The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.
2008-01-01
This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…
Ghost imaging based on Pearson correlation coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wen-Kai; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Li, Long-Zhen; Zhai, Guang-Jie
2015-05-01
Correspondence imaging is a new modality of ghost imaging, which can retrieve a positive/negative image by simple conditional averaging of the reference frames that correspond to relatively large/small values of the total intensity measured at the bucket detector. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a more rigorous and general approach in which a ghost image is retrieved by calculating a Pearson correlation coefficient between the bucket detector intensity and the brightness at a given pixel of the reference frames, and at the next pixel, and so on. Furthermore, we theoretically provide a statistical interpretation of these two imaging phenomena, and explain how the error depends on the sample size and what kind of distribution the error obeys. According to our analysis, the image signal-to-noise ratio can be greatly improved and the sampling number reduced by means of our new method. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. 2013YQ030595) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA122902).
Robustness of Two Formulas to Correct Pearson Correlation for Restriction of Range
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
tran, minh
2011-01-01
Many research studies involving Pearson correlations are conducted in settings where one of the two variables has a restricted range in the sample. For example, this situation occurs when tests are used for selecting candidates for employment or university admission. Often after selection, there is interest in correlating the selection variable,…
Adler, Jeremy; Parmryd, Ingela
2010-08-01
The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and the Mander's overlap coefficient (MOC) are used to quantify the degree of colocalization between fluorophores. The MOC was introduced to overcome perceived problems with the PCC. The two coefficients are mathematically similar, differing in the use of either the absolute intensities (MOC) or of the deviation from the mean (PCC). A range of correlated datasets, which extend to the limits of the PCC, only evoked a limited response from the MOC. The PCC is unaffected by changes to the offset while the MOC increases when the offset is positive. Both coefficients are independent of gain. The MOC is a confusing hybrid measurement, that combines correlation with a heavily weighted form of co-occurrence, favors high intensity combinations, downplays combinations in which either or both intensities are low and ignores blank pixels. The PCC only measures correlation. A surprising finding was that the addition of a second uncorrelated population can substantially increase the measured correlation, demonstrating the importance of excluding background pixels. Overall, since the MOC is unresponsive to substantial changes in the data and is hard to interpret, it is neither an alternative to nor a useful substitute for the PCC. The MOC is not suitable for making measurements of colocalization either by correlation or co-occurrence. PMID:20653013
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ahlgren, Per; Jarneving, Bo; Rousseau, Ronald
2003-01-01
Criticizes the use of Pearson's correlation coefficient in author cocitation analysis (ACA), a technique used to analyze the intellectual structure of a given scientific field, and sets forth two natural requirements that a similarity measure applied in ACA should satisfy. Uses real and hypothetical data to obtain counterexamples to both…
Gender and Age Analyses of NIRS/STAI Pearson Correlation Coefficients at Resting State.
Matsumoto, T; Fuchita, Y; Ichikawa, K; Fukuda, Y; Takemura, N; Sakatani, K
2016-01-01
According to the valence asymmetry hypothesis, the left/right asymmetry of PFC activity is correlated with specific emotional responses to mental stress and personality traits. In a previous study we measured spontaneous oscillation of oxy-Hb concentrations in the bilateral PFC at rest in normal adults employing two-channel portable NIRS and computed the laterality index at rest (LIR). We investigated the Pearson correlation coefficient between the LIR and anxiety levels evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test. We found that subjects with right-dominant activity at rest showed higher STAI scores, while those with left dominant oxy-Hb changes at rest showed lower STAI scores such that the Pearson correlation coefficient between LIR and STAI was positive. This study performed Bootstrap analysis on the data and showed the following statistics of the target correlation coefficient: mean=0.4925 and lower confidence limit=0.177 with confidence level 0.05. Using the KS-test, we demonstrated that the correlation did not depend on age, whereas it did depend on gender. PMID:26782223
Wang, Luman; Mo, Qiaochu; Wang, Jianxin
2015-01-01
Most current gene coexpression databases support the analysis for linear correlation of gene pairs, but not nonlinear correlation of them, which hinders precisely evaluating the gene-gene coexpression strengths. Here, we report a new database, MIrExpress, which takes advantage of the information theory, as well as the Pearson linear correlation method, to measure the linear correlation, nonlinear correlation, and their hybrid of cell-specific gene coexpressions in immune cells. For a given gene pair or probe set pair input by web users, both mutual information (MI) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) are calculated, and several corresponding values are reported to reflect their coexpression correlation nature, including MI and r values, their respective rank orderings, their rank comparison, and their hybrid correlation value. Furthermore, for a given gene, the top 10 most relevant genes to it are displayed with the MI, r, or their hybrid perspective, respectively. Currently, the database totally includes 16 human cell groups, involving 20,283 human genes. The expression data and the calculated correlation results from the database are interactively accessible on the web page and can be implemented for other related applications and researches. PMID:26881263
Wang, Luman; Mo, Qiaochu; Wang, Jianxin
2015-01-01
Most current gene coexpression databases support the analysis for linear correlation of gene pairs, but not nonlinear correlation of them, which hinders precisely evaluating the gene-gene coexpression strengths. Here, we report a new database, MIrExpress, which takes advantage of the information theory, as well as the Pearson linear correlation method, to measure the linear correlation, nonlinear correlation, and their hybrid of cell-specific gene coexpressions in immune cells. For a given gene pair or probe set pair input by web users, both mutual information (MI) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) are calculated, and several corresponding values are reported to reflect their coexpression correlation nature, including MI and r values, their respective rank orderings, their rank comparison, and their hybrid correlation value. Furthermore, for a given gene, the top 10 most relevant genes to it are displayed with the MI, r, or their hybrid perspective, respectively. Currently, the database totally includes 16 human cell groups, involving 20,283 human genes. The expression data and the calculated correlation results from the database are interactively accessible on the web page and can be implemented for other related applications and researches. PMID:26881263
Bishara, Anthony J; Hittner, James B
2012-09-01
It is well known that when data are nonnormally distributed, a test of the significance of Pearson's r may inflate Type I error rates and reduce power. Statistics textbooks and the simulation literature provide several alternatives to Pearson's correlation. However, the relative performance of these alternatives has been unclear. Two simulation studies were conducted to compare 12 methods, including Pearson, Spearman's rank-order, transformation, and resampling approaches. With most sample sizes (n ≥ 20), Type I and Type II error rates were minimized by transforming the data to a normal shape prior to assessing the Pearson correlation. Among transformation approaches, a general purpose rank-based inverse normal transformation (i.e., transformation to rankit scores) was most beneficial. However, when samples were both small (n ≤ 10) and extremely nonnormal, the permutation test often outperformed other alternatives, including various bootstrap tests. PMID:22563845
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vos, Pauline
2009-01-01
When studying correlations, how do the three bivariate correlation coefficients between three variables relate? After transforming Pearson's correlation coefficient r into a Euclidean distance, undergraduate students can tackle this problem using their secondary school knowledge of geometry (Pythagoras' theorem and similarity of triangles).…
Booma, P M; Prabhakaran, S; Dhanalakshmi, R
2014-01-01
Microarray gene expression datasets has concerned great awareness among molecular biologist, statisticians, and computer scientists. Data mining that extracts the hidden and usual information from datasets fails to identify the most significant biological associations between genes. A search made with heuristic for standard biological process measures only the gene expression level, threshold, and response time. Heuristic search identifies and mines the best biological solution, but the association process was not efficiently addressed. To monitor higher rate of expression levels between genes, a hierarchical clustering model was proposed, where the biological association between genes is measured simultaneously using proximity measure of improved Pearson's correlation (PCPHC). Additionally, the Seed Augment algorithm adopts average linkage methods on rows and columns in order to expand a seed PCPHC model into a maximal global PCPHC (GL-PCPHC) model and to identify association between the clusters. Moreover, a GL-PCPHC applies pattern growing method to mine the PCPHC patterns. Compared to existing gene expression analysis, the PCPHC model achieves better performance. Experimental evaluations are conducted for GL-PCPHC model with standard benchmark gene expression datasets extracted from UCI repository and GenBank database in terms of execution time, size of pattern, significance level, biological association efficiency, and pattern quality. PMID:25136661
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Measurements of texture properties related to tenderness at different locations within deboned broiler breast fillets have been used to validate techniques for texture analysis and establish correlations between different texture evaluation methods. However, it has been demonstrated that meat text...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmerman, Donald W.
2012-01-01
In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…
The Use of Time Series Analysis and t Tests with Serially Correlated Data Tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicolich, Mark J.; Weinstein, Carol S.
1981-01-01
Results of three methods of analysis applied to simulated autocorrelated data sets with an intervention point (varying in autocorrelation degree, variance of error term, and magnitude of intervention effect) are compared and presented. The three methods are: t tests; maximum likelihood Box-Jenkins (ARIMA); and Bayesian Box Jenkins. (Author/AEF)
Quiroga-Lombard, Claudio S; Hass, Joachim; Durstewitz, Daniel
2013-07-01
Correlations among neurons are supposed to play an important role in computation and information coding in the nervous system. Empirically, functional interactions between neurons are most commonly assessed by cross-correlation functions. Recent studies have suggested that pairwise correlations may indeed be sufficient to capture most of the information present in neural interactions. Many applications of correlation functions, however, implicitly tend to assume that the underlying processes are stationary. This assumption will usually fail for real neurons recorded in vivo since their activity during behavioral tasks is heavily influenced by stimulus-, movement-, or cognition-related processes as well as by more general processes like slow oscillations or changes in state of alertness. To address the problem of nonstationarity, we introduce a method for assessing stationarity empirically and then "slicing" spike trains into stationary segments according to the statistical definition of weak-sense stationarity. We examine pairwise Pearson cross-correlations (PCCs) under both stationary and nonstationary conditions and identify another source of covariance that can be differentiated from the covariance of the spike times and emerges as a consequence of residual nonstationarities after the slicing process: the covariance of the firing rates defined on each segment. Based on this, a correction of the PCC is introduced that accounts for the effect of segmentation. We probe these methods both on simulated data sets and on in vivo recordings from the prefrontal cortex of behaving rats. Rather than for removing nonstationarities, the present method may also be used for detecting significant events in spike trains. PMID:23636729
Graña, M; Termenon, M; Savio, A; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Echeveste, J; Pérez, J M; Besga, A
2011-09-20
The aim of this paper is to obtain discriminant features from two scalar measures of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD), and to train and test classifiers able to discriminate Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from controls on the basis of features extracted from the FA or MD volumes. In this study, support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained and tested on FA and MD data. Feature selection is done computing the Pearson's correlation between FA or MD values at voxel site across subjects and the indicative variable specifying the subject class. Voxel sites with high absolute correlation are selected for feature extraction. Results are obtained over an on-going study in Hospital de Santiago Apostol collecting anatomical T1-weighted MRI volumes and DTI data from healthy control subjects and AD patients. FA features and a linear SVM classifier achieve perfect accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in several cross-validation studies, supporting the usefulness of DTI-derived features as an image-marker for AD and to the feasibility of building Computer Aided Diagnosis systems for AD based on them. PMID:21839143
Mohamed Salleh, Faridah Hani; Arif, Shereena Mohd; Zainudin, Suhaila; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd
2015-12-01
A gene regulatory network (GRN) is a large and complex network consisting of interacting elements that, over time, affect each other's state. The dynamics of complex gene regulatory processes are difficult to understand using intuitive approaches alone. To overcome this problem, we propose an algorithm for inferring the regulatory interactions from knock-out data using a Gaussian model combines with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). There are several problems relating to GRN construction that have been outlined in this paper. We demonstrated the ability of our proposed method to (1) predict the presence of regulatory interactions between genes, (2) their directionality and (3) their states (activation or suppression). The algorithm was applied to network sizes of 10 and 50 genes from DREAM3 datasets and network sizes of 10 from DREAM4 datasets. The predicted networks were evaluated based on AUROC and AUPR. We discovered that high false positive values were generated by our GRN prediction methods because the indirect regulations have been wrongly predicted as true relationships. We achieved satisfactory results as the majority of sub-networks achieved AUROC values above 0.5. PMID:26278974
Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2013-01-01
Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377
Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.
Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola
2015-03-01
Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415
Duthie, R. B.
1979-01-01
This lecture covers some subjects of direct concern to the medical profession contained within the Pearson Report. Each injury group was examined by the Royal Commission, both here and abroad, particular attention being paid to the relationship between tort and social security. By consensus it was proposed that in the majority of fields no-fault compensations should be extended but that the tort system should continue to have a role. Recommendations were also put forward that no damages should be permitted for non-pecuniary loss during the first 3 months and that the full value of the social security benefits should be deductible from all tort damages. Damages for permanent injury or death should be index-linked periodic payments. A new no-fault compensation scheme for road accidents was described as well as a new disabled children's allowance of 4 pounds per week with a mobility allowance at the lower age of 2 years. Medical injury was examined carefully, but it was decided that negligence liability should continue unchanged, with the proviso that the no-fault compensation schemes in New Zealand and in Sweden should be followed. These two schemes have therefore been described in some detail. PMID:159014
Pearson's Functions to Describe FSW Weld Geometry
Lacombe, D.; Coupard, D.; Tcherniaeff, S.; Girot, F.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.
2011-01-17
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for aluminium alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. In this study, the geometry of the weld has been investigated and modelled using Pearson's functions. It has been demonstrated that the Pearson's parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and geometric constant) can be used to characterize the weld geometry and the tensile strength of the weld assembly. Pearson's parameters and process parameters are strongly correlated allowing to define a control process procedure for FSW assemblies which make radiographic or ultrasonic controls unnecessary. Finally, an optimisation using a Generalized Gradient Method allows to determine the geometry of the weld which maximises the assembly tensile strength.
Erdeljić, Viktorija; Francetić, Igor; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Budimir, Ana; Kalenić, Smilja; Bielen, Luka; Makar-Aušperger, Ksenija; Likić, Robert
2011-05-01
The relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant strains has been studied mainly by employing conventional statistical methods. A time delay in effect must be anticipated and this has rarely been taken into account in previous studies. Therefore, distributed lags time series analysis and simple linear correlation were compared in their ability to evaluate this relationship. Data on monthly antibiotic consumption for ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems and cefepime as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility were retrospectively collected for the period April 2006 to July 2007. Using distributed lags analysis, a significant temporal relationship was identified between ciprofloxacin, meropenem and cefepime consumption and the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa isolates to these antibiotics. This effect was lagged for ciprofloxacin and cefepime [1 month (R=0.827, P=0.039) and 2 months (R=0.962, P=0.001), respectively] and was simultaneous for meropenem (lag 0, R=0.876, P=0.002). Furthermore, a significant concomitant effect of meropenem consumption on the appearance of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains (resistant to three or more representatives of classes of antibiotics) was identified (lag 0, R=0.992, P<0.001). This effect was not delayed and it was therefore identified both by distributed lags analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficient analysis was not able to identify relationships between antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance when the effect was delayed. These results indicate that the use of diverse statistical methods can yield significantly different results, thus leading to the introduction of possibly inappropriate infection control measures. PMID:21277747
Author Cocitation Analysis and Pearson's r.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Howard D.
2003-01-01
Comments on author cocitation analysis theory and methods. By entering Pearson's r's into multidimensional scaling and clustering routines, the author shows that, despite r's fluctuations, clusters based on it are much the same for the combined groups as for the separate groups. The combined groups when mapped appear as polarized clumps of points…
Pearson and Pedagogy: Countering Co-Dependency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fielder, John
2008-01-01
Noel Pearson and Marcia Langton have both used the terms "co-dependency" and "rescuing" as part of their challenge to the rights-based focus informing Indigenous policies in Australia since the 1960s. Their premise is that the liberal/Left welfare-based agenda, for decades, has largely overlooked Indigenous responsibility. At the same time, they…
Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.
2012-01-01
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
Object aggregation using Neyman-Pearson analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Li; Hinman, Michael L.
2003-04-01
This paper presents a novel approach to: 1) distinguish military vehicle groups, and 2) identify names of military vehicle convoys in the level-2 fusion process. The data is generated from a generic Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) simulator that utilizes Matlab and Microsoft Access. This data is processed to identify the convoys and number of vehicles in the convoy, using the minimum timed distance variance (MTDV) measurement. Once the vehicle groups are formed, convoy association is done using hypothesis techniques based upon Neyman Pearson (NP) criterion. One characteristic of NP is the low error probability when a-priori information is unknown. The NP approach was demonstrated with this advantage over a Bayesian technique.
A Null Model for Pearson Coexpression Networks
Gobbi, Andrea; Jurman, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
Gene coexpression networks inferred by correlation from high-throughput profiling such as microarray data represent simple but effective structures for discovering and interpreting linear gene relationships. In recent years, several approaches have been proposed to tackle the problem of deciding when the resulting correlation values are statistically significant. This is most crucial when the number of samples is small, yielding a non-negligible chance that even high correlation values are due to random effects. Here we introduce a novel hard thresholding solution based on the assumption that a coexpression network inferred by randomly generated data is expected to be empty. The threshold is theoretically derived by means of an analytic approach and, as a deterministic independent null model, it depends only on the dimensions of the starting data matrix, with assumptions on the skewness of the data distribution compatible with the structure of gene expression levels data. We show, on synthetic and array datasets, that the proposed threshold is effective in eliminating all false positive links, with an offsetting cost in terms of false negative detected edges. PMID:26030917
Bayesian Estimation Supersedes the "t" Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kruschke, John K.
2013-01-01
Bayesian estimation for 2 groups provides complete distributions of credible values for the effect size, group means and their difference, standard deviations and their difference, and the normality of the data. The method handles outliers. The decision rule can accept the null value (unlike traditional "t" tests) when certainty in the estimate is…
40. Historic American Buildings Survey E. R. Pearson, Photographer January ...
40. Historic American Buildings Survey E. R. Pearson, Photographer January 1970 THIRD FLOOR AND ATTIC FLOOR PLAN - Shaker Centre Family Dwelling House, West side of U.S. Route 68, South Union, Logan County, KY
41. Historic American Buildings Survey E. R. Pearson, Photographer 1969 ...
41. Historic American Buildings Survey E. R. Pearson, Photographer 1969 THIRD FLOOR AND ATTIC FLOOR PLAN - Shaker Centre Family Dwelling House, West side of U.S. Route 68, South Union, Logan County, KY
16. TYPE F, BUILDING #516732 PEARSON ROAD, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, ...
16. TYPE F, BUILDING #516-732 PEARSON ROAD, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, HALLWAY, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Brick Officers' Quarters, Types E & F, Area A, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH
3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer, 1968 ...
3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer, 1968 ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Shaker Centre Family, Broom Shop, East side of Oxford Road, White Water Park, Hamilton County, OH
20. Historic American Buildings Survey Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer 1970 ...
20. Historic American Buildings Survey Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer 1970 DINING ROOM DOORS (closed), LOOKING NORTH - Shaker Church Family Main Dwelling House, U.S. Route 20, Hancock, Berkshire County, MA
Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.
Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D
2013-09-01
The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work. PMID:23179067
Commercialising Comparison: Pearson Puts the TLC in Soft Capitalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hogan, Anna; Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob
2016-01-01
This paper provides a critical policy analysis of "The Learning Curve" (TLC) (2012), an initiative developed by the multinational edu-business, Pearson, in conjunction with the Economist Intelligence Unit. "TLC" exemplifies the commercialising of comparison and the efforts of edu-businesses to strategically position themselves…
Spatial trends in Pearson Type III statistical parameters
Lichty, R.W.; Karlinger, M.R.
1995-01-01
Spatial trends in the statistical parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skewness coefficient) of a Pearson Type III distribution of the logarithms of annual flood peaks for small rural basins (less than 90 km2) are delineated using a climate factor CT, (T=2-, 25-, and 100-yr recurrence intervals), which quantifies the effects of long-term climatic data (rainfall and pan evaporation) on observed T-yr floods. Maps showing trends in average parameter values demonstrate the geographically varying influence of climate on the magnitude of Pearson Type III statistical parameters. The spatial trends in variability of the parameter values characterize the sensitivity of statistical parameters to the interaction of basin-runoff characteristics (hydrology) and climate. -from Authors
A New Family of Solvable Pearson-Dirichlet Random Walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Caër, Gérard
2011-07-01
An n-step Pearson-Gamma random walk in ℝ d starts at the origin and consists of n independent steps with gamma distributed lengths and uniform orientations. The gamma distribution of each step length has a shape parameter q>0. Constrained random walks of n steps in ℝ d are obtained from the latter walks by imposing that the sum of the step lengths is equal to a fixed value. Simple closed-form expressions were obtained in particular for the distribution of the endpoint of such constrained walks for any d≥ d 0 and any n≥2 when q is either q = d/2 - 1 ( d 0=3) or q= d-1 ( d 0=2) (Le Caër in J. Stat. Phys. 140:728-751, 2010). When the total walk length is chosen, without loss of generality, to be equal to 1, then the constrained step lengths have a Dirichlet distribution whose parameters are all equal to q and the associated walk is thus named a Pearson-Dirichlet random walk. The density of the endpoint position of a n-step planar walk of this type ( n≥2), with q= d=2, was shown recently to be a weighted mixture of 1+ floor( n/2) endpoint densities of planar Pearson-Dirichlet walks with q=1 (Beghin and Orsingher in Stochastics 82:201-229, 2010). The previous result is generalized to any walk space dimension and any number of steps n≥2 when the parameter of the Pearson-Dirichlet random walk is q= d>1. We rely on the connection between an unconstrained random walk and a constrained one, which have both the same n and the same q= d, to obtain a closed-form expression of the endpoint density. The latter is a weighted mixture of 1+ floor( n/2) densities with simple forms, equivalently expressed as a product of a power and a Gauss hypergeometric function. The weights are products of factors which depends both on d and n and Bessel numbers independent of d.
Pearson syndrome in a Diamond-Blackfan anemia cohort.
Alter, Blanche P
2014-07-17
In this issue of Blood, Gagne et al describe a cohort of 362 patients clinically classified as having Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), in which 175 (48%) were found to have mutations and deletions in ribosomal protein genes or GATA1, and 8 of the remaining patients (2.2% overall) had mitochondrial gene deletions consistent with Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome (PS). The authors propose that all patients with presumptive DBA should be tested for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion during their initial genetic evaluation. PMID:25035146
The Pearson walk with shrinking steps in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serino, C. A.; Redner, S.
2010-01-01
We study the shrinking Pearson random walk in two dimensions and greater, in which the direction of the Nth step is random and its length equals λN-1, with λ<1. As λ increases past a critical value λc, the endpoint distribution in two dimensions, P(r), changes from having a global maximum away from the origin to being peaked at the origin. The probability distribution for a single coordinate, P(x), undergoes a similar transition, but exhibits multiple maxima on a fine length scale for λ close to λc. We numerically determine P(r) and P(x) by applying a known algorithm that accurately inverts the exact Bessel function product form of the Fourier transform for the probability distributions.
Shape modeling with family of Pearson distributions: Langmuir waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidojevic, Sonja
2014-10-01
Two major effects of Langmuir wave electric field influence on spectral line shapes are appearance of depressions shifted from unperturbed line and an additional dynamical line broadening. More realistic and accurate models of Langmuir waves are needed to study these effects with more confidence. In this article we present distribution shapes of a high-quality data set of Langmuir waves electric field observed by the WIND satellite. Using well developed numerical techniques, the distributions of the empirical measurements are modeled by family of Pearson distributions. The results suggest that the existing theoretical models of energy conversion between an electron beam and surrounding plasma is more complex. If the processes of the Langmuir wave generation are better understood, the influence of Langmuir waves on spectral line shapes could be modeled better.
Quadrupolar magic angle spinning NMR spectra fitted using the Pearson IV function.
Mironenko, Roman M; Belskaya, Olga B; Talsi, Valentin P; Likholobov, Vladimir A
2014-01-01
The Pearson IV function was used to fit the asymmetric solid-state (27)Al NMR spectra of alumina based catalysts. A high convergence (correlation coefficient is no less than 0.997) between experimental and simulated spectra was achieved. The decomposition of the (27)Al NMR spectra of zinc/aluminum mixed oxides with different Zn/Al molar ratio revealed an increased fraction (6-9%) of pentacoordinated aluminum atoms in these oxides as compared to γ-Al2O3. As the Zn/Al ratio is raised, the fraction of [AlO6] octahedral units decreases, while the fraction of [AlO4] tetrahedra increases. PMID:25454293
Mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with combined features of Leigh and Pearson syndromes
Blok, R.B.; Thorburn, D.R.; Danks, D.M.
1994-09-01
We describe a heteroplasmic 4237 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in an 11 year old girl who has suffered from progressive illness since birth. She has some features of Leigh syndrome (global developmental delay with regression, brainstem dysfunction and lactic acidosis), together with other features suggestive of Pearson syndrome (history of pancytopenia and failure to thrive). The deletion was present at a level greater than 50% in skeletal muscle, but barely detectable in skin fibroblasts following Southern blot analysis, and only observed in blood following PCR analysis. The deletion spanned nt 9498 to nt 13734, and was flanked by a 12 bp direct repeat. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, NADH dehydrogenase subunits 3, 4L, 4 and 5, and tRNAs for glycine, arginine, histidine, serine({sup AGY}) and leucine({sup CUN}) were deleted. Southern blotting also revealed an altered Apa I restriction site which was shown by sequence analysis to be caused by G{r_arrow}A nucleotide substitution at nt 1462 in the 12S rRNA gene. This was presumed to be a polymorphism. No abnormalities of mitochondrial ultrastructure, distribution or of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV in skeletal muscle were observed. Mitochondrial disorders with clinical features overlapping more than one syndrome have been reported previously. This case further demonstrates the difficulty in correlating observed clinical features with a specific mitochondrial DNA mutation.
Understanding Correlations: Two Computer Exercises.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldstein, Miriam D.; Strube, Michael J.
1995-01-01
Describes two QuickBASIC programs that provide students direct experience with interpreting correlation scatter-plots. Maintains that the programs can be used in classroom exercises to highlight factors that influence the size of a Pearson correlation coefficient. (CFR)
Joo, Young-Cheol; Lim, Chung-Hwan; Lee, Chun-Yong; Jung, Hong-Ryang
2014-01-01
This suggests indicators to be considered in the protocol for setting up equipment and minimizing patient doses by identifying the effective dose and correlations of each equipment company according to a patient's body characteristics in liver CT. The study was conducted with 445 patients who went to the hospital and received liver CT at the diagnostic radiology department of S medical center from 2010 January to June. As the statistical methods, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation analysis were used. The study results show that as height, weight, and BMI increased, the effective dose increased with all equipment vendors. Correlations between a patient's body characteristics and the effective dose were shown to be positive with all equipment vendors in regard to weight, BMI, and height, in order. PMID:24704655
Brewin, Chris R; Burgess, Neil
2014-03-01
Three recent studies (Pearson, 2012; Pearson, Ross, & Webster, 2012) purported to test the revised dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (Brewin, Gregory, Lipton, & Burgess, 2010) by manipulating the amount of additional information accompanying traumatic stimulus materials and assessing the effect on subsequent intrusive memories. Here we point out that these studies involve a misunderstanding of the meaning of "contextual" within the theory, such that the manipulation would be unlikely to have had the intended effect and the results are ambiguous with respect to the theory. Past and future experimental tests of the theory are discussed. PMID:24041427
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tosolt, Brandelyn; Love, Bettina L.
2011-01-01
Multicultural education is a term with a variety of definitions growing from a number of different disciplines. These authors conducted a content analysis of the Pearson reading program "Good Habits, Great Readers" for grades four and five. The qualitative approach of content analysis allowed researchers to examine text "through the…
A Pearson-Type-VII Item Response Model for Assessing Person Fluctuation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.
2007-01-01
Using Lumsden's Thurstonian fluctuation model as a starting point, this paper attempts to develop a unidimensional item response theory model intended for binary personality items. Under some additional assumptions, a new model is obtained in which the item characteristic curves are defined by a cumulative Pearson-Type-VII distribution, and the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pae, Hye K.
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to apply Rasch modeling to an examination of the psychometric properties of the "Pearson Test of English Academic" (PTE Academic). Analyzed were 140 test-takers' scores derived from the PTE Academic database. The mean age of the participants was 26.45 (SD = 5.82), ranging from 17 to 46. Conformity of the participants'…
Magnello, M E
1998-01-01
Long-standing claims have been made for nearly the entire twentieth century that the biometrician, Karl Pearson, and colleague, W. F. R. Weldon, rejected Mendelism as a theory of inheritance. It is shown that at the end of the nineteenth century Pearson considered various theories of inheritance (including Francis Galton's law of ancestral heredity for characters underpinned by continuous variation), and by 1904 he 'accepted the fundamental idea of Mendel' as a theory of inheritance for discontinuous variation. Moreover, in 1909, he suggested a synthesis of biometry and Mendelism. Despite the many attempts made by a number of geneticists (including R. A. Fisher in 1936) to use Pearson's chi-square (X2, P) goodness-of-fit test on Mendel's data, which produced results that were 'too good to be true', Weldon reached the same conclusion in 1902, but his results were never acknowledged. The geneticist and arch-rival of the biometricians, Williams Bateson, was instead exceptionally critical of this work and interpreted this as Weldon's rejection of Mendelism. Whilst scholarship on Mendel, by historians of science in the last 18 years, has led to a balanced perspective of Mendel, it is suggested that a better balanced and more rounded view of the hereditarian-statistical work of Pearson, Weldon, and the biometricians is long overdue. PMID:11619806
The Beta Distribution,moment method, Karl Pearson and R.A.Fisher
Bowman, Kimiko o
2007-01-01
Simulation studies provide four moment approximating distributions to each of the four parameters of a beta distribution (Pearson Type I). Two of the parameters refer to origin and scale, two to shape (skewness and kurtosis). Type I random number generator is checked out, and the stability of moments of random samples of size n over cycles; particular attention is paid to shape parameter moments. In Type I region of validity (referred to skewness and kurtosis), moment methods become unstable in the neighborhood of Type III ({chi}{sup 2}) line, and ultimately abort. Thus extremely large variances and large higher moments arise. We probe the cause of this phenomenon. Simulation studies are turned to since alternative power series methods are forbiddingly complicated. However, use is made of the delta method to provide asymptotic variances of the estimators, and asymptotic variances of percentage points of the basic distribution. An account of work on the subject by K. Pearson, some of it a century ago, is given. In particular an important paper by Pearson and Filon provides some estimates of probable errors of moment parameter estimators such as the basic distribution parameters, the mode, the skewness and others. The heated controversy between Pearson and Fisher is considered.
"Describing our whole experience": the statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.
Pence, Charles H
2011-12-01
There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton's footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. PMID:22035721
A New Way to Teach (or Compute) Pearson's "r" without Reliance on Cross-Products
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huck, Schuyler W.; Ren, Bixiang; Yang, Hongwei
2007-01-01
Many students have difficulty seeing the conceptual link between bivariate data displayed in a scatterplot and the statistical summary of the relationship, "r." This article shows how to teach (and compute) "r" such that each datum's direct and indirect influences are made apparent and used in a new formula for calculating Pearson's "r."
mtDNA Deletion in an Iranian Infant with Pearson Marrow Syndrome
Arzanian, Mohammad Taghi; Eghbali, Aziz; Karimzade, Parvaneh; Ahmadi, Mitra; Houshmand, Massoud; Rezaei, Nima
2010-01-01
Background Pearson syndrome (PS) is a rare multisystem mitochondrial disorder of hematopoietic system, characterized by refractory sideroblastic anemia, pancytopenia, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and variable neurologic, hepatic, renal, and endocrine failure. Case Presentation We describe a six-month-old female infant with Pearson marrow syndrome who presented with neurological manifestations. She had several episodes of seizures. Hematopoietic abnormalities were macrocytic anemia and neutropenia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a cellular marrow with marked vacuolization of erythroid and myeloid precursors. Analysis of mtDNA in peripheral blood showed 8.5 kb deletion that was compatible with the diagnosis of PS. Conclusion PS should be considered in infants with neurologic diseases, in patients with cytopenias, and also in patients with acidosis or refractory anemia. PMID:23056691
Using the Student's "t"-Test with Extremely Small Sample Sizes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Winter, J. C .F.
2013-01-01
Researchers occasionally have to work with an extremely small sample size, defined herein as "N" less than or equal to 5. Some methodologists have cautioned against using the "t"-test when the sample size is extremely small, whereas others have suggested that using the "t"-test is feasible in such a case. The present…
When "t"-Tests or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Tests Won't Do
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McElduff, Fiona; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Chan, Shun-Kai; Wade, Angie
2010-01-01
"t"-Tests are widely used by researchers to compare the average values of a numeric outcome between two groups. If there are doubts about the suitability of the data for the requirements of a "t"-test, most notably the distribution being non-normal, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test may be used instead. However, although often applied, both tests may…
Correlations between Pre-morbid Personality and Depression Scales in Stroke Patients
Hwang, Sung Il; Park, Oak Tae; Park, Si-Woon; Choi, Eun Seok; Yi, Sook-Hee
2011-01-01
Objective To investigate the correlation between pre-morbid personality and depression scales in patients with stroke. Method The subjects of this study included 45 patients with stroke and their caregivers. We conducted an interview of patients with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and also evaluated general characteristic (age, sex, location of lesion, cause of stroke, duration of illness, educational background, history of medication for depression) and functional level. Caregivers were evaluated with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) for depressive mood, with NEO-PI (Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness Personality Inventory) for pre-morbid personality. The results of each questionnaire were analyzed in order to investigate their correlation. The results were statistically analyzed with independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation test. Results The HRSD score of the caregivers had a significant correlation with the BDI score (p=0.001) of the patients. The BDI score correlated with Neuroticism (p=0.021) and the HRSD score also correlated with Neuroticism (p=0.015). There were no statistical correlation of depression with sex, age, case of stroke, location of lesion, duration of illness and functional level. Conclusion Among pre-morbid personalities, neuroticism of NEO-PI is the only factor which is significantly correlated with depression scales in stroke patients. Evaluating pre-morbid personality can be helpful in predicting the depressive mood in stroke patients, so we may have early intervention for it. PMID:22506141
Estimating the Polyserial Correlation Coefficient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bedrick, Edward J.; Breslin, Frederick C.
1996-01-01
Simple noniterative estimators of the polyserial correlation coefficient are developed by exploiting a general relationship between the polyserial correlation and the point polyserial correlation to give extensions of the biserial estimators of K. Pearson (1909), H. E. Brogden (1949), and F. M. Lord (1963) to the multicategory setting. (SLD)
Sadeghifar, Jamil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Baldacchino, Donia; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Jafari, Mehdi
2014-01-01
Background and Aims: Career motivation in university educators through efficient ways and appropriate with the educational system, is considered one of the important factors affecting education of students and their competence. This study aimed to determine the relationship between career motivation and spiritual leadership among a university of medical sciences in the west, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional correlation study was conducted among the university educators of medical sciences in the west, Iran in 2012. All of the educators (N=230) were selected and recruited according to census method. The data were collected by two established self-completed questionnaires on spiritual leadership (SL) and career motivation. Data were analyzed statistically by parametric tests: Pearson correlation, independent student t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The Pearson correlation test identified a significant relationship between educators’ career motivation and vision, altruistic love, hope/faith, meaning/calling and membership dimensions of spiritual leadership (p<0.05). The independent t-test detected a significant relationship between the ‘hope/faith’ (p=0.04) and organizational commitment (p=0.004) dimensions and the gender of educators. ANOVA revealed significant differences in educators’ years of work experience and their overall career motivation (p=0.003) and the dimension of ‘membership’ (p<0.04). A significant relationship was found in ‘altruistic love’ and ‘Hope/faith’, and the educators’ academic rank place in the university (p=0.03). Also a significant relationship was found in ‘vision’ (p=0.03) and ‘altruistic love’ (p=0.002) and ‘membership’ (p=0.04) dimensions, and the type of faculty. Conclusion: The results indicate that the dimensions of existence of spiritual leadership may have a positive relationship with educators’ career motivation. PMID:24576374
Fisher, Neyman-Pearson or NHST? A tutorial for teaching data testing
Perezgonzalez, Jose D.
2015-01-01
Despite frequent calls for the overhaul of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), this controversial procedure remains ubiquitous in behavioral, social and biomedical teaching and research. Little change seems possible once the procedure becomes well ingrained in the minds and current practice of researchers; thus, the optimal opportunity for such change is at the time the procedure is taught, be this at undergraduate or at postgraduate levels. This paper presents a tutorial for the teaching of data testing procedures, often referred to as hypothesis testing theories. The first procedure introduced is Fisher's approach to data testing—tests of significance; the second is Neyman-Pearson's approach—tests of acceptance; the final procedure is the incongruent combination of the previous two theories into the current approach—NSHT. For those researchers sticking with the latter, two compromise solutions on how to improve NHST conclude the tutorial. PMID:25784889
Fisher, Neyman-Pearson or NHST? A tutorial for teaching data testing.
Perezgonzalez, Jose D
2015-01-01
Despite frequent calls for the overhaul of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), this controversial procedure remains ubiquitous in behavioral, social and biomedical teaching and research. Little change seems possible once the procedure becomes well ingrained in the minds and current practice of researchers; thus, the optimal opportunity for such change is at the time the procedure is taught, be this at undergraduate or at postgraduate levels. This paper presents a tutorial for the teaching of data testing procedures, often referred to as hypothesis testing theories. The first procedure introduced is Fisher's approach to data testing-tests of significance; the second is Neyman-Pearson's approach-tests of acceptance; the final procedure is the incongruent combination of the previous two theories into the current approach-NSHT. For those researchers sticking with the latter, two compromise solutions on how to improve NHST conclude the tutorial. PMID:25784889
Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome in patients suspected to have Diamond-Blackfan anemia.
Gagne, Katelyn E; Ghazvinian, Roxanne; Yuan, Daniel; Zon, Rebecca L; Storm, Kelsie; Mazur-Popinska, Magdalena; Andolina, Laura; Bubala, Halina; Golebiowska, Sydonia; Higman, Meghan A; Kalwak, Krzysztof; Kurre, Peter; Matysiak, Michal; Niewiadomska, Edyta; Pels, Salley; Petruzzi, Mary Jane; Pobudejska-Pieniazek, Aneta; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Fleming, Mark D; Gazda, Hanna T; Agarwal, Suneet
2014-07-17
Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome (PS) is a multisystem disorder caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital hypoproliferative anemia in which mutations in ribosomal protein genes and GATA1 have been implicated. Both syndromes share several features including early onset of severe anemia, variable nonhematologic manifestations, sporadic genetic occurrence, and occasional spontaneous hematologic improvement. Because of the overlapping features and relative rarity of PS, we hypothesized that some patients in whom the leading clinical diagnosis is DBA actually have PS. Here, we evaluated patient DNA samples submitted for DBA genetic studies and found that 8 (4.6%) of 173 genetically uncharacterized patients contained large mtDNA deletions. Only 2 (25%) of the patients had been diagnosed with PS on clinical grounds subsequent to sample submission. We conclude that PS can be overlooked, and that mtDNA deletion testing should be performed in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with congenital anemia. PMID:24735966
A Pearson Random Walk with Steps of Uniform Orientation and Dirichlet Distributed Lengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Caër, Gérard
2010-08-01
A constrained diffusive random walk of n steps in ℝ d and a random flight in ℝ d , which are equivalent, were investigated independently in recent papers (J. Stat. Phys. 127:813, 2007; J. Theor. Probab. 20:769, 2007, and J. Stat. Phys. 131:1039, 2008). The n steps of the walk are independent and identically distributed random vectors of exponential length and uniform orientation. Conditioned on the sum of their lengths being equal to a given value l, closed-form expressions for the distribution of the endpoint of the walk were obtained altogether for any n for d=1,2,4. Uniform distributions of the endpoint inside a ball of radius l were evidenced for a walk of three steps in 2D and of two steps in 4D. The previous walk is generalized by considering step lengths which have independent and identical gamma distributions with a shape parameter q>0. Given the total walk length being equal to 1, the step lengths have a Dirichlet distribution whose parameters are all equal to q. The walk and the flight above correspond to q=1. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for any d≥2 and n≥2 for the endpoint distributions of two families of walks whose q are integers or half-integers which depend solely on d. These endpoint distributions have a simple geometrical interpretation. Expressed for a two-step planar walk whose q=1, it means that the distribution of the endpoint on a disc of radius 1 is identical to the distribution of the projection on the disc of a point M uniformly distributed over the surface of the 3D unit sphere. Five additional walks, with a uniform distribution of the endpoint in the inside of a ball, are found from known finite integrals of products of powers and Bessel functions of the first kind. They include four different walks in ℝ3, two of two steps and two of three steps, and one walk of two steps in ℝ4. Pearson-Liouville random walks, obtained by distributing the total lengths of the previous Pearson-Dirichlet walks according to some
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chun-mei; Zhang, Chong-ming; Zou, Jun-zhong; Zhang, Jian
2012-02-01
The diagnosis of several neurological disorders is based on the detection of typical pathological patterns in electroencephalograms (EEGs). This is a time-consuming task requiring significant training and experience. A lot of effort has been devoted to developing automatic detection techniques which might help not only in accelerating this process but also in avoiding the disagreement among readers of the same record. In this work, Neyman-Pearson criteria and a support vector machine (SVM) are applied for detecting an epileptic EEG. Decision making is performed in two stages: feature extraction by computing the wavelet coefficients and the approximate entropy (ApEn) and detection by using Neyman-Pearson criteria and an SVM. Then the detection performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the wavelet coefficients and the ApEn are features that represent the EEG signals well. By comparison with Neyman-Pearson criteria, an SVM applied on these features achieved higher detection accuracies.
Nai, Jianwei; Tian, Yu; Guan, Xin; Guo, Lin
2013-10-30
Designing a general route for rational synthesis of a series or families of nanomaterials for emerging applications has become more and more fascinating and vital in the view of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we explore a general strategy for fabricating uniform nanocages of metal hydroxides (MHs) and metal oxides (MOs). A template-assisted route inspired by Pearson's hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) principle was employed for synthesizing MH nanocages via meticulous selection of the coordinating etchant as well as optimization of the reaction conditions. The concept of "coordinating etching" is successfully achieved in this work. This unique route shows potential in designing well-defined and high-quality MH nanocages with varying components, shell thicknesses, shapes, and sizes at room temperature. Consequently, porous MO nanocages can be obtained readily just through appropriate thermal treament of the respective MH nanocages. The overall strategy present in this work extends the application of the HSAB principle in nanoscience and offers a unqiue clue for rational fabrication of hollow (porous) and/or amorphous structures on the nanoscale, where these nanocages may present promising potential for various applications. PMID:23724779
Log Pearson type 3 quantile estimators with regional skew information and low outlier adjustments
Griffis, V.W.; Stedinger, J.R.; Cohn, T.A.
2004-01-01
[1] The recently developed expected moments algorithm (EMA) [Cohn et al., 1997] does as well as maximum likelihood estimations at estimating log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) flood quantiles using systematic and historical flood information. Needed extensions include use of a regional skewness estimator and its precision to be consistent with Bulletin 17B. Another issue addressed by Bulletin 17B is the treatment of low outliers. A Monte Carlo study compares the performance of Bulletin 17B using the entire sample with and without regional skew with estimators that use regional skew and censor low outliers, including an extended EMA estimator, the conditional probability adjustment (CPA) from Bulletin 17B, and an estimator that uses probability plot regression (PPR) to compute substitute values for low outliers. Estimators that neglect regional skew information do much worse than estimators that use an informative regional skewness estimator. For LP3 data the low outlier rejection procedure generally results in no loss of overall accuracy, and the differences between the MSEs of the estimators that used an informative regional skew are generally modest in the skewness range of real interest. Samples contaminated to model actual flood data demonstrate that estimators which give special treatment to low outliers significantly outperform estimators that make no such adjustment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamanzad Ghavidel, Fatemeh; Claesen, Jürgen; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Valkenborg, Dirk
2013-11-01
To extract a genuine peptide signal from a mass spectrum, an observed series of peaks at a particular mass can be compared with the isotope distribution expected for a peptide of that mass. To decide whether the observed series of peaks is similar to the isotope distribution, a similarity measure is needed. In this short communication, we investigate whether the Mahalanobis distance could be an alternative measure for the commonly employed Pearson's χ2 statistic. We evaluate the performance of the two measures by using a controlled MALDI-TOF experiment. The results indicate that Pearson's χ2 statistic has better discriminatory performance than the Mahalanobis distance and is a more robust measure.
Complementarity and Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Lorenzo; Bruß, Dagmar; Macchiavello, Chiara
2015-04-01
We provide an interpretation of entanglement based on classical correlations between measurement outcomes of complementary properties: States that have correlations beyond a certain threshold are entangled. The reverse is not true, however. We also show that, surprisingly, all separable nonclassical states exhibit smaller correlations for complementary observables than some strictly classical states. We use mutual information as a measure of classical correlations, but we conjecture that the first result holds also for other measures (e.g., the Pearson correlation coefficient or the sum of conditional probabilities).
Complementarity and correlations.
Maccone, Lorenzo; Bruß, Dagmar; Macchiavello, Chiara
2015-04-01
We provide an interpretation of entanglement based on classical correlations between measurement outcomes of complementary properties: States that have correlations beyond a certain threshold are entangled. The reverse is not true, however. We also show that, surprisingly, all separable nonclassical states exhibit smaller correlations for complementary observables than some strictly classical states. We use mutual information as a measure of classical correlations, but we conjecture that the first result holds also for other measures (e.g., the Pearson correlation coefficient or the sum of conditional probabilities). PMID:25884117
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagstaff, David A.; Elek, Elvira; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio
2009-01-01
A nonparametric bootstrap was used to obtain an interval estimate of Pearson's "r," and test the null hypothesis that there was no association between 5th grade students' positive substance use expectancies and their intentions to not use substances. The students were participating in a substance use prevention program in which the unit of…
Use of "t"-Test and ANOVA in Career-Technical Education Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan
2012-01-01
Use of t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures in published research from three scholarly journals in career and technical education (CTE) during a recent 5-year period was examined. Information on post hoc analyses, reporting of effect size, alpha adjustments to account for multiple tests, power, and examination of assumptions…
T.E.S.T.S. (Taking Every Student to Success): Another Way To Assess.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDaniel, Lindy C.
This article on the T.E.S.T.S. (Taking Every Student To Success) strategy promotes using a variety of assessment strategies in order to alleviate the stress students experience during exams, enabling those who are not "good test takers" to achieve a higher degree of success. If the primary purpose of giving a test is to determine whether or not a…
Comparing Groups in a Before-After Design: When t Test and ANCOVA Produce Different Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wright, Daniel B.
2006-01-01
Background: Researchers often test people before and after some treatment and compare these scores with a control group. Sometimes it is not possible to allocate people into conditions randomly, which means the initial scores for the two groups may differ. There are two main approaches: t test on the gain scores and ANCOVA partialling out the…
Determining Differences in Efficacy of Two Disinfectants Using t-Tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brehm, Michael A.; And Others
1996-01-01
Presents an experiment to compare the effectiveness of 95% ethanol to 20% bleach as disinfectants using t-tests for the statistical analysis of the data. Reports that bleach is a better disinfectant. Discusses the statistical and practical significance of the results. (JRH)
Robust parametric bootstrap test with MOM estimator: An alternative to independent sample t-test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harun, Nurul Hanis; Yusof, Zahayu Md
2014-12-01
Normality and homogeneity are two major assumptions that need to be fulfilled when using independent sample t-test. However, not all data encompassed with these assumptions. Consequently, the result produced by independent sample t-test becomes invalid. Therefore, the alternative is to use robust statistical procedure in handling the problems of nonnormality and variances heterogeneity. This study proposed to use Parametric Bootstrap test with popular robust estimators, MADn and Tn which empirically determines the amount of trimming. The Type I error rates produced by each procedure were examined and compared with classical parametric test and nonparametric test namely independent sample t-test and Mann Whitney test, respectively. 5000 simulated data sets are used in this study in order to generate the Type I error for each procedure. The findings of this study indicate that the Parametric Bootstrap test with MADn and Tn produces the best Type I error control compared to the independent sample t-test and the Mann Whitney test under nonnormal distribution, heterogeneous variances and unbalanced design. Then, the performance of each procedure was demonstrated using real data.
Measuring correlations between non-stationary series with DCCA coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2014-05-01
In this short report, we investigate the ability of the DCCA coefficient to measure correlation level between non-stationary series. Based on a wide Monte Carlo simulation study, we show that the DCCA coefficient can estimate the correlation coefficient accurately regardless the strength of non-stationarity (measured by the fractional differencing parameter d). For a comparison, we also report the results for the standard Pearson correlation coefficient. The DCCA coefficient dominates the Pearson coefficient for non-stationary series.
Reducing Bias and Error in the Correlation Coefficient Due to Nonnormality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishara, Anthony J.; Hittner, James B.
2015-01-01
It is more common for educational and psychological data to be nonnormal than to be approximately normal. This tendency may lead to bias and error in point estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient. In a series of Monte Carlo simulations, the Pearson correlation was examined under conditions of normal and nonnormal data, and it was compared…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toothaker, Larry E.
The area investigated in the present study is the comparison of the permutation t-test with Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The comparison was made for small samples for three distributions, including a normal distribution, a uniform distribution, and a skewed distribution. The properties of each test compared were the probability of…
Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard
2011-11-01
Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses. PMID:21973094
Song, Young Dong; Jain, Nimash; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Yune
2016-01-01
Purpose Correlations between maximum flexion and functional outcomes in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients are reportedly weak. We investigated whether there are differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and other types of maximum flexion and whether the type of maximum flexion correlates with functional outcomes. Materials and Methods A total of 210 patients (359 knees) underwent preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up evaluations (6, 12, and 24 months) for the assessment of clinical outcomes including maximum knee flexion. Maximum flexion was measured under five conditions: passive nonweight bearing, passive weight bearing, active nonweight bearing, and active weight bearing with or without arm support. Data were analyzed for relationships between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing by Pearson correlation analyses, and a variance comparison between measurement techniques via paired t test. Results We observed substantial differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and the other four maximum flexion types. At all time points, passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing correlated poorly with active maximum flexion in weight bearing with or without arm support. Active maximum flexion in weight bearing better correlated with functional outcomes than the other maximum flexion types. Conclusions Our study suggests active maximum flexion in weight bearing should be reported together with passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing in research on the knee motion arc after TKA. PMID:27274468
Correlation between cell cycle proteins and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis and lip cancer.
Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; de Oliveira, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira; Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas
2016-04-01
This study aims to evaluate and verify the relationship between the immunoexpression of hMSH2, p53 and p21 in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. Forty AC and 40 SCC cases were submitted to immunoperoxidase method and quantitatively analyzed. Expression was compared by Mann-Whitney test, Student t test or one-way ANOVA. To correlate the variables, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. The expression of p53 and p21 showed no significant differences between histopathological grades of AC or lower lip SCC (p > 0.05). Immunoexpression of p53 was higher in SCC than in AC (p < 0.001), while p21 expression was more observed in AC when compared to SCC group (p = 0.006). The AC group revealed an inverse correlation between p53 and hMSH2 expression (r = -0.30, p = 0.006). Alterations in p53 and p21 expression suggest that these proteins are involved in lower lip carcinogenesis. Moreover, p53 and hMSH2 seem to be interrelated in early events of this process. PMID:26842232
Halpin, Peter F; Stam, Henderikus J
2006-01-01
The application of statistical testing in psychological research over the period of 1940-1960 is examined in order to address psychologists' reconciliation of the extant controversy between the Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches. Textbooks of psychological statistics and the psychological journal literature are reviewed to examine the presence of what Gigerenzer (1993) called a hybrid model of statistical testing. Such a model is present in the textbooks, although the mathematically incomplete character of this model precludes the appearance of a similarly hybridized approach to statistical testing in the research literature. The implications of this hybrid model for psychological research and the statistical testing controversy are discussed. PMID:17286092
Lakens, Daniël
2013-01-01
Effect sizes are the most important outcome of empirical studies. Most articles on effect sizes highlight their importance to communicate the practical significance of results. For scientists themselves, effect sizes are most useful because they facilitate cumulative science. Effect sizes can be used to determine the sample size for follow-up studies, or examining effects across studies. This article aims to provide a practical primer on how to calculate and report effect sizes for t-tests and ANOVA's such that effect sizes can be used in a-priori power analyses and meta-analyses. Whereas many articles about effect sizes focus on between-subjects designs and address within-subjects designs only briefly, I provide a detailed overview of the similarities and differences between within- and between-subjects designs. I suggest that some research questions in experimental psychology examine inherently intra-individual effects, which makes effect sizes that incorporate the correlation between measures the best summary of the results. Finally, a supplementary spreadsheet is provided to make it as easy as possible for researchers to incorporate effect size calculations into their workflow. PMID:24324449
Correlation as Probability of Common Descent.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Falk, Ruma; Well, Arnold D.
1996-01-01
One interpretation of the Pearson product-moment correlation ("r"), correlation as the probability of originating from common descent, important to the genetic measurement of inbreeding, is examined. The conditions under which "r" can be interpreted as the probability of "identity by descent" are specified, and the possibility of generalizing this…
Chen, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Si-Yu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Dong; Dong, Chang-Hu; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Wu, Yuan-Ming
2016-07-01
Pearson syndrome (PS) is a rare, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion disorder mainly affecting hematopoietic system and exocrine pancreas in early infancy, which is characterized by multi-organ involvement, variable manifestations and poor prognosis. Since the clinical complexity and uncertain outcome of PS, the ability to early diagnose and anticipate disease progression is of great clinical importance. We described a patient with severe anemia and hyperglycinemia at birth was diagnosed with neonatal diabetes mellitus, and later with PS. Genetic testing revealed that a novel mtDNA deletion existed in various non-invasive tissues from the patient. The disease course was monitored by mtDNA deletion heteroplasmy and mtDNA/nucleus DNA genome ratio in different tissues and at different time points, showing a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. Our findings suggest that for patient suspected for PS, it may be therapeutically important to first perform detailed mtDNA analysis on non-invasive tissues at the initial diagnosis and during disease progression. PMID:26016877
Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Talavera, Juan O
2013-01-01
Among the test to show differences between means, the Student t test is the most characteristic. Its basic algebraic structure shows the difference between two means weighted by their dispersion. In this way, you can estimate the p value and the 95 % confidence interval of the mean difference. An essential feature is that the variable from which the mean is going to be calculated must have a normal distribution. The Student t test is used to compare two unrelated means (compared between two maneuvers), this is known as t test for independent samples. It is also used to compare two related means (a comparison before and after a maneuver in just one group), what is called paired t test. When the comparison is between more than two means (three or more dependent means, or three or more independent means) an ANOVA test (or an analysis of variance) it is used to perform the analysis. PMID:23883459
Reassess the t Test: Interact with All Your Data via ANOVA
Brady, Siobhan M.; Burow, Meike; Busch, Wolfgang; Carlborg, Örjan; Denby, Katherine J.; Glazebrook, Jane; Hamilton, Eric S.; Harmer, Stacey L.; Haswell, Elizabeth S.; Maloof, Julin N.; Springer, Nathan M.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.
2015-01-01
Plant biology is rapidly entering an era where we have the ability to conduct intricate studies that investigate how a plant interacts with the entirety of its environment. This requires complex, large studies to measure how plant genotypes simultaneously interact with a diverse array of environmental stimuli. Successful interpretation of the results from these studies requires us to transition away from the traditional standard of conducting an array of pairwise t tests toward more general linear modeling structures, such as those provided by the extendable ANOVA framework. In this Perspective, we present arguments for making this transition and illustrate how it will help to avoid incorrect conclusions in factorial interaction studies (genotype × genotype, genotype × treatment, and treatment × treatment, or higher levels of interaction) that are becoming more prevalent in this new era of plant biology. PMID:26220933
Reassess the t Test: Interact with All Your Data via ANOVA.
Brady, Siobhan M; Burow, Meike; Busch, Wolfgang; Carlborg, Örjan; Denby, Katherine J; Glazebrook, Jane; Hamilton, Eric S; Harmer, Stacey L; Haswell, Elizabeth S; Maloof, Julin N; Springer, Nathan M; Kliebenstein, Daniel J
2015-08-01
Plant biology is rapidly entering an era where we have the ability to conduct intricate studies that investigate how a plant interacts with the entirety of its environment. This requires complex, large studies to measure how plant genotypes simultaneously interact with a diverse array of environmental stimuli. Successful interpretation of the results from these studies requires us to transition away from the traditional standard of conducting an array of pairwise t tests toward more general linear modeling structures, such as those provided by the extendable ANOVA framework. In this Perspective, we present arguments for making this transition and illustrate how it will help to avoid incorrect conclusions in factorial interaction studies (genotype × genotype, genotype × treatment, and treatment × treatment, or higher levels of interaction) that are becoming more prevalent in this new era of plant biology. PMID:26220933
Hildebrandt, Tom; Walker, D Catherine
2006-06-01
Figure rating scales are commonly used to measure body dissatisfaction through discrepancy indexes (e.g., difference between current and ideal body) and recent methodological work by Fingeret, Gleaves, and Pearson suggests that distinctions between referent bodies (e.g., ideal or most attractive) are unnecessary. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these findings using both male and female figure rating scales and an opposite-sex comparison group. We examined the relationship between three referent figures (Ideal, Most Attractive to the Opposite Sex, and Most Attractive) and attractiveness attributions in 365 undergraduate men (n=164) and women (n=201). Results suggested that referent figures were associated with different attractiveness attributions for both male and female figures, but physical characteristics differed only in male figures. The impact of referent bodies on discrepancy indexes was also explored. Considerations for future research using figure rating scales are discussed. PMID:18089220
Correlation between subjective and objective assessment of magnetic resonance (MR) images.
Chow, Li Sze; Rajagopal, Heshalini; Paramesran, Raveendran
2016-07-01
Medical Image Quality Assessment (IQA) plays an important role in assisting and evaluating the development of any new hardware, imaging sequences, pre-processing or post-processing algorithms. We have performed a quantitative analysis of the correlation between subjective and objective Full Reference - IQA (FR-IQA) on Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the human brain, spine, knee and abdomen. We have created a MR image database that consists of 25 original reference images and 750 distorted images. The reference images were distorted with six types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur, DCT compression, JPEG compression and JPEG2000 compression, at various levels of distortion. Twenty eight subjects were chosen to evaluate the images resulting in a total of 21,700 human evaluations. The raw scores were then converted to Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). Thirteen objective FR-IQA metrics were used to determine the validity of the subjective DMOS. The results indicate a high correlation between the subjective and objective assessment of the MR images. The Noise Quality Measurement (NQM) has the highest correlation with DMOS, where the mean Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are 0.936 and 0.938 respectively. The Universal Quality Index (UQI) has the lowest correlation with DMOS, where the mean PLCC and SROCC are 0.807 and 0.815 respectively. Student's T-test was used to find the difference in performance of FR-IQA across different types of distortion. The superior IQAs tested statistically are UQI for Rician noise images, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF) for Gaussian blur images, NQM for both DCT and JPEG compressed images, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) for JPEG2000 compressed images. PMID:26969762
Discrete Pearson distributions
Bowman, K.O.; Shenton, L.R.; Kastenbaum, M.A.
1991-11-01
These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.
Image segmentation using the student's t-test and the divergence of direction on spherical regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stetten, George; Horvath, Samantha; Galeotti, John; Shukla, Gaurav; Wang, Bo; Chapman, Brian
2010-03-01
We have developed a new framework for analyzing images called Shells and Spheres (SaS) based on a set of spheres with adjustable radii, with exactly one sphere centered at each image pixel. This set of spheres is considered optimized when each sphere reaches, but does not cross, the nearest boundary of an image object. Statistical calculations at varying scale are performed on populations of pixels within spheres, as well as populations of adjacent spheres, in order to determine the proper radius of each sphere. In the present work, we explore the use of a classical statistical method, the student's t-test, within the SaS framework, to compare adjacent spherical populations of pixels. We present results from various techniques based on this approach, including a comparison with classical gradient and variance measures at the boundary. A number of optimization strategies are proposed and tested based on pairs of adjacent spheres whose size are controlled in a methodical manner. A properly positioned sphere pair lies on opposite sides of an object boundary, yielding a direction function from the center of each sphere to the boundary point between them. Finally, we develop a method for extracting medial points based on the divergence of that direction function as it changes across medial ridges, reporting not only the presence of a medial point but also the angle between the directions from that medial point to the two respective boundary points that make it medial. Although demonstrated here only in 2D, these methods are all inherently n-dimensional.
Zhang, Guangya; Ge, Huihua
2013-10-01
Understanding of proteins adaptive to hypersaline environment and identifying them is a challenging task and would help to design stable proteins. Here, we have systematically analyzed the normalized amino acid compositions of 2121 halophilic and 2400 non-halophilic proteins. The results showed that halophilic protein contained more Asp at the expense of Lys, Ile, Cys and Met, fewer small and hydrophobic residues, and showed a large excess of acidic over basic amino acids. Then, we introduce a support vector machine method to discriminate the halophilic and non-halophilic proteins, by using a novel Pearson VII universal function based kernel. In the three validation check methods, it achieved an overall accuracy of 97.7%, 91.7% and 86.9% and outperformed other machine learning algorithms. We also address the influence of protein size on prediction accuracy and found the worse performance for small size proteins might be some significant residues (Cys and Lys) were missing in the proteins. PMID:23764527
Infiltrating Mast Cells Correlate with Angiogenesis in Bone Metastases from Gastric Cancer Patients
Ammendola, Michele; Marech, Ilaria; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Zuccalà, Valeria; Luposella, Maria; Zizzo, Nicola; Patruno, Rosa; Crovace, Alberto; Ruggieri, Eustachio; Zito, Alfredo Francesco; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Sacco, Rosario; Ranieri, Girolamo
2015-01-01
While gastric cancer is a well established angiogenesis driven tumor, no data has been published regarding angiogenesis stimulated by mast cells (MCs) positive for tryptase in bone metastases from gastric cancer patients (BMGCP). It is well established that MCs play a role in immune responses and more recently it was demonstrated that MCs have been involved in tumor angiogenesis. We analyzed infiltrating MCs and neovascularization in BMGCP diagnosed by histology. A series of 15 stage T3-4N2-3M1 (by AJCC for Gastric Cancer Staging 7th Edition) BMGCP from bone biopsies were selected. Tumour tissue samples were evaluated by mean of immunohistochemistry and image analysis methods in terms of MCs density positive to tryptase (MCDPT), MCs area positive to tryptase (MCAPT), microvascular density (MVD) and endothelial area (EA). A significant correlation between MCDPT, MCAPT, MVD and EA groups to each other was found by Pearson and t-test analysis (r ranged from 0.68 to 0.82; p-value ranged from 0.00 to 0.02). Our very preliminary data suggest that infiltrating MCs positive for tryptase may play a role in BMGCP angiogenesis, and could be further evaluated as a novel target of anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:25648323
Boareto, Marcelo; Caticha, Nestor
2014-01-01
Microarray data analysis typically consists in identifying a list of differentially expressed genes (DEG), i.e., the genes that are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions. Variance shrinkage methods have been considered a better choice than the standard t-test for selecting the DEG because they correct the dependence of the error with the expression level. This dependence is mainly caused by errors in background correction, which more severely affects genes with low expression values. Here, we propose a new method for identifying the DEG that overcomes this issue and does not require background correction or variance shrinkage. Unlike current methods, our methodology is easy to understand and implement. It consists of applying the standard t-test directly on the normalized intensity data, which is possible because the probe intensity is proportional to the gene expression level and because the t-test is scale- and location-invariant. This methodology considerably improves the sensitivity and robustness of the list of DEG when compared with the t-test applied to preprocessed data and to the most widely used shrinkage methods, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) and Linear Models for Microarray Data (LIMMA). Our approach is useful especially when the genes of interest have small differences in expression and therefore get ignored by standard variance shrinkage methods.
40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test IV Appendix IV to Part 264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES...
INTERPRETING THE DISTANCE CORRELATION RESULTS FOR THE COMBO-17 SURVEY
Richards, Mercedes T.; Richards, Donald St. P.; Martínez-Gómez, Elizabeth E-mail: richards@stat.psu.edu
2014-04-01
The accurate classification of galaxies in large-sample astrophysical databases of galaxy clusters depends sensitively on the ability to distinguish between morphological types, especially at higher redshifts. This capability can be enhanced through a new statistical measure of association and correlation, called the distance correlation coefficient, which has more statistical power to detect associations than does the classical Pearson measure of linear relationships between two variables. The distance correlation measure offers a more precise alternative to the classical measure since it is capable of detecting nonlinear relationships that may appear in astrophysical applications. We showed recently that the comparison between the distance and Pearson correlation coefficients can be used effectively to isolate potential outliers in various galaxy data sets, and this comparison has the ability to confirm the level of accuracy associated with the data. In this work, we elucidate the advantages of distance correlation when applied to large databases. We illustrate how the distance correlation measure can be used effectively as a tool to confirm nonlinear relationships between various variables in the COMBO-17 database, including the lengths of the major and minor axes, and the alternative redshift distribution. For these outlier pairs, the distance correlation coefficient is routinely higher than the Pearson coefficient since it is easier to detect nonlinear relationships with distance correlation. The V-shaped scatter plots of Pearson versus distance correlation coefficients also reveal the patterns with increasing redshift and the contributions of different galaxy types within each redshift range.
England, J.F., Jr.; Salas, J.D.; Jarrett, R.D.
2003-01-01
The expected moments algorithm (EMA) [Cohn et al., 1997] and the Bulletin 17B [Interagency Committee on Water Data, 1982] historical weighting procedure (B17H) for the log Pearson type III distribution are compared by Monte Carlo computer simulation for cases in which historical and/or paleoflood data are available. The relative performance of the estimators was explored for three cases: fixed-threshold exceedances, a fixed number of large floods, and floods generated from a different parent distribution. EMA can effectively incorporate four types of historical and paleoflood data: floods where the discharge is explicitly known, unknown discharges below a single threshold, floods with unknown discharge that exceed some level, and floods with discharges described in a range. The B17H estimator can utilize only the first two types of historical information. Including historical/paleoflood data in the simulation experiments significantly improved the quantile estimates in terms of mean square error and bias relative to using gage data alone. EMA performed significantly better than B17H in nearly all cases considered. B17H performed as well as EMA for estimating X100 in some limited fixed-threshold exceedance cases. EMA performed comparatively much better in other fixed-threshold situations, for the single large flood case, and in cases when estimating extreme floods equal to or greater than X500. B17H did not fully utilize historical information when the historical period exceeded 200 years. Robustness studies using GEV-simulated data confirmed that EMA performed better than B17H. Overall, EMA is preferred to B17H when historical and paleoflood data are available for flood frequency analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dugger-Roberts, Cherith A.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a relationship between the TCAP test and Pearson Benchmark assessment in elementary students' reading and language arts and math performance in a northeastern Tennessee school district. This study involved 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students. The study focused on the following…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, Azadeh; Glade, Thomas; Malet, Jean-Philippe
2010-09-01
The existence of a trend in hydrological and meteorological time series is detected by statistical tests. The trend analysis of hydrological and meteorological series is important to consider, because of the effects of global climate change. Parametric or non-parametric statistical tests can be used to decide whether there is a statistically significant trend. In this paper, first a homogeneity analysis was performed by using the non-parametric Bartlett test. Then, trend detection was estimated by using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. The null hypothesis in the Mann-Kendall test is that the data are independent and randomly ordered. The result of Mann-Kendall test was compared with the parametric T-Test for finding the existence of trend. To reach this purpose, the significance of trends was analyzed on monthly data of Ubaye river in Barcelonnette watershed in southeast of France at an elevation of 1132 m (3717 ft) during the period from 1928 to 2009 bases with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and parametric T-Test for river discharge and for meteorological data. The result shows that a rainfall event does not necessarily have an immediate impact on discharge. Visual inspection suggests that the correlation between observations made at the same time point is not very strong. In the results of the trend tests the p-value of the discharge is slightly smaller than the p-value of the precipitation but it seems that in both there is no statistically significant trend. In statistical hypothesis testing, a test statistic is a numerical summary of a set of data that reduces the data to one or a small number of values that can be used to perform a hypothesis test. Statistical hypothesis testing is determined if there is a significant trend or not. Negative test statistics and MK test in both precipitation and discharge data indicate downward trends. As conclusion we can say extreme flood event during recent years is strongly depending on: 1) location of the city: It is
Fay, Michael P.; Proschan, Michael A.
2010-01-01
In a mathematical approach to hypothesis tests, we start with a clearly defined set of hypotheses and choose the test with the best properties for those hypotheses. In practice, we often start with less precise hypotheses. For example, often a researcher wants to know which of two groups generally has the larger responses, and either a t-test or a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test could be acceptable. Although both t-tests and WMW tests are usually associated with quite different hypotheses, the decision rule and p-value from either test could be associated with many different sets of assumptions, which we call perspectives. It is useful to have many of the different perspectives to which a decision rule may be applied collected in one place, since each perspective allows a different interpretation of the associated p-value. Here we collect many such perspectives for the two-sample t-test, the WMW test and other related tests. We discuss validity and consistency under each perspective and discuss recommendations between the tests in light of these many different perspectives. Finally, we briefly discuss a decision rule for testing genetic neutrality where knowledge of the many perspectives is vital to the proper interpretation of the decision rule. PMID:20414472
BEIRANVAND, Reza; KARIMI, Asrin; DELPISHEH, Ali; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; SOLEIMANI, Samira; GHALAVANDI, Shahnaz
2016-01-01
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) spread pattern is influenced by geographic and social factors. Nowadays Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of the most important epidemiological instrumentation identifying high-risk population groups and geographic areas of TB. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between climate and geographic distribution of TB in Khuzestan Province using GIS during 2005–2012. Methods: Through an ecological study, all 6363 patients with definite diagnosis of TB from 2005 until the end of September 2012 in Khuzestan Province, southern Iran were diagnosed. Data were recorded using TB- Register software. Tuberculosis incidence based on the climate and the average of annual rain was evaluated using GIS. Data were analyzed through SPSS software. Independent t-test, ANOVA, Linear regression, Pearson and Eta correlation coefficient with a significance level of less than 5% were used for the statistical analysis. Results: The TB incidence was different in various geographic conditions. The highest mean of TB cumulative incidence rate was observed in extra dry areas (P= 0.017). There was a significant inverse correlation between annual rain rate and TB incidence rate (R= −0.45, P= 0.001). The lowest TB incidence rate (0–100 cases per 100,000) was in areas with the average of annual rain more than 1000 mm (P= 0.003). Conclusion: The risk of TB has a strong relationship with climate and the average of annual rain, so that the risk of TB in areas with low annual rainfall and extra dry climate is more than other regions. Services and special cares to high-risk regions of TB are recommended. PMID:27057526
Kumar, Ashish; Rana, Vivek; Aggarwal, Abhai; Chandra, Lokesh
2013-01-01
ABSTRACT Aims: To assess the relationship of anterior tooth fractures with type of occlusion and craniofacial morphology. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 76 subjects of age group 9 to 13 years with at least one fractured permanent anterior teeth. Lateral cephalograms were taken and study models were prepared for each subject with prior consent of their parents. Then cephalometric tracings were done and overjet was recorded through study models. Statistical analysis used: Standard error of mean (SEM) and unpaired t-test has been applied to test the significant difference between the seven parameters under consideration. Karl Pearson correlation test has also been used to correlate all the parameters used in this study with each other. All the tests were performed at 5 and 1% levels of significance. Results: Frequency of tooth fracture increases with increasing overjet. At 5% level of significance, significant difference were observed between the standard values and observed values for overjet measurement, SNA angle, SNB angle, ANB angle, upper incisor to NA (angle), upper incisor to NA (linear) and interincisal angle for overall data and also for both male and female data separately. Conclusion: Probability of permanent anterior tooth fracture increases with increasing overjet. A significant difference was observed between the standard value and the observed values of all parameters under consideration. How to cite this article: Chaturvedi R, Kumar A, Rana V, Aggarwal A, Chandra L. A Correlation of Permanent Anterior Tooth Fracture with Type of Occlusion and Craniofacial Morphology. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):80-84. PMID:25206197
Ashrafi, Farzad; Behnam, Behdad; Arab Ahmadi, Mehran; Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Pakdaman, Hossein; Kharrazi, Seyed Mohammad Hadi
2016-01-01
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnosis and management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief, sensitive test that has been recommended by National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) as a reliable tool to detect mild cognitive impairments. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between MoCA test and its sub-items with brain abnormalities in MRI of MS patients. Methods: Based on MRI scans of 46 MS patients, third ventricle and white matter lesions volumes were measured. Disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) were recorded in each patient. In addition, cognitive domains of the patients were evaluated by Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) test. We analyzed data using t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and non-parametric Spearman test. Furthermore, multiple linear regression model was applied to evaluate the association between cognitive indices and MRI characteristics. Results: Among MRI indices, only severity of atrophy showed a significant difference between cognitively impaired and cognitively preserved patients. Third ventricular volume was significantly correlated with total MoCA score (p=0.003, r=-0.42), but none of the juxtacortical or periventricular lesions volume revealed significant relation with total MoCA score. However, using multivariate linear regression after adjustment for educational level and disease duration, there was a significant negative association between juxtacortical lesions volume and total MoCA score as well as naming and attention sub-items. Also, memory score was adversely associated with the third ventricular volume (p=0.03, r=0.31). Conclusion: Cognitive disturbances detected by MoCA, may be associated with some pathological changes including atrophy, third ventricular volume, and juxtacortical lesion. MoCA, as a brief test, is not correlated
Bindal, Usha Dudeja; Siddiqui, Merajul Haque; Sharma, Dilutpal
2016-01-01
Introduction Despite, various preventive efforts on conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, the incidence of CVD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients increases continuously. To solve this conundrum one needs more investigations. Aim The present study was conducted to evaluate the plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity along with the markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and disease activity score-28 (DAS28) in RA patients and clarify their role in determining the probability of RA patients to develop future CVD risk. Materials and Methods Plasma PON, total antioxidant activity (TAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial interleukin-6 (IL-6) and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in 40 RA patients aged 40-55 years aged and 40 age-matched healthy controls. The data obtained were compared statistically by using Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Results Besides dyslipidaemia, marked reduction in plasma PON and TAA (p< 0.05) were observed in RA patients as compared with that of healthy controls. Erythrocyte MDA, plasma CRP and synovial IL-6 levels were increased significantly (p<0.05) in RA patients. PON was negatively correlated with MDA (r = - 0.672; p < 0.001), CRP (r = -0.458; p<0.05), IL-6 (r = -0.426; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r = -0.598; p < 0.001), and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.648; p<0.001) and TAA (r = 0.608; p< 0.001) levels in RA patients. Conclusion Alteration in PON activity might contribute to the progression of future CVD risk in RA patients, which may result from interplay of several confounding factors, such as inflammation, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, plasma PON activity, CRP and TAA levels could be considered as non-traditional factors to predict CVD risk. Thus, it is suggested that future drugs could be developed to target the non-traditional risk factors in RA patients. PMID:27134854
Bradley, Michael T; Brand, Andrew
2016-10-01
Accurate measurement and a cutoff probability with inferential statistics are not wholly compatible. Fisher understood this when he developed the F test to deal with measurement variability and to make judgments on manipulations that may be worth further study. Neyman and Pearson focused on modeled distributions whose parameters were highly determined and concluded that inferential judgments following an F test could be made with accuracy because the distribution parameters were determined. Neyman and Pearson's approach in the application of statistical analyses using alpha and beta error rates has played a dominant role guiding inferential judgments, appropriately in highly determined situations and inappropriately in scientific exploration. Fisher tried to explain the different situations, but, in part due to some obscure wording, generated a long standing dispute that currently has left the importance of Fisher's p < .05 criteria not fully understood and a general endorsement of the Neyman and Pearson error rate approach. Problems were compounded with power calculations based on effect sizes following significant results entering into exploratory science. To understand in a practical sense when each approach should be used, a dimension reflecting varying levels of certainty or knowledge of population distributions is presented. The dimension provides a taxonomy of statistical situations and appropriate approaches by delineating four zones that represent how well the underlying population of interest is defined ranging from exploratory situations to highly determined populations. PMID:27502529
Krishanappa, Savita Jangal; Prakash, Smitha Gowdra; Channabasaviah, Girish Hemdal; Murgod, Sanjay; Pujari, Ravikumar; Kamat, Mamata Sharad
2016-01-01
Introduction Angiogenesis is a fundamental process that affects physiologic reactions and pathological processes such as tumour development and metastasis. It is the process of formation of new microvessel from the preexisting vessels. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate angiogenesis, macrophage index and correlate the impact of macrophages on angiogenesis in the central and peripheral giant cell granulomas by evaluating immunohistochemically microvessel density, microvessel perimeter and macrophage index. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was carried on 20 cases of central and peripheral giant cell granulomas each for CD34 and CD68 proteins expression. Inferential statistical analysis was performed using Independent student t-test to assess the microvessel density, microvessel perimeter and macrophage index on continuous scale between Group I and Group II. Level of significance was determined at 5%. Further bivariate analysis using Pearson correlation test was carried out to see the relationship between microvessel density and macrophage index in each group. Results Microvessel density, micro vessel perimeter and macrophage index was higher in central giant cell granuloma compared to that of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Correlation between microvessel density and macrophage index among these two lesions was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Angiogenesis as well as the number of macrophages appeared to increase in Central Giant Cell Granuloma in present study. These findings suggest that macrophages may up regulate the angiogenesis in these giant cell granulomas and angiogenesis do have a role in clinical behaviour. However, we could not establish a positive correlation between microvessel density and macrophage index as the values were statistically insignificant. This insignificance may be presumed due to fewer samples taken for study. PMID:27134990
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Wai; Chan, Daniel W.-L.
2004-01-01
The standard Pearson correlation coefficient is a biased estimator of the true population correlation, ?, when the predictor and the criterion are range restricted. To correct the bias, the correlation corrected for range restriction, r-sub(c), has been recommended, and a standard formula based on asymptotic results for estimating its standard…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Wen-Chung
2004-01-01
The Pearson correlation is used to depict effect sizes in the context of item response theory. Amultidimensional Rasch model is used to directly estimate the correlation between latent traits. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to investigate whether the population correlation could be accurately estimated and whether the bootstrap method…
Ammendola, Michele; Sacco, Rosario; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Piardi, Tullio; Zuccalà, Valeria; Patruno, Rosa; Zullo, Alessandra; Zizzo, Nicola; Nardo, Bruno; Marech, Ilaria; Crovace, Alberto; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Pessaux, Patrick; Ranieri, Girolamo
2016-01-01
Background Mast cells (MCs) can stimulate angiogenesis, releasing several proangiogenic cytokines stored in their cytoplasm. In particular MCs can release tryptase, a potent in vivo and in vitro proangiogenic factor via proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Nevertheless, no data are available concerning the relationship between MC density positive to tryptase (MCDPT), endothelial cells positive to PAR-2 forming microvascular density (PAR-2-MVD), and classical MVD (C-MVD) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) angiogenesis. This study analyzed the correlation between MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD, each correlated to the others and to the main clinicopathological features, in early HCC patients who underwent surgery. Methods A series of 53 HCC patients with early stage (stage 0 according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging Classification) were selected and then underwent surgery. Tumor tissue samples were evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis methods in terms of number of MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD. Results A significant correlation between MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD groups, each correlated to the others, was found by Pearson t-test analysis (r ranged from 0.67 to 0.81; P-value ranged from 0.01 to 0.03). No other significant correlation was found. Conclusion Our in vivo pilot data suggest that MCDPT and PAR-2-MVD may play a role in HCC angiogenesis and could be further evaluated as a target of antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:27499640
Correlational Analysis and Interpretation: Graphs Prevent Gaffes. Faculty Forum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peden, Blaine F.
2001-01-01
Describes an activity that enables students to exercise their data entry, computational, graphical, and writing skills to learn the importance of graphs in good statistical analysis. Students use four data sets to enter data, compute Pearson correlation values, plot scatter graphs, and write results paragraphs. (CMK)
Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.
2006-01-01
The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gebresellasie, K.; Shirokoff, J.; Lewis, J. C.
2012-12-01
X-ray line spectra profile fitting using Pearson VII, pseudo-Voigt and generalized Fermi functions was performed on asphalt binders prior to the calculation of aromaticity and crystallite size parameters. The effects of these functions on the results are presented and discussed in terms of the peak profile fit parameters, the uncertainties in calculated values that can arise owing to peak shape, peak features in the pattern and crystallite size according to the asphalt models (Yen, modified Yen or Yen-Mullins) and theories. Interpretation of these results is important in terms of evaluating the performance of asphalt binders widely used in the application of transportation systems (roads, highways, airports).
Sohrabi, Zahra; Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi; Rezaeianzadeh, Abbas; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi
2015-01-01
Background: Malnutrition, inflammation and poor quality of life are prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Health-related quality of life is an important determinant of hospitalization and mortality in HD patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between quality of life and malnutrition-inflammation status according to subjective global assessment (SGA) and malnutrition-inflammation scores (MIS) in HD patients. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected 87 of 180 stable HD patients from two HD centers. Those on hemodialysis for at least three months and with malnutrition according to the SGA scores were included in this study. They were divided into two groups of mild to moderate malnutrition (n = 39) and severe malnutrition (n = 49) based on the SGA scores. Serum levels of transferrin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kt/v, body mass index and malnutrition-inflammation scores were measured in all patients. Health-related quality of life was assessed by validated short form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire for each patient. These values were compared between the two groups of patients by independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The correlations of nutritional variables with SGA and MIS scores were determined by Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. Results: There were no differences in measured parameters between the two groups except for MIS scores. Those with severe malnutrition showed higher MIS scores. All quality of life aspects and total scores (PCS, MCS) (rather than social functioning (SF) aspect) were significantly different between the two groups, which showed lower physical and mental scores in severely-malnourished patients. Physical functioning (PF), role limitations due to physical heath (RP), general health (GH), mental health (MH), SF, role limitation due to emotional health (RE), vitality (VT) aspects and total scores (PCS and MCS) had negative significant correlations with MIS and SGA scores (All P
Distance correlation methods for discovering associations in large astrophysical databases
Martínez-Gómez, Elizabeth; Richards, Mercedes T.; Richards, Donald St. P. E-mail: mrichards@astro.psu.edu
2014-01-20
High-dimensional, large-sample astrophysical databases of galaxy clusters, such as the Chandra Deep Field South COMBO-17 database, provide measurements on many variables for thousands of galaxies and a range of redshifts. Current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution rests sensitively on relationships between different astrophysical variables; hence an ability to detect and verify associations or correlations between variables is important in astrophysical research. In this paper, we apply a recently defined statistical measure called the distance correlation coefficient, which can be used to identify new associations and correlations between astrophysical variables. The distance correlation coefficient applies to variables of any dimension, can be used to determine smaller sets of variables that provide equivalent astrophysical information, is zero only when variables are independent, and is capable of detecting nonlinear associations that are undetectable by the classical Pearson correlation coefficient. Hence, the distance correlation coefficient provides more information than the Pearson coefficient. We analyze numerous pairs of variables in the COMBO-17 database with the distance correlation method and with the maximal information coefficient. We show that the Pearson coefficient can be estimated with higher accuracy from the corresponding distance correlation coefficient than from the maximal information coefficient. For given values of the Pearson coefficient, the distance correlation method has a greater ability than the maximal information coefficient to resolve astrophysical data into highly concentrated horseshoe- or V-shapes, which enhances classification and pattern identification. These results are observed over a range of redshifts beyond the local universe and for galaxies from elliptical to spiral.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hafdahl, Adam R.; Williams, Michelle A.
2009-01-01
In 2 Monte Carlo studies of fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis for correlations, A. P. Field (2001) ostensibly evaluated Hedges-Olkin-Vevea Fisher-[zeta] and Schmidt-Hunter Pearson-r estimators and tests in 120 conditions. Some authors have cited those results as evidence not to meta-analyze Fisher-[zeta] correlations, especially with…
Lee, Larissa J.; Sadow, Cheryl A.; Russell, Anthony; Viswanathan, Akila N.
2009-11-01
Purpose: To compare high dose rate (HDR) point B to pelvic lymph node dose using three-dimensional-planned brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with FIGO Stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer received 70 tandem HDR applications using CT-based treatment planning. The obturator, external, and internal iliac lymph nodes (LN) were contoured. Per fraction (PF) and combined fraction (CF) right (R), left (L), and bilateral (Bil) nodal doses were analyzed. Point B dose was compared with LN dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Mean PF and CF doses to point B were R 1.40 Gy +- 0.14 (CF: 7 Gy), L 1.43 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.15 Gy), and Bil 1.41 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.05 Gy). The correlation coefficients between point B and the D100, D90, D50, D2cc, D1cc, and D0.1cc LN were all less than 0.7. Only the D2cc to the obturator and the D0.1cc to the external iliac nodes were not significantly different from the point B dose. Significant differences between R and L nodal DVHs were seen, likely related to tandem deviation from irregular tumor anatomy. Conclusions: With HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer, per fraction nodal dose approximates a dose equivalent to teletherapy. Point B is a poor surrogate for dose to specific nodal groups. Three-dimensional defined nodal contours during brachytherapy provide a more accurate reflection of delivered dose and should be part of comprehensive planning of the total dose to the pelvic nodes, particularly when there is evidence of pathologic involvement.
Yang, Pei-Lin; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lou, Meei-Fang
2015-01-01
Background Poor sleep quality is a common health problem for coronary artery bypass graft patients, however few studies have evaluated sleep quality during the period immediately following hospital discharge. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate changes in sleep quality and emotional correlates in coronary artery bypass graft patients in Taiwan at 1 week and 1 month after hospital discharge. Methods We used a descriptive correlational design for this study. One week after discharge, 87 patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery completed two structured questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Three weeks later (1 month after discharge) the patients completed the surveys again. Pearson correlations, t-tests, ANOVA and linear multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results A majority of the participants had poor sleep quality at 1 week (82.8%) and 1 month (66.7%) post-hospitalization, based on the global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Despite poor sleep quality at both time-points the sleep quality at 1 month was significantly better than at 1-week post hospitalization. Poorer sleep quality correlated with older age, poorer heart function, anxiety and depression. The majority of participants had normal levels of anxiety at 1 week (69.0%) and 1 month (88.5%) as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. However, some level of depression was seen at 1 week (78.1%) and 1 month (59.7%). Depression was a significant predictor of sleep quality at 1 week; at 1 month after hospital discharge both anxiety and depression were significant predictors of sleep quality. Conclusion Sleep quality, anxiety and depression all significantly improved 1 month after hospital discharge. However, more than half of the participants continued to have poor sleep quality and some level of depression. Health care personnel should be encouraged to assess sleep and
Farruggia, Piero; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Pinto, Rita M; Palmisani, Elena; Macaluso, Alessandra; Valvo, Laura Lo; Cantarini, Maria E; Tornesello, Assunta; Corti, Paola; Fioredda, Francesca; Varotto, Stefania; Martire, Baldo; Moroni, Isabella; Puccio, Giuseppe; Russo, Giovanna; Dufour, Carlo; Pillon, Marta
2016-01-01
Pearson syndrome (PS) is a very rare and often fatal multisystemic mitochondrial disorder involving the liver, kidney, pancreas, and hematopoietic and central nervous system. It is characterized principally by a transfusion-dependent anemia that usually improves over time, a tendency to develop severe infections, and a high mortality rate. We describe a group of 11 PS patients diagnosed in Italy in the period 1993-2014. The analysis of this reasonably sized cohort of patients contributes to the clinical profile of the disease and highlights a rough incidence of 1 case/million newborns. Furthermore, it seems that some biochemical parameters like increased serum alanine and urinary fumaric acid can help to address an early diagnosis. PMID:26238250
Distribution of the two-sample t-test statistic following blinded sample size re-estimation.
Lu, Kaifeng
2016-05-01
We consider the blinded sample size re-estimation based on the simple one-sample variance estimator at an interim analysis. We characterize the exact distribution of the standard two-sample t-test statistic at the final analysis. We describe a simulation algorithm for the evaluation of the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis at given treatment effect. We compare the blinded sample size re-estimation method with two unblinded methods with respect to the empirical type I error, the empirical power, and the empirical distribution of the standard deviation estimator and final sample size. We characterize the type I error inflation across the range of standardized non-inferiority margin for non-inferiority trials, and derive the adjusted significance level to ensure type I error control for given sample size of the internal pilot study. We show that the adjusted significance level increases as the sample size of the internal pilot study increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26865383
Seol, Yeonee; Strub, Marie-Paule; Neuman, Keir C
2016-08-01
Magnetic tweezers is a versatile and easy to implement single-molecule technique that has become increasingly prevalent in the study of nucleic acid based molecular motors. Here, we provide a description of the magnetic tweezers instrument and guidelines for measuring and analyzing DNA helicase activity. Along with experimental methods, we describe a robust method of single-molecule trajectory analysis based on the Student's t-test that accommodates continuous transitions in addition to the discrete transitions assumed in most widely employed analysis routines. To illustrate the single-molecule unwinding assay and the analysis routine, we provide DNA unwinding measurements of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase under a variety of conditions (Na+, ATP, temperature, and DNA substrate geometry). These examples reveal that DNA unwinding measurements under various conditions can aid in elucidating the unwinding mechanism of DNA helicase but also emphasize that environmental effects on DNA helicase activity must be considered in relation to in vivo activity and mechanism. PMID:27131595
Zheng, Lei; Diamond, Jerry M; Denton, Debra L
2013-02-01
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and state agencies evaluate the toxicity of effluent and surface water samples based on statistical endpoints derived from multiconcentration tests (e.g., no observed effect concentration, EC25). The test of significant toxicity (TST) analysis is a two-sample comparison test that uses Welch's t test to compare organism responses in a sample (effluent or surface water) with responses in a control or site sample. In general, any form of t test (Welch's t included) is appropriate only if the data meet assumptions of normality and homogeneous variances. Otherwise, nonparametric tests are recommended. TST was designed to use Welch's t as the statistical test for all whole effluent toxicity (WET) test data. The authors evaluated the suitability of using Welch's t test for analyzing two-sample toxicity (WET) data, and within the TST approach, by examining the distribution and variances of data from over 2,000 WET tests and by conducting multiple simulations of WET test data. Simulated data were generated having variances and nonnormal distributions similar to observed WET test data for control and the effluent treatment groups. The authors demonstrate that (1) moderately unequal variances (similar to WET data) have little effect on coverage of the t test or Welch t test (for normally distributed data), and (2) for nonnormally distributed data (similar in distribution to WET data) TST, using Welch's t test, has close to nominal coverage on the basis of simulations with up to a ninefold difference in variance between the effluent and control groups (∼95th percentile based on observed WET test data). PMID:23172744
Jaeschke, Lina; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Pischon, Tobias
2015-01-01
Objective Body surface scanners (BS), which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM) and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) compared to traditional manual measurements (MM). Methods As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL). Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Results Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0cm; r = 0.98). Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98). Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively. Conclusions Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO
On the correlation of a naturally and an artificially dichotomized variable.
Ulrich, Rolf; Wirtz, Markus
2004-11-01
A method is suggested for estimating the correlation of a naturally (X) and an artificially (Y) dichotomized variable. It is assumed that a normal random variable (L) underlies the artificially dichotomized variable. The proposed correlation coefficient recovers the product moment correlation coefficient between X and L from a fourfold table of X and Y. The suggested correlation coefficient nu is contrasted with the phi correlation and the biserial eta. The biserial eta was proposed by Karl Pearson and is conceptually related to the new correlation coefficient. However, in addition, Pearson's biserial eta invokes the assumption that the marginal distribution of L is normal, which contradicts its basic assumptions and thus does not recover the true correlation of L and X. Finally, an approximation is provided to simplify the calculation of nu and its standard error. PMID:15511306
Bhagavatula, Indira Devi; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Maste, Praful Suresh; Vilanilam, George C; Sathyaprabha, Talakkad N
2016-06-01
OBJECTIVE Respiratory abnormalities are well documented in acute spinal cord injury; however, the literature available for respiratory dysfunction in chronic compressive myelopathy (CCM) is limited. Respiratory dysfunction in CCM is often subtle and subclinical. The authors studied the pattern of respiratory dysfunction in patients with chronic cord compression by using spirometry, and the clinical and surgical implications of this dysfunction. In this study they also attempted to address the postoperative respiratory function in these patients. METHODS A prospective study was done in 30 patients in whom cervical CCM due to either cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was diagnosed. Thirty age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. None of the patients included in the study had any symptoms or signs of respiratory dysfunction. After clinical and radiological diagnosis, all patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) performed using a standardized Spirometry Kit Micro before and after surgery. The data were analyzed using Statistical Software SPSS version 13.0. Comparison between the 2 groups was done using the Student t-test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for PFT results and Nurick classification scores. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (prolapsed intervertebral disc) was the predominant cause of compression (n = 21, 70%) followed by OPLL (n = 9, 30%). The average patient age was 45.06 years. Degenerative cervical spine disease has a relatively younger onset in the Indian population. The majority of the patients (n = 28, 93.3%) had compression at or above the C-5 level. Ten patients (33.3%) underwent an anterior approach and discectomy, 11 patients (36.7%) underwent decompressive laminectomy, and the remaining 9 underwent either corpectomy with fusion or laminoplasty. The mean preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) (65%) of the
Correlating Species and Spectral Diversity using Remote Sensing in Successional Fields in Virginia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aneece, I.; Epstein, H. E.
2015-12-01
Conserving biodiversity can help preserve ecosystem properties and function. As the increasing prevalence of invasive plant species threatens biodiversity, advances in remote sensing technology can help monitor invasive species and their effects on ecosystems and plant communities. To assess whether we could study the effects of invasive species on biodiversity using remote sensing, we asked whether species diversity was positively correlated with spectral diversity, and whether correlations differed among spectral regions along the visible and near-infrared range. To answer these questions, we established community plots in secondary successional fields at the Blandy Experimental Farm in northern Virginia and collected vegetation surveys and ground-level hyperspectral data from 350 to 1025 nm wavelengths. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between spectral diversity and species diversity in the visible ranges of 350-499 nm (Pearson correlation=0.69, p=0.01), 500-589 nm (Pearson=0.64, p=0.03), and 590-674 nm (Pearson=0.70, p=0.01), slight positive correlation in the red edge range of 675-754 nm (Pearson=0.56, p=0.06), and no correlation in the near-infrared ranges of 755-924 nm (Pearson=-0.06, p=0.85) and 925-1025 nm (Pearson=0.30, p=0.34). These differences in correlations across spectral regions may be due to the elements that contribute to signatures in those regions and spectral data transformation methods. To investigate the role of pigment variability in these correlations, we estimated chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin concentrations of five dominant species in the plots using vegetation indices. Although interspecific variability in pigment levels exceeded intraspecific variability, chlorophyll (F value=118) was more varied within species than carotenoids (F=322) and anthocyanins (F=126), perhaps contributing to the lack of correlation between species diversity and spectral diversity in the red edge region. Interspecific
Liu, Haodi
2016-01-01
Introduction We assessed the correlation between iron deposition and the change of gliocyte metabolism in healthy subjects’ basal ganglia region, by using 3D-enhanced susceptibility weighted angiography (ESWAN) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Material and methods Seventy-seven healthy volunteers (39 female and 38 male subjects; age range: 24–82 years old) were enrolled in the experiment including ESWAN and proton MRS sequences, consent for which was provided by themselves or their guardians. For each subject, the mean phase value gained by ESWAN was used to evaluate the iron deposition; choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and mI/Cr ratios gained by 1H-MRS were used to evaluate gliocyte metabolism in the basal ganglia region of both sides. The paired t test was used to test the difference between the two sides of the basal ganglia region. Linear regression was performed to evaluate the relation between mean phase value and age. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the relationship between the result of ESWAN and 1H-MRS. Results There was no difference between the two sides of the basal ganglia region in the mean phase value and Cho/Cr. But in mI/Cr the mean phase value of each nucleus in bilateral basal ganglia decreased with increasing age. There are 16 r-values between the mean phase value and Cho/Cr and mI/Cr in bilateral basal ganglia region. And each of all p-values is less than 0.001 (p < 0.001). Conclusions Iron deposition in the bilateral basal ganglia is associated with the change of gliocyte metabolism with increasing age. Iron deposition in each nucleus of the basal ganglia region changes with age. PMID:26925133
Geerligs, Linda; Cam-Can; Henson, Richard N
2016-07-15
Studies of brain-wide functional connectivity or structural covariance typically use measures like the Pearson correlation coefficient, applied to data that have been averaged across voxels within regions of interest (ROIs). However, averaging across voxels may result in biased connectivity estimates when there is inhomogeneity within those ROIs, e.g., sub-regions that exhibit different patterns of functional connectivity or structural covariance. Here, we propose a new measure based on "distance correlation"; a test of multivariate dependence of high dimensional vectors, which allows for both linear and non-linear dependencies. We used simulations to show how distance correlation out-performs Pearson correlation in the face of inhomogeneous ROIs. To evaluate this new measure on real data, we use resting-state fMRI scans and T1 structural scans from 2 sessions on each of 214 participants from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing & Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) project. Pearson correlation and distance correlation showed similar average connectivity patterns, for both functional connectivity and structural covariance. Nevertheless, distance correlation was shown to be 1) more reliable across sessions, 2) more similar across participants, and 3) more robust to different sets of ROIs. Moreover, we found that the similarity between functional connectivity and structural covariance estimates was higher for distance correlation compared to Pearson correlation. We also explored the relative effects of different preprocessing options and motion artefacts on functional connectivity. Because distance correlation is easy to implement and fast to compute, it is a promising alternative to Pearson correlations for investigating ROI-based brain-wide connectivity patterns, for functional as well as structural data. PMID:27114055
Barua, Nabanita; Sitaraman, Chitra; Goel, Sonu; Chakraborti, Chandana; Mukherjee, Sonai; Parashar, Hemandra
2016-01-01
Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group). After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson's coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P < 0.001). Inferior GCC had highest area under curve (AUC) for detecting glaucoma (0.827) in POAG from normal population. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.5) when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715). Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable. PMID:27221682
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Tarar, Jessica M.
2015-01-01
The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing-Second Edition (CTOPP-2; Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, & Pearson, 2013) is a norm-referenced test that measures phonological processing skills related to reading for individuals aged 4 to 24. According to its authors, the CTOPP-2 may be used to identify individuals who are markedly below their…
The Social Correlates of Lexical Borrowing in Spanish in New York City
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Varra, Rachel Marie
2013-01-01
This dissertation investigates lexical borrowing in Spanish in New York. English-origin lexical material was extracted from a stratified sample of 146 Spanish-speaking informants of different ages, national origins, classes, etc., living in New York City. ANOVAs and Pearson correlations determined whether lexical borrowing frequency and the type…
Quantifying meta-correlations in financial markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenett, Dror Y.; Preis, Tobias; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
2012-08-01
Financial markets are modular multi-level systems, in which the relationships between the individual components are not constant in time. Sudden changes in these relationships significantly affect the stability of the entire system, and vice versa. Our analysis is based on historical daily closing prices of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from March 15th, 1939 until December 31st, 2010. We quantify the correlation among these components by determining Pearson correlation coefficients, to investigate whether mean correlation of the entire portfolio can be used as a precursor for changes in the index return. To this end, we quantify the meta-correlation - the correlation of mean correlation and index return. We find that changes in index returns are significantly correlated with changes in mean correlation. Furthermore, we study the relationship between the index return and correlation volatility - the standard deviation of correlations for a given time interval. This parameter provides further evidence of the effect of the index on market correlations and their fluctuations. Our empirical findings provide new information and quantification of the index leverage effect, and have implications to risk management, portfolio optimization, and to the increased stability of financial markets.
Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M
2014-09-01
In psychology, outliers are often excluded before running an independent samples t test, and data are often nonnormal because of the use of sum scores based on tests and questionnaires. This article concerns the handling of outliers in the context of independent samples t tests applied to nonnormal sum scores. After reviewing common practice, we present results of simulations of artificial and actual psychological data, which show that the removal of outliers based on commonly used Z value thresholds severely increases the Type I error rate. We found Type I error rates of above 20% after removing outliers with a threshold value of Z = 2 in a short and difficult test. Inflations of Type I error rates are particularly severe when researchers are given the freedom to alter threshold values of Z after having seen the effects thereof on outcomes. We recommend the use of nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests or robust Yuen-Welch tests without removing outliers. These alternatives to independent samples t tests are found to have nominal Type I error rates with a minimal loss of power when no outliers are present in the data and to have nominal Type I error rates and good power when outliers are present. PMID:24773354
Why Waveform Correlation Sometimes Fails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmichael, J.
2015-12-01
the Neyman Pearson criteria. Bottom: The histogram of the correlation statistic time series (gray) superimposed on the theoretical null distribution (black curve). The line shows the threshold, consistent with a right-tail probability, computed from the black curve.
Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike
2016-09-01
Correlations are the simplest and most commonly understood effect size statistic in psychology. The purpose of the current paper was to use a large sample of real-world data (109 correlations with 60,415 participants) to illustrate the base rate dependence of correlations when applied to dichotomous or ordinal data. Specifically, we examined the influence of the base rate on different effect size metrics. Correlations decreased when the dichotomous variable did not have a 50 % base rate. The higher the deviation from a 50 % base rate, the smaller the observed Pearson's point-biserial and Kendall's tau correlation coefficients. In contrast, the relationship between base rate deviations and the more commonly proposed alternatives (i.e., polychoric correlation coefficients, AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, and Cohen's d) were less remarkable, with AUCs being most robust to attenuation due to base rates. In other words, the base rate makes a marked difference in the magnitude of the correlation. As such, when using dichotomous data, the correlation may be more sensitive to base rates than is optimal for the researcher's goals. Given the magnitude of the association between the base rate and point-biserial correlations (r = -.81) and Kendall's tau (r = -.80), we recommend that AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, Cohen's d, or polychoric correlations should be considered as alternate effect size statistics in many contexts. PMID:26182856
Golband, Farnoosh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirhosseini, Fakhrossadat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh
2014-01-01
E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc) studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60); a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test) by using SPSS (V.16). The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05); whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05). Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners. PMID:25415821
Raghunandhan, S; Ravikumar, A; Kameswaran, Mohan; Mandke, Kalyani; Ranjith, R
2015-09-01
Indications for cochlear implantation have expanded today to include very young children and those with syndromes/multiple handicaps. Programming the implant based on behavioral responses may be tedious for audiologists in such cases, wherein matching an effective MAP and appropriate MAP becomes the key issue in the habilitation program. In 'Difficult to MAP' scenarios, objective measures become paramount to predict optimal current levels to be set in the MAP. We aimed, (a) to study the trends in multi-modal electrophysiological tests and behavioral responses sequentially over the first year of implant use, (b) to generate normative data from the above, (c) to correlate the multi-modal electrophysiological thresholds levels with behavioral comfort levels, and (d) to create predictive formulae for deriving optimal comfort levels (if unknown), using linear and multiple regression analysis. This prospective study included ten profoundly hearing impaired children aged between 2 and 7 years with normal inner ear anatomy and no additional handicaps. They received the Advanced Bionics HiRes 90K Implant with Harmony Speech processor and used HiRes-P with Fidelity 120 strategy. They underwent, Impedance Telemetry, Neural Response Imaging, Electrically Evoked Stapedial Response Telemetry and Electrically Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response tests at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months of implant use, in conjunction with behavioral Mapping. Trends in electrophysiological and behavioral responses were analyzed using paired t test. By Karl Pearson's correlation method, electrode-wise correlations were derived for NRI thresholds versus Most Comfortable Levels (M-Levels) and offset based (apical, mid-array and basal array) correlations for EABR and ESRT thresholds versus M-Levels were calculated over time. These were used to derive predictive formulae by linear and multiple regression analysis. Such statistically predicted M-Levels were compared with the behaviorally recorded M-Levels among
On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation
Love, Jeffrey J.
2013-01-01
We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is “statistically significant.” On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are “insignificant.” Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.
On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Love, Jeffrey J.
2013-08-01
We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is "statistically significant." On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are "insignificant." Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.
Weighted network analysis of high-frequency cross-correlation measures.
Iori, Giulia; Precup, Ovidiu V
2007-03-01
In this paper we implement a Fourier method to estimate high-frequency correlation matrices from small data sets. The Fourier estimates are shown to be considerably less noisy than the standard Pearson correlation measures and thus capable of detecting subtle changes in correlation matrices with just a month of data. The evolution of correlation at different time scales is analyzed from the full correlation matrix and its minimum spanning tree representation. The analysis is performed by implementing measures from the theory of random weighted networks. PMID:17500762
Weighted network analysis of high-frequency cross-correlation measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iori, Giulia; Precup, Ovidiu V.
2007-03-01
In this paper we implement a Fourier method to estimate high-frequency correlation matrices from small data sets. The Fourier estimates are shown to be considerably less noisy than the standard Pearson correlation measures and thus capable of detecting subtle changes in correlation matrices with just a month of data. The evolution of correlation at different time scales is analyzed from the full correlation matrix and its minimum spanning tree representation. The analysis is performed by implementing measures from the theory of random weighted networks.
On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.
2016-06-01
We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.
Predicting missing links via correlation between nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2015-10-01
As a fundamental problem in many different fields, link prediction aims to estimate the likelihood of an existing link between two nodes based on the observed information. Since this problem is related to many applications ranging from uncovering missing data to predicting the evolution of networks, link prediction has been intensively investigated recently and many methods have been proposed so far. The essential challenge of link prediction is to estimate the similarity between nodes. Most of the existing methods are based on the common neighbor index and its variants. In this paper, we propose to calculate the similarity between nodes by the Pearson correlation coefficient. This method is found to be very effective when applied to calculate similarity based on high order paths. We finally fuse the correlation-based method with the resource allocation method, and find that the combined method can substantially outperform the existing methods, especially in sparse networks.
Genome-scale cluster analysis of replicated microarrays using shrinkage correlation coefficient
Yao, Jianchao; Chang, Chunqi; Salmi, Mari L; Hung, Yeung Sam; Loraine, Ann; Roux, Stanley J
2008-01-01
Background Currently, clustering with some form of correlation coefficient as the gene similarity metric has become a popular method for profiling genomic data. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the standard deviation (SD)-weighted correlation coefficient are the two most widely-used correlations as the similarity metrics in clustering microarray data. However, these two correlations are not optimal for analyzing replicated microarray data generated by most laboratories. An effective correlation coefficient is needed to provide statistically sufficient analysis of replicated microarray data. Results In this study, we describe a novel correlation coefficient, shrinkage correlation coefficient (SCC), that fully exploits the similarity between the replicated microarray experimental samples. The methodology considers both the number of replicates and the variance within each experimental group in clustering expression data, and provides a robust statistical estimation of the error of replicated microarray data. The value of SCC is revealed by its comparison with two other correlation coefficients that are currently the most widely-used (Pearson correlation coefficient and SD-weighted correlation coefficient) using statistical measures on both synthetic expression data as well as real gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two leading clustering methods, hierarchical and k-means clustering were applied for the comparison. The comparison indicated that using SCC achieves better clustering performance. Applying SCC-based hierarchical clustering to the replicated microarray data obtained from germinating spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, we discovered two clusters of genes with shared expression patterns during spore germination. Functional analysis suggested that some of the genetic mechanisms that control germination in such diverse plant lineages as mosses and angiosperms are also conserved among ferns. Conclusion This study shows that SCC is
Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang
2016-06-01
A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels. PMID:27172980
Giraud, B G; Heumann, J M; Lapedes, A S
1999-05-01
The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such "noncausal correlation" is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range "noncausal" correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. PMID:11969452
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, David M.; Boboltz, David
2013-01-01
This report summarizes the activities of the Washington Correlator for 2012. The Washington Correlator provides up to 80 hours of attended processing per week plus up to 40 hours of unattended operation, primarily supporting Earth Orientation and astrometric observations. In 2012, the major programs supported include the IVS-R4, IVS-INT, APSG, and CRF observing sessions.
DuRoss, Christopher B.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; McDonald, Greg N.; Briggs, Richard W.
2012-01-01
Of the five central segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) having evidence of recurrent Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes, the Brigham City segment (BCS) has the longest elapsed time since its most recent surface-faulting event (~2.1 kyr) compared to its mean recurrence time between events (~1.3 kyr). Thus, the BCS has the highest time-dependent earthquake probability of the central WFZ. We excavated trenches at three sites––the Kotter Canyon and Hansen Canyon sites on the north-central BCS and Pearsons Canyon site on the southern BCS––to determine whether a surface-faulting earthquake younger than 2.1 ka occurred on the BCS. Paleoseismic data for Hansen Canyon and Kotter Canyon confirm that the youngest earthquake on the north-central BCS occurred before 2 ka, consistent with previous north-central BCS investigations at Bowden Canyon and Box Elder Canyon. At Hansen Canyon, the most recent earthquake is constrained to 2.1–4.2 ka and had 0.6–2.5 m of vertical displacement. At Kotter Canyon, we found evidence for two events at 2.5 ± 0.3 ka and 3.5 ± 0.3 ka, with an average displacement per event of 1.9–2.3 m. Paleoseismic data from Pearsons Canyon, on the previously unstudied southern BCS, indicate that a post-2 ka earthquake ruptured this part of the segment. The Pearsons Canyon earthquake occurred at 1.2 ± 0.04 ka and had 0.1–0.8 m of vertical displacement, consistent with our observation of continuous, youthful scarps on the southern 9 km of the BCS having 1–2 m of late Holocene(?) surface offset. The 1.2-ka earthquake on the southern BCS likely represents rupture across the Weber–Brigham City segment boundary from the penultimate Weber-segment earthquake at about 1.1 ka. The Pearsons Canyon data result in a revised length of the BCS that has not ruptured since 2 ka (with time-dependent probability implications), and provide compelling evidence of at least one segment-boundary failure and multi-segment rupture on the central WFZ. Our
Akdemir, Nermin; Cinemre, Fatma Behice; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Cinemre, Hakan; Ünal, Orhan; Ozden, Selçuk; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Kacal, Zubeyde; Akdemir, Ramazan
2016-08-01
In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in primary dysmenorrhea patients. The study employed a cross-sectional design. Eighty-nine female university students with primary dysmenorrhea were included in the study. All patients underwent complete clinical and laboratory investigations, including serum ADMA, AMH levels, pelvic ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis were used to evaluate associations between continuous data. Categorical associations were evaluated using χ(2) test. Correlation analysis between serum ADMA and AMH levels in the study group showed a highly significant positive relationship (Pearson correlation = 0.978, p = 0.01). Our study has shown a significant positive correlation between serum ADMA and AMH levels in primary dysmenorrhea. Serum ADMA levels may have the potential to demonstrate ovarian reserve. PMID:27523455
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kmetz, Barbara Fotta
2001-07-01
This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test
Gene differential coexpression analysis based on biweight correlation and maximum clique.
Zheng, Chun-Hou; Yuan, Lin; Sha, Wen; Sun, Zhan-Li
2014-01-01
Differential coexpression analysis usually requires the definition of 'distance' or 'similarity' between measured datasets. Until now, the most common choice is Pearson correlation coefficient. However, Pearson correlation coefficient is sensitive to outliers. Biweight midcorrelation is considered to be a good alternative to Pearson correlation since it is more robust to outliers. In this paper, we introduce to use Biweight Midcorrelation to measure 'similarity' between gene expression profiles, and provide a new approach for gene differential coexpression analysis. Firstly, we calculate the biweight midcorrelation coefficients between all gene pairs. Then, we filter out non-informative correlation pairs using the 'half-thresholding' strategy and calculate the differential coexpression value of gene, The experimental results on simulated data show that the new approach performed better than three previously published differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) methods. Moreover, we use the maximum clique analysis to gene subset included genes identified by our approach and previously reported T2D-related genes, many additional discoveries can be found through our method. PMID:25474074
Two scales of death anxiety: their reliability and correlation among Kuwaiti samples.
Abdel-Khalek, A M
1997-06-01
Arabic versions of the Templer Death Anxiety Scale and the Thorson and Powell Revised Death Anxiety Scale were administered to 117 male and 157 female Kuwaiti undergraduates. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the two scales were, respectively, .79 and .77. Pearson correlations for scores on the two scales were .54, .67, and .64 for men, women and the combined group, respectively, so reliability and concurrent validity of the scales were adequate for the Kuwaiti sample. PMID:9172204
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.
2014-04-01
Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques.
Burnett, T L; McDonald, S A; Gholinia, A; Geurts, R; Janus, M; Slater, T; Haigh, S J; Ornek, C; Almuaili, F; Engelberg, D L; Thompson, G E; Withers, P J
2014-01-01
Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640
Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.
2014-01-01
Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640
Richards, Joseph M.; Johnson, Byron Thomas
2002-01-01
The chemistry and toxicity of base flow and urban stormwater were characterized to determine if urban stormwater was degrading the water quality of the Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek Basins in and near the city of Springfield, Greene County, Missouri. Potentially toxic components of stormwater (nutrients, trace metals, and organic compounds) were identified to help resource managers identify and minimize the sources of toxicants. Nutrient loading to the James River from these two basins (especially the Wilsons Creek Basin) is of some concern because of the potential to degrade downstream water quality. Toxicity related to dissolved trace metal constituents in stormwater does not appear to be a great concern in these two basins. Increased heterotrophic activity, the result of large densities of fecal indicator bacteria introduced into the streams after storm events, could lead to associated dissolved oxygen stress of native biota. Analysis of stormwater samples detected a greater number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than were present in base-flow samples. The number and concentrations of pesticides detected in both the base-flow and stormwater samples were similar.Genotoxicity tests were performed to determine the bioavilability of chemical contaminants and determine the potential harmful effects on aquatic biota of Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek. Genotoxicity was determined from dialysates from both long-term (approximately 30 days) and storm-event (3 to 5 days) semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) samples that were collected in each basin. Toxicity tests of SPMD samples indicated evidence of genotoxins in all SPMD samples. Hepatic activity assessment of one long-term SPMD sample indicated evidence of contaminant uptake in fish. Chemical analyses of the SPMD samples found that relatively few pesticides and pesticide metabolites had been sequestered in the lipid material of the SPMD; however, numerous PAHs and
Correlates of Frailty Among Homeless Adults
Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Phillips, Linda R.; Mentes, Janet C.; Sarkisian, Catherine; Leake, Barbara
2013-01-01
Frailty, a relatively unexplored concept among vulnerable populations, may be a significant issue for homeless adults. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of frailty among middle age and older homeless adults (N = 150, 40–73). A Pearson (r) bivariate correlation revealed a weak relationship between frailty and being female (r = .230, p < .01). Significant moderate negative correlations were found between frailty and resilience (r = −.395, p < .01), social support (r = −.377, p < .01), and nutrition (r = −.652, p < .01). Furthermore, Spearman’s rho (rs) bivariate correlations revealed a moderate positive relationship between frailty and health care utilization (rs = .444, p < .01). A stepwise backward linear regression analysis was conducted and in the final model, age, gender, health care utilization, nutrition, and resilience were significantly related to frailty. Over the next two decades, there is an anticipated increase in the number of homeless adults which will necessitate a greater understanding of the needs of this hard-to-reach population. PMID:23676627
Temporal Correlations of the Running Maximum of a Brownian Trajectory.
Bénichou, Olivier; Krapivsky, P L; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Oshanin, Gleb
2016-08-19
We study the correlations between the maxima m and M of a Brownian motion (BM) on the time intervals [0,t_{1}] and [0,t_{2}], with t_{2}>t_{1}. We determine the exact forms of the distribution functions P(m,M) and P(G=M-m), and calculate the moments E{(M-m)^{k}} and the cross-moments E{m^{l}M^{k}} with arbitrary integers l and k. We show that correlations between m and M decay as sqrt[t_{1}/t_{2}] when t_{2}/t_{1}→∞, revealing strong memory effects in the statistics of the BM maxima. We also compute the Pearson correlation coefficient ρ(m,M) and the power spectrum of M_{t}, and we discuss a possibility of extracting the ensemble-averaged diffusion coefficient in single-trajectory experiments using a single realization of the maximum process. PMID:27588841
Temporal Correlations of the Running Maximum of a Brownian Trajectory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bénichou, Olivier; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Oshanin, Gleb
2016-08-01
We study the correlations between the maxima m and M of a Brownian motion (BM) on the time intervals [0 ,t1] and [0 ,t2], with t2>t1. We determine the exact forms of the distribution functions P (m ,M ) and P (G =M -m ), and calculate the moments E {(M-m ) k} and the cross-moments E {mlMk} with arbitrary integers l and k . We show that correlations between m and M decay as √{t1/t2 } when t2/t1→∞ , revealing strong memory effects in the statistics of the BM maxima. We also compute the Pearson correlation coefficient ρ (m ,M ) and the power spectrum of Mt, and we discuss a possibility of extracting the ensemble-averaged diffusion coefficient in single-trajectory experiments using a single realization of the maximum process.
Loussert Fonta, Céline; Humbel, Bruno M
2015-09-01
In recent years correlative microscopy, combining the power and advantages of different imaging system, e.g., light, electrons, X-ray, NMR, etc., has become an important tool for biomedical research. Among all the possible combinations of techniques, light and electron microscopy, have made an especially big step forward and are being implemented in more and more research labs. Electron microscopy profits from the high spatial resolution, the direct recognition of the cellular ultrastructure and identification of the organelles. It, however, has two severe limitations: the restricted field of view and the fact that no live imaging can be done. On the other hand light microscopy has the advantage of live imaging, following a fluorescently tagged molecule in real time and at lower magnifications the large field of view facilitates the identification and location of sparse individual cells in a large context, e.g., tissue. The combination of these two imaging techniques appears to be a valuable approach to dissect biological events at a submicrometer level. Light microscopy can be used to follow a labelled protein of interest, or a visible organelle such as mitochondria, in time, then the sample is fixed and the exactly same region is investigated by electron microscopy. The time resolution is dependent on the speed of penetration and fixation when chemical fixatives are used and on the reaction time of the operator for cryo-fixation. Light microscopy can also be used to identify cells of interest, e.g., a special cell type in tissue or cells that have been modified by either transfections or RNAi, in a large population of non-modified cells. A further application is to find fluorescence labels in cells on a large section to reduce searching time in the electron microscope. Multiple fluorescence labelling of a series of sections can be correlated with the ultrastructure of the individual sections to get 3D information of the distribution of the marked proteins: array
Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.
2010-04-13
A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.
Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Yong-Keun
2014-11-01
The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*, b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.
Estimating membrane voltage correlations from extracellular spike trains.
Dorn, Jessy D; Ringach, Dario L
2003-04-01
The cross-correlation coefficient between neural spike trains is a commonly used tool in the study of neural interactions. Two well-known complications that arise in its interpretation are 1) modulations in the correlation coefficient may result solely from changes in the mean firing rate of the cells and 2) the mean firing rates of the neurons impose upper and lower bounds on the correlation coefficient whose absolute values differ by an order of magnitude or more. Here, we propose a model-based approach to the interpretation of spike train correlations that circumvents these problems. The basic idea of our proposal is to estimate the cross-correlation coefficient between the membrane voltages of two cells from their extracellular spike trains and use the resulting value as the degree of correlation (or association) of neural activity. This is done in the context of a model that assumes the membrane voltages of the cells have a joint normal distribution and spikes are generated by a simple thresholding operation. We show that, under these assumptions, the estimation of the correlation coefficient between the membrane voltages reduces to the calculation of a tetrachoric correlation coefficient (a measure of association in nominal data introduced by Karl Pearson) on a contingency table calculated from the spike data. Simulations of conductance-based leaky integrate-and-fire neurons indicate that, despite its simplicity, the technique yields very good estimates of the intracellular membrane voltage correlation from the extracellular spike trains in biologically realistic models. PMID:12686584
Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Angelo; Carloni, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tozzi, Alberto E
2015-01-01
Pollen forecasts are in use everywhere to inform therapeutic decisions for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). We exploited data derived from Twitter in order to identify tweets reporting a combination of symptoms consistent with a case definition of ARC and those reporting the name of an antihistamine drug. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, we applied an algorithm aimed at automatically identifying jargon expressions related to medical terms. We compared weekly Twitter trends with National Allergy Bureau weekly pollen counts derived from US stations, and found a high correlation of the sum of the total pollen counts from each stations with tweets reporting ARC symptoms (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.95) and with tweets reporting antihistamine drug names (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.93). Longitude and latitude of the pollen stations affected the strength of the correlation. Twitter and other social networks may play a role in allergic disease surveillance and in signaling drug consumptions trends. PMID:26197474
Gates, Pearson Partner on Common Core
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gewertz, Catherine
2011-01-01
As states and school districts grapple with how to teach the skills outlined in the new common standards, two foundations have announced a partnership aimed at crafting complete, online curricula for those standards in mathematics and English/language arts that span nearly every year of a child's precollegiate education. The announcement last…
Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.
Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A
2016-08-19
We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors. PMID:27588857
Correlation of α-Lipoic Acid and S. Glutathione Level with Free Radical Excess in Tobacco Consumers
Kaur, Manjinder; Suhalka, M.L.; Shrivastav, Chanchal
2016-01-01
Introduction Tobacco consumption is a serious health hazard and most important avoidable cause of death worldwide. Tobacco is recognized as lethal toxin, ripping off 7-11 minutes of human life with each cigarette through harmful compounds and inducing free radical synthesis and a high rate of lipid peroxidation. These free radicals are scavenged by the endogenous antioxidants viz. S. Glutathione (S.GSH) and S. α-Lipoic acid (S. α-LA), thus preventing the endothelial damage. Aim The present study was designed with an aim to find out the lipid peroxidative stress through S. Malondialdehyde (S.MDA) and its correlation with antioxidant levels like S. Glutathione (S. GSH) and S. α- Lipoic acid (S. α- LA) among tobacco users (in both smokers and chewers). Materials and Methods A case control cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology among 200 subjects; aged 18-50 years of both sexes which were chosen randomly from institutional campus and healthy volunteers. The subjects were broadly divided into two groups (A & B); group A comprised of tobacco users (n=150) with history of smoking cigarette/biddies and chewing tobacco daily, for at least one year and group B had controls (non tobacco users) (n=50). S. MDA, S.GSH and S. α-LA levels were estimated by standardized methods. The data was analysed by unpaired student t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) for finding the correlation between antioxidants and S.MDA in group-A and group-B. Results The present study reports the significantly higher (p<0.0001) levels of S.MDA and lower (p<0.0001) levels of S.GSH and S. α-LA in tobacco users as compared to nontobacco users. The observed value of S.MDA was (2.72±0.87, 1.39±0.47) nmol/ml, S. α-LA was (9.94±5.96, 14.24 ± 4.34) μg/ml and S.GSH was (23.24±7.04, 32.82±2.95) mg/dl respectively in group-A and group-B. A significant (p<0.01) strong negative correlation was observed between S. MDA and antioxidants (S.GSH and S.
Explore Interregional EEG Correlations Changed by Sport Training Using Feature Selection
2016-01-01
This paper investigated the interregional correlation changed by sport training through electroencephalography (EEG) signals using the techniques of classification and feature selection. The EEG data are obtained from students with long-time professional sport training and normal students without sport training as baseline. Every channel of the 19-channel EEG signals is considered as a node in the brain network and Pearson Correlation Coefficients are calculated between every two nodes as the new features of EEG signals. Then, the Partial Least Square (PLS) is used to select the top 10 most varied features and Pearson Correlation Coefficients of selected features are compared to show the difference of two groups. Result shows that the classification accuracy of two groups is improved from 88.13% by the method using measurement of EEG overall energy to 97.19% by the method using EEG correlation measurement. Furthermore, the features selected reveal that the most important interregional EEG correlation changed by training is the correlation between left inferior frontal and left middle temporal with a decreased value. PMID:26880880
On correlated reaction sets and coupled reaction sets in metabolic networks.
Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Hosseini, Zhaleh
2015-08-01
Two reactions are in the same "correlated reaction set" (or "Co-Set") if their fluxes are linearly correlated. On the other hand, two reactions are "coupled" if nonzero flux through one reaction implies nonzero flux through the other reaction. Flux correlation analysis has been previously used in the analysis of enzyme dysregulation and enzymopathy, while flux coupling analysis has been used to predict co-expression of genes and to model network evolution. The goal of this paper is to emphasize, through a few examples, that these two concepts are inherently different. In other words, except for the case of full coupling, which implies perfect correlation between two fluxes (R(2) = 1), there are no constraints on Pearson correlation coefficients (CC) in case of any other type of (un)coupling relations. In other words, Pearson CC can take any value between 0 and 1 in other cases. Furthermore, by analyzing genome-scale metabolic networks, we confirm that there are some examples in real networks of bacteria, yeast and human, which approve that flux coupling and flux correlation cannot be used interchangeably. PMID:25747383
Esquivel, G B; Lopez, E
1988-10-01
This study explored the correlations among nonverbal reasoning ability, creativity, and academic achievement in gifted minority children, 89 girls and 71 boys in Grades 1 through 8 in a program for gifted. A random half of students from all grade levels were tested at the beginning of the year and the remaining half after 7 mo. with Raven Progressive Matrices, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and the California Achievement Test. Pearson correlations reflected limited relations among these variables except for a significant positive value between creativity and reading achievement. Suggestions for further study and implications for identification procedures and program development were provided. PMID:3217184
Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
2015-01-01
Cercariae and metacercariae of three species of the Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 were found in snails and crustaceans from tributaries of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948, which have previously been reported in Queensland, were found as cercariae in the tateid gastropod Posticobia brazieri (Smith) and as metacercariae of M. brevisacciferum in the atyid shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman and of M. minutus in the parastacid crayfish Cherax dispar Reik. Combined analysis of morphological and molecular data, based on newly generated ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data, linked cercariae and metacercariae for both species. This is the first report of the first intermediate hosts of M. brevisacciferum and M. minutus. Infections of another unidentified microphallid metacercariae, Microphallidae gen. sp., were found in P. brazieri and C. indistincta. The sequences of metacercarial isolates from both hosts were identical. The data on the Microphallidae from Australia and species that develop in freshwater invertebrates were examined in detail. PMID:26447840
Closure and ratio correlation analysis of lunar chemical and grain size data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, J. C.
1976-01-01
Major element and major element plus trace element analyses were selected from the lunar data base for Apollo 11, 12 and 15 basalt and regolith samples. Summary statistics for each of the six data sets were compiled, and the effects of closure on the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient were investigated using the Chayes and Kruskal approximation procedure. In general, there are two types of closure effects evident in these data sets: negative correlations of intermediate size which are solely the result of closure, and correlations of small absolute value which depart significantly from their expected closure correlations which are of intermediate size. It is shown that a positive closure correlation will arise only when the product of the coefficients of variation is very small (less than 0.01 for most data sets) and, in general, trace elements in the lunar data sets exhibit relatively large coefficients of variation.
Inferring correlation networks from genomic survey data.
Friedman, Jonathan; Alm, Eric J
2012-01-01
High-throughput sequencing based techniques, such as 16S rRNA gene profiling, have the potential to elucidate the complex inner workings of natural microbial communities - be they from the world's oceans or the human gut. A key step in exploring such data is the identification of dependencies between members of these communities, which is commonly achieved by correlation analysis. However, it has been known since the days of Karl Pearson that the analysis of the type of data generated by such techniques (referred to as compositional data) can produce unreliable results since the observed data take the form of relative fractions of genes or species, rather than their absolute abundances. Using simulated and real data from the Human Microbiome Project, we show that such compositional effects can be widespread and severe: in some real data sets many of the correlations among taxa can be artifactual, and true correlations may even appear with opposite sign. Additionally, we show that community diversity is the key factor that modulates the acuteness of such compositional effects, and develop a new approach, called SparCC (available at https://bitbucket.org/yonatanf/sparcc), which is capable of estimating correlation values from compositional data. To illustrate a potential application of SparCC, we infer a rich ecological network connecting hundreds of interacting species across 18 sites on the human body. Using the SparCC network as a reference, we estimated that the standard approach yields 3 spurious species-species interactions for each true interaction and misses 60% of the true interactions in the human microbiome data, and, as predicted, most of the erroneous links are found in the samples with the lowest diversity. PMID:23028285
Inferring Correlation Networks from Genomic Survey Data
Friedman, Jonathan; Alm, Eric J.
2012-01-01
High-throughput sequencing based techniques, such as 16S rRNA gene profiling, have the potential to elucidate the complex inner workings of natural microbial communities - be they from the world's oceans or the human gut. A key step in exploring such data is the identification of dependencies between members of these communities, which is commonly achieved by correlation analysis. However, it has been known since the days of Karl Pearson that the analysis of the type of data generated by such techniques (referred to as compositional data) can produce unreliable results since the observed data take the form of relative fractions of genes or species, rather than their absolute abundances. Using simulated and real data from the Human Microbiome Project, we show that such compositional effects can be widespread and severe: in some real data sets many of the correlations among taxa can be artifactual, and true correlations may even appear with opposite sign. Additionally, we show that community diversity is the key factor that modulates the acuteness of such compositional effects, and develop a new approach, called SparCC (available at https://bitbucket.org/yonatanf/sparcc), which is capable of estimating correlation values from compositional data. To illustrate a potential application of SparCC, we infer a rich ecological network connecting hundreds of interacting species across 18 sites on the human body. Using the SparCC network as a reference, we estimated that the standard approach yields 3 spurious species-species interactions for each true interaction and misses 60% of the true interactions in the human microbiome data, and, as predicted, most of the erroneous links are found in the samples with the lowest diversity. PMID:23028285
Correlation coefficient estimation involving a left censored laboratory assay variable.
Lyles, R H; Fan, D; Chuachoowong, R
2001-10-15
When assessing a correlation between two exposure or biological marker variables, one sometimes encounters the problem of indeterminate values for one of the variables due to an assay detection limit. In this event, investigators often report correlation coefficients computed after removing the pairs involving non-detectable values, or after substituting some small constant for those values. These ad hoc practices can lead to bias in both point and confidence interval estimates of the true correlation coefficient. To address this issue, we consider two parametric techniques for estimating the correlation in the presence of left censoring for one of the variables. The first is a maximum likelihood approach, and the second is an adaptation of multiple imputation motivated primarily by potential benefits in confidence interval coverage. Both of the estimators studied reduce to the standard Pearson's correlation coefficient in the event of no censoring, and hence are valid in cases where this measure would be appropriate for the complete data. We assess these approaches empirically and contrast them with ad hoc methods for estimating the correlation between cervicovaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load measurements and CD4+ lymphocyte counts from HIV positive women enrolled in a clinical trial conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. PMID:11568949
Sella size and jaw bases - Is there a correlation???
Neha; Mogra, Subraya; Shetty, Vorvady Surendra; Shetty, Siddarth
2016-01-01
Introduction: Sella turcica is an important cephalometric structure and attempts have been made in the past to correlate its dimensions to the malocclusion. However, no study has so far compared the size of sella to the jaw bases that determine the type of malocclusion. The present study was undertaken to find out any such correlation if it exists. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 110 adults consisting of 40 Class I, 40 Class II, and 30 Class III patients were assessed for the measurement of sella length, width, height, and area. The maxillary length, mandibular ramus height, and body length were also measured. The sella dimensions were compared among three malocclusion types by one-way ANOVA. Pearson correlation was calculated between the jaw size and sella dimensions. Furthermore, the ratio of jaw base lengths and sella area were calculated. Results and Conclusion: Mean sella length, width and area were found to be greatest in Class III, followed by Class I and least in Class II though the results were not statistically significant. 3 out of 4 measured dimensions of sella, correlated significantly with mandibular ramus and body length each. However, only one dimension of sella showed significant correlation with maxilla. The mandibular ramus and body length show a nearly constant ratio to sella area (0.83–0.85, 0.64–0.65, respectively) in all the three malocclusions. Thus, mandible has a definite and better correlation to the size of sella turcica. PMID:27041903
Robust asymptotic sampling theory for correlations in pedigrees.
Keen, K J; Elston, Robert C
2003-10-30
Methods to unravel the genetic determinants of non-Mendelian diseases lie at the next frontier of statistical approaches for human genetics. It is generally agreed that, before proceeding with segregation or linkage analysis, the trait under study ought to be shown to exhibit familial correlation. By coding dichotomous traits as binary variables, a single robust approach in the estimation of pedigree correlations, rather than two distinct approaches, can be used to assess the potential heritability of a trait, and, latterly, to examine the mode of inheritance. The asymptotic theory to conduct hypothesis tests and confidence intervals for correlations among different members of nuclear families is well established but is applicable only if the nuclear families are independent. As a further contribution to the literature, we derive the asymptotic sampling distribution of correlations between random variables among arbitrary pairs of members in extended families for the Pearson product-moment estimator with generalized weights. This derivation is done without assuming normality of the traits. The sampling distribution is shown to be asymptotically normal to first order, and hence large-sample hypothesis tests and confidence intervals with estimates of the variances and correlation coefficients are proposed. Discussion concludes with an example and a suggestion for future research. PMID:14518025
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian
2016-02-01
In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.
Academic correlates of Taiwanese senior high school students' happiness.
Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo
2009-01-01
This study examined the relation between academic factors and senior high school students' general happiness using a nationally representative sample of 11,061 11th graders in Taiwan. Pearson correlation analyses indicated that English teacher-perceived academic performance, mathematics teacher-perceived academic performance, teacher academic support, classmate academic support, organizational processes, and school satisfaction were positively related to students' general happiness,while disturbance in class was negatively related. Regression analysis found that objective academic achievement, mathematics teacher-perceived academic achievement, classmate academic support, disturbance in class, organizational processes, and most importantly, students' overall appraisals of their own happiness with school helped predict students' general happiness, account for 18.4% of the total variance. Among these variables, objective academic achievement and disturbance in class were negatively associated with general happiness. Some of the study's findings are consistent with those in the literature and some extend established accounts, while others point to future research directions. PMID:20432611
Image restoration through thin turbid layers by correlation with a known object.
He, Hexiang; Guan, Yefeng; Zhou, Jianying
2013-05-20
A method to recover the image of an object behind thin turbid layers is developed by wavefront shaping technique. The optimized wavefront is generated by modulating the scattering light of a known object with a spatial light modulator. A Pearson Correlation Coefficient is introduced as a cost function for the optimization. A beam scanning method based on optical memory effect is proposed to further enlarge the Field-of-View (FOV). The experimental results show good fidelity and large FOV of the recovered image. PMID:23736472
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shelley, Mack C., II; Schuh, John H.
This study examined the relationship between writing quality, readability, and selectivity in 17 higher education journals. Readability was assessed through two indexes of readability. Data were analyzed using zero-order Pearson product-moment correlations, independent two sample t-tests, and analysis of covariance. Findings show that quality of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aypay, Ahmet
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study is to examine the ICT usage and academic achievement of Turkish students in PISA 2006 data. The sample of the study included 4942 students from 160 schools. Frequencies, independent samples t-tests, ANOVAs, pearson correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and regression analysis were used. A high percentage…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Amanda Garrett
2009-01-01
The purpose of the mix-methods action research study was to seek how the changes in students' perceptions about teacher classroom interpersonal behaviors, the four efficacy sources and mathematics self-efficacy beliefs were related. The methods used to accomplish this were: descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
2016-01-01
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
Substance Abuse Counselors and Moral Reasoning: Hypothetical and Authentic Dilemmas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sias, Shari M.
2009-01-01
This exploratory study examined the assumption that the level of moral reasoning (Defining Issues Test; J. R. Rest, 1986) used in solving hypothetical and authentic dilemmas is similar for substance abuse counselors (N = 188). The statistical analyses used were paired-sample t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simultaneous multiple…
Type II Robustness of H0: Rho=0 for Non-Normal Distributions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wren, Stephanie D.
2010-01-01
Is the t test statistic for the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient robust to errors of the second kind? This investigation indirectly measured the effects of power through a type 2 error rate robustness study. The results were revealing. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.…
BDNF promoter I methylation correlates between post-mortem human peripheral and brain tissues.
Stenz, Ludwig; Zewdie, Seblewongel; Laforge-Escarra, Térèse; Prados, Julien; La Harpe, Romano; Dayer, Alexandre; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Perroud, Nader; Aubry, Jean-Michel
2015-02-01
Several psychiatric disorders have been associated with CpG methylation changes in CG rich promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mainly by extracting DNA from peripheral blood cells. Whether changes in peripheral DNA methylation can be used as a proxy for brain-specific alterations remains an open question. In this study we aimed to compare DNA methylation levels in BDNF promoter regions in human blood cells, muscle and brain regions using bisulfite-pyrosequencing. We found a significant correlation between the levels of BDNF promoter I methylation measured in quadriceps and vPFC tissues extracted from the same individuals (n = 98, Pearson, r = 0.48, p = 4.5 × 10(-7)). In the hippocampus, BDNF promoter I and IV methylation levels were strongly correlated (Pearson, n = 37, r = 0.74, p = 1.4 × 10(-7)). We found evidence for sex-dependent effect on BDNF promoter methylation levels in the various tissues and blood samples. Taken together, these data indicate a strong intra-individual correlation between peripheral and brain tissue. They also suggest that sex determines methylation patterns in BDNF promoter region across different types of tissue, including muscle, brain, and blood. PMID:25450314
Correlation between centrality metrics and their application to the opinion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Cong; Li, Qian; Van Mieghem, Piet; Stanley, H. Eugene; Wang, Huijuan
2015-03-01
In recent decades, a number of centrality metrics describing network properties of nodes have been proposed to rank the importance of nodes. In order to understand the correlations between centrality metrics and to approximate a high-complexity centrality metric by a strongly correlated low-complexity metric, we first study the correlation between centrality metrics in terms of their Pearson correlation coefficient and their similarity in ranking of nodes. In addition to considering the widely used centrality metrics, we introduce a new centrality measure, the degree mass. The mth-order degree mass of a node is the sum of the weighted degree of the node and its neighbors no further than m hops away. We find that the betweenness, the closeness, and the components of the principal eigenvector of the adjacency matrix are strongly correlated with the degree, the 1st-order degree mass and the 2nd-order degree mass, respectively, in both network models and real-world networks. We then theoretically prove that the Pearson correlation coefficient between the principal eigenvector and the 2nd-order degree mass is larger than that between the principal eigenvector and a lower order degree mass. Finally, we investigate the effect of the inflexible contrarians selected based on different centrality metrics in helping one opinion to compete with another in the inflexible contrarian opinion (ICO) model. Interestingly, we find that selecting the inflexible contrarians based on the leverage, the betweenness, or the degree is more effective in opinion-competition than using other centrality metrics in all types of networks. This observation is supported by our previous observations, i.e., that there is a strong linear correlation between the degree and the betweenness, as well as a high centrality similarity between the leverage and the degree.
Correlates of sleep quality in persons with HIV disease.
Nokes, K M; Kendrew, J
2001-01-01
This study used the Symptom Experience dimension of the revised UCSF Symptom Management Conceptual model to examine correlates of sleep quality in HIV-infected persons. According to this model, person, health/illness, and environment categories influence perception of a symptom. The average person in the sample (N = 58) reported being HIV-infected for 8.5 years and was 46 years old, not working, and a person of color. Depending on the level of data, either chi square or Pearson correlations were computed between the person, health/illness, and environment categories and the dependent variable, sleep quality, as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Person variables significantly related to sleep quality were employment status, trait anxiety, and general well-being. Health/illness variables significantly related to sleep quality were length of time living with HIV disease and five health status measures (depressive symptoms, state anxiety, symptom severity, daytime sleepiness, and functional status). The environmental variables associated with sleep quality were sleeping alone, having a separate bedroom, and sleeping in a noisy room. Correlates of better sleep quality are positive general well-being, less anxious personality trait and emotional state, less daytime sleepiness, less depressive symptoms, and less symptom severity. Correlates of worse sleep quality are impaired functional status and longer duration of living with HIV disease. PMID:11211669
Spatial correlation structure of monthly rainfall at a mesoscale region of north-eastern Bohemia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svoboda, Vojtěch; Máca, Petr; Hanel, Martin; Pech, Pavel
2015-07-01
The spatial correlation structure of monthly rainfall was analysed using data from 38 rain gauges located in north-eastern Bohemia. Three different inter-station correlation measures—Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient and Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient—were estimated using monthly rainfall records from a recent 31-year period. Six different theoretical parametric correlation models were identified using the nonlinear least squares method. The spatial correlation structure was described using the fitted parameters. Comparison of estimated correlation models showed that, as measured by standard error, the best fitted was a two-parameter exponential model. The relationships between parameters of the exponential two-parameter model were further explored and described. The temporal variability of correlation showed trends in the fitted parameters over the studied period. On a seasonal basis, the correlation between the stations was stronger in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. The spatial variability of estimated parameters revealed that parameters of Matérn and two-parameter exponential models were dependent on altitude.
Evaluation of Correlation of Blood Glucose and Salivary Glucose Level in Known Diabetic Patients
Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Padmavathi, B.N.; Rajan, S.Y.; Mamatha, G.P.; Kumar, Sandeep; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit
2015-01-01
Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogenous disease in which there is dysregulation of carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism; leading to elevated blood glucose levels. The present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between blood glucose and salivary glucose levels in known diabetic patients and control group and also to evaluate salivary glucose level as a diagnostic tool in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods A total number of 250 patients were studied, out of which 212 formed the study group and 38 formed the control group. Result Among 250 patients, correlation was evaluated between blood glucose and salivary glucose values which on analysis revealed Pearson correlation of 0.073. The p-value was 0.247, which was statistically non significant. Conclusion Salivary glucose values cannot be considered as a diagnostic tool for diabetic individuals. PMID:26155553
Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola
2014-01-01
Skin diseases are indicators of HIV/AIDS which correlates with WHO clinical stages. In resource limited environment where CD4 count is not readily available, they can be used in assessing HIV patients. The study aims to determine the mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV positive patients and their correlation with WHO clinical stages. A prospective cross-sectional study of mucocutaneous conditions was done among 215 newly diagnosed HIV patients from June 2008 to May 2012 at adult ART clinic, Wesley Guild Hospital Unit, OAU Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ilesha, Osun State, Nigeria. There were 156 dermatoses with oral/oesophageal/vaginal candidiasis (41.1%), PPE (24.4%), dermatophytic infections (8.9%), and herpes zoster (3.8%) as the most common dermatoses. The proportions of dermatoses were 4.5%, 21.8%, 53.2%, and 20.5% in stages 1–4, respectively. A significant relationship (using Pearson's Chi square with P value <0.05) was obtained between dermatoses and WHO clinical stages. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between the number of dermatoses and the WHO clinical stages. Dermatoses can therefore serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers in resource limited settings to initiate HAART in clinical stages 3 and 4. PMID:25587439
Correlation between nasal membrane permeability and nasal absorption rate.
Zhang, Hefei; Lin, Chih-Wei; Donovan, Maureen D
2013-03-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between in vitro permeability (Papp) values obtained from isolated nasal tissues and the absorption rates (ka) of the same compounds following nasal administration in animals and humans. The Papp of a set of 11 drug compounds was measured using animal nasal explants and plasma time-concentration profiles for each of the same compounds following intravenous (IV) and intranasal (IN) administration were experimentally determined or obtained from literature reports. The plasma clearance was estimated from the IV plasma time-concentration profiles, and ka was determined from the IN plasma time-concentration profiles using a deconvolution approach. The level of correlation between Papp and ka was established using Pearson correlation analysis. A good correlation (r=0.77) representing a point-to-point relationship for each of the compounds was observed. This result indicates that the nasal absorption for many drug candidates can be estimated from a readily measured in vitro Papp value. PMID:23225081
Correlation between standardized death rate for area and LA(50).
Jie, Xiao; Haijun, Wang; Zhiqiang, Wang; Guoyou, Fu; Guanghui, Hao
2003-05-01
In order to investigate the relationship between standardized death rate for area and 50% mortality rate for burn area (LA(50)), correlation analysis, curve estimation and linear regression were performed with the variables. The results showed that: (1) there was a similarity in sort order of standardized death rate in control groups of samples, compared with the experimental group; (2) there were significant differences between the sort order from low to high mortality rate of standardized death rate in control groups for burn area, compared with the sort order in the experimental group; (3) there was a similarity (P<0.05) in low to high sort order for standardized death rate compared with high to low sort order for LA(50) in the experimental group; and (4) there was an extraordinarily significant correlation (P<0.0001) between linear regression analysis and curve estimation for the standardized death rate and LA(50) using a Pearson correlation. The observation that there was a significant relation between the sort orders in standardized death rate and LA(50) shows that the standardized death rate for area can reflect accurately mortality in each of samples. PMID:12706619
Knudsen, Anders R; Andersen, Kasper J; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Nyengaard, Jens R; Mortensen, Frank V
2016-04-01
Circulating liver enzymes such as alanine transaminase are often used as markers of hepatocellular damage. Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an inevitable consequence of prolonged liver ischaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between liver enzymes and volume of liver cell necrosis after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries, using design-unbiased stereological methods. Forty-seven male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of partial liver ischaemia, followed by either 4 or 24 h of reperfusion. Within each group, one-third of animals were subjected to ischaemic preconditioning and one-third to ischaemic postconditioning. At the end of reperfusion, blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. The volume of necrotic liver tissue was subsequently correlated to circulating markers of I/R injury. Correlation between histological findings and circulating markers was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Alanine transferase peaked after 4 h of reperfusion; however, at this time-point, only mild necrosis was observed, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.663 (P = 0.001). After 24 h of reperfusion, alanine aminotransferase was found to be highly correlated to the degree of hepatocellular necrosis R = 0.836 (P = 0.000). Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase (R = 0.806) and α-2-macroglobulin (R = 0.655) levels were also correlated with the degree of necrosis. We show for the first time that there is a close correlation between the volume of hepatocellular necrosis and alanine aminotransferase levels in a model of I/R injury. This is especially apparent after 24 h of reperfusion. Similarly, increased levels of alkaline phosphatase and α-2-macroglobulin are correlated to the volume of liver necrosis. PMID:27292534
Codes with special correlation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumert, L. D.
1964-01-01
Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Surkis, Igor; Ken, Voitsekh; Melnikov, Alexey; Mishin, Vladimir; Sokolova, Nadezda; Shantyr, Violet; Zimovsky, Vladimir
2013-01-01
The activities of the six-station IAA RAS correlator include regular processing of national geodetic VLBI programs Ru-E, Ru-U, and Ru-F. The Ru-U sessions have been transferred in e-VLBI mode and correlated in the IAA Correlator Center automatically since 2011. The DiFX software correlator is used at the IAA in some astrophysical experiments.
Correlation in business networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souma, Wataru; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Kaizoji, Taisei
2006-10-01
This paper considers business networks. Through empirical study, we show that business networks display characteristics of small-world networks and scale-free networks. In this paper, we characterize firms as sales and bankruptcy probabilities. A correlation between sales and a correlation between bankruptcy probabilities in business networks are also considered. The results reveal that the correlation between sales depends strongly on the type of network, whereas the correlation between bankruptcy probabilities does so only weakly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro
2013-01-01
Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) is making use of two kinds of software correlators, the multi-channel K5/VSSP software correlator and the fast wide-band correlator 'GICO3,' for geodetic and R&D VLBI experiments. Overview of the activity and future plans are described in this paper.
Reverse Correlation in Neurophysiology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ringach, Dario; Shapley, Robert
2004-01-01
This article presents a review of reverse correlation in neurophysiology. We discuss the basis of reverse correlation in linear transducers and in spiking neurons. The application of reverse correlation to measure the receptive fields of visual neurons using white noise and m-sequences, and classical findings about spatial and color processing in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kozak, Marcin
2009-01-01
Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…
Constrained Canonical Correlation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeSarbo, Wayne S.; And Others
1982-01-01
A variety of problems associated with the interpretation of traditional canonical correlation are discussed. A response surface approach is developed which allows for investigation of changes in the coefficients while maintaining an optimum canonical correlation value. Also, a discrete or constrained canonical correlation method is presented. (JKS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Shun-Long; Li, Nan
2008-02-01
Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.
Measuring mixing patterns in complex networks by Spearman rank correlation coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Yao; Wei, Zong-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong; Han, Xiao-Pu
2016-06-01
In this paper, we utilize Spearman rank correlation coefficient to measure mixing patterns in complex networks. Compared with the widely used Pearson coefficient, Spearman coefficient is rank-based, nonparametric, and size-independent. Thus it is more effective to assess linking patterns of diverse networks, especially for large-size networks. We demonstrate this point by testing a variety of empirical and artificial networks. Moreover, we show that normalized Spearman ranks of stubs are subject to an interesting linear rule where the correlation coefficient is just the Spearman coefficient. This compelling linear relationship allows us to directly produce networks with any prescribed Spearman coefficient. Our method apparently has an edge over the well known uncorrelated configuration model.
Lim, C H; Tassone, C; Liu, X C; Thometz, J G; Lyon, R
2012-01-01
The Milwaukee Topographic Scanner (MTS) is a newly developed system, which utilizes laser technology to obtain three-dimensional topographic evaluation of the spine. The goal of this study was to determine the correlation of topographic measurements between MTS and Quantec Spinal Imaging System. Twelve parameters generated by the MTS and Quantec Spinal Imaging System was compared to each other using the Pearson Coefficient. Twenty patients between the ages 16-18 with scoliosis were evaluated with the MTS and Quantec. There were several parameters, which showed high correlations especially back height (0.972), coronal curve (0.952), and left trunk volume (0.905). MTS is a reliable three-dimensional topographic alternative to radiographs without the exposure to radiation. PMID:22744503
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, D. J.
2007-09-01
In the basic correlation process a sequence of time-lag-indexed correlation coefficients are computed as the inner or dot product of segments of two signals. The time-lag(s) for which the magnitude of the correlation coefficient sequence is maximized is the estimated relative time delay of the two signals. For discrete sampled signals, the delay estimated in this manner is quantized with the same relative accuracy as the clock used in sampling the signals. In addition, the correlation coefficients are real if the input signals are real. There have been many methods proposed to estimate signal delay to more accuracy than the sample interval of the digitizer clock, with some success. These methods include interpolation of the correlation coefficients, estimation of the signal delay from the group delay function, and beam forming techniques, such as the MUSIC algorithm. For spectral estimation, techniques based on phase differentiation have been popular, but these techniques have apparently not been applied to the correlation problem . We propose a phase based delay estimation method (PBDEM) based on the phase of the correlation function that provides a significant improvement of the accuracy of time delay estimation. In the process, the standard correlation function is first calculated. A time lag error function is then calculated from the correlation phase and is used to interpolate the correlation function. The signal delay is shown to be accurately estimated as the zero crossing of the correlation phase near the index of the peak correlation magnitude. This process is nearly as fast as the conventional correlation function on which it is based. For real valued signals, a simple modification is provided, which results in the same correlation accuracy as is obtained for complex valued signals.
Correlation and agreement: overview and clarification of competing concepts and measures
LIU, Jinyuan; TANG, Wan; CHEN, Guanqin; LU, Yin; FENG, Changyong; TU, Xin M.
2016-01-01
Summary: Agreement and correlation are widely-used concepts that assess the association between variables. Although similar and related, they represent completely different notions of association. Assessing agreement between variables assumes that the variables measure the same construct, while correlation of variables can be assessed for variables that measure completely different constructs. This conceptual difference requires the use of different statistical methods, and when assessing agreement or correlation, the statistical method may vary depending on the distribution of the data and the interest of the investigator. For example, the Pearson correlation, a popular measure of correlation between continuous variables, is only informative when applied to variables that have linear relationships; it may be non-informative or even misleading when applied to variables that are not linearly related. Likewise, the intraclass correlation, a popular measure of agreement between continuous variables, may not provide sufficient information for investigators if the nature of poor agreement is of interest. This report reviews the concepts of agreement and correlation and discusses differences in the application of several commonly used measures.
Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex
Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul
2010-01-01
Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141
Correlation and agreement: overview and clarification of competing concepts and measures.
Liu, Jinyuan; Tang, Wan; Chen, Guanqin; Lu, Yin; Feng, Changyong; Tu, Xin M
2016-04-25
Agreement and correlation are widely-used concepts that assess the association between variables. Although similar and related, they represent completely different notions of association. Assessing agreement between variables assumes that the variables measure the same construct, while correlation of variables can be assessed for variables that measure completely different constructs. This conceptual difference requires the use of different statistical methods, and when assessing agreement or correlation, the statistical method may vary depending on the distribution of the data and the interest of the investigator. For example, the Pearson correlation, a popular measure of correlation between continuous variables, is only informative when applied to variables that have linear relationships; it may be non-informative or even misleading when applied to variables that are not linearly related. Likewise, the intraclass correlation, a popular measure of agreement between continuous variables, may not provide sufficient information for investigators if the nature of poor agreement is of interest. This report reviews the concepts of agreement and correlation and discusses differences in the application of several commonly used measures. PMID:27605869
Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Pieper, Carl F.; Grubber, Janet; Van Scoyoc, Lynn; Schnell, Merritt L; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Pearson, Megan; Lafleur, Joanne; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Adler, Robert A.
2016-01-01
Purpose With ethical requirements to the enrollment of lower risk subjects, osteoporosis trials are underpowered to detect reduction in hip fractures. Different skeletal sites have different levels of fracture risk and response to treatment. We sought to identify fracture sites which cluster with hip fracture at higher than expected frequency; if these sites respond to treatment similarly, then a composite fracture endpoint could provide a better estimate of hip fracture reduction. Methods Cohort study using Veterans Affairs and Medicare administrative data. Male Veterans (n=5,036,536) aged 50-99 years receiving VA primary care between1999-2009 were included. Fractures were ascertained using ICD9 and CPT codes and classified by skeletal site. Pearson correlation coefficients, logistic regression and kappa statistics, were used to describe the correlation between each fracture type and hip fracture within individuals, without regards to the timing of the events. Results 595,579 (11.8%) men suffered 1 or more fractures and 179,597 (3.6%) suffered 2 or more fractures during the time under study. Of those with one or more fractures, rib was the most common site (29%), followed by spine (22%), hip (21%) and femur (20%). The fracture types most highly correlated with hip fracture were pelvic/acetabular (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.25, p<0.0001), femur (0.15, p<0.0001), and shoulder (0.11, p<0.0001). Conclusions Pelvic, acetabular, femur, and shoulder fractures cluster with hip fractures within individuals at greater than expected frequency. If we observe similar treatment risk reductions within that cluster, subsequent trials could consider use of a composite endpoint to better estimate hip fracture risk. PMID:26151123
Correlation between lidar-derived intensity and passive optical imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metcalf, Jeremy P.; Kim, Angela M.; Kruse, Fred A.; Olsen, Richard C.
2014-06-01
When LiDAR data are collected, the intensity information is recorded for each return, and can be used to produce an image resembling those acquired by passive imaging sensors. This research evaluated LiDAR intensity data to determine its potential for use as baseline imagery where optical imagery are unavailable. Two airborne LiDAR datasets collected at different point densities and laser wavelengths were gridded and compared with optical imagery. Optech Orion C200 laser data were compared with a corresponding 1541 nm spectral band from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). Optech ALTM Gemini LiDAR data collected at 1064 nm were compared to the WorldView-2 (WV-2) 949 - 1043 nm NIR2 band. Intensity images were georegistered and spatially resampled to match the optical data. The Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient was calculated between datasets to determine similarity. Comparison for the full LiDAR datasets yielded correlation coefficients of approximately 0.5. Because LiDAR returns from vegetation are known to be highly variable, a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated utilizing the optical imagery, and intensity and optical imagery were separated into vegetation and nonvegetation categories. Comparison of the LiDAR intensity for non-vegetated areas to the optical imagery yielded coefficients greater than 0.9. These results demonstrate that LiDAR intensity data may be useful in substituting for optical imagery where only LiDAR is available.
Statistical functions and relevant correlation coefficients of clearness index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavanello, Diego; Zaaiman, Willem; Colli, Alessandra; Heiser, John; Smith, Scott
2015-08-01
This article presents a statistical analysis of the sky conditions, during years from 2010 to 2012, for three different locations: the Joint Research Centre site in Ispra (Italy, European Solar Test Installation - ESTI laboratories), the site of National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden (Colorado, USA) and the site of Brookhaven National Laboratories in Upton (New York, USA). The key parameter is the clearness index kT, a dimensionless expression of the global irradiance impinging upon a horizontal surface at a given instant of time. In the first part, the sky conditions are characterized using daily averages, giving a general overview of the three sites. In the second part the analysis is performed using data sets with a short-term resolution of 1 sample per minute, demonstrating remarkable properties of the statistical distributions of the clearness index, reinforced by a proof using fuzzy logic methods. Successively some time-dependent correlations between different meteorological variables are presented in terms of Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and introducing a new one.
Wang, J; Zhang, H; Wu, C; Han, J; Guo, Z; Jia, C; Yang, L; Hao, Y; Xu, K; Liu, X; Si, J
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of the left ventricular diastolic function and the left ventricular geometry in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) by echocardiography. Methods: The 181 patients diagnosed with OSAS were divided into the normal geometry group (NG), the concentric remodelling group (CR), the eccentric hypertrophy group (EH) and the concentric hypertrophy group (CH). Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed toward the correlation of the left ventricular diastolic function and the left ventricular geometry. Results: The E peak in the EH and CH group was significantly reduced, with significant difference; the E/A, Em, Am and Em/Am was reduced in the order of the CR, EH and CH groups, while E/Em was increased, and the difference was significant. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the Em/Am showed significant negative correlations with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) [r = −0.419] and relative wall thickness (RWT) [r = −0.289], while the E/Em was significantly positively correlated with the LVMI (r = 0.638) and RWT [r = 0.328] (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that LVMI and RWT had influence on the Em/Am and E/Em (r2 = 0.402, r2 = 0.107, p < 0.001). The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was the worst in the CH group. Conclusions: There was correlation between the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the changes in cardiac geometry. PMID:26360680
Navascués, Miguel; Guryanova, Yelena; Hoban, Matty J; Acín, Antonio
2015-01-01
Quantum theory is not only successfully tested in laboratories every day but also constitutes a robust theoretical framework: small variations usually lead to implausible consequences, such as faster-than-light communication. It has even been argued that quantum theory may be special among possible theories. Here we report that, at the level of correlations among different systems, quantum theory is not so special. We define a set of correlations, dubbed 'almost quantum', and prove that it strictly contains the set of quantum correlations but satisfies all-but-one of the proposed principles to capture quantum correlations. We present numerical evidence that the remaining principle is satisfied too. PMID:25697645
Local available quantum correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mundarain, Douglas F.; de Guevara, María L. Ladrón
2015-12-01
In this work, local available quantum correlations are studied. They are defined in terms of mutual information of bipartite local measurements done over an optimal local basis complementary to the local basis which defines the respective classical correlations. For two qubits, it is always possible to choose the basis of classical correlations as the set of eigenvectors of σ _z (the third Pauli matrix) and complementary bases become the sets of eigenvectors of the observables orthogonal to σ _z. It is shown that all states with zero local available quantum correlations are separable but not necessarily strictly classical; this fact puts this kind of correlations in the middle between discord and entanglement. Since in many cases it may suffice to know whether a given state has quantum correlations, the structure of the states with zero local available quantum correlations is presented. It is also shown that there is a close connection between local available quantum correlations and the protocol of entanglement activation developed by Piani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 106:220403, 2011). If a state satisfies the sufficient condition for the entanglement swapping associated with this protocol, this state has nonzero local available quantum correlations.
ALMA correlator computer systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pisano, Jim; Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus
2004-09-01
We present a design for the computer systems which control, configure, and monitor the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) correlator and process its output. Two distinct computer systems implement this functionality: a rack- mounted PC controls and monitors the correlator, and a cluster of 17 PCs process the correlator output into raw spectral results. The correlator computer systems interface to other ALMA computers via gigabit Ethernet networks utilizing CORBA and raw socket connections. ALMA Common Software provides the software infrastructure for this distributed computer environment. The control computer interfaces to the correlator via multiple CAN busses and the data processing computer cluster interfaces to the correlator via sixteen dedicated high speed data ports. An independent array-wide hardware timing bus connects to the computer systems and the correlator hardware ensuring synchronous behavior and imposing hard deadlines on the control and data processor computers. An aggregate correlator output of 1 gigabyte per second with 16 millisecond periods and computational data rates of approximately 1 billion floating point operations per second define other hard deadlines for the data processing computer cluster.
Correlates of Academic Procrastination.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milgram, Norman A.; And Others
1993-01-01
Investigated concurrent correlates of academic procrastination in Israeli college preparatory students (n=113). Procrastination in one course of study was found to be moderately correlated with procrastination in another but not to procrastination in routine tasks of daily living. Procrastination was weakly related to emotional upset about it and…
Harmonic electron correlation operator.
Rassolov, Vitaly A
2011-07-21
An appealing way to model electron correlation within the single determinant wave function formalism is through the expectation value of a linear two-electron operator. For practical reasons, it is desirable for such an operator to be universal, i.e., not depend on the positions and types of nuclei in a molecule. We show how a perturbation theory applied to a hookium atom provides for a particular form of a correlation operator, hence called the harmonic correlation operator. The correlation operator approach is compared and contrasted to the traditional ways to describe electron correlation. To investigate the two-electron approximation of this operator, we apply it to many-electron hookium systems. To investigate the harmonic approximation, we apply it to the small atomic systems. Directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:21786991
Strongly-correlated heterostructures
Okamoto, Satoshi
2012-01-01
Electronic phase behavior in correlated-electron systems is a fundamental problem of condensed matter physics. The change in the phase behavior near surfaces and interfaces, i.e., {\\em electronic reconstruction}, is therefore the fundamental issue of the correlated-electron surface or interface science. In addition to basic science, understanding of such a phase behavior is of crucial importance for potential devices exploiting the novel properties of the correlated systems. In this article, we present a general overview of the field, and then discuss the recent theoretical progress mainly focusing on the correlation effects. We illustrate the general concept of {\\em electronic reconstruction} by studying model heterostructures consisting of strongly-correlated systems. Future directions for research are also discussed.
Cosmic rays activity and monthly number of deaths: a correlative study.
Stoupel, E; Israelevich, P; Petrauskiene, J; Kalediene, R; Abramson, E; Gabbay, U; Sulkes, J
2002-01-01
We studied the relation between the intensity of cosmic rays, the level of solar/geomagnetic activity, and the monthly numbers of deaths in a large hospital in Israel and in all Lithuania. The Israeli data include 30526 hospital deaths, two groups of fatal suicides (2359, 2763), and 15435 suicidal attempts for two periods of 108 and 236 consecutive months. The national data for the entire Republic of Lithuania include 424925 deaths for the period of 120 consecutive months. Cosmic rays intensity was measured by an Apatity neutron monitor. We obtained the data on solar, geomagnetic radiovawe propagation, ionosphere ionization hours, proton flux of two energy levels (>90 and 60 MeV) from the National Geophysical Data Center at Goddard Space Flight Center, National Space Environment Center at Boulder, Colorado, USA, and from the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN), Russia. We calculated Pearson coefficients and their probabilities for correlation between monthly space activity level and monthly number of male and female deaths from different causes. Cosmic rays activity revealed significant negative correlation with solar/geomagnetic activity indices and related physical phenomena levels. This activity strongly correlated with flux of protons with the energies >90 MeV proton flux and did not exhibit significant correlation with 60 MeV proton fluxes. Cosmic rays intensity correlation with monthly numbers of deaths was strong for noncardiovascular deaths, suicides, and traffic accidents. The correlation was much weaker for deaths caused by ishemic heart disease and strokes. PMID:12099402
Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCluskey, R.
2004-01-01
Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no significant linear correlations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.
Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali
2015-01-01
Background: Effective leadership is essential to passing through obstacles facing the health field.The current health care system in Iran has major problems and gaps in the field of effective leadership. The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital managers’ leadership style through selfassessment and to determine the correlation between leadership styles with healthcare executives’ leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire completed by all internal healthcare executives of all teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaire was composed to determine demographic information, leadership style questions, leadership effectiveness and leadership readiness. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: According to the findings, the dominant style of healthcare executives was transformational leadership style (with a score of 4.34). The leadership effectiveness was estimated at about 4.36 that shows the appropriate level of leadership effectiveness. There was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.244) between leadership readiness and transformational leadership style (p<0.05). Also, there was a significant correlation between leadership effectiveness with transformational (0.051) and transactional (0.216) styles. Conclusion: There was a correlation between leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness with leadership styles. Application of this research will be crucial to universities and healthcare executives. This study suggests that strengthening the scientific basis is essential for leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness in healthcare system. PMID:26000260
Nosrati, R; Owlia, P; Saderi, H; Olamaee, M; Rasooli, I; Akhavian, Tehrani A
2012-01-01
Background and Objectives Azotobacter vinelandii, a gamma-proteobacterium, is an obligate aerobic free-living gram-negative soil bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. Oxygen transfer rate into the cell is reduced by the increase of alginate concentrations during the course of A. vinelandii cultivation. This phenomenon provides a low intracellular oxygen concentration needed for nitrogenase activity. The aim of this study was to design a simple strategy to explain the alginate production, cell growth and nitrogenase activity correlation in A. vinelandii under aerobic conditions. Material and Methods Thirty-five different soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of agricultural crops of Iran. Enrichment and isolation strategies were employed for microbial isolation. Physiological and biochemical characteristics were determined. Molecular identification was performed using selective nifH-g1 primers. Alginate production and nitrogenase activity assay by each isolate of Azotobacter were carried out. Bacterial growth, alginate production and Nitrogenase activity were conducted by time-coursed quantitative measurements. Results Total of 26 isolates were selected after enrichment, isolation, and screening. The isolate was identified by molecular tests as A. vinelandii. The highest alginate productions of 1.02 g/l and 0.91g/l were noted after 4 days in 8 isolates, cell biomass of which were estimated 4.88-5.26 g/l. Six of 8 isolates were able to fix atmospheric N2 on nitrogen-free medium. Rates obtained in isolates were in the range of 12.1 to 326.4 nmol C2H4 h-1 vial-1. Conclusions Nitrogen fixation and alginate production yielded significant and positive Pearson's correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.760, p ∼ 0.02. Finally association between bacterial growth, alginate production and nitrogenase activity almost noticeable yielded significant and positive Pearson's correlation coefficient R2= 0.723, p ∼ 0.04. PMID:23066492
Correlation reflectometry at TEXTOR
Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Soldatov, S.; Vowinkel, B.; Mueller, P.
2010-11-15
In high temperature fusion plasmas the transport of energy and particles is commonly believed to be driven by turbulence. Turbulence quantities as correlation length and decorrelation time are important for the confinement properties of a plasma. Besides other diagnostics, correlation reflectometry has proven to be a suitable tool for the measurement of turbulence properties. At the medium sized Toroidal EXperiment for Technical Oriented Research (TEXTOR) the existing correlation reflectometry has been recently upgraded. A new reflectometer based on a microwave synthesizer has been developed and installed for the investigation of turbulence properties in a fusion plasma. Together with the existing reflectometer the measurement of radial correlation length and decorrelation time becomes available. Both reflectometers are computer controlled and allow to program individual frequency sequences and the duration of each frequency step. With the existing poloidal antenna array at {theta}=0 deg. and on top of the vacuum vessel, the system allows the measurement of radial correlation and poloidal correlations at the same time. First experiments have been performed and the results on the radial correlation length of density fluctuations in a fusion plasma are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V.; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano
2016-06-01
Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging.
Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.
D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano
2016-06-01
Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging. PMID:27314718
Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations
Koch, Volker
2008-10-09
We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.
Haystack Observatory VLBI Correlator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Titus, Mike; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Dudevoir, Kevin; Niell, Arthur; Whitney, Alan
2013-01-01
This report summarizes the activities of the Haystack Correlator during 2012. Highlights include finding a solution to the DiFX InfiniBand timeout problem and other DiFX software development, conducting a DBE comparison test following the First International VLBI Technology Workshop, conducting a Mark IV and DiFX correlator comparison, more broadband delay experiments, more u- VLBI Galactic Center observations, and conversion of RDV session processing to the Mark IV/HOPS path. Non-real-time e-VLBI transfers and engineering support of other correlators continued.
Statistics of atmospheric correlations.
Santhanam, M S; Patra, P K
2001-07-01
For a large class of quantum systems, the statistical properties of their spectrum show remarkable agreement with random matrix predictions. Recent advances show that the scope of random matrix theory is much wider. In this work, we show that the random matrix approach can be beneficially applied to a completely different classical domain, namely, to the empirical correlation matrices obtained from the analysis of the basic atmospheric parameters that characterize the state of atmosphere. We show that the spectrum of atmospheric correlation matrices satisfy the random matrix prescription. In particular, the eigenmodes of the atmospheric empirical correlation matrices that have physical significance are marked by deviations from the eigenvector distribution. PMID:11461326
Entropic Nonsignaling Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Rafael; Budroni, Costantino
2016-06-01
We introduce the concept of entropic nonsignaling correlations, i.e., entropies arising from probabilistic theories that are compatible with the fact that we cannot transmit information instantaneously. We characterize and show the relevance of these entropic correlations in a variety of different scenarios, ranging from typical Bell experiments to more refined descriptions such as bilocality and information causality. In particular, we apply the framework to derive the first entropic inequality testing genuine tripartite nonlocality in quantum systems of arbitrary dimension and also prove the first known monogamy relation for entropic Bell inequalities. Further, within the context of complex Bell networks, we show that entropic nonlocal correlations can be activated.
(111)In-exendin uptake in the pancreas correlates with the β-cell mass and not with the α-cell mass.
Brom, Maarten; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Boerman, Otto; Gotthardt, Martin
2015-04-01
Targeting of the GLP-1 receptor with (111)In-labeled exendin is an attractive approach to determine the β-cell mass (BCM). Preclinical studies as well as a proof-of-concept study in type 1 diabetic patients and healthy subjects showed a direct correlation between BCM and radiotracer uptake. Despite these promising initial results, the influence of α-cells on the uptake of the radiotracer remains a matter of debate. In this study, we determined the correlation between pancreatic tracer uptake and β- and α-cell mass in a rat model for β-cell loss. The uptake of (111)In-exendin (% ID/g) showed a strong positive linear correlation with the BCM (Pearson r = 0.82). The fraction of glucagon-positive cells in the total endocrine mass was increased after alloxan treatment (26% ± 4%, 43% ± 8%, and 69% ± 21% for 0, 45, and 60 mg/kg alloxan, respectively). The uptake of (111)In-exendin showed a negative linear correlation with the α-cell fraction (Pearson r = -0.76). These data clearly indicate toward specificity of (111)In-exendin for β-cells and that the influence of the α-cells on (111)In-exendin uptake is negligible. PMID:25409700
111In-exendin Uptake in the Pancreas Correlates With the β-Cell Mass and Not With the α-Cell Mass
Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Boerman, Otto; Gotthardt, Martin
2015-01-01
Targeting of the GLP-1 receptor with 111In-labeled exendin is an attractive approach to determine the β-cell mass (BCM). Preclinical studies as well as a proof-of-concept study in type 1 diabetic patients and healthy subjects showed a direct correlation between BCM and radiotracer uptake. Despite these promising initial results, the influence of α-cells on the uptake of the radiotracer remains a matter of debate. In this study, we determined the correlation between pancreatic tracer uptake and β- and α-cell mass in a rat model for β-cell loss. The uptake of 111In-exendin (% ID/g) showed a strong positive linear correlation with the BCM (Pearson r = 0.82). The fraction of glucagon-positive cells in the total endocrine mass was increased after alloxan treatment (26% ± 4%, 43% ± 8%, and 69% ± 21% for 0, 45, and 60 mg/kg alloxan, respectively). The uptake of 111In-exendin showed a negative linear correlation with the α-cell fraction (Pearson r = −0.76). These data clearly indicate toward specificity of 111In-exendin for β-cells and that the influence of the α-cells on 111In-exendin uptake is negligible. PMID:25409700
Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Helms, Ronald W; Sen, Pranab K; Cohen, Myron S
2003-05-15
Estimating the correlation coefficient between two outcome variables is one of the most important aspects of epidemiological and clinical research. A simple Pearson's correlation coefficient method is usually employed when there are complete independent data points for both outcome variables. However, researchers often deal with correlated observations in a longitudinal setting with missing values where a simple Pearson's correlation coefficient method cannot be used. General linear mixed models (GLMM) techniques were used to estimate correlation coefficients in a longitudinal data set with missing values. A random regression mixed model with unstructured covariance matrix was employed to estimate correlation coefficients between concentrations of HIV-1 RNA in blood and seminal plasma. The effects of CD4 count and antiretroviral therapy were also examined. We used data sets from three different centres (650 samples from 238 patients) where blood and seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations were collected from patients; 137 samples from 90 different patients without antiviral therapy and 513 samples from 148 patients receiving therapy were considered for analysis. We found no significant correlation between blood and semen HIV-1 RNA concentration in the absence of antiviral therapy. However, a moderate correlation between blood and semen HIV-1 RNA was observed among subjects with lower CD4 counts receiving therapy. Our findings confirm and extend the idea that the concentrations of HIV-1 in semen often differ from the HIV-1 concentration in blood. Antiretroviral therapy administered to subjects with low CD4 counts result in sufficient concomitant reduction of HIV-1 in blood and semen so as to improve the correlation between these compartments. These results have important implications for studies related to the sexual transmission of HIV, and development of HIV prevention strategies. PMID:12704609
Correlation of diffusion tensor imaging parameters with neural status in Pott’s spine
Jain, Nikhil; Saini, Namita Singh; Kumar, Sudhir; Rajagopalan, Mukunth; Chakraborti, Kanti Lal; Jain, Anil Kumar
2016-01-01
Introduction: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used in cervical trauma and spondylotic myelopathy, and it has been found to correlate with neural deficit and prognosticate neural recovery. Such a correlation has not been studied in Pott’s spine with paraplegia. Hence, this prospective study has been used to find correlation of DTI parameters with neural deficit in these patients. Methods: Thirty-four patients of spinal TB were enrolled and DTI was performed before the start of treatment and after six months. Fractional anisotropy (FA), Mean diffusivity (MD), and Tractography were studied. Neurological deficit was graded by the Jain and Sinha scoring. Changes in FA and MD at and below the site of lesion (SOL) were compared to above the SOL (control) using the unpaired t-test. Pre-treatment and post-treatment values were also compared using the paired t-test. Correlation of DTI parameters with neurological score was done by Pearson’s correlation. Subjective assessment of Tractography images was done. Results: Mean average FA was not significantly decreased at the SOL in patients with paraplegia as compared to control. After six months of treatment, a significant decrease (p = 0.02) in mean average FA at the SOL compared to pre-treatment was seen. Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.49) between mean average FA and neural score after six months of treatment was found. Tractography images were not consistent with severity of paraplegia. Conclusion: Unlike spondylotic myelopathy and trauma, epidural collection and its organized inflammatory tissue in Pott’s spine precludes accurate assessment of diffusion characteristics of the compressed cord. PMID:27163110
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dahan; Curthoys, Nikki M.; Parent, Matthew T.; Hess, Samuel T.
2013-09-01
Multi-colour localization microscopy has enabled sub-diffraction studies of colocalization between multiple biological species and quantification of their correlation at length scales previously inaccessible with conventional fluorescence microscopy. However, bleed-through, or misidentification of probe species, creates false colocalization and artificially increases certain types of correlation between two imaged species, affecting the reliability of information provided by colocalization and quantified correlation. Despite the potential risk of these artefacts of bleed-through, neither the effect of bleed-through on correlation nor methods for its correction in correlation analyses have been systematically studied at typical rates of bleed-through reported to affect multi-colour imaging. Here, we present a reliable method of bleed-through correction applicable to image rendering and correlation analysis of multi-colour localization microscopy. Application of our bleed-through correction shows that our method accurately corrects the artificial increase in both types of correlation studied (Pearson coefficient and pair correlation), at all rates of bleed-through tested, in all types of correlation examined. In particular, anti-correlation could not be quantified without our bleed-through correction, even at rates of bleed-through as low as 2%. While it is demonstrated with dichroic-based multi-colour FPALM here, our presented method of bleed-through correction can be applied to all types of localization microscopy (PALM, STORM, dSTORM, GSDIM, etc), including both simultaneous and sequential multi-colour modalities, provided the rate of bleed-through can be reliably determined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurihara, Shinobu; Nozawa, Kentaro
2013-01-01
The K5/VSSP software correlator (Figure 1), located in Tsukuba, Japan, is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). It is fully dedicated to processing the geodetic VLBI sessions of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. All of the weekend IVS Intensives (INT2) and the Japanese domestic VLBI observations organized by GSI were processed at the Tsukuba VLBI Correlator.
Correlations and droplet growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marder, M.
1985-01-01
Consideration is given to the time development of a system in which small spheres of a stable phase grow out of a supersaturated melt. The spheres then grow and shrink in a manner similar to Ostwald ripening. The growth process of pairs of particles in an effective background accounts for can be used to explain the long time correlations which develop in the system. The correlations broaden the distribution of particles sizes, even for relatively dilute systems.
Correlations of Cervical Sagittal Alignment before and after Occipitocervical Fusion.
Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Takachika; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Oshima, Yasushi; Tanaka, Sakae
2016-06-01
Study Design Retrospective radiographic study. Objective To investigate changes and correlations of cervical sagittal alignment including T1 slope before and after occipitocervical corrective surgery. We also investigated the relevance for preoperative planning. Methods We conducted a retrospective radiographic analysis of 27 patients who underwent surgery for occipitocervical deformity. There were 7 men and 20 women with a mean age of 56.0 years. Mean follow-up was 68.0 months (range 24 to 120). The radiographic parameters measured before surgery and at final follow-up included McGregor slope, T1 slope, occipito (O)-C2 angle, O-C7 angle, and C2-C7 angle. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the radiographic parameters. Results There was a stronger positive correlation between the T1 slope and the O-C7 angle both preoperatively and postoperatively (r = 0.72 and r = 0.83, respectively) than between the T1 slope and the C2-C7 angle (r = 0.60 and r = 0.76, respectively). The O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle had inverse correlations to each other both pre- and postoperatively (r = - 0.50 and -0.45). McGregor slope and T1 slope did not significantly change postoperatively at final follow-up. Increase in O-C2 angle after surgery (mean change, 10.7 degrees) inversely correlated with decrease in postoperative C2-C7 angle (mean change, 12.2 degrees). As result of these complementary changes, O-C7 angle did not statistically change. Conclusions Our results suggest that the O-C7 angle is regulated by T1 slope and the corresponding O-C7 angle is divided into the O-C2 and C2-C7 angles, which have inverse correlation to each other and then maintain McGregor slope (horizontal gaze). PMID:27190739
Covariate Adjusted Correlation Analysis with Application to FMR1 Premutation Female Carrier Data
Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Hagerman, Paul J.
2009-01-01
Summary Motivated by molecular data on female premutation carriers of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, we present a new method of covariate adjusted correlation analysis to examine the association of messenger RNA (mRNA) and number of CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene. The association between the molecular variables in female carriers needs to adjust for activation ratio (ActRatio), a measure which accounts for the protective effects of one normal X chromosome in females carriers. However, there are inherent uncertainties in the exact effects of ActRatio on the molecular measures of interest. To account for these uncertainties, we develop a flexible adjustment that accommodates both additive and multiplicative effects of ActRatio nonparametrically. The proposed adjusted correlation uses local conditional correlations, which are local method of moments estimators, to estimate the Pearson correlation between two variables adjusted for a third observable covariate. The local method of moments estimators are averaged to arrive at the final covariate adjusted correlation estimator, which is shown to be consistent. We also develop a test to check the nonparametric joint additive and multiplicative adjustment form. Simulation studies illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method. (Application to FMR1 premutation data on 165 female carriers indicates that the association between mRNA and CGG repeat after adjusting for ActRatio is stronger.) Finally, the results provide independent support for a specific jointly additive and multiplicative adjustment form for ActRatio previously proposed in the literature. PMID:19173699
Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying
2016-06-01
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. PMID:27179602
Correlates of the health statuses of the faculty at midlife
Galeon, Galvin Alaan
2016-01-01
Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R), Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general. PMID:27134476
Correlational Neural Networks.
Chandar, Sarath; Khapra, Mitesh M; Larochelle, Hugo; Ravindran, Balaraman
2016-02-01
Common representation learning (CRL), wherein different descriptions (or views) of the data are embedded in a common subspace, has been receiving a lot of attention recently. Two popular paradigms here are canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based approaches and autoencoder (AE)-based approaches. CCA-based approaches learn a joint representation by maximizing correlation of the views when projected to the common subspace. AE-based methods learn a common representation by minimizing the error of reconstructing the two views. Each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, while CCA-based approaches outperform AE-based approaches for the task of transfer learning, they are not as scalable as the latter. In this work, we propose an AE-based approach, correlational neural network (CorrNet), that explicitly maximizes correlation among the views when projected to the common subspace. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed CorrNet is better than AE and CCA with respect to its ability to learn correlated common representations. We employ CorrNet for several cross-language tasks and show that the representations learned using it perform better than the ones learned using other state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:26654210
Nonclassicality of Temporal Correlations.
Brierley, Stephen; Kosowski, Adrian; Markiewicz, Marcin; Paterek, Tomasz; Przysiężna, Anna
2015-09-18
The results of spacelike separated measurements are independent of distant measurement settings, a property one might call two-way no-signaling. In contrast, timelike separated measurements are only one-way no-signaling since the past is independent of the future but not vice versa. For this reason some temporal correlations that are formally identical to nonclassical spatial correlations can still be modeled classically. We propose a new formulation of Bell's theorem for temporal correlations; namely, we define nonclassical temporal correlations as the ones which cannot be simulated by propagating in time the classical information content of a quantum system given by the Holevo bound. We first show that temporal correlations between results of any projective quantum measurements on a qubit can be simulated classically. Then we present a sequence of general measurements on a single m-level quantum system that cannot be explained by propagating in time an m-level classical system and using classical computers with unlimited memory. PMID:26430975
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, C. S.; Wood, T. J.; Saunderson, J. R.; Beavis, A. W.
2015-12-01
This work assessed the appropriateness of the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (KSNR) as a metric for the optimisation of computed radiography (CR) of the chest. The results of a previous study in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer simulated chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme to quantify the benefit of using an anti-scatter grid were used for the clinical image quality measurement (number of simulated patients = 80). The KSNR was used to calculate the improvement in physical image quality measured in a physical chest phantom. KSNR correlation with VGAS was assessed as a function of chest region (lung, spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragm), and as a function of x-ray tube voltage in a given chest region. The correlation of the latter was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. VGAS and KSNR image quality metrics demonstrated no correlation in the lung region but did show correlation in the spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragmatic regions. However, there was no correlation as a function of tube voltage in any region; a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of -0.93 (p = 0.015) was found for lung, a coefficient (R) of -0.95 (p = 0.46) was found for spine, and a coefficient (R) of -0.85 (p = 0.015) was found for diaphragm. All demonstrate strong negative correlations indicating conflicting results, i.e. KSNR increases with tube voltage but VGAS decreases. Medical physicists should use the KSNR metric with caution when assessing any potential improvement in clinical chest image quality when introducing an anti-scatter grid for CR imaging, especially in the lung region. This metric may also be a limited descriptor of clinical chest image quality as a function of tube voltage when a grid is used routinely.
Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Saunderson, J R; Beavis, A W
2015-12-01
This work assessed the appropriateness of the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (KSNR) as a metric for the optimisation of computed radiography (CR) of the chest. The results of a previous study in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer simulated chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme to quantify the benefit of using an anti-scatter grid were used for the clinical image quality measurement (number of simulated patients = 80). The KSNR was used to calculate the improvement in physical image quality measured in a physical chest phantom. KSNR correlation with VGAS was assessed as a function of chest region (lung, spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragm), and as a function of x-ray tube voltage in a given chest region. The correlation of the latter was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. VGAS and KSNR image quality metrics demonstrated no correlation in the lung region but did show correlation in the spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragmatic regions. However, there was no correlation as a function of tube voltage in any region; a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of -0.93 (p = 0.015) was found for lung, a coefficient (R) of -0.95 (p = 0.46) was found for spine, and a coefficient (R) of -0.85 (p = 0.015) was found for diaphragm. All demonstrate strong negative correlations indicating conflicting results, i.e. KSNR increases with tube voltage but VGAS decreases. Medical physicists should use the KSNR metric with caution when assessing any potential improvement in clinical chest image quality when introducing an anti-scatter grid for CR imaging, especially in the lung region. This metric may also be a limited descriptor of clinical chest image quality as a function of tube voltage when a grid is used routinely. PMID:26540441
Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświecimka, Paweł; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław
2015-11-01
The detrended cross-correlation coefficient ρDCCA has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, nonstationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analog of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient ρDCCA works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without the possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of ρDCCA that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, respectively. The resulting new coefficient ρq not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations but also allows one to identify the range of detrended fluctuation amplitudes that are correlated in two signals under study. We show how the coefficient ρq works in practical situations by applying it to stochastic time series representing processes with long memory: autoregressive and multiplicative ones. Such processes are often used to model signals recorded from complex systems and complex physical phenomena like turbulence, so we are convinced that this new measure can successfully be applied in time-series analysis. In particular, we present an example of such application to highly complex empirical data from financial markets. The present formulation can straightforwardly be extended to multivariate data in terms of the q -dependent counterpart of the correlation matrices and then to the network representation.
Spatial and time correlation of thermometers and pluviometers in a weather network database
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tardivo, Gianmarco
2015-04-01
A basic issue that arises when analysing data bases from weather networks is the correlation system that characterizes the set of weather stations. Some statistical models being used for simulating temperature and precipitation or estimating missing data often exploit the Pearson's correlation coefficient, whereby a selection of predictors is carried out. In this paper, a specific analysis was made to understand the relationship between the distances (between the stations) and the correlation structure (of the network) and to assess the evolution of the stations ranking over the time from the network establishment, given that they were ranked on the basis of their correlation coefficient values with a target station. This study was first carried out over the whole of the Veneto region in Northeast Italy, and subsequently, it was repeated, subdividing the area into three main climatic zones: mountain, plain and coast. The variables that are involved in this study are the following: daily precipitation and daily maximum, mean and minimum temperature. Generally, the correlation coefficients of the database of precipitation are, on average, inversely proportional to the mean distances from the target station. Considering that the same behaviour was not detected on analysing the temperature database, the main results of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) the most correlated stations of precipitation are generally closer to a target station than the most correlated stations of temperature (entire area); (2) starting from 5.5 years after the network was established, the temperature variable is characterized by a high stability (over time) of the correlation rankings, up to a wide radius from the target station; (3) this trend is not so clear in precipitation data. However, when taking into account the first result, (4) generally, the most correlated stations are placed within the radius of stability, more frequently so for precipitation than for temperature.
Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations.
Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświęcimka, Paweł; Drożdż, Stanisław
2015-11-01
The detrended cross-correlation coefficient ρ(DCCA) has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, nonstationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analog of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient ρ(DCCA) works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without the possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of ρ(DCCA) that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, respectively. The resulting new coefficient ρ(q) not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations but also allows one to identify the range of detrended fluctuation amplitudes that are correlated in two signals under study. We show how the coefficient ρ(q) works in practical situations by applying it to stochastic time series representing processes with long memory: autoregressive and multiplicative ones. Such processes are often used to model signals recorded from complex systems and complex physical phenomena like turbulence, so we are convinced that this new measure can successfully be applied in time-series analysis. In particular, we present an example of such application to highly complex empirical data from financial markets. The present formulation can straightforwardly be extended to multivariate data in terms of the q-dependent counterpart of the correlation matrices and then to the network representation. PMID:26651752
Correlation among auto-refractor, wavefront aberration, and subjective manual refraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Ren, Qiushi
2005-01-01
Three optometry methods which include auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective manual refraction were studied and compared in measuring low order aberrations of 60 people"s 117 normal eyes. Paired t-test and linear regression were used to study these three methods" relationship when measuring myopia with astigmatism. In order to make the analysis more clear, we divided the 117 normal eyes into different groups according to their subjective manual refraction and redid the statistical analysis. Correlations among three methods show significant in sphere, cylinder and axis in all groups, with sphere"s correlation coefficients largest(R>0.98, P<0.01) and cylinder"s smallest (0.90
Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy
Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.
2008-08-26
Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.
Macular pigment optical density: repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance
Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Alvarez, Silverio D; Lee, Jessica Y
2016-01-01
Purpose To evaluate short-term repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements obtained using the QuantifEye Heterochromatic Flicker Photometer. Patients and methods A total of 72 study participants were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional study. Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular evaluation, including visual acuity, evaluation of ocular dominance, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and optic nerve head and macula analysis using optical coherence tomography and fundus photography. All study participants after initial training underwent MPOD measurement twice in both eyes in a randomized sequence. The repeatability was tested using Altman and Bland plots for first measurements with the second measurements for right eye and left eye and additionally by grouping eyes as a function of ocular dominance. The Pearson correlation coefficient was performed to assess the intereye correlation of MPOD values. Results The mean age of study participants was 35.5 years (range 22–68 years). The mean MPOD measurements for OD (right eye) and OS (left eye) were 0.47 and 0.48, respectively, which followed a normal distribution (Shapiro–Wilk test, P=0.6 and 0.2). The 95% limits of agreement of Altman and Bland plots for the first and second measurements were −0.12 to +0.11 and −0.13 to +0.12 for OD and OS, respectively. The correlation coefficient of mean MPOD measurements of OD and OS was r statistic =0.94 (Pearson correlation coefficient P<0.0001; r2 0.89). The 95% limits of agreement of Altman and Bland plots when evaluated by laterality of eye or by ocular dominance were narrow, with limits of agreement ranging from −0.13 to +0.12. Conclusion The MPOD measurements obtained using the QuantifEye show good short-term repeatability. There is excellent intereye correlation, indicating that the MPOD values of one eye data can predict the fellow eye value with 89