC, TrwK, and TrbE of plasmids F, R388, and RP4, respectively. These findings suggest that VirB proteins play a direct role in the assembly of a conjugative transfer apparatus required for the transfer of the T-DNA from A. tumefaciens to plant cells. PMID:8152380

  4. FISHES OF HAWAllAN ISLANDS. Page 197. After line 17 insert

    E-print Network

    together, the upper the larger, oval in shape; anal and dorsal fins similar, of equal height and ending posteriorly on a line; no detached rays; origin of anal over fifth dorsal ray; base of anal ain length of fish; anal a lighter bluish white, splotched anteriorly with dusky; axil and base of pectoral earth brown

  5. On-line air-tightness and insertion loss simultaneous detection method of high air-tightness fiber optic penetration connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingchuan; Yang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Junfeng

    2015-08-01

    The high air-tightness multicore fiber optic penetration connector is a core component for the optical fiber sensing and communication technologies applied in the space environment simulator under the vacuum thermal environment. High air-tightness and insertion loss are the two key indexes of the fiber optic penetration connector. The air-tightness and insertion loss on-line synchronous detection method was proposed. First, established hardware-in-the-loop testing platform by using the vacuum pumping system, the vacuum vessel, the helium mass spectrometer leak detector and optical time-domain reflectmeter, then, described the air tightness and insertion loss on-line detection principle, finally, designed a detection test scheme and air-tightness and insertion loss were tested. Experimental results indicate that the leakage rate is lower than 1.0×10-7Pa•L/S, the minimum of which is1.0×10-10Pa•L/S and the insertion loss at wave length window 1550 nm is +/-0.07db, which is less than +/-0.1db. It can lay the data basis for the design of opto-mechanical combination and later period fine processing.

  6. Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer Results Mainly in Transgenic Plants Transmitting T-DNA as a Single Mendelian Factor

    PubMed Central

    Budar, F.; Thia-Toong, L.; Van Montagu, M.; Hernalsteens, J.-P.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-four independent transformed tobacco plants were obtained from a cocultivation experiment with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying modified Ti-plasmids. The transformed plants were either self-fertilized or crossed with nontransformed plants or with other transformed plants. The segregation of a phenotypic marker (kanamycin resistance) in the progenies of these plants was determined. In 40 cases out of 44, the segregation of the kanamycin resistance marker is consistent with Mendelian genetics. Among these 40 clones, 35 contain a single kanamycin resistance locus. The five others segregate two independent resistance loci. In two of the single insert clones, the segregation ratio after selfing indicates that the T-DNA insertion may have caused a recessive lethal mutation. PMID:17246346

  7. Should nephrologists take a larger role in interventional nephrology, and should central line insertion remain a requirement of nephrology residency training? A debate.

    PubMed

    Mendelssohn, David C

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Society of Nephrology must soon provide input concerning the future of procedural training in nephrology. While at one time, the ability to insert a central venous catheter (CVC) was an essential skill required by all nephrologists, in 2014, nephrology training and practice has changed in fundamental ways such that it would be both unreasonable, and impractical, to maintain this requirement. Indeed, survey evidence suggests that many current trainees are not achieving this competency. Amongst the reasons that this requirement should be withdrawn include: 1) Not all trainees have the procedural skills to safely learn to insert CVC's. 2) Most nephrologists in training and in practice are intellectually oriented, not procedurally oriented and are not seeking to perform lots of procedures. 3) In most practice settings, interventional radiologists and intensive care doctors perform dialysis line insertions using real time ultrasound guidance frequently, and offer timely, safer, and better service to patients. 4) Most trainees will not enter practice settings where CVC insertion ability is required. 5) Otherwise excellent future trainees may be denied a nephrology certificate of special competence only because they are unable to insert a CVC by the end of their fellowship. 6) Academic nephrology training programs that cannot provide adequate CVC insertion experience to fellows may lose their status as training centres. As a pragmatic way forward, Canadian nephrology training programs must encourage and offer only those nephrology trainees who have the ability and interest in procedural nephrology, a pathway through which they may be provided superb advanced training to become an expert. There is no longer a compelling reason to mandate this for all trainees. PMID:25922687

  8. Interpreting the biological relevance of bioinformatic analyses with T-DNA sequence for protein allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Harper, B; McClain, S; Ganko, E W

    2012-08-01

    Global regulatory agencies require bioinformatic sequence analysis as part of their safety evaluation for transgenic crops. Analysis typically focuses on encoded proteins and adjacent endogenous flanking sequences. Recently, regulatory expectations have expanded to include all reading frames of the inserted DNA. The intent is to provide biologically relevant results that can be used in the overall assessment of safety. This paper evaluates the relevance of assessing the allergenic potential of all DNA reading frames found in common food genes using methods considered for the analysis of T-DNA sequences used in transgenic crops. FASTA and BLASTX algorithms were used to compare genes from maize, rice, soybean, cucumber, melon, watermelon, and tomato using international regulatory guidance. Results show that BLASTX for maize yielded 7254 alignments that exceeded allergen similarity thresholds and 210,772 alignments that matched eight or more consecutive amino acids with an allergen; other crops produced similar results. This analysis suggests that each nontransgenic crop has a much greater potential for allergenic risk than what has been observed clinically. We demonstrate that a meaningful safety assessment is unlikely to be provided by using methods with inherently high frequencies of false positive alignments when broadly applied to all reading frames of DNA sequence. PMID:22668749

  9. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  10. A LINE-1 Insertion in DLX6 Is Responsible for Cleft Palate and Mandibular Abnormalities in a Canine Model of Pierre Robin Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Zena T.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Arzi, Boaz; Jayashankar, Kartika; Karmi, Nili; Jia, Zhonglin; Rowland, Douglas J.; Young, Amy; Safra, Noa; Sliskovic, Saundra; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wade, Claire M.; Bannasch, Danika L.

    2014-01-01

    Cleft palate (CP) is one of the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. In order to study cleft palate in a naturally occurring model system, we utilized the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) dog breed. Micro-computed tomography analysis of CP NSDTR craniofacial structures revealed that these dogs exhibit defects similar to those observed in a recognizable subgroup of humans with CP: Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). We refer to this phenotype in NSDTRs as CP1. Individuals with PRS have a triad of birth defects: shortened mandible, posteriorly placed tongue, and cleft palate. A genome-wide association study in 14 CP NSDTRs and 72 unaffected NSDTRs identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 14 (24.2 Mb–29.3 Mb; praw?=?4.64×10?15). Sequencing of two regional candidate homeobox genes in NSDTRs, distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5) and distal-less homeobox 6 (DLX6), identified a 2.1 kb LINE-1 insertion within DLX6 in CP1 NSDTRs. The LINE-1 insertion is predicted to insert a premature stop codon within the homeodomain of DLX6. This prompted the sequencing of DLX5 and DLX6 in a human cohort with CP, where a missense mutation within the highly conserved DLX5 homeobox of a patient with PRS was identified. This suggests the involvement of DLX5 in the development of PRS. These results demonstrate the power of the canine animal model as a genetically tractable approach to understanding naturally occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. PMID:24699068

  11. Final technical report for: Insertional Mutagenesis of Brachypodium distachyon DE-AI02-07ER64452

    SciTech Connect

    John, Vogel P.

    2015-10-29

    Several bioenergy grasses are poised to become a major source of energy in the United States. Despite their increasing importance, we know little about the basic biology underlying the traits that control the utility of grasses as energy crops. Better knowledge of grass biology (e.g. identification of the genes that control cell wall composition, plant architecture, cell size, cell division, reproduction, nutrient uptake, carbon flux, etc.) could be used to design rational strategies for crop improvement and shorten the time required to domesticate these species. The use of an appropriate model system is an efficient way to gain this knowledge. Brachypodium distachyon is a small annual grass with all the attributes needed to be a modern model organism including simple growth requirements, fast generation time, small stature, small genome size and self-fertility. These attributes led to the recommendation in the DOE’s “Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda” report to propose developing and using B. distachyon as a model for energy crops to accelerate their domestication. Strategic investments (e.g. genome sequencing) in B. distachyon by the DOE are now bearing fruit and B. distachyon is being used as a model grass by hundreds of laboratories worldwide. Sequence indexed insertional mutants are an extremely powerful tool for both forward and reverse genetics. They allow researchers to order mutants in any gene tagged in the collection by simply emailing a request. The goal of this project was to create a collection of sequence indexed insertional mutants (T-DNA lines) for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon in order to facilitate research by the scientific community. During the course of this grant we created a collection of 23,649 B. distachyon T-DNA lines and identified 26,112 unique insertion sites. The collection can be queried through the project website (http://jgi.doe.gov/our-science/science-programs/plant-genomics/brachypodium/brachypodium-t-dna-collection/) and through the Phytozome genome browser (http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/pz/portal.html). The collection has been heavily utilized by the research community and, as of October 23, 2015, 223 orders for 12,069 seeds packets have been filled. In addition to creating this resource, we also optimized methods for transformation and sequencing DNA flanking insertion sites.

  12. Copper Heat Exchanger for the External Auxiliary Bus-Bars Routing Line in the LHC Insertion Regions

    E-print Network

    Garion, C; Seyvet, F; Sitko, M; Skoczen, B; Tock, J P

    2006-01-01

    The corrector magnets and the main quadrupoles of the LHC dispersion suppressors are powered by a special superconducting line (called auxiliary bus-bars line N), external to the cold mass and housed in a 50 mm diameter stainless steel tube fixed to the cold mass. As the line is periodically connected to the cold mass, the same gaseous and liquid helium cools both the magnets and the line. The final sub-cooling process (from around 4.5 K down to 1.9 K) consists in the phase transformation from liquid to superfluid helium. Heat is extracted from the line through the magnets via their point of junction. In dispersion suppressor zones, approximately 40 m long, the sub-cooling of the line is slightly delayed with respect to the magnets. This might have an impact on the readiness of the accelerator for operation. In order to accelerate the process, a special heat exchanger has been designed. It is located in the middle of the dispersion suppressor portion of the line. Its main function consists in providing a loca...

  13. A new PCR system for Agrobacterium tumefaciens detection based on amplification of T-DNA fragment.

    PubMed

    Sachadyn, P; Kur, J

    1997-01-01

    The design of the PCR system presented in this work is based on the knowledge of the molecular character of the crown gall disease. The virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires the presence of a big (up to 235,000 bp) plasmid Ti (pTi-tumour inducing plasmid). This plasmid carries the so-called T-DNA fragment (T-DNA-transferred DNA), which integrates into cell chromosomes of the infected plants and subsequently changes the plant morphology nad metabolism. In cannot be excluded that after T-DNA integration the presence of Agrobacterium is not necessary for the development of pathological changes. Thus, T-DNA is the only sign that must be present both in virulent bacteria and in infected plants in any stadium of the disease and even before the infection. This is why T-DNA was chosen as the target region for PCR amplification. Primers flanking a 220 bp fragment of one of the conservative regions responsible for Agrobacterium pathogenicity, namely tms2 gene coding for indolacetamide amidohydrolase (the second step of auxin biosynthesis) were designed as the optimal for PCR amplification. The PCR amplification reactions were performed for matrixes isolated from cultures of reference strains giving one predicted product for each sample. First attempts of T-DNA detection in infected soils and plants were performed. We hope that the presented new PCR system for Agrobacterium tumefaciens detection will help to fight the crown gall disease in the nearest future. PMID:9429288

  14. Arabidopsis genes essential for seedling viability: isolation of insertional mutants and molecular cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, G J; Lewis, S P; Glover, L W; Reineke, J; Jones, G; Ziemnik, L S; Lonowski, J; Nyfeler, B; Aux, G; Zhou, Q; McElver, J; Patton, D A; Martienssen, R; Grossniklaus, U; Ma, H; Law, M; Levin, J Z

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a large-scale genetic screen to identify genes with a seedling-lethal mutant phenotype. From screening approximately 38,000 insertional mutant lines, we identified >500 seedling-lethal mutants, completed cosegregation analysis of the insertion and the lethal phenotype for >200 mutants, molecularly characterized 54 mutants, and provided a detailed description for 22 of them. Most of the seedling-lethal mutants seem to affect chloroplast function because they display altered pigmentation and affect genes encoding proteins predicted to have chloroplast localization. Although a high level of functional redundancy in Arabidopsis might be expected because 65% of genes are members of gene families, we found that 41% of the essential genes found in this study are members of Arabidopsis gene families. In addition, we isolated several interesting classes of mutants and genes. We found three mutants in the recently discovered nonmevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants disrupting genes similar to Tic40 and tatC, which are likely to be involved in chloroplast protein translocation. Finally, we directly compared T-DNA and Ac/Ds transposon mutagenesis methods in Arabidopsis on a genome scale. In each population, we found only about one-third of the insertion mutations cosegregated with a mutant phenotype. PMID:11779813

  15. Natural plant genetic engineer Agrobacterium rhizogenes: role of T-DNA in plant secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sheela

    2012-03-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a natural plant genetic engineer. It is a gram-negative soil bacterium that induces hairy root formation. Success has been obtained in exploring the molecular mechanisms of transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer, interaction with host plant proteins, plant defense signaling and integration to plant genome for successful plant genetic transformation. T-DNA and corresponding expression of rol genes alter morphology and plant host secondary metabolism. During transformation, there is a differential loss of a few T-DNA genes. Loss of a few ORFs drastically affect the growth and morphological patterns of hairy roots, expression pattern of biosynthetic pathway genes and accumulation of specific secondary metabolites. PMID:22048847

  16. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  17. LINE-1 Mediated Insertion into Poc1a (Protein of Centriole 1 A) Causes Growth Insufficiency and Male Infertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geister, Krista A.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Cheung, Leonard Y.; Wendt, Jennifer; Oatley, Melissa J.; Burgess, Daniel L.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Cavalcoli, James D.; Oatley, Jon M.; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a common, genetically heterogeneous cause of short stature that can result from disruptions in many cellular processes. We report the identification of the lesion responsible for skeletal dysplasia and male infertility in the spontaneous, recessive mouse mutant chagun. We determined that Poc1a, encoding protein of the centriole 1a, is disrupted by the insertion of a processed Cenpw cDNA, which is flanked by target site duplications, suggestive of a LINE-1 retrotransposon-mediated event. Mutant fibroblasts have impaired cilia formation and multipolar spindles. Male infertility is caused by defective spermatogenesis early in meiosis and progressive germ cell loss. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation studies revealed that Poc1a is essential for normal function of both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The proliferative zone of the growth plate is small and disorganized because chondrocytes fail to re-align after cell division and undergo increased apoptosis. Poc1a and several other genes associated with centrosome function can affect the skeleton and lead to skeletal dysplasias and primordial dwarfisms. This mouse mutant reveals how centrosome dysfunction contributes to defects in skeletal growth and male infertility. PMID:26496357

  18. Author's personal copy Epigenetic control of Agrobacterium T-DNA integration

    E-print Network

    Citovsky, Vitaly

    Author's personal copy Review Epigenetic control of Agrobacterium T-DNA integration Shimpei Magori the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, play an important role in DNA repair. Thus, by implication, such epigenetic codes and the epigenetic information in the host chromatin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Epigenetic

  19. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  20. Genetic analysis of the virD operon of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a search for functions involved in transport of T-DNA into the plant cell nucleus and in T-DNA integration.

    PubMed Central

    Koukolíková-Nicola, Z; Raineri, D; Stephens, K; Ramos, C; Tinland, B; Nester, E W; Hohn, B

    1993-01-01

    The transferred DNA (T-DNA) is transported from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the nucleus and is stably integrated into the genome of many plant species. It has been proposed that the VirD2 protein, tightly attached to the T-DNA, pilots the T-DNA into the plant cell nucleus and that it is involved in integration. Using agroinfection and beta-glucuronidase expression as two different very sensitive transient assays for T-DNA transfer, together with assays for stable integration, we have shown that the C-terminal half of the VirD2 protein and the VirD3 protein are not involved in T-DNA integration. However, the bipartite nuclear localization signal, which is located within the C terminus of the VirD2 protein and which has previously been shown to be able to target a foreign protein into the plant cell nucleus, was shown to be required for efficient T-DNA transfer. virD4 mutants were shown by agroinfection to be completely inactive in T-DNA transfer. Images PMID:8380800

  1. A simple and efficient method to identify replacements of P-lacZ by P-Gal4 lines allows obtaining Gal4 insertions in the bithorax complex of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    de Navas, Luis; Foronda, David; Suzanne, Magali; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2006-11-01

    The functional replacement of one gene product by another one is a powerful method to study specificity in development and evolution. In Drosophila, the Gal4/UAS method has been used to analyze in vivo such functional substitutions. To this aim, Gal4 lines that inactivate a gene and reproduce its expression pattern are required, and they can be frequently obtained by replacing pre-existing P-lacZ lines with such characteristics. We have devised a new method to quickly identify replacements of P-lacZ lines by P-Gal4 lines, and applied it successfully to obtain Gal4 insertions in the Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-B Hox genes. We have used these lines to study the functional replacement of a Hox gene by another one. Our experiments confirm that the abdominal-A gene can replace Ultrabithorax in haltere development but that it cannot substitute for Abdominal-B in the formation of the genitalia. PMID:16971094

  2. Factors affecting the rate of T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to Nicotiana glauca plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mozo, T; Hooykaas, P J

    1992-09-01

    Different factors involved in the early steps of the T-DNA transfer process were studied by using a beta-glucuronidase gene (gusA) as a reporter in Nicotiana glauca leaf disc transformation experiments. The levels of transient expression of the gusA gene in leaf discs infected with several strains or vir mutants correlated well with their virulence phenotype, except for virC mutants. The rate of T-DNA transfer was shown to be stimulated in the case of non-oncogenic strains by the co-transfer of small amounts of oncogenic genes. It was found that the location of the T-DNA in the Agrobacterium genome affected the T-DNA transfer rate especially in virC mutants. The virC mutants transferred the gusA-containing T-DNA located on a binary vector more efficiently than the oncogenic T-DNA of the Ti plasmid. Although wild-type strains induced high levels of gusA expression early after infection, the gusA expression appeared to be lost late after infection in the infected leaf discs. In contrast, in leaf discs infected by virC mutants the level of gusA expression increased steadily in time. A model explaining these results is presented. PMID:1511127

  3. Identification of virulence genes in the crucifer anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum by insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Zhao, Dian; Zheng, Lu; Hsiang, Tom; Wei, Yangdou; Fu, Yanping; Huang, Junbin

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying virulence of Colletotrichum higginsianum on Arabidopsis thaliana, a T-DNA insertion mutant library of C. higginsianum, the causal agent of crucifer anthracnose, was established using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among 875 transformants tested for virulence on Arabidopsis, six mutants with altered virulence, including an appressorial melanin-deficient mutant T734, two mutants defective in penetration, T45 and B30, and three mutants, T679, T732 and T801, that cause hypersensitive reactions on host Arabidopsis, were obtained. Southern blot analysis indicated that the mutants T732 and T734 harbored single-site T-DNA integrations, while B30 harbored two T-DNA insertions. Border flanking sequences of T-DNAs from these mutants were recovered by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Sequence analyses revealed that single T-DNA insertions in mutant T734 targeted the coding region of a gene with unknown function, and in mutant T732 targeted a gene encoding a copper amine oxidase. The two T-DNA insertion sites in mutant B30 were found in the coding region of a gene encoding an exosome component and in the upstream region of a DUF221-domain gene. None of these genes have previously been implicated in virulence of the phytopathogenic fungi. Among these avirulent mutants, T734 showed altered color in colony growth and produced melanin-deficient, albino appressoria. The T-DNA insert in T734 was detected in the coding region of a gene named C. higginsianum melanin-deficiency gene (Ch-MEL1), which is highly similar to a gene encoding a hypothetical protein in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (GenBank ELA33048). To validate whether the Ch-MEL1 gene was associated with virulence of the mutant T734, a targeted gene disruption and complementation approach was used. The appressoria of ?Ch-mel1 null mutants were defective in melanization and failed to penetrate the host epidermal cells. When inoculated onto the wounded leaf tissues, the ?Ch-mel1 mutants grew on host tissues but failed to cause lesions beyond the wound site. In contrast, both the complement C?Ch-mel1-2 and the wild type produced melanized appressoria and caused necrosis on leaves of Arabidopsis. Ch-MEL1 is required for both appressorial melanin production in C. higginsianum and post-invasive growth in host tissues. Together with identification of other avirulent mutants and their associated genes, this study provides novel insights into molecular mechanisms underlying virulence of the hemibiotroph, C. higginsianum. PMID:23806215

  4. Traversing the Cell: Agrobacterium T-DNA’s Journey to the Host Genome

    PubMed Central

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium is unique in its ability to conduct interkingdom genetic exchange. Virulent Agrobacterium strains transfer single-strand forms of T-DNA (T-strands) and several Virulence effector proteins through a bacterial type IV secretion system into plant host cells. T-strands must traverse the plant wall and plasma membrane, traffic through the cytoplasm, enter the nucleus, and ultimately target host chromatin for stable integration. Because any DNA sequence placed between T-DNA “borders” can be transferred to plants and integrated into the plant genome, the transfer and intracellular trafficking processes must be mediated by bacterial and host proteins that form complexes with T-strands. This review summarizes current knowledge of proteins that interact with T-strands in the plant cell, and discusses several models of T-complex (T-strand and associated proteins) trafficking. A detailed understanding of how these macromolecular complexes enter the host cell and traverse the plant cytoplasm will require development of novel technologies to follow molecules from their bacterial site of synthesis into the plant cell, and how these transferred molecules interact with host proteins and sub-cellular structures within the host cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:22645590

  5. Pacemaker insertion

    PubMed Central

    Kotsakou, Maria; Kioumis, Ioannis; Lazaridis, George; Pitsiou, Georgia; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A pacemaker (PM) (or artificial PM, so as not to be confused with the heart’s natural PM) is a medical device that uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contracting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. The primary purpose of this device is to maintain an adequate heart rate, either because the heart’s natural PM is not fast enough, or there is a block in the heart’s electrical conduction system. Modern PMs are externally programmable and allow the cardiologist to select the optimum pacing modes for individual patients. Some combine a PM and defibrillator in a single implantable device. PMs can be temporary or permanent. Temporary PMs are used to treat short-term heart problems, such as a slow heartbeat that’s caused by a heart attack, heart surgery, or an overdose of medicine. Permanent PMs are used to control long-term heart rhythm problems. A PM can relieve some arrhythmia symptoms, such as fatigue and fainting. A PM also can help a person who has abnormal HRs resume a more active lifestyle. In the current mini review we will focus on the insertion of a PM and the possible pneumothorax that can be caused. PMID:25815303

  6. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro?PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1?2 pro?GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  7. Core Vessel Insert Handling Robot for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Dayton, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source provides the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams for scientific research and industrial development. Its eighteen neutron beam lines will eventually support up to twenty-four simultaneous experiments. Each beam line consists of various optical components which guide the neutrons to a particular instrument. The optical components nearest the neutron moderators are the core vessel inserts. Located approximately 9 m below the high bay floor, these inserts are bolted to the core vessel chamber and are part of the vacuum boundary. They are in a highly radioactive environment and must periodically be replaced. During initial SNS construction, four of the beam lines received Core Vessel Insert plugs rather than functional inserts. Remote replacement of the first Core Vessel Insert plug was recently completed using several pieces of custom-designed tooling, including a highly complicated Core Vessel Insert Robot. The design of this tool are discussed.

  8. Regulation of Oncogene Expression in T-DNA-Transformed Host Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Lee, Chil-Woo; Wehner, Nora; Imdahl, Fabian; Svetlana, Veselova; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Deeken, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase), which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM) and cytokinin (Ipt). Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs) between the coding sequences (CDS) of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and balance cytokinin and auxin levels for further cell proliferation. PMID:25615824

  9. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in the vascular wilt fungus verticillium dahliae by agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated t-DNA insertional mutagenesis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium dahliae is the causal agent of vascular wilt in many economically important crops worldwide. Identification of genes that underpin pathogenicity or virulence may suggest targets for alternative control methods for this fungus. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transform...

  10. Oxalate-minus mutants of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via T-DNA insertion accumulate fumarate in culture and retain pathogenicity on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a ubiquitous necrotrophic pathogen capable of infecting over 400 plant species including many economically important crops. Oxalic acid production has been shown in numerous studies to be a pathogenicity factor for S. sclerotiorum through several mechanisms. During our ra...

  11. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T DNA and isolation of a novel variant of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T by molecular cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I S; Mak, T W; O'Rear, J J; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T (REV-T) is a highly oncogenic avian retrovirus which causes a rapid neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular system. Upon infection, this virus gives rise to two species of unintegrated linear viral DNA, which are 8.3 and 5.5 kilobase pairs long and represent the helper virus (REV-A) and the oncogenic component (REV-T), respectively. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these two DNA components indicate that REV-T DNA has a large portion of the genome deleted with respect to REV-A DNA and a substitution about 0.8 to 1.5 kilobase pairs long that is unrelated to REV-A DNA. These additional sequences comprise the putative transforming region of REV-T (rel). A chicken spleen cell line transformed by REV-T produced virus which upon infection gives rise to three species of unintegrated linear viral DNA (8.3, 5.5, and 3,3 kilobase pairs). We isolated the proviruses of the 8.3- and 3.3-kilobase pair species from this cell line by cloning in the phage vector Charon 4A. Restriction enzyme mapping showed that the two proviral clones are proviruses of REV-A and a variant of REV-T, respectively. A subclone of the variant REV-T provirus specific for the rel sequences of REV-T was used as a hybridization probe to demonstrate that the rel sequences are different from the putative transforming sequences of Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus strain A, avain myelocytomatosis virus, avian myeloblastosis virus, avian erythroblastosis virus, Abelson murine leukemia virus, and Friend erythroleukemia virus. In addition, the rel-specific hybridization probe was used to identify a specific set of sequences which are present in uninfected avian DNAs digested with several restriction enzymes. The corresponding cell sequences are not arranged like rel in REV-T. Images PMID:6275117

  12. Algorithmica manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Kabanets, Valentine

    used by Jansen and Santhanam because the notion of weak uniformity Ruiwen Chen School of ComputingAlgorithmica manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Lower Bounds against Weakly-Uniform be inserted later Abstract An ongoing line of research has shown super-polynomial lower bounds for uniform

  13. Application and evaluation of the interlaboratory reproducibility of tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR) for identification of Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Baele, M; Storms, V; Haesebrouck, F; Devriese, L A; Gillis, M; Verschraegen, G; de Baere, T; Vaneechoutte, M

    2001-04-01

    The discriminatory power, speed, and interlaboratory reproducibility of tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR) combined with capillary electrophoresis was evaluated for the identification of streptococci. This method was carried out in three different laboratories under highly standardized conditions for 54 strains belonging to 18 different species. It was concluded that interlaboratory reproducibility of tDNA fingerprints produced by means of capillary electrophoresis was sufficiently high to permit the exchange between different laboratories and the construction of common libraries which can be consulted for comparison with fingerprints obtained independently in separate laboratories. In a second step, 17 other species were included in the study and examined in one of the participating laboratories. All Streptococcus species studied, except S. mitis, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus, and S. vestibularis, showed distinguishable tDNA fingerprints. A database of well-characterized strains was constructed to enable computer-aided identification of unknown streptococcal isolates. PMID:11283068

  14. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  15. ALS insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Retrotransposon insertions in the clonal evolution of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rodi?, Nemanja; Steranka, Jared P; Makohon-Moore, Alvin; Moyer, Allison; Shen, Peilin; Sharma, Reema; Kohutek, Zachary A; Huang, Cheng Ran; Ahn, Daniel; Mita, Paolo; Taylor, Martin S; Barker, Norman J; Hruban, Ralph H; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Boeke, Jef D; Burns, Kathleen H

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed after the disease has metastasized; it is among the most lethal forms of cancer. We recently described aberrant expression of an open reading frame 1 protein, ORF1p, encoded by long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1; L1) retrotransposon, in PDAC. To test whether LINE-1 expression leads to somatic insertions of this mobile DNA, we used a targeted method to sequence LINE-1 insertion sites in matched PDAC and normal samples. We found evidence of 465 somatic LINE-1 insertions in 20 PDAC genomes, which were absent from corresponding normal samples. In cases in which matched normal tissue, primary PDAC and metastatic disease sites were available, insertions were found in primary and metastatic tissues in differing proportions. Two adenocarcinomas secondarily involving the pancreas, but originating in the stomach and duodenum, acquired insertions with a similar discordance between primary and metastatic sites. Together, our findings show that LINE-1 contributes to the genetic evolution of PDAC and suggest that somatic insertions are acquired discontinuously in gastrointestinal neoplasms. PMID:26259033

  17. Insertion in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  18. Cloning of insertion site flanking sequence and construction of transfer DNA insert mutant library in Stylosanthes colletotrichum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Helong; Hu, Caiping; Yi, Kexian; Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

    2014-01-01

    Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens' AGL-1 concentration (OD(600)), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25 °C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300-400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant's pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region of the putative gene had 79% homology with the aspartate aminotransferase gene in Magnaporthe oryzae (XP_003719674.1). PMID:25361073

  19. Inducible Expression of Agrobacterium Virulence Gene VirE2 for Stringent Regulation of T-DNA Transfer in Plant Transient Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Denkovskien?, Erna; Paškevi?ius, Šar?nas; Werner, Stefan; Gleba, Yuri; Ražanskien?, Aušra

    2015-11-01

    Agrotransfection with viral vectors is an effective solution for the transient production of valuable proteins in plants grown in contained facilities. Transfection methods suitable for field applications are desirable for the production of high-volume products and for the transient molecular reprogramming of plants. The use of genetically modified (GM) Agrobacterium strains for plant transfections faces substantial biosafety issues. The environmental biosafety of GM Agrobacterium strains could be improved by regulating their T-DNA transfer via chemically inducible expression of virE2, one of the essential Agrobacterium virulence genes. In order to identify strong and stringently regulated promoters in Agrobacterium strains, we evaluated isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactoside-inducible promoters Plac, Ptac, PT7/lacO, and PT5/lacOlacO and cumic acid-inducible promoters PlacUV5/CuO, Ptac/CuO, PT5/CuO, and PvirE/CuO. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were transfected with a virE2-deficient A. tumefaciens strain containing transient expression vectors harboring inducible virE2 expression cassettes and containing a marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in their T-DNA region. Evaluation of T-DNA transfer was achieved by counting GFP expression foci on plant leaves. The virE2 expression from cumic acid-induced promoters resulted in 47 to 72% of wild-type T-DNA transfer. Here, we present efficient and tightly regulated promoters for gene expression in A. tumefaciens and a novel approach to address environmental biosafety concerns in agrobiotechnology. PMID:26292850

  20. Detection of transformed cells in crown gall tumors using the GUS reporter gene and correlation of GUS stained cells with T-DNA gene activity

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.C. ); Labriola, J.; Binns, A.N. )

    1990-05-01

    Crown gall tumors are a mixture of transformed hormone producing cells and normal cells. Until now it has not been possible to directly visualize these cell types in situ. We have constructed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens that carry the 35S-{beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in either wild type or mutant Ti plasmids. Using histochemical staining for GUS activity, blue (GUS positive) sectors are observed in tumor sections. In order to demonstrate that the blue sectors actually represent cells expressing other T-DNA genes, we have looked for T-DNA gene encoded enzyme activity in the stained and unstained sectors. The blue sectors accumulate octopine (a product of the octopine synthase gene on the T-DNA) while the white (GUS negative) sectors do not. We conclude that the use of the GUS reporter gene provides a sensitive and reliable method for visualizing transformation events in plant tissues. A comparison of the proportion of transformed and nontransformed cells in wild type tumors vs. tumors deficient in auxin or cytokinin encoding genes will be discussed.

  1. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  2. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael C.

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivate us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  3. Landscape of Insertion Polymorphisms in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Goldberg, Liat; Aplan, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide substitutions, small (<50 bp) insertions or deletions (indels), and large (>50 bp) deletions are well-known causes of genetic variation within the human genome. We recently reported a previously unrecognized form of polymorphic insertions, termed templated sequence insertion polymorphism (TSIP), in which the inserted sequence was templated from a distant genomic region, and was inserted in the genome through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; class 1 TSIPs show target site duplication, polyadenylation, and preference for insertion at a 5?-TTTT/A-3? sequence, suggesting a LINE-1 based insertion mechanism, whereas class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double strand break by nonhomologous end joining. To gain a more complete picture of TSIPs throughout the human population, we evaluated whole-genome sequence from 52 individuals, and identified 171 TSIPs. Most individuals had 25–30 TSIPs, and common (present in >20% of individuals) TSIPs were found in individuals throughout the world, whereas rare TSIPs tended to cluster in specific geographic regions. The number of rare TSIPs was greater than the number of common TSIPs, suggesting that TSIP generation is an ongoing process. Intriguingly, mitochondrial sequences were a frequent template for class 2 insertions, used more commonly than any nuclear chromosome. Similar to single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases, and can be useful in tracking historical migration of populations. PMID:25745018

  4. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Passau, Universität

    in Structured Merge Olaf Le�enich · Sven Apel · Christian Lengauer the date of receipt and acceptance should be inserted later Abstract Software-merging techniques face the challenge of finding a balance between precision and performance. In practice, developers use unstructured- merge (i.e., line-based) tools, which

  5. Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    learning. More specifically, we consider the batch (off-line, non-interactive) reinforcement learning), but it also happens in other cases. That the learning sys- tem cannot interact with the environment makesMachine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Model Selection in Reinforcement

  6. Chemo-port insertion: A cause of vocal cord palsy.

    PubMed

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Hindi, Khalid; Malik, Ausama; Wee, Chong Aun; Prepageran, Narayanan

    2015-11-01

    We describe extremely rare cases of vocal cord palsy following surgical insertion of a chemo port. Our cohort consisted of patients with cancer who developed hoarseness immediately after central venous line placement for the administration of chemotherapy, with vocal cord palsy confirmed with flexible laryngoscopy. Given the timing, central venous line placement appears to be the most likely cause. Laryngoscope, 125:2551-2552, 2015. PMID:26108861

  7. Immediate Postpartum Intrauterine Contraception Insertion.

    PubMed

    Prager, Sarah W; McCoy, Erin E

    2015-12-01

    The immediate postpartum period is a favorable time for initiating contraception because women who have recently given birth are often highly motivated to use contraception, pregnancy is excluded, and the hospital setting offers convenience for patients and providers. This article addresses immediate postpartum intrauterine contraception (IUC) insertion for copper and levonorgestrel IUC. Immediate postpartum IUC is safe and effective, with a majority of IUC devices retained at 6 and 12 months. There are increased rates of expulsion, compared with delayed postpartum insertion and interval insertion, which need to be weighed against the risk of patients not returning for postpartum follow-up. PMID:26598300

  8. DRUG NAME (INSERT DRUG NAME)

    Cancer.gov

    Supplies-(tools such as oral syringes, disposable spoon, cup, gloves, pad or paper towels, etc. needed to measure or prepare the drug.)List preparation instructionsInsert administration instruction (e.g., with or without food).

  9. Development of control system to automate the PCB pin insertion process

    E-print Network

    Isaac, Rejin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the control system that runs the automated pin insertion machine in a surface mount technology assembly line. The control system is divided into 2 subsystems viz. pin sorting and ...

  10. Large-Scale Mapping of Transposable Element Insertion Sites Using Digital Encoding of Sample Identity

    PubMed Central

    Gohl, Daryl M.; Freifeld, Limor; Silies, Marion; Hwa, Jennifer J.; Horowitz, Mark; Clandinin, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the genomic locations of transposable elements is a common experimental goal. When mapping large collections of transposon insertions, individualized amplification and sequencing is both time consuming and costly. We describe an approach in which large numbers of insertion lines can be simultaneously mapped in a single DNA sequencing reaction by using digital error-correcting codes to encode line identity in a unique set of barcoded pools. PMID:24374352

  11. Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter into the azygous vein

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Iain Gilmore, Christopher

    2015-06-15

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the tip of a PICC has entered the superior vena cava. This case study will report on a lesser known incorrect placement of a PICC line into the azygous vein and how this can be detected on radiographic imaging. This outcome for the patient can be detrimental as it has an increased risk of perforation, thrombus, and fistula formation.

  12. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  13. RING INSERTS POLICY Nov 2011 The Ring accepts inserts/flyers from university units. Inserts from outside the university are

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    an insert, contact the editor or advertising sales representative of The Ring at least one month in advance are dependent upon the technical ability of The Ring's printer to accommodate. Inserts are generally placed will have insert produced in adequate numbers and deliver them to our printer: Horizon Publications, 1983

  14. Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene at a wrist intravenous line insertion.

    PubMed

    Determann, Catherine; Walker, Craig Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A patient admitted to the intensive care unit for management of hypotension following a multiple medications overdose subsequently deteriorated rapidly with sepsis. A cannula site was noted to be bruised, swollen and erythematous and the X-ray demonstrated gas sitting within the tissues surrounding the metacarpal bones. The patient was referred to the orthopaedic surgeons and quickly taken for debridement of the affected area and fasciotomies of the forearm. Microbiological investigation confirmed Clostridium perfringens to be present in multiple fluid samples taken from the affected site. PMID:24108766

  15. Automated Software Engineering manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    Automated Software Engineering manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Assessment and cross-product The goals of cross-product reuse in a software product line (SPL) are to mitigate pro- duction costs from data available for other products in the product line, with models producing better results (1

  16. JT/LJT connector insert material evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, J.R.F.

    1991-10-01

    Different insert (insulator) materials are undergoing evaluation to replace the Fiberite E-3938 BE96 material currently used. Also being evaluated is the reconfiguration of the insert and metal shell-edge geometries for the purpose of reducing the alleged interference principally responsible for insert damage.

  17. Analysis of inserts in prokaryote genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul Dan; Tuduce, Rodica Aurora

    2008-02-01

    Nucleotide genomic signals satisfy regularities that reveal restrictions in the distribution of nucleotides and pairs of nucleotides along DNA sequences. Structurally, a chromosome appears to be more than a plain text, by satisfying symmetry constrains that evoke the rhythm and rhyme in poems. These regularities make it easy to identify exogenous inserts in the genomes of prokaryotes, because such inserts obey different regularities than the background sequence. The paper presents instances of inserts found in the genomes of Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other prokaryotes. Inserts of exogenous material are frequently accompanied by complementary inserts tending to restore the original constrains.

  18. Localization properties of electronic states in a polaron model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Starikov, E B; Hennig, D; Archilla, J F R

    2005-06-01

    We numerically investigate localization properties of electronic states in a static model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers with realistic parameters obtained by quantum-chemical calculation. The randomness in the on-site energies caused by the electron-phonon coupling is completely correlated to the off-diagonal parts. In the single electron model, the effect of the hydrogen-bond stretchings, the twist angles between the base pairs and the finite system size effects on the energy dependence of the localization length and on the Lyapunov exponent are given. The localization length is reduced by the influence of the fluctuations in the hydrogen bond stretchings. It is also shown that the helical twist angle affects the localization length in the poly(dG)-poly(dC) DNA polymer more strongly than in the poly(dA)-poly(dT) one. Furthermore, we show resonance structures in the energy dependence of the localization length when the system size is relatively small. PMID:15906117

  19. Insertional mutagenesis by transposable elements in the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Amariglio, N; Rechavi, G

    1993-01-01

    Several mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements were characterized in recent years, and their role in mutagenesis is delineated in this review. Two main groups have been described: elements with symmetrical termini such as the murine IAP sequences and the human THE 1 elements and elements characterized by a poly-A rich tail at the 3' end such as the SINE and LINE sequences. The characteristic property of such mobile elements to spread and integrate in the host genome leads to insertional mutagenesis. Both germline and somatic mutations have been documented resulting from the insertion of the various types of mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements. As foreseen by Barbara McClintock, such genetic events can cause either the activation or the inactivation of specific genes, resulting in their identification via an altered phenotype. Several disease states, such as hemophilia and cancer, are the result of this apparent aspect of genome instability. PMID:8385004

  20. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  1. Turbine vane segment and impingement insert configuration for fail-safe impingement insert retention

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2003-05-13

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second pairs of diametrically opposed side walls, and at least one fail-safe tab defined at a longitudinal end of the insert for limiting radial displacement of the insert with respect to the stator vane.

  2. Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can be overwhelming. Here are some podiatrist-tested tips to help you find the insert that best meets your needs: Consider your health. Do you have diabetes? Problems with circulation? An over-the-counter insert may not be your best bet. Diabetes and poor circulation increase your risk of ...

  3. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  4. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-11-04

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  5. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  6. [Brief analysis on slow needle insertion].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Bin; Wu, Jia-Li; Sun, Shuo

    2012-09-01

    The sources of clinical efficacy of slow needle insertion is discussed. From the basic factors of slow needle insertion, the requirements of this manipulation, main points of 4 steps (to straight the needle, to press softly, to twirl the needle and to hold without brute force), keys of operation and its significance are analyzed. Slow needle insertion is not only beneficial to the management and regulation of Shen (spirit) and induction of qi in the process of the spirit unity of doctor and patient, but also accumulates the needling sensation among three levels of the superficial, middled and deep layers of an acupoint, which could promote the curative effect. PMID:23227688

  7. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger (Redwood City, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  8. Hemodialysis catheter insertion using transrenal approach.

    PubMed

    Law, Wai Ping; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Chan, Hoi Wong; Kwok, Philip Chong-Hei; Chak, Wai Leung; Chau, Ka Foon

    2015-10-01

    We report a patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) because of lupus nephritis presented with exhausted vascular access after multiple arteriovenous grafts creation and hemodialysis catheters insertion. A rare percutaneous transrenal approach was finally used for the insertion of dialysis catheter. After 2 years, this hemodialysis catheter was complicated by blockage but was successfully replaced by a new catheter via the same site. Our report shows that the transrenal route of hemodialysis catheter insertion can provide a glimpse of hope for those ESRD patients with exhausted vascular access. PMID:25582448

  9. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NV)

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  10. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups. PMID:11511929

  11. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

  12. Earth boring tool with improved inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, H.; Scales, S.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of an improved earth boring tool of the type having at least one sintered tungsten carbide insert with a substantially cylindrical retaining surface interferringly secured to the wall of a retaining hole, the improvement comprising said retaining surface roughened such that in any lineal increment of at least 010 inch, there are at least three asperities at least 0.001 in ch long and at least 0.00005 inch deep when measured with a stylus point with a 0.00005 inch radius. An improved method of retaining tungsten carbide inserts in an earth boring tool, said method comprising the steps of: drilling and reaming a plurality of holes in selected locations on the earth boring tool; sintering a plurality of tungsten carbide inserts with a binder selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel or iron; grinding a substantially cylindrical wall surface on the inserts that are nominally larger in diameter than the drilled and reamed holes; roughening the wall surface of the inserts such that any lineal increment of at least 0.010 inch has at least three asperities which are at least 0.001 inch long and at least 00005 inch deep when measured with a stylus point with a 0.00005 inch radius; and forcing the inserts interferringly into the mating drilled and reamed holes.

  13. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by the Company and ITER. The Fabrication Specifications may reflect some national requirements and regulations that are not fully provided here. This document presents the ITER CSI specifications.

  14. Mechanisms for sodium insertion in carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, David Andrew

    2000-12-01

    This thesis details the mechanisms for sodium insertion into different carbons using both electrochemical and vapour techniques. Room temperature electrochemical measurements were completed to examine the insertion and removal of sodium from soft (graphitizable) and nanoporous hard (non-graphitizable) carbons prepared by the heat treatment of organic precursors to a range of temperatures. The mechanisms identified from these studies were further investigated through a series of in situ x-ray scattering studies on operating electrochemical cells. The results obtained were then compared with x-ray scattering measurements on carbons after exposure to sodium vapour at 890C. This work is primarily driven by the aluminium industry's need to understand how sodium insertion causes carbon cathode blocks in aluminium reduction cells to swell. The results obtained are also of relevance to the lithium-ion battery field as they help to verify mechanisms proposed in the literature for lithium insertion into carbon hosts. Some carbons were also identified that could accommodate large amounts of sodium, making them attractive candidates for anodes in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. For soft carbons, the results showed that both sodium and lithium insert between approximately parallel carbon layers along the sloping voltage region of the electrochemical curves, increasing the average interlayer spacing. The sodium and lithium capacities decreased with increasing carbon heat treatment temperature. For the soft carbons studied, the sodium capacity was found to be consistently lower than the lithium capacity, implying that some lithium-accessible sites were unavailable for sodium insertion. The electrochemical profiles for the hard carbons also contained capacity along a sloping voltage region and, as with the soft carbons, this was shown to result from the insertion of sodium and lithium between approximately parallel carbon layers. In contrast to the soft carbons, however, the electrochemical profiles for the hard carbons also exhibited significant capacity along low voltage plateaus at chemical potentials close to the chemical potential of the metal. An in situ small angle x-ray scattering experimental method was therefore developed to examine changes in scattering from the nanopores during sodium and lithium insertion/removal. The results from this technique clearly showed that the low voltage plateau capacity resulted from the insertion of sodium and lithium into nanopores in the carbon.

  15. Nozzle cavity impingement/area reduction insert

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT)

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane segment is provided that has inner and outer walls spaced from one another, a vane extending between the inner and outer walls and having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, the vane including discrete leading edge, intermediate, aft and trailing edge cavities between the leading and trailing edges and extending lengthwise of the vane for flowing a cooling medium; and an insert sleeve within at least one of the cavities and spaced from interior wall surfaces thereof. The insert sleeve has an inlet for flowing the cooling medium into the insert sleeve and has impingement holes defined in first and second walls thereof that respectively face the pressure and suction sides of the vane. The impingement holes of at least one of those first and second walls are defined along substantially only a first, upstream portion thereof, whereby the cooling flow is predominantly impingement cooling along a first region of the insert wall corresponding to the first, upstream portion and the cooling flow is predominantly convective cooling along a second region corresponding to a second, downstream portion of the at least one wall of the insert sleeve.

  16. Peptide partitioning properties from direct insertion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmschneider, Martin; Smith, Jeremy C; Ulmschneider, Jakob

    2010-06-01

    Partitioning properties of polypeptides are at the heart of biological membrane phenomena and their precise quantification is vital for ab-initio structure prediction and the accurate simulation of membrane protein folding and function. Recently the cellular translocon machinery has been employed to determine membrane insertion propensities and transfer energetics for a series of polyleucine segments embedded in a carrier sequence. We show here that the insertion propensity, pathway, and transfer energetics into synthetic POPC bilayers can be fully described by direct atomistic peptide partitioning simulations. The insertion probability as a function of peptide length follows two-state Boltzmann statistics, in agreement with the experiments. The simulations expose a systematic offset between translocon-mediated and direct insertion free energies. Compared to the experiment the insertion threshold is shifted toward shorter peptides by 2 leucine residues. The simulations reveal many hitherto unknown atomic-resolution details about the partitioning process and promise to provide a powerful tool for urgently needed calibration of lipid parameters to match experimentally observed peptide transfer energies.

  17. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.

    1995-01-17

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

  18. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha

    1993-01-01

    NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

  19. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  20. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Churakov G; Kriegs JO; Baertsch R; Zemann A; Brosius J; Schmitz J

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy.

  1. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ?2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  2. On the Insertion Time of Cuckoo Hashing

    E-print Network

    Fountoulakis, Nikolaos; Steger, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Cuckoo hashing is an efficient technique for creating large hash tables with high space utilization and guaranteed constant access times. There, each item can be placed in a location given by any one out of k different hash functions. In this paper we investigate further the random walk heuristic for inserting in an online fashion new items into the hash table. Provided that k > 2 and that the number of items in the table is below (but arbitrarily close) to the theoretically achievable load threshold, we show a polylogarithmic bound for the maximum insertion time that holds with high probability.

  3. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  4. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  5. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  6. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  7. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  8. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  9. Insertion of microneedles into skin: measurement and prediction of insertion force and needle fracture force.

    PubMed

    Davis, Shawn P; Landis, Benjamin J; Adams, Zachary H; Allen, Mark G; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    As a hybrid between a hypodermic needle and transdermal patch, we have used microfabrication technology to make arrays of micron-scale needles that transport drugs and other compounds across the skin without causing pain. However, not all microneedle geometries are able to insert into skin at reasonable forces and without breaking. In this study, we experimentally measured and theoretically modeled two critical mechanical events associated with microneedles: the force required to insert microneedles into living skin and the force needles can withstand before fracturing. Over the range of microneedle geometries investigated, insertion force was found to vary linearly with the interfacial area of the needle tip. Measured insertion forces ranged from approximately 0.1-3N, which is sufficiently low to permit insertion by hand. The force required to fracture microneedles was found to increase with increasing wall thickness, wall angle, and possibly tip radius, in agreement with finite element simulations and a thin shell analytical model. For almost all geometries considered, the margin of safety, or the ratio of fracture force to insertion force, was much greater than one and was found to increase with increasing wall thickness and decreasing tip radius. Together, these results provide the ability to predict insertion and fracture forces, which facilitates rational design of microneedles with robust mechanical properties. PMID:15212920

  10. Hollow polymer microneedles array resistance and insertion tests.

    PubMed

    Lhernould, Marion Sausse; Deleers, Michel; Delchambre, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Microneedles are developed in order to become the transdermal administration method of the future. They however still face numerous challenges. This paper addresses the challenge to effectively insert the microneedle arrays into membranes. A recently proposed model membrane and test method for microneedles insertion, published in International Journal of Pharmaceutics, is used in this aim. A moulded 4 by 4 hollow polymer microneedle array developed at the Université Libre de Bruxelles is tested for insertion using this model. Results show that the array is extremely resistant to insertion, it can withstand very high forces and even multiple insertions without blunting. Different insertion tests were performed on a folded in eight Parafilm® film because it exhibits excellent similarity to porcine skin. The insertion force, the insertion speed and the holding time of the array against membranes must be optimised in order to get efficient reliable insertions at, at least, 500?m depth. PMID:25595569

  11. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  12. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper missions.

  13. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  14. Online Advertising Insertion Order Form Company name

    E-print Network

    McReynolds, Ben

    Online Advertising Insertion Order Form Advertiser Company name: Address: City: State: Zip: Contact: Billing Instructions Gross Amount : $ Net Amount: $ Please refer to 2014 Advertising Rate Sheet Less 15% agency discount or other applicable discount (please specify below): Send invoices to: Advertiser

  15. Predicting cancellous bone failure during screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Karen J; Cleek, Tammy M; Mohtar, Aaron A; Hearn, Trevor C

    2013-04-01

    Internal fixation of fractures often requires the tightening of bone screws to stabilise fragments. Inadequate application of torque can leave the fracture unstable, while over-tightening results in the stripping of the thread and loss of fixation. The optimal amount of screw torque is specific to each application and in practice is difficult to attain due to the wide variability in bone properties including bone density. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the relationships between motor torque and screw compression during powered screw insertion, and to evaluate whether the torque during insertion can be used to predict the ultimate failure torque of the bone. A custom test rig was designed and built for bone screw experiments. By inserting cancellous bone screws into synthetic, ovine and human bone specimens, it was established that variations related to bone density could be automatically detected through the effects of the bone on the rotational characteristics of the screw. The torque measured during screw insertion was found to be directly related to bone density and can be used, on its own, as a good predictor of ultimate failure torque of the bone. PMID:23466167

  16. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  17. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Shull D.J.; Biesel, V.B.; Cunefare, K.A.

    1999-05-13

    'The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing''s noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  18. Embedded Multiprocessor Technology for VHSIC Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on embedded multiprocessor technology for VHSIC insertion are presented. The objective was to develop multiprocessor system technology providing user-selectable fault tolerance, increased throughput, and ease of application representation for concurrent operation. The approach was to develop graph management mapping theory for proper performance, model multiprocessor performance, and demonstrate performance in selected hardware systems.

  19. Frequency, Gradience, and Variation in Consonant Insertion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Young-ran

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the extent to which linguistic behavior can be described in terms of the projection of patterns from existing lexical items, through an investigation of Korean reduplication. Korean has a productive pattern of reduplication in which a consonant is inserted in a vowel-initial base, illustrated by forms such as "alok"--"t…

  20. Consolidation and disposal of PWR fuel inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, B.H. )

    1992-08-01

    Design and licensing of the Surry Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation was initiated in 1982 by Virginia Power as part of a comprehensive strategy to increase spent fuel storage capacity at the Station. Designed to use large, metal dry storage casks, the Surry Installation will accommodate 84 such casks with a total storage capacity of 811 MTU of spent pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. Virginia Power provided three storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineerinq Laboratory's Test Area North and the testing results have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Sixty-nine spent fuel assemblies were transported in truck casks from the Surry Power Station to Test Area North for testing in the three casks. Because of restrictions imposed by the cask testing equipment at Test Area North, the irradiated insert components stored in these fuel assemblies at Surry were removed prior to transport of the fuel assemblies. Retaining these insert components proved to be a problem because of a shortage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool that did not already contain insert components. In 1987 Virginia Power contracted with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. to process and dispose of 136 irradiated insert components consisting of 125 burnable poison rod assemblies, 10 thimble plugging devices and 1 part-length rod cluster control assembly. This work was completed in August and September 1987, culminating in the disposal at the Barnwell, SC low-level radioactive waste facility of two CNS 3-55 liners containing the consolidated insert components.

  1. Distal Insertions of the Biceps Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Eric A.; Anz, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Avulsion of the biceps femoris from the fibula and proximal tibia is encountered in clinical practice. While the anatomy of the primary posterolateral corner structures has been qualitatively and quantitatively described, a quantitative analysis regarding the insertions of the biceps femoris on the fibula and proximal tibia is lacking. Purpose: To quantitatively assess the insertions of the biceps femoris, fibular collateral ligament (FCL), and anterolateral ligament (ALL) on the fibula and proximal tibia as well as establish relationships among these structures and to pertinent surgical anatomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissections were performed on 12 nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens identifying the biceps femoris, FCL, and ALL, and their insertions on the proximal tibia and fibula. The footprint areas, orientations, and distances from relevant osseous landmarks were measured using a 3-dimensional coordinate measurement device. Results: Dissection produced 6 easily identifiable and reproducible anatomic footprints. Tibial footprints included the insertion of the ALL and an insertion of the biceps femoris (TBF). Fibular footprints included the insertion of the FCL, a distal insertion of the biceps femoris (DBF), a medial footprint of the biceps femoris (MBF), and a proximal footprint of the biceps femoris (PBF). The mean area of these footprints (95% CI) was as follows: ALL, 53.0 mm2 (38.4-67.6); TBF, 93.9 mm2 (72.0-115.8); FCL, 86.8 mm2 (72.3-101.2); DBF, 119 mm2 (91.1-146.9); MBF, 46.8 mm2 (29.0-64.5); and PBF, 215 mm2 (192.4-237.5). The mean distance (95% CI) from the Gerdy tubercle to the center of the ALL footprint was 24.3 mm (21.6-27.0) and to the center of the TBF was 22.5 mm (21.0-24.0). The center of the DBF was 8.68 mm (7.0-10.3) from the anterior border of the fibula, the center of the FCL was 14.6 mm (12.5-16.7) from the anterior border of the fibula and 20.7 mm (19.0-22.4) from the tip of the fibular styloid, and the center of the PBF was 8.96 mm (8.2-9.7) from the tip of the fibular styloid. Conclusion: A tibial footprint, distal fibular footprint, medial fibular footprint, and proximal fibular footprint were all consistent components of the insertion of the biceps femoris. Consistent relationships existed between the biceps femoris and insertions of the ALL and FCL. Clinical Relevance: The size of these footprints and distances from pertinent surgical landmarks will guide repairs of biceps femoris avulsion injuries. PMID:26535398

  2. A Monte Carlo study of peptide insertion into lipid bilayers: equilibrium conformations and insertion mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Michael W; Longo, Marjorie L

    2002-01-01

    The membrane insertion behavior of two peptides, Magainin2 and M2 delta, was investigated by applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique to a theoretical model. The model included many novel aspects, such as a new semi-empirical lipid bilayer model and a new set of semi-empirical transfer energies, which reproduced the experimental insertion behavior of Magainin2 and M2 delta without parameter fitting. Additionally, we have taken into account diminished internal (intramolecular) hydrogen bonding at the N- and C-termini of helical peptides. All simulations were carried out at 305 K, above the membrane thermal phase transition temperature, and at pH 7.0. The peptide equilibrium conformations are discussed for a range of bilayers with tail polarities varying from octanol-like to alkane-like. Probability distributions of the individual amino-acid-residue positions show the dynamic nature of these equilibrium conformations. Two different insertion mechanisms for M2 delta, and a translocation mechanism for Magainin2, are described. A study of the effect of bilayer thickness on M2 delta insertion suggests a critical thickness above which insertion is unfavorable. Additionally, we did not need to use an orientational potential or array of hard cylinders to persuade M2 delta to insert perpendicular to the membrane surface. Instead, we found that diminished internal hydrogen bonding in the helical conformation anchored the termini in the headgroups and resulted in a nearly perpendicular orientation. PMID:11751313

  3. A MANUAL INSERTION MECHANISM FOR PERCUTANEOUS COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION

    E-print Network

    A MANUAL INSERTION MECHANISM FOR PERCUTANEOUS COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION Daniel Schurzig Vanderbilt. Webster III Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA ABSTRACT Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation (PCI point. This precludes standard cochlear implant deployment techniques, and necessitates a new insertion

  4. Radiographic assessment of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Soares, André Schmidt; de Lima, Bruno Spagnuolo; Vianna, Filippo Santos Zozoloto; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the radiographic images of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), in order to assist the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels during surgeries, and to be used as parameters in postoperative evaluation of the location of these tunnels. Methods Thirty adult cadaver knees were used. The PCL anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles' center was marked with a metallic marker. Radiographs were taken and a grid system was established to locate the position of bundles insertion. The percentile in which the projection of each bundle's center was in relation to the Blumensaat line was also determined. Results In the anteroposterior view, AL and PM bundles' centers were on average, on the 42.5% and 38.18% percentiles of Blumensaat's line, respectively. In lateral views, the AL and PM bundles' centers corresponded to the 72.94% and 55.56% percentiles of the line, respectively. In 73.33% of the knees the AL bundle center was on the 3D quadrant and in 70% of samples the PM bundle center was in quadrant 2D. Conclusions We established an X-ray pattern of femoral insertion of PCL that may be of interest for intraoperative control, before tunnel drilling, and also for post-operative evaluation of tunnel location. Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:24453690

  5. Estimation of insertion depth angle based on cochlea diameter and linear insertion depth: a prediction tool for the CI422.

    PubMed

    Franke-Trieger, Annett; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Beside the cochlear size, the linear insertion depth (LID) influences the insertion depth angle of cochlear implant electrode arrays. For the specific implant CI422 the recommended LID is not fixed but can vary continuously between 20 and 25 mm. In the current study, the influence of cochlea size and LID on the final insertion depth angle was investigated to develop a prediction tool for the insertion depth angle by means of cochlea diameter and LID. Preoperative estimation of insertion depth angles might help surgeons avoid exceeding an intended insertion depth, especially with respect to low-frequency residual hearing preservation. Postoperative, high-resolution 3D-radiographs provided by Flat Panel Computed Volume Tomography (FPCT) were used to investigate the insertion depth angle in 37 CI422 recipients. Furthermore, the FPCT images were used to measure linear insertion depth and diameter of the basal turn of the cochlea. A considerable variation of measured insertion depth angles ranging from 306° to 579° was identified. The measured linear insertion depth ranged from -18.6 to 26.2 mm and correlated positively with the insertion depth angle. The cochlea diameter ranged from 8.11 to 10.42 mm and correlated negatively with the insertion depth angle. The results suggest that preoperatively measured cochlea diameter combined with the option of different array positions by means of LID may act as predictors for the final insertion depth angle. PMID:25361895

  6. Mutual Inductance Modeling for Multiple RLC Interconnects with Application to Shield Insertion Junmou Zhang and Eby G. Friedman

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Mutual Inductance Modeling for Multiple RLC Interconnects with Application to Shield Insertion of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627­0231 Abstract-- An effective mutual inductance is proposed in this paper lines into only two coupled RLC interconnects. The concept of an effective mutual inductance is further

  7. piggyBac-based insertional mutagenesis in the presence of stably integrated P elements in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Häcker, Udo; Nystedt, Sverker; Barmchi, Mojgan Padash; Horn, Carsten; Wimmer, Ernst A.

    2003-01-01

    P element-mediated mutagenesis has been used to disrupt an estimated 25% of genes essential for Drosophila adult viability. Mutation of all genes in the fly genome, however, poses a problem, because P elements show significant hotspots of integration. In addition, advanced screening scenarios often require the use of P element-based tools like the generation of germ-line mosaics using FLP recombinase-mediated recombination or gene misexpression using the UAS/Gal4 system. These techniques are P element-based and can therefore not be combined with the use of P elements as mutagenic agents. To circumvent these limitations, we have developed an insertional mutagenesis system using non-P element transposons. An enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-marked piggyBac-based mutator element was mobilized by a piggyBac specific transposase source expressed from a Hermes-based jump-starter transposon marked with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein. In a pilot screen, we have generated 798 piggyBac insertions on FRT bearing third chromosomes of which 9% have sustained a putatively piggyBac-related lethal hit. The FRTs present on the target chromosome remained stably integrated during the screen and could subsequently be used to generate germ-line clones associated with maternal and zygotic phenotypes. PCR-based analysis of insertion loci shows that 57% of the insertions are in genes for which no P element insertions have been reported. Our data demonstrate the potential of this technique to facilitate the quest for saturation mutagenesis of the Drosophila genome. The system is Drosophila nonspecific and potentially applicable in a broad spectrum of nonmodel organisms. PMID:12802016

  8. Insertion of group II intron retroelements after intrinsic transcriptional terminators

    E-print Network

    Zimmerly, Steven

    , for example, R2 elements insert site-specifically into defined se- quences within rDNA arrays while leavingInsertion of group II intron retroelements after intrinsic transcriptional terminators Aaron R by inserting directly after transcriptional terminator mo- tifs in bacterial genomes (stem-loops followed by Ts

  9. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515... package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. FDA concludes that the safe and effective use of drug products containing estrogens requires that patients be fully informed...

  10. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515... package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. FDA concludes that the safe and effective use of drug products containing estrogens requires that patients be fully informed...

  11. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515... package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. FDA concludes that the safe and effective use of drug products containing estrogens requires that patients be fully informed...

  12. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515... package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. FDA concludes that the safe and effective use of drug products containing estrogens requires that patients be fully informed...

  13. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515... package inserts for estrogens. (a) Requirement for a patient package insert. FDA concludes that the safe and effective use of drug products containing estrogens requires that patients be fully informed...

  14. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    performance. For long-term battery cycling with good capacity retention, cycli- cal insertion and extraction) From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays- chanism for energy storage is the insertion of secondary species into solid electrodes, as opposed

  15. Membrane Fission Is Promoted by Insertion of Amphipathic Helices and

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Harvey

    Membrane Fission Is Promoted by Insertion of Amphipathic Helices and Is Restricted by Crescent BAR membrane curva- ture. Here, we investigate membrane fission by shallow hydrophobic insertions- brane fission driven by hydrophobic insertions. A quantitative assay for vesiculation reveals an antag

  16. INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

  17. Complex central venous catheter insertion for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Steven; Belfield, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of payment by results in the UK, there has been no decrease in central venous catheter (CVC) use. In part, this may relate to a requirement to dialyse through a CVC while autogenous access matures. Mortality data have improved in parallel and patients on hemodialysis live longer, which may lead to an increased exposure to CVCs.Exposure to CVCs carries a significant risk of infection and occlusion requiring their repositioning or exchange. The mid to long-term sequelae of CVC use is central venous occlusion leaving clinical teams with an ever increasing challenge to find adequate venous access.In this article, we will discuss the challenges faced by operators inserting CVCs into the hemodialysis-dependent patient who has exhausted more tradition insertion sites. These include translumbar caval catheters, transocclusion and transcollateral catheters, transjugular Inferior Vena Cava catheter positioning, and transhepatic catheters. We will demonstrate the techniques employed, complications, and anticipated longevity of function. PMID:24817471

  18. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. However, in order to create many small missions, new technology must be developed, applied, and assimilated. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper (FBC) missions.

  19. Comparison of insertional RNA editing in Myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cai; Frankhouser, David; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing describes the process in which individual or short stretches of nucleotides in a messenger or structural RNA are inserted, deleted, or substituted. A high level of RNA editing has been observed in the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum. The most frequent editing type in Physarum is the insertion of individual Cs. RNA editing is extremely accurate in Physarum; however, little is known about its mechanism. Here, we demonstrate how analyzing two organisms from the Myxomycetes, namely Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, allows us to test hypotheses about the editing mechanism that can not be tested from a single organism alone. First, we show that using the recently determined full transcriptome information of Physarum dramatically improves the accuracy of computational editing site prediction in Didymium. We use this approach to predict genes in the mitochondrial genome of Didymium and identify six new edited genes as well as one new gene that appears unedited. Next we investigate sequence conservation in the vicinity of editing sites between the two organisms in order to identify sites that harbor the information for the location of editing sites based on increased conservation. Our results imply that the information contained within only nine or ten nucleotides on either side of the editing site (a distance previously suggested through experiments) is not enough to locate the editing sites. Finally, we show that the codon position bias in C insertional RNA editing of these two organisms is correlated with the selection pressure on the respective genes thereby directly testing an evolutionary theory on the origin of this codon bias. Beyond revealing interesting properties of insertional RNA editing in Myxomycetes, our work suggests possible approaches to be used when finding sequence motifs for any biological process fails. PMID:22383871

  20. Probe insertion apparatus with inflatable seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sealing apparatus is disclosed for inserting a probe into a pressure vessel having an elongated opening includes a pair of resiliently deformable seals opposingly disposed in sealing engagement with each other. A retainer is connected to the pressure vessel around the elongated opening and holds the pair of seals rigidly to the pressure vessel. A wedge is engageable with the pair of seals and carries the probe, for longitudinally translating the probe in pressure vessel.

  1. Thermally Activated Retainers For Insertion In Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldi, Margaret E.; Hartz, Leslie S.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical retainers of new type for use with gap filler easy to install and to attach themselves securely. Concept based on shape-memory properties of metal alloy Nitinol, alloy of nickel and titanium. Retainers conceived for use with Space Shuttle insulating tiles but used on other assemblies of blocks or tiles configured similarly. Tabs bent outward made flush by cooling below memory transition temperature. After insertion in gap and reheating, tabs spring outward.

  2. Contemporary practice of testicular prosthesis insertion

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Aza; Yassin, Musaab; Hendry, David; Walker, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the practice of testicular prosthesis insertion (TPI) related to orchidectomy in one geographical region and to identify the difference in the rates of insertion among different age groups. Patients and methods Males who underwent orchidectomy between 1989 and 2009 were identified from data collected from Scottish Morbidity Records. Patients were classified into six age groups. The TPI rate and relation to original orchidectomy were analysed according to different age groups. Results In all, 3364 patients underwent orchidectomy in the 20-year period of the study. The most common indications for orchidectomy were atrophy, undescended testes, torsion, and tumour. In the same period, 530 patients had a TPI, with 59.4% of them (316 patients) having TPI at initial surgery, 17.3% (92) as a second surgical procedure, and 22.8% (122) having the TPI without prior history of orchidectomy. Among patients who underwent TPI, postpubertal males were more likely to have simultaneous insertion at the time of orchidectomy than prepubertal males (83% vs 32%; odds ratio 10.44, 95% confidence interval 5.23–20.82; P < 0.01). Conclusion Younger males are more likely to have TPI at a later date. Paediatric urologists should be mindful of the possibility of concurrent TPI at the time of initial scrotal/groin exploration. PMID:26609448

  3. Pre-puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mahmoud; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2015-10-01

    Palpation method is widely used in clinical practice to identify the puncture site during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) blocks. Tuffier's line, is an anatomical landmark between two iliac crests (inter-cristal), which is widely used to identify the puncture site during CSE blocks is not always an indicator for specific vertebral level or inter-vertebral space. One hundred and Ten (110) women were scheduled for normal vaginal delivery and were randomized into two equal groups; palpation group and an ultrasound guided group to detect the efficacy of puncture ultrasound before CSE blocks to increase chances of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt and to reduce the number of attempts or punctures during insertion of CSE catheter. There were no significant differences between two studied groups regarding; maternal age, weight and height, while, there was a significant difference between two studied groups regarding; parity. Percentage of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt was significantly higher (67.27%) in ultrasound compared to palpation group (40%). Number of punctures (attempts) were significantly less in ultrasound (1.2 ± 0.6) compared to palpation group (2.3 ± 0.8) and the number of redirections was also significantly less in ultrasound (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to palpation group (2.8 ± 1.6). Although, time to identify puncture site was significantly longer in ultrasound compared to palpation group and total procedure time was longer in ultrasound (9.1 ± 1.5 min) compared to palpation group (6.2 ± 1.2 min), there was no significant difference between two studied groups regarding; time to identify puncture site and total procedure time. Two cases of dural puncture in palpation versus no cases in ultrasound group and two cases of intravascular catheter placement (one in each group), with no significant difference between two groups. Pre- puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery, increases the chance of a successful CSE procedure on the first attempt and reduces the number of attempts during insertion of CSE catheter. PMID:25348834

  4. Insertion of coherence requests for debugging a multiprocessor

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

    2010-02-23

    A method and system are disclosed to insert coherence events in a multiprocessor computer system, and to present those coherence events to the processors of the multiprocessor computer system for analysis and debugging purposes. The coherence events are inserted in the computer system by adding one or more special insert registers. By writing into the insert registers, coherence events are inserted in the multiprocessor system as if they were generated by the normal coherence protocol. Once these coherence events are processed, the processing of coherence events can continue in the normal operation mode.

  5. Recessed impingement insert metering plate for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael (218 Quail Ridge Dr., Greenville, SC 29680); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (7006 Kevin La., Schenectady, NY 12303)

    2002-01-01

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second diametrically opposed, perforated side walls. A metering plate having at least one opening defined therethrough for coolant flow is mounted to the side walls to generally transverse a longitudinal axis of the insert, and is disposed downstream from said inlet end. The metering plate improves flow distribution while reducing ballooning stresses within the insert and allowing for a more flexible insert attachment.

  6. Autodirected insertion: preinserted VDAC channels greatly shorten the delay to the insertion of new channels.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Colombini, M

    1997-01-01

    VDAC, a mitochondrial outer membrane channel, has the ability to catalyze and direct the insertion of other VDAC channels into planar phospholipid membranes. The spontaneous rate of insertion of detergent-solubilized VDAC channels into phospholipid membranes is estimated to be 1.5 x 10(-5) channels min-1 micron-2. VDAC channels already in the membrane can increase this rate by a factor of 10(9). The presence of 5 M urea on the opposite side of the membrane increases this 10-fold to 4.5 x 10(5) channels min-1 microns-2. Similar but weaker effects are observed with Triton X100 addition (10(-3)% (v/v)). These agents are not acting on uninserted channels because they do not affect the delay from sample addition to first insertion. Under the chosen conditions, this delay is long (240 s) without preinserted channels. However, the presence of a few VDAC channels in the membrane reduces this delay to 14 s, close to the diffusion limit. Therefore, urea and Triton, added to the side of the membrane opposite that to which the VDAC sample was added, likely increase the flexibility of the VDAC channels in the membrane, allowing them to be more efficient catalysts for VDAC insertion. There are obvious implications for membrane protein insertion and targeting. PMID:9129814

  7. Migration of tendinous insertions. I. Cause and mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Dörfl, J

    1980-01-01

    The cause and mechanisms of the migration of tendons and ligaments were studied in young rabbits. Three techniques were used: (1) Marking of insertions, the neighbouring periosteum and the diaphysis with metallic markers. (2) Marking of insertion sites by tetracycline as an indicator of osteogenesis. (3) Histological examination. The insertions used in the study were of three different characters: (1) Insertions subject to muscular traction (patellar ligament, quadratus femoris muscle, tibialis anterior muscle). (2) The distal insertions of the medial collateral ligament of the knee, stretched by the activity of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia. (3) The proximal and distal insertions of the anterior annular ligament of the tibia, inserted solely in bone and periosteum. The cause of migration is the growth of periosteum dragging the insertions during its stretching, caused itself by the activity of the epiphyseal plates. The local mechanism governing migration while ensuring a continuous connexion with the bone is not the same in all sites. It depends upon the character of the bony surface at the insertion and of the function of the insertion zone, which can be osteogenic, resorptive or both. A plexus of precollagenous fibres is present at all resorptive insertion sites, and at some of the osteogenic sites. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7440401

  8. Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators

    DOEpatents

    Brown, David L (Westfield, IN); Stabel, Gerald R (Swartz Creek, MI); Lawrence, Robert Anthony (Kokomo, IN)

    2005-02-08

    A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

  9. Vitamer Levels, Stress Response, Enzyme Activity, and Gene Regulation of Arabidopsis Lines Mutant in the Pyridoxine/Pyridoxamine 5?-Phosphate Oxidase (PDX3) and the Pyridoxal Kinase (SOS4) Genes Involved in the Vitamin B6 Salvage Pathway1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    González, Eugenia; Danehower, David; Daub, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    PDX3 and SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE4 (SOS4), encoding pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5?-phosphate oxidase and pyridoxal kinase, respectively, are the only known genes involved in the salvage pathway of pyridoxal 5?-phosphate in plants. In this study, we determined the phenotype, stress responses, vitamer levels, and regulation of the vitamin B6 pathway genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants mutant in PDX3 and SOS4. sos4 mutant plants showed a distinct phenotype characterized by chlorosis and reduced plant size, as well as hypersensitivity to sucrose in addition to the previously noted NaCl sensitivity. This mutant had higher levels of pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal 5?-phosphate than the wild type, reflected in an increase in total vitamin B6 observed through HPLC analysis and yeast bioassay. The sos4 mutant showed increased activity of PDX3 as well as of the B6 de novo pathway enzyme PDX1, correlating with increased total B6 levels. Two independent lines with T-DNA insertions in the promoter region of PDX3 (pdx3-1 and pdx3-2) had decreased PDX3 activity. Both also had decreased activity of PDX1, which correlated with lower levels of total vitamin B6 observed using the yeast bioassay; however, no differences were noted in levels of individual vitamers by HPLC analysis. Both pdx3 mutants showed growth reduction in vitro and in vivo as well as an inability to increase growth under high light conditions. Increased expression of salvage and some of the de novo pathway genes was observed in both the pdx3 and sos4 mutants. In all mutants, increased expression was more dramatic for the salvage pathway genes. PMID:17873088

  10. 78 FR 37214 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Brunswick County; One new meter station, line heaters, and pig \\1\\ receiver at the terminus of the Brunswick Lateral; and \\1\\ A ``pig'' is a tool that is inserted into and moves through the pipeline, and is used...

  11. Analytic closed orbit analysis for RHIC insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y. . Dept. of Physics); Tepikian, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Analytic closed orbit analysis is performed to evaluate the tolerance of quadrupole misalignment and dipole errors (b{sub 0},a{sub 0}) in the RHIC insertion. Sensitivity coefficients of these errors are tabulated for different {beta}{sup 0} values. Using these sensitivity tables, we found that the power supplies ripple of 10{sup {minus}4} can cause closed orbit motion of 0.05 mm at the IP in comparison with the rms beam size of 0.3 mm. It is desirable to have the power supply ripple less than 10{sup {minus}5}. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI): a review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Hughes, G; Roobottom, C

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI) has transformed the care provided for patients with severe aortic stenosis. The uptake of this procedure is increasing rapidly, and clinicians from all disciplines are likely to increasingly encounter patients being assessed for or having undergone this intervention. Successful TAVI heavily relies on careful and comprehensive imaging assessment, before, during and after the procedure, using a range of modalities. This review outlines the background and development of TAVI, describes the nature of the procedure and considers the contribution of imaging techniques, both to successful intervention and to potential complications. PMID:24258463

  13. Self-Inserted Needles in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Marco; Guidi, Benedetta; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Emdin, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Cardiac injuries due to penetration by sharp foreign bodies usually have a clear clinical presentation. A case of a 38-year-old man with self-inserted cardiac lesions and a misleading presentation is reported. The patient was admitted to the emergency room because of chest pain, with increase in biomarkers of myocardial necrosis, and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities inducing initial diagnostic and therapeutic workup of acute coronary syndrome. Once clinical destabilization followed by death had occurred, the suspicion of an alternative diagnosis came from delayed chest radiography, confirmed by autopsy, revealing the presence of multiple metallic objects within the thorax. PMID:26277296

  14. Imaging Foreign Bodies: Ingested, Aspirated, and Inserted.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiang-Jer; Hanna, Tarek N; Shuaib, Waqas; Aized, Majid; Khosa, Faisal; Linnau, Ken F

    2015-12-01

    Foreign bodies can gain entrance to the body through several mechanisms, ie, ingestion, aspiration, and purposeful insertion. For each of these common entry mechanisms, this article examines the epidemiology, clinical presentation, anatomic considerations, and key imaging characteristics associated with clinically relevant foreign bodies seen in the emergency department (ED) setting. We detail optimal use of multiple imaging techniques, including radiography, ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography to evaluate foreign bodies and their associated complications. Important imaging and clinical features of foreign bodies that can alter clinical management or may necessitate emergency intervention are discussed. PMID:26320521

  15. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  16. Photograph of moon after transearth insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This photograph of the moon was taken after transearth insertion when the Apollo 10 spacecraft was high above the lunar equator near 27 degrees east longitude. North is about 20 degrees left of the top of the photograph. Apollo Landing Site 3 is on the lighted side of the terminator in a dark area just north of the equator. Apollo Landing Site 2 is near the lower left margin of the Sea of Tranquility (Mare Tranquillitatis), which is the large, dark area near the center of the photograph.

  17. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing.

    The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The headers will be insert by the Publisher The headers will be insert by the Publisher

    E-print Network

    Tillack, Mark

    will be insert by the Publisher Optimization of plasma uniformity in laser-irradiated underdense targets* M. S] to model low-density SiO2 aerogel carriers doped with trace amounts of Ti and subjected to high-energy pulsed laser irradiation. Underdense targets are expected to respond to laser irradiation more uniformly

  19. Crown gall oncogenesis: evidence that a T-DNA gene from the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid pTiA6 encodes an enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of indoleacetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Thomashow, L S; Reeves, S; Thomashow, M F

    1984-01-01

    Stable incorporation of tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid sequences, the T-DNA, into the genomes of dicotyledonous plants results in the formation of crown gall tumors. Previous genetic studies have suggested that the products of the genes encoding transcripts 1 and 2, which are encoded by the TL-DNA region of pTiA6, are responsible for inducing the auxin-independent phenotype of crown gall tissues. Here we report the construction of a plasmid, pMTlacT2, which directs the synthesis of the Mr 49,800 polypeptide encoded by the transcript 2 gene. Cell-free extracts prepared from Escherichia coli harboring this plasmid converted indoleacetamide to indoleacetic acid, the natural auxin of plants; extracts prepared from plasmidless strains of E. coli or strains harboring the cloning vehicle pBR322 did not carry out this reaction. We conclude that the transcript 2 gene of pTiA6 codes for an enzyme that participates in auxin biosynthesis, probably an indoleacetamide hydrolase. Images PMID:6089175

  20. Radiological Insertion and Management of Peritoneovenous Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Hussain, F. F. Lopez, A. J.

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to report our experience of the management of complications following the insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for intractable malignant ascites. From June 1999 to January 2006, 26 patients underwent insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for ascites by interventional radiologists. We have used ultrasound and shuntography to assist in the diagnosis of the cause of shunt blockage. Successful techniques for the restoration of the shunt function include port- pumping, stripping of any fibrin sheath, and revision of either the venous or peritoneal catheter. The procedure was initially successful in all patients with continued patency until death in 17. A further four patients are still alive with a functioning shunt. There was one rapid postprocedure death resulting from pulmonary edema. Two patients developed pneumothorax, managed successfully with either a chest drain or aspiration. Shunt dysfunction occurred eight times in seven patients. There were five successful revisions in four patients. Overall, shunt patency has been maintained in 80.1% of patients. Shunt dysfunction is seen in a significant number of patients, but successful revision of the shunt can be achieved in the majority.

  1. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    SciTech Connect

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2007-02-02

    Lithium insertion into various iron vanadates has been investigated. Fe{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 13} and Fe{sub 4}(V{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O have discharge capacities approaching 200 mAh/g above 2.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. Although the potential profiles change significantly between the first and subsequent discharges, capacity retention is unexpectedly good. Other phases, structurally related to FeVO{sub 4}, containing copper and/or sodium ions were also studied. One of these, {beta}-Cu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 6}, reversibly consumes almost 10 moles of electrons per formula unit (ca. 240 mAh g{sup -1}) between 3.6 and 2.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, in a non-classical insertion process. It is proposed that both copper and vanadium are electrochemically active, whereas iron(III) reacts to form LiFe{sup III}O{sub 2}. The capacity of the Cu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 6}/Li system is nearly independent of cycling rate, stabilizing after a few cycles at 120-140 mAh g{sup -1}. Iron vanadates exhibit better capacities than their phosphate analogues, whereas the latter display more constant discharge potentials.

  2. Model of a Hollow Cathode Insert Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric fluid model of the plasma in the insert region of a hollow cathode is presented. The level of sophistication included in the model is motivated in part by the need to determine quantitatively plasma fluxes to the emitter surface. The ultimate goal is to assess whether plasma effects can degrade the life of impregnated inserts beyond those documented throughout the 30-50 year history of vacuum cathode technologies. Results from simulations of a 1.2-cm diameter cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A, and a gas flow rate of 5 sccm, suggest that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.5 A of ion current return to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current computed by the model is about 35 A. Comparisons with plasma measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma due to two-stream instabilities is possible near the orifice region. Solution to the heavy species energy equation, with classical transport and no viscous effects, predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2640 K.

  3. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil.

    The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long.

    The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. An evaluation of consumable inserts for gas tungsten arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, A.E.; Marburger, S.J.

    1987-03-01

    This study presents information on the use of consumable inserts to make 100% penetration welds in 304 and modified A286 (designated JBK-75) stainless steels. Current and voltage ranges which produced acceptable welds were found for different combinations of joint preparations and inserts. Three third member insert designs were examined: Type A (AWS Class 1), Type G (AWS Class 3), and Type K (AWS Class 5). One joint design incorporated the configuration of the Type G insert into the root face of the joint (termed an ''integral insert''). Joints welded with and without filler wire addition were made for comparison. Metallurgical and radiographic tests were done on all welds. It was found that the consumable insert root pass was comparable to the wire-fed root pass in weld shape and size using the same parameters; it also had additional advantages in ease of use, cleanliness, inspectability and reduced procedure complexity.

  5. Designing and constructing cardboard chair inserts for young handicapped children

    E-print Network

    Horn, Eva; Millen, Caren E.; Cavanaugh, Christie Lee; Komisar, Shelley

    1987-01-01

    Chair Inserts for Preschoolers Eva Horn Caren E. Millen Christie Lee Cavanaugh Shelley Komisar J- • *4 Cardboard chair inserts can be constructed in a minimal amount of time for a nominal expense. •Preschool children with physical im- pairments... of building adaptive chairs using double-walled cardboard. Their effort resulted in inexpensive chair inserts that can either be placed in commercially made cube chairs or attached to other types of preschool chairs. The physical posi- tioning...

  6. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  7. A method for timing constrained redundant via insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junping, Wang; Dan, Xu; Yongbang, Su

    2014-04-01

    Redundant via (RV) insertion is a useful mechanism to enhance via reliability. However, when extra vias are inserted into the design, the circuit timing might be changed. Therefore, how to insert RV under the timing constraints is the main challenge. In this paper, we introduce a new model to compute the distance between a RV and the corresponding single via, put forward a new RV type, which is called the long length via (LLV), and then present an improved RV insertion method considering the timing constraints. This computing model can certify that the timing, which is obtained after inserting a RV, is not greater than the original timing. Meanwhile, the new RV type LLV can increase the possibility of RV insertion; this method provides a global perspective for the RV insertion. Considering the timing constraints, the total redundant via insertion rate is 85.38% in the MIS-based method, while our proposed method can obtain a high insertion rate 88.79% for the tested circuits.

  8. Analysis of Early-Insertion Standard Coalesced Hashing

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wen-Chin; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    1983-01-01

    search time in Fig. 1(b) is slightly better than in Fig. l(a), because inserting WEN immediately after FRANCIS (rather than at the end of the chain) reduces the search time for WEN from four probes to two EARLY-INSERTION STANDARD COALESCED HASHING 669 1 8... will contribute to cs+(l, i, ]) after the next insertion if the hash address of the inserted record is the location of the ith record in the chain. This accounts for the 8=+1(/- 1, i, i) term. [3 LEMMA4. The termBNdefined inLemma 3 is equaltoM(M+1)N (M+N)M for 1...

  9. Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

    1999-11-12

    Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

  10. Insertions of a Novel Class of Transposable Elements with a Strong Target Site Preference at the R Locus of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Walker, E. L.; Eggleston, W. B.; Demopulos, D.; Kermicle, J.; Dellaporta, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The r locus of maize regulates anthocyanin synthesis in various tissues of maize through the production of helix-loop-helix DNA binding proteins capable of inducing expression of structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The complex r variant, R-r:standard (R-r), undergoes frequent mutation through a variety of mechanisms including displaced synapsis and crossing over, and intrachromosomal recombination. Here we report a new mechanism for mutation at the R-r complex: insertion of a novel family of transposable elements. Because the elements were first identified in the R-p gene of the R-r complex, they have been named P Instability Factor (PIF). Two different PIF elements were cloned and found to have identical sequences at their termini but divergent internal sequences. In addition, the PIF elements showed a marked specificity of insertion sites. Six out of seven PIF-containing derivatives examined had an element inserted at an identical location. Two different members of the PIF element family were identified at this position. The seventh PIF-containing derivative examined had the element inserted at a distinct position within r. Even at this location, however, the element inserted into a conserved target sequence. The timing of PIF excision is unusual. Germinal excision rates can range up to several percent of progeny. Yet somatic sectors are rare, even in lines exhibiting high germinal reversion rates. PMID:9178016

  11. Method of joining a vane cavity insert to a nozzle segment of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An insert containing apertures for impingement cooling a nozzle vane of a nozzle segment in a gas turbine is inserted into one end of the vane. The leading end of the insert is positioned slightly past a rib adjacent the opposite end of the vane through which the insert is inserted. The end of the insert is formed or swaged into conformance with the inner margin of the rib. The insert is then brazed or welded to the rib.

  12. Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.

    1998-09-03

    This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.

  13. INSERTION DEVICE UPGRADE PLANS AT THE NSLS.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE, T.; BLEDNYKH, A.; HARDER, D.; LEHECKA, M.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2005-05-16

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices (IDs) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W120) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, undulator (MGU or SCU-X9), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both IDs will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement at low temperature, will be discussed.

  14. Increasing Prion Propensity by Hydrophobic Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Michelina; Flores, Noe; Rogge, Ryan A.; Cascarina, Sean M.; Ross, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Prion formation involves the conversion of proteins from a soluble form into an infectious amyloid form. Most yeast prion proteins contain glutamine/asparagine-rich regions that are responsible for prion aggregation. Prion formation by these domains is driven primarily by amino acid composition, not primary sequence, yet there is a surprising disconnect between the amino acids thought to have the highest aggregation propensity and those that are actually found in yeast prion domains. Specifically, a recent mutagenic screen suggested that both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues strongly promote prion formation. However, while aromatic residues are common in yeast prion domains, non-aromatic hydrophobic residues are strongly under-represented. Here, we directly test the effects of hydrophobic and aromatic residues on prion formation. Remarkably, we found that insertion of as few as two hydrophobic residues resulted in a multiple orders-of-magnitude increase in prion formation, and significant acceleration of in vitro amyloid formation. Thus, insertion or deletion of hydrophobic residues provides a simple tool to control the prion activity of a protein. These data, combined with bioinformatics analysis, suggest a limit on the number of strongly prion-promoting residues tolerated in glutamine/asparagine-rich domains. This limit may explain the under-representation of non-aromatic hydrophobic residues in yeast prion domains. Prion activity requires not only that a protein be able to form prion fibers, but also that these fibers be cleaved to generate new independently-segregating aggregates to offset dilution by cell division. Recent studies suggest that aromatic residues, but not non-aromatic hydrophobic residues, support the fiber cleavage step. Therefore, we propose that while both aromatic and non-aromatic hydrophobic residues promote prion formation, aromatic residues are favored in yeast prion domains because they serve a dual function, promoting both prion formation and chaperone-dependent prion propagation. PMID:24586661

  15. Peripherally inserted central catheter: compliance with evidence-based indications for insertion in an inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, Danuta G; Beaman, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, retrospective chart review was conducted at a medium-sized community hospital to verify appropriateness of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in 49 inpatient patients. Study results support the Infusion Nurses Society recommendation to use PICCs to facilitate either short- or long-term intravenous therapy of vesicants, irritants, and any medications with a pH less than 5 or greater than 9 and osmolarity greater than 600 mOsm/L. All PICC insertion criteria recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were met except one--the intended duration of intravenous therapy of more than 6 days. Identical PICC selection criteria are needed to standardize clinical practice. PMID:23823005

  16. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  17. Technical note Insertion loss testing of active noise reduction

    E-print Network

    Wong, Willy

    Technical note Insertion loss testing of active noise reduction headsets using acoustic fixture Jie measured insertion losses of four types of commercially avail- able ANR headsets using an Acoustic Test for a long period of time. Only in the last 20 years has ANR been introduced in the industry of hearing

  18. Power Optimal MTCMOS Repeater Insertion for Global Buses

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Power Optimal MTCMOS Repeater Insertion for Global Buses Hanif Fatemi Department of EE@ceng.usc.edu ABSTRACT This paper addresses the problem of power-optimal repeater insertion for global buses significantly reduce the power consumption of the global bus interconnects. Categories and Subject Descriptors B

  19. Combined plasma and thermal hollow cathode insert model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ionnis G.; Goebel, Dan m.; Hornbeck, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from a Hollow Cathode Thermal (HCThermal) model that uses the spatially distributed plasma fluxes calculated by the InsertRegion of an Orificed Cathode (IROrCa2D) code as the heat source to predict the hollow cathode and insert temperatures.

  20. 2008 Nature Publishing Group Fjord insertion into continental margins

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    © 2008 Nature Publishing Group LETTERS Fjord insertion into continental margins driven; doi:10.1038/ngeo201 Fjords commonly punctuate continental edges formerly occupied by Quaternary ice. Ice sheets drain primarily through fjords3,4 ; therefore, widespread fjord insertion may have altered

  1. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, RIchard; Graziosi, Dave; Jones, Bobby; Ferl, Jinny; Scarborough, Steve; Sweeney, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z series of spacesuits. The Z-2 is another step in the NASA's technology development roadmap leading to human exploration of the Martian surface. To meet a more challenging set of requirements than previous suit systems standard design features, such as threaded inserts, have been re-analyzed and improved. NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement NASA levied on the suit composites was the ability to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. The design of the interface flanges of the composites allowed some of the inserts to be a "T" style insert that was installed through the entire thickness of the laminate. The flange portion of the insert provides a mechanical lock as a redundancy to the adhesive aiding in the pullout load that the insert can withstand. In some locations it was not possible to utilize at "T" style insert and a blind insert was used instead. These inserts rely completely on the bond strength of the adhesive to resist pullout. It was determined during the design of the suit that the inserts did not need to withstand loads induced from pressure cycling but instead tension induced from torqueing the screws to bolt on hardware which creates a much higher stress on them. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes testing that was performed to determine a k value for helicoil inserts in the Z2 suit and how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  2. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William John (Simpsonville, SC); Predmore, Daniel Ross (Clifton Park, NY); Placko, James Michael (West Chester, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  3. Detection for processing history of seam insertion and contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianwei; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of manipulations techniques of digital images, digital image forensic technology is becoming more and more necessary. However, the determination of processing history of multi-operation is still a challenge problem. In this paper, we improve the traditional seam insertion algorithm, and propose corresponding detection method. Then an algorithm that focuses on detecting the processing history of seam insertion and contrast enhancement is proposed, which can be widely used in practical image forgery. Based on comprehensive analysis, we have discovered the inherent relationship between seam insertion and contrast enhancement. Different orders of processing make different impacts on images. By using the newly proposed algorithm, both contrast enhancement followed by seam insertion and seam insertion followed by contrast enhancement can be detected correctly. Plenty of experiments have been implemented to prove the accuracy.

  4. Method for improving the durability of ion insertion materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Cheong, Hyeonsik M. (Seoul, KR)

    2002-01-01

    The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of electrodes, a pair of solid ion conducting layers sandwiched between the ion insertion layers, and a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material disposed between the solid ion conducting layers, where the solid ion conducting layer minimizes or prevents degradation of the faces of the ion insertion materials facing the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. Electrochemical cells of this invention having increased durability include secondary lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

  5. International Conference on Insertion Devices for Synchrotron Sources, Stanford, CA, October 27-30, 1985, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Lindau, I.

    Papers are presented on a new formulation of synchrotron radiation optics using the Wigner distribution, undulators as a primary source of coherent X-rays, programs for the calculation of undulator radiation spectra, and random errors in undulators and their effects on the radiation spectrum. Also considered are REC and NdFe magnetic moment irreversibility from temperature cycling, the design potential of insertion device storage rings, FEL undulator technology and synchrotron radiation source requirements, and the Orsay undulators. Other topics include a high quality hybrid wiggler for infrared FEL and coherent harmonic generation, the development of a NdFe-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL, the design of a 3.0 Tesla wiggler for the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and optics for insertion-device beam lines. Papers are also presented on mirror degradation and performance requirements in FELs, novel radiation sources for infrared to gamma rays, variational theory of insertion devices, and the evolution of the radiation-beam in long undulators.

  6. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  7. Modulation of the pHLIP transmembrane helix insertion pathway.

    PubMed

    Karabadzhak, Alexander G; Weerakkody, Dhammika; Wijesinghe, Dayanjali; Thakur, Mak S; Engelman, Donald M; Andreev, Oleg A; Markin, Vladislav S; Reshetnyak, Yana K

    2012-04-18

    The membrane-associated folding/unfolding of pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) provides an opportunity to study how sequence variations influence the kinetics and pathway of peptide insertion into bilayers. Here, we present the results of steady-state and kinetics investigations of several pHLIP variants with different numbers of charged residues, with attached polar cargoes at the peptide's membrane-inserting end, and with three single-Trp variants placed at the beginning, middle, and end of the transmembrane helix. Each pHLIP variant exhibits a pH-dependent interaction with a lipid bilayer. Although the number of protonatable residues at the inserting end does not affect the ultimate formation of helical structure across a membrane, it correlates with the time for peptide insertion, the number of intermediate states on the folding pathway, and the rates of unfolding and exit. The presence of polar cargoes at the peptide's inserting end leads to the appearance of intermediate states on the insertion pathway. Cargo polarity correlates with a decrease of the insertion rate. We conclude that the existence of intermediate states on the folding and unfolding pathways is not mandatory and, in the simple case of a polypeptide with a noncharged and nonpolar inserting end, the folding and unfolding appears as an all-or-none transition. We propose a model for membrane-associated insertion/folding and exit/unfolding and discuss the importance of these observations for the design of new delivery agents for direct translocation of polar therapeutic and diagnostic cargo molecules across cellular membranes. PMID:22768940

  8. Force of cochlear implant electrode insertion performed by a robotic insertion tool: comparison of traditional versus Advance

    E-print Network

    Force of cochlear implant electrode insertion performed by a robotic insertion tool: comparison Medical Center, Nashville, TN, robert.labadie@vanderbilt.edu Abstract Objective--Robotic cochlear implant design--Prospective. Setting--Tertiary referral center. Intervention(s)--A robotic cochlear implant

  9. Large insert environmental genomic library production.

    PubMed

    Taupp, Marcus; Lee, Sangwon; Hawley, Alyse; Yang, Jinshu; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of microbes in nature currently remain inaccessible to traditional cultivation methods. Over the past decade, culture-independent environmental genomic (i.e. metagenomic) approaches have emerged, enabling researchers to bridge this cultivation gap by capturing the genetic content of indigenous microbial communities directly from the environment. To this end, genomic DNA libraries are constructed using standard albeit artful laboratory cloning techniques. Here we describe the construction of a large insert environmental genomic fosmid library with DNA derived from the vertical depth continuum of a seasonally hypoxic fjord. This protocol is directly linked to a series of connected protocols including coastal marine water sampling [1], large volume filtration of microbial biomass [2] and a DNA extraction and purification protocol [3]. At the outset, high quality genomic DNA is end-repaired with the creation of 5 -phosphorylated blunt ends. End-repaired DNA is subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for size selection and gel extraction is performed to recover DNA fragments between 30 and 60 thousand base pairs (Kb) in length. Size selected DNA is purified away from the PFGE gel matrix and ligated to the phosphatase-treated blunt-end fosmid CopyControl vector pCC1 (EPICENTRE http://www.epibio.com/item.asp?ID=385). Linear concatemers of pCC1 and insert DNA are subsequently headfull packaged into phage particles by lambda terminase, with subsequent infection of phage-resistant E. coli cells. Successfully transduced clones are recovered on LB agar plates under antibiotic selection and archived in 384-well plate format using an automated colony picking robot (Qpix2, GENETIX). The current protocol draws from various sources including the CopyControl Fosmid Library Production Kit from EPICENTRE and the published works of multiple research groups [4-7]. Each step is presented with best practice in mind. Whenever possible we highlight subtleties in execution to improve overall quality and efficiency of library production. The whole process of fosmid library production and automated colony picking takes at least 7-10 days as there are many incubation steps included. However, there are several stopping points possible which are mentioned within the protocol. PMID:19776717

  10. Design of Revolute Joints for In-Mold Assembly Using Insert Molding.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Arvind; Ehrlich, Leicester; Desai, Jaydev P; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2011-12-01

    Creating highly articulated miniature structures requires assembling a large number of small parts. This is a very challenging task and increases cost of mechanical assemblies. Insert molding presents the possibility of creating a highly articulated structure in a single molding step. This can be accomplished by placing multiple metallic bearings in the mold and injecting plastic on top of them. In theory, this idea can generate a multi degree of freedom structures in just one processing step without requiring any post molding assembly operations. However, the polymer material has a tendency to shrink on top of the metal bearings and hence jam the joints. Hence, until now insert molding has not been used to create articulated structures. This paper presents a theoretical model for estimating the extent of joint jamming that occurs due to the shrinkage of the polymer on top of the metal bearings. The level of joint jamming is seen as the effective torque needed to overcome the friction in the revolute joints formed by insert molding. We then use this model to select the optimum design parameters which can be used to fabricate functional, highly articulating assemblies while meeting manufacturing constraints. Our analysis shows that the strength of weld-lines formed during the in-mold assembly process play a significant role in determining the minimum joint dimensions necessary for fabricating functional revolute joints. We have used the models and methods described in this paper to successfully fabricate the structure for a minimally invasive medical robot prototype with potential applications in neurosurgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of building an articulated structure with multiple degrees of freedom using insert molding. PMID:23904746

  11. Tools for Targeted Genome Engineering of Established Drosophila Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Hackney, Jennifer; Gong, Lei; Salzer, Claire; Mauser, Eric; Zhang, Dayu; Cherbas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We describe an adaptation of ?C31 integrase–mediated targeted cassette exchange for use in Drosophila cell lines. Single copies of an attP-bounded docking platform carrying a GFP-expression marker, with or without insulator elements flanking the attP sites, were inserted by P-element transformation into the Kc167 and Sg4 cell lines; each of the resulting docking-site lines carries a single mapped copy of one of the docking platforms. Vectors for targeted substitution contain a cloning cassette flanked by attB sites. Targeted substitution occurs by integrase-mediated substitution between the attP sites (integrated) and the attB sites (vector). We describe procedures for isolating cells carrying the substitutions and for eliminating the products of secondary off-target events. We demonstrate the technology by integrating a cassette containing a Cu2+-inducible mCherry marker, and we report the expression properties of those lines. When compared with clonal lines made by traditional transformation methods, which lead to the illegitimate insertion of tandem arrays, targeted insertion lines give more uniform expression, lower basal expression, and higher induction ratios. Targeted substitution, though intricate, affords results that should greatly improve comparative expression assays—a major emphasis of cell-based studies. PMID:26450921

  12. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Axially Inserted Magnetic/Langmuir Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannum, David; Bergerson, W.; Fiksel, G.; Forest, C. B.; Hegna, C.; Kendrick, R.; Oliva, S.; Sarff, J.

    2006-10-01

    A new probe has been designed to provide internal magnetic and Langmuir diagnostics throughout the rotating wall machine. The machine is a linear screw-pinch built to study the role of different wall boundary conditions on the resistive wall mode (RWM). Individual mode stability depends on the value of the safety factor at the plasma edge (qa). The plasma is produced by an array of nineteen guns, creating a column one meter in length and up to 20 cm in diameter. The central guns in the array can be biased to individually discharge 1 kA of plasma current. Different instabilities are studied by changing the current and density profiles of the guns. But profile measurement has been limited to the top and bottom of the plasma column by radial port access. The new axially-inserted Q-Tip probe can travel along the entire span of the column. The Q-Tip combines ten pickup loops with four triplets of electrodes for simultaneous magnetic and Langmuir measurements. The edge a and safety factor q of the plasma can now be found for different instabilities seen along the column. This poster tracks the change of ne, Te, ?p, and q throughout the plasma.

  14. Alu insertion loci and platyrrhine primate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ray, David A; Xing, Jinchuan; Hedges, Dale J; Hall, Michael A; Laborde, Meredith E; Anders, Bridget A; White, Brittany R; Stoilova, Nadica; Fowlkes, Justin D; Landry, Kate E; Chemnick, Leona G; Ryder, Oliver A; Batzer, Mark A

    2005-04-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) make very useful phylogenetic markers because the integration of a particular element at a location in the genome is irreversible and of known polarity. These attributes make analysis of SINEs as phylogenetic characters an essentially homoplasy-free affair. Alu elements are primate-specific SINEs that make up a large portion of the human genome and are also widespread in other primates. Using a combination wet-bench and computational approach we recovered 190 Alu insertions, 183 of which are specific to the genomes of nine New World primates. We used these loci to investigate branching order and have produced a cladogram that supports a sister relationship between Atelidae (spider, woolly, and howler monkeys) and Cebidae (marmosets, tamarins, and owl monkeys) and then the joining of this two family clade to Pitheciidae (titi and saki monkeys). The data support these relationships with a homoplasy index of 0.00. In this study, we report one of the largest applications of SINE elements to phylogenetic analysis to date, and the results provide a robust molecular phylogeny for platyrrhine primates. PMID:15737586

  15. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

  20. Complete association between a retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase gene and the recessive white mutation in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Ming; Coville, Jean-Luc; Coquerelle, Gérard; Gourichon, David; Oulmouden, Ahmad; Tixier-Boichard, Michčle

    2006-01-01

    Background In chickens, three mutant alleles have been reported at the C locus, including the albino mutation, and the recessive white mutation, which is characterized by white plumage and pigmented eyes. The albino mutation was found to be a 6 bp deletion in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. The present work describes an approach to identify the structural rearrangement in the TYR gene associated with the recessive white mutation. Results Molecular analysis of the chicken TYR gene has revealed a major structural difference (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP) in the genomic DNA of the recessive white chicken. A major size difference of 7.7 kb was found in intron 4 of the TYR gene by long-range PCR. Molecular cloning and sequencing results showed the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence of the Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV) family. Several aberrant transcripts of the tyrosinase gene were found in 10 week old recessive white chickens but not in the homozygous wild type colored chicken. We established a rapid genotyping diagnostic test based on the discovery of this retroviral insertion. It shows that all homozygous carriers of this insertion had a white plumage in various chicken strains. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish heterozygous carriers from homozygous normal chickens in a segregating line. Conclusion In this study, we conclude that the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence in intron 4 of the tyrosinase gene is diagnostic of the recessive white mutation in chickens. This insertion causes aberrant transcripts lacking exon 5, and we propose that this insertion is the causal mutation for the recessive white allele in the chicken. PMID:16457736

  1. Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L

    2013-08-06

    A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

  2. Gene Transfer and Genome-Wide Insertional Mutagenesis by Retroviral Transduction in Fish Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qizhi; Wang, Yunzhi; Lin, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yan; Ge, Ruowen; Hong, Yunhan

    2015-01-01

    Retrovirus (RV) is efficient for gene transfer and integration in dividing cells of diverse organisms. RV provides a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis (IM) to identify and functionally analyze genes essential for normal and pathological processes. Here we report RV-mediated gene transfer and genome-wide IM in fish stem cells from medaka and zebrafish. Three RVs were produced for fish cell transduction: rvLegfp and rvLcherry produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry fluorescent protein respectively under control of human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter upon any chromosomal integration, whereas rvGTgfp contains a splicing acceptor and expresses GFP only upon gene trapping (GT) via intronic in-frame integration and spliced to endogenous active genes. We show that rvLegfp and rvLcherry produce a transduction efficiency of 11~23% in medaka and zebrafish stem cell lines, which is as 30~67% efficient as the positive control in NIH/3T3. Upon co-infection with rvGTgfp and rvLcherry, GFP-positive cells were much fewer than Cherry-positive cells, consistent with rareness of productive gene trapping events versus random integration. Importantly, rvGTgfp infection in the medaka haploid embryonic stem (ES) cell line HX1 generated GTgfp insertion on all 24 chromosomes of the haploid genome. Similar to the mammalian haploid cells, these insertion events were presented predominantly in intergenic regions and introns but rarely in exons. RV-transduced HX1 retained the ES cell properties such as stable growth, embryoid body formation and pluripotency gene expression. Therefore, RV is proficient for gene transfer and IM in fish stem cells. Our results open new avenue for genome-wide IM in medaka haploid ES cells in culture. PMID:26029933

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylase 1 (AtHD1) and epigenetic regulation 

    E-print Network

    Tian, Lu

    2004-09-30

    in the transgenic plants.We also identified a T-DNA insertion line in exon 2 of AtHD1 gene (athd1-t1), resulting in a null allele at the locus. The complete inhibition of the AtHD1 expression induced growth and developmental defects similar to those of CASH...

  4. UDP-SUGAR PYROPHOSPHORYLASE IS ESSENTIAL FOR POLLEN DEVELOPMENT IN ARABIDOPSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabidopsis UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (AtUSP) is a broad substrate enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDP-sugars. We identified two knockout lines (usp-1 and usp-2) with T-DNA insertional events within the AtUSP coding region. From selfed heterozygous individuals, only wild-type and heterozygo...

  5. TRENDS in Plant Science Vol.7 No.11 November 2002 http://plants.trends.com 1360-1385/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1360-1385(02)02355-5

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    DEFECTIVE76 (EMB76), SHORT INTEGUMENTS1 (SIN1), SUSPENSOR1 (SUS1) and CARPEL FACTORY (CAF). Here, we of T-DNA insertion lines generated by KennethA. Feldmann for embryo-defective (emb) mutants [3,4]. Two of chromosome 1 and shown to define a single locus named EMB76 [5]. The mutant embryos fail to develop beyond

  6. Possible Application of NbTi Artificial Pinning Centers Wire for Insertion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubek, T.; Casalbuoni, S.; Gerstl, S.; Grau, A.; Jauregui, D. Saez de; KlŠser, M.; Schneider, Th.; Motowidlo, L.

    Superconductive insertion devices (IDs) allow higher fields for a given gap and period length compared to the classical permanent magnet IDs. This technological concept enables an increase in the brilliance and/or the photon energy. The workhorse for superconducting magnets are multifilament NbTi wires, which are nowadays also used for superconducting insertion devices. Even higher magnetic fields can be reached by using a conductor with enhanced critical current density.Here, we propose a possible application for superconducting undulators, wound with NbTi wire with artificial pinning centers, developed by SupraMagnetics, Inc. We report the critical current characteristic, Jc(B), of a short wire measured in a liquid helium bath, and the load-line of a racetrack coil, designed to simulate the field configuration on the conductor as in a superconducting undulator. Based on the measured load line, we report on the simulations of the magnetic field on axis and of the spectrum in a third generation light source of a possible undulator wound with a wire having similar properties to the measured one.

  7. Insertion Paddlewheel Flowmeters: An Evaluation After Two Years of Use 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, J.; Bryant, J.; Turner, W. D.

    1993-01-01

    Insertion paddlewheel flowmeters were removed from field installations after 12 to 24 months of service for inspection and calibration. The tests were designed to identify meter degradation because of scale and debris on ...

  8. Short Communication In search of polymorphic Alu insertions with restricted

    E-print Network

    Richard, Cordaux,

    Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Received 9. This is desirable if Alu insertion polymorphisms are to be used for human evolution studies or forensic applications

  9. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  10. Fast, Completely Reversible Li Insertion in Vanadium Pentoxide Nanoribbons

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    Fast, Completely Reversible Li Insertion in Vanadium Pentoxide Nanoribbons Candace K. Chan, Hailin with electrolyte. We chose vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as a model system for single nanostructure measure- ments

  11. Automatic Insertion of DPA Countermeasures Andrew Moss1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Automatic Insertion of DPA Countermeasures Andrew Moss1 , Elisabeth Oswald2 , Dan Page2 , and Michael Tunstall2 1 School of Computing, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden. andrew.moss

  12. The use of dimorphic Alu insertions in human DNA fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, G.E.; Gonzalez, T.; Garrison, J.; Novick, C.C.; Herrera, R.J.; Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L.

    1992-12-04

    We have characterized certain Human Specific Alu Insertions as either dimorphic (TPA25, PV92, APO), sightly dimorphic (C2N4 and C4N4) or monomorphic (C3N1, C4N6, C4N2, C4N5, C4N8), based on studies of Caucasian, Asian, American Black and African Black populations. Our approach is based upon: (1) PCR amplification using primers directed to the sequences that flank the site of insertion of the different Alu elements studied; (2) gel electrophoresis and scoring according to the presence or absence of an Alu insertion in one or both homologous chromosomes; (3) allelic frequencies calculated and compared according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Our DNA fingerprinting procedure using PCR amplification of dimorphic Human Specific Alu insertions, is stable enough to be used not only as a tool for genetic mapping but also to characterize populations, study migrational patterns and track the inheritance of human genetic disorders.

  13. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...should be disposed after a single use. Administration of vaginal inserts for periods greater than 7 days may result in reduced fertility. Dinoprost solution provided by No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (2) Ewes —(i) Amount ....

  14. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...should be disposed after a single use. Administration of vaginal inserts for periods greater than 7 days may result in reduced fertility. Dinoprost solution provided by No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (2) Ewes —(i) Amount ....

  15. Pressure molding of powdered materials improved by rubber mold insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Pressure molding tungsten microspheres is accomplished by applying hydraulic pressure to a silicone rubber mold insert with several barrel shaped chambers which is placed in a steel die cavity. This technique eliminates castings containing shear fractures.

  16. Transmigrated intrauterine device discovered 17 years after its insertion.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, T; Pascali, E; Rinaldi, M F; Marasco, R; Bassi, F; Alboni, C; Gavelli, G

    2007-12-01

    We present the case of an intraperitoneal IUD incidentally noted on lumbar spine X-rays and confirmed by CT. This was secondary to asymptomatic uterine perforation occurred at the time of insertion 17 years before. PMID:17991086

  17. BIT manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Martinsson, Gunnar

    decomposition should be used instead of the na¨ive inversion of the sparse matrix. In order to do so efficientlyBIT manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A fast direct solver for elliptic problems

  18. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes.

    PubMed

    Spradling, A C; Stern, D; Beaton, A; Rhem, E J; Laverty, T; Mozden, N; Misra, S; Rubin, G M

    1999-09-01

    A fundamental goal of genetics and functional genomics is to identify and mutate every gene in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) gene disruption project generates single P-element insertion strains that each mutate unique genomic open reading frames. Such strains strongly facilitate further genetic and molecular studies of the disrupted loci, but it has remained unclear if P elements can be used to mutate all Drosophila genes. We now report that the primary collection has grown to contain 1045 strains that disrupt more than 25% of the estimated 3600 Drosophila genes that are essential for adult viability. Of these P insertions, 67% have been verified by genetic tests to cause the associated recessive mutant phenotypes, and the validity of most of the remaining lines is predicted on statistical grounds. Sequences flanking >920 insertions have been determined to exactly position them in the genome and to identify 376 potentially affected transcripts from collections of EST sequences. Strains in the BDGP collection are available from the Bloomington Stock Center and have already assisted the research community in characterizing >250 Drosophila genes. The likely identity of 131 additional genes in the collection is reported here. Our results show that Drosophila genes have a wide range of sensitivity to inactivation by P elements, and provide a rationale for greatly expanding the BDGP primary collection based entirely on insertion site sequencing. We predict that this approach can bring >85% of all Drosophila open reading frames under experimental control. PMID:10471706

  19. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes.

    PubMed Central

    Spradling, A C; Stern, D; Beaton, A; Rhem, E J; Laverty, T; Mozden, N; Misra, S; Rubin, G M

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental goal of genetics and functional genomics is to identify and mutate every gene in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) gene disruption project generates single P-element insertion strains that each mutate unique genomic open reading frames. Such strains strongly facilitate further genetic and molecular studies of the disrupted loci, but it has remained unclear if P elements can be used to mutate all Drosophila genes. We now report that the primary collection has grown to contain 1045 strains that disrupt more than 25% of the estimated 3600 Drosophila genes that are essential for adult viability. Of these P insertions, 67% have been verified by genetic tests to cause the associated recessive mutant phenotypes, and the validity of most of the remaining lines is predicted on statistical grounds. Sequences flanking >920 insertions have been determined to exactly position them in the genome and to identify 376 potentially affected transcripts from collections of EST sequences. Strains in the BDGP collection are available from the Bloomington Stock Center and have already assisted the research community in characterizing >250 Drosophila genes. The likely identity of 131 additional genes in the collection is reported here. Our results show that Drosophila genes have a wide range of sensitivity to inactivation by P elements, and provide a rationale for greatly expanding the BDGP primary collection based entirely on insertion site sequencing. We predict that this approach can bring >85% of all Drosophila open reading frames under experimental control. PMID:10471706

  20. Viral insertion in Evi12 causes expression of aberrant Grp94 mRNAs containing the viral gag myristylation motif

    SciTech Connect

    Akker, Eric van den; Aarts, Lambertus H.J.; Delwel, Ruud

    2007-09-30

    Ecotropic Virus Integration site 12 (Evi12) is a common virus insertion site (cVIS) in retrovirally induced murine models of leukemia and lymphoma, suggesting an important role for this locus in these hematopoietic disorders. Evi12 is located near the promoter of the ER chaperone protein and Hsp90 family member Grp94. Here we show that viral insertion in Evi12 results in the expression of aberrant Grp94 transcripts in Cas-Br-MuLV as well as in AKXD induced hematopoietic tumors, demonstrating that Grp94 is a common viral target gene. While most transcripts encode for truncated forms of Grp94, transcripts containing viral gag sequences were detected in the leukemia cell line NFS107. Interestingly, these fusion transcripts encode for myristylated viral-Grp94 fusion proteins that localize to the plasma membrane. Combined with recent evidence that myristylated forms of Hsp90 transform cells, our data suggest that myristylation of target genes may be an important mechanism in retrovirally mediated oncogenesis. Since retroviral insertion in Evi12 also affects the expression of a recently identified novel gene Grp94 neighboring nucleotidase (Gnn), located at the other side of Evi12, it appears that proviral insertion can lead to deregulation of two genes present in the same locus.

  1. Equilibrium insertion of nanoscale objects into phospholipid bilayers

    E-print Network

    Sergey Pogodin; Vladimir A. Baulin

    2011-08-30

    Certain membrane proteins, peptides, nanoparticles and nanotubes have rigid structure and fixed shape. They are often viewed as spheres and cylinders with certain surface properties. Single Chain Mean Field theory is used to model the equilibrium insertion of nanoscale spheres and rods into the phospholipid bilayer. The equilibrium structures and the resulting free energies of the nano-objects in the bilayer allow to distinguish different orientations in the bilayer and estimate the energy barrier of insertion.

  2. Deep electrode insertion and sound coding in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hochmair, Ingeborg; Hochmair, Erwin; Nopp, Peter; Waller, Melissa; Jolly, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Present-day cochlear implants demonstrate remarkable speech understanding performance despite the use of non-optimized coding strategies concerning the transmission of tonal information. Most systems rely on place pitch information despite possibly large deviations from correct tonotopic placement of stimulation sites. Low frequency information is limited as well because of the constant pulse rate stimulation generally used and, being even more restrictive, of the limited insertion depth of the electrodes. This results in a compromised perception of music and tonal languages. Newly available flexible long straight electrodes permit deep insertion reaching the apical region with little or no insertion trauma. This article discusses the potential benefits of deep insertion which are obtained using pitch-locked temporal stimulation patterns. Besides the access to low frequency information, further advantages of deeply inserted long electrodes are the possibility to better approximate the correct tonotopic location of contacts, the coverage of a wider range of cochlear locations, and the somewhat reduced channel interaction due to the wider contact separation for a given number of channels. A newly developed set of strategies has been shown to improve speech understanding in noise and to enhance sound quality by providing a more "natural" impression, which especially becomes obvious when listening to music. The benefits of deep insertion should not, however, be compromised by structural damage during insertion. The small cross section and the high flexibility of the new electrodes can help to ensure less traumatic insertions as demonstrated by patients' hearing preservation rate. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25456089

  3. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO AN MTR BEAM HOLE. ONE MAN CHECKS RADIATION LEVEL AT THE END OF THE UNIVERSAL COFFIN, WHILE ANOTHER USES TOOL TO INSERT PLUG INTO HOLE THROUGH COFFIN. MEN WEAR "ANTI-C" (ANTI-CONTAMINATION) CLOTHING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6198. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Bits with diamond-coated inserts reduce gauge problems

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstrom, D. )

    1991-06-17

    In highly abrasive formations, failure of the gauge row cutters on tungsten carbide insert bits may occur rapidly, resulting in short bit runs, poor performance, and undergauge hole. In certain applications, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) enhanced insert bits have longer bit runs and maintain an in-gauge hole which reduces reaming time and wear on downhole equipment. These bits with PCD-coated inserts have reduced drilling costs in several areas of Canada. PCD has been applied to rock drilling tools for several years because of its high wear resistance. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits use polycrystalline diamonds formed in flat wafers applied to the flat surfaces on carbide inserts. The flat PDC cutters drill by shearing the formation. Smith International Canada Ltd. developed a patented process to apply PCD to curved surfaces, which now allows PCD-enhanced inserts to be used for percussion and rotary cone applications. These diamond-enhanced inserts combine the wear resistance properties of diamond with the durability of tungsten carbide.

  5. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grkovski, Milan; Brzezinski, Karol; Cindro, Vladimir; Clinthorne, Neal H.; Kagan, Harris; Lacasta, Carlos; Mikuž, Marko; Solaz, Carles; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Žontar, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm2 pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2-4.8 mm) filled with 18F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm).

  6. Evaluation of postabortion IUD insertion in Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Moussa, A

    2001-06-01

    This study was carried out at Alhussein University Hospital and Elmonera General Hospital to assess the safety and efficacy of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion immediately after spontaneous abortion compared with insertion 2 weeks after abortion. One hundred women between ages 18 and 40 years were recruited from those admitted via the emergency room with first trimester spontaneous abortion. All women were counseled about a method of contraception, particularly copper T-380, and divided into two groups: Group I, which included 69 women who preferred immediate IUD insertion, and Group II, which included 31 women who asked for late IUD insertion 2 weeks after an abortion. All women were followed at 2, 6, and 10 weeks after insertion of IUDs. Bleeding patterns were comparable in both groups. Mild bleeding occurred in 9.2% and 16% in Groups I and II, respectively; moderate bleeding occurred in 80% and 64%, respectively, and severe bleeding was observed in 10.8% and 20%, respectively. This was not significant. Expulsion rate was 4.5% and 3.4% in Groups I and II, respectively, which was also not significant. There were no cases of perforation or pelvic infections. This study showed that insertion of an IUD immediately after a spontaneous abortion is safe and could be offered to those who have had an abortion and who ask for a method of contraception. PMID:11672553

  7. Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

  8. Antibiotics Before Removal of Percutaneously Inserted Central Venous Catheters Reduces Clinical Sepsis in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gail E.; Tierney, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the incidence of postcatheter removal clinical sepsis when antibiotics were infused prior to the removal of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PICCs). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of premature neonates (n = 196) weighing ?1250 g at birth with 218 PICC line removals in the presence or absence of antibiotics at a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1, 2010, and May 31, 2012. Charts were reviewed looking for the presence of clinical sepsis defined as a sepsis workup including white blood cell count, differential, C-reactive protein, blood and/or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and urine cultures along with at least 48 hours of antibiotic therapy given within 72 hours after removal of a PICC line. Antibiotics were considered present at line removal if given within 12 hours before catheter removal either electively or at completion of a planned course. RESULTS: When antibiotics were given within 12 hours before PICC line removal, only 2% of the line removal episodes (1/48) resulted in a neonate developing clinical sepsis versus 13% (21/165) when no antibiotics were given prior to removal (p = 0.03, Fisher's exact test). Despite the increased use of elective antibiotics with line removal, there was no increase in total antibiotic usage due to the overall decrease in episodes of clinical sepsis or changes in antibiogram susceptibility patterns. CONCLUSIONS: There was an 11% absolute decrease and a 6-fold relative decrease in postcatheter removal clinical sepsis events in premature neonates who received antibiotics prior to PICC line removal. PMID:26170772

  9. A randomized double-blind study comparing intradermal anesthetic tolerability, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of lidocaine, buffered lidocaine, and bacteriostatic normal saline for peripheral intravenous insertion.

    PubMed

    Ganter-Ritz, Vivienne; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Atherton, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this double-blind study, 256 surgical patients meeting eligibility criteria were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to 1 of the 3 intradermal injection groups prior to intravenous (IV) line insertion (Group 1=1% lidocaine, Group 2=1% buffered lidocaine, and Group 3=bacteriostatic normal saline with a benzyl alcohol preservative). The most tolerable solution, as measured by the average level of pain from an intradermal insertion, was buffered lidocaine (Group 2). The most efficacious, as measured by average level of pain at IV cannulation, were Groups 1 and 2. Group 3 was the most cost-effective. PMID:22382793

  10. Small bowel injury after suprapubic catheter insertion presenting 3?years after initial insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kevin M; Good, Daniel W; Brush, John P; Al-hasso, Ammar; Stewart, Grant D

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred to urology with blockages of her suprapubic catheter (SPC). The catheter was replaced easily in the emergency department, however, no urine was draining, only a cloudy green fluid was visible. On cystoscopy bilious material was identified in the bladder. There was no catheter visible. There seemed to be a fistulous tract entering the bladder at the left dome. The urethra was dilated, a urethral catheter was placed and the SPC was removed. A CT demonstrated that the SPC tract transfixed a loop of pelvic small bowel and entered the bladder with no intraperitoneal contrast leak. The patient recovered well and did not require laparotomy. This case emphasises that bowel perforation, although rare, must be considered as a complication of SPC placement even years after initial insertion when catheter problems arise. Unusually, we learn that this complication may not present with abdominal pain or peritonism. PMID:24326435

  11. A Medicago truncatula Tobacco Retrotransposon Insertion Mutant Collection with Defects in Nodule Development and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pislariu, Catalina I.; D. Murray, Jeremy; Wen, JiangQi; Cosson, Viviane; Muni, RajaSekhara Reddy Duvvuru; Wang, Mingyi; A. Benedito, Vagner; Andriankaja, Andry; Cheng, Xiaofei; Jerez, Ivone Torres; Mondy, Samuel; Zhang, Shulan; Taylor, Mark E.; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Chen, Rujin; Udvardi, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    A Tnt1-insertion mutant population of Medicago truncatula ecotype R108 was screened for defects in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Primary screening of 9,300 mutant lines yielded 317 lines with putative defects in nodule development and/or nitrogen fixation. Of these, 230 lines were rescreened, and 156 lines were confirmed with defective symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutants were sorted into six distinct phenotypic categories: 72 nonnodulating mutants (Nod?), 51 mutants with totally ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix?), 17 mutants with partially ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix+/?), 27 mutants defective in nodule emergence, elongation, and nitrogen fixation (Nod+/? Fix?), one mutant with delayed and reduced nodulation but effective in nitrogen fixation (dNod+/? Fix+), and 11 supernodulating mutants (Nod++Fix+/?). A total of 2,801 flanking sequence tags were generated from the 156 symbiotic mutant lines. Analysis of flanking sequence tags revealed 14 insertion alleles of the following known symbiotic genes: NODULE INCEPTION (NIN), DOESN’T MAKE INFECTIONS3 (DMI3/CCaMK), ERF REQUIRED FOR NODULATION, and SUPERNUMERARY NODULES (SUNN). In parallel, a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy was used to identify Tnt1 insertions in known symbiotic genes, which revealed 25 additional insertion alleles in the following genes: DMI1, DMI2, DMI3, NIN, NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1 (NSP1), NSP2, SUNN, and SICKLE. Thirty-nine Nod? lines were also screened for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis phenotypes, and 30 mutants exhibited defects in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Morphological and developmental features of several new symbiotic mutants are reported. The collection of mutants described here is a source of novel alleles of known symbiotic genes and a resource for cloning novel symbiotic genes via Tnt1 tagging. PMID:22679222

  12. Insertion of Totally Implantable Central Venous Access Devices by Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyeonjun; Ryu, Chun-Geun; Jung, Eun-Joo; Kang, Hyun Jong; Paik, Jin Hee; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the results for the insertion of totally implantable central venous access devices (TICVADs) by surgeons. Methods Total 397 patients, in whom TICVADs had been inserted for intravenous chemotherapy between September 2008 and June 2014, were pooled. This procedure was performed under local anesthesia in an operation room. The insertion site for the TICVAD was mainly in the right-side subclavian vein. In the case of breast cancer patients, the subclavian vein opposite the surgical site was used for insertion. Results The 397 patients included 73 males and 324 females. Primary malignant tumors were mainly colorectal and breast cancer. The mean operation time was 54 minutes (18-276 minutes). Operation-related complications occurred in 33 cases (8.3%). Early complications developed in 15 cases with catheter malposition and puncture failure. Late complications, which developed after 24 hours, included inflammation in 6 cases, skin necrosis in 6 cases, hematoma in 3 cases, port malfunction in 1 case, port migration in 1 case, and intractable pain at the port site in 1 case. Conclusion Insertion of a TICVAD under local anesthesia by a surgeon is a relatively safe procedure. Meticulous undermining of the skin and carefully managing the TICVAD could minimize complications. PMID:25960974

  13. Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

  14. Biomechanical comparisons of unidirectional and bidirectional Kirschner-wire insertion.

    PubMed

    Zohman, G L; Tsenter, M; Kabo, J M; Meals, R A

    1992-11-01

    Peak axial loads on entry and peak pull-out loads were measured for Kirschner-wires (K-wire) inserted into canine metacarpals. The wires were placed using a standard, unidirectional drill and using an oscillating, bidirectional drill that reversed spin direction every 120 degrees. Seven trocar-tip wires were compared with seven diamond-tip wires using each drilling method. The trocar-tip wires demonstrated equal peak axial loads on entry when drilled at comparable speeds unidirectionally and bidirectionally. Pull-out load of the trocar tip after bidirectional insertion was less than that for unidirectional insertion but was still in the clinically useful range. The diamond-tip wire exhibited higher peak axial load on entry and lower peak pull-out load when drilled bidirectionally. Bidirectional insertion of a trocar-tip K-wire offers fixation characteristics comparable with those with unidirectional insertion and will potentially reduce the risk of soft-tissue damage associated with winding-up and avulsion of vital structures on the spinning shaft of a unidirectional driver. PMID:1395308

  15. Mechanisms of integral membrane protein insertion and folding.

    PubMed

    Cymer, Florian; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H

    2015-03-13

    The biogenesis, folding, and structure of ?-helical membrane proteins (MPs) are important to understand because they underlie virtually all physiological processes in cells including key metabolic pathways, such as the respiratory chain and the photosystems, as well as the transport of solutes and signals across membranes. Nearly all MPs require translocons--often referred to as protein-conducting channels--for proper insertion into their target membrane. Remarkable progress toward understanding the structure and functioning of translocons has been made during the past decade. Here, we review and assess this progress critically. All available evidence indicates that MPs are equilibrium structures that achieve their final structural states by folding along thermodynamically controlled pathways. The main challenge for cells is the targeting and membrane insertion of highly hydrophobic amino acid sequences. Targeting and insertion are managed in cells principally by interactions between ribosomes and membrane-embedded translocons. Our review examines the biophysical and biological boundaries of MP insertion and the folding of polytopic MPs in vivo. A theme of the review is the under-appreciated role of basic thermodynamic principles in MP folding and assembly. Thermodynamics not only dictates the final folded structure but also is the driving force for the evolution of the ribosome-translocon system of assembly. We conclude the review with a perspective suggesting a new view of translocon-guided MP insertion. PMID:25277655

  16. Germline Transgenesis and Insertional Mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni Mediated by Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Suttiprapa, Sutas; Kines, Kristine J.; Tort, José F.; Mann, Victoria H.; Turner, Daniel J.; Berriman, Matthew; Brindley, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional studies will facilitate characterization of role and essentiality of newly available genome sequences of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium. To develop transgenesis as a functional approach for these pathogens, we previously demonstrated that pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV) can transduce schistosomes leading to chromosomal integration of reporter transgenes and short hairpin RNA cassettes. Here we investigated vertical transmission of transgenes through the developmental cycle of S. mansoni after introducing transgenes into eggs. Although MLV infection of schistosome eggs from mouse livers was efficient in terms of snail infectivity, >10-fold higher transgene copy numbers were detected in cercariae derived from in vitro laid eggs (IVLE). After infecting snails with miracidia from eggs transduced by MLV, sequencing of genomic DNA from cercariae released from the snails also revealed the presence of transgenes, demonstrating that transgenes had been transmitted through the asexual developmental cycle, and thereby confirming germline transgenesis. High-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA from schistosome populations exposed to MLV mapped widespread and random insertion of transgenes throughout the genome, along each of the autosomes and sex chromosomes, validating the utility of this approach for insertional mutagenesis. In addition, the germline-transmitted transgene encoding neomycin phosphotransferase rescued cultured schistosomules from toxicity of the antibiotic G418, and PCR analysis of eggs resulting from sexual reproduction of the transgenic worms in mice confirmed that retroviral transgenes were transmitted to the next (F1) generation. These findings provide the first description of wide-scale, random insertional mutagenesis of chromosomes and of germline transmission of a transgene in schistosomes. Transgenic lines of schistosomes expressing antibiotic resistance could advance functional genomics for these significant human pathogens. Database accession Sequence data from this study have been submitted to the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl) under accession number ERP000379. PMID:22911241

  17. Peroneus Brevis Tendon Variant Insertion on the Calcaneus

    PubMed Central

    Cecava, Nathan D.; Campbell, Scot E.

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon normally occurs at the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal base. However, there is new evidence that congenital variant insertion of the tendon on the calcaneal peroneal tubercle occurs in a small segment of the population. We report a case of 24-year old male presenting with non-traumatic ankle pain who underwent ankle magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging demonstrated insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon on the calcaneal peroneal tubercle with absence of the tendon distal to the calcaneus. Furthermore, in reviewing 200 consecutive ankle magnetic resonance examinations, the authors discovered one additional case of this variant. We discuss the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of this anatomic variant, the implications for clinical management, and review the literature on peroneal anatomic variations.

  18. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  19. Dopant Modulated Li Insertion in Si for Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Brandon R.; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2011-09-29

    We examine the effects of p-type and n-type dopants on the lithiation of crystalline Si as related to Li-ion batteries. In situ Raman spectroscopy and electrochemistry are used to investigate two crystallographic faces, (100) and (111), for boron (B) and phosphorus (P) dopants, to monitor the insertion of Li and the associated transition to amorphous Si. Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the lithiation of doped and undoped crystalline Si bulk and surface models. The experimental and computational results suggest that lithiation voltages are different for P-doped and B-doped Si. The B-doped surfaces are found to insert Li at higher voltages than P- and undoped surfaces but result in less Li insertion. These results provide an understanding of the effects on dopants on the lithiation of silicon which may ultimately aid in the development of alternate anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  20. Transposon Insertions, Structural Variations, and SNPs Contribute to the Evolution of the Melon Genome.

    PubMed

    Sanseverino, Walter; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Vives, Cristina; Pinosio, Sara; Burgos-Paz, William; Morgante, Michele; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián E; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Casacuberta, Josep Maria

    2015-10-01

    The availability of extensive databases of crop genome sequences should allow analysis of crop variability at an unprecedented scale, which should have an important impact in plant breeding. However, up to now the analysis of genetic variability at the whole-genome scale has been mainly restricted to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This is a strong limitation as structural variation (SV) and transposon insertion polymorphisms are frequent in plant species and have had an important mutational role in crop domestication and breeding. Here, we present the first comprehensive analysis of melon genetic diversity, which includes a detailed analysis of SNPs, SV, and transposon insertion polymorphisms. The variability found among seven melon varieties representing the species diversity and including wild accessions and highly breed lines, is relatively high due in part to the marked divergence of some lineages. The diversity is distributed nonuniformly across the genome, being lower at the extremes of the chromosomes and higher in the pericentromeric regions, which is compatible with the effect of purifying selection and recombination forces over functional regions. Additionally, this variability is greatly reduced among elite varieties, probably due to selection during breeding. We have found some chromosomal regions showing a high differentiation of the elite varieties versus the rest, which could be considered as strongly selected candidate regions. Our data also suggest that transposons and SV may be at the origin of an important fraction of the variability in melon, which highlights the importance of analyzing all types of genetic variability to understand crop genome evolution. PMID:26174143

  1. Analysis of cell poration by femtosecond laser for particle insertion by optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Waleed; Kim, Jung-Dae; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2012-10-01

    The introduction and subsequent expression of external DNA inside single living mammalian cell (transfection) can be achieved by photoporation with femtosecond laser. After photoporation, external DNA can be introduced by trapping and successive insertion of DNA coated nanoparticle in the cell using optical tweezers. To maximize the transfection efficiency, one of the major aspects is that the photoporated cell should not be damaged and cell membrane should heal itself immediately or after sometime while the cells are healed in the CO2 incubator. Furthermore, the size of hole created as a result of photoporation should be more than the size of DNA coated nanoparticle to be inserted inside the cell. In this paper, an analysis has been done on single cell of important breast cancer cell lines named MCF-7 and MDAMB231. Size of holes created in cell membrane after photoporation has been measured and the required optimum energy with sustained cell life were determined. Using this analysis, most favorable conditions for maximum transfection efficiency can be determined.

  2. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-11-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite.

  3. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Shepherd, Jason F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-08-29

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

  4. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    DOEpatents

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  5. Insertion and confinement of air bubbles inside a liquid marble.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanqing; Sheng, Yifeng; Ngai, To

    2016-01-14

    Nanoparticles at the air/liquid interface can serve as solid separating barriers to form stable foams or liquid marbles depending on the wettability of the nanoparticles. This paper presents an effect that enables the insertion and confinement of air bubbles inside a liquid marble, based on encapsulating an air bubble surrounded by surfactant molecules or hydrophilic particles. We have demonstrated that more than one bubble can be inserted and trapped inside one liquid marble so that liquid marbles can be divided into several separate compartments. The findings presented here may stimulate fundamental studies of this novel bubble-marble phenomenon, as well as developments of various practical applications. PMID:26489449

  6. Pneumo-peritoneum following PEG insertion: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Snape, J; Poon, M; Green, J; Patterson, J E

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 48 year old male with multiple sclerosis who later became unwell with fever and vague abdominal pain 2 days after inserting a percutanous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. His chest x-ray showed gas under the diaphragm. As a result of this, a laparotomy was performed which found no evidence of intra-abdominal sepsis. We discuss the importance of recognising 'benign' pneumoperitoneum following PEG insertion. Further imaging, such as abdominal CT scan is desirable prior to consideration of laparotomy when diagnostic uncertainty exists. PMID:21597593

  7. Improving the chromatic effects of storage rings with antisymmetric insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Courant, E.; Dell, F.; Parzen, G.; Garren, A.

    1983-01-01

    High luminosity storage rings require good chromatic behavior for beams with large momentum spreads. This requires that the effects of half-integer structure resonances for off-momentum particles be minimized. We show that a lattice with antisymmetric insertions can be so designed that the driving term for the half-integer structure resonance is suppressed by cancellation of successive pairs of high-beta multiplets. Hence, even though the periodicity is half that of a lattice with symmetric insertions, the chromatic properties are similar.

  8. Generation of an Enhancer-Trapping Vector for Insertional Mutagenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyan; Song, Guili; Mao, Lin; Long, Yong; Li, Qing; Cui, Zongbin

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer trapping (ET) is a powerful approach to establish tissue- or cell-specific reporters and identify expression patterns of uncharacterized genes. Although a number of enhancer-trapping vectors have been developed and a large library of fish lines with distinct tissue- or cell-specific expression of reporter genes have been generated, the specificity and efficiency of trapping vectors need to be improved because of the bias interaction of minimal promoters with genomic enhancers. Accordingly, we generated an enhancer-trapping vector pTME that contains a minimal mouse metallothionein gene (mMTI) promoter upstream of EGFP reporter. In the first round of screening, twelve zebrafish lines that carry a single copy of ET cassettes were characterized to have tissue- or cell-specific EGFP expression. One of the highly conserved noncoding elements near an insertion site of trapping cassettes was characterized as an enhancer that can specifically regulate the expression of EGFP in cells of the central nervous system. In addition, the pTME vector contains a mutation-cassette that is able to effectively block the transcription of an endogenous gene in an ET line with ubiquitous EGFP expression. Thus, the pTME vector can be used as an alternative tool for both enhancer trapping and mutagenesis across a target genome. PMID:26436547

  9. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa. PMID:26706072

  10. Cytogenetic and Sequence Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA Insertions in Nuclear Chromosomes of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Lough, Ashley N.; Faries, Kaitlyn M.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Hussain, Abid; Roark, Leah M.; Langewisch, Tiffany L.; Backes, Teresa; Kremling, Karl A. G.; Jiang, Jiming; Birchler, James A.; Newton, Kathleen J.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into nuclear genomes is a regularly occurring process that has been observed in many species. Few studies, however, have focused on the variation of nuclear-mtDNA sequences (NUMTs) within a species. This study examined mtDNA insertions within chromosomes of a diverse set of Zea mays ssp. mays (maize) inbred lines by the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization. A relatively large NUMT on the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L) was identified at approximately the same position in four inbred lines (B73, M825, HP301, and Oh7B). Further examination of the similarly positioned 9L NUMT in two lines, B73 and M825, indicated that the large size of these sites is due to the presence of a majority of the mitochondrial genome; however, only portions of this NUMT (?252 kb total) were found in the publically available B73 nuclear sequence for chromosome 9. Fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis estimated the size of the B73 9L NUMT to be ?1.8 Mb and revealed that the NUMT is methylated. Two regions of mtDNA (2.4 kb and 3.3 kb) within the 9L NUMT are not present in the B73 mitochondrial NB genome; however, these 2.4-kb and 3.3-kb segments are present in other Zea mitochondrial genomes, including that of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, a progenitor of domesticated maize. PMID:26333837

  11. Climatic Change manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Climatic Change manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Coal's Medium-Run Future Under greenhouse gas (GHG) con- centrations adds further influences to the mix. Climate change mitigation measures / Accepted: date Abstract We assess the future of coal under alternative climate stabilization regimes

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration MAVEN Orbit Insertion

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts MAVEN Orbit Insertion Mars Atmosphere. MAVEN: Exploring Mars' climate history #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space and ionosphere of Mars, characterizing their current states and determining the rates of loss of gas to space

  13. EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Pre-Big Bang, fundamental Physics and noncyclic and Planck data can have sig- nificant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporat- ing with alternatives: i) to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space

  14. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Junca, Stéphane

    and acceptance should be inserted later Abstract The NNM (Nonlinear normal modes) have recently been investigated Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) 34E10, (70K75,34E13) 1 Introduction The NNM (Nonlinear normal modes of strained coordinates is useful to look for Nonlinear Normal Modes for systems with N d.o.f. (degree of free

  15. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Plonka, Gerlind

    representation 1 Introduction Many ultrasonic testing applications are based on the estimation of the timeNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Sparse Deconvolution Methods for Ultrasonic two sparse deconvolution methods for nondestruc- tive testing. The first method is a special matching

  16. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Hauser, Kris

    of randomized planners). Unless variability is addressed, the safety and completeness of real-time re- planning in Real-Time Motion Planning Kris Hauser the date of receipt and acceptance should be inserted later-stepping architecture for real-time planning with several advan- tageous properties. By dynamically adapting

  17. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Calamoneri, Tiziana

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Push & Pull: autonomous deployment of mobile an aircraft. Mobile devices permit a dynamic deployment reconfiguration that improves the coverage in terms of completeness and uniformity. In this paper we propose a distributed algorithm for the autonomous deployment

  18. ARMA manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Shen, Wen

    on the erosion rate, the mountain profile develops several types of singularities, which we call kinks, shocks only on the mountain slope) (ux) : speed of the moving layer, (ux) > 0, (ux) : erosion rate per unitARMA manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Erosion Profile by a Global Model for Granular

  19. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...insert contains: (1) 1.38 grams (g) progesterone in molded silicone over a nylon spine. (2) 0.3 g progesterone in molded silicone over a flexible nylon spine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 054771 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  20. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...insert contains: (1) 1.38 grams (g) progesterone in molded silicone over a nylon spine. (2) 0.3 g progesterone in molded silicone over a flexible nylon spine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  1. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...insert contains: (1) 1.38 grams (g) progesterone in molded silicone over a nylon spine. (2) 0.3 g progesterone in molded silicone over a flexible nylon spine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  2. 31. Photocopy of map. Insert from Master Plan Notes Prepared ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of map. Insert from Master Plan Notes Prepared by Environmental Planning and Design, Pittsburgh, Pa. Original at Missouri Botanical Garden. 1972 MASTER PLAN 32. 'THE TREE,' SCULPTURE BY ALEXANDER CALDER, 1966 - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  3. 30. Photocopy of map. Insert, p. 138, Master Plan Report, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of map. Insert, p. 138, Master Plan Report, 1960, Vol. II. Layton, Layton and Rohrbach, General Planning and Resource Consultants. 1960 MASTER PLAN, SHOWING PROPOSED LOCATION OF LINNAEAN HOUSE - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  4. Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Powell, Warren B.

    Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Learning near-optimal policies Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique Sequential Learning (SequeL) project, INRIA Lille, France e theoretical result for off-policy control learning over continuous state-spaces using a single trajectory. Key

  5. Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Hüllermeier, Eyke

    Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Preference-Based Reinforcement This paper makes a first step toward the integration of two subfields of machine learning, namely preference Learning: A Formal Framework and a Policy Iteration Algorithm Johannes F¨urnkranz, Eyke H

  6. Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    Machine Learning manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Training Parsers by Inverse Reinforcement Learning Gergely Neu1,2 , Csaba Szepesv´ari3,2 1 Department of Computing Science, Budapest learning (IRL) where one is given an environment and a set of trajectories and the problem is to find

  7. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Tabak, Esteban G.

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) An adaptive linear programming methodology An adaptive methodology is proposed to solve the data­driven optimal transport problem: to find the coupling through samples. The methodology bypasses density estimation, using adap- tive kernel functions to reduce

  8. Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnke, Lisa A. . E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael; Ratner, Lee . E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

    2006-04-25

    Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

  9. A Computer Based Simulator for Ultrasound Guided Needle Insertion Procedures

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    Keywords: simulation, registration, calibration, ultrasound- guidance, needle-insertion Abstract A system. Kessel2 1 School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK 2 St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK in interventional radiology, currently acquired on an apprenticeship basis. The system is designed to improve

  10. Acceptance of Advertising A written insertion order is

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    Acceptance of Advertising A written insertion order is required for all advertisements. All advertisements are subject to approval. The University of Chicago Press reserves the right to reject advertising for any reason. The advertiser and/or its advertising agency are entirely responsible for the lawfulness

  11. Dynamic Modeling of a Part Mating Problem: Threaded Fastener Insertion

    E-print Network

    Fearing, Ron

    given by the kinematic description. The simulationwill be used to investigatethe be- havior of the bolt to a study by Nevins and Whitney Nevins 80] the insertion and tightening of threaded fasteners is one presented. Tao et. al. Tao 90] implemented a bolt threading operation with generalized sti ness controlled

  12. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Anandkumar, Animashree

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A Spectral Algorithm for Latent Dirichlet / Accepted: date Abstract Topic modeling is a generalization of clustering that posits that observations al. els and topic models, including Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). For LDA, the procedure

  13. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace, which will fly in the Materials Science Research Facility. The QMI provides high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. This paper will describe the capabilities and present of on-going analysis and development testing.

  14. EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Skacej , Gregor

    with embedded mesogenic units -- liquid crystal elastomers -- are functional rubber- like materialsEPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Biaxial liquid crystal elastomers: a simple present a simple coarse-grained lattice model for monodomain biaxial liquid crystal elas- tomers

  15. EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Colet, Pere

    EPJ manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Convective and Absolute Instabilities the transition from convective to absolute instability. Finally, we analyze the instability of the subcritical usu­ #12; 2 Pere Colet et al.: Convective and Absolute Instabilities in the Subcritical Ginzburg

  16. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Teschner, Matthias

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Towards Palm-Size Autonomous Helicopters · Robert Hahn · Dario Schafroth · Giorgio Grisetti · Wolfram Burgard · Roland Siegwart Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract muFly EU project started in 2006 with the idea to build an autonomous micro

  17. External Tank (ET) Bipod Fitting Bolted Attachment Locking Insert Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Wilson, Tim R.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; McManamen, John

    2008-01-01

    Following STS-107, the External Tank (ET) Project implemented corrective actions and configuration changes at the ET bipod fitting. Among the corrective actions, the existing bolt lock wire which provided resistance to potential bolt rotation was removed. The lock wire removal was because of concerns with creating voids during foam application and potential for lock wire to become debris. The bolts had been previously lubricated to facilitate assembly but, because of elimination of the lock wire, the ET Project wanted to enable the locking feature of the insert. Thus, the lubrication was removed from bolt threads and instead applied to the washer under the bolt head. Lubrication is necessary to maximize joint pre-load while remaining within the bolt torque specification. The locking feature is implemented by thread crimping in at four places in the insert. As the bolt is torqued into the insert the bolt threads its way past the crimped parts of the insert. This provides the locking of the bolt, as torque is required to loosen the joint after clamping.

  18. Indentation and needle insertion properties of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, A; Hutnik, C; Hill, K; Newson, T; Chan, T; Campbell, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Characterization of the biomechanical properties of the human eye has a number of potential utilities. One novel purpose is to provide the basis for development of suitable tissue-mimicking material. The purpose of this study was to determine the indentation and needle insertion characteristics on human eye globes and tissue strips. Methods An indenter assessed the elastic response of human eye globes and tissue strips under increasing compressive loads. Needle insertion determined the force (N) needed to penetrate various areas of the eye wall. Results The results demonstrated that globes underwent slightly greater indentation at the midline than at the central cornea, and corneal strips indented twofold more than scleral strips, although neither difference was significant (P=0.400 and P=0.100, respectively). Significant differences were observed among various areas of needle insertion (P<0.001). Needle insertion through the anterior sclera (adjacent to the limbus) and posterior sclera (adjacent to the optic nerve) required the greatest amount of force (0.954 and 1.005?N, respectively). The force required to penetrate the central cornea (0.518?N) was significantly lower than all other areas except the midline sclera (0.700?N) Conclusion These data form the basis for further research into the development of a tissue-mimicking human eye construct with potential utility as a model for use in ophthalmology research and surgical teaching. PMID:24810571

  19. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  20. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Mostowski, Wojciech

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Systematic Development of JAVA CARD Applets the development process independent of the JAVA CARD platform, and to enable applets to be verified formally by the KeY system. First we analyse the current situation of JAVA CARD ap- plet development, then we present

  1. PiggyBac Transgene Insertion Site GIZA Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically modified New World screwworms were analyzed by inverse PCR and several sequences of genomic DNA flanking the transposon insertion sites were obtained. One transgenic strain, designated GIZA, exhibited the properties of a lethal genetic mutation. Classic genetic crosses of these insects r...

  2. Starting up 1. Insert the diskette in the floppy drive

    E-print Network

    Van Cleave, Nancy K.

    Starting up 1. Insert the diskette in the floppy drive 2. Double­click the My Computer icon 3. Double­click the Floppy (A:) icon to open the diskette 4. Double­click on the file Sample to launch Excel. A formula stars with the = character 3. Some built-in formulas are: SUM AVERAGE COUNT SMALL 4. In the cell

  3. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Hudson, Hugh

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Global Properties of Solar Flares Hugh S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.3 Large-scale motions and a myth . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5 Conclusions This article broadly reviews our knowledge of solar flares. There is a particular focus on their global

  4. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Yanai, Keiji

    -category food dataset with the ground-truth bounding boxes when we used HOG and color patchesNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Real-time Food Recognition System on a Smartphone Yoshiyuki Kawano · Keiji Yanai Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract We propose a mobile food

  5. Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-print Network

    Millar, Tom

    Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later) Complex bifurcations.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK ajm@ajmarkwick.com Received / Accepted Abstract. Bifurcation diagrams, which could be interpreted as sections though higher dimenensional catastrophes, we show

  6. Virtual Reality manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Beckhaus, Steffi

    Virtual Reality manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) The Design Space of Dynamic Environments have become a key component of many fields and the critical component of Virtual Reality, Steffi Beckhaus 1 Introduction Statements like "in Virtual Reality anything is possible" and "the

  7. Stability analysis of chickpea large genomic DNA inserts in Agrobacterium.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of large DNA inserts directly into plants facilitates the transfer of gene clusters and flanking regulatory elements. It is recommended that the integrity of large genomic fragments in Agrobacterium be verified prior to plant transformation. In this ...

  8. Telecommunication Systems manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    positions of users. The system optimizer is based on a novel genetic algorithm, which is resistantTelecommunication Systems manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Mobility-aware Power Network (MBSFN) within LTE systems is a feature that allows synchronous broadcasting of common data among

  9. Climate Dynamics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    Climate Dynamics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) On the interpretation of inter-model spread in CMIP5 climate sensitivity1 estimates2 Jessica Vial · Jean-Louis Dufresne · Sandrine Bony3 4 Received: date / Accepted: date5 Abstract This study diagnoses the climate sensitivity, radiative forcing

  10. Coordination-insertion copolymerization of allyl monomers with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shingo; Kanazawa, Masafumi; Munakata, Kagehiro; Kuroda, Jun-ichi; Okumura, Yoshikuni; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2011-02-01

    Coordination-insertion copolymerization of allyl monomers with ethylene was developed by using a palladium/phosphine-sulfonate catalyst. A variety of allyl monomers, including allyl acetate, allyl alcohol, protected allylamines, and allyl halides, were copolymerized with ethylene to form highly linear copolymers that possess in-chain -CH(2)CH(CH(2)FG)- units. PMID:21204540

  11. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Ouwehand, Peter

    textbook construction is presented here. 1 Introduction In [3], Gerard Debreu stated conditionsNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A Simple Proof of Debreu's Gap Lemma P Africa (e-mail: peter@maths.uct.ac.za) Abstract Debreu's Gap Lemma is central to the proof of his

  12. Computer Modeling of Protocellular Functions: Peptide Insertion in Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez-Gomez, D.; Darve, E.; Pohorille, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lipid vesicles became the precursors to protocells by acquiring the capabilities needed to survive and reproduce. These include transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls and capture of energy and its conversion into a chemically usable form. In modem organisms these functions are carried out by membrane-bound proteins (about 30% of the genome codes for this kind of proteins). A number of properties of alpha-helical peptides suggest that their associations are excellent candidates for protobiological precursors of proteins. In particular, some simple a-helical peptides can aggregate spontaneously and form functional channels. This process can be described conceptually by a three-step thermodynamic cycle: 1 - folding of helices at the water-membrane interface, 2 - helix insertion into the lipid bilayer and 3 - specific interactions of these helices that result in functional tertiary structures. Although a crucial step, helix insertion has not been adequately studied because of the insolubility and aggregation of hydrophobic peptides. In this work, we use computer simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics) to characterize the energetics of helix insertion and we discuss its importance in an evolutionary context. Specifically, helices could self-assemble only if their interactions were sufficiently strong to compensate the unfavorable Free Energy of insertion of individual helices into membranes, providing a selection mechanism for protobiological evolution.

  13. Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization

    E-print Network

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization Yanbin Jiang y Sachin S are signi - cantly better than the results given by merely using a TILOS-like transistor sizing algorithm alone. 1 Introduction The transistor sizing problem 1, 2, 3 is often formulated as Minimize Area subject

  14. Direct observation of poloxamer 188 insertion into lipid monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Stacey A; Hannig, Jürgen; Lee, Raphael C; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2002-01-01

    P188, a triblock copolymer of the form poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) helps seal electroporated cell membranes, arresting the leakage of intracellular materials from the damaged cells. To explore the nature of the interaction between P188 and cell membranes, we have constructed a model system that assesses the ability of P188 to insert into lipid monolayers. Using concurrent Langmuir isotherm and fluorescence microscopy measurements, we find that P188 changes the phase behavior and morphology of the monolayers. P188 inserts into both dipalmitoylphosphatidlycholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol monolayers at surface pressures equal to and lower than approximately 22 mN/m at 30 degrees C; this pressure corresponds to the maximal surface pressure attained by P188 on a pure water subphase. Similar results for the two phospholipids indicate that P188 insertion is not influenced by headgroup electrostatics. Because the equivalent surface pressure of a normal bilayer is on the order of 30 mN/m, the lack of P188 insertion above 22 mN/m further suggests the poloxamer selectively adsorbs into damaged portions of electroporated membranes, thereby localizing its effect. P188 is also found to be "squeezed out" of the monolayers at high surface pressures, suggesting a mechanism for the cell to be rid of the poloxamer when the membrane is restored. PMID:11867460

  15. Ocean Dynamics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Ocean Dynamics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Freshwater transport in the coupled1 ocean-atmosphere system: a passive ocean2 D. Ferreira · J. Marshall3 4 Received: date / Accepted: date5 Abstract Conservation of water demands that meridional ocean and atmo-6 sphere freshwater transports (FWT

  16. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Odobez, Jean-Marc

    -oculography to the more flexible video-oculogra- phy, i.e., gaze tracking relying on video input (Hansen and Ji, 2010Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Gaze Estimation in the 3D Space Using RGB / Accepted: date Abstract We address the problem of 3D gaze estima- tion within a 3D environment from remote

  17. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jianguo

    Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Estimating Deep Web Data Source Size the size of a deep web data source that is accessible by queries only. Since most deep web data sources. The results show that our method has small bias and standard deviation. Keywords Deep web, estimators, capture

  18. Insert earphone modeling and measurement by IEC-60711 coupler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Hung; Pawar, S; Hong, Zih-Jyun; Huang, Jin

    2011-02-01

    In this study, an analytical model based on the equivalent circuit method is developed to simulate the frequency response of an insert earphone. This earphone incorporates a miniature loudspeaker commonly used in computer, communication, consumer, and car electronics. Through the laser triangulation method, electroacoustic parameters of a miniature loudspeaker are obtained. Several earphone design configurations are analyzed in accordance with the open and closed states of front leakage hole, vent, and back leakage hole. To validate the analysis, an insert earphone that is attached to IEC-60711 coupler and a specially designed fixture tube is experimentally measured for frequency response using electroacoustic equipment in the air. Simulation and experimental results show good agreement over the complete audible frequency range. Analysis indicates that states of front leakage hole, vent, and back leakage hole of an insert earphone have significant effects on frequency response. The front leakage hole affects the low frequency response, whereas the vent affects the fundamental resonance. Detailed analysis has been provided to further improve the design of insert earphones. PMID:21342831

  19. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Reece, Steven

    across the disaster space. Hence, rescue missions may need to be re-planned as new information comes in disaster response settings in the real-world. We then run a number of trials of our planning agent and comNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Human-Agent Collaboration for Disaster

  20. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yong

    media streaming services. Several P2P streaming systems have been deployed to provide on- demand or liveNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) A Survey on Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming. Traditional client- server based video streaming solutions incur expensive band- width provision cost

  1. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence. PMID:26723612

  2. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Zhuang, Weihua

    be higher than that of a direct link, as the effectiveness of cooperation depends on many factors, includingNoname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Opportunistic cooperation in wireless ad hoc Compared with conventional direct transmissions, the cooperative trans- missions are not always beneficial

  3. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-27

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  4. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  5. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  6. Climate Dynamics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Ortega, Pablo

    Climate Dynamics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Variability of the Atlantic in several climate simulations with the ECHO-G atmosphere-ocean gen- eral circulation model (AOGCM to future climate change conditions is addressed in the context of both its past evolution and its natural

  7. Invasin production by Yersinia pestis is abolished by insertion of an IS200-like element within the inv gene.

    PubMed Central

    Simonet, M; Riot, B; Fortineau, N; Berche, P

    1996-01-01

    The two enteropathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica penetrate eukaryotic cells in vitro through invasin, a surface-exposed protein. In contrast, Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is unable to enter mammalian cell lines, although the inv gene is present on its chromosome. Although 99.3% identical to the inv gene of Y. pseudotuberculosis, the Y. pestis inv gene was disrupted in its central region by a 708-bp IS200-like element. Multiple copies of this insertion sequence element were found within the genome of the plague bacillus. PMID:8557370

  8. Choice of Tevatron tune with matched low-. beta. insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M.

    1984-06-20

    The Tevatron lattice, following closely the Main Ring lattice, is made up of approximately 90 FODO cells with six straight sections equally spaced. The straight sections are identical (neglecting the special high-..beta.. straight section used for resonant extraction) providing six-fold symmetry. Each straight section is comprised mainly of a pair of doublets, one at each end, in an antisymmetric configuration. The ..beta..-functions are matched to the building block cells but the dispersion function is not. The ..beta..-function matching implies that the structure is not sensitive to the tune of the sextant (i.e., structure resonances); however, the dispersion mismatch excites off-momentum dipole resonances and the dispersion structure of the ring is therefore sensitive to sextant tunes near an integer. The introduction of low-..beta.. insertions can be accomplished by replacing a standard insertion (expanded somewhat from the doublet pair straight section) with a low-..beta.. insertion. By matching the ends of the replacement units with respect to ..beta..-functions and dispersion function, the full lattice is made insensitive to linear structure resonances. Procedures are described here for introducing into the idealized Tevatron lattice considered here a single matched low-..beta.. insertion at BO, and two matched low-..beta.. insertions at BO and DO. The main consequence is the need for a significant number of independently powered quadrupoles. Another conclusion is related to the choice of tune, where it is found that the arbitrary rule of maintaining a fixed tune for all configurations should be modified.

  9. A Transposable Element Insertion Confers Xenobiotic Resistance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Lidia; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    The increase in availability of whole genome sequences makes it possible to search for evidence of adaptation at an unprecedented scale. Despite recent progress, our understanding of the adaptive process is still very limited due to the difficulties in linking adaptive mutations to their phenotypic effects. In this study, we integrated different levels of biological information to pinpoint the ecologically relevant fitness effects and the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms of a putatively adaptive TE insertion in Drosophila melanogaster: the pogo transposon FBti0019627. We showed that other than being incorporated into Kmn1 transcript, FBti0019627 insertion also affects the polyadenylation signal choice of CG11699 gene. Consequently, only the short 3?UTR transcript of CG11699 gene is produced and the expression level of this gene is higher in flies with the insertion. Our results indicated that increased CG11699 expression leads to xenobiotic stress resistance through increased ALDH-III activity: flies with FBti0019627 insertion showed increased survival rate in response to benzaldehyde, a natural xenobiotic, and to carbofuran, a synthetic insecticide. Although differences in survival rate between flies with and without the insertion were not always significant, when they were, they were consistent with FBti0019627 mediating resistance to xenobiotics. Taken together, our results provide a plausible explanation for the increase in frequency of FBti0019627 in natural populations of D. melanogaster and add to the limited number of examples in which a natural genetic mutation has been linked to its ecologically relevant phenotype. Furthermore, the widespread distribution of TEs across the tree of life and conservation of stress response pathways across organisms make our results relevant not only for Drosophila, but for other organisms as well. PMID:25122208

  10. First Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Under Ultrasound Guidance in a Greek Intensive Care Unit: A New Role for Greek Perianesthesia Nurses.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Katsoulas, Theodoros A; Fildissis, George; Myrianthefs, Pavlos M; Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Baltopoulos, George I

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a 67-year-old Caucasian female who was admitted to the pulmonary clinic of a general hospital in Athens with fever and respiratory symptoms. A lung biopsy was ordered because a clinical diagnosis of interstitial lung disease was suspected. The patient was then hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Because of the fact that peripheral catheterization was impossible and the prospect of further long-term hospitalization, the patient was referred to a vascular access nursing team composed of perianesthesia nurses to advance a peripherally inserted central catheter and support the line during treatment. The peripherally inserted central catheter line was advanced with no complications, and the position of the catheter was checked using the electrocardiography method. PMID:26596384

  11. Characterization and event specific-detection by quantitative real-time PCR of T25 maize insert.

    PubMed

    Collonnier, Cécile; Schattner, Alexandra; Berthier, Georges; Boyer, Francine; Coué-Philippe, Géraldine; Diolez, Annick; Duplan, Marie-Noëlle; Fernandez, Sophie; Kebdani, Naďma; Kobilinsky, André; Romaniuk, Marcel; de Beuckeleer, Marc; de Loose, Marc; Windels, Pieter; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    T25 is one of the 4 maize transformation events from which commercial lines have so far been authorized in Europe. It was created by polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation using a construct bearing one copy of the synthetic pat gene associated with both promoter and terminator of the 35S ribosomal gene from cauliflower mosaic virus. In this article, we report the sequencing of the whole T25 insert and the characterization of its integration site by using a genome walking strategy. Our results confirmed that one intact copy of the initial construct had been integrated in the plant genome. They also revealed, at the 5' junction of the insert, the presence of a second truncated 35S promoter, probably resulting from rearrangements which may have occurred before or during integration of the plasmid DNA. The analysis of the junction fragments showed that the integration site of the insert presented high homologies with the Huck retrotransposon family. By using one primer annealing in the maize genome and the other in the 5' end of the integrated DNA, we developed a reliable event-specific detection system for T25 maize. To provide means to comply with the European regulation, a real-time PCR test was designed for specific quantitation of T25 event by using Taqman chemistry. PMID:15859082

  12. Abstract Line Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  13. Functional Genomics of Eukaryotic Photosynthesis Using Insertional Mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    E-print Network

    Functional Genomics of Eukaryotic Photosynthesis Using Insertional Mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas photosynthesis in eukaryotes. Here we describe the development of a resource for functional genomics of photosynthesis using insertional mutagenesis of the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome. Chlamydomonas cells were

  14. Magnetic properties of metal phosphide nanoparticles periodically inserted in carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    nanoparticles. The periodically inserted nanoparticles are nickel, cobalt or iron phosphides. We will presentMagnetic properties of metal phosphide nanoparticles periodically inserted in carbon nanotubes nanoparticles and their characterisation by local techniques (MFM and electron holography). #12;

  15. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement...The safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug...

  16. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement...The safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug...

  17. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement...The safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug...

  18. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. 310.501...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives. (a) Requirement...The safe and effective use of oral contraceptive drug...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5830 - Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...inserts (Kiil type) is a device that is used as a part of an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that includes disposable inserts consisting of layers of semipermeable membranes...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5830 - Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...inserts (Kiil type) is a device that is used as a part of an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that includes disposable inserts consisting of layers of semipermeable membranes...

  1. Buffer insertion in large circuits using look-ahead and back-off techniques 

    E-print Network

    Waghmode, Mandar

    2007-04-25

    Buffer insertion is an essential technique for reducing interconnect delay in submicron circuits. Though it is a well researched area, there is a need for robust and effective algorithms to perform buffer insertion at the circuit level. This thesis...

  2. Promise versus reality: optimism bias in package inserts for tuberculosis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Denkinger, Claudia M; Grenier, Jasmine; Minion, Jessica; Pai, Madhukar

    2012-07-01

    Laboratorians and clinicians often rely on package inserts of diagnostic tests to assess their accuracy. We compared test accuracy for tuberculosis diagnostics reported in 19 package inserts against estimates in published meta-analyses and found that package inserts generally report overoptimistic accuracy estimates. However, package inserts of most tests approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or endorsed by the World Health Organization provide more realistic estimates that agree with meta-analyses. PMID:22573592

  3. INSERTION OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED LOGOS IN THE COMPRESSED DCT DOMAIN and Leonel Sousa

    E-print Network

    Sousa, Leonel

    INSERTION OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED LOGOS IN THE COMPRESSED DCT DOMAIN Nuno Roma and Leonel Sousa Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of the insertion of irregular-shaped objects, such as logos to the frequency domain is presented, as well as the inclusion of a logo insertion module in the architecture

  4. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is...

  9. Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria: A complex business

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    REVIEW Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria: A complex business LARRY ABSTRACT The basic mechanism of uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in mitochondria of kinetoplastid in the uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing reaction and others of which have been circumstantially implicated

  10. In vitro uridine insertion RNA editing mediated by cis-acting guide RNAs

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    In vitro uridine insertion RNA editing mediated by cis-acting guide RNAs STEPHEN T. KAPUSHOC1, California 90095-1662, USA ABSTRACT Uridine (U) insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial m may be rate limiting in vitro. Keywords: guide RNA; Leishmania; RNA editing; uridine insertion

  11. Membrane insertion profiles of peptides probed by molecular dynamics simulations In-Chul Yeh,*

    E-print Network

    Membrane insertion profiles of peptides probed by molecular dynamics simulations In-Chul Yeh,* Mark@bioanalysis.org Abstract Membrane insertion of small peptides plays important roles in antimicrobial defense, toxin actions synthetic peptides. Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are useful tools to study membrane insertion

  12. Iatrogenic chylothorax due to pleural cavity extravasation of total parenteral nutrition in two adults receiving nutrition through a peripherally inserted central catheter.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas J; Jamous, Fady G; Kooistra, Alma; Zawada, Edward T

    2010-02-01

    Extravasation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) delivered via central lines is a known potential complication, but significant extravasations of infusate into the pleural space when using peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have not been reported in adults. We report 2 cases ofpleural cavity extravasation ofTPN delivered via a PICC. Measurement of the glucose level of the effusate is a quick way to determine the presence of TPN and should be considered in any patient receiving TPN via any type of central line with a rapidly developing effusion. PMID:20469624

  13. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas

    PubMed Central

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions, What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? and What is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements—ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A-particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to 10 de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice. PMID:24975032

  14. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloois, Edwin van; Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M. ten; Luirink, Joen

    2007-10-26

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors.

  15. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  16. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  17. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Unnoticed biloma due to liver puncture after Veress needle insertion

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Cańete-Gómez, Jesús; Reguera-Rosal, Julio; Padillo-Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Ramírez-Plaza, César Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become more widespread in the last years. Creating the pneumoperitoneum is the first surgical procedure but it is still responsible for many of the adverse events described in this field. Until now, liver puncture producing a delayed biloma has not been described. We present a case where a biloma was developed after liver puncture by the Veress needle, during a laparoscopic procedure, and detected on the 3rd day. It was detected by CT scan and treated by laparoscopy. Biloma due to Veress needle is a new entity in the context of adverse events related to Veress needle insertion, which needs a high suspicious index. We recommend to do Palmer's test and to check the insertion and to look for possible lesions below with the camera in order to minimize incidence of such injuries. Should this happen, laparoscopic or percutaneous drainage are both suitable alternatives to solve this complication.

  19. Enantioselective iron-catalysed O-H bond insertions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shou-Fei; Cai, Yan; Mao, Hong-Xiang; Xie, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2010-07-01

    The ready availability, low price and environmentally benign character of iron mean that it is an ideal alternative to precious metals in catalysis. Recent growth in the number of iron-catalysed reactions reported reflects an increasing demand for sustainable chemistry. Only a limited number of chiral iron catalysts have been reported and these have, in general, proven less enantioselective than other transition-metal catalysts, thus limiting their appeal. Here, we report that iron complexes of spiro-bisoxazoline ligands are highly efficient catalysts for asymmetric O-H bond insertion reactions. These complexes catalyse insertions into the O-H bond of a wide variety of alcohols and even water, with exceptional enantioselectivities under mild reaction conditions. The selectivities surpass those obtained with other transition-metal catalysts. This study should inspire and encourage the use of iron instead of traditional precious metals in the development of greener catalysts for catalytic asymmetric synthesis.

  20. Phase transitions in insertion electrodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.

    2000-02-02

    Phase transitions that occur during lithium insertion into layered and framework structures are discussed in the context of their application as positive and negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. The discussion is focused on the two-dimensional structures of graphite, LiNi{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}O{sub 2} (M = Co, Ti and Mg), and Li{sub 1.2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}; examples of framework structures with a three-dimensional interstitial space for Li{sup +}-ion transport include the spinel oxides and intermetallic compounds with zinc-blende-type structures. The phase transitions are discussed in terms of their tolerance to lithium insertion and extraction and to the chemical stability of the electrodes in the cell environment.

  1. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  2. The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1995-02-01

    The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

  3. Graph Grammars, Insertion Lie Algebras, and Quantum Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Matilde Marcolli; Alexander Port

    2015-02-27

    Graph grammars extend the theory of formal languages in order to model distributed parallelism in theoretical computer science. We show here that to certain classes of context-free and context-sensitive graph grammars one can associate a Lie algebra, whose structure is reminiscent of the insertion Lie algebras of quantum field theory. We also show that the Feynman graphs of quantum field theories are graph languages generated by a theory dependent graph grammar.

  4. Developmental Outcomes after Early or Delayed Insertion of Tympanostomy Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Paradise, Jack L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Bernard, Beverly S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Rockette, Howard E.; Janosky, Janine E.; Pitcairn, Dayna L.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Sabo, Diane L.; Smith, Clyde G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND To prevent later developmental impairments, myringotomy with the insertion of tympanostomy tubes has often been undertaken in young children who have persistent otitis media with effusion. We previously reported that prompt as compared with delayed insertion of tympanostomy tubes in children with persistent effusion who were younger than three years of age did not result in improved developmental outcomes at three or four years of age. However, the effect on the outcomes of school-age children is unknown. METHODS We enrolled 6350 healthy infants younger than 62 days of age and evaluated them regularly for middle-ear effusion. Before three years of age, 429 children with persistent middle-ear effusion were randomly assigned to have tympanostomy tubes inserted either promptly or up to nine months later if effusion persisted. We assessed developmental outcomes in 395 of these children at six years of age. RESULTS At six years of age, 85 percent of children in the early-treatment group and 41 percent in the delayed-treatment group had received tympanostomy tubes. There were no significant differences in mean (±SD) scores favoring early versus delayed treatment on any of 30 measures, including the Wechsler Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (98±13 vs. 98±14); Number of Different Words test, a measure of word diversity (183±36 vs. 175±36); Percentage of Consonants Correct–Revised test, a measure of speech-sound production (96±2 vs. 96±3); the SCAN test, a measure of central auditory processing (95±15 vs. 96±14); and several measures of behavior and emotion. CONCLUSIONS In otherwise healthy children younger than three years of age who have persistent middle-ear effusion within the duration of effusion that we studied, prompt insertion of tympanostomy tubes does not improve developmental outcomes at six years of age. PMID:16093466

  5. Management of subcalcaneal pain and Achilles tendonitis with heel inserts

    PubMed Central

    Maclellan, G. E.; Vyvyan, Barbara

    1981-01-01

    Soft tissue symptoms in the leg due to sporting activity are commonly associated with the force of heel strike. Conventional training shoes compromise between comfort and performance; few models are suitably designed for both considerations. Using a visco-elastic polymer insert the symptoms of heel pain and Achilles tendonitis have been largely or completely abolished in a preliminary study. Imagesp117-ap117-bp117-cp118-a PMID:7272653

  6. Different evolutionary fates of recently integrated human and chimpanzee LINE-1 retrotransposons

    E-print Network

    Richard, Cordaux,

    Different evolutionary fates of recently integrated human and chimpanzee LINE-1 retrotransposons propagate subsequent to the human­chimpanzee divergence, 6 million years ago, resulting in species-specific inserts. Here, we report a detailed characterization of chimpanzee-specific L1 subfamily diversity

  7. Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-print Network

    ; 2000 km, average life- time of about 60 seconds and highly non-Gaussian line pro#12;les showing Doppler. None of the events observed in N v shows any detectable signature in the Mg x line pro#12;le or in its line pro#12;le during a series of events observed in N v. These results suggest that EUV explosive

  8. Improving Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) care on a Trauma and Orthopaedics ward

    PubMed Central

    Piorkowska, Marta; Al-Raweshidy, Zahra; Yeong, Keefai

    2013-01-01

    Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) blockage rate was audited over a two month period on the Trauma & Orthopaedics ward at our District General Hospital. A 70% (five out of seven) PICC blockage rate was observed. High blockage rates lead to potential treatment complications, delays in delivery of treatment, increase in costs, and reduction in patient satisfaction. The factors contributing to the significant blockage rate include, long and contradictory PICC care guidelines, no information sheets in the patient notes, lack of training and awareness about care of, and flushing of, PICC lines, and lack of accountability for PICC flushing. Our project aimed to achieve a greater rate of PICC patency. We produced one succinct and comprehensive PICC care guideline, carried out staff training sessions, introduced a sticker reminding staff to flush the PICC line after use, and introduced a prescription of weekly heparin saline and PRN saline flushes (for monitoring and accountability). We used questionnaires to assess competency of hospital staff pre-teaching (doctors 6%, nurses 0%), and post-teaching (doctors 70%, nurses 38%). Blockage rate data post-intervention is pending. Education improved awareness of guidelines amongst staff and we anticipate that the proposed interventions will translate into reduced blockage rates, improving patient outcomes and reducing costs.

  9. Insertable system for fast turnaround time microwave experiments in a dilution refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Florian R.; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc; de Waard, Arlette; Frossati, Giorgio; Lupascu, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Microwave experiments in dilution refrigerators are a central tool in the field of superconducting quantum circuits and other research areas. This type of experiments relied so far on attaching a device to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. The minimum turnaround time in this case is a few days as required by cooling down and warming up the entire refrigerator. We developed a new approach, in which a suitable sample holder is attached to a cold-insertable probe and brought in contact with transmission lines permanently mounted inside the cryostat. The total turnaround time is 8 h if the target temperature is 80 mK. The lowest attainable temperature is 30 mK. Our system can accommodate up to six transmission lines, with a measurement bandwidth tested from zero frequency to 12 GHz. This bandwidth is limited by low-pass components in the setup; we expect the intrinsic bandwidth to be at least 18 GHz. We present our setup, discuss the experimental procedure, and give examples of experiments enabled by this system. This new measurement method will have a major impact on systematic ultra-low temperature studies using microwave signals, including those requiring quantum coherence.

  10. Insertable system for fast turnaround time microwave experiments in a dilution refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Ong, Florian R; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc; de Waard, Arlette; Frossati, Giorgio; Lupascu, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Microwave experiments in dilution refrigerators are a central tool in the field of superconducting quantum circuits and other research areas. This type of experiments relied so far on attaching a device to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. The minimum turnaround time in this case is a few days as required by cooling down and warming up the entire refrigerator. We developed a new approach, in which a suitable sample holder is attached to a cold-insertable probe and brought in contact with transmission lines permanently mounted inside the cryostat. The total turnaround time is 8 h if the target temperature is 80 mK. The lowest attainable temperature is 30 mK. Our system can accommodate up to six transmission lines, with a measurement bandwidth tested from zero frequency to 12 GHz. This bandwidth is limited by low-pass components in the setup; we expect the intrinsic bandwidth to be at least 18 GHz. We present our setup, discuss the experimental procedure, and give examples of experiments enabled by this system. This new measurement method will have a major impact on systematic ultra-low temperature studies using microwave signals, including those requiring quantum coherence. PMID:23020391

  11. Localized control of the orbit in the RHIC insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, S.

    1992-08-01

    It is proposed here that, for RHIC92 insertions, we remove the corrector from Ql and the beam position monitor (BPM) from Q2 in order to alleviate difficulties associated with the physical layout of the quadrupole triplet (Ql-Q2-Q3). Furthermore, it is suggested that there should be both (horizontal and vertical) types of BPMs at each end of the free space between Q3 and Q4 and between Q7 and Q8 so that one can measure the direction of the closed orbit. With this model, a localized control of the beam position and angle at the interaction point (IP) with either four or six correctors has been investigated. Similarly, a control of the orbit within an insertion for minimizing the orbit displacements at seven (or eight) BPM locations with nine (or ten) correctors in each transverse direction has been studied. Examples are given for the beta at IP = 2m, 10m, 20m, and 200m. It is shown that the design value of the integrated field strength of 0.3 T-m for each corrector should be sufficient for the tasks considered here except for some cases with extreme parameter values. At the same time, it is emphasized that the overall correction of the closed orbit for the entire ring (arcs and insertions) should be re-examined for RHIC92 lattice with the proposed arrangement of correctors and BPMS.

  12. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  13. Effects of Tools Inserted through Snake-like Surgical Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Ryan J.; Otake, Yoshito; Wolfe, Kevin C.; Taylor, Russell H.; Armand, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Snake-like manipulators with a large, open lumen can offer improved treatment alternatives for minimally- and less-invasive surgeries. In these procedures, surgeons use the manipulator to introduce and control flexible tools in the surgical environment. This paper describes a predictive algorithm for estimating manipulator configuration given tip position for nonconstant curvature, cable-driven manipulators using energy minimization. During experimental bending of the manipulator with and without a tool inserted in its lumen, images were recorded from an overhead camera in conjunction with actuation cable tension and length. To investigate the accuracy, the estimated manipulator configuration from the model and the ground-truth configuration measured from the image were compared. Additional analysis focused on the response differences for the manipulator with and without a tool inserted through the lumen. Results indicate that the energy minimization model predicts manipulator configuration with an error of 0.24 ± 0.22mm without tools in the lumen and 0.24 ± 0.19mm with tools in the lumen (no significant difference, p = 0.81). Moreover, tools did not introduce noticeable perturbations in the manipulator trajectory; however, there was an increase in requisite force required to reach a configuration. These results support the use of the proposed estimation method for calculating the shape of the manipulator with an tool inserted in its lumen when an accuracy range of at least 1mm is required. PMID:25571571

  14. Local Dispersion Insert: The {gamma}T knob for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-05-01

    The Local Dispersion Insert is a novel three-quadrupole cell which produces local dispersion and beta waves while leaving all other beam parameters unchanged. The obtained dispersion bump can be effectively used to control the transition energy and the so-called {gamma}T jump of an accelerator. Since the induced beta wave is local and the tune shift is zero, the Local Dispersion Insert is an extremely efficient cell, typically requiring only a small number of magnets in order to achieve a {gamma}T jump. Since the desired {gamma}T jump can be obtained by locally decreasing the dispersion, the well known problems which accompany the conventional {gamma}T jump schemes, like large maximal dispersion, transverse emittance growth etc. are absent. The paper contains three applications of the Local Dispersion Insert: the {gamma}T jump in the Main Injector, the {eta} adjustment in the Antiproton Debuncher (both at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), and the {gamma}T jump in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  15. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    E-print Network

    Bereau, Tristan; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum---in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even tho...

  16. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliň, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  17. Enzymatic functionalization of a nanobody using protein insertion technology.

    PubMed

    Crasson, O; Rhazi, N; Jacquin, O; Freichels, A; Jérôme, C; Ruth, N; Galleni, M; Filée, P; Vandevenne, M

    2015-10-01

    Antibody-based products constitute one of the most attractive biological molecules for diagnostic, medical imagery and therapeutic purposes with very few side effects. Their development has become a major priority of biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, a growing number of modified antibody-based products have emerged including fragments, multi-specific and conjugate antibodies. In this study, using protein engineering, we have functionalized the anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) camelid VHH antibody fragment (cAb-Lys3), by insertion into a solvent-exposed loop of the Bacillus licheniformis ?-lactamase BlaP. We showed that the generated hybrid protein conserved its enzymatic activity while the displayed nanobody retains its ability to inhibit HEWL with a nanomolar affinity range. Then, we successfully implemented the functionalized cAb-Lys3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, potentiometric biosensor and drug screening assays. The hybrid protein was also expressed on the surface of phage particles and, in this context, was able to interact specifically with HEWL while the ?-lactamase activity was used to monitor phage interactions. Finally, using thrombin-cleavage sites surrounding the permissive insertion site in the ?-lactamase, we reported an expression system in which the nanobody can be easily separated from its carrier protein. Altogether, our study shows that insertion into the BlaP ?-lactamase constitutes a suitable technology to functionalize nanobodies and allows the creation of versatile tools that can be used in innovative biotechnological assays. PMID:25852149

  18. Mixed Modeling of a SAW Delay Line Using VHDL-AMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    To aid in the development of SAW sensors for aerospace applications we have created a model of a SAW Delay line using VHDL. The model implements the Impulse Response method to calculate the frequency response, impedance, and insertion loss. The model includes optimization for the number of finger pairs in the IDTs and for the aperture height. This paper presents the model and the results from the model for a SAW delay line design.

  19. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses of stably and unstably expressed transgene loci in tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, V A; Moscone, E A; Papp, I; Neuhuber, F; Michalowski, S; Phelan, T; Spiker, S; Matzke, M; Matzke, A J

    1997-01-01

    To study the influence of genomic context on transgene expression, we have determined the T-DNA structure, flanking DNA sequences, and chromosomal location of four independent transgene loci in tobacco. Two of these loci were stably expressed in the homozygous condition over many generations, whereas the other two loci became unstable after several generations of homozygosity. The stably expressed loci comprised relatively simple T-DNA arrangements that were flanked on at least one side by plant DNA containing AT-rich regions that bind to nuclear matrices in vitro. Of the unstably expressed loci, one consisted of multiple incomplete T-DNA copies, and the second contained a single intact T-DNA; in both cases, however, binary vector sequences were directly contiguous to a right T-DNA border. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that the two stably expressed inserts were present in the vicinity of telomeres. The two unstably expressed inserts occupied intercalary and paracentromeric locations, respectively. Results on the stability of transgene expression in F1 progeny obtained by intercrossing the four lines and the sensitivity of the four transgene loci to inactivation in the presence of an unlinked "trans-silencing" locus are also presented. The findings are discussed in the context of repetitive DNA sequences and the allotetraploid nature of the tobacco genome. PMID:9286104

  20. {sup 7}Li-nuclear magnetic resonance observation of lithium insertion into mesocarbon microbeads

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumi, K.; Akai, T.; Imamura, T.; Zaghib, K.; Iwashita, N.; Higuchi, S.; Sawada, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The stacking order of graphite layers in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) heat-treated between 700 and 3,000 C was examined by analyses of X-ray diffraction measurements, and lithium insertion into the MCMBs has been observed using solid-state {sup 7}Li-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 7}Li-NMR) spectroscopy. In MCMBs heat-treated above 2,000 C, the fully lithiated MCMBs showed two bands at ca. 45 ppm (vs. KiCl) and ca. 27 ppm in their {sup 7}Li-NMR spectra. The profile of the band at 45 ppm was very close to that for the first-stage lithium graphite intercalation compound (Li-GIC), though the other band at 27 ppm could not be assigned to any phases of Li-GICs. From these results, it is suggested that the structures of the MCMBs heat-treated above 2,000 C for lithium insertion are classified as graphitic structure, which has the AB stacking order of graphite layers, and turbostatic structure with a random stacking sequence of graphite layers; the fully lithiated compositions of both structures were estimated as LiC{sub 6} and ca. Li{sub 0.2}C{sub 6}, respectively. Although MCMB heat-treated at 700 C gave a higher capacity than LiC{sub 6}, the line shift in the {sup 7}Li-NMR spectra indicated that lithium stored in the MCMB displayed an ionic character. Capacity change of the MCMBs during charge-discharge cycling up to 20 cycles and capacity loss at higher current densities (<200 mA/g) were also examined.

  1. Microfluidic transwell inserts for generation of tissue culture-friendly gradients in well plates

    PubMed Central

    Sip, Christopher G.; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Folch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Gradients of biochemical molecules play a key role in many physiological processes such as axon growth, tissue morphogenesis, and trans-epithelium nutrient transport, as well as in pathophysiological phenomena such as wound healing, immune response, bacterial invasion, and cancer metastasis. In this paper, we report a microfluidic transwell insert for generating quantifiable concentration gradients in a user-friendly and modular format that is compatible with conventional cell cultures and with tissue explant cultures. The device is simply inserted into a standard 6-well plate, where it hangs self-supported at a distance of ~250 ?m above the cell culture surface. The gradient is created by small microflows from the device, through an integrated track-etched porous membrane, into the cell culture well. The microfluidic transwell can deliver stable, quantifiable gradients over a large area with extremely low fluid shear stress to dissociated cells or tissue explants cultured independently on the surface of a 6-well plate. We used finite-element modeling to describe the porous membrane flow and molecular transport and to predict gradients generated by the device. Using the device, we applied a gradient of the chemotactic peptide N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) to a large population of HL-60 cells (a neutrophil cell line) and directly observed the migration with time-lapse microscopy. On quantification of the chemotactic response with an automated tracking algorithm, we found 74% of the cells moving towards the gradient. Additionally, the modular design and low fluid shear stress made it possible to apply gradients of growth factors and second messengers to mouse retinal explant cultures. With a simplified interface and well-defined gradients, the microfluidic transwell device has potential for broad applications to gradient-sensing biology. PMID:24225908

  2. Identification of Saturn's magnetospheric regions and associated plasma processes: Synopsis of Cassini observations during orbit insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, N.; Blanc, M.; Maurice, S.; Schippers, P.; Pallier, E.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Young, D. T.; Crary, F. J.; Bolton, S.; Sittler, E. C.; Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.; Baragiola, R. A.; Coates, A. J.; Rymer, A. M.; Dougherty, M. K.; Achilleos, N.; Arridge, C. S.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krupp, N.; Hamilton, D. C.; Dandouras, I.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Louarn, P.; Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Waite, H. J.; Esposito, L. W.; Clarke, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    Saturn's magnetosphere is currently studied from the microphysical to the global scale by the Cassini-Huygens mission. During the first half of 2004, in the approach phase, remote sensing observations of Saturn's magnetosphere gave access to its auroral, radio, UV, energetic neutral atom, and dust emissions. Then, on 1 July 2004, Cassini Saturn orbit insertion provided us with the first in situ exploration of Saturn's magnetosphere since Voyager. To date, Saturn orbit insertion is the only Cassini orbit to have been described in common by all field and particle instruments. We use the comprehensive suite of magnetospheric and plasma science instruments to give a unified description of the large-scale structure of the magnetosphere during this particular orbit, identifying the different regions and their boundaries. These regions consist of the Saturnian ring system (region 1, within 3 Saturn radii (R S )) and the cold plasma torus (region 2, within 5-6 R S ) in the inner magnetosphere, a dynamic and extended plasma sheet (region 3), and an outer high-latitude magnetosphere (region 4, beyond 12-14 R S ). We compare these observations to those made at the time of the Voyager encounters. Then, we identify some of the dominant chemical characteristics and dynamical phenomena in each of these regions. The inner magnetosphere is characterized by the presence of the dominant plasma and neutral sources of the Saturnian system, giving birth to a very special magnetosphere dominated by water products. The extended plasma sheet, where the ring current resides, is a variable region with stretched magnetic field lines and contains a mixture of cold and hot plasma populations resulting from plasma transport processes. The outer high-latitude magnetosphere is characterized by a quiet magnetic field and an absence of plasma. Saturn orbit insertion observations enabled us to capture a snapshot of the large-scale structure of the Saturnian magnetosphere and of some of the main plasma processes operating in this complex environment. The analysis of the broad diversity of these interaction processes will be one of the main themes of magnetospheric and plasma science during the Cassini mission.

  3. Peripheral arterial line - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    PAL - infants; Art line - infants ... an "art line." This article addresses PALs in babies. Why is a PAL used? Doctors and nurses use a PAL to watch your baby's blood pressure. A PAL can also be use ...

  4. Racing line optimization

    E-print Network

    Xiong, Ying, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Although most racers are good at controlling their cars, world champions are always talented at choosing the right racing line while others mostly fail to do that. Optimal racing line selection is a critical problem in car ...

  5. Targeted Capture of Phylogenetically Informative Ves SINE Insertions in Genus Myotis.

    PubMed

    Platt, Roy N; Zhang, Yuhua; Witherspoon, David J; Xing, Jinchuan; Suh, Alexander; Keith, Megan S; Jorde, Lynn B; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2015-06-01

    Identification of retrotransposon insertions in nonmodel taxa can be technically challenging and costly. This has inhibited progress in understanding retrotransposon insertion dynamics outside of a few well-studied species. To address this problem, we have extended a retrotransposon-based capture and sequence method (ME-Scan [mobile element scanning]) to identify insertions belonging to the Ves family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) across seven species of the bat genus Myotis. We identified between 120,000 and 143,000 SINE insertions in six taxa lacking a draft genome by comparing to the M. lucifugus reference genome. On average, each Ves insertion was sequenced to 129.6 × coverage. When mapped back to the M. lucifugus reference genome, all insertions were confidently assigned within a 10-bp window. Polymorphic Ves insertions were identified in each taxon based on their mapped locations. Using cross-species comparisons and the identified insertion positions, a presence-absence matrix was created for approximately 796,000 insertions. Dollo parsimony analysis of more than 85,000 phylogenetically informative insertions recovered strongly supported, monophyletic clades that correspond with the biogeography of each taxa. This phylogeny is similar to previously published mitochondrial phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of M. vivesi. These results support the utility of our variation on ME-Scan to identify polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in taxa without a reference genome and for large-scale retrotransposon-based phylogenetics. PMID:26014613

  6. Targeted Capture of Phylogenetically Informative Ves SINE Insertions in Genus Myotis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Roy N.; Zhang, Yuhua; Witherspoon, David J.; Xing, Jinchuan; Suh, Alexander; Keith, Megan S.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Stevens, Richard D.; Ray, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of retrotransposon insertions in nonmodel taxa can be technically challenging and costly. This has inhibited progress in understanding retrotransposon insertion dynamics outside of a few well-studied species. To address this problem, we have extended a retrotransposon-based capture and sequence method (ME-Scan [mobile element scanning]) to identify insertions belonging to the Ves family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) across seven species of the bat genus Myotis. We identified between 120,000 and 143,000 SINE insertions in six taxa lacking a draft genome by comparing to the M. lucifugus reference genome. On average, each Ves insertion was sequenced to 129.6 × coverage. When mapped back to the M. lucifugus reference genome, all insertions were confidently assigned within a 10-bp window. Polymorphic Ves insertions were identified in each taxon based on their mapped locations. Using cross-species comparisons and the identified insertion positions, a presence–absence matrix was created for approximately 796,000 insertions. Dollo parsimony analysis of more than 85,000 phylogenetically informative insertions recovered strongly supported, monophyletic clades that correspond with the biogeography of each taxa. This phylogeny is similar to previously published mitochondrial phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of M. vivesi. These results support the utility of our variation on ME-Scan to identify polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in taxa without a reference genome and for large-scale retrotransposon-based phylogenetics. PMID:26014613

  7. A Manually Operated, Advance Off-Stylet Insertion Tool for Minimally Invasive Cochlear Implantation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kratchman, Louis B.; Schurzig, Daniel; McRackan, Theodore R.; Balachandran, Ramya; Noble, Jack H.; Webster, Robert J.; Labadie, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The current technique for cochlear implantation (CI) surgery requires a mastoidectomy to gain access to the cochlea for electrode array insertion. It has been shown that microstereotactic frames can enable an image-guided, minimally invasive approach to CI surgery called percutaneous cochlear implantation (PCI) that uses a single drill hole for electrode array insertion, avoiding a more invasive mastoidectomy. Current clinical methods for electrode array insertion are not compatible with PCI surgery because they require a mastoidectomy to access the cochlea; thus, we have developed a manually operated electrode array insertion tool that can be deployed through a PCI drill hole. The tool can be adjusted using a preoperative CT scan for accurate execution of the advance off-stylet (AOS) insertion technique and requires less skill to operate than is currently required to implant electrode arrays. We performed three cadaver insertion experiments using the AOS technique and determined that all insertions were successful using CT and microdissection. PMID:22851233

  8. Using Superconducting Thin Films in Microwave Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkin, Varery

    1997-01-01

    High temperature superconductors(HTS) and microwaves devices form the ideal partnership. The application of superconductors in microwave devices, components and systems allows the reduction in size, power consumption and insertion loss. The surface resistance of high-Tc superconductors has been found to be two orders of magnitude lower than normal conducting copper materials. The reduction in size and power requirements, which together both lead to a reduction in system mass, coupled with reasonably accessible operating temperatures, suggest that HTS microwave components should find ready application in satellite communications systems. At present, multi- channeling communication networks demand filters with narrow bandwidth in order to allow the available RF frequency spectrum to be partitioned into small frequency bands, -and possible variation of dielectric constant from substrate to substrate is undesirable. Microwave multiplexers demand the fabrication of two identical filters in each channel. Thus, the filter with tuning function is preferable. Tunable filters are the critical component for phased array antennas in order to electronically steer the radiated beam. To fabricate a tunable filter that uses an electric field for operation, one would like a material that provides a large change on dielectric constant for a given electric field, yet has a relatively low tangent in order to minimize the insertion loss of the device. Ferroelectrics have been the materials of choice. Their large dielectric constant sufficiently increases the coupling between microwave resonators and its dependence on electric field provides timability. Development of technology promises to diminish tangent loss. The use of thin ferroelectric films sufficiently decreases insertion losses keeping considerable potential for applications. NASA Lewis Research Center is the one of the leading centers in investigation of superconductors/ferroelectric tunable components for microwave devices. A large number of possible microwave devices were fabricated and tested on the basis of thin film multilayer superconductor-ferroelectric structures. In major cases the systems with edge-coupling scheme were investigated. Dr. Genkin has recently focused on the new potentialities which implements the using of thin ferroelectric films in filters fabricated with end-coupled microstrip lines. Numerical modeling shows that these systems have large potential for application in tunable narrow- and wide-bandpass filters in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The phase shifter with end-coupled resonant sections was fabricated and tested. Experimental results show large tunability, particular in low voltages. The possible optimization of this structure promises to improve the obtained result and to reach the low level of insertion losses.

  9. Efficient Merge and Insert Operations for Binary Heaps and Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuszmaul, Christopher Lee; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Binary heaps and binary search trees merge efficiently. We introduce a new amortized analysis that allows us to prove the cost of merging either binary heaps or balanced binary trees is O(l), in the amortized sense. The standard set of other operations (create, insert, delete, extract minimum, in the case of binary heaps, and balanced binary trees, as well as a search operation for balanced binary trees) remain with a cost of O(log n). For binary heaps implemented as arrays, we show a new merge algorithm that has a single operation cost for merging two heaps, a and b, of O(absolute value of a + min(log absolute value of b log log absolute value of b. log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). This is an improvement over O(absolute value of a + log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). The cost of the new merge is so low that it can be used in a new structure which we call shadow heaps. to implement the insert operation to a tunable efficiency. Shadow heaps support the insert operation for simple priority queues in an amortized time of O(f(n)) and other operations in time O((log n log log n)/f (n)), where 1 less than or equal to f (n) less than or equal to log log n. More generally, the results here show that any data structure with operations that change its size by at most one, with the exception of a merge (aka meld) operation, can efficiently amortize the cost of the merge under conditions that are true for most implementations of binary heaps and search trees.

  10. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  11. Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer for Calcific Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael A; Catanzariti, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Calcific insertional Achilles tendinopathy can result in significant pain and disability. Although some patients respond to nonoperative therapy, many patients are at risk for long-term morbidity and unpredictable clinical outcomes. There is no evidence-based data to support the timing of operative invention, choice of procedures, or whether equinus requires treatment. This article suggests the need for a classification system based on physical examination and imaging to help guide treatment. There is an obvious need for evidence-based studies evaluating outcomes and for properly conducted scientific research to establish appropriate treatment protocols. PMID:26590729

  12. Solving Witten's SFT by Insertion of Operators on Projectors

    E-print Network

    Haitang Yang

    2004-06-02

    Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. We show that for any twist invariant projector, the energy density can account for at most 68.46% of the D25-brane tension. The general results are then applied to regulated slivers and butterflies, and the next-to-leading order solution for regulated sliver states is constructed.

  13. ARTEMIS Lunar Orbit Insertion and Science Orbit Design Through 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broschart, Stephen B.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Folta, David; Woodard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As of late-July 2011, the ARTEMIS mission is transferring two spacecraft from Lissajous orbits around Earth-Moon Lagrange Point #1 into highly-eccentric lunar science orbits. This paper presents the trajectory design for the transfer from Lissajous orbit to lunar orbit insertion, the period reduction maneuvers, and the science orbits through 2013. The design accommodates large perturbations from Earth's gravity and restrictive spacecraft capabilities to enable opportunities for a range of heliophysics and planetary science measurements. The process used to design the highly-eccentric ARTEMIS science orbits is outlined. The approach may inform the design of future planetary moon missions.

  14. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  15. Cation insertion reactions of electrochromic tungsten and iridium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, J. D. E.; Basu, S.; Peck, W. F., Jr.; Brown, W. L.; Augustyniak, W. M.

    1982-06-01

    Electrochemical coloration mechanisms of electrochromic (EC), amorphous tungsten and iridium oxide films have been investigated by direct elemental analysis of their compositions in oxidized and reduced states. Combined Rutherford backscattering and nuclear-reaction-analysis techniques were employed to determine the identities and concentrations of ions injected as charge compensators from the contacting electrolyte during EC redox reactions. In aqueous electrolytes, the cathodic coloration of an anodically formed, hydrous tungsten oxide film (composition ~WO3.H2O), is accompanied by injection of protons, in accordance with mechanisms determined for anhydrous WO3. The anodic coloration and coloration bleaching of an anodically formed, hydrous iridium oxide (IROX) film, which has a varying degree of hydration throughout its thickness, is accompanied by ejection and injection of H+ and H3O+ ions. In nonaqueous aprotic electrolytes, the slow but reversible insertion of Li+ (r=0.60 Ĺ) and Na+ (r=0.95 Ĺ) ions into IROX films has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Li+ ions were found to exchange with H+ ions in these hydrous films. No evidence could be found for insertion of K+ (r=1.33 Ĺ), F- (r=1.36 Ĺ), or OH- (r=1.55 Ĺ) ions as charge compensators. These results provide a measure of the size and concentration of vacancies and defects in amorphous IROX films.

  16. Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

  17. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok Woo; McDowell, Matthew T.; Berla, Lucas A.; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate. PMID:22371565

  18. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  19. Retroposon insertions and the chronology of avian sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Suh, Alexander; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The vast majority of extant birds possess highly differentiated Z and W sex chromosomes. Nucleotide sequence data from gametologs (homologs on opposite sex chromosomes) suggest that this divergence occurred throughout early bird evolution via stepwise cessation of recombination between identical sex chromosomal regions. Here, we investigated avian sex chromosome differentiation from a novel perspective, using retroposon insertions and random insertions/deletions for the reconstruction of gametologous gene trees. Our data confirm that the CHD1Z/CHD1W genes differentiated in the ancestor of the neognaths, whereas the NIPBLZ/NIPBLW genes diverged in the neoavian ancestor and independently within Galloanserae. The divergence of the ATP5A1Z/ATP5A1W genes in galloanserans occurred independently in the chicken, the screamer, and the ancestor of duck-related birds. In Neoaves, this gene pair differentiated in each of the six sampled representatives, respectively. Additionally, three of our investigated loci can be utilized as universal, easy-to-use independent tools for molecular sexing of Neoaves or Neognathae. PMID:21633113

  20. Launch vehicle and power level impacts on electric GEO insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) has been shown to increase net geosynchronous spacecraft mass when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion. The impact of launch vehicle selection and power level on the benefits of this approach were examined for 20 and 25 kW systems launched using the Ariane 5, Atlas IIAR, Long March, Proton, and Sea Launch vehicles. Two advanced on-board propulsion technologies, 5 kW ion and Hall thruster systems, were used to establish the relative merits of the technologies and launch vehicles. GaAs solar arrays were assumed. The analysis identifies the optimal starting orbits for the SEP orbit raising/plane changing while considering the impacts of radiation degradation in the Van Allen belts, shading, power degradation, and oblateness. This use of SEP to provide part of the orbit insertion results in net mass increases of 15 - 38% and 18 - 46% for one to two month trip times, respectively, over just using SEP for 15 years of north/south station keeping. SEP technology was shown to have a greater impact on net masses of launch vehicles with higher launch latitudes when avoidance of solar array and payload degradation is desired. This greater impact of SEP could help reduce the plane changing disadvantage of high latitude launch sites. Comparison with results for 10 and 15 kW systems show clear benefits of incremental increases in SEP power level, suggesting that an evolutionary approach to high power SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft is possible.

  1. Control system for insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, O.A.; Den Hartog, P.; Moog, E.R.; Smith, M.L.

    1997-09-01

    Eighteen insertion devices (IDs) are installed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), and three more are scheduled for installation by the end of this year. A distributed control system for insertion devices at the APS storage ring was created with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The basic components of this system are operator interfaces (OPIs), input output controllers (IOCs), and a local area network that allows the OPI and IOC to communicate. The IOC operates under the VxWorks OS with an EPICS database and a sequencer. The sequencer runs an ID control program written in State Notation Language. The OPI is built with the EPICS tool MEDM and provides display screens with input and output fields and buttons for gap control of the IDs. Global commands like ``open all IDs`` are C-shell scripts invoked from the display menu. The algorithms for control and protection of the ID and ID vacuum chamber and the accuracy of gap control are discussed.

  2. Control system for insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Oleg A.; Den Hartog, Patric; Moog, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Martin L.

    1997-07-01

    Eighteen insertion devices (IDs) are installed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), and three more are scheduled for installation by the end of this year. A distributed control system for insertion devices at the APS storage ring was created with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The basic components of this system are operator interfaces (OPIs), input output controllers (IOCs), and a local area network that allows the OPI and IOC to communicate. The IOC operates under the VxWorks OS with an EPICS database and a sequencer. The sequencer runs an ID control program written in State Notation Language. The OPI is built with the EPICS tool MEDM and provides display screens with input and output fields and buttons for gap control of the IDs. Global commands like 'open all IDs' are C-shell scripts invoked from the display menu. The algorithms for control and protection of the ID and ID vacuum chamber and the accuracy of gap control are discussed.

  3. Control system for insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, O.A.; Den Hartog, P.; Moog, E.R.; Smith, M.L.

    1997-07-01

    Eighteen insertion devices (IDs) are installed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), and three more are scheduled for installation by the end of this year. A distributed control system for insertion devices at the APS storage ring was created with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The basic components of this system are operator interfaces (OPIs), input output controllers (IOCs), and a local area network that allows the OPI and IOC to communicate. The IOC operates under the VxWorks OS with an EPICS database and a sequencer. The sequencer runs an ID control program written in State Notation Language. The OPI is built with the EPICS tool MEDM and provides display screens with input and output fields and buttons for gap control of the IDs. Global commands like {open_quotes}open all IDs{close_quotes} are C-shell scripts invoked from the display menu. The algorithms for control and protection of the ID and ID vacuum chamber and the accuracy of gap control are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Nguyen, Diep M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Benn, Robert A.; Prybol, Cameron J.; Vaccaro, Brian J.; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  5. Insertional engineering of chromosomes with Sleeping Beauty transposition: an overview.

    PubMed

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Novel genetic tools and mutagenesis strategies based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element are currently under development with a vision to link primary DNA sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. By virtue of its inherent capacity to insert into DNA, the SB transposon can be developed into powerful tools for chromosomal manipulations. Mutagenesis screens based on SB have numerous advantages including high throughput and easy identification of mutated alleles. Forward genetic approaches based on insertional mutagenesis by engineered SB transposons have the advantage of providing insight into genetic networks and pathways based on phenotype. Indeed, the SB transposon has become a highly instrumental tool to induce tumors in experimental animals in a tissue-specific -manner with the aim of uncovering the genetic basis of diverse cancers. Here, we describe a battery of mutagenic cassettes that can be applied in conjunction with SB transposon vectors to mutagenize genes, and highlight versatile experimental strategies for the generation of engineered chromosomes for loss-of-function as well as gain-of-function mutagenesis for functional gene annotation in vertebrate models. PMID:21431720

  6. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  7. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J; Nguyen, Diep M; Lipscomb, Gina L; Benn, Robert A; Prybol, Cameron J; Vaccaro, Brian J; Poole, Farris L; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2014-12-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  8. Surgical motion characterization in simulated needle insertion procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Matthew S.; Ungi, Tamas; Sargent, Derek; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of surgical performance in image-guided needle insertions is of emerging interest, to both promote patient safety and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of training. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Markov model-based algorithm can more accurately segment a needle-based surgical procedure into its five constituent tasks than a simple threshold-based algorithm. METHODS: Simulated needle trajectories were generated with known ground truth segmentation by a synthetic procedural data generator, with random noise added to each degree of freedom of motion. The respective learning algorithms were trained, and then tested on different procedures to determine task segmentation accuracy. In the threshold-based algorithm, a change in tasks was detected when the needle crossed a position/velocity threshold. In the Markov model-based algorithm, task segmentation was performed by identifying the sequence of Markov models most likely to have produced the series of observations. RESULTS: For amplitudes of translational noise greater than 0.01mm, the Markov model-based algorithm was significantly more accurate in task segmentation than the threshold-based algorithm (82.3% vs. 49.9%, p<0.001 for amplitude 10.0mm). For amplitudes less than 0.01mm, the two algorithms produced insignificantly different results. CONCLUSION: Task segmentation of simulated needle insertion procedures was improved by using a Markov model-based algorithm as opposed to a threshold-based algorithm for procedures involving translational noise.

  9. Seamless service line management.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Mike; Nolan, Kevin C; Brown, Frank; Rogers, Stephanie

    2008-05-01

    Memorial Hermann Health System of Houston executed a systemwide service line management model in response to the competitive pace and intensity of the market. The steps the health system took to develop and implement this model include: Recognize the burning platform. Evaluate internal readiness. Invest in early wins. Build the management model. Create a service line mantra that guides all service line initiatives. PMID:18546969

  10. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  11. Insertional mutagenesis and deep profiling reveals gene hierarchies and a Myc/p53-dependent bottleneck in lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Huser, Camille A; Gilroy, Kathryn L; de Ridder, Jeroen; Kilbey, Anna; Borland, Gillian; Mackay, Nancy; Jenkins, Alma; Bell, Margaret; Herzyk, Pawel; van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J; Rust, Alistair G; Cameron, Ewan; Neil, James C

    2014-02-01

    Retroviral insertional mutagenesis (RIM) is a powerful tool for cancer genomics that was combined in this study with deep sequencing (RIM/DS) to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of lymphoma progression. Transgenic mice expressing two potent collaborating oncogenes in the germ line (CD2-MYC, -Runx2) develop rapid onset tumours that can be accelerated and rendered polyclonal by neonatal Moloney murine leukaemia virus (MoMLV) infection. RIM/DS analysis of 28 polyclonal lymphomas identified 771 common insertion sites (CISs) defining a 'progression network' that encompassed a remarkably large fraction of known MoMLV target genes, with further strong indications of oncogenic selection above the background of MoMLV integration preference. Progression driven by RIM was characterised as a Darwinian process of clonal competition engaging proliferation control networks downstream of cytokine and T-cell receptor signalling. Enhancer mode activation accounted for the most efficiently selected CIS target genes, including Ccr7 as the most prominent of a set of chemokine receptors driving paracrine growth stimulation and lymphoma dissemination. Another large target gene subset including candidate tumour suppressors was disrupted by intragenic insertions. A second RIM/DS screen comparing lymphomas of wild-type and parental transgenics showed that CD2-MYC tumours are virtually dependent on activation of Runx family genes in strong preference to other potent Myc collaborating genes (Gfi1, Notch1). Ikzf1 was identified as a novel collaborating gene for Runx2 and illustrated the interface between integration preference and oncogenic selection. Lymphoma target genes for MoMLV can be classified into (a) a small set of master regulators that confer self-renewal; overcoming p53 and other failsafe pathways and (b) a large group of progression genes that control autonomous proliferation in transformed cells. These findings provide insights into retroviral biology, human cancer genetics and the safety of vector-mediated gene therapy. PMID:24586197

  12. Large-scale aeroacoustic research feasibility and conceptual design of test-section inserts for the Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olsen, Larry E.

    1990-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80 by 120 foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The advantages and disadvantages of likely designs were analyzed. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed leads to the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis indicated a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open jet test section, and a 70 x 100 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining, respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoutic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5 ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustic studies of large helicopter models, jets, and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs. In all designs studied, the existing structure would have to be reinforced. Successful development of acoustically transparent walls, though not strictly necessary to the project, would lead to a porous-wall test section that could be substituted for any of the open-jet designs, and thereby eliminate many aerodynamic and acoustic problems characteristic of open-jet shear layers. The larger size of the facility would make installation and removal of the insert components difficult. Consequently, scheduling of the existing 80 x 120 aerodynamic test section and scheduling of the open-jet test section would likely be made on an annual or longer basis. The enhanced wall-lining insert would likely be permanent. Although the modifications are technically feasible, the economic practicality of the project was not evaluated.

  13. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichičre, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein. PMID:25725151

  14. Identifying pathogenicity genes in the rubber tree anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides through random insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhiying; Li, Guohua; Lin, Chunhua; Shi, Tao; Zhai, Ligang; Chen, Yipeng; Huang, Guixiu

    2013-07-19

    To gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenesis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to identify mutants of C. gloeosporioides impaired in pathogenicity. An ATMT library of 4128 C. gloeosporioides transformants was generated. Transformants were screened for defects in pathogenicity with a detached copper brown leaf assay. 32 mutants showing reproducible pathogenicity defects were obtained. Southern blot analysis showed 60.4% of the transformants had single-site T-DNA integrations. 16 Genomic sequences flanking T-DNA were recovered from mutants by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and were used to isolate the tagged genes from the genome sequence of wild-type C. gloeosporioides by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches against the local genome database of the wild-type C. gloeosporioides. One potential pathogenicity genes encoded calcium-translocating P-type ATPase. Six potential pathogenicity genes had no known homologs in filamentous fungi and were likely to be novel fungal virulence factors. Two putative genes encoded Glycosyltransferase family 28 domain-containing protein and Mov34/MPN/PAD-1 family protein, respectively. Five potential pathogenicity genes had putative function matched with putative protein of other Colletotrichum species. Two known C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity genes were also identified, the encoding Glomerella cingulata hard-surface induced protein and C. gloeosporioides regulatory subunit of protein kinase A gene involved in cAMP-dependent PKA signal transduction pathway. PMID:23602122

  15. Refining the pathway of carbide insertion into the nitrogenase M-cluster.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Jared A; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-01-01

    Carbide insertion plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of M-cluster, the cofactor of nitrogenase. Previously, we proposed a carbide insertion pathway involving methyltransfer from SAM to a FeS precursor and hydrogen abstraction from this methyl group that initiates the radical-based precursor maturation. Here we demonstrate that the methyl group is transferred to a precursor-associated sulfur before hydrogen abstraction, thereby refining the initial steps of the carbide insertion pathway. PMID:26259825

  16. Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion"

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Ferrell, Thomas L; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Price, Jeffery R; Seulin, Ralph; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Farahi, R H

    2006-01-01

    Vein localization and catheter insertion constitute the first and perhaps most important phase of many medical procedures. Currently, catheterization is performed manually by trained personnel. This process can prove problematic, however, depending upon various physiological factors of the patient. We present in this paper initial work for localizing surface veins via near-infrared (NIR) imaging and structured light ranging. The eventual goal of the system is to serve as the guidance for a fully automatic (i.e., robotic) catheterization device. Our proposed system is based upon near-infrared (NIR) imaging, which has previously been shown effective in enhancing the visibility of surface veins. We locate the vein regions in the 2D NIR images using standard image processing techniques. We employ a NIR line-generating LED module to implement structured light ranging and construct a 3D topographic map of the arm surface. The located veins are mapped to the arm surface to provide a camera-registered representation of the arm and veins. We describe the techniques in detail and provide example imagery and 3D surface renderings.

  17. A sheath for repetitive insertion of high-fidelity micromanometer-tipped catheters.

    PubMed

    Held-Munzenmaier, D; Olinger, G N; Boerboom, L E

    1989-10-01

    Implantation of micromanometer-tipped catheters into dogs and other animals for invasive high-fidelity blood pressure measurement is expensive and impractical. We have devised an implantable sheath that allows insertion of the transducer each time the animal is to be studied. This eliminates animal-inflicted damage and the need for multiple transducers if several animals are to be instrumented concurrently. The sheath is coextruded from hard and soft forms of polyurethane to form a soft, flexible, thrombus-resistant tubing with a hard thin inner lining having a low coefficient of friction. This allows chronic implantation of the sheath into the heart and major vessels with minimal trauma, yet enables a transducer to be advanced through a sheath only slightly larger than the transducer itself without the frictional resistance common to other soft tubing. The sheath can be tapered for ease of implantation into vessels or curved to the appropriate angle for implantation into the heart. Our polyurethane sheath is a versatile, convenient, and inexpensive alternative to chronic instrumentation with transducers for high-fidelity pressure measurement. PMID:2801990

  18. Individual Optimization of the Insertion of a Preformed Cochlear Implant Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Thomas S.; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to show that individual adjustment of the curling behaviour of a preformed cochlear implant (CI) electrode array to the patient-specific shape of the cochlea can improve the insertion process in terms of reduced risk of insertion trauma. Methods. Geometry and curling behaviour of preformed, commercially available electrode arrays were modelled. Additionally, the anatomy of each small, medium-sized, and large human cochlea was modelled to consider anatomical variations. Finally, using a custom-made simulation tool, three different insertion strategies (conventional Advanced Off-Stylet (AOS) insertion technique, an automated implementation of the AOS technique, and a manually optimized insertion process) were simulated and compared with respect to the risk of insertion-related trauma. The risk of trauma was evaluated using a newly developed “trauma risk” rating scale. Results. Using this simulation-based approach, it was shown that an individually optimized insertion procedure is advantageous compared with the AOS insertion technique. Conclusion. This finding leads to the conclusion that, in general, consideration of the specific curling behaviour of a CI electrode array is beneficial in terms of less traumatic insertion. Therefore, these results highlight an entirely novel aspect of clinical application of preformed perimodiolar electrode arrays in general. PMID:26448764

  19. The PML gene is linked to a megabase-scale insertion/deletion restriction fragment length polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Goy, A.; Xiao, Y.H.; Passalaris, T.

    1995-03-20

    The PML gene located on chromosome band 15q22 is involved with the RAR{alpha} locus (17q21) in a balanced reciprocal translocation uniquely observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Physical mapping studies by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the PML gene is flanked by two CpG islands that are separated by a variable distance in normal individuals. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that this is the consequence of a large insertion/deletion polymorphism linked to the PML locus: (1) overlapping fragments obtained with a variety of rare-cutting restriction enzymes demonstrated the same variability in distance between the flanking CpG islands; (2) mapping with restriction enzymes insensitive to CpG methylation confirmed that the findings were not a consequence of variable methylation of CpG dinucleotides; (3) the polymorphism followed a Mendelian inheritance pattern. This polymorphism is localized 3{prime} to the PML locus. There are five common alleles, described on the basis of BssHII fragments, ranging from 220 to 350 kb with increments of approximately 30 kb between alleles. Both heterozygous (61%) and homozygous (391%) patterns were observed in normal individuals. Mega-base-scale insertion/deletion restriction fragment length polymorphisms are very rare and have been described initially in the context of multigene families. Such structures have been also reported as likely regions of genetic instability. High-resolution restriction mapping of this particular structure linked to the PML locus is underway. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  2. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Cutting insert and work piece materials for minimum quantity lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgin, Sheri; Barber, Gary; Zou, Qian

    2011-05-01

    There is considerable interest in utilizing either dry or minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) as an alternative to flood cooling due to environmental concerns with flood coolant such as excessive misting and disposal of the used coolant. Dry machining can result in high tool wear and also built up edge problems on the cutting tool. The objective of this research was to study the effect of work piece material and tool material on the machining characteristics, in this case reaming, of aluminum using MQL. In particular, a high tin casting and three different tool materials: carbide, DLC and PCD were studied. The high tin casting was found to produce lower cutting temperature and lower spindle power. The PCD coated insert performed the best in terms of lowest temperature rise, lowest spindle power and highest part quality.

  4. Cutting insert and work piece materials for minimum quantity lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgin, Sheri; Barber, Gary; Zou, Qian

    2010-12-01

    There is considerable interest in utilizing either dry or minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) as an alternative to flood cooling due to environmental concerns with flood coolant such as excessive misting and disposal of the used coolant. Dry machining can result in high tool wear and also built up edge problems on the cutting tool. The objective of this research was to study the effect of work piece material and tool material on the machining characteristics, in this case reaming, of aluminum using MQL. In particular, a high tin casting and three different tool materials: carbide, DLC and PCD were studied. The high tin casting was found to produce lower cutting temperature and lower spindle power. The PCD coated insert performed the best in terms of lowest temperature rise, lowest spindle power and highest part quality.

  5. Insertion of a GFP Reporter Gene in Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jasmine T.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Manicassamy, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of a fluorescent reporter gene into a replication competent influenza A virus (IAV) has made it possible to trace IAV infection in vivo. This protocol describes the process of inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter into the IAV genome using the established reverse genetics system. The strategy begins with the reorganization of segment eight of the IAV genome, during which the open reading frames of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and the nuclear export protein (NEP) are separated to allow for GFP fusion to the NS1 protein. The NS1, GFP, and NEP open reading frames (ORF) are then cloned into the IAV rescue system backbone. Upon construction of the GFP encoding segment eight rescue plasmid, recombinant NS1-GFP influenza virus can be rescued via co-transfection with the remaining seven rescue plasmids. The generated NS1-GFP IAV can subsequently be used to visualize infected cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23686828

  6. The thermodynamic origin of hysteresis in insertion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Wolfgang; Jamnik, Janko; Guhlke, Clemens; Huth, Robert; Moskon, Joze; Gaberscek, Miran

    2010-05-01

    Lithium batteries are considered the key storage devices for most emerging green technologies such as wind and solar technologies or hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. Despite the tremendous recent advances in battery research, surprisingly, several fundamental issues of increasing practical importance have not been adequately tackled. One such issue concerns the energy efficiency. Generally, charging of 10(10)-10(17) electrode particles constituting a modern battery electrode proceeds at (much) higher voltages than discharging. Most importantly, the hysteresis between the charge and discharge voltage seems not to disappear as the charging/discharging current vanishes. Herein we present, for the first time, a general explanation of the occurrence of inherent hysteretic behaviour in insertion storage systems containing multiple particles. In a broader sense, the model also predicts the existence of apparent equilibria in battery electrodes, the sequential particle-by-particle charging/discharging mechanism and the disappearance of two-phase behaviour at special experimental conditions. PMID:20383130

  7. Morphology-stable alloy/C composites for lithium insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xie, J. Y.; Yang, J.

    Composite materials, obtained by depositing sub-micron size particles of SnCu x and SnSb x on the surface of carbonaceous mesophase spherules (CMS), can endure the large volume effect of alloy host for lithium insertion and extraction. The alloy/C composites deliver large reversible capacities (430 mAh g -1 for SnSb x/CMS, 390 mAh g -1 for SnCu x/CMS); the capacity retention at the 30th cycle is 90% for SnSb x/CMS and 95.2% for SnCu x/CMS, respectively. They are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.

    1997-05-12

    Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.

  9. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, William E.; Crouch, M. R.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace that will operate in the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) on the International Space Station. It will provide high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. Numerical analyses and breadboard testing conducted to date show that the QMI can produce an axial temperature gradient approaching 150 C per centimeter in a 1 centimeter diameter aluminum sample with a maximum molten sample temperature of 1100 C. Breadboard testing and analysis have also shown that the quench capabilities of the furnace are sufficient to rapidly solidify at least a 5mm axial portion of a 1 centimeter diameter molten aluminum sample in significantly less than the required 2 seconds and prevent significant backmelt. This paper presents the furnace requirements and capabilities and a status of the associated development testing and analyses.

  10. INSERTION DEVICES R AND Ds FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SHAFTAN, T.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    NSLS-II is a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also for broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based Elliptically Polarized Undulators (EPUs) are for polarization control. Rigorous R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the above devices as well as building new types of insertion devices such as high temperature superconducting wiggler/undulators. This paper describes the details of these activities and discuss technical issues.

  11. The interaction of hybrid nanoparticles inserted within surfactant bilayers

    E-print Network

    Doru Constantin

    2015-04-06

    We determine by small-angle x-ray scattering the structure factor of hydrophobic particles inserted within lamellar surfactant phases for various particle concentrations. The data are then analyzed by numerically solving the Ornstein-Zernicke equation, taking into account both the intra- and interlayer interactions. We find that particles within the same layer repel each other and that the interaction potential (taken as independent of the concentration) has a contact value of 2.2 k$_{\\text{B}}$T and a range of about 10 {\\AA}. If the amplitude is allowed to decrease with increasing concentration, the contact value in the dilute limit is about 5 k$_{\\text{B}}$T for a similar range.

  12. Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil, Sol 46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), at the end of the Robotic Arm, on the 46th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 11, 2008).

    The TECP is inserted at a site called Vestri, which was monitored several times over the course of the mission. The probe's measurements at this site yielded evidence that water was exchanged, daily and seasonally, between the soil and atmosphere.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Amyloid ?-peptide insertion in liposomes containing GM1-cholesterol domains.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Maria Carmela; Spigolon, Dario; Librizzi, Fabio; Moran, Oscar; Ortore, Maria Grazia; Bulone, Donatella; Biagio, Pier Luigi San; Carrotta, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal membrane damage is related to the early impairments appearing in Alzheimer's disease due to the interaction of the amyloid ?-peptide (A?) with the phospholipid bilayer. In particular, the ganglioside GM1, present with cholesterol in lipid rafts, seems to be able to initiate A? aggregation on membrane. We studied the thermodynamic and structural effects of the presence of GM1 on the interaction between A? and liposomes, a good membrane model system. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry highlighted the importance of the presence of GM1 in recruiting monomeric A? toward the lipid bilayer. Light and Small Angle X-ray Scattering revealed a different pattern for GM1 containing liposomes, both before and after interaction with A?. The results suggest that the interaction with GM1 brings to insertion of A? in the bilayer, producing a structural perturbation down to the internal layers of the liposome, as demonstrated by the obtained electron density profiles. PMID:26259785

  14. Functionalization of homodiamantane: oxygen insertion reactions without rearrangement with dimethyldioxirane.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Andrey A; Zhuk, Tatyana S; Pashenko, Alexander E; Osipov, Valeriy V; Gunchenko, Pavel A; Serafin, Michael; Schreiner, Peter R

    2014-02-21

    Homodiamantane bromination and nitroxylation are accompanied by contraction of the seven-membered ring to give the corresponding substituted 1-diamantylmethyl derivatives. In contrast, CH-bond hydroxylations with dimethyldioxirane retain the cage and give both apically and medially substituted homodiamantanes. The product ratios are in accord with the barriers for the oxygen insertion computed with density functional theory methods only if solvation is included through a polarizable continuum model. B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X computations with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set on the oligomeric van der Waals complexes predict the potential of homodiamantane derivatives for surface modifications with conformationally slightly flexible diamondoid homologues. PMID:24433143

  15. Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

  16. A Digital Preclinical PET/MRI Insert and Initial Results.

    PubMed

    Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Dueppenbecker, Peter M; Wehner, Jakob; Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph W; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Salomon, Andre; Verel, Iris; Heijman, Edwin; Perkuhn, Michael; Heberling, Dirk; Botnar, Rene M; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2015-11-01

    Combining Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results in a promising hybrid molecular imaging modality as it unifies the high sensitivity of PET for molecular and cellular processes with the functional and anatomical information from MRI. Digital Silicon Photomultipliers (dSiPMs) are the digital evolution in scintillation light detector technology and promise high PET SNR. DSiPMs from Philips Digital Photon Counting (PDPC) were used to develop a preclinical PET/RF gantry with 1-mm scintillation crystal pitch as an insert for clinical MRI scanners. With three exchangeable RF coils, the hybrid field of view has a maximum size of 160 mm × 96.6 mm (transaxial × axial). 0.1 ppm volume-root-mean-square B 0-homogeneity is kept within a spherical diameter of 96 mm (automatic volume shimming). Depending on the coil, MRI SNR is decreased by 13% or 5% by the PET system. PET count rates, energy resolution of 12.6% FWHM, and spatial resolution of 0.73 mm (3) (isometric volume resolution at isocenter) are not affected by applied MRI sequences. PET time resolution of 565 ps (FWHM) degraded by 6 ps during an EPI sequence. Timing-optimized settings yielded 260 ps time resolution. PET and MR images of a hot-rod phantom show no visible differences when the other modality was in operation and both resolve 0.8-mm rods. Versatility of the insert is shown by successfully combining multi-nuclei MRI ( (1)H/(19)F) with simultaneously measured PET ( (18) F-FDG). A longitudinal study of a tumor-bearing mouse verifies the operability, stability, and in vivo capabilities of the system. Cardiac- and respiratory-gated PET/MRI motion-capturing (CINE) images of the mouse heart demonstrate the advantage of simultaneous acquisition for temporal and spatial image registration. PMID:25935031

  17. Avoiding Anomalous Tendon Harvest at the Pes Anserinus Insertion.

    PubMed

    Cidambi, Krishna R; Pennock, Andrew T; Dwek, Jerry R; Edmonds, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and characteristics of anomalous pes anserinus tendon morphology in an adolescent population undergoing knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. The records of all children who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery at our tertiary care children's hospital from June 2008 through February 2012 were reviewed. Operative reports were reviewed for any indication that an anomaly existed in the pes anserinus or that there was difficulty harvesting the required tendons. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were then reviewed for these patients looking for evidence of any anomaly within the pes anserinus structures. Retrospective review was performed on 123 children (mean age, 16.1 years). Three girls (mean age, 16.2 years) were identified as having a low-lying muscle belly and accessory tendon when attempting to harvest the gracilis tendon. Proximal exploration of this short tendon conjoining the gracilis insertion revealed a muscle belly approximately 5 cm from its insertion in the pes anserinus. This anomaly was present in 2.4% of the cases. Based on previous literature, the anomalous muscle present in our cohort could be sartorius or semimembranosus. MRI analysis suggests that the accessory muscle and tendon could be an aberrant strip of the semimembranosus tendon, an anomalous tendon and muscle belly of the gracilis, or a thickening and separation of the sartorius tendon. Anomalous pes anserinus tendons were found to exist in 2.4% of our adolescent study population. At the time of surgery, if a tendon is harvested with a very low-lying muscle belly (with less than 6 cm of tendon), then the presence of an aberrant tendon should be considered. Preoperative MRI may provide evidence of an anomalous tendon if that information is sought. PMID:25556897

  18. Natural variation in genome architecture among 205 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel lines

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Massouras, Andreas; Inoue, Yutaka; Peiffer, Jason; Rŕmia, Miquel; Tarone, Aaron M.; Turlapati, Lavanya; Zichner, Thomas; Zhu, Dianhui; Lyman, Richard F.; Magwire, Michael M.; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Carbone, Mary Anna; Chang, Kyle; Ellis, Lisa L.; Fernandez, Sonia; Han, Yi; Highnam, Gareth; Hjelmen, Carl E.; Jack, John R.; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Kalra, Divya; Lee, Sandy; Lewis, Lora; Munidasa, Mala; Ongeri, Fiona; Patel, Shohba; Perales, Lora; Perez, Agapito; Pu, LingLing; Rollmann, Stephanie M.; Ruth, Robert; Saada, Nehad; Warner, Crystal; Williams, Aneisa; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Zhang, Yiqing; Zhu, Yiming; Anholt, Robert R.H.; Korbel, Jan O.; Mittelman, David; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Barbadilla, Antonio; Johnston, J. Spencer; Stone, Eric A.; Richards, Stephen; Deplancke, Bart; Mackay, Trudy F.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) is a community resource of 205 sequenced inbred lines, derived to improve our understanding of the effects of naturally occurring genetic variation on molecular and organismal phenotypes. We used an integrated genotyping strategy to identify 4,853,802 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1,296,080 non-SNP variants. Our molecular population genomic analyses show higher deletion than insertion mutation rates and stronger purifying selection on deletions. Weaker selection on insertions than deletions is consistent with our observed distribution of genome size determined by flow cytometry, which is skewed toward larger genomes. Insertion/deletion and single nucleotide polymorphisms are positively correlated with each other and with local recombination, suggesting that their nonrandom distributions are due to hitchhiking and background selection. Our cytogenetic analysis identified 16 polymorphic inversions in the DGRP. Common inverted and standard karyotypes are genetically divergent and account for most of the variation in relatedness among the DGRP lines. Intriguingly, variation in genome size and many quantitative traits are significantly associated with inversions. Approximately 50% of the DGRP lines are infected with Wolbachia, and four lines have germline insertions of Wolbachia sequences, but effects of Wolbachia infection on quantitative traits are rarely significant. The DGRP complements ongoing efforts to functionally annotate the Drosophila genome. Indeed, 15% of all D. melanogaster genes segregate for potentially damaged proteins in the DGRP, and genome-wide analyses of quantitative traits identify novel candidate genes. The DGRP lines, sequence data, genotypes, quality scores, phenotypes, and analysis and visualization tools are publicly available. PMID:24714809

  19. Flow line sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, Colin I. (San Antonio, TX)

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  20. Coherent soliton communication lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushko, O. V.; Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  3. PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT RIGHT) ON GENTLE TERRACE SLOPE. A LINE POLE 75A (LEFT FOREGROUND) HAS ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  4. Analysis of time to failure of orthodontic mini-implants after insertion or loading

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong-Wha; Lee, Nam-Ki; Kim, Young-Kyun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to evaluate patterns of failure time after insertion, failure rate according to loading time after insertion, and the patterns of failure after loading. Materials and Methods A total of 331 mini-implants were classified into the non-failure group (NFG) and failure group (FG), which was divided into failed group before loading (FGB) and failed group after loading (FGA). Orthodontic force was applied to both the NFG and FGA. Failed mini-implants after insertion, ratio of FGA to NFG according to loading time after insertion, and failed mini-implants according to failed time after loading were analyzed. Results Percentages of failed mini-implants after insertion were 15.79%, 36.84%, 12.28%, and 10.53% at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively. Mini-implant failure demonstrated a peak from 4 to 5 weeks after insertion. The failure rates according to loading time after insertion were 13.56%, 8.97%, 11.32%, and 5.00% at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively. Percentages of failed mini-implants after loading were 13.79%, 24.14%, 20.69%, and 6.9% at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively. Conclusion Mini-implant stability is typically acquired 12 to 16 weeks after insertion, and immediate loading can cause failure of the mini-implant. Failure after loading was observed during the first 12 weeks. PMID:26568925

  5. Retroviral gene insertion in breast milk mediated lymphomagenesis Joana Chakraborty a,

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Retroviral gene insertion in breast milk mediated lymphomagenesis Joana Chakraborty a, , Henry Leukemia Virus Breast milk Mother-to-pup viral transmission Lymphoma Viral insertion sites Gene expression We have demonstrated breast milk transmitted MoMuLV-ts1 retrovirus infection and subsequent lymphoma

  6. Non-Insertional Code-Switching in English-Japanese Bilingual Children: Alternation and Congruent Lexicalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namba, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates English-Japanese children's code-switching (CS) from the structural point of view. Muysken categorises it into three types, that is, insertion, alternation and congruent lexicalisation. Regarding insertion, using Myers-Scotton's matrix language frame (MLF) model, for example, the matrix language (ML) of a bilingual clause…

  7. Optimal head rotation and puncture site for internal jugular vein cannulation after laryngeal mask airway insertion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Ho; Gwak, Mi Sook; Choi, Soo Joo; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We studied the effect of head rotation on the relative position of the right common carotid artery (CCA) and the right internal jugular vein (IJV) in patients with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion to evaluate the accuracy of anatomical landmarks for right IJV cannulation. METHODS We simulated needle insertion to the right IJV on sonograms via the central landmark approach and an approach using the external jugular vein, in patients with LMA insertion (n = 50) or endotracheal intubation (E-tube, n = 50). Overlap index and successful simulation rates were measured according to the different degrees of head rotation. RESULTS The overlap index between the right CCA and the right IJV increased with greater degrees of head rotation. It was significantly greater in the LMA insertion group than in the E-tube group in the following head rotation positions: neutral, 15° and 45°. The success rate of the simulation was lower in the LMA insertion group than in the E-tube group. In the LMA insertion group, the success rate of the simulation was highest (62%) with the central landmark approach and in the 15° head rotation position. CONCLUSION In the LMA insertion group, the overlap index increased incrementally with greater head rotation degrees (from neutral to 45°). The central landmark approach and 15° head rotation position appear to be the optimal puncture site and degree of head rotation for right IJV cannulation in patients with LMA insertion. PMID:25902718

  8. Fast Energy Loss Computation and Fuzzy-Based Shunt Capacitor Insertion

    E-print Network

    Fast Energy Loss Computation and Fuzzy-Based Shunt Capacitor Insertion Dr. W. F. Mohammad, Dr. N power, reactive power, load voltage, load current, power factor, and the shunt capacitors current. It is found that when 2.7 MVAR bank capacitor is inserted in the network the load current is decreased from

  9. Minimum Decoupling Capacitor Insertion in VLSI Power/Ground Supply Networks by Semidefinite

    E-print Network

    Liu, Bao

    1 Minimum Decoupling Capacitor Insertion in VLSI Power/Ground Supply Networks by Semidefinite-scale VLSI design demands reliable on- chip power/ground (P/G) supply. Decoupling capacitors effec- tively decoupling capacitor insertion techniques are based on sensitivity analysis and greedy optimization

  10. Radiographic study on the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament?

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Esquerdo, Paulo; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the radiographic distances from posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial insertions centers to the lateral and medial tibial cortex in the anteroposterior view, and from these centers to the PCL facet most proximal point on the lateral view, in order to guide anatomical tunnels drilling in PCL reconstruction and for tunnel positioning postoperative analysis. Study design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty cadaver knees were evaluated. The PCL's bundles tibial insertions were identified and marked out using metal tags, and the knees were radiographed. On these radiographs, the bundles insertion sites center location relative to the tibial mediolateral measure, and the distances from the most proximal PCL facet point to the bundle's insertion were determined. All measures were calculated using the ImageJ software. Results On the anteroposterior radiographs, the mean distance from the anterolateral (AL) bundle insertion center to the medial tibial edge was 40.68 ± 4.10 mm; the mean distance from the posteromedial (PM) bundle insertion center to the medial tibial edge was 38.74 ± 4.40 mm. On the lateral radiographs, the mean distances from the PCL facet most proximal point to AL and PM bundles insertion centers were 5.49 ± 1.29 mm and 10.53 ± 2.17 mm respectively. Conclusions It was possible to establish a radiographic pattern for PCL tibial bundles insertions, which may be useful for intraoperative tunnels locations control and for postoperative tunnels positions analysis. PMID:26229941

  11. Research on impact behaviour and silicon insert fracture phenomenon in microinjection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Lv, Zhi-bin; Wang, Lin-gang; Jiang, Kai-yu; Ji, Zhi; Liu, Chong; Liu, Jun-shan

    2015-04-01

    Silicon insert is a promising tool for microinjection moulding (MIM). However, its fracture problem induced by impact in MIM creates a bottleneck for application. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact behaviour in MIM and the effect on the fracture of silicon inserts. The finite element method is utilised to calculate the crack propagation of silicon inserts with pressure load and thermal load in the MIM process. The simulation result shows that the crack propagation is more easily induced by the increase of pressure load, while the temperature change has little effect on the crack propagation. An experimental platform, including a novel rotatable insert mould, is developed to investigate the dynamic pressure in the MIM process. The result shows that both the maximum pressure and the maximum loading rate occur in the initial period of MIM process. It indicates that the silicon insert is more prone to fracture at the beginning of the MIM process, and spatial pressure peaks are observed in the cavity as well. The nearly consistent distribution between the peak positions and the insert fracture zones shows that the pressure distribution is quite relevant to the fracture of the silicon insert. The result is helpful because it reveals the fracture phenomenon of silicon inserts.

  12. INSERTION-LOSS MEASUREMENT ACCURACY FOR FIBER-OPTIC COMPONENTS AN ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    INSERTION-LOSS MEASUREMENT ACCURACY FOR FIBER-OPTIC COMPONENTS ­ AN ANALYSIS Christopher T. Allen Ralph D. Taylor James R. Stone DIT-MCO International #12;INSERTION-LOSS MEASUREMENT ACCURACY FOR FIBER-OPTIC Road Lawrence, KS 66045 callen@eecs.ku.edu 785-864-3017 RALPH D. TAYLOR Director of Engineering DIT

  13. Following Natures Lead: On the Construction of Membrane-Inserted Toxins in Lipid Bilayer Nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Akkaladevi, Narahari; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Katayama, Hiroo; Janowiak, Blythe; Patel, Deepa; Gogol, Edward P; Pentelute, Bradley L; John Collier, R; Fisher, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial toxin or viral entry into the cell often requires cell surface binding and endocytosis. The endosomal acidification induces a limited unfolding/refolding and membrane insertion reaction of the soluble toxins or viral proteins into their translocation competent or membrane inserted states. At the molecular level, the specific orientation and immobilization of the pre-transitioned toxin on the cell surface is often an important prerequisite prior to cell entry. We propose that structures of some toxin membrane insertion complexes may be observed through procedures where one rationally immobilizes the soluble toxin so that potential unfolding ? refolding transitions that occur prior to membrane insertion orientate away from the immobilization surface in the presence of lipid micelle pre-nanodisc structures. As a specific example, the immobilized prepore form of the anthrax toxin pore translocon or protective antigen can be transitioned, inserted into a model lipid membrane (nanodiscs), and released from the immobilized support in its membrane solubilized form. This particular strategy, although unconventional, is a useful procedure for generating pure membrane-inserted toxins in nanodiscs for electron microscopy structural analysis. In addition, generating a similar immobilized platform on label-free biosensor surfaces allows one to observe the kinetics of these acid-induced membrane insertion transitions. These platforms can facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that specifically target the toxin membrane insertion transitions that occur during endosomal acidification. This approach may lead to a new class of direct anti-toxin inhibitors. PMID:25578459

  14. pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) targets ischemic myocardium

    E-print Network

    pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) targets ischemic myocardium Eugene A. Sosunova , Evgeny P by Donald M. Engelman, November 16, 2012 (sent for review July 30, 2012) The pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) family enables targeting of cells in tissues with low extracellular pH. Here, we show that ischemic

  15. TEST RESULTS FOR INITIAL PRODUCTION OF LHC INSERTION REGION DIPOLE MAGNETS*

    E-print Network

    Large Hadron Collider Program

    TEST RESULTS FOR INITIAL PRODUCTION OF LHC INSERTION REGION DIPOLE MAGNETS* J. F. Muratore , M The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is making and testing 20 insertion region dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These 9.45 m-long, 8 cm aperture magnets have

  16. Specific insertions of zinc finger domains into Gag-Pol yield engineered retroviral vectors

    E-print Network

    Specific insertions of zinc finger domains into Gag-Pol yield engineered retroviral vectors properties. We found seven permissive zinc finger domain (ZFD) insertion sites throughout Gag-Pol, including sequence-specific DNA-binding domains--includ- ing the Sp1 zinc finger domain (ZFD), the DNA-binding domain

  17. Utilization of next generation sequencing for analyzing transgenic insertions in plum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When utilizing transgenic plants, it is useful to know how many copies of the genes were inserted and the locations of these insertions in the genome. This information can provide important insights for the interpretation of transgene expression and the resulting phenotype. Traditionally, these qu...

  18. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  19. RJPrimers: unique transposable element insertion junction discovery and PCR primer design for marker development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transposable elements (TE) exist in the genomes of nearly all eukaryotes. TE mobilization through “cut-and-paste” or “copy-and-paste” mechanisms causes their insertions into other repetitive sequences, gene loci, and other DNA. An insertion of a TE produces a junction consisting of the TE-end sequen...

  20. Abstract--Cochlear electrode insertion is a challenging manual procedure. One technique requires the physician to

    E-print Network

    , 16, 18, 24, 25]. Modern cochlear implant systems have an external sound processing unitAbstract--Cochlear electrode insertion is a challenging manual procedure. One technique requires insertion because the electrode must travel through a small-diameter drilled hole to reach the cochlear

  1. Joint Effect of Insertion of Spaces and Word Length in Saccade Target Selection in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xingshan; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how insertion of spaces before and after a word affects saccade target selection in Chinese reading. We found that inserting spaces in Chinese text changes the eye movement behaviour of Chinese readers. They are less likely to fixate on the character near the space and will try their best to process the entire word with…

  2. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  3. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R. (Tracy, CA); Watwood, Donald B. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  4. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  5. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  6. Advancing Line of Skirmish 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The current project addresses the productivity improvement of a manual assembly line by making use of operations analysis in the framework of Lean production. A methodology is proposed that helps to improve the productivity of any production process...

  7. Line, Shape, Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project used with beginning high school art students that teaches them about continuous line drawing. Explains that the students create portraits of themselves, or another student, using glue, black construction paper, and chalk. (CMK)

  8. Veterans Crisis Line

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs Resources Educational Materials Spread the Word Veterans Crisis Line One small act can make a difference. ... Veterans and Service members who may be in crisis, and spread the word about The Power of ...

  9. Insert Design and Manufacturing for Foam-Core Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, Alan

    Sandwich structures have been used in the aerospace industry for many years. The high strength to weight ratios that are possible with sandwich constructions makes them desirable for airframe applications. While sandwich structures are effective at handling distributed loads such as aerodynamic forces, they are prone to damage from concentrated loads at joints or due to impact. This is due to the relatively thin face-sheets and soft core materials typically found in sandwich structures. Carleton University's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project Team has designed and manufactured a UAV (GeoSury II Prototype) which features an all composite sandwich structure fuselage structure. The purpose of the aircraft is to conduct geomagnetic surveys. The GeoSury II Prototype serves as the test bed for many areas of research in advancing UAV technologies. Those areas of research include: low cost composite materials manufacturing, geomagnetic data acquisition, obstacle detection, autonomous operations and magnetic signature control. In this thesis work a methodology for designing and manufacturing inserts for foam-core sandwich structures was developed. The results of this research work enables a designer wishing to design a foam-core sandwich airframe structure, a means of quickly manufacturing optimized inserts for the safe introduction of discrete loads into the airframe. The previous GeoSury II Prototype insert designs (v.1 & v.2) were performance tested to establish a benchmark with which to compare future insert designs. Several designs and materials were considered for the new v.3 inserts. A plug and sleeve design was selected, due to its ability to effectively transfer the required loads to the sandwich structure. The insert material was chosen to be epoxy, reinforced with chopped carbon fibre. This material was chosen for its combination of strength, low mass and also compatibility with the face-sheet material. The v.3 insert assembly is 60% lighter than the previous insert designs. A casting process for manufacturing the v.3 inserts was developed. The developed casting process, when producing more than 13 inserts, becomes more economical than machining. An exploratory study was conducted looking at the effects of dynamic loading on the v.3 insert performance. The results of this study highlighted areas for improving dynamic testing of foam-core sandwich structure inserts. Correlations were developed relating design variables such as face-sheet thickness and insert diameter to a failure load for different load cases. This was done through simulations using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software, and experimental testing. The resulting correlations were integrated into a computer program which outputs the required insert dimensions given a set of design parameters, and load values.

  10. Insertion of non-intron sequence into maize introns interferes with splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Luehrsen, K R; Walbot, V

    1992-01-01

    Transposable element (TE) insertion into or near plant introns can cause intron skipping and alternative splicing events, resulting in reduced expression. To explore the impact of inserted sequences on splicing, we added non-intron sequence to two maize introns and tested these chimeric introns in a maize transient expression assay. Non-intron sequence inserted into Adh1-S intron 1 and actin intron 3 decreased expression from the luciferase reporter gene; the insertion sites tested were not in intron regions thought to be essential for splicing. Alternatively spliced mRNAs were not observed in transcripts derived from the insertion variants. In contrast, addition of an internal segment of an intron to Adh1-S intron 1 resulted in normal splice site selection and efficient processing. Because the normal intron sequence (including the conserved splice junctions) was retained in all constructs, we hypothesize that added non-intron sequence can interfere with intron recognition and/or splicing. Images PMID:1383942

  11. 3D hotspots of recurrent retroviral insertions reveal long-range interactions with cancer genes

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Sepideh; Akhtar, Waseem; de Jong, Johann; Reinders, Marcel; de Ridder, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Genomically distal mutations can contribute to the deregulation of cancer genes by engaging in chromatin interactions. To study this, we overlay viral cancer-causing insertions obtained in a murine retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen with genome-wide chromatin conformation capture data. Here we find that insertions tend to cluster in 3D hotspots within the nucleus. The identified hotspots are significantly enriched for known cancer genes, and bear the expected characteristics of bona fide regulatory interactions, such as enrichment for transcription factor-binding sites. In addition, we observe a striking pattern of mutual exclusive integration. This is an indication that insertions in these loci target the same gene, either in their linear genomic vicinity or in their 3D spatial vicinity. Our findings shed new light on the repertoire of targets obtained from insertional mutagenesis screening and underline the importance of considering the genome as a 3D structure when studying effects of genomic perturbations. PMID:25721899

  12. Resonant Transmission of Air-Coupled Ultrasound Through Metallic Inserts in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.J.; Barnard, D.J.; Hsu, D.K.; Dayal, V.

    2005-04-09

    Metallic inserts are embedded into composite honeycomb sandwiches as hard points for mechanical connections. Air-coupled ultrasound can be used for detecting disbonds between the insert and the facesheet. It was discovered in such inspections that a surprisingly large amplitude could be transmitted through thick metallic inserts (e.g. 0.75'' thick and 1.5'' diameter), whereas a thin plate of the same material will transmit a much weaker signal. This paper reports an experimental and analytic study of the geometrical effect of inserts on transmitted UT signals. Modal analyses of cylindrical inserts were made using the finite element code ANSYS. The transmission efficiency or air-coupled ultrasound correlated well with the longitudinal vibration mode of the cylinder.

  13. Expression of Wheat High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Bx Is Affected by Large Insertions and Deletions Located in the Upstream Flanking Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chenyang; Tang, Saijun; Zhang, Xueyong; Li, Tian

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the transcriptional regulation of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) expression, we isolated four Glu-1Bx promoters from six wheat cultivars exhibiting diverse protein expression levels. The activities of the diverse Glu-1Bx promoters were tested and compared with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusions. Although all the full-length Glu-1Bx promoters showed endosperm-specific activities, the strongest GUS activity was observed with the 1Bx7OE promoter in both transient expression assays and stable transgenic rice lines. A 43 bp insertion in the 1Bx7OE promoter, which is absent in the 1Bx7 promoter, led to enhanced expression. Analysis of promoter deletion constructs confirmed that a 185 bp MITE (miniature inverted-repeat transposable element) in the 1Bx14 promoter had a weak positive effect on Glu-1Bx expression, and a 54 bp deletion in the 1Bx13 promoter reduced endosperm-specific activity. To investigate the effect of the 43 bp insertion in the 1Bx7OE promoter, a functional marker was developed to screen 505 Chinese varieties and 160 European varieties, and only 1Bx7-type varieties harboring the 43 bp insertion in their promoters showed similar overexpression patterns. Hence, the 1Bx7OE promoter should be important tool in crop genetic engineering as well as in molecular assisted breeding. PMID:25133580

  14. Bacteriostatic normal saline compared with buffered 1% lidocaine when injected intradermally as a local anesthetic to reduce pain during intravenous catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Deguzman, Zenaida C; O'Mara, Susan K; Sulo, Suela; Haines, Therese; Blackburn, Lindsay; Corazza, Judy

    2012-12-01

    Pain associated with intravenous (IV) catheter insertion commonly causes fear and anxiety in presurgical patients. To reduce pain, a common procedure is intradermal injection of a local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in a patient's pain level after intradermal injection and IV catheter insertion when comparing intradermally injected bacteriostatic normal saline with 0.9% benzyl alcohol (a preservative added with an anesthetic component) with buffered 1% lidocaine to numb the IV line site. Using a double-blinded experimental design, 376 patients were randomly assigned to a bacteriostatic normal saline group or buffered 1% lidocaine group. Patients were given two needle sticks but rated only one pain score of either post-intradermal or post-IV injection using a 10-point numeric rating scale. A statistically significant difference was found in the IV pain scores, with subjects who received buffered 1% lidocaine reporting less pain than those who received bacteriostatic normal saline (P=.025). However, no significant difference was found in the intradermal pain scores (P=.792). Females reported higher IV pain scores than males only in the buffered 1% lidocaine group (P=.001). No statistically significant differences were found between the two anesthetics with intradermal and IV pain scores for IV placement side, site, IV within 30 days, needle gauge, previous IV experience or problems, vein visibility, or study nurse. This study determined that buffered 1% lidocaine was more effective than bacteriostatic normal saline in reducing pain during IV catheter insertion. PMID:23164205

  15. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. In-band insertion of RoF LTE Services in OOK based PON's using line coding techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljoghei, Arsalan; Browning, Colm; Barry, Liam P.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the creation of multiple spectral nulls, in a 10 Gb/s On Off Keyed signal with the help of encoders with inherent DC-balanced and minimum-bandwidth properties. Within a hybrid wired/wireless PON architecture, these generated nulls are subsequently used to transmit a wireless signal with 20 MHz of bandwidth carrying Long Term Evolution (LTE) service. The level of interference experienced on both the wired 10 G signal and the wireless signal was studied for various wireless power levels and the encoding order. Results show significant system performance enhancements due to the reduction of interference, which had been achieved by encoding the baseband data signal. Finally numerical simulations are employed to elaborate on performance of the encoded system.

  17. Robot-guided open-loop insertion of skew-line needle arrangements for high dose rate brachytherapy

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    Robotic system for prostate brachytherapy,” Computer Aided Surgery,robotic system for mri-guided prostate needle placement,” The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery,robotic fd-ct-guided navigation system for needle placementpreliminary accuracy tests,” The Interna- tional Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery,

  18. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  19. [Damping inserts have no load reducing effect in the fatigued state].

    PubMed

    Melnyk, M; Gollhofer, A

    2008-09-01

    Overload injuries to the lower limbs may be attributed to repetitive, non-physiological load stimuli. However, these impact loads acting on the musculoskeletal can be reduced by wearing damping inserts. To date, however, there is only little evidence as to whether this positive effect can be assigned to the damping insert and, furthermore, whether this effect is detectable in states of muscle fatigue. Therefore, the influence of muscle fatigue in combination with the wearing of damping inserts was investigated in 13 subjects. The parameters examined in this study were ground reaction forces during walking and the muscular activation profile of the lower limb in the phase of initial ground contact. The results showed that neither in comparisons with and without damping inserts nor in states of muscular fatigue could significant differences were found in the ground reaction forces. Wereas, no significant differences could be detected in the investigated muscles, with and without damping inserts, preactivation in the peroneal and biceps femoris muscles were significantly earlier, in states of muscular fatigue with damping inserts, while no changes could be found in the anterior tibial, soleus, vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscles. The present results demonstrate that wearing damping inserts does not lead to a positive effect with regard to a reduction of the ground reaction forces. The earlier preactivation in the case of muscle fatigue with a damping insert is indicative of an increased energy expenditure which may be possibly associated with increased knee and ankle joint control. The high satisfaction concerning the comfort of wearing such inserts revealed by a questionnaire did not correlate with a reduction in loading condition. On the basis of the present results we cannot recommend the wearing of damping soft sole inserts in the context of a reduction in load condition. PMID:18814060

  20. The Insert Region of Rac1 Is Essential for Membrane Ruffling but Not Cellular Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Karnoub, Antoine E.; Der, Channing J.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2001-01-01

    The Rho family of Ras-related proteins, which includes Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42, is distinguished from other members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases in that its members possess additional sequences positioned between ?-strand 5 and ?-helix 4, designated the insert region. Previous studies have established the importance of an intact insert region for the transforming, but not actin cytoskeletal reorganization, activities of Cdc42 and RhoA. Similarly, the insert region was determined to be essential for Rac1-mediated mitogenesis. Additionally, an intact insert region was also determined to be required for the antiapoptotic activity of Rac1 as well as for Rac1 activation of reactive oxygen species and the NF-?B transcription factor. However, it has not been determined whether the insert region is important for Rac1-mediated growth transformation. In this study, we assessed the requirement for the insert region in Rac1 transformation and signaling in NIH 3T3 cells. Unexpectedly, we found that a mutant of constitutively activated Rac1 that lacked the insert region retained potent transforming activity. The insert region of Rac1 was dispensable for Rac1 stimulation of transcription from the cyclin D1 promoter and for activation of the c-Jun, NF-?B, and E2F-1 transcription factors but was essential for Rac1 induction of serum response factor activity. While an intact insert region was dispensable for inducing reactive oxygen species production in vivo, it was required for Rac1 induction of lamellipodia. When taken together, these results show that the insert region of Rac1 serves roles in regulating actin organization and cell growth that are distinct from those of the analogous regions of Cdc42 and RhoA and support its involvement in regulating specific downstream effector interactions. PMID:11283263

  1. Impact of ploidy level on the distribution of Pokey element insertions in the Daphnia pulex complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) play a major role in genome evolution. Their capacity to move and/or multiply in the genome of their host may have profound impacts on phenotypes and dramatic consequences on genome structure. The population dynamics and distribution of TEs are influenced by their mode of transposition, the availability of niches in host genomes, and host population dynamics. Theories predict an increase in the number of TE insertions following hybridization or polyploidization. Evolution of TEs in hybrids and polyploids has mostly been studied in plants; few studies have examined the impacts of hybridization and/or polyploidization on TEs in animals. Hybrids and polyploids have arisen multiple times in the Daphnia pulex complex and are thought to reproduce by obligate parthenogenesis. Our study examines the effects of ploidy level on polymorphism and number of Pokey element insertions in diploid and polyploid hybrid isolates from the Daphnia pulex complex. Results The polymorphism of Pokey insertion sites did not depend solely on either the ploidy level or the genetic background of their host; therefore, it may be the result of interactions between these parameters and other parameters such as Pokey activity, selection and/or drift. No significant effect of ploidy level was found on the number of Pokey insertions using TE display and qPCR. However, the load of Pokey insertion sites and the number of unique insertion sites were slightly (but not significantly) higher in polyploids than in diploids. Conclusions These results suggest a lack of increase in the number of Pokey insertions following polyploidization but higher availability of Pokey insertion sites in polyploids than in diploids. Compared to previous TE display and qPCR results, the load of Pokey insertions in hybrid diploids was higher than in non-hybrid sexual and asexual diploids, which suggests an increase in the density of Pokey insertions following hybridization. PMID:24382139

  2. Improving the pH-response of pHLIP insertion at tumor acidity for targeted drug delivery against cancer: Biophysical studies in model membranes and evaluations in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyango, Joab Otieno

    pH (Low) Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) possesses unique qualities that can be applied in cancer biology. It is a peptide that lives in three worlds: In State I, pHLIP exists as an unstructured monomer in solution at neutral pH; In State II, pHLIP partitions to the surface of a lipid bilayer at neutral pH; In State III, pHLIP inserts across the lipid bilayer by forming a transmembrane (TM) alpha helix under slightly acidic conditions (pH 6). These properties allow pHLIP to target acidosis (pH 6.5-7.0), a ubiquitous feature of solid tumors. Although pHLIP shows promise as a drug delivery vehicle, insertion properties such as pH50 (i.e. the pH at which 50% of pHLIP are inserted) and Hill coefficient must be tuned to improve tumor targeting and drug delivery in vivo. When TM region D14 and D25 residues were replaced with two glutamic acid residues as well as noncanonical amino acids such as alpha amino adipic acid (Aad) and gamma carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), we discovered pHLIP variants that possess a pH50 that can match tumor extracellular pH. pHLIP variants D25EE, Asp25Aad, and Asp14Gla/Asp25Aad, insert with pH50 of 6.60, 6.74, and 6.79, respectively. We also tuned pH-response (cooperativity of insertion) and we found that the Asp14Gla variant can insert into membrane with the sharpest transition observed so far for a pHLIP (i.e. over half pH unit vs. one pH unit for WT). Furthermore, we used turn-on fluorescence to evaluate the new variants in cancer cells. The most promising Asp25Aad pHLIP gave near theoretical maximum level of dequenching in cancerous A549 cells at pH 6.2 and 6.4, indicating a high level of plasma-membrane insertion. Under the same conditions, the `WT' and D25E pHLIP variants have low levels of plasma-membrane insertion in cells. Dequenching levels were low in non-cancerous HK2 cell line.

  3. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    SciTech Connect

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  4. High Precision Assembly Line Synthesis for Molecules with Tailored Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Matthew; Essafi, Stephanie; Bame, Jessica R.; Bull, Stephanie P.; Webster, Matthew P.; Balieu, Sebastien; Dale, James W.; Butts, Craig P.; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular assembly lines, where molecules undergo iterative processes involving chain elongation and functional group manipulation are hallmarks of many processes found in Nature. We have sought to emulate Nature in the development of our own molecular assembly line through iterative homologations of boronic esters. Here we report a reagent (?-lithioethyl triispopropylbenzoate) which inserts into carbon-boron bonds with exceptionally high fidelity and stereocontrol. Through repeated iteration we have converted a simple boronic ester into a complex molecule (a carbon chain with ten contiguous methyl groups) with remarkably high precision over its length, its stereochemistry and therefore its shape. Different stereoisomers were targeted and it was found that they adopted different shapes (helical/linear) according to their stereochemistry. This work should now enable scientists to rationally design and create molecules with predictable shape, which could have an impact in all areas of molecular sciences where bespoke molecules are required. PMID:25209797

  5. Broadband Uniplanar Microstrip to Slot-Line Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Simons, Rainee N.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1995-01-01

    New in line uniplanar microstrip-to-slotline transitions for MIC/MMIC and phased array slotline antenna applications are described. Such transactions are compact and suitable to be used in an open environment or inside a package or a multichip module. The transitions share the concept of using a balun which consists of two microstrip lines connected to a slotline through a pair of coupled microstrips. The transitions are studied theoretically using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique and measured experimentally using an HP8510C Network Analyzer. For a back-to-back configuration, an insertion loss of less than 1.3 dB per transition is achieved over a 40% 3-dB bandwidth with a minimum of 0.6 dB at the design frequency.

  6. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  7. Placement of Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway Is Easier than Placement of Laryngeal Tube during Manual In-Line Stabilisation of The Neck

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, R.; Nagata, O.; Kamata, K.; Yamagata, K.; Sessler, D.I.; Ozaki, M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary We compared the usefulness of the laryngeal tube (LT) with the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) in 51 patients whose necks were stabilised by manual in-line traction. After induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular block, the LT and ILMA were inserted consecutively in a randomised, crossover design. During pressure-controlled ventilation (20 cmH2O inspiratory pressure), we measured insertion attempts, time to establish positive-pressure ventilation, tidal volume, gastric insufflation, and minimum airway pressure at which gas leaked around the cuff. Data were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests; P<0.05 was considered significant. Insertion was more difficult with the LT (successful at first attempt in 16 patients) than with the ILMA (successful at first attempt in 42 patients, P<0.0001). Time required for insertion was longer for the LT (28 [23–35] sec, median [interquartile range]) than the ILMA (20 [15–25] sec, P=0.0009). Tidal volume was less for the LT (440 [290–670] ml) than the ILMA. (630 [440–750] ml, P=0.013). Minimum airway pressure at which gas leak occurred and incidence of gastric insufflation were similar with two devices. In patients whose necks were stabilised with manual in-line traction, insertion of the ILMA was easier and quicker than insertion of the LT and tidal volume was greater with the ILMA than the LT. PMID:15644005

  8. The design of test-section inserts for higher speed aeroacoustic testing in the Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E.

    1992-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal was to find test-section modifications that would allow improved aeroacoustic testing at airspeeds equal to and above the current 100 knots limit. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed drives the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis led to a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open-jet test section, and a 70 x 110 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoustic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 ft test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5-ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test-section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustics studies of large helicopter models, jets, and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs. Successful development of acoustically transparent walls, though not strictly necessary to the project, would lead to a porous-wall test section that could be substituted for any of the open-jet designs, and thereby eliminate many aerodynamic and acoustic problems characteristic of open-jet shear layers.

  9. RetroSeq: A Tool To Discover Somatic Insertion of Retrotransposons - Elena Helman, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos RetroSeq: A Tool To Discover Somatic Insertion of Retrotransposons - Elena Helman RetroSeq: A Tool To Discover Somatic Insertion of Retrotransposons - Elena Helman, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011 You

  10. Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-print Network

    ­ and red­shifted Doppler components. It is found to be easier to detect the reconnection event. 1996; Innes & T'oth 1999). They suggest the blue­ and red­shifted Doppler compo­ nents observed during in the various emission lines as strongly Doppler­shifted components as the stratification increases. We predict

  11. Fast, completely reversible li insertion in vanadium pentoxide nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Twesten, Ray D; Jarausch, Konrad; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Cui, Yi

    2007-02-01

    Layered-structure nanoribbons with efficient electron transport and short lithium ion insertion lengths are promising candidates for Li battery applications. Here we studied at the single nanostructure level the chemical, structural, and electrical transformations of V2O5 nanoribbons. We found that transformation of V2O5 into the omega-Li3V2O5 phase depends not only on the width but also the thickness of the nanoribbons. Transformation can take place within 10 s in thin nanoribbons, suggesting a Li diffusion constant 3 orders of magnitude faster than in bulk materials, resulting in a significant increase in battery power density (360 C power rate). For the first time, complete delithiation of omega-Li3V2O5 back to the single-crystalline, pristine V2O5 nanoribbon was observed, indicating a 30% higher energy density. These new observations are attributed to the ability of facile strain relaxation and phase transformation at the nanoscale. In addition, efficient electronic transport can be maintained to charge a Li3V2O5 nanoribbon within less than 5 s. These exciting nanosize effects can be exploited to fabricate high-performance Li batteries for applications in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. PMID:17256918

  12. Cholesterol level in non-insertional Achilles tendonopathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dishan

    2015-12-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia is an autosomal dominant disease, with a prevalence of 1 in 500, where lipid deposits occur in the skin, tendons (particularly Achilles tendon) and arteries. It has a high risk of early coronary artery disease and mortality but is treatable with cholesterol lowering strategies if patients are diagnosed early. Studies in patients attending lipid clinics have shown that half the patients may have suffered from Achilles tendon symptoms 20 years earlier and it has been proposed that all patients presenting with Achilles tendon pain should have a serum cholesterol test. All consecutive patients seen in an adult foot and ankle clinic with non-insertional Achilles tendonopathy between April 2012 and March 2014 had their serum cholesterol measured. Only one patient in 83 (p=0.19) was diagnosed with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia but 3 relatives of the proband patient were also diagnosed by cascade testing. Measurement of cholesterol in all patients presenting with achillodynia does not seem to be justified but the literature suggests that it should probably be considered in patients with bilateral extensive disease or those who give a history of intermittent episodes of severe pain lasting a few days. PMID:26275912

  13. DNA and lipid bilayers: self-assembly and insertion

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Syma; Bond, Peter J.; Holyoake, John; Hawtin, Robert W.; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2008-01-01

    DNA–lipid complexes are of biomedical importance as delivery vectors for gene therapy. To gain insight into the interactions of DNA with zwitterionic and cationic (dimyristoyltrimethylammonium propane (DMTAP)) lipids, we have used coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the self-assembly of DPPC and DPPC/DMTAP lipid bilayers in the presence of a DNA dodecamer. We observed the spontaneous formation of lipid bilayers from initial systems containing randomly placed lipids, water–counterions and DNA. In both the DPPC and DPPC/DMTAP simulations, the DNA molecule is located at the water–lipid headgroup interface, lying approximately parallel to the plane of the bilayer. We have also calculated the potential of mean force for transferring a DNA dodecamer through a DPPC/DMTAP bilayer. A high energetic barrier to DNA insertion into the hydrophobic core of the bilayer is observed. The DNA adopts a transmembrane orientation only in this region. Local bilayer deformation in the vicinity of the DNA molecule is observed, largely as a result of the DNA–DMTAP headgroup attraction. PMID:18765335

  14. Anti-Rotation Device Releasable by Insertion of a Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Harry K.; Jenkins, Terro J.

    2011-01-01

    A drive mechanism enables a socket-type wrench to rotate a shaft and prevents accidental rotation of the shaft when the wrench is not coupled to the shaft. In the original intended application, the shaft would be part of an attachment mechanism on a spacecraft, and the purpose to be served by the drive is to prevent back-driving of the shaft by launch vibrations while enabling an astronaut equipped with the appropriate wrench to actuate the shaft while in orbit. The design could also be adapted to terrestrial applications in which it is necessary to prevent rotational back-driving. The mechanism includes a gear near the tip of the shaft, and a drive nut that constitutes the tip of the shaft. The gear and drive nut are positioned in a recess in a housing. The recess is sized to receive the wrench socket that mates with the drive nut. Also contained in the housing are four linkages that include pins that are spring-loaded into engagement with the gear to prevent rotation of the shaft. When the wrench socket is inserted in the recess, it pushes on the linkages in such a manner as to disengage the pins from the gear.

  15. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis") which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI) healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT) healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed. PMID:20727196

  16. The canonical pathway for selenocysteine insertion is dispensable in Trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Eric; Palioura, Sotiria; Pusnik, Mascha; Marazzi, Janine; Lieberman, Allyson; Ullu, Elisabetta; Söll, Dieter; Schneider, André

    2009-03-31

    The micronutrient selenium is found in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid cotranslationally inserted in response to a UGA codon. In vitro studies in archaea and mouse showed that Sec-tRNA(Sec) formation is a 3-step process starting with serylation of tRNA(Sec) by seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS), phosphorylation of serine to form phosphoserine (Sep)-tRNA(Sec) by phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase (PSTK), and conversion to Sec-tRNA(Sec) by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase (SepSecS). However, a complete study of eukaryotic selenoprotein synthesis has been lacking. Here, we present an analysis of Sec-tRNA(Sec) formation in the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma brucei in vivo. Null mutants of either PSTK or SepSecS abolished selenoprotein synthesis, demonstrating the essentiality of both enzymes for Sec-tRNA(Sec) formation. Growth of the 2 knockout strains was not impaired; thus, unlike mammals, trypanosomes do not require selenoproteins for viability. Analysis of conditional RNAi strains showed that SerRS, selenophosphate synthase, and the Sec-specific elongation factor, EFSec, are also essential for selenoprotein synthesis. These results with T. brucei imply that eukaryotes have a single pathway of Sec-tRNA(Sec) synthesis that requires Sep-tRNA(Sec) as an intermediate. PMID:19279205

  17. The canonical pathway for selenocysteine insertion is dispensable in Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Eric; Palioura, Sotiria; Pusnik, Mascha; Marazzi, Janine; Lieberman, Allyson; Ullu, Elisabetta; Söll, Dieter; Schneider, André

    2009-01-01

    The micronutrient selenium is found in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid cotranslationally inserted in response to a UGA codon. In vitro studies in archaea and mouse showed that Sec-tRNASec formation is a 3-step process starting with serylation of tRNASec by seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS), phosphorylation of serine to form phosphoserine (Sep)-tRNASec by phosphoseryl-tRNASec kinase (PSTK), and conversion to Sec-tRNASec by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase (SepSecS). However, a complete study of eukaryotic selenoprotein synthesis has been lacking. Here, we present an analysis of Sec-tRNASec formation in the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma brucei in vivo. Null mutants of either PSTK or SepSecS abolished selenoprotein synthesis, demonstrating the essentiality of both enzymes for Sec-tRNASec formation. Growth of the 2 knockout strains was not impaired; thus, unlike mammals, trypanosomes do not require selenoproteins for viability. Analysis of conditional RNAi strains showed that SerRS, selenophosphate synthase, and the Sec-specific elongation factor, EFSec, are also essential for selenoprotein synthesis. These results with T. brucei imply that eukaryotes have a single pathway of Sec-tRNASec synthesis that requires Sep-tRNASec as an intermediate. PMID:19279205

  18. Dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere from MIMI during Cassini's orbital insertion.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Hamilton, D C; Krupp, N; Livi, S; Roelof, E C; Dandouras, J; Armstrong, T P; Mauk, B H; Paranicas, C; Brandt, P C; Bolton, S; Cheng, A F; Choo, T; Gloeckler, G; Hayes, J; Hsieh, K C; Ip, W-H; Jaskulek, S; Keath, E P; Kirsch, E; Kusterer, M; Lagg, A; Lanzerotti, L J; Lavallee, D; Manweiler, J; McEntire, R W; Rasmuss, W; Saur, J; Turner, F S; Williams, D J; Woch, J

    2005-02-25

    The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the saturnian magnetosphere from January 2004 until Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004. The MIMI sensors observed frequent energetic particle activity in interplanetary space for several months before SOI. When the imaging sensor was switched to its energetic neutral atom (ENA) operating mode on 20 February 2004, at approximately 10(3) times Saturn's radius RS (0.43 astronomical units), a weak but persistent signal was observed from the magnetosphere. About 10 days before SOI, the magnetosphere exhibited a day-night asymmetry that varied with an approximately 11-hour periodicity. Once Cassini entered the magnetosphere, in situ measurements showed high concentrations of H+, H2+, O+, OH+, and H2O+ and low concentrations of N+. The radial dependence of ion intensity profiles implies neutral gas densities sufficient to produce high loss rates of trapped ions from the middle and inner magnetosphere. ENA imaging has revealed a radiation belt that resides inward of the D ring and is probably the result of double charge exchange between the main radiation belt and the upper layers of Saturn's exosphere. PMID:15731445

  19. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nuo; Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong; Mears, Robert J.; King Liu, Tsu-Jae

    2015-09-01

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak Gm and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at Ninv = 4.0 × 1012 cm-2 and +25% at Ninv = 8.0 × 1012 cm-2). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a "quasi barrier" region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%-60% of the mobility improvement.

  20. Velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord vessels with vasa praevia--a case report.

    PubMed

    Siminel, Mirela Ani?oara; Gheonea, Cristian; St?nescu, Mihail Relu; Com?nescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dijm?rescu, Anda Lorena; Neam?u, Simona Daniela; Cotoi, Bogdan Virgil; Nedelcu??, Ramona Mihaela; Niculescu, Elena Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Among the abnormal cord insertion pathology, velamentous cord insertion associated with rupture of vasa praevia is the most severe condition related to the outcome of the newborn. In velamentous cord insertion, the fetal vessels run freely through the fetal membranes without protection from Wharton's jelly, umbilical vessels diverging as they traverse the membranes. When the membranes are ruptured, complete tearing of fetal vessels through the torn membranes or partial rupture near the site of membrane rupture may occur. Velamentous insertion occurs in approximately 1% of singleton gestations, but is observed in as many as 15% of monochorionic twin gestations. The risk of perinatal death was doubled in pregnancies with velamentous cord insertion relative to normal cord insertion. This condition can be diagnosed by ultrasonography with a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100% in the second trimester. We report a case of a newborn who came from a velamentous cord insertion condition associated with rupture of vasa praevia after the spontaneously membranes rupture. After a difficult resuscitation and stabilization, the newborn survived with a good outcome after the follow-up. PMID:25826521

  1. Cochlear Dummy Electrodes for Insertion Training and Research Purposes: Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Kiran, Raphael; Jolly, Claude; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    To develop skills sufficient for hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery, surgeons need to perform several electrode insertion trials in ex vivo temporal bones, thereby consuming relatively expensive electrode carriers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the insertion characteristics of cochlear electrodes in a plastic scala tympani model and to fabricate radio opaque polymer filament dummy electrodes of equivalent mechanical properties. In addition, this study should aid the design and development of new cochlear electrodes. Automated insertion force measurement is a new technique to reproducibly analyze and evaluate the insertion dynamics and mechanical characteristics of an electrode. Mechanical properties of MED-EL's FLEX28, FLEX24, and FLEX20 electrodes were assessed with the help of an automated insertion tool. Statistical analysis of the overall mechanical behavior of the electrodes and factors influencing the insertion force are discussed. Radio opaque dummy electrodes of comparable characteristics were fabricated based on insertion force measurements. The platinum-iridium wires were replaced by polymer filament to provide sufficient stiffness to the electrodes and to eradicate the metallic artifacts in X-ray and computed tomography (CT) images. These low-cost dummy electrodes are cheap alternatives for surgical training and for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo research purposes. PMID:26247024

  2. Cochlear Dummy Electrodes for Insertion Training and Research Purposes: Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Kiran, Raphael; Jolly, Claude; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    To develop skills sufficient for hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery, surgeons need to perform several electrode insertion trials in ex vivo temporal bones, thereby consuming relatively expensive electrode carriers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the insertion characteristics of cochlear electrodes in a plastic scala tympani model and to fabricate radio opaque polymer filament dummy electrodes of equivalent mechanical properties. In addition, this study should aid the design and development of new cochlear electrodes. Automated insertion force measurement is a new technique to reproducibly analyze and evaluate the insertion dynamics and mechanical characteristics of an electrode. Mechanical properties of MED-EL's FLEX(28), FLEX(24), and FLEX(20) electrodes were assessed with the help of an automated insertion tool. Statistical analysis of the overall mechanical behavior of the electrodes and factors influencing the insertion force are discussed. Radio opaque dummy electrodes of comparable characteristics were fabricated based on insertion force measurements. The platinum-iridium wires were replaced by polymer filament to provide sufficient stiffness to the electrodes and to eradicate the metallic artifacts in X-ray and computed tomography (CT) images. These low-cost dummy electrodes are cheap alternatives for surgical training and for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo research purposes. PMID:26247024

  3. Insertion and pore formation driven by adsorption of proteins onto lipid bilayer membrane-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zuckermann, M J; Heimburg, T

    2001-11-01

    We describe the binding of proteins to lipid bilayers in the case for which binding can occur either by adsorption to the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface or by direct insertion into the bilayer itself. We examine in particular the case when the insertion and pore formation are driven by the adsorption process using scaled particle theory. The adsorbed proteins form a two-dimensional "surface gas" at the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface that exerts a lateral pressure on the lipid bilayer membrane. Under conditions of strong intrinsic binding and a high degree of interfacial converge, this pressure can become high enough to overcome the energy barrier for protein insertion. Under these conditions, a subtle equilibrium exists between the adsorbed and inserted proteins. We propose that this provides a control mechanism for reversible insertion and pore formation of proteins such as melittin and magainin. Next, we discuss experimental data for the binding isotherms of cytochrome c to charged lipid membranes in the light of our theory and predict that cytochrome c inserts into charged lipid bilayers at low ionic strength. This prediction is supported by titration calorimetry results that are reported here. We were furthermore able to describe the observed binding isotherms of the pore-forming peptides endotoxin (alpha 5-helix) and of pardaxin to zwitterionic vesicles from our theory by assuming adsorption/insertion equilibrium. PMID:11606262

  4. The FADE mass-stat: A technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, Matthew K.; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-02-21

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually “fades-in” (inserts) or “fades-out” (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C{sub 60} Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors.

  5. Catheter infection risk related to the distance between insertion site and burned area.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Guillermo E; Bolgiani, Alberto N; Patińo, Osvaldo; Prezzavento, Gustavo E; Guastavino, Paula; Durlach, Ricardo; Fernandez Canigia, Liliana B; Benaim, Fortunato

    2002-01-01

    A prospective observational study of central venous catheters (CVC) was carried out in order to determine if a CVC inserted near an open burn wound increases catheter infection risk in burned patients. The study was carried out during a 12-month period (1998-1999) at the Benaim Foundation's Burn Unit in Buenos Aires (C.E.P.A.Q.). Eighty-three CVCs were inserted in 20 burned patients during the study period. Twenty-six catheters were inserted near an open wound (NOW) and 57 far from an open wound (FOW). NOW CVCs were considered when 25 cm2 surrounding the catheter's insertion site overlapped the wound. Colonization rates were 84% (22/26 CVCs) in those inserted NOW and 47% (27/57 CVCs) in FOW (P = 0.001). Colonization relative risk of NOW-CVCs was 1.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.46). Bacteremia rates were 27% (7/26 CVCs) in CVCs inserted NOW and 6% (3/57 CVCs) in FOW (P = 0.004). Bacteremic risk of NOW-CVCs was 5.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-18.22). Colonization rates were higher and sooner in NOW-CVCs than in FOW-CVCs. We suggest that insertion of catheters near an open burn wound should be avoided and, if inevitable, should not be left in place for period exceeding 3 days. PMID:12142579

  6. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 32 factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water uptake of nasal inserts (at pH 2, 5.5, 7.4), bioadhesion potential of nasal inserts and in-vitro drug release at Q6h through nasal inserts. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to confirm complex formation and on loaded and unloaded nasal insert to investigate any drug excipient interaction. The nasal inserts were also characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for ex-vivo permeation studies. The results show that higher amount of xanthan in polyelectrolyte complexes with respect to higher amount of chitosan retarded in-vitro drug release. The water uptake behaviour of nasal insert was strongly influenced by pH of the medium and by polycation/ polyanion concentration. The investigation verifies the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes formation between chitosan and xanthan at pH values in the vicinity of pKa intervals of the two polymers and confirms their potential for the nasal delivery of promethazine hydrochloride. PMID:25276178

  7. Temporary partially-covered metal stent insertion in benign esophageal stricture

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Li, Ming-Hua; Chen, Wei-Xiong; Chen, Ni-Wei; Zhuang, Qi-Xin; Shang, Ke-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic efficacy of temporary partially-covered metal stent insertion on benign esophageal stricture. METHODS: Temporary partially-covered metal stent was inserted in 83 patients with benign esophageal stricture. All the patients had various dysphagia scores. RESULTS: Insertion of 85 temporary partially-covered metal stents was performed successfully in 83 patients with benign esophageal stricture and dysphagia was effectively remitted in all the 83 cases. The dysphagia score was 3.20 ± 0.63 (mean ± SD) and 0.68 ± 0.31 before and after stent insertion, and 0.86 ± 0.48 after stent removal. The mean diameter of the strictured esophageal lumen was 3.37 ± 1.23 mm and 25.77 ± 3.89 mm before and after stent insertion, and 16.15 ± 2.96 mm after stent removal. Follow-up time was from 1 week to 96 months (mean 54.26 ± 12.75 months). The complications were chest pain (n = 37) after stent insertion, and bleeding (n = 12) and reflux (n = 13) after stent removal. CONCLUSION: Temporary partially-covered metal stent insertion is one of the best methods for treatment of benign esophageal stricture. PMID:14562413

  8. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 3(2) factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water uptake of nasal inserts (at pH 2, 5.5, 7.4), bioadhesion potential of nasal inserts and in-vitro drug release at Q6h through nasal inserts. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to confirm complex formation and on loaded and unloaded nasal insert to investigate any drug excipient interaction. The nasal inserts were also characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for ex-vivo permeation studies. The results show that higher amount of xanthan in polyelectrolyte complexes with respect to higher amount of chitosan retarded in-vitro drug release. The water uptake behaviour of nasal insert was strongly influenced by pH of the medium and by polycation/ polyanion concentration. The investigation verifies the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes formation between chitosan and xanthan at pH values in the vicinity of pKa intervals of the two polymers and confirms their potential for the nasal delivery of promethazine hydrochloride. PMID:25276178

  9. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-02-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple{minus}free and ultra{minus}fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction{minus}induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  10. Implementation of a children’s hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals’ behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children’s hospital. Methods/design An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months. Discussion This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers’ willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635. Trial registration Dutch trials registry (http://www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635 PMID:24125520

  11. Structure of the core editing complex (L-complex) involved in uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    Structure of the core editing complex (L-complex) involved in uridine insertion/deletion RNA, Connecticut, and approved June 4, 2009 (received for review February 15, 2009) Uridine insertion/deletion RNA kinetoplast Leishmania trypanosome Uridine (U) insertion/deletion RNA editing is a posttran- scriptional

  12. Circumstellar radio molecular lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NGUYEN-QUANG-RIEU

    1987-01-01

    Radio molecular lines appear to be useful probes into the stellar environment. Silicon oxide masers provide information on the physical conditions in the immediate vicinity of the stellar photosphere. Valuable information on the physics operating in the envelope of IRC + 10216 was recently obtained by high sensitivity observations and detailed theoretical analyses. Infrared speckle interferometry in the molecular lines and in the continuum is helpful in the investigation of the inner region of the envelope. These techniques are discussed in terms of late-type star mass loss.

  13. Agrobacterium T-DNA integration: molecules and models

    E-print Network

    Citovsky, Vitaly

    ,12]. The genetic transformation process The Ti plasmid carries two components needed for genetic transformation, NY 11794-5215, USA Genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium involves the transfer of a DNA-kingdom DNA transfer [1]. Although used mainly for plant genetic engineering [2], Agrobacterium can transform

  14. Refolding and Oriented Insertion of a Membrane Protein into a Lipid Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrey, Thomas; Jahnig, Fritz

    1992-08-01

    We have studied the refolding and membrane insertion of the outer membrane protein OmpA of Escherichia coli. The protein was extracted from its native membrane by sonication in the presence of urea and dissolved in the urea/water mixture in unfolded form. In this form it was purified. Upon addition of preformed lipid vesicles, the protein spontaneously refolded and inserted into the vesicle membranes. The vesicles had to be small and the lipids had to be in the fluid state. The insertion occurred in an oriented manner.

  15. Radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting: Polarization insertions in the electron factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M. I.; Shelyuto, V. A.

    2010-01-15

    We consider three-loop radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonium due to insertions of the one-loop polarization operator in the electron factor. The contribution generated by electron polarization insertions is a cubic polynomial in the large logarithm of the electron-muon mass ratio. The leading logarithm cubed and logarithm squared terms are well known for some time. We calculate all single-logarithmic and nonlogarithmic radiative recoil corrections of the order {alpha}{sup 3}(m/M)E{sub F} generated by diagrams with the electron and muon polarization insertions.

  16. [Effect of the methods of photoactivation and insertion on the hardness of composite resins].

    PubMed

    Consani, Simonides; Pereira, Samira Buselli; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of methods of photoactivation and insertion on the Knoop hardness of the Z100 and Alert composite resins. The specimens were confected in cavities measuring 4 x 4 mm. The insertion of material was carried out by means of two methods: single-portion technique and insertion of two 2-mm-thick layers. When inserted in a single portion, the resin was compressed with a static load of 1 kgf on a glass slab recovered with a polyester strip, in order to remove the excess of material. After the removal of the glass slab and polyester strip, the materials were photoactivated by means of continuous light emitted by a XL 3000 unit with a light intensity of 520 mW/cm2 for 40 seconds; double pulse, with light emission of 150 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds, plus 30 seconds with light intensity of 520 mW/cm2 emitted by a XL 3000 unit; and pulsatile light of 520 mW/cm emitted by the Optilux 400 unit, turned on for 2 seconds and off for 2 seconds, during 60 seconds. The two layers of the material submitted to double insertion were photoactivated in the same conditions as the bulk-inserted material, and the excess of material was also removed from the second layer. After storage in a stove at 37 C and 100% relative humidity for 24 hours, the specimens were embedded in polyester resin, trimmed and polished with sandpaper and diamond slurry. Knoop hardness was assessed in 4 depths with a HMV Shimadzu penetrometer under the load of 50 g during 30 seconds. The data submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that Z100 presented greater hardness values; double insertion was better than single insertion; the hardness at the surface was smaller than that at the bottom of the specimen, regardless of other factors. For Z100, all activation methods produced smaller hardness values when double insertion was carried out. Meanwhile, for Alert, continuous light promoted statistical similarity between the insertion techniques. For Z100, there was statistical similarity between the activation methods only when the double-insertion technique was employed. There was statistical similarity between the double-pulse and pulsatile-light techniques for Alert, when the single-portion insertion technique was carried out. PMID:12612776

  17. Transposon-Assisted Genetic Engineering with Mos1-Mediated Single-Copy Insertion (MosSCI).

    PubMed

    Frřkjćr-Jensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Transgenesis in model organisms is necessary to determine the function, expression, and subcellular localization of gene products. In Caenorhabditis elegans, injected DNA can be propagated as multicopy extrachromosomal arrays but transgenes in arrays are mosaic, over-expressed in some tissues and silenced in the germline. Here, a method to insert a transgene into a specific genomic location called Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI) is described. Single-copy insertion allows transgene expression at levels that approximate endogenous gene expression as well as expression in the germline. PMID:26423967

  18. A nanocrystalline nitride as an insertion anode for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Dipan; Krumeich, Frank; Fotedar, Rahul; Nesper, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    Transition metal based binary oxides and nitrides are commonly known to undergo electrochemical conversion reaction with lithium in a lithium ion battery (LIB). Here, based on ex-situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies, we propose an (de)insertion electrochemistry for a nanocrystalline vanadium nitride in a Li-ion cell. Upon carbon coating, the nano-VN delivers a stable capacity of 400 mAh g-1, which is comparable to the (de)insertion of one lithium per VN unit. A change in the electronic structure of VN, resulting from the Li+ ion insertion into the structure, is confirmed by temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurement.

  19. Transposon insertion sequencing: a new tool for systems-level analysis of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    van Opijnen, Tim; Camilli, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of gene function has increasingly lagged behind gene discovery, hindering our understanding of the genetic basis of microbial phenotypes. Recently, however, massively parallel sequencing has been combined with traditional transposon mutagenesis in techniques referred to as transposon sequencing (Tn-seq), high-throughput insertion tracking by deep sequencing (HITS), insertion sequencing (INSeq) and transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), making it possible to identify putative gene functions in a high-throughput manner. Here, we describe the similarities and differences of these related techniques and discuss their application to the probing of gene function and higher-order genome organization. PMID:23712350

  20. Line-defect calibration for line-scanning projection display.

    PubMed

    An, Seungdo; Song, Jonghyeong; Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Yurlov, Victor; Ryu, Seung-Won; Kim, Eungju; Yun, Sang Kyeong

    2009-09-14

    A method of line-defect calibration for line-scanning projection display is developed to accomplish acceptable display uniformity. The line scanning display uses a line modulating imaging and scanning device to construct a two-dimensional image. The inherent line-defects in an imaging device and optical lenses are the most fatal performance-degrading factor that should be overcome to reach the basic display uniformity level. Since the human eye recognizes line defects very easily, a method that perfectly removes line defects is required. Most line imaging devices are diffractive optical devices that require a coherent light source. This particular requirement makes the calibration method of sequential single pixel measurement and correction insufficient to take out the line defects distributed on screen due to optical crosstalk. In this report, we present a calibration method using a recursively converging algorithm that successfully transforms the unacceptable line-defected images into a uniform display image. PMID:19770864