Sample records for t1 transgenic lines

  1. No direct effects of two transgenic Bt rice lines, T1C-19 and T2A-1, on the arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z B; Tian, J C; Han, N S; Hu, C; Peng, Y F; Stanley, David; Ye, G Y

    2014-10-01

    A 2-yr field trial was conducted to assess the impacts of two new transgenic Bt rice lines, T1C-19 expressing Cry1C protein and T2A-1 expressing Cry2A protein, on the arthropod community sampled via vacuum. All the arthropods were classified into five guilds, including herbivores, parasitoids, predators, detritivores, and others. The seasonal density and dominance distribution of each guild and community-level indices (species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index, and evenness index) were compared among rice types. Principal response curves were used to investigate the differences of entire arthropod community of Bt rice plots relative to non-Bt rice plots. The results showed no significant difference was detected in the community-level indices and dominance distribution of guilds between Bt and non-Bt rice plots. The seasonal density of herbivores, detritivores, and others as well as density of the arthropod overall community were also not significantly affected by rice types in either year, although the density of predators and parasitoids in Bt rice plots was significantly lower than those in non-Bt rice plots. The lower abundances of Braconidae, Eulophidae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), and Theridiidae in Bt rice plots are likely attributed to the lower abundances of prey species or hosts. Principal response curves revealed that arthropod community in Bt was similar with that in non-Bt rice plots. In conclusion, our findings indicate that these two tested Bt rice lines had no marked negative effects on the arthropod community in the paddy fields. PMID:25203669

  2. Transgenic cry1C(?) gene rough rice line T1C-19 does not change the host preferences of the non-target stored product pest, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and its parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Rough rice grains are often stored for extended periods before they are used or consumed. However, during storage, the rough rice is vulnerable to insect infestation, resulting in significant economic loss. Previous studies have shown that volatiles cues, physical characteristics, and taste chemicals on the grains could be the important key behavior factors for storage insect pests to locate the hosts and select oviposition sites. It is also well known that the transgenic Bt rough rice line T1C-19, which expresses a cry1C(?) gene has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pests. However, there were no evidences to show the consequences of host preference for non-target insect pests after growing Bt transgenic rice. In this study, the potential key factors of Bt rough rice were investigated for their impacts on the behaviors of non-target pest lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, the main weevil pest of grain and its parasitic wasps Anisopteromalus calandrae, the natural enemy of the beetle. Both electronic nose and electronic tongue analyses showed that the parameters of Bt rough rice were analogous to those of the non-Bt rough rice. The volatile profiles of Bt and non-Bt rough rice examined by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were similar. For most volatile compounds, there were no significantly quantitative differences in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The densities of sclereids and trichomes on the rough rice husk surface were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The non-target pest, R. dominica, and its parasitoid wasp, A. calandrae, were attracted to both rough rice and could not distinguish the transgenic T1C-19 from the isogenic rough rice. These results demonstrated that Bt rough rice has no negative impacts on the host preference behaviors of non-target stored product pest R. dominica and its parasitoid A. calandrae. PMID:26150137

  3. Cryopreservation of transgenic mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, K O

    1993-01-01

    A transgenic animal represents an enormous investment in time and money. Animals can be destroyed through disease, fire, malfuncnons in the control of the environment, negligence, sabotage, or accidental disposal. Researchers can protect valuable transgenic lines from accrdental destruction by "banking" them in liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation can also reduce animal costs by decreasing the number of live animals investigators must maintain. Often, when one is trying to produce a transgenic animal, some lines will be derived that may not initially appear interesting. These animals can be stored in liquid nitrogen for future recovery and study. The maintenance of just one line of mice, say 25 mice at 15 cents/d, can cost over $1000 (US) in a single year. PMID:21390665

  4. 2008 FHB Analysis of Transgenic Barley Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic lines have been developed with the goal of reducing FHB and DON in barley. Replicated field trials for FHB reaction of 48 Conlon transgenic lines were conducted in 2008 in Langdon, ND and Rosemount, MN. The Langdon trials consisted of three replicates in hill plots in an inoculated misted...

  5. Abstract Transgene loci in 16 transgenic oat (Avena sativa L.) lines produced by microprojectile bombard-

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Abstract Transgene loci in 16 transgenic oat (Avena sativa L.) lines produced by microprojectile and rearrange- ments. Key words Genetic engineering · Oat (A. sativa L.) · Microprojectile bombardment · FISH

  6. both T1 and T2 transgenic plants (Fig. 4C). The amount of NPTII protein was not af-

    E-print Network

    Losos, Jonathan B.

    both T1 and T2 transgenic plants (Fig. 4C). The amount of NPTII protein was not af- fected by infection in T3 plants, in which the NPTII transgene does not share homol- ogy with the CaMV promoter to the CaMV 35S RNA promoter sequence. CaMV infection suppressed GUS expression in T3 transgenic plants

  7. Germ-line transmission of transgenes in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Huang, Haochu; Berry, Deborah L.; Brown, Donald D.

    1999-01-01

    Adult Xenopus laevis frogs made transgenic by restriction enzyme-mediated integration were bred to test the feasibility of establishing lines of frogs that express transgenes. All of the 19 animals raised to sexual maturity generated progeny that expressed the transgene(s). The patterns and levels of expression of green fluorescent protein transgenes driven by a viral promoter, rat promoter, and four X. laevis promoters were all unaffected by passage through the germ line. These results demonstrate the ease of establishing transgenic lines in X. laevis. PMID:10588715

  8. Making BAC transgene constructs with lambda-red recombineering system for transgenic animals or cell lines.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Scott; Lyman, Suzanne; Hsu, Jen-Kang; Cheng, JrGang

    2015-01-01

    The genomic DNA libraries based on Bacteria Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) are the foundation of whole genomic mapping, sequencing, and annotation for many species like mice and humans. With their large insert size, BACs harbor the gene-of-interest and nearby transcriptional regulatory elements necessary to direct the expression of the gene-of-interest in a temporal and cell-type specific manner. When replacing a gene-of-interest with a transgene in vivo, the transgene can be expressed with the same patterns and machinery as that of the endogenous gene. This chapter describes in detail a method of using lambda-red recombineering to make BAC transgene constructs with the integration of a transgene into a designated location within a BAC. As the final BAC construct will be used for transfection in cell lines or making transgenic animals, specific considerations with BAC transgenes such as genotyping, BAC coverage and integrity as well as quality of BAC DNA will be addressed. Not only does this approach provide a practical and effective way to modify large DNA constructs, the same recombineering principles can apply to smaller high copy plasmids as well as to chromosome engineering. PMID:25239742

  9. Host status of three transgenic plum lines to Mesocriconema xenoplax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrodianin anti-fungal protein (GAFP) increases tolerance against Phytophthora root rot and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in transgenic plum lines. However, nothing is known about the potential of GAFP lectin to confer resistance to the ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax. Three t...

  10. A selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chaoyang; Nie, Peng; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Li, Jing; Shen, Zhicheng

    2010-11-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF) is a multifunctional milk protein which could be utilized for promoting human health. Transgenic rice has been used as a bioreactor for mass production of recombinant hLF. However, one major concern over such transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into our food supplies. Here we report the development of selectively terminable transgenic rice expressing human lactoferrin in seeds. These transgenic rice plants could be selectively terminated by bentazon, a common herbicide used for rice weed control. The hLF expression cassette was constructed into a T-DNA containing the RNA interference cassette suppressing the expression of the rice gene CYP81A6 which detoxifies herbicide bentazon, and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers to glyphosate tolerance. A transgenic line, named as G281, was identified for its high sensitivity to bentazon, high tolerance to glyphosate, and high expression of hLF. Southern analysis suggested G281 is a single copy insertion event. Field tests demonstrated that G281 plants can be completely killed by a single spray of bentazon at 1000 mg/L, which is safe to regular rice and represents only half of the dose recommended by manufacturer for rice field weed control. Therefore, any G281 contaminations in regular rice could be selectively terminated to make sure it will not enter food or feed supplies. PMID:20433928

  11. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    SciTech Connect

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  12. Comparative study between transgenic and non-transgenic soybean lines proved transgenic lines to be more drought tolerant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. de Ronde; R. N. Laurie; T. Caetano; M. M. Greyling; I. Kerepesi

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic soybean, containing a L-?1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) gene in sense or antisense orientation, was compared with untransformed control soybean while subjected to drought stress, through evaluation of physiological techniques. The significant higher relative water content (RWC) of the sense plants, especially after 8 days stress, coincides with much higher free proline levels compared to control and antisense plants. It was

  13. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    PubMed Central

    Lovaglio, Jamie; Artwohl, James E; Ward, Christopher J; Diekwisch, Thomas GH; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with polycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site. PMID:24674586

  14. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

  15. INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

  16. Metal mutagenesis in transgenic Chinese hamster cell lines.

    PubMed

    Klein, C B; Kargacin, B; Su, L; Cosentino, S; Snow, E T; Costa, M

    1994-09-01

    Metals are toxic agents for which genotoxic effects are often difficult to demonstrate. To study metal mutagenesis, we have used two stable hprt/gpt+ transgenic cell lines that were derived from Chinese hamster V79 cells. Both the G12 and G10 cell lines are known to be very sensitive to clastogens such as X-rays and bleomycin, with the mutagenic response of the integrated xanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene in G10 usually exceeding that of the same gene in the transgenic G12 cells. In studies with carcinogenic insoluble nickel compounds, a high level of mutagenesis was found at the gpt locus of G12 cells but not at the endogenous hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus of V79 cells. We have since demonstrated the similar recovery of a high frequency of viable G12 mutants with other insoluble nickel salts including nickel oxides (black and green). The relative mutant yield for the insoluble nickel compounds (G12 > G10) is the opposite of that obtained with nonmetal clastogens (G10 > G12). In the G12 cells, nickel mutagenesis may be related to the integration of the gpt sequence into a heterochromatic region of the genome. For some of the insoluble nickel compounds, significant inhibition of both cytotoxicity and mutant yield resulted when the G12 cells were pretreated with vitamin E. In comparison with the nickel studies, the mutagenic responses to chromium compounds in these cell lines were not as dramatic. Mutagenesis of the gpt target could not be demonstrated with other metals such as mercury or vanadium. PMID:7843139

  17. Response of sensitive human ataxia and resistant T-1 cell lines to accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Lommel, L.; Roots, R.

    1983-07-01

    The radiation dose responses of fibroblast from a patient with Ataxia telangiectasis (AT-2SF) and an established line of human T-1 cells were studied. Nearly monoenergetic accelerated neon and argon ions were used at the Berkeley Bevalac with various residual range values. The LET of the particles varied from 30 keV/..mu..m to over 1000 keV/..mu..m. All Ataxia survival curves were exponential functions of the dose. Their radiosensitivity reached peak values at 100 to 200 keV/..mu..m. Human T-1 cells have effective sublethal damage repair as has been evidenced by split dose experiments, and they are much more resistant to low LET than to high LET radiation. The repair-misrepair model has been used to interpret these results. We have obtained mathematical expressions that describe the cross sections and inactivation coefficients for both human cell lines as a function of the LET and the type of particle used. The results suggest either that high-LET particles induce a greater number of radiolesions per track or that heavy-ions at high LET induce lesions that kill cells more effectively and that are different from those produced at low LET. We assume that the lesions induced in T-1 and Ataxia cells are qualitatively similar and that each cell line attempts to repair these lesions. The result in most irradiated Ataxia cells, however, is either lethal misrepair or incomplete repair leading to cell death. 63 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  18. Tonin and Kallikrein in the Brain of Transgenic Rat Line Expressing Human Tissue Kallikrein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliane S. L. Lomez; Ronaldo C. Araujo; Michael Bader; Joao B. Pesquero; Jorge L. Pesquero

    2010-01-01

    A transgenic rat line harboring the human tissue kallikrein gene was investigated for expression and activity of tonin and kallikrein in different regions of the brain. The introduction of the transgene into the rat genome produced a significant augmentation of the expression levels and activity of rat tissue kallikrein. The possibility that human kallikrein does not hydrolyze the rat substrate

  19. An Fgfr3-iCreERT2 Transgenic Mouse Line for Studies

    E-print Network

    Richardson, William D.

    in the adult mouse brain, yet the paucity of molecular markers with which to identify astrocytes in situ meansAn Fgfr3-iCreERT2 Transgenic Mouse Line for Studies of Neural Stem Cells and Astrocytes KAYLENE M Fgfr3; Cre-lox; transgenic mice; astrocytes; radial glia; neural stem cells; spinal cord; SVZ

  20. Homologous illegitimate random integration of foreign DNA into the X chromosome of a transgenic mouse line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowen Yan; Defa Li; Kemian Gou

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear how foreign DNA molecules insert into the host genome. Recently, we have produced transgenic mice to investigate the role of the fad2 gene in the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid. Here we describe an integration mechanism of fad2 transgene by homologous illegitimate random integration. RESULTS: We confirmed that one fad2 line had a

  1. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing defective CMV replicase-derived dsRNA are resistant to CMV-O and CMV-Y.

    PubMed

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kynet, Kong; Khan, Raham Sher; Ohara, Mari; Goto, Yasuko; Watanabe, Manabu; Fukami, Masanobu; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tripartite, positive sense RNA virus causing infections and yield losses to many plant species. Here, we generated a construct containing inverted repeat of 1,793 bp fragment of defective CMV replicase gene derived from RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain O (CMV-O). The replicase gene was modified by deleting a 9 bp region between nucleotides 1909-1918. This caused a deletion in the active centre motif of polymerases, producing defective translated product 9 nucleotides shorter than the full length protein. The RNAi construct containing inverted repeat of the defective gene was used to produce transgenic tobacco lines expressing CMV-derived double-stranded RNA via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Of the four transgenic lines inoculated with CMV-O or CMV-Y in vitro and ex vivo, three lines (T1, T4 and T5) showed immunity to both strains of CMV as no symptoms were detected, whereas one line (T7) exhibited high resistance with mild symptoms limited to inoculation portions. No virus could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the transgenic lines after RT-PCR and Dot-immunobinding assay analyses. Small interfering RNAs present in transgenic lines before and after virus challenge indicates that the resistance was acquired through RNA silencing. PMID:23820979

  2. Live Image Profiling of Neural Crest Lineages in Zebrafish Transgenic Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jina; Park, Ok Kyu; Jung, Yoo Jung; Hwang, Byung Joon; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Kee, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish transgenic lines are important experimental tools for lineage tracing and imaging studies. It is crucial to precisely characterize the cell lineages labeled in transgenic lines to understand their limitations and thus properly interpret the data obtained from their use; only then can we confidently select a line appropriate for our particular research objectives. Here we profiled the cell lineages labeled in the closely related neural crest transgenic lines Tg(foxd3:GFP), Tg(sox10:eGFP) and Tg(sox10:mRFP). These fish were crossed to generate embryos, in which foxd3 and sox10 transgenic neural crest labeling could be directly compared at the cellular level using live confocal imaging. We have identified key differences in the cell lineages labeled in each line during early neural crest development and demonstrated that the most anterior cranial neural crest cells initially migrating out of neural tube at the level of forebrain and anterior midbrain express sox10: eGFP and sox10:mRFP, but not foxd3:GFP. This differential profile was robustly maintained in the differentiating progeny of the neural crest lineages until 3.5dpf. Our data will enable researchers to make an informed choice in selecting transgenic lines for future neural crest research. PMID:23456294

  3. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-C. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-Y. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-C. [Biotechnology Center, Grape King Inc., Chungli, Taiwan (China); Lee, K.-M. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kmlee@ctust.edu.tw

    2008-03-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

  4. Germline Transmission of a Novel Rat Embryonic Stem Cell Line Derived from Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Bauer, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Germline-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are important resources for the creation of mutant rat models using ES-cell-based gene targeting technology. The ability to isolate germline-competent ES cell lines from any rat strain, including genetically modified strains, would allow for more sophisticated genetic manipulations without extensive breeding. Sprague Dawley (SD) males carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene were used as the founder animals for the derivation of ES cell lines. A number of ES cell lines were established and subjected to rigorous quality control testing that included assessment of pluripotency factor expression, karyotype analysis, and pathogen/sterility testing. Two male ES cell lines, SD-Tg.EC1/Rrrc and SD-Tg.EC8/Rrrc, were injected into blastocysts recovered from a cross of Dark Agouti (DA) males with SD females. Resulting chimeric animals were bred with wild-type SD mates to verify the germline transmissibility of the ES cell lines by identifying pups carrying the ES cell line–derived EGFP transgene. While both ES cell lines gave rise to chimeric animals, only SD-Tg.EC1 was germline competent. This confirms the feasibility of deriving germline-competent ES cell lines from transgenic rat strains and provides a novel ES cell line with a stable green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter for future genetic manipulations to create new rat models. PMID:22455749

  5. Efficient germ-line transmission obtained with transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sen; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xi; Capecchi, Mario R.

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. To overcome potential problems associated with transgene insertions, efforts have been directed over the past several years to generate transgene-free iPS cells by using non-viral-vector approaches. To date, however, cells generated through such procedures have had problems producing reproductively competent animals, suggesting that their quality needed further improvement. Here we report the use of optimized assemblies of reprogramming factors and selection markers incorporated into single plasmids as nonintegrating episomes to generate germ-line–competent iPS cells. In particular, the pMaster12 episome can produce transgene-free iPS cells that, when grown in 2i medium, recapitulate good mouse ES cells, in terms of their competency for generating germ-line chimeras. PMID:25002522

  6. lambda 5, but not mu, is required for B cell maturation in a unique gamma 2b transgenic mouse line

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    gamma 2b transgenic mice have a severe B cell defect, apparently caused by strong feedback inhibition of endogenous H-gene rearrangement coupled with an inability of gamma 2b to provide the survival/maturation functions of mu. A unique gamma 2b transgenic line, named the C line, was found to permit B cell development. When the C line is crossed with a mu-membrane knockout line, gamma 2b+ B cells develop in the homozygous knockout. In contrast, a transgenic line representative of all the other gamma 2b lines is completely B cell deficient when mu-mem is deleted. Strikingly, the C phenotype is dominant in C x other gamma 2b transgenic line crosses. There is no evidence for higher gamma 2b transgene expression or other position effects on the transgene in the C mouse. The sequences of the three gamma 2b transgene copies in the C line are identical to that of the original transgene. These results have led to the conclusion that in the C line the transgene integration constitutively induces a gene whose expression can replace mu. To more clearly delineate the stage at which the altered phenotype of the C line is expressed, C mice were crossed onto a lambda 5 knockout background. In the absence of lambda 5, the C line produces no B cells. Since it was also found that gamma 2b can associate with the surrogate light chain (sL; lambda 5/Vpre-B), the crosses between C line gamma 2b mice and lambda 5 knockout mice suggest that gamma 2b/sL is required for B cell maturation in this mouse line. Thus, gamma 2b alone is unable to replace mu for pre-B cell survival/maturation; however, in combination with an unknown factor and the sL, gamma 2b can provide these nurturing functions. PMID:7869028

  7. A Transgenic Mouse Line Expressing Cre Recombinase in Undifferentiated Postmitotic Mouse Retinal Bipolar Cell Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Philip E. B.; Ronellenfitch, Kara; McEwan, Jason; Kim, Howard; McInnes, Roderick R.; Chow, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Approaches for manipulating cell type-specific gene expression during development depend on the identification of novel genetic tools. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic mouse line that utilizes Vsx2 upstream sequences to direct Cre recombinase to developing retinal bipolar cells. In contrast to the endogenous Vsx2 expression pattern, transgene expression was not detected in proliferating retinal progenitor cells and was restricted to post-mitotic bipolar cells. Cre immunolabeling was detected in rod bipolar cells and a subset of ON and OFF cone bipolar cells. Expression was first observed at postnatal day 3 and was detectable between 24 hours and 36 hours after the last S-phase of the cell cycle. The appearance of Cre-immunolabeled cells preceded the expression of bipolar cell type-specific markers such as PKC? and Cabp5 suggesting that transgene expression is initiated prior to terminal differentiation. In the presence of a constitutive conditional reporter transgene, reporter fluorescence was detected in Cre-expressing bipolar cells in the mature retina as expected, but was also observed in Cre-negative Type 2 bipolar cells and occasionally in Cre-negative photoreceptor cells. Together these findings reveal a new transgenic tool for directing gene expression to post-mitotic retinal precursors that are mostly committed to a bipolar cell fate. PMID:22073130

  8. Assessment of fecundity and germ line transmission in two transgenic pig lines produced by sleeping beauty transposition.

    PubMed

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome. PMID:24705079

  9. Assessment of Fecundity and Germ Line Transmission in Two Transgenic Pig Lines Produced by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome. PMID:24705079

  10. Generation of Rab-based transgenic lines for in vivo studies of endosome biology in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brian S; Winter, Mark; Cohen, Andrew R; Link, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The Rab family of small GTPases function as molecular switches regulating membrane and protein trafficking. Individual Rab isoforms define and are required for specific endosomal compartments. To facilitate in vivo investigation of specific Rab proteins, and endosome biology in general, we have generated transgenic zebrafish lines to mark and manipulate Rab proteins. We also developed software to track and quantify endosome dynamics within time-lapse movies. The established transgenic lines ubiquitously express EGFP fusions of Rab5c (early endosomes), Rab11a (recycling endosomes), and Rab7 (late endosomes) to study localization and dynamics during development. Additionally, we generated UAS-based transgenic lines expressing constitutive active (CA) and dominant-negative (DN) versions for each of these Rab proteins. Predicted localization and functional consequences for each line were verified through a variety of assays, including lipophilic dye uptake and Crumbs2a localization. In summary, we have established a toolset for in vivo analyses of endosome dynamics and functions. PMID:21976318

  11. Transgene inheritance and silencing in hexaploid spring wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Demeke; P. Hucl; M. Bĺga; K. Caswell; N. Leung; R. N. Chibbar

    1999-01-01

    Inheritance and expression of the Act1D-uidA::nptII transgene cassette inserted into the genome of a spring wheat cultivar, ’Fielder’, was studied in T4 and T5 transgenic wheat lines. Southern blot and PCR analyses demonstrated that the transgene was inherited for five generations\\u000a of selfed plants. The multiple integration pattern displayed in the T1 generation was maintained up to the T5 generation

  12. A conditional transgenic mouse line for targeted expression of the stem cell marker LGR5.

    PubMed

    Norum, Jens Henrik; Bergström, Ĺsa; Andersson, Agneta Birgitta; Kuiper, Raoul V; Hoelzl, Maria A; Sřrlie, Therese; Toftgĺrd, Rune

    2015-08-15

    LGR5 is a known marker of embryonic and adult stem cells in several tissues. In a mouse model, Lgr5+ cells have shown tumour-initiating properties, while in human cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma and colon cancer, LGR5 expression levels are increased: however, the effect of increased LGR5 expression is not fully understood. To study the effects of elevated LGR5 expression levels we generated a novel tetracycline-responsive, conditional transgenic mouse line expressing human LGR5, designated TRELGR5. In this transgenic line, LGR5 expression can be induced in any tissue depending on the expression pattern of the chosen transcriptional regulator. For the current study, we used transgenic mice with a tetracycline-regulated transcriptional transactivator linked to the bovine keratin 5 promoter (K5tTA) to drive expression of LGR5 in the epidermis. As expected, expression of human LGR5 was induced in the skin of double transgenic mice (K5tTA;TRELGR5). Inducing LGR5 expression during embryogenesis and early development resulted in macroscopically and microscopically detectable phenotypic changes, including kink tail, sparse fur coat and enlarged sebaceous glands. The fur and sebaceous gland phenotypes were reversible upon discontinued expression of transgenic LGR5, but this was not observed for the kink tail phenotype. There were no apparent phenotypic changes if LGR5 expression was induced at three weeks of age. The results demonstrate that increased expression of LGR5 during embryogenesis and the neonatal period alter skin development and homeostasis. PMID:26003047

  13. Molecular Analysis, Cytogenetics and Fertility of Introgression Lines From Transgenic Wheat to Aegilops cylindrica Host

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Schoenenberger; Roberto Guadagnuolo; Dessislava Savova-Bianchi; P. Kupfer; François Felber

    2006-01-01

    Natural hybridization and backcrossing between Aegilops cylindrica and Triticum aestivum can lead to intro- gression of wheat DNA into the wild species. Hybrids between Ae. cylindrica and wheat lines bearing herbicide resistance(bar),reporter(gus),fungaldiseaseresistance(kp4),andincreasedinsecttolerance(gna)transgenes wereproduced by pollination of emasculated Ae. cylindricaplants. F1 hybrids were backcrossed toAe. cylindrica under open-pollination conditions, and first backcrosses were selfed using pollen bags. Female fertility of F1

  14. Morphological alterations in retinal neurons in the S334ter-line3 transgenic rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditi Ray; Gerald J. Sun; Leanne Chan; Norberto M. Grzywacz; James Weiland; Eun-Jin Lee

    2010-01-01

    The S334ter-line-3 rat is a transgenic model of retinal degeneration developed to express a rhodopsin mutation similar to\\u000a that found in human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. Previous studies have focused on physiological changes in retinal\\u000a cells and higher centers of the visual system with this model of retinal degeneration. However, little is known about the\\u000a morphological changes in retinal cells

  15. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  16. Germ-Line Recombination Activity of the Widely Used hGFAP-Cre and Nestin-Cre Transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiong; Dublin, Pavel; Griemsmann, Stephanie; Klein, Alexandra; Brehm, Ralph; Bedner, Peter; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Steinhäuser, Christian; Theis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate with PCR, immunodetection and reporter gene approaches that the widely used human Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (hGFAP)-Cre transgene exhibits spontaneous germ-line recombination activity in leading to deletion in brain, heart and tail tissue with high frequency. The ectopic activity of hGFAP-Cre requires a rigorous control. We likewise observed that a second widely used nestin-Cre transgene shows germ-line deletion. Here we describe procedures to identify mice with germ-line recombination mediated by the hGFAP-Cre and nestin-Cre transgenes. Such control is essential to avoid pleiotropic effects due to germ-line deletion of loxP-flanked target genes and to maintain the CNS-restricted deletion status in transgenic mouse colonies. PMID:24349371

  17. Establishment and characterization of an immature epithelial cell line (ENU-T-1) derived from a rat nephroblastoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoji Nagashima; Yoshiharu Ohaki; Makoto Umeda; Mitsuo Oshimura; Kazuaki Misugi

    1989-01-01

    Summary  A new cell line designated ENU-T-1 has been established from a xenotransplanted experimental rat nephroblastoma. The cultured\\u000a cells are spindle-shaped or polygonal and are arranged in a wavy fashion morphologically similar to cultured embryonal renal\\u000a epithelial cells. The cells exhibit a number of epithelial characteristics. Enzyme histochemistry gives positive reactions\\u000a for gammaglutamyltranspeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, both of which are present

  18. Transgenic retinoic acid sensor lines in zebrafish indicate regions of available embryonic retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amrita; Rydeen, Ariel; Anderson, Jane; Sorrell, Mollie R.J.; Zygmunt, Tomas; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Waxman, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a critical role in vertebrate development. Transcriptional reporters of RA signaling in zebrafish, thus far, have not reflected the broader availability of embryonic RA, necessitating additional tools to enhance our understanding of the spatial and temporal activity of RA signaling in vivo. Results We have generated novel transgenic RA sensors in which a RA receptor (RAR) ligand-binding domain (RLBD) is fused to the Gal4 DNA binding domain (GDBD) or a VP16-GDBD (VPBD) construct. Stable transgenic lines expressing these proteins when crossed with UAS reporter lines are responsive to RA. Interestingly, the VPBD RA sensor is significantly more sensitive than the GDBD sensor and demonstrates there may be almost ubiquitous availability of RA within the early embryo. Using confocal microscopy to compare the expression of the GDBD RA sensor to our previously established RA signaling transcriptional reporter line, Tg(12XRARE:EGFP), illustrates these reporters have significant overlap, but that expression from the RA sensor is much broader. We also identify previously unreported domains of expression for the Tg(12XRARE:EGFP) line. Conclusions Our novel RA sensor lines will be useful and complementary tools for studying RA signaling during development and anatomical structures independent of RA signaling. PMID:23703807

  19. Transgenic Campanula carpatica plants with reduced ethylene sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Mibus, Heiko; Serek, Margrethe

    2007-06-01

    Fertile transgenic Campanula carpatica Jacq. plants with flowers, which had reduced sensitivity to ethylene were obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens that mediated transformation. The construct used for transformation contained the etr1-1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the flower specific fbp1-promoter from petunia. More than 100 flowering T0 lines were tested for their ethylene sensitivity using 2 microl l(-1) ethylene. The tolerance level to ethylene varied among the lines. While control plants stopped flowering within 3 days of exposure to ethylene, one of the transformed lines flowered for up to 27 days. The presence and the expression pattern of the transgene in various tissues were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR techniques. The expression of etr1-1 was significant in flowers and buds. Transgenic lines did not differ morphologically from control plants. The selected transgenic T0 lines, which were re-established from in vitro cultures showed the same degree of tolerance to exogenous ethylene, confirming the stability of the transgene in in vitro cultures. The rooting ability of the transgenic plants was not affected by the presence of etr1-1. T1 progeny were produced by crossing the transgenic line, which showed the most significant reduction in ethylene sensitivity with a control plant, and the analysis of the T1 plants showed 1:1 segregation in terms of ethylene sensitivity and the presence of the transgene. PMID:17221226

  20. Germ-line transmission of lentiviral PGK-EGFP integrants in transgenic cattle: new perspectives for experimental embryology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myriam Reichenbach; Tiongti Lim; Horst-Dieter Reichenbach; Tuna Guengoer; Felix A. Habermann; Marieke Matthiesen; Andreas Hofmann; Frank Weber; Holm Zerbe; Thomas Grupp; Fred Sinowatz; Alexander Pfeifer; Eckhard Wolf

    2010-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are a powerful tool for the genetic modification of livestock species. We previously generated transgenic\\u000a founder cattle with lentiviral integrants carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the phosphoglycerate\\u000a kinase (PGK) promoter. In this study, we investigated the transmission of LV-PGK-EGFP integrants through the female and male\\u000a germ line in cattle. A transgenic founder heifer

  1. Transgenic rose lines harboring an antimicrobial protein gene, Ace-AMP1 , demonstrate enhanced resistance to powdery mildew ( Sphaerotheca pannosa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangqian Li; Ksenjia Gasic; Bruno Cammue; Willem Broekaert; Schuyler S. Korban

    2003-01-01

    An antimicrobial protein gene, Ace-AMP1, was introduced into Rosa hybrida cv. Carefree Beauty via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 500 putative transgenic plants were obtained from 100 primary embryogenic calli co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens following selection on a regeneration medium containing 100 mg\\/l kanamycin. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of these putative transgenic lines, using primers for both Ace-AMP1 and neomycin phosphotransferase

  2. Burial and seed survival in Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and Sinapis arvensis including a comparison of transgenic and non-transgenic lines of the crop.

    PubMed Central

    Hails, R S; Rees, M; Kohn, D D; Crawley, M J

    1997-01-01

    The creation of transgenic plants through genetic engineering has focused interest on how the fitness of a plant species may be altered by small changes in its genome. This study concentrates on a key component of fitness: persistence of seeds overwinter. Seeds of three lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera DC Metzger) and of charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.) were buried in nylon mesh bags at two depths in four habitats in each of three geographically separated sites: Cornwall, Berkshire and Sutherland. Seeds were recovered after 12 and 24 months. Charlock exhibited much greater seed survival (average 60% surviving the first year and 32.5% surviving the second year) than oilseed rape (1.5% surviving the first year and 0.2% surviving the second) at all sites. Charlock showed higher survival at 15 cm burial than 2 cm burial at certain sites, but oilseed rape showed no depth effect. Different genetic lines of oilseed rape displayed different rates of seed survival; non-transgenic rape showed greater survival (2%) than the two transgenic lines, one developed for tolerance to the antibiotic kanamycin (0.3%) and one for tolerance to both kanamycin and the herbicide glufosinate (0.25%). The absolute and relative performances of the different genetic lines of oilseed rape were context specific, illustrating the need to test hypotheses in a wide range of ecological settings. PMID:9061957

  3. RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF A TRANSGENIC CHICKEN LINE 0-ALV6 AT THE AVIAN DISEASE AND ONCOLOGY LABORATORY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first transgenic chicken line, 0.ALV6, was produced at the Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) in 1989. Blastoderms of fertile freshly laid line 0 eggs were injected with the long terminal repeats of the endogenous Rous-associated virus (RAV-0) and the envelope gene (env) of a subgroup ...

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat grain proteins reveals differential effects of silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes in transgenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel wheat lines with altered flour compositions can be used to decipher the roles of specific gluten proteins in flour quality. Grain proteins from transgenic wheat lines in which genes encoding the omega-5 gliadins were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) were analyzed in detail by quantitative 2...

  5. A Transgenic Mouse Line Expressing the Red Fluorescent Protein tdTomato in GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Stefanie; Sicker, Marit; Marx, Grit; Winkler, Ulrike; Eulenburg, Volker; Hülsmann, Swen; Hirrlinger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic inhibitory neurons are a large population of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals and crucially contribute to the function of the circuitry of the brain. To identify specific cell types and investigate their functions labelling of cell populations by transgenic expression of fluorescent proteins is a powerful approach. While a number of mouse lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in different subpopulations of GABAergic cells are available, GFP expressing mouse lines are not suitable for either crossbreeding to other mouse lines expressing GFP in other cell types or for Ca2+-imaging using the superior green Ca2+-indicator dyes. Therefore, we have generated a novel transgenic mouse line expressing the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in GABAergic neurons using a bacterial artificial chromosome based strategy and inserting the tdTomato open reading frame at the start codon within exon 1 of the GAD2 gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65). TdTomato expression was observed in all expected brain regions; however, the fluorescence intensity was highest in the olfactory bulb and the striatum. Robust expression was also observed in cortical and hippocampal neurons, Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, amacrine cells in the retina as well as in cells migrating along the rostral migratory stream. In cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and brainstem, 80% to 90% of neurons expressing endogenous GAD65 also expressed the fluorescent protein. Moreover, almost all tdTomato-expressing cells coexpressed GAD65, indicating that indeed only GABAergic neurons are labelled by tdTomato expression. This mouse line with its unique spectral properties for labelling GABAergic neurons will therefore be a valuable new tool for research addressing this fascinating cell type. PMID:26076353

  6. Transgenic mouse lines for non-invasive ratiometric monitoring of intracellular chloride

    PubMed Central

    Batti, Laura; Mukhtarov, Marat; Audero, Enrica; Ivanov, Anton; Paolicelli, Rosa Chiara; Zurborg, Sandra; Gross, Cornelius; Bregestovski, Piotr; Heppenstall, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride is the most abundant physiological anion and participates in a variety of cellular processes including trans-epithelial transport, cell volume regulation, and regulation of electrical excitability. The development of tools to monitor intracellular chloride concentration ([Cli]) is therefore important for the evaluation of cellular function in normal and pathological conditions. Recently, several Cl-sensitive genetically encoded probes have been described which allow for non-invasive monitoring of [Cli]. Here we describe two mouse lines expressing a CFP-YFP-based Cl probe called Cl-Sensor. First, we generated transgenic mice expressing Cl-Sensor under the control of the mouse Thy1 mini promoter. Cl-Sensor exhibited good expression from postnatal day two (P2) in neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, and its level increased strongly during development. Using simultaneous whole-cell monitoring of ionic currents and Cl-dependent fluorescence, we determined that the apparent EC50 for Cli was 46 mM, indicating that this line is appropriate for measuring neuronal [Cli] in postnatal mice. We also describe a transgenic mouse reporter line for Cre-dependent conditional expression of Cl-Sensor, which was targeted to the Rosa26 locus and by incorporating a strong exogenous promoter induced robust expression upon Cre-mediated recombination. We demonstrate high levels of tissue-specific expression in two different Cre-driver lines targeting cells of the myeloid lineage and peripheral sensory neurons. Using these mice the apparent EC50 for Cli was estimated to be 61 and 54 mM in macrophages and DRG, respectively. Our data suggest that these mouse lines will be useful models for ratiometric monitoring of Cli in specific cell types in vivo. PMID:23734096

  7. Molecular analysis, cytogenetics and fertility of introgression lines from transgenic wheat to Aegilops cylindrica host.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, Nicola; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Küpfer, Philippe; Felber, François

    2006-12-01

    Natural hybridization and backcrossing between Aegilops cylindrica and Triticum aestivum can lead to introgression of wheat DNA into the wild species. Hybrids between Ae. cylindrica and wheat lines bearing herbicide resistance (bar), reporter (gus), fungal disease resistance (kp4), and increased insect tolerance (gna) transgenes were produced by pollination of emasculated Ae. cylindrica plants. F1 hybrids were backcrossed to Ae. cylindrica under open-pollination conditions, and first backcrosses were selfed using pollen bags. Female fertility of F1 ranged from 0.03 to 0.6%. Eighteen percent of the sown BC1s germinated and flowered. Chromosome numbers ranged from 30 to 84 and several of the plants bore wheat-specific sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) and the bar gene. Self fertility in two BC1 plants was 0.16 and 5.21%, and the others were completely self-sterile. Among 19 BC1S1 individuals one plant was transgenic, had 43 chromosomes, contained the bar gene, and survived glufosinate treatments. The other BC1S1 plants had between 28 and 31 chromosomes, and several of them carried SCARs specific to wheat A and D genomes. Fertility of these plants was higher under open-pollination conditions than by selfing and did not necessarily correlate with even or euploid chromosome number. Some individuals having supernumerary wheat chromosomes recovered full fertility. PMID:17028347

  8. Molecular Analysis, Cytogenetics and Fertility of Introgression Lines From Transgenic Wheat to Aegilops cylindrica Host

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Nicola; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Küpfer, Philippe; Felber, François

    2006-01-01

    Natural hybridization and backcrossing between Aegilops cylindrica and Triticum aestivum can lead to introgression of wheat DNA into the wild species. Hybrids between Ae. cylindrica and wheat lines bearing herbicide resistance (bar), reporter (gus), fungal disease resistance (kp4), and increased insect tolerance (gna) transgenes were produced by pollination of emasculated Ae. cylindrica plants. F1 hybrids were backcrossed to Ae. cylindrica under open-pollination conditions, and first backcrosses were selfed using pollen bags. Female fertility of F1 ranged from 0.03 to 0.6%. Eighteen percent of the sown BC1s germinated and flowered. Chromosome numbers ranged from 30 to 84 and several of the plants bore wheat-specific sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) and the bar gene. Self fertility in two BC1 plants was 0.16 and 5.21%, and the others were completely self-sterile. Among 19 BC1S1 individuals one plant was transgenic, had 43 chromosomes, contained the bar gene, and survived glufosinate treatments. The other BC1S1 plants had between 28 and 31 chromosomes, and several of them carried SCARs specific to wheat A and D genomes. Fertility of these plants was higher under open-pollination conditions than by selfing and did not necessarily correlate with even or euploid chromosome number. Some individuals having supernumerary wheat chromosomes recovered full fertility. PMID:17028347

  9. Integration, stability and expression of the E. coli phytase transgene in the Cassie line of Yorkshire Enviropig™.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Cecil W; Meidinger, Roy G; Liu, Mingfu; Cottrill, Michael; Golovan, Serguei; Phillips, John P

    2013-04-01

    The genomic structure and generational stability of the transgene carried by the Cassie (CA) line of the transgenic Enviropig™, a prospective food animal, are reported here. This transgene is composed of the Escherichia coli phytase coding sequence regulated by the mouse parotid secretory protein promoter to direct secretion of phytase in the saliva. In the CA line the transgene integrated in chromosome 4 is present as a concatemer of three copies, two in a head to tail orientation and the third in a reverse orientation 3' to the other copies with a 6 kbp deletion in the 5' promoter region. The overall size of the integrated transgene complex is 46 kbp. During integration a 66 kbp segment of the chromosome was deleted, but a BLAST search of the segment from a GenBank clone did not reveal any essential genes. The transgene integration site was stable through 9 generations analyzed. Phytase activity in the saliva was similar among 11 day old hemizygous boars and gilts and remained relatively constant through nine generations of hemizygous pigs. However, as the pigs grew there generally was a gradual decrease in activity that stabilized when pigs reached the finisher phase of growth (4-6 months old). Homozygous pigs exhibited 1.5 fold higher phytase activity (P < 0.0001) than that of hemizygous littermates. Moreover, no differential salivary phytase activity was seen in hemizygotes arising from CA-Yorkshire and CA-Duroc breed outcrosses, suggesting that expression of the transgene is unaffected by genetic background. This data demonstrates that an exogenous phytase gene can be stably transmitted and expressed in the salivary glands of a domestic food animal. PMID:22948309

  10. zebraflash transgenic lines for in vivo bioluminescence imaging of stem cells and regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Durand, Ellen; Wang, Jinhu; Zon, Leonard I; Poss, Kenneth D

    2013-12-01

    The zebrafish has become a standard model system for stem cell and tissue regeneration research, based on powerful genetics, high tissue regenerative capacity and low maintenance costs. Yet, these studies can be challenged by current limitations of tissue visualization techniques in adult animals. Here we describe new imaging methodology and present several ubiquitous and tissue-specific luciferase-based transgenic lines, which we have termed zebraflash, that facilitate the assessment of regeneration and engraftment in freely moving adult zebrafish. We show that luciferase-based live imaging reliably estimates muscle quantity in an internal organ, the heart, and can longitudinally follow cardiac regeneration in individual animals after major injury. Furthermore, luciferase-based detection enables visualization and quantification of engraftment in live recipients of transplanted hematopoietic stem cell progeny, with advantages in sensitivity and gross spatial resolution over fluorescence detection. Our findings present a versatile resource for monitoring and dissecting vertebrate stem cell and regeneration biology. PMID:24198277

  11. Two Types of Tet-On Transgenic Lines for Doxycycline-Inducible Gene Expression in Zebrafish Rod

    E-print Network

    Two Types of Tet-On Transgenic Lines for Doxycycline- Inducible Gene Expression in Zebrafish Rod element (TRE)- driven GFP and, in the presence of doxycycline, expresses GFP in larval and adult rods. A time-course of doxycycline treatment demonstrates that maximal induction of GFP expression

  12. Performance and long-term stability of the barley hordothionin gene in multiple transgenic apple lines.

    PubMed

    Krens, Frans A; Schaart, Jan G; Groenwold, Remmelt; Walraven, A Evert J; Hesselink, Thamara; Thissen, Jac T N M

    2011-10-01

    Introduction of sustainable scab resistance in elite apple cultivars is of high importance for apple cultivation when aiming at reducing the use of chemical crop protectants. Genetic modification (GM) allows the rapid introduction of resistance genes directly into high quality apple cultivars. Resistance genes can be derived from apple itself but genetic modification also opens up the possibility to use other, non-host resistance genes. A prerequisite for application is the long-term performance and stability of the gene annex trait in the field. For this study, we produced and selected a series of transgenic apple lines of two cultivars, i.e. 'Elstar' and 'Gala' in which the barley hordothionin gene (hth) was introduced. After multiplication, the GM hth-lines, non-GM susceptible and resistant controls and GM non-hth controls were planted in a random block design in a field trial in 40 replicates. Scab resistance was monitored after artificial inoculation (first year) and after natural infection (subsequent years). After the trial period, the level of expression of the hth gene was checked by quantitative RT-PCR. Four of the six GM hth apple lines proved to be significantly less susceptible to apple scab and this trait was found to be stable for the entire 4-year period. Hth expression at the mRNA level was also stable. PMID:21243525

  13. Catecholaminergic Cell Lines from the Brain and Adrenal Glands of Tyrosine Hydroxylase-SV40 T Antigen Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitra Suri; Brenda P. Fung; Arthur S. Tischler; Dona M. Chikaraishi

    1993-01-01

    Brain (CATH.a) and adrenal (PATH.1 and PATH.2) cell lines have been established that synthesize abundant dopamine and norepinephrine and express the appropriate catechol- aminergic biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine @-hydroxylase. The lines were derived from TH-positive tumors in transgenic mice carrying the SV40 T antigen oncogene under the transcriptional control of 773 base pairs of 5' flanking sequences

  14. Development of an event-specific Real-time PCR detection method for the transgenic Bt rice line KMD1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruzha Babekova; Tristan Funk; Sven Pecoraro; Karl-Heinz Engel; Ulrich Busch

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes an event-specific quantitative Real-time PCR detection method for the transgenic Bt rice line\\u000a Kemingdao 1 (KMD1). This rice line which is not approved in any country so far is likely to be approved in China in the near\\u000a future. The developed primers amplify a DNA sequence spanning the integration site of the genetic construct in KMD1.

  15. Zebrafish transgenic line huORFZ is an effective living bioindicator for detecting environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Chieh; Lu, Po-Nien; Huang, Hui-Lan; Chu, Chien; Li, Hong-Ping; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Reliable animal models are invaluable for monitoring the extent of pollution in the aquatic environment. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of huORFZ, a novel transgenic zebrafish line that harbors a human upstream open reading frame of the chop gene fused with GFP reporter, as an animal model for monitoring environmental pollutants and stress-related cellular processes. When huORFZ embryos were kept under normal condition, no leaked GFP signal could be detected. When treated with hazardous chemicals, including heavy metals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals near their sublethal concentrations (LC50), huORFZ embryos exhibited different tissue-specific GFP expression patterns. For further analysis, copper (Cu2+), cadmium (Cd2+) and Chlorpyrifos were applied. Cu2+ triggered GFP responses in skin and muscle, whereas Cd2+ treatment triggered GFP responses in skin, olfactory epithelium and pronephric ducts. Moreover, fluorescence intensity, as exhibited by huORFZ embryos, was dose-dependent. After surviving treated embryos were returned to normal condition, survival rates, as well as TUNEL signals, returned to pretreatment levels with no significant morphological defects observed. Such results indicated the reversibility of treatment conditions used in this study, as long as embryos survived such conditions. Notably, GFP signals decreased along with recovery, suggesting that GFP signaling of huORFZ embryos likely reflected the overall physiological condition of the individual. To examine the performance of the huORFZ line under real-world conditions, we placed huORFZ embryos in different river water samples. We found that the huORFZ embryos correctly detected the presence of various kinds of pollutants. Based on these findings, we concluded that such uORFchop-based system can be integrated into a first-line water alarm system monitoring the discharge of hazardous pollutants. PMID:24594581

  16. Developing Fiber Specific Promoter-Reporter Transgenic Lines to Study the Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Fiber Development in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Burke, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP)-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late), representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality. PMID:26030401

  17. c-RET Molecule in Malignant Melanoma from Oncogenic RET-Carrying Transgenic Mice and Human Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichiro Ohshima; Ichiro Yajima; Kozue Takeda; Machiko Iida; Mayuko Kumasaka; Yoshinari Matsumoto; Masashi Kato; Benjamin Edward Rich

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor

  18. Fast-tracking development of homozygous transgenic cereal lines using a simple and highly flexible real-time PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A crucial step in the evaluation of newly produced transgenic plants is the selection of homozygous plants. Here we describe an efficient and highly flexible real-time PCR-based method for the development of homozygous lines in plant models with complex (multiple) genomes and/or relatively long generation times (>3 months) using direct copy number determinations. Results An existing DNA extraction method was converted into a high-throughput plant leaf DNA extraction procedure yielding DNA suitable for real-time PCR analyses. Highly specific and efficient primer pairs were developed for a bread wheat reference gene (Epsilon Cyclase) and for standard sequence elements in the gene cassette routinely used for cereal transformations (an intron bridge and the Nopaline Synthase terminator). The real-time PCR assay reliably distinguished wheat plants with a single copy of the transgene from individuals with multiple copies or those lacking the transgene. To obtain homozygous lines carrying a unique insertion event as efficiently as possible, T0 plants (plants raised from transformed callus) with a single copy of the transgene were selected and their progeny screened for homozygous plants. Finally, the assay was adapted to work on rice. Conclusions The ability to quickly, easily and accurately quantify the construct copy numbers, as provided by the real-time PCR assay, greatly improved the efficiency and reliability of the selection of homozygous transgenic plants in our case study. We were able to select homozygous plants in early generations, avoiding time-consuming methods such as large scale analysis of segregation patterns of descendants and/or Southern blotting. Additionally, the ability to specifically develop homozygous lines carrying a unique insertion event could be important in avoiding gene silencing due to co-suppression, and if needed assist in the selection of lines suitable for future deregulation. The same primer pairs can be used to quantify many different wheat transgenic events because the construct-specific primer pairs are targeted to standard sequence elements of the cereal gene cassettes, making the method widely applicable in wheat GM research. Moreover, because all procedures described here are standardized, the method may easily be adapted to vectors lacking the target regions used here and/or to other plant models. PMID:23627847

  19. Chromatin Insulator Elements Block Transgene Silencing in Engineered Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines at a Defined Chromosome 13 Locus

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, Chad C.; Xue, Haipeng; Van Hoof, Dennis; Lieu, Pauline T.; Dudas, Miroslav; Fontes, Andrew; Swistowski, Andrzej; Touboul, Thomas; Seerke, Rina; Laurent, Louise C.; Loring, Jeanne F.; German, Michael S.; Zeng, Xianmin; Rao, Mahendra S.; Lakshmipathy, Uma; Chesnut, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Lineage reporters of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are useful for differentiation studies and drug screening. Previously, we created reporter lines driven by an elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?) promoter at a chromosome 13q32.3 locus in the hESC line WA09 and an abnormal hESC line BG01V in a site-specific manner. Expression of reporters in these lines was maintained in long-term culture at undifferentiated state. However, when these cells were differentiated into specific lineages, reduction in reporter expression was observed, indicating transgene silencing. To develop an efficient and reliable genetic engineering strategy in hESCs, we used chromatin insulator elements to flank single-copy transgenes and integrated the combined expression constructs via PhiC31/R4 integrase-mediated recombination technology to the chromosome 13 locus precisely. Two copies of cHS4 double-insulator sequences were placed adjacent to both 5? and 3? of the promoter reporter constructs. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was driven by EF1? or CMV early enhancer/chicken ? actin (CAG) promoter. In the engineered hESC lines, for both insulated CAG-GFP and EF1?-GFP, constitutive expression at the chromosome 13 locus was maintained during prolonged culture and in directed differentiation assays toward diverse types of neurons, pancreatic endoderm, and mesodermal progeny. In particular, described here is the first normal hESC fluorescent reporter line that robustly expresses GFP in both the undifferentiated state and throughout dopaminergic lineage differentiation. The dual strategy of utilizing insulator sequences and integration at the constitutive chromosome 13 locus ensures appropriate transgene expression. This is a valuable tool for lineage development study, gain- and loss-of-function experiments, and human disease modeling using hESCs. PMID:21699412

  20. Transgene copy number comparison in recombinant mammalian cell lines: critical reflection of quantitative real-time PCR evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sommeregger, Wolfgang; Prewein, Bernhard; Reinhart, David; Mader, Alexander; Kunert, Renate

    2013-10-01

    Nucleic acid quantification is a relevant issue for the characterization of mammalian recombinant cell lines and also for the registration of producer clones. Quantitative real-time PCR is a powerful tool to investigate nucleic acid levels but numerous different quantification strategies exist, which sometimes lead to misinterpretation of obtained qPCR data. In contrast to absolute quantification using amplicon- or plasmid standard curves, relative quantification strategies relate the gene of interest to an endogenous reference gene. The relative quantification methods also consider the amplification efficiency for the calculation of the gene copy number and thus more accurate results compared to absolute quantification methods are generated. In this study two recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines were analysed for their transgene copy number using different relative quantification strategies. The individual calculation methods resulted in differences of relative gene copy numbers because efficiency calculations have strong impact on gene copy numbers. However, in context of comparing transgene copy numbers of two individual clones the influence of the calculation method is marginal. Therefore especially for the comparison of two cell lines with the identical transgene any of the relative qPCR methods was proven as powerful tool. PMID:23807595

  1. Long-term maintenance of a transgenic Catharanthus roseus hairy root line.

    PubMed

    Peebles, Christie A M; Gibson, Susan I; Shanks, Jacqueline V; San, Ka-Yiu

    2007-01-01

    Stably transformed transgenic hairy root cultures have the potential to be a valuable production platform for a variety of secondary metabolites. This study reports that a transgenic hairy root culture of Catharanthus roseus has been stably maintained for over 4.5 years. This culture carries a transgene that expresses the green fluorescent protein under the control of the glucocorticoid-inducible promoter. Genomic PCR confirmed the presence of the GFP insert within the hairy roots, and induction with dexamethasone caused a significant (p < 0.02) increase in GFP levels. PMID:17900137

  2. Cre recombinase-regulated Endothelin1 transgenic mouse lines: novel tools for analysis of embryonic and adult disorders.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Andre L P; Clouthier, David E

    2015-04-15

    Endothelin-1 (EDN1) influences both craniofacial and cardiovascular development and a number of adult physiological conditions by binding to one or both of the known endothelin receptors, thus initiating multiple signaling cascades. Animal models containing both conventional and conditional loss of the Edn1 gene have been used to dissect EDN1 function in both embryos and adults. However, while transgenic Edn1 over-expression or targeted genomic insertion of Edn1 has been performed to understand how elevated levels of Edn1 result in or exacerbate disease states, an animal model in which Edn1 over-expression can be achieved in a spatiotemporal-specific manner has not been reported. Here we describe the creation of Edn1 conditional over-expression transgenic mouse lines in which the chicken ?-actin promoter and an Edn1 cDNA are separated by a strong stop sequence flanked by loxP sites. In the presence of Cre, the stop cassette is removed, leading to Edn1 expression. Using the Wnt1-Cre strain, in which Cre expression is targeted to the Wnt1-expressing domain of the central nervous system (CNS) from which neural crest cells (NCCs) arise, we show that stable chicken ?-actin-Edn1 (CBA-Edn1) transgenic lines with varying EDN1 protein levels develop defects in NCC-derived tissues of the face, though the severity differs between lines. We also show that Edn1 expression can be achieved in other embryonic tissues utilizing other Cre strains, with this expression also resulting in developmental defects. CBA-Edn1 transgenic mice will be useful in investigating diverse aspects of EDN1-mediated-development and disease, including understanding how NCCs achieve and maintain a positional and functional identity and how aberrant EDN1 levels can lead to multiple physiological changes and diseases. PMID:25725491

  3. Genesis. Author manuscript Nas transgenic mouse line allows visualization of Notch pathway activity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    or apoptosis. Accordingly, genetic alterations of Notch pathway components have been implicated in various ; embryology ; metabolism ; Base Sequence ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone ; genetics ; Female ; Gene-Binding Protein ; genetics ; metabolism ; Lac Operon ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; embryology ; physiology

  4. A Novel Transgenic Mouse Line for Tracing MicroRNA-155-5p Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Phiwpan, Krung; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tanyu; Boruah, Bhargavi M.; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhou, Xuyu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) plays significant role in various physiological processes involving both innate and adaptive immunity. miR-155 expression level changes dynamically during various immune responses. However, current approaches for miR-155 detection at the RNA level do not precisely reflect the real-time activity. Herein, we generated a transgenic mouse line (R26-DTR-155T) for determination of miR-155-5p activity in vivo by inserting miR-155-5p target sequence downstream of a reporter transgene comprising Diphtheria Toxin Receptor and TagBlue fluorescence protein. Using this approach, R26-DTR-155T mice were able to measure variation in levels of miR-155-5p activity in specific cell types of interest. The DTR expression levels were inversely correlated with the endogenous miR-155 expression pattern as detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Our data demonstrate a novel transgenic mouse line which could be useful for tracing miR-155-5p activity in specific cell types through measurement of miR-155-5p activity at single cell level. PMID:26030404

  5. Generation of an ABCG2{sup GFPn-puro} transgenic line - A tool to study ABCG2 expression in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Panayi, Helen [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus)] [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus); Malas, Stavros, E-mail: smalas@cing.ac.cy [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus) [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios 2370, Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2009-06-26

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter 2 (ABCG2) is expressed by stem cells in many organs and in stem cells of solid tumors. These cells are isolated based on the side population (SP) phenotype, a Hoechst 3342 dye efflux property believed to be conferred by ABCG2. Because of the limitations of this approach we generated transgenic mice that express Nuclear GFP (GFPn) coupled to the Puromycin-resistance gene, under the control of ABCG2 promoter/enhancer sequences. We show that ABCG2 is expressed in neural progenitors of the developing forebrain and spinal cord and in embryonic and adult endothelial cells of the brain. Using the neurosphere assay, we isolated tripotent ABCG2-expressing neural stem cells from embryonic mouse brain. This transgenic line is a powerful tool for studying the expression of ABCG2 in many tissues and for performing functional studies in different experimental settings.

  6. Characterization of Multiple Bistratified Retinal Ganglion Cells in A Purkinje Cell Protein 2-Cre Transgenic Mouse Line

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena; Lee, Patrick; Pan, Zhuo-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells are categorized into multiple classes, including multiple types of bistratified ganglion cells (BGCs). The recent use of transgenic mouse lines with specific type(s) of ganglion cells that are labeled by fluorescent markers has facilitated the morphological and physiological studies of BGCs, particularly the directional-selective BGCs. The most important benefit from using transgenic animals is the capability to perform in vivo gene manipulation. In particular, the Cre/LoxP recombination system has become a powerful tool, allowing gene deletion, over-expression, and ectopic expression in a cell type-specific and temporally controlled fashion. The key to this tool is the availability of Cre mouse lines with cell or tissue type-specific expression of Cre recombinase. In this study, we characterized the Cre-positive retinal ganglion cells in a PCP2 (Purkinje cell protein 2)-cre mouse line. We found that all of the Cre-positive retinal ganglion cells were BGCs. Based on morphological criteria, we determined that they can be grouped into five types. The On- and Off-dendrites of three of these types stratified outside of the cholinergic bands and differed from directional selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) morphologically. These cells were negative for Brn-3b and positive for both calretinin and CART retina markers. The remaining two types were identified as putative On-Off and On-DSGCs. This Cre mouse line could be useful for further studies of the molecular and functional properties of BGCs in mice. PMID:23224947

  7. Characterization of multiple bistratified retinal ganglion cells in a purkinje cell protein 2-Cre transgenic mouse line.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena; Lee, Patrick; Pan, Zhuo-Hua

    2013-06-15

    Retinal ganglion cells are categorized into multiple classes, including multiple types of bistratified ganglion cells (BGCs). The recent use of transgenic mouse lines with specific type(s) of ganglion cells that are labeled by fluorescent markers has facilitated the morphological and physiological studies of BGCs, particularly the directional-selective BGCs. The most important benefit from using transgenic animals is the capability to perform in vivo gene manipulation. In particular, the Cre/LoxP recombination system has become a powerful tool, allowing gene deletion, overexpression, and ectopic expression in a cell type-specific and temporally controlled fashion. The key to this tool is the availability of Cre mouse lines with cell or tissue type-specific expression of Cre recombinase. In this study we characterized the Cre-positive retinal ganglion cells in a PCP2 (Purkinje cell protein 2)-cre mouse line. We found that all of the Cre-positive retinal ganglion cells were BGCs. Based on morphological criteria, we determined that they can be grouped into five types. The On- and Off-dendrites of three of these types stratified outside of the cholinergic bands and differed from directional selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) morphologically. These cells were negative for Brn-3b and positive for both calretinin and CART retina markers. The remaining two types were identified as putative On-Off and On-DSGCs. This Cre mouse line could be useful for further studies of the molecular and functional properties of BGCs in mice. PMID:23224947

  8. Runx1 and Runx3 Are Downstream Effectors of Nanog in Promoting Osteogenic Differentiation of the Mouse Mesenchymal Cell Line C3H10T1/2.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tadahito; Ohba, Shinsuke; Yano, Fumiko; Seto, Ichiro; Yonehara, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ogasawara, Toru

    2015-06-01

    Previously, we reported that the transcription factor Nanog, which maintains the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), promotes the osteogenic differentiation of the mouse mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 through a genome reprogramming process. In the present study, to clarify the mechanism underlying the multipotency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to develop a novel approach to bone regenerative medicine, we attempted to identify the downstream effectors of Nanog in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal cells. We demonstrated that Runx1 and Runx3 are the downstream effectors of Nanog, especially in the early and intermediate osteogenic differentiation of the mouse mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. PMID:26053522

  9. A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system

    PubMed Central

    Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Mayford, Mark R.; Reijmers, Leon G.

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types. PMID:25400545

  10. Genome-wide transcriptome modulation in rice transgenic lines expressing engineered mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kundan; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) is the central module of MAPK cascade and also point of signal integration and divergence. To investigate the regulatory role of OsMKK6, the regulon of genes controlled by OsMKK6 was constructed by microarray analysis between constitutively activated overexpressing transgenic lines and the wild type rice. Regulated genes were identified in overexpressed constitutively activated OsMKK6 and they were further subdivided on the basis of functional categories, viz. transcription, metabolism, signaling, defense and unknown function. These findings suggest the possible physiological role of OsMKK6 in modulating gene expression and signaling pathways during different stresses. PMID:24691103

  11. Derivation and Characterization of Embryonic Stem Cells Lines Derived from Transgenic Fischer 344 and Dark Agouti Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, James; He, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are not widely available, and there are only 2 lines available for distribution. Here, ESC lines were derived and characterized from Fischer 344 (F344) rats that express marker transgenes either ?-galactosidase or human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP), nontransgenic F344 rats, and from Dark Agouti (DA) rats. The ESC lines were maintained in an undifferentiated state as characterized by colony morphology, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox-2, Cdx2, and Stella, staining for AP, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. Pluripotency was demonstrated in vitro by differentiation to embryoid bodies, followed by embryonic monsters. The Cdx2 expression by ESCs was unexpected and was confirmed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry. Pluripotency of ESCs was demonstrated in vivo by production of teratoma after an injection into F344 nontransgenic rats, and by an injection of male DA ESCs into F344 or Sprague-Dawley rat blastocysts and the generation of chimeric rats and germline contribution. ESCs from both F344 and DA contributed to chimeric rats, and one DA ESC line was proved to be germline competent. ESC sublines were created by transfection with a plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of a beta actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (pCX-eGFP) or by transfection with a plasmid expressing GFP under the control of a 3.1?kb portion of the rat Oct4 promoter (pN1-Oct4-GFP). In pN1-Oct4-GFP sublines, GFP gene expression and fluorescence were shown to be correlated with endogenous Oct4 gene expression. Therefore, these new ESC lines may be useful for tissue engineering and transplantation studies or for optimizing culture conditions required for self-renewal and differentiation of rat ESCs. While they made chimeric rats, further work is needed to confirm whether the transgenic F344 rat ESCs described here are germline-competent ESCs. PMID:21995453

  12. A transgenic Tbx6;CreERT2 line for inducible gene manipulation in the presomitic mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Peter Lopez, T; Fan, Chen-Ming

    2012-06-01

    The rhythmic segmentation process of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) orchestrates the formation of somites, the fundamental units for the vertebrate axial body plan. To aid the investigation of molecular components governing the conversion from PSM into somites, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses a tamoxifen (tmx) inducible CreER(T2) under the control of a 2.5 kb enhancer element of Tbx6, a gene essential for PSM formation and somite patterning. Combined with Cre reporters, this Tbx6;CreER(T2) line displays robust tmx-inducible Cre activity in the PSM at various embryonic stages. This tool should be useful for studying gene function during somitogenesis by either conditional inactivation or mis-expression, and potentially coupled with cell marking. PMID:22121035

  13. Establishment of Transgenic Lines for Jumpstarter Method Using a Composite Transposon Vector in the Ladybird Beetle, Harmonia axyridis

    PubMed Central

    Kuwayama, Hisashi; Gotoh, Hiroki; Konishi, Yusuke; Nishikawa, Hideto; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this post-genomic era, genome-wide functional analysis is indispensable. The recent development of RNA interference techniques has enabled researchers to easily analyze gene function even in non-model organisms. On the other hand, little progress has been made in the identification and functional analyses of cis-regulatory elements in non-model organisms. In order to develop experimental platform for identification and analyses of cis-regulatory elements in a non-model organism, in this case, the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, we established transgenic transposon-tagged lines using a novel composite vector. This vector enables the generation of two types of insertion products (jumpstarter and mutator). The jumpstarter portion carries a transposase gene, while the mutator segment carries a reporter gene for detecting enhancers. The full-composite element is flanked by functional termini (required for movement); however, the mutator region has an extra terminus making it possible for the mutator to remobilize on its own, thus leaving an immobile jumpstarter element behind. Each insertion type is stable on its own, but once crossed, jumpstarters can remobilize mutators. After crossing a jumpstarter and mutator line, all tested G2 females gave rise to at least one new insertion line in the next generation. This jumping rate is equivalent to the P-element-mediated jumpstarter method in Drosophila. These established transgenic lines will offer us the ideal experimental materials for the effective screening and identification of enhancers in this species. In addition, this jumpstarter method has the potential to be as effective in other non-model insect species and thus applicable to any organism. PMID:24959904

  14. Establishment of transgenic lines for jumpstarter method using a composite transposon vector in the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Hisashi; Gotoh, Hiroki; Konishi, Yusuke; Nishikawa, Hideto; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this post-genomic era, genome-wide functional analysis is indispensable. The recent development of RNA interference techniques has enabled researchers to easily analyze gene function even in non-model organisms. On the other hand, little progress has been made in the identification and functional analyses of cis-regulatory elements in non-model organisms. In order to develop experimental platform for identification and analyses of cis-regulatory elements in a non-model organism, in this case, the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, we established transgenic transposon-tagged lines using a novel composite vector. This vector enables the generation of two types of insertion products (jumpstarter and mutator). The jumpstarter portion carries a transposase gene, while the mutator segment carries a reporter gene for detecting enhancers. The full-composite element is flanked by functional termini (required for movement); however, the mutator region has an extra terminus making it possible for the mutator to remobilize on its own, thus leaving an immobile jumpstarter element behind. Each insertion type is stable on its own, but once crossed, jumpstarters can remobilize mutators. After crossing a jumpstarter and mutator line, all tested G2 females gave rise to at least one new insertion line in the next generation. This jumping rate is equivalent to the P-element-mediated jumpstarter method in Drosophila. These established transgenic lines will offer us the ideal experimental materials for the effective screening and identification of enhancers in this species. In addition, this jumpstarter method has the potential to be as effective in other non-model insect species and thus applicable to any organism. PMID:24959904

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of Lotus tenuis and regeneration of transgenic lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. Espasandin; M. M. Collavino; C. V. Luna; R. C. Paz; J. R. Tarragó; O. A. Ruiz; L. A. Mroginski; P. A. Sansberro

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for the production of transgenic plants was developed for Lotus tenuis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf segments. The explants were co-cultivated (for 3 days) with an A. tumefaciens strain harbouring either the binary vector pBi RD29A:oat arginine decarboxylase (ADC) or pBi RD29A:glucuronidase (GUS), which\\u000a carries the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene in the T-DNA region. Following co-cultivation, the explants

  16. Comparative transcriptional and proteomic profiling of bread wheat cultivar and its derived transgenic line over-expressing a low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene in the endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have carried out a parallel transcriptional and proteomic comparison of seeds from a transformed bread wheat line that over-expresses a transgenic low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene relative to the corresponding non-transformed genotype. Proteomic analyses showed that, during seed develop...

  17. Conditionally immortalized brain capillary endothelial cell lines established from a transgenic mouse harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Hosoya; Kazuhiro Tetsuka; Katsuhiko Nagase; Masatoshi Tomi; Shigeki Saeki; Sumio Ohtsuki; Tetsuya Terasaki; Nobuaki Yanai; Masuo Obinata; Akihiko Kikuchi; Hitomi Takanaga

    2000-01-01

    Five immortalized brain capillary endothelial cell lines (TM-BBB1-5) were established from 3 transgenic mice harboring temperature-sensitive\\u000a simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene (Tg mouse). These cell lines expressed active large T-antigen and grew well at 33°C with\\u000a a doubling time of about 20 to 30 hours. TM-BBBs also grew at 37°C but not at 39°C. However, growth was restored when

  18. Effect of vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines and their straw amendment on soil enzymes, respiration, functional diversity and community structure of soil microorganisms under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Dong, Bin; Yan, Hu; Tang, Feifan; Wang, Baichuan; Yu, Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    With the development of transgenic crops, there is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of their vegetation and residues on soil environmental quality. This study was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of the vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines Huachi B6 (HC) and TT51 (TT) followed by the return of their straw to the soil on soil enzymes (catalase, urease, neutral phosphatase and invertase), anaerobic respiration activity, microbial utilization of carbon substrates and community structure, under field conditions. The results indicated that the vegetation of the two transgenic rice lines (HC and TT) and return of their straw had few adverse effects on soil enzymes and anaerobic respiration activity compared to their parent and distant parent, although some transient differences were observed. The vegetation and subsequent straw amendment of Bt rice HC and TT did not appear to have a harmful effect on the richness, evenness and community structure of soil microorganisms. No different pattern of impact due to plant species was found between HC and TT. It could be concluded that the vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines and the return of their straw as organic fertilizer may not alter soil microbe-mediated functions. PMID:23513447

  19. Transgenic barley lines prove the involvement of TaCBF14 and TaCBF15 in the cold acclimation process and in frost tolerance.

    PubMed

    Soltész, Alexandra; Smedley, Mark; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Galiba, Gábor; Harwood, Wendy; Vágújfalvi, Attila

    2013-04-01

    The enhancement of winter hardiness is one of the most important tasks facing breeders of winter cereals. For this reason, the examination of those regulatory genes involved in the cold acclimation processes is of central importance. The aim of the present work was the functional analysis of two wheat CBF transcription factors, namely TaCBF14 and TaCBF15, shown by previous experiments to play a role in the development of frost tolerance. These genes were isolated from winter wheat and then transformed into spring barley, after which the effect of the transgenes on low temperature stress tolerance was examined. Two different types of frost tests were applied; plants were hardened at low temperature before freezing, or plants were subjected to frost without a hardening period. The analysis showed that TaCBF14 and TaCBF15 transgenes improve the frost tolerance to such an extent that the transgenic lines were able to survive freezing temperatures several degrees lower than that which proved lethal for the wild-type spring barley. After freezing, lower ion leakage was measured in transgenic leaves, showing that these plants were less damaged by the frost. Additionally, a higher Fv/Fm parameter was determined, indicating that photosystem II worked more efficiently in the transgenics. Gene expression studies showed that HvCOR14b, HvDHN5, and HvDHN8 genes were up-regulated by TaCBF14 and TaCBF15. Beyond that, transgenic lines exhibited moderate retarded development, slower growth, and minor late flowering compared with the wild type, with enhanced transcript level of the gibberellin catabolic HvGA2ox5 gene. PMID:23567863

  20. A Phox2b BAC Transgenic Rat Line Useful for Understanding Respiratory Rhythm Generator Neural Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Sato, Shigeru; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Arata, Satoru; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The key role of the respiratory neural center is respiratory rhythm generation to maintain homeostasis through the control of arterial blood pCO2/pH and pO2 levels. The neuronal network responsible for respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rat resides in the ventral side of the medulla and is composed of two groups; the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Bötzinger complex group (preBötC). The pFRG partially overlaps in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which was originally identified in adult cats and rats. Part of the pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) neurons in the RTN/pFRG serves as central chemoreceptor neurons and the CO2 sensitive Pre-I neurons express homeobox gene Phox2b. Phox2b encodes a transcription factor and is essential for the development of the sensory-motor visceral circuits. Mutations in human PHOX2B cause congenital hypoventilation syndrome, which is characterized by blunted ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Here we describe the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg) rat harboring fluorescently labeled Pre-I neurons in the RTN/pFRG. In addition, the Tg rat showed fluorescent signals in autonomic enteric neurons and carotid bodies. Because the Tg rat expresses inducible Cre recombinase in PHOX2B-positive cells during development, it is a potentially powerful tool for dissecting the entire picture of the respiratory neural network during development and for identifying the CO2/O2 sensor molecules in the adult central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:26147470

  1. Transgenic indica rice lines, expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1), exhibit enhanced resistance to major pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Kalambur, Muralidharan; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-07-10

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into commercial indica rice varieties by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic rice plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in various transgenic rice lines. Transgenes NPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing BjNPR1 protein displayed enhanced resistance to rice blast, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases. Rice transformants with higher levels of NPR1 revealed notable increases in plant height, panicle length, flag-leaf length, number of seeds/panicle and seed yield/plant as compared to the untransformed plants. The overall results amply demonstrate the profound impact of BjNPR1 in imparting resistance against major pathogens of rice. The multipotent BjNPR1, as such, seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants with durable resistance against various pathogens. PMID:23664883

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? increase PepT1 expression and activity in the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2\\/bbe and in mouse intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan R. Vavricka; Mark W. Musch; Mikihiro Fujiya; Keri Kles; Laura Chang; Jyrki J. Eloranta; Gerd A. Kullak-Ublick; Ken Drabik; Didier Merlin; Eugene B. Chang

    2006-01-01

    A major mechanism for apical peptide absorption by small intestine is via the proton-coupled transporter PepT1. PepT1 is expressed\\u000a at a high level in proximal small intestine, but it is not expressed in the healthy colon. However, in chronic states of intestinal\\u000a inflammation, such as in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, PepT1 expression in colonic epithelia is increased, serving\\u000a as

  3. The HSP terminator of Arabidopsis thaliana induces a high level of miraculin accumulation in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kurokawa, Natsuko; Duhita, Narendra; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Kato, Kazuhisa; Kato, Ko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-09-28

    High-level accumulation of the target recombinant protein is a significant issue in heterologous protein expression using transgenic plants. Miraculin, a taste-modifying protein, was accumulated in transgenic tomatoes using an expression cassette in which the miraculin gene was expressed by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the heat shock protein (HSP) terminator (MIR-HSP). The HSP terminator was derived from heat shock protein 18.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana . Using this HSP-containing cassette, the miraculin concentration in T0 transgenic tomato lines was 1.4-13.9% of the total soluble protein (TSP), and that in the T1 transgenic tomato line homozygous for the miraculin gene reached 17.1% of the TSP. The accumulation level of the target protein was comparable to levels observed with chloroplast transformation. The high-level accumulation of miraculin in T0 transgenic tomato lines achieved by the HSP terminator was maintained in the successive T1 generation, demonstrating the genetic stability of this accumulation system. PMID:21861502

  4. Newly developed TGF-?2 knock down transgenic mouse lines express TGF-?2 differently and its distribution in multiple tissues varies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-?s), including beta2 (TGF-?2), constitute a superfamily of multifunctional cytokines with important implications in morphogenesis, cell differentiation and tissue remodeling. TGF-?2 is thought to play important roles in multiple developmental processes and neuron survival. However, before we carried out these investigations, a TGF-?2 gene down-regulated transgenic animal model was needed. In the present study, expressional silencing TGF-?2 was achieved by select predesigning interference short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting mouse TGF-?2 genes. Results Four homozygous transgenic offspring were generated by genetic manipulation and the protein expressions of TGF-?2 were detected in different tissues of these mice. The transgenic mice were designated as Founder 66, Founder 16, Founder 53 and Founder 41. The rates of TGF-?2 down-expression in different transgenic mice were evaluated. The present study showed that different TGF-?2 expressions were detected in multiple tissues and protein levels of TGF-?2 decreased at different rates relative to that of wild type mice. The expressions of TGF-?2 proteins in transgenic mice (Founder 66) reduced most by 52%. Conclusions The present study generated transgenic mice with TGF-?2 down-regulated, which established mice model for systemic exploring the possible roles of TGF-?2 in vivo in different pathology conditions. PMID:23914775

  5. Effects of defoliating insect resistance QTLs and a cry1Ac transgene in soybean near-isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Walker, D R; Boerma, H R; All, J N; Parrott, W A

    2008-02-01

    The crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have shown considerable value in providing effective insect resistance in a number of crop species, including soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Additional sources of soybean insect resistance would be desirable to manage the development of tolerance/resistance to crystal proteins by defoliating insects and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three insect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs; QTL-M, QTL-H, and QTL-G) originating from Japanese soybean PI 229358 and a cry1Ac gene in a "Benning" genetic background. A set of 16 BC(6)F(2)-derived near isogenic lines (NILs) was developed using marker-assisted backcrosses and evaluated for resistance to soybean looper [SBL, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)] and corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] in field cage, greenhouse, and detached leaf assays. Both Bt and QTL-M had significantly reduced defoliation by both SBL and CEW and reduced larval weight of CEW. The antibiosis QTL-G had a significant effect on reducing CEW larval weight and also a significant effect on reducing defoliation by SBL and CEW in some assays. The antixenosis QTL-H had no main effect, but it appeared to function through interaction with QTL-M and QTL-G. Adding QTL-H and QTL-G further enhanced the resistance of the Bt and QTL-M combination to CEW in the field cage assay. These results should help guide the development of strategies for effective management of insect pests and for sustainable deployment of Bt genes. PMID:18064435

  6. Germ-line transmission and developmental regulation of a 150-kb yeast artificial chromosome containing the human beta-globin locus in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gaensler, K M; Kitamura, M; Kan, Y W

    1993-01-01

    Sequential expression of the genes of the human beta-globin locus requires the formation of an erythroid-specific chromatin domain spanning > 200 kb. Regulation of this gene family involves both local interactions with proximal cis-acting sequences and long-range interactions with control elements upstream of the locus. To make it possible to analyze the interactions of cis-acting sequences of the human beta-globin locus in their normal spatial and sequence context, we characterized two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) 150 and 230 kb in size, containing the entire beta-globin locus. We have now successfully integrated the 150-kb YAC into the germ line of transgenic mice as a single unrearranged fragment that includes the locus control region, structural genes, and 30 kb of 3' flanking sequences present in the native locus. Expression of the transgenic human beta-globin locus is tissue- and developmental stage-specific and closely follows the pattern of expression of the endogenous mouse beta-globin locus. By using homology-directed recombination in yeast and methods for the purification and transfer of YACs into transgenic mice, it will now be feasible to study the physiological role of cis-acting sequences in specifying an erythroid-specific chromatin domain and directing expression of beta-globin genes during ontogeny. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8248258

  7. Transgenic mouse lines expressing rat AH receptor variants - A new animal model for research on AH receptor function and dioxin toxicity mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo [Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Laboratory of Toxicology, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Finnish Food Safety Authority EVIRA, Kuopio Research Unit, P.O. Box 92, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi

    2009-04-15

    Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats are exceptionally resistant to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity mainly because of their mutated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In H/W rats, altered splicing of the AHR mRNA generates two AHR proteins: deletion (DEL) and insertion (INS) variants, with the INS isoform being predominantly expressed. To gain further insight into their functional properties, cDNAs of these and rat wild-type (rWT) isoform were transferred into C57BL/6J-derived mice by microinjection. The endogenous mouse AHR was eliminated by selective crossing with Ahr-null mice. A single mouse line was obtained for each of the three constructs. The AHR mRNA levels in tissues were generally close to those of C57BL/6 mice in INS and DEL mice and somewhat higher in rWT mice; in testis, however, all 3 constructs exhibited marked overexpression. The transgenic mouse lines were phenotypically normal except for increased testis weight. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by TCDD occurred similarly to that in C57BL/6 mice, but there tended to be a correlation with AHR concentrations, especially in testis. In contrast to C57BL/6 mice, the transgenics did not display any major gender difference in susceptibility to the acute lethality and hepatotoxicity of TCDD; rWT mice were highly sensitive, DEL mice moderately resistant and INS mice highly resistant. Co-expression of mouse AHR and rWT resulted in augmented sensitivity to TCDD and abolished the natural resistance of female C57BL/6 mice, whereas mice co-expressing mouse AHR and INS were resistant. Thus, these transgenic mouse lines provide a novel promising tool for molecular studies on dioxin toxicity and AHR function.

  8. Transgenic zebrafish line with over-expression of Hedgehog on the skin: a useful tool to screen Hedgehog-inhibiting compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yau-Hung Chen; Yun-Hsin Wang; Tsung-Han Yu; Hsin-Ju Wu; Chiung-Wen Pai

    2009-01-01

    We generated a transgenic line Tg(k18:shh:RFP) with overexpression of Sonic hedgehog in the skin epidermis. By 5 day-post-fertilization (dpf), many epidermal lesions were\\u000a clearly observed, including a swollen yolk sac, epidermis growth malformation around the eyes and at the basement of the pectoral\\u000a fins. Skin histology revealed embryos derived from Tg(k18:shh:RFP) displayed an elevated Nuclear\\/Cytoplasmic ratio and pleomorphic nuclei compared to

  9. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2008 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 field screening nursery, with 64 wheat and 208 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries were submitted by Rutgers University (5 wheat), University of North Texas (2 wheat) and USDA (48 barley). In addition to the submitted transgenic entries, untransformed contr...

  10. A transgenic marker mouse line labels Cajal–Retzius cells from the cortical hem and thalamocortical axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunjie Zhao; Wei Guan; Samuel J. Pleasure

    2006-01-01

    Cajal–Retzius (CR) cells are among the earliest born cortical neurons and are required for normal cortical development in rodents and humans; however, their embryonic origin has been controversial. Recent genetic lineage studies and direct visualization of migration of CR cells have demonstrated multiple germinative sources for CR cells on the edges of the developing pallium. We generated transgenic mice using

  11. Soybean dwarf virus -resistant transgenic soybeans with the sense coat protein gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Tougou; Noriko Yamagishi; Noriyuki Furutani; Yoshiaki Shizukawa; Yoshihito Takahata; Soh Hidaka

    2007-01-01

    We transformed a construct containing the sense coat protein (CP) gene of Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) into soybean somatic embryos via microprojectile bombardment to acquire SbDV-resistant soybean plants. Six independent\\u000a T0 plants were obtained. One of these transgenic lines was subjected to further extensive analysis. Three different insertion\\u000a patterns of Southern blot hybridization analysis in T1 plants suggested that these

  12. Response of PiCypA tobacco T2 transgenic matured plant to potential tolerance to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Johri, Atul Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophilins are molecular chaperone act as peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase responsible for protein folding and assembly in many normal cellular processes, stabilize proteins and membranes under stress conditions. Recently, we report on the role cyclophilin A-like gene from Piriformospora indica (PiCypA) in salinity stress tolerance in T1 transgenic and up to seedling stage of T2 transgenic of tobacco plants. Here, PiCypA T2 generation matured tobacco plants were evaluated under salt (200 mM NaCl) up to flowering and seed set stages. We found that PiCypA T2 tobacco lines showed comparatively better survival and exhibited higher root growth and fresh weight as compared with wild type and vector control. This study provides further direct evidence that PiCypA transgene maintained the sustainability in providing salinity stress tolerance in T2 generation of transgenic tobacco plants. PMID:24394360

  13. Aberrant tissue specific expression of the transgene in transgenic mice that carry the hepatitis B virus genome defective in the X gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nagashima; M. Imai; Y. Iwakura

    1993-01-01

    Summary The control mechanisms for the transgene expression in mice that carry the hepatitis B virus genome defective in the polymerase and X genes were analyzed. Ten lines of transgenic mouse were established, and in seven lines the surface and e antigens were detected in the serum. In transgenic mice from five lines examined, the transgene was markedly expressed in

  14. The substantive equivalence of transgenic (Bt and Chi) and non-transgenic cotton based on metabolite profiles.

    PubMed

    Modirroosta, Bentol Hoda; Tohidfar, Masoud; Saba, Jalal; Moradi, Foad

    2014-03-01

    Compositional studies comparing transgenic with non-transgenic counterpart plants are almost universally required by governmental regulatory bodies. In the present study, two T(2) transgenic cotton lines containing chitinase (Line 11/57) and Bt lines (Line 61) were compared with non-transgenic counterpart. To do this, biochemical characteristics of leaves and seeds, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, anions, and cations contents of the studied lines were analyzed using GC/MS, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and ion chromatography (IC) analyzers, respectively. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analyses confirmed the presence and expression of Chi and Bt genes in the studied transgenic lines. Although, compositional analysis of leaves contents confirmed no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic counterpart lines, but it was shown that glucose content of chitinase lines, fructose content of transgenic lines (Bt and chitinase) and asparagine and glutamine of chitinase lines were significantly higher than the non-transgenic counterpart plants. Both the transgenic lines (Bt and chitinase) showed significant decrease in the amounts of sodium in comparison to the non-transgenic counterpart plants. The experiments on the seeds showed that histidine, isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine contents of all transgenic and non-transgenic lines were the same, whereas other amino acids were significantly increased in the transgenic lines. Surprisingly, it was observed that the concentrations of stearic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid in the chitinase line were significantly different than those of non-transgenic counterpart plants, but these components were the same in both Bt line and its non-transgenic counterpart. It seems that more changes observed in the seed contents than leaves is via this point that seeds are known as metabolites storage organs, so they show greater changes in the metabolites contents comparing to the leaves. PMID:24374853

  15. Comparison of a new pmp22 transgenic mouse line with other mouse models and human patients with CMT1A*

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, AM; Perea, J; McGuigan, A; King, RHM; Muddle, JR; Gabreëls-Festen, AA; Thomas, PK; Huxley, C

    2002-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is a dominantly inherited demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nervous system. It is most frequently caused by overexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), but is also caused by point mutations in the PMP22 gene. We describe a new transgenic mouse model (My41) carrying the mouse, rather than the human, pmp22 gene. The My41 strain has a severe phenotype consisting of unstable gait and weakness of the hind limbs that becomes obvious during the first 3 weeks of life. My41 mice have a shortened life span and breed poorly. Pathologically, My41 mice have a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy in which 75% of axons do not have a measurable amount of myelin. We compare the peripheral nerve pathology seen in My41 mice, which carry the mouse pmp22 gene, with previously described transgenic mice over-expressing the human PMP22 protein and Trembler-J (TrJ) mice which have a P16L substitution. We also look at the differences between CMT1A duplication patients, patients with the P16L mutation and their appropriate mouse models. PMID:12090404

  16. Generation of transgenic rice lines with reduced contents of multiple potential allergens using a null mutant in combination with an RNA silencing method.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Hirano, Kana; Urisu, Atsuo; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-12-01

    Rice seed proteins are known to be a causative antigen in some patients with food allergy, especially cereal allergy, with clinical symptoms such as eczema and dermatitis. The ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (14-16 kDa), ?-globulin (26 kDa) and ?-glyoxalase I (33 kDa) are regarded as major potential allergens of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed based on specific recognition by serum IgE from allergy patients. In order to suppress the production of these major allergens in rice grains, a mutant in the 'Koshihikari' background lacking the 26 kDa allergen (GbN-1) was used as a host for RNA silencing. A binary vector harboring two RNA interference (RNAi) gene cassettes for suppression of 14-16 kDa and 33 kDa allergens driven by the 13 kDa and 10 kDa prolamin endosperm-specific promoters, respectively, was introduced into the GbN-1 genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In the most promising transgenic line, the content of the three potential allergens was remarkably reduced to a very faint level without a change in seed phenotype. IgE binding of 15 patients' sera to the transgenic rice seed mostly deficient in the three major allergens was on average only about 10% that of the control wild-type rice, suggesting that these three accounted for the great majority of rice seed causative allergens recognized by patients' IgE and that the sequential allergen deletion/reduction strategy works in the development of hypo-allergenic rice lines. PMID:22039121

  17. Neuropathological changes in two lines of mice carrying a transgene for mutant human Cu,Zn SOD, and in mice overexpressing wild type human SOD: a model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro C. Dal Canto; Mark E. Gurney

    1995-01-01

    Two different lines of mice, G1 and G20, carrying a transgene for a mutant form of Cu,Zn SOD, found in a family with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), develop clinical and pathological changes which are, in their late stages, strikingly similar to those in human disease. We have analyzed the distribution and characteristics of lesions in the central and peripheral

  18. Determination of transgene repeat formation and promoter methylation in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Fladung, M

    2000-06-01

    The integration of transgenes into a plant host genome following Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated or direct transformation may occur as a single copy or in the form of tandem repeats. The latter has been associated with promoter methylation and silencing of transgenes. Thus, the early screening of such transgenic plants is desirable for ruling out future repeat-dependent transgene instability. We developed a simple PCR-based method in which primer pairs were specifically designed so that amplifications could only be obtained if the transgene was present in the form of multiple inserts in a transgenic line. The method was established using 35S-rolC transgenic aspen lines showing morphologically visible transgenic silencing. Later, it was possible to screen independent transgenic lines showing no visible marker gene expression. Furthermore, a method was developed in which positive PCR amplification was indicative of promoter methylation. The results were consistent and reproducible across different independent transgenic lines. The methods were quick, reliable, consistent and reproducible, and can be useful for routine screening of transgene silencing in lines derived from many different systems. PMID:10868278

  19. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liping; Liu, RuiE; Chu, Bijue; Yu, Xiushuang; Sun, Jie; Jones, Brian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Huizhong; Zhu, Shuijin; Sun, Yuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel). In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L) and bentazon (4.2 µmol). A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon) tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops. PMID:22768325

  20. Localization of mutant ubiquitin in the brain of a transgenic mouse line with proteasomal inhibition and its validation at specific sites in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gentier, Romina J. G.; Verheijen, Bert M.; Zamboni, Margherita; Stroeken, Maartje M. A.; Hermes, Denise J. H. P.; Küsters, Benno; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Hopkins, David A.; Van Leeuwen, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of protein quality control by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) during aging is one of the processes putatively contributing to cellular stress and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Recently, pooled Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), pathway analysis and proteomics identified protein ubiquitination as one of the key modulators of AD. Mutations in ubiquitin B mRNA that result in UBB+1 dose-dependently cause an impaired UPS, subsequent accumulation of UBB+1 and most probably depositions of other aberrant proteins present in plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. We used specific immunohistochemical probes for a comprehensive topographic mapping of the UBB+1 distribution in the brains of transgenic mouse line 3413 overexpressing UBB+1. We also mapped the expression of UBB+1 in brain areas of AD patients selected based upon the distribution of UBB+1 in line 3413. Therefore, we focused on the olfactory bulb, basal ganglia, nucleus basalis of Meynert, inferior colliculus and raphe nuclei. UBB+1 distribution was compared with established probes for pre-tangles and tangles and A? plaques. UBB+1 distribution found in line 3413 is partly mirrored in the AD brain. Specifically, nuclei with substantial accumulations of tangle-bearing neurons, such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert and raphe nuclei also present high densities of UBB+1 positive tangles. Line 3413 is useful for studying the contribution of proteasomal dysfunction in AD. The findings are consistent with evidence that areas outside the forebrain are also affected in AD. Line 3413 may also be predictive for other conformational diseases, including related tauopathies and polyglutamine diseases, in which UBB+1 accumulates in their cellular hallmarks. PMID:25852488

  1. Development of a Convenient In Vivo Hepatotoxin Assay Using a Transgenic Zebrafish Line with Liver-Specific DsRed Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Caixia; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have developed a transgenic zebrafish line (LiPan) with liver-specific red fluorescent protein (DsRed) expression under the fabp10a promoter. Since red fluorescence in the liver greatly facilitates the observation of liver in live LiPan fry, we envision that the LiPan zebrafish may provide a useful tool in analyses of hepatotoxicity based on changes of liver red fluorescence intensity and size. In this study, we first tested four well-established hepatotoxins (acetaminophen, aspirin, isoniazid and phenylbutazone) in LiPan fry and demonstrated that these hepatotoxins could significantly reduce both liver red fluorescence and liver size in a dosage-dependent manner, thus the two measurable parameters could be used as indicators of hepatotoxicity. We then tested the LiPan fry with nine other chemicals including environmental toxicants and human drugs. Three (mefenamic acid, lindane, and arsenate) behave like hepatotoxins in reduction of liver red fluorescence, while three others (17?-estradiol, TCDD [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin] and NDMA [N-nitrosodimethylamine]) caused increase of liver red fluorescence and the liver size. Ethanol and two other chemicals, amoxicillin (antibiotics) and chlorphenamine (pain killer) did not resulted in significant changes of liver red fluorescence and liver size. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we found that the changes of red fluorescence intensity caused by different chemicals correlated to the changes of endogenous fabp10a RNA expression, indicating that the measured hepatotoxicity was related to fatty acid transportation and metabolism. Finally we tested a mixture of four hepatotoxins and observed a significant reduction of red fluorescence in the liver at concentrations below the lowest effective concentrations of individual hepatotoxins, suggesting that the transgenic zebrafish assay is capable of reporting compound hepatotoxicity effect from chemical mixtures. Thus, the LiPan transgenic fry provide a rapid and convenient in vivo hepatotoxicity assay that should be applicable to high-throughput hepatotoxicity test in drug screening as well as in biomonitoring environmental toxicants. PMID:24626481

  2. Both hydrogen peroxide and transforming growth factor beta 1 contribute to endothelial Nox4 mediated angiogenesis in endothelial Nox4 transgenic mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Xiao, Jennifer; Kuroda, Junya; Ago, Tetsuro; Sadoshima, Junichi; Cohen, Richard A; Tong, XiaoYong

    2014-12-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are responsible for post-ischemic angiogenesis, a process that is regulated by reactive oxygen species. Recent studies indicate that endothelial Nox4 based NADPH oxidase may have a key role. This study examines the role of endothelial Nox4 in ischemia-induced angiogenesis and explores the potential mechanisms involved. Mouse lines overexpressing human Nox4 wild type (EWT) or its dominant negative form P437H (EDN) specifically in the endothelium were used. Non-transgenic littermate mice (NTg) were used as controls. Following hind limb ischemia, blood flow recovery was enhanced in EWT and was impaired in EDN compared with NTg. The critical angiogenesis regulating genes vascular endothelial growth factor receptor2 (VEGFR2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) were upregulated in EWT both in the ischemic muscle and in heart ECs, while TGFbeta1 was downregulated in EDNECs. In EC, both VEGFA and TGFbeta1 stimulated EC proliferation, migration, and capillary-like network formation in EWT but failed to do so in EDN. Application of TGFbeta1 increased both VEGFR2 and eNOS expression levels,whereas blocking TGFbeta1 or addition of catalase inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and eNOS, indicating H2O2 and TGFbeta1 signaling downstream of Nox4 is critical to maintain EC angiogenic functions. Use of cell specific transgenic mice with both upregulation and downregulation of endothelial Nox4 indicate several mechanisms linked to Nox4 play a role in angiogenesis. Endothelial Nox4 regulates ischemia-induced angiogenesis, likely through H2O2- and TGFbeta1-mediated activation of cell signaling pathways essential for endothelial function. PMID:25315297

  3. Characterization of the BAC Id3-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse line for in vivo imaging of astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lamantia, Cassandra; Tremblay, Marie-Eve; Majewska, Ania

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Astrocytes are highly ramified glial cells with critical roles in brain physiology and pathology. Recently, breakthroughs in imaging technology have expanded our understanding of astrocyte function in vivo. The in vivo study of astrocytic dynamics, however, is limited by the tools available to label astrocytes and their processes. Here, we characterize the bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic Id3-EGFP knock-in mouse to establish its usefulness for in vivo imaging of astrocyte processes. Using fixed brain sections, we observed enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in astrocytes and blood vessel walls throughout the brain, although the extent and cell type specificity of expression depended on the brain area and developmental age. Using in vivo two-photon imaging, we visualized astrocytes in cortical layers 1–3 in both thin skull and window preparations. In adult animals, astrocytic cell bodies and fine processes could be followed over many hours. Our results suggest that Id3 mice could be used for in vivo imaging of astrocytes and blood vessels in development and adulthood.

  4. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  5. Genomic stability and long-term transgene expression in poplar.

    PubMed

    Fladung, Matthias; Hoenicka, Hans; Raj Ahuja, M

    2013-12-01

    Stable expression of foreign genes over the entire life span of a plant is important for long-lived organisms such as trees. For transgenic forest trees, very little information is available on long-term transgene expression and genomic stability. Independent transgenic lines obtained directly after transformation are initially screened in respect to T-DNA integration and transgene expression. However, very little consideration has been given to long-term transgene stability in long-lived forest trees. We have investigated possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration as well as long-term stability of transgene expression in different transgenic lines of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) that are up to 19 years old. For studies on possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration, four different independent rolC-transgenic lines were subjected to an extensive AFLP study and compared to the non-transgenic control line. Only minor genomic changes following T-DNA integration could be detected. To study long-term transgene expression, six different independent rolC-transgenic lines produced in 1993 and since that time have been kept continuously under in vitro conditions. In addition, 18 transgenic plants belonging to eight independent rolC-transgenic lines transferred to glasshouse between 1994 and 2004 were chosen to determine the presence and expression of the rolC gene. In all transgenic lines examined, the rolC gene could successfully be amplified by PCR tests. Both, the 19 years old tissue cultures and the up to 18 years old glasshouse-grown trees revealed expression of the rolC transgene, as demonstrated by the rolC-phenotype and/or northern blot experiments confirming long-term transgene expression. PMID:23740206

  6. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2010 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...

  7. Testing transgenic spring wheat and barley lines for reaction to Fusarium head blight: 2011 field nursery report.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 field screening nursery, with 56 wheat and 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries and untransformed controls were submitted by the University of North Texas (9+1 wheat), and USDA (17+2 barley). Lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were a...

  8. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2009 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2009 field screening nursery, with 128 wheat and 208 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries and untransformed controls were submitted by the University of Minnesota (19+1 wheat), the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (4+2 wheat) and USDA (48+1 barley). Lines wit...

  9. Glial Cell Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor Delays Photoreceptor Degeneration in a Transgenic Rat Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura H. McGee Sanftner; Hilla Abel; William W. Hauswirth; John G. Flannery

    2001-01-01

    We designed experiments to evaluate the therapeutic potential of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to rescue photoreceptors from genetically determined cell death. Gene transfer of the neurotrophic factor to the retina was achieved via a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the chicken ?-actin promoter\\/immediate early cytomegalovirus enhancer (CBA) driving the human GDNF gene. We delivered AAV-CBA-GDNF to

  10. Transgenic human ES and iPS reporter cell lines for identification and selection of pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Titmarsh, Drew M; Fortuna, Patrick R J; Hidalgo, Alejandro; Alharbi, Samah; Whitworth, Deanne J; Cooper-White, Justin J; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2014-09-01

    Optimization of pluripotent stem cell expansion and differentiation is facilitated by biological tools that permit non-invasive and dynamic monitoring of pluripotency, and the ability to select for an undifferentiated input cell population. Here we report on the generation and characterisation of clonal human embryonic stem (HES3, H9) and human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (UQEW01i-epifibC11) that have been stably modified with an artificial EOS(C3+) promoter driving expression of EGFP and puromycin resistance-conferring proteins. We show that EGFP expression faithfully reports on the pluripotency status of the cells in these lines and that antibiotic selection allows for an efficient elimination of differentiated cells from the cultures. We demonstrate that the extinction of the expression of the pluripotency reporter during differentiation closely correlates with the decrease in expression of conventional pluripotency markers, such as OCT4 (POU5F1), TRA-1-60 and SSEA4 when screening across conditions with various levels of pluripotency-maintaining or differentiation-inducing signals. We further illustrate the utility of these lines for real-time monitoring of pluripotency in embryoid bodies and microfluidic bioreactors. PMID:25108530

  11. High levan accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase gene.

    PubMed

    Banguela, Alexander; Arrieta, Juan G; Rodríguez, Raisa; Trujillo, Luis E; Menéndez, Carmen; Hernández, Lázaro

    2011-06-10

    Bacterial levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) converts sucrose into non-linear levan consisting of long ?(2,6)-linked fructosyl chains with ?(2,1) branches. Bacterial levan has wide food and non-food applications, but its production in industrial reactors is costly and low yielding. Here, we report the constitutive expression of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase (LsdA) fused to the vacuolar targeting pre-pro-peptide of onion sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in tobacco, a crop that does not naturally produce fructans. In the transgenic plants, levan with degree of polymerization above 10(4) fructosyl units was detected in leaves, stem, root, and flowers, but not in seeds. High levan accumulation in leaves led to gradual phenotypic alterations that increased with plant age through the flowering stage. In the transgenic lines, the fructan content in mature leaves varied from 10 to 70% of total dry weight. No oligofructans were stored in the plant organs, although the in vitro reaction of transgenic LsdA with sucrose yielded ?(2,1)-linked FOS and levan. Transgenic lines with levan representing up to 30mgg(-1) of fresh leaf weight produced viable seeds and the polymer accumulation remained stable in the tested T1 and T2 progenies. The lsdA-expressing tobacco represents an alternative source of highly polymerized levan. PMID:21540065

  12. Transgenic DNA integrated into the oat genome is frequently interspersed by host DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Wojciech P.; Somers, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Integration of transgenic DNA into the plant genome was investigated in 13 transgenic oat (Avena sativa L.) lines produced using microprojectile bombardment with one or two cotransformed plasmids. In all transformation events, the transgenic DNA integrated into the plant genome consisted of intact transgene copies that were accompanied by multiple, rearranged, and/or truncated transgene fragments. All fragments of transgenic DNA cosegregated, indicating that they were integrated at single gene loci. Analysis of the structure of the transgenic loci indicated that the transgenic DNA was interspersed by the host genomic DNA. The number of insertions of transgenic DNA within the transgene loci varied from 2 to 12 among the 13 lines. Restriction endonucleases that do not cleave the introduced plasmids produced restriction fragments ranging from 3.6 to about 60 kb in length hybridizing to a probe comprising the introduced plasmids. Although the size of the interspersing host DNA within the transgene locus is unknown, the sizes of the transgene-hybridizing restriction fragments indicated that the entire transgene locus must be at least from 35–280 kb. The observation that all transgenic lines analyzed exhibited genomic interspersion of multiple clustered transgenes suggests a predominating integration mechanism. We propose that transgene integration at multiple clustered DNA replication forks could account for the observed interspersion of transgenic DNA with host genomic DNA within transgenic loci. PMID:9770447

  13. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Truncated trkB Neurotrophin Receptors in Neurons Show Increased Susceptibility to Cortical Injury after Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommi Saarelainen; Jouko A. Lukkarinen; Susanna Koponen; Olli H. J. Gröhn; Jukka Jolkkonen; Eija Koponen; Annakaisa Haapasalo; Leena Alhonen; Garry Wong; Jari Koistinaho; Risto A. Kauppinen; Eero Castrén

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that the increased production of endogenous BDNF after brain insults supports the survival of injured neurons and limits the spread of the damage. In order to test this hypothesis experimentally, we have produced transgenic mouse lines that overexpress the dominant-negative truncated splice variant of BDNF receptor trkB (trkB.T1) in postnatal cortical and hippocampal neurons. When these

  14. Somaclonal variation in the progeny of transgenic barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bregitzer; S. E. Halbert; P. G. Lemaux

    1998-01-01

    Somaclonal variation (SCV) in transgenic plants may slow the incorporation of introduced genes into commercially competitive\\u000a cultivars. Somaclonal variation in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed in one experiment by comparing the agronomic characteristics of 44 segregating transgenic lines in the T2 generation to their non-transformed parent (‘Golden Promise’). A second experiment examined the agronomic characteristics\\u000a of seven transgenic-derived,

  15. T-1 Training Area

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  16. T-1 Training Area

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-11-07

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  17. Insertional mutagenesis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, T; Peetz, A; Rüther, U

    1994-07-01

    Increasing numbers of transgenic mouse lines have resulted in several dozens of mutants created by insertional mutagenesis. The advantages of different vector systems and the problems associated with the analysis of mutations and the cloning of the affected genes are discussed in this review. PMID:7920737

  18. A new ETV6/TEL partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), identified in an AML-M3 cell line with a t(1;12)(q25;p13) translocation.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Y; Ito, T; Oikawa, T; Eguchi, M; Eguchi-Ishimae, M; Kamada, N; Kishi, K; Asano, S; Sakaki, Y; Sato, Y

    2000-03-15

    The ETV6/TEL gene has been reported to fuse to PDGFRbetab MDS1/EVI1, BTL, ACS2, STL, JAK2, ABL, CDX2, TRKC, AML1, and MN1. Among them, PDGFRbeta, ABL, JAK2, and TRKC are tyrosine kinases (TK). We identified a novel ETV6 partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), another TK gene in a cell line established from a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M3) with a t(15;17)(q22;q11.2) and a t(1;12)(q25;p13), which has the remarkable feature to differentiate to mature eosinophils in culture with all-trans retinoic acid and cytokines. The ETV6/ARG transcripts consisted of exon 1 to 5 of ETV6 and the 3' portion of ARG starting from exon 1B or exon 2, resulting in an open reading frame for a fusion protein consisting of the entire PNT oligomerization domain of ETV6 and all of the functional domains of ARG including the TK domain. This is the same protein structure as identified in the other ETV6 TK fusion proteins. The reciprocal ARG/ETV6 transcript was not expressed, and the normal ETV6 allele was not deleted or rearranged. Although the ABL is known to be involved in various human malignancies, ARG has not been involved in human malignancies despite its high homology to ABL. Thus, this is the first report showing involvement of ARG in human leukemia. The ETV6/ARG protein may be involved in the unique differentiation capacity of this cell line. (Blood. 2000;95:2126-2131) PMID:10706884

  19. Generation of inheritable and "transgene clean" targeted genome-modified rice in later generations using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong-Fang; Li, Hao; Qin, Rui-Ying; Li, Juan; Qiu, Chun-Hong; Yang, Ya-Chun; Ma, Hui; Li, Li; Wei, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Jian-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming an important genome editing tool for crop breeding. Although it has been demonstrated that target mutations can be transmitted to the next generation, their inheritance pattern has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of four different rice genes with the help of online target-design tools. High-frequency mutagenesis and a large percentage of putative biallelic mutations were observed in T0 generations. Nonetheless, our results also indicate that the progeny genotypes of biallelic T0 lines are frequently difficult to predict and that the transmission of mutations largely does not conform to classical genetic laws, which suggests that the mutations in T0 transgenic rice are mainly somatic mutations. Next, we followed the inheritance pattern of T1 plants. Regardless of the presence of the CRISPR/Cas9 transgene, the mutations in T1 lines were stably transmitted to later generations, indicating a standard germline transmission pattern. Off-target effects were also evaluated, and our results indicate that with careful target selection, off-target mutations are rare in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated rice gene editing. Taken together, our results indicate the promising production of inheritable and "transgene clean" targeted genome-modified rice in the T1 generation using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. PMID:26089199

  20. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Goyal, Ravinder K; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotypexmulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit. PMID:18469323

  1. Transgenic resistance.

    PubMed

    Cillo, Fabrizio; Palukaitis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic resistance to plant viruses is an important technology for control of plant virus infection, which has been demonstrated for many model systems, as well as for the most important plant viruses, in terms of the costs of crop losses to disease, and also for many other plant viruses infecting various fruits and vegetables. Different approaches have been used over the last 28 years to confer resistance, to ascertain whether particular genes or RNAs are more efficient at generating resistance, and to take advantage of advances in the biology of RNA interference to generate more efficient and environmentally safer, novel "resistance genes." The approaches used have been based on expression of various viral proteins (mostly capsid protein but also replicase proteins, movement proteins, and to a much lesser extent, other viral proteins), RNAs [sense RNAs (translatable or not), antisense RNAs, satellite RNAs, defective-interfering RNAs, hairpin RNAs, and artificial microRNAs], nonviral genes (nucleases, antiviral inhibitors, and plantibodies), and host-derived resistance genes (dominant resistance genes and recessive resistance genes), and various factors involved in host defense responses. This review examines the above range of approaches used, the viruses that were tested, and the host species that have been examined for resistance, in many cases describing differences in results that were obtained for various systems developed in the last 20 years. We hope this compilation of experiences will aid those who are seeking to use this technology to provide resistance in yet other crops, where nature has not provided such. PMID:25410101

  2. Transcription-dependent silencing of inducible convergent transgenes in transgenic mice

    E-print Network

    Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Bert, Andrew G; Cockerill, Peter N

    2010-01-19

    hypersensitive sites and inability to recruit RNA polymerase II upon stimulation. This pattern of silencing was reflected by increased methylation and decreased acetylation of histone H3 K9 in the transgene. We found that silenced lines were specifically...

  3. Safety Evaluation of Transgenic Tilapia with Accelerated Growth.

    PubMed

    Guillén; Berlanga; Valenzuela; Morales; Toledo; Estrada; Puentes; Hayes; de la Fuente J

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in modern marine biotechnology have permitted the generation of new strains of economically important fish species through the transfer of growth hormone genes. These transgenic fish strains show improved growth performance and therefore constitute a better alternative for aquaculture programs. Recently, we have obtained a transgenic tilapia line with accelerated growth. However, before introducing this line into Cuban aquaculture, environmental and food safety assessment was required by national authorities. Experiments were performed to evaluate the behavior of transgenic tilapia in comparison to wild tilapia as a way to assess the environmental impact of introducing transgenic tilapia into Cuban aquaculture. Studies were also conducted to evaluate, according to the principle of substantial equivalence, the safety of consuming transgenic tilapia as food. Behavior studies showed that transgenic tilapia had a lower feeding motivation and dominance status than controls. Food safety assessment indicated that tilapia growth hormone has no biological activity when administered to nonhuman primates. Furthermore, no effects were detected in human healthy volunteers after the consumption of transgenic tilapia. These results showed, at least under the conditions found in Cuba, no environmental implications for the introduction of this transgenic tilapia line and the safety in the consumption of tiGH-transgenic tilapia as an alternative feeding source for humans. These results support the culture and consumption of these transgenic tilapia. PMID:10373604

  4. Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond

    E-print Network

    Feng, Guoping

    The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic ...

  5. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  6. Influence of a nonfragile FHIT transgene on murine tumor susceptibility.

    PubMed

    McCorkell, K A; Mancini, R; Siprashvili, Z; Barnoski, B L; Iliopoulos, D; Siracusa, L D; Zanesi, N; Croce, C M; Fong, L Y Y; Druck, T; Huebner, K

    2007-01-01

    FHIT, at a constitutively active chromosome fragile site, is often a target of chromosomal aberrations and deletion in a large fraction of human tumors. Inactivation of murine Fhit allelessignificantly increases susceptibility of mice to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. In this study, transgenic mice, carrying a human FHIT cDNA under control of the endogenous promoter, were produced to determine the effect of Fhit expression, from a nonfragile cDNA transgene outside the fragile region, on carcinogen-induced tumor susceptibility of wildtype and Fhit heterozygous mice. Mice received sufficient oral doses of N-nitrosomethybenzylamine (NMBA) to cause forestomach tumors in >80% of nontransgenic control mice. Although the level of expression of the FHIT transgene in the recombinant mouse strains was much lower than the level of endogenous Fhit expression, the tumor burden in NMBA-treated male transgenic mice was significantly reduced, while female transgenic mice were not protected. To determine if the difference in protection could be due to differences in epigenetic changes at the transgene loci in male versus female mice, we examined expression, hypermethylation and induced re-expression of FHIT transgenes in male and female mice or cells derived from them. The transgene was methylated in male and female mice and in cell lines established from male and female transgenic kidneys, the FHIT locus was both hypermethylated and deacetylated. It is likely that the FHIT transgene is more tightly silenced in female transgenic mice, leading to a lack of protection from tumor induction. PMID:18000371

  7. Transgenics in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressing cry1AcF gene for resistance to Spodoptera litura (F.).

    PubMed

    Keshavareddy, G; Rohini, S; Ramu, S V; Sundaresha, S; Kumar, A R V; Kumar, P Ananda; Udayakumar, M

    2013-07-01

    Large number of primary transgenic events were generated in groundnut by an Agrobacterium mediated, in planta transformation method to assess the efficacy of cry1AcF against the Spodoptera litura. The amplification of required size fragment of 750 bp with npt II primers and 901 bp with cry1AcF gene primers confirmed the integration of the gene. The expression of the cry gene was ascertained by ELISA in T2 generation, and the maximum concentration of cry protein in transgenic plants reached approximately 0.82 ?g/g FW. Further, Southern blot analysis of ten T2 transgenic plants proved that transgene had been integrated in the genome of all the plants and Northern analysis of the same plants demonstrated the active expression of cry1AcF gene. The highest mean % larval mortalities 80.0 and 85.0 with an average mean % larval mortalities 16.25 (n?=?369) and 26.0 (n?=?80) were recorded in T1 and T2 generations, respectively. Segregation analysis of the selected lines in the T3 generation demonstrated homozygous nature. This clearly proved that though there is considerable improvement in average mean % larval mortality in T2 generation, the cry1AcF gene was effective against S. litura only to some extent. PMID:24431503

  8. On-line casein micelle disruption for downstream purification of recombinant human myelin basic protein produced in the milk of transgenic cows.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Williams, Martin A K; Brophy, Brigid; Laible, Götz; Harding, David R K

    2009-06-01

    Downstream purification of a model recombinant protein (human myelin basic protein) from milk of transgenic cows is described. The recombinant protein was expressed as a His tagged fusion protein in the milk of transgenic cows and was found associated with the casein micellar phase. While difficulties in obtaining good recoveries were found when employing conventional micelle disruption procedures, direct capture using the cation exchanger SP Sepharose Big Beads was found successful in the extraction of the recombinant protein. Early breakthrough suggested a slow release of the recombinant protein from the micelles and dictated micelle disruption in order to obtain good yields. A new approach for deconstruction of the calcium core of the casein micelles, employing the interaction between the micellar calcium and the active sites of the cation exchanger resin was developed. Milk samples were loaded to the column in aliquots with a column washing step after each aliquot. This sequential loading approach successfully liberated the recombinant protein from the micelles and was found superior to the conventional sample loading approach. It increased the recovery by more than 25%, reduced fouling due to milk components and improved the column hydrodynamic properties as compared to the conventional sample loading approach. Hardware and software modifications to the chromatography system were necessary in order to keep the whole process automated. A second purification step using a Ni2+ affinity column was used to isolate the recombinant protein at purity more than 90% and a recovery percentage of 78%. PMID:19419911

  9. Refinement of the Citrus tristeza virus resistance gene (Ctv) positional map in Poncirus trifoliata and generation of transgenic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plant lines with candidate resistance genes in this region.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mamta

    2006-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen of Citrus. A single dominant gene Ctv present in the trifoliate relative of Citrus, Poncirus trifoliata confers broad spectrum resistance against CTV. Refinement of genetic maps has delimited this gene to a 121 kb region, comprising of ten candidate Ctv resistance genes. The ten candidate genes were individually cloned in Agrobacterium based binary vector and transformed into three CTV susceptible grapefruit varieties. Two of the candidate R-genes, R-2 and R-3 are exclusively expressed in transgenic plants and in Poncirus trifoliata, while five other genes are also expressed in non-transformed Citrus controls. Northern blotting with a CTV derived probe for assessment of infection in virus inoculated plants over a span of three growth periods, each comprising of six to eight weeks, indicates either an absence of initiation of infection or it's slow spread in R-2 plant lines or an initial appearance of infection and it's subsequent obliteration in some R-1 and R-4 plant lines. Limited genome walk up- and downstream form R-1 gene, based on it's 100% sequence identity between Poncirus and Citrus, indicates promoter identity of 92% between the two varieties. Further upstream and downstream sequencing indicates the presence of an O-methyl transferase and a Copia like gene respectively in Citrus instead of the amino acid transporter like gene upstream and a sugar transporter like gene downstream in Poncirus. The possibility of recombinations in the resistance locus of Citrus and the need for consistent monitoring for virus infection and gene expression in the transgenic Citrus trees is discussed. PMID:16830176

  10. Human Tissue Kallikrein Induces Hypotension in Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; William Xiong; Zhirong Yang; Tia Davis; Michael J. Dewey; Julie Chao; Lee Chao

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of the kallikrein-kinin system in blood pressure control by developing transgenic mice overexpressing human tissue kallikrein. Two lines of trans- genic mice carrying the human tissue kallikrein gene under the control of the mouse metallothionein metal-responsive pro- moter were established. Human tissue kallikrein was identified in pancreas, salivary gland, kidney, liver, and spleen of the transgenic

  11. T1 GIII Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Zungri; Levin Martinez; Eloisio A. Da Silva; Daniel Pesqueira; Ana de la Fuente Buceta; Beatriz Pereiro

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Transurethral resection (TUR) is the elective procedure in the treatment of superficial bladder tumor. The association of intravesical chemotherapy has no influence on survival and cause specific survival. This study was carried out to determine the evolution of T1 GIII bladder carcinoma treated with TUR only. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 42 consecutive patients with

  12. Transgenic Research 10: 465470, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Spiker, Steven L.

    in transgenic plants. This is comparable to work in mouse systems showing that MARs have a positive effect this possibility by initiating suspension cell cultures from well-characterized transgenic plants transformed to those of the transgenic plants from which the cell lines were derived. If cell differenti- ation state

  13. Effects of rice cystatin I expression in transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lecardonnel; Laura Chauvin; Lise Jouanin; Antony Beaujean; Genevičve Prévost; Brigitte Sangwan-Norreel

    1999-01-01

    The impact of OCI (Oryzacystatin I) expressing transgenic potato on Colorado potato beetle (CPB) larvae development was investigated. Transgenic potatoes, resistant to kanamycin and expressing the OCI cysteine protease inhibitor (PI), were obtained via Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetic transformation. Four independent transgenic lines were shown by molecular analysis to exhibit a high level of OCI expression. Larvae of CPB were independently

  14. Evaluating the fitness of human lysozyme transgenic dairy goats: growth and reproductive traits

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kathryn A.; Berg, Jolene M.; Murray, James D.

    2010-01-01

    While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits. More specifically, we used a line of transgenic dairy goats expressing human lysozyme in their mammary gland to evaluate the reproductive fitness and growth and development of these animals compared to their non-transgenic counterparts and the impact of consuming a transgenic food product, lysozyme-containing milk. In males, none of the parameters of semen quality, including semen volume and concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm morphology, viability and motility, were significantly different between transgenic bucks and non-transgenic full-sib controls. Likewise, transgenic females of this line did not significantly differ in the reproductive traits of gestation length and litter size compared to their non-transgenic counterparts. To evaluate growth, transgenic and non-transgenic kid goats received colostrum and milk from either transgenic or non-transgenic does from birth until weaning. Neither the presence of the transgene nor the consumption of milk from transgenic animals significantly affected birth weight, weaning weight, overall gain and post-wean gain. These results indicate that the analyzed reproductive and growth traits were not regularly or substantially impacted by the presence or expression of the transgene. The evaluation of these general parameters is an important aspect of defining the safety of applying transgenic technology to animal agriculture. PMID:20135222

  15. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus in transgenic wheat expressing the viral replicase (NIb) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elumalai Sivamani; Christopher W. Brey; William E. Dyer; Luther E. Talbert; Rongda Qu

    2000-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Hi-Line) immature embryos were transformed with the replicase gene (NIb) of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) by the biolistic method. Six independent transgenic plant lines were analyzed for transgene expression and for resistance to mechanical inoculation of WSMV at R3 or R4 generation. Four out of the six lines showed various degree of resistance to

  16. TRANSGENIC COMPARISONS OF PINK BOLLWORM EFFICACY AND RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen lines from 3 different cotton families were compared. Each family had a conventional, non-transgenic standard, as well as 4 other transgenic lines. Each Bt line was evaluated for this trait's efficacy in controlling pink bollworm under high pressure, artificial infestations. Various agronomi...

  17. Derivation and characterization of a transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cell line and conversion into defined clinical-grade conditions.

    PubMed

    Awe, Jason P; Vega-Crespo, Agustin; Byrne, James A

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be generated with lentiviral-based reprogramming methodologies. However, traces of potentially oncogenic genes remaining in actively transcribed regions of the genome, limit their potential for use in human therapeutic applications. Additionally, non-human antigens derived from stem cell reprogramming or differentiation into therapeutically relevant derivatives preclude these hiPSCs from being used in a human clinical context. In this video, we present a procedure for reprogramming and analyzing factor-free hiPSCs free of exogenous transgenes. These hiPSCs then can be analyzed for gene expression abnormalities in the specific intron containing the lentivirus. This analysis may be conducted using sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which has an advantage over less sensitive techniques previously used to detect gene expression differences. Full conversion into clinical-grade good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, allows human clinical relevance. Our protocol offers another methodology--provided that current safe-harbor criteria will expand and include factor-free characterized hiPSC-based derivatives for human therapeutic applications--for deriving GMP-grade hiPSCs, which should eliminate any immunogenicity risk due to non-human antigens. This protocol is broadly applicable to lentiviral reprogrammed cells of any type and provides a reproducible method for converting reprogrammed cells into GMP-grade conditions. PMID:25490111

  18. A promoter that drives gene expression preferentially in male transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiling; Ma, Yamin; Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Wei; Ma, Li; Fu, Guoxing; Tian, Xiaohua; Wang, Yueling; Li, Xu; Bythwood, Tameka; Richards, Jendai; Song, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Gender-preferential gene expression is a widespread phenomenon in humans. It is important to study how gender differences influence the pathogenesis of various diseases and response to specific drugs. The aim of this study is to determine if the mouse albumin enhancer/promoter may serve as the promoter to introduce gender-preferential gene expression in transgenic animals. We created four independent transgenic rat lines in which the human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgene was under the control of mouse albumin enhancer/promoter. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that transgene expression in the liver of male rats was significantly higher than transgene expression in the female rats (p<0.05). There was a 5.3-fold (male/female) difference in line-519, and a 12.2-fold (male/female) difference in line-488. ELISA showed that the serum of male transgenic rats had a 13 to 679-fold difference at the protein level on transgene production compared with female transgenic rats. The male-to-female difference in gene expression was 10 to 17-fold in the liver of transgenic rats. Orchiectomy dramatically reduced protein production from the transgene in the liver. Testosterone administration into female rats did not increase the transgene expression, but estrogen administration into the male rats reduced transgene expression. This study provides a valuable tool for investigating the pathological roles of genes that are expressed in a gender-preferential manner in human disease. PMID:24338332

  19. Transgene silencing and transgene-derived siRNA production in tobacco plants homozygous for an introduced AtMYB90 construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines were engineered to ectopically over-express AtMYB90 (PAP2), an R2-R3 Myb gene associated with regulation of anthocyanin production in Arabidopsis thaliana. Independently transformed transgenic lines Myb27 and Myb237 accumulated large quantities of anthoc...

  20. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Nocarova, Eva; Fischer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Background Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. Results The majority (~90%) of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. Conclusion The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is highly advisable to use transgenes tagged with a visual marker for BY-2 transformation. The cloning procedure can be used not only for efficient reduction of expression heterogeneity of such transgenes, but also as a useful tool for studies of transgene expression and other purposes. PMID:19386122

  1. Over-expression of snakin-2 and extensin-like protein genes restricts pathogen invasiveness and enhances tolerance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Balaji, Vasudevan; Smart, Christine D

    2012-02-01

    Two tomato proteins were evaluated by over-expression in transgenic tomato for their ability to confer resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). Snakin-2 (SN2) is a cysteine-rich peptide with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro while extensin-like protein (ELP) is a major cell-wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein linked with plant response to pathogen attack and wounding. Tomato plants, cultivar Mountain Fresh, were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary vector for expression of the full-length SN2 gene or ELP cDNA under the regulation of the CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular characterization of PCR-positive putative T(0) transgenic plants by Northern analysis revealed constitutive over-expression of SN2 and ELP mRNA. Junction fragment analysis by Southern blot showed that three of the four SN2 over-expressing T(0) lines had single copies of complete T-DNAs while the other line had two complete T-DNA copies. All four ELP over-expressing T(0) lines had a single copy T-DNA insertion. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of T(1) plants revealed constitutive over-expression of SN2 and ELP. Transgenic lines that accumulated high levels of SN2 or ELP mRNA showed enhanced tolerance to Cmm resulting in a significant delay in the development of wilt symptoms and a reduction in the size of canker lesions compared to non-transformed control plants. Furthermore, in transgenic lines over-expressing SN2 or ELP bacterial populations were significantly lower (100-10,000-fold) than in non-transformed control plants. These results demonstrate that SN2 and ELP over-expression limits Cmm invasiveness suggesting potential in vivo antibacterial activity and possible biotechnological application for these two defense proteins. PMID:21479554

  2. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hee-Jong; Qin, Yang; Park, Soo-Yun; Park, Soon Ki; Cho, Yong-Gu; Shin, Kong-Sik; Lim, Myung-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP) gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, ?-, ?-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice. PMID:26172549

  3. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hee-Jong; Qin, Yang; Park, Soo-Yun; Park, Soon Ki; Cho, Yong-Gu; Shin, Kong-Sik; Lim, Myung-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP) gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, ?-, ?-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice. PMID:26172549

  4. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs is not sufficient for RNAi-mediated protection against Citrus tristeza virus in transgenic Mexican lime.

    PubMed

    López, Carmelo; Cervera, Magdalena; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peńa, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Mexican lime plants transformed with the 3'-terminal 549 nucleotides of the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome in sense, antisense and intron-hairpin formats were analysed for transgene-derived transcript and short interfering RNA (siRNA) accumulation, and for CTV resistance. Propagations from all sense, antisense and empty-vector transgenic lines were susceptible to CTV, except for a single sense-line plant with a complex transgene integration pattern that showed transgene-derived siRNAs in association with low levels of the transgene-derived transcript. In contrast, nine of 30 intron-hairpin lines showed CTV resistance, with 9%-56% of bud-propagated plants, depending on the line, remaining uninfected on graft inoculation, and the others being susceptible. Although resistance was always associated with the presence of transgene-derived siRNAs, their level in different sense and intron-hairpin transformants was variable irrespective of the response to CTV infection. In intron-hairpin lines with single transgene integration, CTV resistance was correlated with low accumulation of the transgene-derived transcript rather than with high accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs. PMID:20078774

  5. Transcriptional changes related to secondary wall formation in xylem of transgenic lines of tobacco altered for lignin or xylan content which show improved saccharification.

    PubMed

    Cook, Charis M; Daudi, Arsalan; Millar, David J; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Khan, Safina; Bolwell, G Paul; Devoto, Alessandra

    2012-02-01

    In this study, an EST library (EH663598-EH666265) obtained from xylogenic tissue cultures of tobacco that had been previously generated was annotated. The library proved to be enriched in transcripts related to the synthesis and modification of secondary cell walls. The xylem-specific transcripts for most of the genes of the lignification and xylan pathways were identified and several full-length sequences obtained. Gene expression was determined in available tobacco lines down-regulated for enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway: CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE (sc4h), CINNAMOYL-COA REDUCTASE (asccr) and lignification-specific peroxidase (asprx). In addition, lines down-regulated in the nucleotide-sugar pathway to xylan formation through antisense expression of UDP-GLUCURONIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE (asuxs) were also analysed. It is shown herein that most transcripts were down-regulated for both lignin and xylan synthesis pathways in these lines, while CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A3 was up-regulated in lignin-modified lines. The analysis indicates the existence of interdependence between lignin and xylan pathways at the transcriptional level and also shows that levels of cellulose, xylan and lignin are not necessarily directly correlated to differences in transcription of the genes involved upstream, as shown by cell wall fractionation and sugar analysis. It is therefore suggested that cell wall biosynthesis regulation occurs at different levels, and not merely at the transcriptional level. In addition, all lines analyzed showed improved enzymic saccharification of secondary but not primary walls. Nevertheless, this demonstrates potential industrial applicability for the approach undertaken to improve biomass utility. PMID:22119077

  6. Differential Effects of Bcl2 on T and B Cells in Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Katsumata; Richard M. Siegel; Diane C. Louie; Toshiyuki Miyashita; Yoshihide Tsujimoto; Peter C. Nowell; Mark I. Greene; John C. Reed

    1992-01-01

    We have produced bcl-2 transgenic mice by using a construct which mimics the t(14;18) translocation in human follicular lymphomas. Although lymphoid tissues from all transgenic mice contained high levels of human Bcl-2 protein, transgene expression was differentially regulated within the B- and T-cell compartments of lines derived from various founder mice. We have characterized the phenotypes of two lines of

  7. Split-Cre Complementation Restores Combination Activity on Transgene Excision in Hair Roots of Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Mengling; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Ran, Lingyu; Li, Jiahui; Luo, Keming

    2014-01-01

    The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ‘‘split-Cre’’ fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre) of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre) or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants. PMID:25329460

  8. Development of high oleic and low linoleic acid transgenics in a zero erucic acid Brassica juncea L. (Indian mustard) line by antisense suppression of the fad2 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indira Sivaraman; Neelakantan Arumugam; Yashpal Singh Sodhi; Vibha Gupta; Arundhati Mukhopadhyay; Akshay K. Pradhan; Pradeep Kumar Burma; Deepak Pental

    2004-01-01

    A zero erucic acid (C22:1) line of Brassica juncea (VH486), adapted to the agronomic conditions of Northern India, has been modified for its fatty acid composition in the seed oil with antisense constructs using the sequence of fad2 gene of B. rapa. The full-length B. rapa fad2 cDNA sequence was determined by 5’ and 3’ RACE of a partial sequence

  9. Enhanced Transgene Expression from Recombinant Single-Stranded D-Sequence-Substituted Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors in Human Cell Lines In Vitro and in Murine Hepatocytes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Lina; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.; Aslanidi, George V.; Li, Baozheng; Cheng, Binbin; Ma, Wenqin; Lentz, Thomas; Ling, Changquan; Xiao, Xiao; Samulski, R. Jude; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously reported that the removal of a 20-nucleotide sequence, termed the D sequence, from both ends of the inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) in the adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) genome significantly impairs rescue, replication, and encapsidation of the viral genomes (X. S. Wang, S. Ponnazhagan, and A. Srivastava, J Mol Biol 250:573–580, 1995; X. S. Wang, S. Ponnazhagan, and A. Srivastava, J Virol 70:1668–1677, 1996). Here we describe that replacement of only one D sequence in either ITR restores each of these functions, but DNA strands of only single polarity are encapsidated in mature progeny virions. Since most commonly used recombinant AAV vectors contain a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is transcriptionally inactive, efficient transgene expression from AAV vectors is dependent upon viral second-strand DNA synthesis. We have also identified a transcription suppressor sequence in one of the D sequences, which shares homology with the binding site for the cellular NF-?B-repressing factor (NRF). The removal of this D sequence from, and replacement with a sequence containing putative binding sites for transcription factors in, single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) vectors significantly augments transgene expression both in human cell lines in vitro and in murine hepatocytes in vivo. The development of these genome-modified ssAAV vectors has implications not only for the basic biology of AAV but also for the optimal use of these vectors in human gene therapy. IMPORTANCE The results of the studies described here not only have provided novel insights into some of the critical steps in the life cycle of a human virus, the adeno-associated virus (AAV), that causes no known disease but have also led to the development of novel recombinant AAV vectors which are more efficient in allowing increased levels of gene expression. Thus, these studies have significant implications for the potential use of these novel AAV vectors in human gene therapy. PMID:25355884

  10. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves.

    PubMed

    Muńoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We generated transgenic spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) plants constitutively expressing the limonene synthase (LS) gene from spearmint (Mentha spicata), encoding the LS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of limonene from geranyl diphosphate. Overexpression of the LS transgene did not consistently affect monoterpene profile in pooled leaves or flowers from transgenic T(0) plants. Analyses from cohorts of leaves sampled at different developmental stages showed that essential oil accumulation in transgenic and control plants was higher in developing than in mature leaves. Furthermore, developing leaves of transgenic plants contained increased limonene contents (more than 450% increase compared to controls) that correlated with the highest transcript accumulation of the LS gene. The levels of other monoterpene pathway components were also significantly altered. T(0) transgenic plants were grown for 2 years, self-pollinated, and the T(1) seeds obtained. The increased limonene phenotype was maintained in the progenies that inherited the LS transgene. PMID:18514005

  11. Ripening Physiology of Fruit from Transgenic Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Plants with Reduced Ethylene Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry J. Klee

    lhe physiological effects of reduced ethylene synthesis in a transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) line expressing 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme have been examined. Fruit from the transgenic line 5673 ripen significantly slower than control fruit when removed from the vine early in ripening. In contrast, fruit that remain attached to the plants ripen much more rapidly, exhibiting little delay

  12. A dominant-negative mutation within AtMYB90 blocks flower pigment production in transgenic tobacco.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During de novo shoot induction in cultured transgenic tobacco callus a spontaneous mutation within the coding region of a AtMYB90 transgene produced a plant line in which the original transgene-induced over-pigmented phenotype (dark red/purple from anthocyanin overproduction in most tissues) was los...

  13. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bed?, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  14. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    PubMed

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragăo, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium. PMID:21865877

  15. Transgene silencing in grapevines transformed with GFLV resistance genes: analysis of variable expression of transgene, siRNAs production and cytosine methylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Gambino; Irene Perrone; Andrea Carra; Walter Chitarra; Paolo Boccacci; Daniela Torello Marinoni; Marco Barberis; Fatemeh Maghuly; Margit Laimer; Ivana Gribaudo

    2010-01-01

    Eight transgenic grapevine lines transformed with the coat protein gene of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-CP) were analyzed for a correlation between transgene expression, siRNAs production and DNA methylation. Bisulphite\\u000a genome sequencing was used for a comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation. Methylated cytosine residues of CpG and CpNpG\\u000a sites were detected in the GFLV-CP transgene, in the T7 terminator and in

  16. Regulation of Endothelial-Specific Transgene Expression by the LacI Repressor Protein In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, Brett K.; Hill, Caryl E.; Matthaei, Klaus I.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2) with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacIR, and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacIR protein. PMID:24755679

  17. Regulation of endothelial-specific transgene expression by the LacI repressor protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morton, Susan K; Chaston, Daniel J; Baillie, Brett K; Hill, Caryl E; Matthaei, Klaus I

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2) with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacI(R), and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacI(R) protein. PMID:24755679

  18. Multiple effects of genetic background on variegated transgene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Opsahl, Margaret L; McClenaghan, Margaret; Springbett, Anthea; Reid, Sarah; Lathe, Richard; Colman, Alan; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2002-03-01

    BLG/7 transgenic mice express an ovine beta-lactoglobulin transgene during lactation. Unusually, transgene expression levels in milk differ between siblings. This variable expression is due to variegated transgene expression in the mammary gland and is reminiscent of position-effect variegation. The BLG/7 line was created and maintained on a mixed CBA x C57BL/6 background. We have investigated the effect on transgene expression of backcrossing for 13 generations into these backgrounds. Variable transgene expression was observed in all populations examined, confirming that it is an inherent property of the transgene array at its site of integration. There were also strain-specific effects on transgene expression that appear to be independent of the inherent variegation. The transgene, compared to endogenous milk protein genes, is specifically susceptible to inbreeding depression. Outcrossing restored transgene expression levels to that of the parental population; thus suppression was not inherited. Finally, no generation-dependent decrease in mean expression levels was observed in the parental population. Thus, although the BLG/7 transgene is expressed in a variegated manner, there was no generation-associated accumulated silencing of transgene expression. PMID:11901126

  19. Transgenic resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in grapefruit.

    PubMed

    Febres, Vicente J; Lee, Richard F; Moore, Gloria A

    2008-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, transformed with the 3' end of CTV was resistant. Transgene expression levels and siRNA accumulation were determined to identify whether the resistance observed was RNA-mediated. The responses were varied. At least one resistant plant from a partially resistant line showed no steady-state transgene mRNA, siRNA accumulation and no viral RNA, implicating posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) as the mechanism of resistance. The most resistant line showed no transgene mRNA accumulation and promoter methylation of cytosines in all contexts, the hallmark of RNA-directed DNA methylation and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). The variety of responses, even among clonally propagated plants, is unexplained but is not unique to citrus. The genetics of CTV, host response or other factors may be responsible for this variability. PMID:17882423

  20. Production of transgenic blastocyst of sheep by somatic cell cloning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaorong An; Kemian Gou; Yongfu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Five samples from primary cultures of five sheep ovarian granulosa cells were transfected by pEGFP-N1 DNA. Five transgenic\\u000a positive cell lines, each from one of the five samples above, were used as donor nuclei for somatic nucleus transfer. A total\\u000a of 352in vitro matured and enucleated sheep oocytes were fused electrically with transgenic granulosa cells and 329 reconstructed embryos\\u000a were

  1. Recombination technologies for enhanced transgene stability in bioengineered insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc F. Schetelig; Frank Götschel; Ivana Viktorinová; Alfred M. Handler; Ernst A. Wimmer

    2011-01-01

    Transposon-based vectors currently provide the most suitable gene transfer systems for insect germ-line transformation and\\u000a are used for molecular improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique. However, the long time stability of genome-integrated\\u000a transposon constructs depends on the absence of transposase activity that could remobilize the transposon-embedded transgenes.\\u000a To achieve transgene stability transposon vectors are usually non-autonomous, lacking a functional transposase

  2. Global Regulation of Transgenic Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce M. Chassy

    Globally, transgenic maize comprised about 25% of the 102 million hectares of transgenic cropland planted in 2006 by more\\u000a than 10 million farmers in 21 countries (James 2007). These transgenic maize plants contain inserted gene(s) expressing a\\u000a variety of Cry proteins that confer resistance to stem borers and rootworms. Approximately 45% of the transgenic maize planted\\u000a also contains inserted gene(s)

  3. Transgenic Indian Mustard Overexpressing Selenocysteine

    E-print Network

    were compared in a second, Fall planting. In the Spring planting, shoots of the cpSL transgenic plants.05). In the Fall planting, the SMT transgenic plants accumulated 1.6- fold more Se in their shoots than WT (p Transgenic Indian Mustard Overexpressing Selenocysteine Lyase or Selenocysteine Methyltransferase

  4. Stability of Transgenes in Blueberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Qing Song; Aaron E. Walworth; James F. Hancock

    2012-01-01

    The stability of transgenes was investigated in highbush blueberry cultivars transformed with either gus A (and npt II for selection with kanamycin) in ‘Aurora’ or bar in ‘Legacy’. Transgenic ‘Aurora’ shoots were cultured on selection medium with 50 mg L kanamycin and non-selection medium separately for 5 years. They showed no apparent morphological differences in comparison to non-transgenic shoots. Histochemical

  5. Stable Production of Human Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) in the Milk of Hemi and Homozygous Transgenic Rabbits Over Several Generations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natascha Zinovieva; Caroline Lassnig; Dieter Schams; Urban Besenfelder; Eckhard Wolf; Sigrid Müller; Laszlo Frenyo; Janos Seregi; Mathias Müller; Gottfried Brem

    1998-01-01

    One transgenic rabbit line was generated carrying a fusion gene consisting of the cDNA for human IGF-1 fused to a mammary gland specific expression cassette derived from bovine alpha-S1-casein sequences. Transgene expression was shown to be strictly tissue and lactation period specific. The transgenic rabbit line was bred for six generations. All transgenic animals showed stable production of biologically active

  6. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia braciata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  7. A Transgenic Mouse Model for Human Autosomal Dominant Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cheng-Da; Kymes, Steven; Petrash, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To characterize lenses from transgenic mice designed to express mutant and wild-type ?A-crystallin subunits. Methods A series of transgenic mouse strains was created to express mutant (R116C) and wild-type human ?A-crystallin in fiber cells of the lens. Dissected lenses were phenotypically scored for the presence and extent of opacities, fiber cell morphology, and posterior suture morphology. Gene transcripts derived from integrated transgenes were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Distribution of expressed transgenic protein was determined by immunohistochemical staining of lens tissue sections. The abundance of endogenous and transgenic lens proteins was estimated by quantitative Western blot analysis. Results Expression of R116C mutant ?A-crystallin subunits resulted in posterior cortical cataracts and abnormalities associated with the posterior suture. The severity of lens abnormalities did not increase between the ages of 9 and 30 weeks. With respect to opacities and morphologic abnormalities, lenses from transgenic mice that express wild-type human ?A-crystallin subunits were indistinguishable from age-matched non-transgenic control mice. Similar phenotypes were observed in different independent lines of R116C transgenic mice that differed by at least two orders of magnitude in the expression level of the mutant transgenic protein. Conclusions The results show that lens opacities and posterior sutural defects occur when mutant R116C ?A-crystallin subunits are expressed on the background of wild-type endogenous mouse ?-crystallins. Low levels of R116C ?A-crystallin subunits are sufficient to induce lens opacities and sutural defects. PMID:16639013

  8. Institute for Systems Biology: T1DBase

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    T1DBase was created jointly by the Institute for Systems Biology, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International, and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory to support the work of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) researchers. T1DBase currently "includes annotated genomic sequences for suspected T1D susceptibility regions; microarray data; functional annotation of genes active in beta cells; and 'global' datasets, generally from the literature, that are useful for systems biology studies." Information is available for human, rat, and mouse Type 1 diabetes candidate regions. The site also offers several tools including Gbrowse, Cytoscape, Beta Cell Gene Expression Bank, and Kegg Pathways. T1DBase was created as a community resource, and the website invites researchers to contribute both ideas and data.

  9. High frequency of cytogenetic aberration in transgenic oat ( Avena sativa L.) plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae-Woon Choi; Peggy G. Lemaux; Myeong-je Cho

    2000-01-01

    Cytological abnormalities were observed in transgenic oat (Avena sativa L. cv. GAF\\/Park-1) produced by microprojectile bombardment of mature seed-derived highly regenerative tissues. Of the plants from 48 independent transgenic lines examined, plants from only 20 lines (42%) were karyotypically normal (2n=6x=42) without detectable chromosomal aberrations; plants from 28 lines (58%) had chromosomal variation, i.e. aneuploids and structural changes. No significant

  10. Site-Specific Recombination of a Transgene in Fertilized Eggs by Transient Expression of Cre Recombinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimi Araki; Masatake Araki; Jun-Ichi Miyazaki; Pierre Vassalli

    1995-01-01

    An efficient method of transgene modulation in fertilized eggs has been developed that uses the Cre\\/loxP recombination system. Twelve transgenic mouse lines carrying a chicken beta-actin promoter-loxP-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene-loxP-beta-galactosidase gene construct were produced. After selection of the line showing the highest expression of the CAT gene in a variety of tissues, eggs of this line were injected in the

  11. Effects of heat input rates on T-1 and T-1A steel welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. A.; Olsen, M. G.; Worden, S. W.

    1967-01-01

    Technology of T-1 and T-1A steels is emphasized in investigation of their weld-fabrication. Welding heat input rate, production weldment circumstances, and standards of welding control are considered.

  12. Transgenics in crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  13. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  14. Growth performance of transgenic tilapia containing an exogenous piscine growth hormone gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Azizur Rahman; Norman Maclean

    1999-01-01

    Three lines of transgenic tilapia were produced harbouring a novel piscine growth hormone (GH) gene construct containing a chinook salmon growth hormone gene spliced to ocean pout antifreeze gene regulatory sequence. One copy to multiple copies of the transgenes were integrated at a single site in the host genome. The initial transmission rate from G0 to G1 generation was found

  15. Overexpression of host plant urease in transgenic silkworms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Huang, Chunlin; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Huizhen; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Liu, Weiqiang; Xing, Dongxu; Xu, Guowen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-06-01

    Bombyx mori and mulberry constitute a model of insect-host plant interactions. Urease hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and is important for the nitrogen metabolism of silkworms because ammonia is assimilated into silk protein. Silkworms do not synthesize urease and acquire it from mulberry leaves. We synthesized the artificial DNA sequence ure-as using the codon bias of B. mori to encode the signal peptide and mulberry urease protein. A transgenic vector that overexpresses ure-as under control of the silkworm midgut-specific P2 promoter was constructed. Transgenic silkworms were created via embryo microinjection. RT-PCR results showed that urease was expressed during the larval stage and qPCR revealed the expression only in the midgut of transgenic lines. Urea concentration in the midgut and hemolymph of transgenic silkworms was significantly lower than in a nontransgenic line when silkworms were fed an artificial diet. Analysis of the daily body weight and food conversion efficiency of the fourth and fifth instar larvae and economic characteristics indicated no differences between transgenic silkworms and the nontransgenic line. These results suggested that overexpression of host plant urease promoted nitrogen metabolism in silkworms. PMID:25549597

  16. T(1rho) and local field gradients in high field magnetic resonance microsopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymore, Allison Carol

    The primary goal of this thesis is to explore the phenomenon of T1rho relaxation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship to local magnetic field gradients. We do this for the purpose of understanding how we may better use T1rho imaging to overcome problems associated with high field magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) imaging. We begin by demonstrating the ability to efficiently acquire T1rho images at a moderate field (2 T). We examine the behavior of our imaging sequence through analytic and experimental means. We demonstrate the ability to acquire reliable quantitative measurements from T1rho images. We also demonstrate the utility of such measurements as an alternative to traditional contrast mechanisms, such as T2. Secondly, we delve into the relationship between susceptibility induced local field gradients and T1rho in MRI experiments. We carry out simulations to elucidate the behavior of magnetization in the presence of spherical susceptibility perturbations. We then carry out T1rho experiments on those samples to show that T1rho is an effective means of overcoming gradients induced by small perturbations. We also make the distinction between "transitional" and "true" T1rho dispersion in MRI samples, gaining insight into practical MRI relaxation mechanisms. Finally, we examine the dispersion of T1rho with locking field as it relates to the size of the susceptibility perturbation. This is followed by a discussion of the future of T 1rho research along the same lines as pursued in this work.

  17. Transgenic mice expressing human tumour necrosis factor: a predictive genetic model of arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Keffer, J; Probert, L; Cazlaris, H; Georgopoulos, S; Kaslaris, E; Kioussis, D; Kollias, G

    1991-01-01

    We have generated transgenic mouse lines carrying and expressing wild-type and 3'-modified human tumour necrosis factor (hTNF-alpha, cachectin) transgenes. We show that correct, endotoxin-responsive and macrophage-specific hTNF gene expression can be established in transgenic mice and we present evidence that the 3'-region of the hTNF gene may be involved in macrophage-specific transcription. Transgenic mice carrying 3'-modified hTNF transgenes shows deregulated patterns of expression and interestingly develop chronic inflammatory polyarthritis. Treatment of these arthritic mice with a monoclonal antibody against human TNF completely prevents development of this disease. Our results indicate a direct involvement of TNF in the pathogenesis of arthritis. Transgenic mice which predictably develop arthritis represent a novel genetic model by which the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease in humans may be further investigated. Images PMID:1721867

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of ribonuclease T1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. MacKerell Jr; R. Rigler; L. Nilsson; U. Heinemann; W. Saenger

    1988-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations in vacuum and with a water sphere around the active site were performed on the 2'GMP-RNase T1 complex. The presence of water led to the maintenance of the 2'-GMP-RNase T1 interactions as compared to the X-ray structure, including the hydrogen bonds implicated in the enzyme-inhibitor recognition process. The sidechain of His92 in the molecular dynamics water simulation,

  19. Neurologic and motor dysfunctions in APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Robert; Fukuchi, Ken-ichiro; Strazielle, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of gene mutations underlying autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease has enabled researchers to reproduce several hallmarks of this disorder in transgenic mice, notably the formation of A? plaques in brain and cognitive deficits. APP transgenic mutants have also been investigated with respect to survival rates, neurologic functions, and motor coordination, which are all susceptible to alteration in Alzheimer dementia. Several transgenic lines expressing human mutated or wild-type APP had higher mortality rates than non-transgenic controls with or without the presence of A? plaques. Mortality rates were also elevated in APP transgenic mice with vascular amyloid accumulation, thereby implicating cerebrovascular factors in the precocious death observed in all APP transgenic models. In addition, myoclonic jumping has been described in APP mutants, together with seizure activity, abnormal limb-flexion and paw-clasping reflexes, and motor coordination deficits. The neurologic signs resemble the myoclonic movements, epileptic seizures, pathological reflexes, and gait problems observed in late-stage Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23089603

  20. Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic tools have played a central role in the optogenetic revolution in neuroscience. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion of studies in this field have made use of BAC transgenic Cre driver lines to achieve targeted expression of optogenetic probes in the brain. In addition, several BAC transgenic mouse lines have been established for direct cell-type specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). While the benefits of these new tools largely outweigh any accompanying challenges, many available BAC transgenic lines may suffer from confounds due in part to increased gene dosage of one or more “extra” genes contained within the large BAC DNA sequences. Here we discuss this under-appreciated issue and propose strategies for developing the next generation of BAC transgenic lines that are devoid of extra genes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these strategies are simple, reproducible, and do not disrupt the intended cell-type specific transgene expression patterns for several distinct BAC clones. These strategies may be widely implemented for improved BAC transgenesis across diverse disciplines. PMID:24772073

  1. Transgenic mice secreting coronavirus neutralizing antibodies into the milk.

    PubMed

    Sola, I; Castilla, J; Pintado, B; Sánchez-Morgado, J M; Whitelaw, C B; Clark, A J; Enjuanes, L

    1998-05-01

    Ten lines of transgenic mice secreting transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) neutralizing recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs) into the milk were generated. The rMAb light- and heavy-chain genes were assembled by fusing the genes encoding the variable modules of the murine MAb 6A.C3, which binds an interspecies conserved coronavirus epitope essential for virus infectivity, and a constant module from a porcine myeloma with the immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype. The chimeric antibody led to dimer formation in the presence of J chain. The neutralization specific activity of the recombinant antibody produced in transiently or stably transformed cells was 50-fold higher than that of a monomeric rMAb with the IgG1 isotype and an identical binding site. This rMAb had titers of up to 10(4) by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and neutralized virus infectivity up to 10(4)-fold. Of 23 transgenic mice, 17 integrated both light and heavy chains, and at least 10 of them transmitted both genes to the progeny, leading to 100% of animals secreting functional TGEV neutralizing antibody during lactation. Selected mice produced milk with TGEV-specific antibody titers higher than 10(6) as determined by RIA, neutralized virus infectivity by 10(6)-fold, and produced up to 6 mg of antibody per ml. Antibody expression levels were transgene copy number independent and integration site dependent. Comicroinjection of the genomic beta-lactoglobulin gene with rMAb light- and heavy-chain genes led to the generation of transgenic mice carrying the three transgenes. The highest antibody titers were produced by transgenic mice that had integrated the antibody and beta-lactoglobulin genes, although the number of transgenic animals generated does not allow a definitive conclusion on the enhancing effect of beta-lactoglobulin cointegration. This approach may lead to the generation of transgenic animals providing lactogenic immunity to their progeny against enteric pathogens. PMID:9557658

  2. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the maize Cat2 gene have altered catalase levels that affect plant-pathogen interactions and resistance to oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Polidoros; P. V. Mylona; J. G. Scandalios

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco genotypes expressing the maize Cat2 gene were developed with altered catalase (CAT) levels that resulted in a moderate increase of CAT activity in two transgenic lines. Bacterial infection, with a pathogen that does not share homology with the transgene, caused local and systemic down-regulation of the steady state mRNA levels of the 35S-driven transgene in a manner resembling

  3. Interaction between umami peptide and taste receptor T1R1/T1R3.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yali; Gao, Xinchang; Xie, Aiying; Wu, Xueqian; Ma, Fumin

    2014-12-01

    The umami taste receptor is a heterodimer composed of two members of the T1R taste receptor family: T1R1 and T1R3. The homology models of the ligand binding domains of the human umami receptor have been constructed based on crystallographic structures of the taste receptor of the central nervous system. Furthermore, the molecular simulations of the ligand binding domain show that the likely conformation was that T1R1 protein exists in the closed conformation, and T1R3 in the open conformation in the heterodimer. The molecular docking study of T1R1 and T1R3 in complex with four peptides, including Lys-Gly-Asp-Glu-Ser-Leu-Leu-Ala, Ser-Glu-Glu, G1u-Ser, and Asp-Glu-Ser, displayed that the amino acid residue of SER146 and Glu277 in T1R3 may play great roles in the synergism of umami taste. This docking result further validated the robustness of the model. In the paper, binding of umami peptide and the T1R1/T1R3 receptor was first described and the interaction is the base of umami activity theory. PMID:25331670

  4. Transgenic overexpression of a stable Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 variant

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Abigail T.; Wang, He; Feng, Jining; Ginsburg, David

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the Serine Protease Inhibitor (SERPIN) gene family and a key regulator of fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is unique among SERPINs in its spontaneous transition to a latent, inactive state, with a half-life of approximately 2 hours under physiologic conditions. The biologic importance of the PAI-1 transition to latency is unknown. This study aimed to engineer transgenic overexpression of a stable murine PAI-1 variant to examine the physiologic effects in vivo from delayed transition of PAI-1 to latency. Materials and Methods Ten independent transgenic lines were generated with expression of a stable PAI-1 variant driven by the hybrid CMV/chicken ?-actin promoter. Results Plasma PAI-1 levels in the transgenic founders ranged from 3.1±0.1 ng/mL to 1268.8±717.0 ng/mL. Quantitative PCR analysis in 3 transgenic lines demonstrated elevated PAI-1 mRNA in multiple tissues, with the highest increases observed in liver, brain, heart, and kidney. The fold-increase in PAI-1 mRNA over wild-type ranged from 2-fold to >2000-fold. Immunohistochemistry showed increased PAI-1 in liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and lung. Histologic examination of transgenic mice showed no evidence of thrombosis. The two founders with the highest plasma PAI-1 levels failed to produce any transgenic offspring that survived to weaning, although genotyping of expired pups revealed successful transmission of the transgene. Conclusion These results suggest that high expression of a stable variant of PAI-1 may be lethal in mice, while more moderate expression is generally well tolerated and produces no apparent thrombosis. PMID:18774162

  5. Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Pathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no of as a hazardous chemical waste. The tissues or carcasses can then be disposed of as pathology waste. Labeling Requirements For Pathology Waste: · All pathology waste must be placed in a red bag and labeled with the words

  6. Insect-resistant transgenic plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja H Schuler; Guy M Poppy; Brian R Kerry; Ian Denholm

    1998-01-01

    The technology of insect-resistant transgenic plants is expanding very rapidly, with considerable research activity in both the private and public sectors. The only commercialized insect-resistant transgenic plants to date express genes derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, but a wide range of genes from higher plants have also been transferred into crop cultivars, especially genes encoding inhibitors of digestive enzymes

  7. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture. PMID:24954532

  8. Next-generation transgenic mice for optogenetic analysis of neural circuits

    E-print Network

    Asrican, Brent

    Here we characterize several new lines of transgenic mice useful for optogenetic analysis of brain circuit function. These mice express optogenetic probes, such as enhanced halorhodopsin or several different versions of ...

  9. Targeted expression of a lumican transgene rescues corneal deficiencies in lumican-null mice.

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    number of differ- ent images (animals/images [fibril count,animals were analyzed for each transgenic line. Digital imagesimage at a final magnification of 161,990X was analyzed. For each group, the number of animals

  10. Effective transgenic resistance to Globodera pallida in potato field trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E. Urwin; Kevin M. Troth; Elena I. Zubko; Howard J. Atkinson

    2001-01-01

    A cysteine proteinase inhibitor expressed in potato plants provides the first demonstration that transgenic resistance to nematodes such as the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida can be effective under field conditions. The highest level of resistance obtained in the field for one of the four transformed lines of the normally fully susceptible Solanum tuberosum tuberosum cv. Désirée was 70±9%. The

  11. An Anopheles transgenic sexing strain for vector control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flaminia Catteruccia; Jason P Benton; Andrea Crisanti

    2005-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of mosquito species that serve as vectors for human malaria is a prerequisite to the implementation of gene transfer technologies for the control of vector-borne diseases. Here we report on the development of transgenic sexing lines for the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, the principal vector of human malaria in Asia. Male mosquitoes, expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under

  12. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Tina; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Flachowsky, Henryk; König, Stephan; Peil, Andreas; Kaldorf, Michael; Polle, Andrea; Buscot, François

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova) and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389) were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass. PMID:22888297

  13. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Tina; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Flachowsky, Henryk; König, Stephan; Peil, Andreas; Kaldorf, Michael; Polle, Andrea; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova) and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389) were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass. PMID:22888297

  14. Transgenic Models for the Study of Lung Antioxidant Defense: Enhanced Manganese-containing Superoxide Dismutase Activity Gives Partial Protection to B6C3 Hybrid Mice Exposed to Hyperoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye-Shih Ho; Renaud Vincent; Margaret S. Dey; Jan W. Slot; James D. Crapo

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the role of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in lung antioxidant de- fense, lines of transgenic B6C3 hybrid mice carrying human MnSOD transgenes under the transcriptional control of a human b -actin promoter were established. Expression studies demonstrated that the human MnSOD transgene in line TgHMS66 is expressed and functional. The cellular distribution of the transgene product in the

  15. Regeneration of transgenic vegetable brassicas ( Brassica oleracea and B. campestris ) via Ri-mediated transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Christey; B. K. Sinclair; R. H. Braun; L. Wyke

    1997-01-01

    A procedure for the production of fertile transgenic brassicas via Ri-mediated transformation is reported in this paper. Transgenic hairy root lines were selected for 12 vegetable brassica cultivars and lines representing six varieties: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, rapid-cycling (allBrassica oleracea) and Chinese cabbage (B. campestris). Leaf explants or petioles of intact cotyledons were co-cultivated withAgrobacterium strain A4T harbouring various

  16. Overexpression of TiERF1 enhances resistance to sharp eyespot in transgenic wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Chen; ZengYan Zhang; HongXia Liang; HongXia Liu; L. Du; H. Xu; Z. Xin

    2008-01-01

    Wheat sharp eyespot, primarily caused by a soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, has become one of the most serious diseases of wheat in China. In this study, an ethylene response factor (ERF) gene from a wheat relative Thinopyrum intermedium, TiERF1, was charac- terized further, transgenic wheat lines expressing TiERF1 were developed, and the resistance of the transgenic wheat lines against R.

  17. T1? in Quadrupole-Perturbed NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliger, J.

    Spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame, T1?, is calculated in quadrupole-perturbed NMR in the weak collision limit. It is assumed that the RF magnetic field excites only a single transition in the quadrupole-perturbed NMR spectrum. The results of the calculation show that T1?, associated with the central ( {1}/{2}?- {1}/{2}) transition in quadrupole-perturbed NMR of half-integer spin nuclei does not reflect the low-frequency fluctuations of the electric field-gradient tenser. On the other hand, the low-frequency fluctuations of the electric held-gradient tenser give the largest contribution to T1? when measured on the outer[± I?±( I-1)] satellite transitions.

  18. The ability of Papaya ringspot virus strains overcoming the transgenic resistance of papaya conferred by the coat protein gene is not correlated with higher degrees of sequence divergence from the transgene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savarni Tripathi; Huey-jiunn Bau; Li-fang Chen; Shyi-dong Yeh

    2004-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene mediated transgenic resistance is found to be the best approach for protecting papaya plants against the destructive disease caused by Papaya ringspot viruses(PRSV). In order to study the variability of PRSV and the potential threat to the CP-transgenic resistance, five virus isolates were collected from transgenic plants of papaya line 16-0-1, which carry the CP

  19. Session T1E THE INFINITYPROJECT

    E-print Network

    Douglas, Scott C.

    to bring state-of-the-art science-based technology and engineering education to high schools. This effortSession T1E THE INFINITYPROJECT: BUILDING A HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUMWHICHEMPHASIZES THE ENGINEERING, MATH, AND SCIENCE PRINCIPLES OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY Mark A. Yoder', Ravi Athale2, Scott Douglas3, Dave

  20. Comparison between volatile emissions from transgenic apples and from two representative classically bred apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    While most risk assessments contrast a transgenic resistant to its isogenic line, an additional comparison between the transgenic line and a classically bred cultivar with the same resistance gene would be highly desirable. Our approach was to compare headspace volatiles of transgenic scab resistant apple plants with two representative cultivars (the isogenic 'Gala' and the scab resistance gene-containing 'Florina'). As modifications in volatile profiles have been shown to alter plant relationships with non-target insects, we analysed headspace volatiles from apple plants subjected to different infection types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Marked differences were found between healthy and leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella) infested genotypes, where emissions between the transgenic scab resistant line and the two cultivars differed quantitatively in four terpenes and an aromatic compound. However, these modified odour emissions were in the range of variability of the emissions recorded for the two standard cultivars that proved to be crucial references. PMID:19543801

  1. Elevated production of melatonin in transgenic rice seeds expressing rice tryptophan decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Park, Sangkyu; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Kim, Young-Soon; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-04-01

    A major goal of plant biotechnology is to improve the nutritional qualities of crop plants through metabolic engineering. Melatonin is a well-known bioactive molecule with an array of health-promoting properties, including potent antioxidant capability. To generate melatonin-rich rice plants, we first independently overexpressed three tryptophan decarboxylase isogenes in the rice genome. Melatonin levels were altered in the transgenic lines through overexpression of TDC1, TDC2, and TDC3; TDC3 transgenic seed (TDC3-1) had melatonin concentrations 31-fold higher than those of wild-type seeds. In TDC3 transgenic seedlings, however, only a doubling of melatonin content occurred over wild-type levels. Thus, a seed-specific accumulation of melatonin appears to occur in TDC3 transgenic lines. In addition to increased melatonin content, TDC3 transgenic lines also had enhanced levels of melatonin intermediates including 5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptamine, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. In contrast, expression levels of melatonin biosynthetic mRNA did not increase in TDC3 transgenic lines, indicating that increases in melatonin and its intermediates in these lines are attributable exclusively to overexpression of the TDC3 gene. PMID:24433490

  2. Effects of transgenic fructan-producing potatoes on the community structure of rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Becker, Regina; Behrendt, Undine; Hommel, Bernd; Kropf, Siegfried; Ulrich, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    The rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities of transgenic potatoes producing fructan were studied in comparison with isogenic controls and conventional varieties in a field release experiment over a period of 3 years. Population densities and 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the rhizosphere bacterial community only displayed the influence of annual and seasonal effects and the influence of field heterogeneity. In contrast, the T-RFLP analysis of the phyllosphere bacteria revealed in two of the 3 years significant differences in the community structure between the transgenic lines producing inulin and the other variants. This effect was studied in more detail through the analysis of bacterial isolates and a 16S rRNA gene clone library obtained from a transgenic line and the control. Both methods revealed a lower genetic diversity in the transgenic line and changes in the abundance of several bacterial groups. The isolates of the transgenic line were dominated by Bacilli, whereas most of the control isolates represented Actinobacteria. The clones were dominated by Proteobacteria, with main differences between both variants in Deltaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Bacteroidetes. However, all in all, the impact of the transgenic lines did not exceed the natural variability of the phyllosphere community structure on potato plants. PMID:18662310

  3. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  4. Transgene- and locus-dependent imprinting reveals allele-specific chromosome conformations

    PubMed Central

    Lonfat, Nicolas; Montavon, Thomas; Jebb, David; Tschopp, Patrick; Nguyen Huynh, Thi Hanh; Zakany, Jozsef; Duboule, Denis

    2013-01-01

    When positioned into the integrin ?-6 gene, an Hoxd9lacZ reporter transgene displayed parental imprinting in mouse embryos. While the expression from the paternal allele was comparable with patterns seen for the same transgene when present at the neighboring HoxD locus, almost no signal was scored at this integration site when the transgene was inherited from the mother, although the Itga6 locus itself is not imprinted. The transgene exhibited maternal allele-specific DNA hypermethylation acquired during oogenesis, and its expression silencing was reversible on passage through the male germ line. Histone modifications also corresponded to profiles described at known imprinted loci. Chromosome conformation analyses revealed distinct chromatin microarchitectures, with a more compact structure characterizing the maternally inherited repressed allele. Such genetic analyses of well-characterized transgene insertions associated with a de novo-induced parental imprint may help us understand the molecular determinants of imprinting. PMID:23818637

  5. Transgene silencing in grapevines transformed with GFLV resistance genes: analysis of variable expression of transgene, siRNAs production and cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Perrone, Irene; Carra, Andrea; Chitarra, Walter; Boccacci, Paolo; Torello Marinoni, Daniela; Barberis, Marco; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2010-02-01

    Eight transgenic grapevine lines transformed with the coat protein gene of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-CP) were analyzed for a correlation between transgene expression, siRNAs production and DNA methylation. Bisulphite genome sequencing was used for a comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation. Methylated cytosine residues of CpG and CpNpG sites were detected in the GFLV-CP transgene, in the T7 terminator and in the 35S promoter of three grapevines without transgene expression, but no detectable level of siRNAs was recorded in these lines. The detailed analysis of 8 lines revealed the complex arrangements of T-DNA and integrated binary vector sequences as crucial factors that influence transgene expression. After inoculation with GFLV, no change in the levels of cytosine methylation was observed, but transgenic and untransformed plants produced short siRNAs (21-22 nt) indicating that the grapevine plants responded to GFLV infection by activating a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism. PMID:19507046

  6. In vitro DNA methylation inhibits gene expression in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, H; Ziechmann, C; Graessmann, A

    1990-01-01

    A hemimethylated chimeric gene, containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, the beta-glucuronidase coding region and the polyadenylation signal of nopaline synthase, was introduced into tobacco protoplasts by polyethylene glycol mediated transfection. Hemimethylation led to complete inhibition of transient gene expression. In regenerated transgenic plants the integrated gene was constitutively hypermethylated at the sequences CpG and CpNpG and this was correlated with an inactivation of beta-glucuronidase in 12 out of 18 analyzed plant lines whereas two showed slight and four strong activity. From 10 control lines transformed with nonmethylated DNA, only two were inactive; three showed slight and five strong activity. 5-aza-cytidine treatment of plant tissue from 'hypermethylated' lines led to induction of beta-glucuronidase in most cases. Shoots regenerated from azaC treated calli revealed stable enzyme restoration and demethylation of the integrated transgene. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1702383

  7. Assessing Myocardial Disease Using T1? MRI

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuchi; Liimatainen, Timo; Gorman, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    There is great interest to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for non-invasive assessment of myocardial disease in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Recently, there has been a renewed interest to use a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique utilizing spin locking radiofrequency (RF) pulses, called T1? MRI. The spin locking RF pulse creates sensitivity to some mechanisms of nuclear relaxation such as 1H exchange between water and amide, amine and hydroxyl functional groups in molecules; consequently, there is the potential to non-invasively, and without exogenous contrast agents, obtain important molecular information from diseased myocardial tissue. The purpose of this article is to review and critically examine the recent published literature in the field related to T1? MRI of myocardial disease. PMID:24688628

  8. Assessing Myocardial Disease Using T1? MRI.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuchi; Liimatainen, Timo; Gorman, Robert C; Witschey, Walter R T

    2014-02-01

    There is great interest to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for non-invasive assessment of myocardial disease in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Recently, there has been a renewed interest to use a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique utilizing spin locking radiofrequency (RF) pulses, called T1? MRI. The spin locking RF pulse creates sensitivity to some mechanisms of nuclear relaxation such as (1)H exchange between water and amide, amine and hydroxyl functional groups in molecules; consequently, there is the potential to non-invasively, and without exogenous contrast agents, obtain important molecular information from diseased myocardial tissue. The purpose of this article is to review and critically examine the recent published literature in the field related to T1? MRI of myocardial disease. PMID:24688628

  9. Quality and agronomic effects of three high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit transgenic events in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality and agronomic effects of three transgenic high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMWGS) events were characterized in advanced-generation breeding lines of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in three Nebraska (U.S.A.) crop years. Two of the transgenic events studied, Dy10-E and B52a-6...

  10. Iridium 192 implantation of T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Mazeron, J.J.; Crook, J.M.; Benck, V.; Marinello, G.; Martin, M.; Raynal, M.; Haddad, E.; Peynegre, R.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Walop, W. (Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France))

    1990-12-01

    Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both T1N0 and T2N0, and 69% for T1-2 N1-3. Seven of 23 failures were salvaged by surgery, increasing local control to 96% for T1 and 90% for T2. Thirty-six patients developed a minor or moderate necrosis (16% T1, 28% T2). Half of these involved bone but only five required surgical intervention. Both local control (LC) and necrosis (nec) increased with increasing dose but improvement beyond 65 Gy is minimal (less than or equal to 60 Gy: LC = 78% nec = 13%; 65 Gy: LC = 90% nec = 29%; greater than or equal to 70 Gy: LC = 94% nec = 23%). For N0 patients, neck management consisted of surveillance (n = 78), elective neck dissection followed with external irradiation for pathologically positive nodes (n = 72), or irradiation (n = 3). Clinically positive nodes (13 patients) were managed by either neck dissection followed by external irradiation if pathologically positive (n = 10) or irradiation alone (n = 3). Regional control was 79% for N0 patients, improving to 88% after surgical salvage, and was 9/13 for N1-3 patients. We recommend that T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue be treated by iridium 192 implantation to deliver 65 Gy. Mandibular necrosis should be reduced by using an intra-oral lead-lined dental mold.

  11. Expression of a fungal glucoamylase in transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Huang, Jinming; Fang, Jun; Lin, Chaoyang; Cheng, Jiaan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2008-10-01

    Glucoamylase, which catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds of starch, is an important industrial enzyme used in starch enzymatic saccharification. In this study, a glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori, under the control of the promoter of seed storage protein Gt1, was introduced into rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Significant glucoamylase activity was detected specifically in the seeds but not other tissues of the transgenic rice lines. The highest enzymatic activity was found in the transgenic line Bg17-2, which was estimated to have about 500 units per gram of seeds (one unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that produces 1 micromol of reducing sugar in 1 min at 60 degrees C using soluble starch as substrate). The optimum pH for the activity of the rice produced enzyme is 5.0-5.5, and the optimum temperature is around 60 degrees C. One part of this transgenic glucoamylase rice seed flour fully converted 25 parts of corn starch pre-liquefied by an alpha-amylase also produced by a transgenic rice into glucose in 16 h incubation. This study suggests that this hydrolysis enzyme may substitute commercial fermentation enzymes for industrial starch conversion. PMID:18588984

  12. Generation of transgenic energy cane plants with integration of minimal transgene expression cassette.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Walid M; Hao, Wu; Xiong, Yuan; Steeves, Cody; Sandhu, Surinder K; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as feedstock and direct replacement for petrochemicals in the fuel, chemical, pharmaceutical and material industries. Energy cane has been identified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as prime lignocellulosic feedstock as it produces record biomass yields and is able to grow on low-value land with reduced inputs. Molecular improvement of energy cane is an essential step toward the development of a high-value crop and may contribute to improved biomass conversion to value added products. Such improvements require a development of an efficient regeneration and transformation system for the vegetatively propagated energy cane varieties. In this report, an efficient biolistic gene delivery protocol for energy canes (genotype L 79-1002 and Ho 00-961) has been established with immature leaf rolls as explants. Embryonic calli, developed approximately 6 weeks after culture initiation and was used as target for biolistic transfer of a minimum expression cassette of P-ubi::nptII::35S polyA derived from plasmid pJFNPTII. Putative transgenic clones of callus were obtained after selection on callus induction medium supplemented with 30 mg l(-1) geneticin. Regeneration was carried out on NB medium, which is modified from MS supplemented with 1.86 mg l(-1) naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.1mg l(-1), 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 20mg l(-1) paromomycin. Shoots growing on selection media were transferred to hormone free medium with 20 mg l(-1) paromomycin. Putative transgenic lines were first analyzed by PCR. Transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Immunochromathography assays confirmed transgene expression. PMID:25751171

  13. Genetic marking of sex using a W chromosome-linked transgene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sanyuan; Wang, Xiaogang; Fei, Jitao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Duan, Jianping; Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-12-01

    Many species belonging to the order Lepidoptera are major pests in agriculture and arboriculture. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an eco-friendly and highly efficient genetically targeted pest management approach. In many cases, it is preferable to release only sterile males in an SIT program, and efficient sexing strategies are crucial to the successful large-scale implementation of SIT. In the present study, we established 160 transgenic silkworm (Bombyx mori) lines to test the possibility of genetic sexing using a W chromosome-linked transgene, which is thought to be the best sexing strategy for lepidopteran species. One transgenic line with a female-specific expression pattern of reporter gene was obtained. The expression level of the W-linked transgene was comparable with autosomal insertions and was stable for 17 continuous generations. Molecular characterization showed this line contained a single copy of the reporter gene on the W chromosome, and the integration site was TTAG in contig W-BAC-522N19-C9. The feasibility of using a W chromosome-linked transgene demonstrated here and the possible improvements discussed will provide valuable information for other lepidopteran pests. The novel W chromosome-linked transgenic line established in this study will serve as an important resource for fundamental research with the silkworm B. mori. PMID:24036279

  14. Progressive 35S promoter methylation increases rapidly during vegetative development in transgenic Nicotiana attenuata plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetically modified plants are widely used in agriculture and increasingly in ecological research to enable the selective manipulation of plant traits in the field. Despite their broad usage, many aspects of unwanted transgene silencing throughout plant development are still poorly understood. A transgene can be epigenetically silenced by a process called RNA directed DNA methylation (RdDM), which can be seen as a heritable loss of gene expression. The spontaneous nature of transgene silencing has been widely reported, but patterns of acquirement remain still unclear. Results Transgenic wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana attenuata) expressing heterologous genes coding for antimicrobial peptides displayed an erratic and variable occurrence of transgene silencing. We focused on three independently transformed lines (PNA 1.2, PNA 10.1 and ICE 4.4) as they rapidly lost the expression of the resistance marker and down-regulated transgene expression by more than 200 fold after only one plant generation. Bisulfite sequencing indicated hypermethylation within the 35S and NOS promoters of these lines. To shed light on the progress of methylation establishment, we successively sampled leaf tissues from different stages during plant development and found a rapid increase in 35S promoter methylation during vegetative growth (up to 77% absolute increase within 45 days of growth). The levels of de novo methylation were inherited by the offspring without any visible discontinuation. A secondary callus regeneration step could interfere with the establishment of gene silencing and we found successfully restored transgene expression in the offspring of several regenerants. Conclusions The unpredictability of the gene silencing process requires a thorough selection and early detection of unstable plant lines. De novo methylation of the transgenes was acquired solely during vegetative development and did not require a generational change for its establishment or enhancement. A secondary callus regeneration step provides a convenient way to rescue transgene expression without causing undesirable morphological effects, which is essential for experiments that use transformed plants in the analysis of ecologically important traits. PMID:23837904

  15. Gene flow from transgenic rice to red rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the field.

    PubMed

    Busconi, M; Baldi, G; Lorenzoni, C; Fogher, C

    2013-04-17

    In this study, we simulate a transgenic rice crop highly infested with red rice to examine transgene transfer from a transgenic line (A2504) resistant to glufosinate ammonium to cohabitant red rice. The red rice was sown along with the transgenic line at the highest density found in naturally infested crops in the region. Agricultural practices similar to those used to control red rice infestation in northern Italy rice fields were used to reproduce the local rice production system. During the first 2 years, the field was treated with herbicide at the appropriate time; in the first year the dosage of herbicide was three times the recommended amount. In this first year, detectable red rice plants that escaped herbicide treatment were manually removed. Nevertheless, two herbicide-resistant hybrid plants (named 101 and 104) were identified in the experimental field during the second year of cultivation. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation suggests the hybrid nature of these two plants, deriving from crossing events involving A2504, respectively, with red rice (plant 101) and the buffer cultivar Gladio (plant 104). The progeny of two subsequent generations of the two plants were examined and the presence of the transgene detected, indicating stable transfer of the transgene across generations. In conclusion, despite control methods, red rice progeny tolerant to the herbicide can be expected following use of transgenic rice and, consequently, difficulties in controlling this weed with chemicals will emerge in a relatively short time. PMID:23590388

  16. The choline oxidase gene codA confers salt tolerance to transgenic Eucalyptus globulus in a semi-confined condition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Kikuchi, Akira; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Nanto, Kazuya; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2013-06-01

    The performance of tree species is influenced by environmental factors and growth stages. To evaluate the practical performance of transgenic tree species, it is insufficient to grow small, young trees under controlled conditions, such as in a growth chamber. Three transgenic Eucalyptus globulus lines, carrying the choline oxidase gene, were investigated for their salt tolerance and expression of the transgene at the young plantlet stage in a special netted-house. To clarify the characteristics at the young as well during the later stages, salt tolerance and the properties of the transgenic lines at large juvenile and adult stages were evaluated in the special netted-house. All transgenic lines showed high glycinebetaine content, particularly in young leaves. Trees of the transgenic line 107-1 showed low damage because of salinity stress based on the results from the chlorophyll analysis and malondialdehyde content, and they survived the high-salt-shock treatment at the large juvenile and adult stages. Only this line showed salt tolerance at all stages in the special netted-house. In this evaluation in the special netted-house, the tolerant line among young plantlets might perform better at all stages. Since evaluation in these special netted-house mimics field evaluation, line 107-1 is a potential tolerant line. PMID:22752644

  17. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Liang, Haiying; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2007-07-01

    The American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once one of the most common urban trees in eastern North America until Dutch-elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, eliminated most of the mature trees. To enhance DED resistance, Agrobacterium was used to transform American elm with a transgene encoding the synthetic antimicrobial peptide ESF39A, driven by a vascular promoter from American chestnut. Four unique, single-copy transgenic lines were produced and regenerated into whole plants. These lines showed less wilting and significantly less sapwood staining than non-transformed controls after O. novo-ulmi inoculation. Preliminary observations indicated that mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type trees. Although the trees tested were too young to ensure stable resistance was achieved, these results indicate that transgenes encoding antimicrobial peptides reduce DED symptoms and therefore hold promise for enhancing pathogen resistance in American elm. PMID:17310333

  18. Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, François

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

  19. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology. PMID:19722000

  20. Sucrose octaacetate avoidance in nontaster mice is not enhanced by two type-A Prp transgenes from taster mice.

    PubMed

    Harder, D B; Azen, E A; Whitney, G

    2000-02-01

    The Soa bitter-sensitivity and Prp salivary-protein loci map to distal mouse chromosome six. No recombination has been found between sucrose octaacetate (SOA)-avoidance phenotype and PRP haplotype in any mouse population. Soa and Prp, therefore, are either very near each other or identical. To assess the latter possibility, two type-A, proline-rich protein genes (MP2 and M14), situated approximately 30 kb apart at the Prp locus, were separately transferred from an SOA-taster inbred strain (SWR) to an SOA-nontaster inbred strain (FVB). Five MP2-transgenic mice and seven M14-transgenic mice were insensitive to 1 mM SOA in two-bottle tests, thus retaining the nontaster FVB phenotype. Each transgenic mouse was mated to control FVB mice. Their transgene-positive F1 and F2 offspring also were insensitive. Transgene expression varied among the founder lines, but SWR-like expression levels, higher than background FVB expression levels, were found in submandibular gland tissue of adult transgenic mice from two MP2 lines and one M14 line. F3 mice from one of these MP2 lines were mated to F2 mice from the M14 line. Nine offspring inherited both transgenes. All nine were insensitive to 1 mM SOA. These findings indicated that expression of mRNAs for both type-A Prp genes alone or together did not enhance SOA taste sensitivity in nontaster mice. PMID:10667992

  1. Expression of Recombinant Human Alpha-Lactalbumin in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Using a Hybrid Pomoter/Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yu-Guo; An, Liyou; Yu, Baoli; Song, Shaozheng; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Liqing; Gu, Yinyin; Yu, Minghui; Cheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC) containing a hybrid goat ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT) cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2%) from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8%) from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; P < 0.05). Two transgenic cloned goats expressed rhLA in the milk at 0.1–0.9?mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats. PMID:24527256

  2. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47mg/larvae/day and 12.46mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. PMID:26025753

  3. Next-generation transgenic mice for optogenetic analysis of neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Asrican, Brent; Augustine, George J.; Berglund, Ken; Chen, Susu; Chow, Nick; Deisseroth, Karl; Feng, Guoping; Gloss, Bernd; Hira, Riichiro; Hoffmann, Carolin; Kasai, Haruo; Katarya, Malvika; Kim, Jinsook; Kudolo, John; Lee, Li Ming; Lo, Shun Qiang; Mancuso, James; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Qiu, Li; Tan, Gregory; Tang, Yanxia; Ting, Jonathan T.; Tsuda, Sachiko; Wen, Lei; Zhang, Xuying; Zhao, Shengli

    2013-01-01

    Here we characterize several new lines of transgenic mice useful for optogenetic analysis of brain circuit function. These mice express optogenetic probes, such as enhanced halorhodopsin or several different versions of channelrhodopsins, behind various neuron-specific promoters. These mice permit photoinhibition or photostimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Our results also reveal the important influence of fluorescent tags on optogenetic probe expression and function in transgenic mice. PMID:24324405

  4. Stress-inducible expression of GmDREB1 conferred salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taicheng JinQing; Qing Chang; Wangfeng Li; Dongxu Yin; Zhijian Li; Deli Wang; Bao Liu; Lixia Liu

    2010-01-01

    In attempt to improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, a soybean DREB orthologue, GmDREB1, was introduced into alfalfa plants under the control of Arabidopsis Rd29A promoter. Its incorporation and expression in transgenic plants were confirmed by DNA and RNA gel-blot analyses. The level\\u000a of salt tolerance of transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of wild-type control

  5. Development, field evaluation, and agronomic performance of transgenic herbicide resistant rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Oard; S. D. Linscombe; M. P. Braverman; F. Jodari; D. C. Blouin; M. Leech; A. Kohli; P. Vain; J. C. Cooley; P. Christou

    1996-01-01

    The commerical cultivars ‘Gulfmont’, ‘IR72’ and ‘Koshihikari’ were genetically engineered using electric discharge particle bombardment to express the bar gene which confers resistance to the broad-range herbicide glufosinate. Southern and northern blot analyses of transgenics material revealed stable integration and expression of introduced transgenes in the lines evaluated. In a few plants, silencing of the uidA marker gene was detected

  6. Role of cell type-specific promoters in the developmental regulation of T1, an interleukin 1 receptor homologue.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, E; Kothny, G; Haas, S; Danescu, J; Hültner, L; Dörmer, P; Werenskiold, A K

    1995-02-01

    Murine T1, an orphan receptor related to interleukin 1 receptors, exhibits a bimodal expression in mouse development. The molecular analysis of cultured cell lines now reveals the contribution of alternate promoters of the T1 gene to its differential expression. In nonhemopoietic cell types, where T1 synthesis in vivo is restricted to organogenesis and neoplasia, a recently characterized AP-1-dependent promoter directs a proliferation-associated expression of the gene. In hemopoietic cells, which express the T1 receptor throughout ontogenesis in vivo, T1 gene activity is driven by a novel serum factor-independent, constitutive promoter. The tissue-specific use of constitutive versus growth factor-dependent alternate promoters thus directs the permanent activity of the T1 gene in hemopoietic tissue versus the developmentally restricted expression of the gene in nonhemopoietic tissues in vivo. PMID:7756176

  7. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  8. Complex transgene locus structures implicate multiple mechanisms for plant transgene rearrangement

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Complex transgene locus structures implicate multiple mechanisms for plant transgene rearrangementĂ Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Plant Molecular Genetics Institute, University of Minnesota, 411 of transgene loci and to gain further understanding of mechanisms of transgene locus formation, we sequenced

  9. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-06-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  10. Transgenic Fish as Models in Environmental Toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard N. Winn

    Historically, fish have played significant roles in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to chemical con- tamination in aquatic environments. Considering the contri- butions of transgenic rodent models to biomedicine, it is reasoned that the development of transgenic fish could enhance the role of fish in environmental toxicology. Application of transgenic fish in environmental studies remains at an early stage,

  11. Transgenic Campanula carpatica plants with reduced ethylene sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sridevy Sriskandarajah; Heiko Mibus; Margrethe Serek

    2007-01-01

    Fertile transgenic Campanula carpatica Jacq. plants with flowers, which had reduced sensitivity to ethylene were obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens that mediated transformation. The construct used for transformation contained the etr1-1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the flower specific fbp1-promoter from petunia. More than 100 flowering T0 lines were tested for their ethylene sensitivity using 2 ?l l?1 ethylene. The tolerance

  12. [Effects of transgenic Bt rice on soil dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen contents and microbiological properties].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Qiang; Chen, Fa-Jun; Liu, Man-Qiang; Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    A two-year field experiment (2009 and 2010) was conducted to evaluate the effects of three transgenic Bt rice lines (KMD, HH1, and BtSY63) and their non-Bt lines (XSD, MH63, and SY63) on soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) and microbiological properties. All the measured indices changed significantly with sampling time. Comparing with their corresponding non-Bt lines, the test transgenic Bt lines had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). The transgenic Bt lines had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal respiration (BR), and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in certain periods of time in the first year, but no effects in the second year. Among the soils planted with the three non-Bt rice lines, no difference was observed in the DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, whereas in the soil planted with BtSY63, the MBC and BR were significantly higher, but the qCO2 was significantly lower, as compared with those in the soils planted with KMD and HH1. In sum, two years' planting transgenic Bt rice had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, but the differences of soil microbiological properties induced by the planting of different transgenic Bt rice lines were larger than those induced by the planting of different non-Bt lines, implying that long term monitoring would help to reveal the effects of transgenic Bt rice on the structure and function of soil ecosystem. PMID:22489485

  13. The Human Blue Opsin Promoter Directs Transgene Expression in Short-Wave Cones and Bipolar Cells in the Mouse Retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chen; C. L. Tucker; B. Woodford; A. Szel; J. Lem; A. Gianella-Borradori; M. I. Simon; E. Bogenmann

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic mouse lines were generated using either 3.8 or 1.1 kb of 5' upstream flanking sequence from the human blue opsin gene fused to the lacZ or human growth hormone reporter gene. Mice were analyzed for appropriate cell-specific and developmental expression patterns. In 13 independently derived lines of animals, transgene expression was limited to photoreceptor and inner nuclear layer cells.

  14. Commercial production of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties and the resistance management for bollworm ( Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianzhen Zhang; Canming Tang

    2000-01-01

    There are currently three kinds of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton gerrnplasm lines, Shanxi 94-24, Zhongxin 94 and R19,\\u000a in China. They showed high resistance to the neonate larvae of bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties or hybrids have been bred using the three kinds of germplasm lines as parents.\\u000a Our researches reveal that there exist different expressions in

  15. Dynamic Smad-mediated BMP signaling revealed through transgenic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Collery, Ross F.; Link, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    BMP signaling is fundamental to development, injury response, and homeostasis. We have developed transgenic zebrafish that report Smad-mediated BMP signaling in embryos and adults. These lines express either eGFP, destabilized eGFP, or destabilized KO2 under the well-characterized ‘BMP Response Element’ (BRE). These fluorescent proteins were found to be expressed dynamically in regions of known BMP signaling including the developing tailbud, hematopoietic lineage, dorsal eye, brain structures, heart, jaw, fins, and somites, as well as other tissues. Responsiveness to changes in BMP signaling was confirmed by observing fluorescence after activation in an hsp70:bmp2b transgenic background or by inhibition in an hsp70:nog3 background. We further demonstrated faithful reportage by the BRE transgenic lines following chemical repression of BMP signaling using an inhibitor of BMP receptor activity, dorsomorphin. Overall, these lines will serve as valuable tools to explore the mechanisms and regulation of BMP signal during embryogenesis, in tissue maintenance, and during disease. PMID:21337469

  16. Hypertriglyceridemia as a Result of Human Apo CIII Gene Expression in Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Ito; Neal Azrolan; Anita O'Connell; Annemarie Walsh; Jan L. Breslow

    1990-01-01

    Primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia is common in the general population, but the biochemical basis for this disease is largely unknown. With the use of transgenic technology, two lines of mice were created that express the human apolipoprotein CIII gene. One of these mouse lines with 100 copies of the gene was found to express large amounts of the protein and

  17. EXPRESSION OF AN EXTENDED HMW SUBUNIT IN TRANSGENIC WHEAT AND THE EFFECT ON DOUGH MIXING PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat line L88-31 was tranformed with a gene encoding an extended form of subunit 1Dx5 to study the relationship between subunit size and the effect on dough mixing properties. Four transgenic lines were recovered, one of which expressed a truncated form of the protein with mobility between those of...

  18. Spi-1/PU.1 transgenic mice develop multistep erythroleukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau-Gachelin, F; Wendling, F; Molina, T; Denis, N; Titeux, M; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Vainchenker, W; Tavitian, A

    1996-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of the spi-1 gene is associated with the emergence of malignant proerythroblasts during Friend virus-induced acute erythroleukemia. To determine the role of spi-1/PU.1 in the genesis of leukemia, we generated spi-1 transgenic mice. In one founder line the transgene was overexpressed as an unexpected-size transcript in various mouse tissues. Homozygous transgenic animals gave rise to live-born offspring, but 50% of the animals developed a multistep erythroleukemia within 1.5 to 6 months of birth whereas the remainder survived without evidence of disease. At the onset of the disease, mice became severely anemic. Their hematopoietic tissues were massively invaded with nontumorigenic proerythroblasts that express a high level of Spi-1 protein. These transgenic proerythroblasts are partially blocked in differentiation and strictly dependent on erythropoietin for their proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. A complete but transient regression of the disease was observed after erythrocyte transfusion, suggesting that the constitutive expression of spi-1 is related to the block of the differentiation of erythroid precursors. At relapse, erythropoietin-independent malignant proerythroblasts arose. Growth factor autonomy could be partially explained by the autocrine secretion of erythropoietin; however, other genetic events appear to be necessary to confer the full malignant phenotype. These results reveal that overexpression of spi-1 is essential for malignant erythropoiesis and does not alter other hematopoietic lineages. PMID:8628313

  19. Public perceptions of transgenic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Einsiedel

    2005-01-01

    Summary The field of animal biotechnology has been rapidly expanding and the development of transgenic animals has been part of this research expansion. How the public perceives such developments is an important component of policy considerations. In general, biotechnology applications have been judged with evident hierarchies of acceptability. There appear to be hierarchies in terms of the type of organism

  20. Dealing with a New T1D Diagnosis in College

    MedlinePLUS

    ... New T1D Diagnosis in College Dealing with a New T1D Diagnosis in College A diabetes diagnosis is shocking at any point in life, but a new diagnosis can be especially difficult in college. Most ...

  1. Expression of human protamine P1 in sperm of transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Anderson, G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.

  2. Enhanced virus resistance in transgenic maize expressing a dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiuling; Lu, Yingui; Di, Dianping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Liu, He; Tian, Lanzhi; Zhang, Aihong; Zhang, Yanjing; Shi, Lindan; Guo, Bihong; Xu, Jin; Duan, Xifei; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Miao, Hongqin; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2013-01-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), caused by several Fijiviruses in the family Reoviridae, is a global disease that is responsible for substantial yield losses in maize. Although some maize germplasm have low levels of polygenic resistance to MRDD, highly resistant cultivated varieties are not available for agronomic field production in China. In this work, we have generated transgenic maize lines that constitutively express rnc70, a mutant E. coli dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene. Transgenic lines were propagated and screened under field conditions for 12 generations. During three years of evaluations, two transgenic lines and their progeny were challenged with Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), the causal agent of MRDD in China, and these plants exhibited reduced levels of disease severity. In two normal years of MRDD abundance, both lines were more resistant than non-transgenic plants. Even in the most serious MRDD year, six out of seven progeny from one line were resistant, whereas non-transgenic plants were highly susceptible. Molecular approaches in the T12 generation revealed that the rnc70 transgene was integrated and expressed stably in transgenic lines. Under artificial conditions permitting heavy virus inoculation, the T12 progeny of two highly resistant lines had a reduced incidence of MRDD and accumulation of RBSDV in infected plants. In addition, we confirmed that the RNC70 protein could bind directly to RBSDV dsRNA in vitro. Overall, our data show that RNC70-mediated resistance in transgenic maize can provide efficient protection against dsRNA virus infection. PMID:23593318

  3. Toward understanding the function of amelogenin using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ibaraki-O'Connor, K; Nakata, K; Young, M F

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic mouse lines as a tool to investigate the function of amelogenin during mineralization by causing ectopic production of amelogenin and studying its effect. The mouse amelogenin (mAme) was cloned from a 16-day-old whole mouse embryo cDNA library and was determined to be "full-length" mouse amelogenin (with a complete coding region) by comparison with the mouse amelogenin reported previously by Snead et al. (1985) and Lau et al. (1992). The overexpression construct contained: (1) the rat osteocalcin (OC) promoter (1.8 kb); (2) the adenovirus splicing casettes, including introgenic (Int) sequence (0.3 kb); (3) the full-length mAme cDNA (0.8 kb); and (4) the polyadenylation signal sequence from the pSG5 mammalian expression vector. Both Southern blotting and polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) analyses were performed, by means of a specific probe and a pair of oligodeoxynucleotides to OcIntmAme(A)+, respectively. The animals which showed transgene-positive in both analyses were further used to establish F1 animals. Heterozygocity was confirmed with F1 animals by PCR analysis of DNA from the F0 x FVB/N pups. Three independent transgenic F1 heterozygous lines (640t, 706t, and 708t) have now been established. The generation of F2 homozygous lines is under way. The heterozygous transgenic animals are currently being analyzed for alterations in the morphology and structure of various bone tissues. PMID:9206339

  4. The efficacy of a novel insecticidal protein, Allium sativum leaf lectin (ASAL), against homopteran insects monitored in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Indrajit; Saha, Prasenjit; Majumder, Pralay; Sarkar, Anindya; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Banerjee, Santanu; Das, Sampa

    2005-11-01

    The homopteran group of polyphagous sucking insect pests causes severe damage to many economically important plants including tobacco. Allium sativum leaf lectin (ASAL), a mannose-binding 25-kDa homodimeric protein, has recently been found to be antagonistic to various sucking insects in the homopteran group through artificial diet bioassay experiments. The present study describes, for the first time, the expression of the ASAL coding sequence under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technology. Molecular analyses demonstrated the integration of the chimeric ASAL gene in tobacco and its inheritance in the progeny plants. Western blot analysis followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) determined the level of ASAL expression in different lines to be in the range of approximately 0.68%-2% of total soluble plant protein. An in planta bioassay conducted with Myzus persicae, peach potato aphid (a devastating pest of tobacco and many other important plants), revealed that the percentage of insect survival decreased significantly to 16%-20% in T0 plants and T1 progeny, whilst approximately 75% of insects survived on untransformed tobacco plants after 144 h of incubation. Ligand analyses of insect brush border membrane vesicle receptors and expressed ASAL in transgenic tobacco showed that the expressed ASAL binds to the aphid gut receptor in the same manner as native ASAL, pointing to the fact that ASAL maintains the biochemical characteristics even in the transgenic situation. These findings in a model plant open up the possibility of expressing the novel ASAL gene in a wide range of crop plants susceptible to various sap-sucking insects. PMID:17147631

  5. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    TOTTEN, Daniel C.; VUONG, Mai; LITVINOVA, Oksana V.; JINWAL, Umesh K.; GULIA-NUSS, Monika; HARRELL, Robert A.; BENEŠ, Helen

    2014-01-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth-instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no E. coli ?-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body. However, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at all stages examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes. PMID:23241066

  6. Functional variability of the Lr34 durable resistance gene in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Krattinger, Simon G; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Breeding for durable disease resistance is challenging, yet essential to improve crops for sustainable agriculture. The wheat Lr34 gene is one of the few cloned, durable resistance genes in plants. It encodes an ATP binding cassette transporter and has been a source of resistance against biotrophic pathogens, such as leaf rust (Puccinina triticina), for over 100?years. As endogenous Lr34 confers quantitative resistance, we wanted to determine the effects of transgenic Lr34 with specific reference to how expression levels affect resistance. Transgenic Lr34 wheat lines were made in two different, susceptible genetic backgrounds. We found that the introduction of the Lr34 resistance allele was sufficient to provide comparable levels of leaf rust resistance as the endogenous Lr34 gene. As with the endogenous gene, we observed resistance in seedlings after cold treatment and in flag leaves of adult plants, as well as Lr34-associated leaf tip necrosis. The transgene-based Lr34 resistance did not involve a hypersensitive response, altered callose deposition or up-regulation of PR genes. Higher expression levels compared to endogenous Lr34 were observed in the transgenic lines both at seedling as well as adult stage and some improvement of resistance was seen in the flag leaf. Interestingly, in one genetic background the transgenic Lr34-based resistance resulted in improved seedling resistance without cold treatment. These data indicate that functional variability in Lr34-based resistance can be created using a transgenic approach. PMID:22321563

  7. Diabetes-Associated Dry Eye Syndrome in a New Humanized Transgenic Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Shahnawaz; Elagin, Raya B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) are at high risk of developing lacrimal gland dysfunction. We have developed a new model of human T1D using double-transgenic mice carrying HLA-DQ8 diabetes-susceptibility haplotype instead of mouse MHC-class II and expressing the human beta cell autoantigen Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in pancreatic beta cells. We report here the development of dry eye syndrome (DES) after diabetes induction in our humanized transgenic model. Methods Double-transgenic mice were immunized with DNA encoding human GAD65, either naked or in adenoviral vectors, to induce T1D. Mice monitored for development of diabetes developed lacrimal gland dysfunction. Results Animals developed lacrimal gland disease (classically associated with diabetes in Non Obese Diabetic [NOD] mice and with T1D in humans) as they developed glucose intolerance and diabetes. Animals manifested obvious clinical signs of dry eye syndrome (DES), from corneal erosions to severe keratitis. Histological studies of peri-bulbar areas revealed lymphocytic infiltration of glandular structures. Indeed, infiltrative lesions were observed in lacrimal/Harderian glands within weeks following development of glucose intolerance. Lesions ranged from focal lymphocytic infiltration to complete acinar destruction. We observed a correlation between the severity of the pancreatic infiltration and the severity of the ocular disease. Conclusions Our results demonstrate development of DES in association with antigen-specific insulitis and diabetes following immunization with clinically relevant human autoantigen concomitantly expressed in pancreatic beta cells of diabetes-susceptible mice. As in the NOD mouse model and as in human T1D, our animals developed diabetes-associated DES. This specific finding stresses the relevance of our model for studying these human diseases. We believe our model will facilitate studies to prevent/treat diabetes-associated DES as well as human diabetes. PMID:23805032

  8. Enhanced conditioned approach responses in transgenic mice with impaired glucocorticoid receptor function.

    PubMed

    Steckler, T; Holsboer, F

    1999-07-01

    The long-term consequences of impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function on reward-related learning were studied in transgenic mice with impaired GR function in a series of experiments taxing conditioned and unconditioned approach responses to stimuli predictive of food. There was a double-dissociation in that transgenic mice with impaired GR activity showed enhanced conditioned exploration in situations when stimuli predicted reward, while free-feeding food consumption over 24 h was reduced. Previous experiments have shown altered accumbens dopaminergic activity in these animals. In line with these findings, we observed an enhanced behavioural stimulation of transgenic mice following administration of d-amphetamine (2 mg/kg). This suggests that the increase in preparatory responses in transgenic mice may be mediated via an enhanced accumbens dopaminergic activity, possibly secondary to alterations in other brain systems. PMID:10403023

  9. A recessive defect in lymphocyte or granulocyte function caused by an integrated transgene.

    PubMed

    Lo, D; Quill, H; Burkly, L; Scott, B; Palmiter, R D; Brinster, R L

    1992-11-01

    A line of transgenic mice has been identified with a recessive defect in lymphocyte or granulocyte function, presumably as a result of insertional mutagenesis by the integrated transgene. Transgenic mice homozygous for the transgene integrant showed nearly complete absence of lymphocytes in peripheral lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, a severely diminished thymus medulla, and a greatly enlarged spleen. These animals also developed a syndrome characterized by granulocyte and mononuclear infiltrates in numerous tissues, including skin, liver, and lung, and immunoglobulin deposits in kidney glomeruli. Lung infiltrates were specifically localized around large blood vessels and bronchi, accompanied in some cases by destruction of arterial walls. The light scatter profile of spleen lymphocytes suggested an extremely high percentage of blast cells. Because tissue development and morphology appears to be normal in all other tissues observed, the genetic lesion appears to specifically affect the regulation of lymphocyte or granulocyte activation. PMID:1443055

  10. Quaternization enhances the transgene expression efficacy of aminoglycoside-derived polymers.

    PubMed

    Miryala, Bhavani; Feng, Yunpeng; Omer, Ala; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to synthesize and investigate the transgene expression efficacy of quaternized derivatives of aminoglycoside polymers in different cancer cell lines. A series of glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) derivatives of aminoglycoside polymers (GTMAC-AM polymers), containing varying degrees of quaternization (13-45%), were synthesized. The structures and properties of GTMAC-AM polymers were investigated using FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Physicochemical factors that influence transgene expression efficacy including DNA binding, hydrodynamic size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity, were determined. Formation of polymer-plasmid DNA complexes was also visualized using atomic force microscopy. GTMAC-AM polymers demonstrated higher transgene expression efficacies compared to their parent polymers, 25kDa poly(ethyleneimine), as well as Lipofectamine-3000. Our results indicate that quaternization enhances the transgene expression efficacy and reduces the cytotoxicity of aminoglycoside-derived polymers, making it an attractive strategy for nucleic acid delivery with these new materials. PMID:25888800

  11. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  12. Mouse genetic corneal disease resulting from transgenic insertional mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, J S; Gregory-Evans, K; Huxley, C; Seabra, M C

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: To report the generation of a new mouse model for a genetically determined corneal abnormality that occurred in transgenesis experiments. Methods: Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of Rab27a, a GTPase that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of choroideremia, were generated. Results: Only one transgenic line (T27aT15) exhibited an unexpected eye phenotype. T27aT15 mice developed corneal opacities, usually unilateral, and cataracts, resulting in some cases in phthisical eyes. Histologically, the corneal stroma was thickened and vacuolated, and both epithelium and endothelium were thinned. The posterior segment of the eye was also affected with abnormal pigmentation, vessel narrowing, and abnormal leakage of dye upon angiography but was histologically normal. Conclusion: Eye abnormality in T27aT15 mice results from random insertional mutagenesis of the transgene as it was only observed in one line. The corneal lesion observed in T27aT15 mice most closely resembles posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and might result from the disruption of the equivalent mouse locus. PMID:14977782

  13. Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

  14. Expression of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat/simian virus 40 early region fusion gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Skowronski, J

    1991-01-01

    Three lines of transgenic mice carrying the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat fused to the simian virus 40 early region (HIV-1 Tag) were constructed. Expression of the transgenes was reproducibly observed in the lymphoid tissue and skin of all three transgenic lines studied. Interestingly, cell types other than T cells, i.e., B cells and thymic stromal cells, contributed most of the expression detectable in the lymphoid organs. Each transgenic line also displayed a different but consistent pattern of transgene expression in nonlymphoid organs. These individual patterns probably reflect the effects of particular chromosomal integration sites on transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 promoter. Images PMID:1846196

  15. Regulated Genes in Transgenic Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip N. Benfey; Nam-Hai Chua

    1989-01-01

    Transgenic plants are an effective system for the study of regulated gene expression. Developmental control of expression can be monitored by assaying different tissues or by assaying a plant at different developmental stages. Analysis of the petunia 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, which is highly expressed in flowers, allowed identification of an upstream region that confers tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression. The

  16. NINDS GENSAT BAC Transgenic Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from Rockefeller University in New York contains "a gene expression atlas of the central nervous system of the mouse based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)." GENSAT, or the Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas, contains brain slice images of BAC transgenic mice at the embryonic, postnatal (7 days old), and adult stages, stained to show areas of gene activity. The website comes with a detailed and helpful tutorial that recreates GENSAT's user interface and demonstrates how to manipulate search results.

  17. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  18. Human antibodies from transgenic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Lonberg

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory mice provide a ready source of diverse, high-affinity and high-specificity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, development of rodent antibodies as therapeutic agents has been impaired by the inherent immunogenicity of these molecules. One technology that has been explored to generate low immunogenicity mAbs for in vivo therapy involves the use of transgenic mice expressing repertoires of human antibody gene sequences.

  19. Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Li; S. J. Wylie; M. G. K. Jones

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) plants have been generated by meristem co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The binary plasmid pPZBNIa contains the bar gene under the control of a CaMV 35?S promoter. The transformation method involves inoculation of embryonic axis explants\\u000a with A. tumefaciens, flooding the meristem with glufosinate, and initial culture on non-selective medium. Shoots were transferred to culture

  20. Fertile, transgenic Triticale ( × Triticosecale Wittmack)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zimny; D. Becker; R. Brettschneider; H. Lörz

    1995-01-01

    Fertile transgenicTriticale ( ×Triticosecale Wittmack) plants expressing theß-glucuronidase (uidA) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) genes were obtained after microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue with the plasmid pDB1 containing theuidA gene under the control of the actin-1 promoter (Act1) from rice and the selectable marker genebar under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. From 465 bombarded scutella about 4000 plantlets were

  1. Phase equilibria in the CuT1S(Se)AgT1S(Se) systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Un; M. B. Babanly; A. A. Kuliev

    1986-01-01

    The authors use DTA, XPA (CuK \\/SUB alpha\\/ -radiation) and also microhardness measurements to study the nature of interactions in the CuT1S(Se)-AgTiS(Se) system. The phase diagrams of the quasibinary systems are constructed and it is established that the CuT1Se-AgT1Se system is of the eutectic type with limited ranges of solid solutions based on the starting compounds. In the system CuT1S-AgT1S,

  2. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Tea cDNA Encoding Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase Induces Early Flowering and Provides Biotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinay; Nadda, Gireesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Flavan-3-ols contribute significantly to flavonoid content of tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) are known to be key regulatory enzymes of flavan-3-ols biosynthesis. In this study, we have generated the transgenic tobacco overexpressing individually tea cDNA CsDFR and CsANR encoding for DFR and ANR to evaluate their influence on developmental and protective abilities of plant against biotic stress. The transgenic lines of CsDFR and CsANR produced early flowering and better seed yield. Both types of transgenic tobacco showed higher content of flavonoids than control. Flavan-3-ols such as catechin, epicatechin and epicatechingallate were found to be increased in transgenic lines. The free radical scavenging activity of CsDFR and CsANR transgenic lines was improved. Oxidative stress was observed to induce lesser cell death in transgenic lines compared to control tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing CsDFR and CsANR also showed resistance against infestation by a tobacco leaf cutworm Spodoptera litura. Results suggested that the overexpression of CsDFR and CsANR cDNA in tobacco has improved flavonoids content and antioxidant potential. These attributes in transgenic tobacco have ultimately improved their growth and development, and biotic stress tolerance. PMID:23823500

  3. Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by four professors in the Soil and Crops Sciences and Life Sciences Departments at Colorado State University, this site aims to "provide balanced information and links to other resources on the technology and issues surrounding transgenic crops (also known as genetically modified or GM crops)." None of the authors is affiliated with companies involved in transgenic crop development or with groups campaigning against such crops. The site covers topics such as plant breeding, how transgenic crops are made -- including a Flash demo (not working at time of review), regulation of transgenic crops, current and future transgenic products, risks and concerns, and news updates. The authors deliberately steer clear of the moral or ethical implications of transgenic technology, staying focused on the scientific issues. Throughout the site, links are provided to related sites and other resources. Other sections include a bibliography, quiz, and FAQ.

  4. Human prion strain selection in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kurt; Glidden, David V.; Patel, Smita; Korth, Carsten; Groth, Darlene; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing chimeras of mouse and human prion proteins (PrP) have shorter incubation periods for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) prions than mice expressing full-length human PrP. Increasing the sequence similarity of the chimeric PrP to mouse PrP, by reverting human residues to mouse, resulted in a Tg line, denoted Tg22372, which was susceptible to sporadic (s) CJD prions in ~110 days 1. Reversion of one additional residue (M111V) resulted in a new Tg line, termed Tg1014, susceptible to sCJD prions in ~75 days. Tg1014 mice also has shorter incubation periods for variant (v) CJD prions, providing a more tractable model for studying this prion strain. Transmission of vCJD prions to Tg1014 mice resulted in two different strains, determined by neuropathology and biochemical analysis, which correlated with the length of the incubation time. One strain had the biochemical, neuropathological, and transmission characteristics including longer incubation times of the inoculated vCJD strain; the second strain produced a phenotype resembling that of sCJD prions including relatively shorter incubation periods. Mice with intermediate incubation periods for vCJD prions had a mixture of the two strains. Both strains were serially transmitted in Tg1014 mice, which led to further reduction in incubation periods. Conversion of vCJD-like to sCJD-like strains was favored in Tg1014 mice more than in the Tg22372 line. The single amino acid difference therefore appears to offer selective pressure for propagation of the sCJD-like strain. These two Tg mouse lines provide relatively rapid models to study human prion diseases as well as the evolution of human prion strains. PMID:20695008

  5. Consolidated bioprocessing of transgenic switchgrass by an engineered and evolved Clostridium thermocellum strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Switchgrass is an abundant and dedicated bioenergy feedstock, however its inherent recalcitrance is one of the economic hurdles for producing biofuels. The downregulation of the caffeic acid O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene in the lignin pathway of switchgrass reduced lignin content and S/G ratio, and the transgenic lines showed improved fermentation yield with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and wild-type Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405) in comparison to the wild-type switchgrass. Results Here we examine the conversion and yield of the COMT transgenic and wild-type switchgrass lines with an engineered and evolved C. thermocellum (M1570) strain. The fermentation of the transgenic switchgrass by M1570 had superior conversion relative to the wild-type control switchgrass line with an increase in conversion of approximately 20% and ethanol being the primary product accounting for 90% of the total metabolites measured by HPLC analysis. Conclusions The engineered and evolved C. thermocellum M1570 was found to respond to the apparent reduced recalcitrance of the COMT switchgrass with no substrate inhibition, producing more ethanol on the transgenic feedstock than the wild-type substrate. Since ethanol was the main fermentation metabolite produced by an engineered and evolved C. thermocellum strain, its ethanol yield on a transgenic switchgrass substrate (gram/gram (g/g) glucan liberated) is the highest produced thus far. This result indicates that the advantages of a modified feedstock can be combined with a modified consolidated bioprocessing microorganism as anticipated. PMID:24876889

  6. Fertility comparison between wild type and transgenic mice by in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Kuzhalini; Raber, James

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic mice are increasingly used as animal models for studies of gene function and regulation of mammalian genes. Although there has been continuous and remarkable progress in the development of transgenic technology over several decades, many aspects of the resulting transgenic model’s phenotype cannot be completely predicted. For example, it is well known that as a consequence of the random insertion of the injected DNA construct, several founder mice of the new line need to be analyzed for possible differences in phenotype secondary to different insertion sites. The Knock out technique for transgenic production disrupts a specific gene by insertion or homologous recombination creating a null expression or replacement of the gene with a marker to localize it expression. This modification could result in pleiotropic phenotype if the gene is also expressed in tissues other than the target organs. Although the future breeding performance of the newly created model is critical to many studies, it is rarely anticipated that the new integrations could modify the reproductive profile of the new transgenic line. To date, few studies have demonstrated the difference between the parent strain’s reproductive performance and the newly developed transgenic model. This study was designed to determine whether a genetic modification, knock out (KO) or transgenics, not anticipated to affect reproductive performance could affect the resulting reproductive profile of the newly developed transgenic mouse. More specifically, this study is designed to study the impact of the genetic modification on the ability of gametes to be fertilized in vitro. We analyzed the reproductive performance of mice with different background strains: FVB/N, C57BL/6 (129Sv/J × C57Bl/6)F1 and outbred CD1® and compared them to mice of the same strain carrying a transgene or KO which was not anticipated to affect fertility. In vitro Fertilization was used to analyze the fertility of the mice. Oocytes from superovulated females were inseminated with sperm of same background. Fertility rate was considered as the percentage of two cell embryos scored 24 h after insemination. The data collected from this study shows that the fertilization rate is affected (reduced to half fold) in some of the transgenic mice compared to the respective Wild Type (WT) mice. For the WT the average fertility rate ranged from 80% (C57BL/6), 90% (FVB/N), 45% (129Sv/J × C57Bl/6)F1 and 43% (CD1). For transgenic mice it was 52% (C57BL/6), 65% (FVB/N), 22% (129Sv/J × C57Bl/6)F1 and 25% (CD1). PMID:19844803

  7. Study on the compositional differences between transgenic and non-transgenic papaya ( Carica papaya L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Jiao; Jianchao Deng; Gongke Li; Zhuomin Zhang; Zongwei Cai

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic papaya (Carica papaya L.) was produced with the introduction of replicase (rep) gene for resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). In order to investigate the potential unintended compositional changes in transgenic papaya, profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sugar\\/polyals, organic acids, carotenoids and alkaloids in transgenic and non-transgenic papaya were obtained respectively by HPLC, GC–MS and LC–MS, and compared

  8. Viable Transgenic Goats Derived from Skin Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esmail Behboodi; Erdogan Memili; David T. Melican; Margaret M. Destrempes; Susan A. Overton; Jennifer L. Williams; Peter A. Flanagan; Robin E. Butler; Hetty Liem; Li How Chen; Harry M. Meade; William G. Gavin; Yann Echelard

    2004-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear\\u000a transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized\\u000a at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors

  9. Transgenic gene silencing strategies for virus control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dietzgen; N. Mitter

    2006-01-01

    Co-suppression of transgenes and their homologous viral sequences by RNA silencing is a powerful strategy for achieving high-level\\u000a virus resistance in plants. This review provides a brief overview of RNA silencing mechanisms in plants and discusses important\\u000a transgene construct design features underpinning successful RNA silencing-mediated transgenic virus control. Application of\\u000a those strategies to protect horticultural and field crops from virus

  10. Transfer of the IL-37b gene elicits anti-tumor responses in mice bearing 4T1 breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-qiang; Zhao, Dan; Zhou, Yu-shan; Hu, Xiao-yu; Sun, Zhi-na; Yu, Gang; Wu, Wan-tong; Chen, Song; Kuang, Jiu-long; Xu, Guo-gang; Han, Zhong-chao; Wang, Bang-mao; Yang, Jing-xian; Feng, Xiao-ming

    2015-01-01

    Aim: IL-37b has shown anti-cancer activities in addition to its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-37b on breast carcinoma growth in mice and to determine the involvement of T cell activation in the effects. Methods: IL-37b gene was transferred into mouse breast carcinoma cell line 4T1 (4T1-IL37b cells), the expression of secretory IL-37b by the cells was detected, and the effects of IL-37b expression on the cell proliferation in vitro was evaluated. After injection of 4T1 cells or 4T1-IL37b cells into immunocompetent BALB/c mice, immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice and NOD-SCID mice, the tumor growth and survival rate were measured. The proliferation of T cells in vitro was also detected. Results: IL-37b was detected in the supernatants of 4T1-IL37b cells with a concentration of 12.02±0.875 ng/mL. IL-37b expression did not affect 4T1 cell proliferation in vitro. BALB/c mice inoculated with 4T1-IL37b cells showed significant retardation of tumor growth. BALB/c mice inoculated with both 4T1 cells and mitomycin C-treated 4T1-IL37b cells also showed significant retardation of tumor growth. But the anti-cancer activity of IL-37b was abrogated in BALB/c nude mice and NOD-SCID mice inoculated with 4T1-IL37b cells. Recombinant IL-37b slightly promoted CD4+ T cell proliferation without affecting CD8+ T cell proliferation. Conclusion: IL-37b exerts anti-4T1 breast carcinoma effects in vivo by modulating the tumor microenvironment and influencing T cell activation. PMID:25832432

  11. Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Magdalena; Esteban, Olga; Gil, Maite; Gorris, M Teresa; Martínez, M Carmen; Peńa, Leandro; Cambra, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two different scFv constructs, separately and simultaneously, were generated. These constructs derived from the well-referenced monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, specific against CTV p25 major coat protein, whose mixture is able to detect all CTV isolates characterized so far. ScFv accumulation levels were low and could be readily detected just in four transgenic lines. Twelve homogeneous and vigorous lines were propagated and CTV-challenged by graft inoculation with an aggressive CTV strain. A clear protective effect was observed in most transgenic lines, which showed resistance in up to 40-60% of propagations. Besides, both a delay in symptom appearance and attenuation of symptom intensity were observed in infected transgenic plants compared with control plants. This effect was more evident in lines carrying the 3DF1scFv transgene, being probably related to the biological functions of the epitope recognized by this antibody. This is the first report describing successful protection against a pathogen in woody transgenic plants by ectopic expression of scFv recombinant antibodies. PMID:20204695

  12. Effect of the cauliflower Or transgene on carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast formation in transgenic potato tubers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex B. Lopez; Joyce Van Eck; Brian J. Conlin; Dominick J. Paolillo; Jennifer O'Neill; Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic plants have facilitated our understanding of the functional roles of genes and the metabolic processes affected in plants. Recently, the Or gene was isolated from an orange cauliflower mutant and it was shown that the Or gene could serve as a novel genetic tool to enrich carotenoid content in transgenic potato tubers. An in-depth characterization of these Or transgenic

  13. Native T1 Mapping of the Heart – A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Philippe; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Jeung, Mi-Young; Ohlmann, Patrick; Epailly, Eric; Roy, Catherine; Gangi, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    T1 mapping is now a clinically feasible method, providing pixel-wise quantification of the cardiac structure’s T1 values. Beyond focal lesions, well depicted by late gadolinium enhancement sequences, it has become possible to discriminate diffuse myocardial alterations, previously not assessable by noninvasive means. The strength of this method includes the high reproducibility and immediate clinical applicability, even without the use of contrast media injection (native or pre-contrast T1). The two most important determinants of native T1 augmentation are (1) edema related to tissue water increase (recent infarction or inflammation) and (2) interstitial space increase related to fibrosis (infarction scar, cardiomyopathy) or to amyloidosis. Conversely, lipid (Anderson–Fabry) or iron overload diseases are responsible for T1 reduction. In this pictorial review, the main features provided by native T1 mapping are discussed and illustrated, with a special focus on the awaited clinical purpose of this unique, promising new method. PMID:25525401

  14. Inferiorly migrated disc fragment at t1 body treated by t1 transcorporeal approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Kwan; Han, In Ho; Cho, Won Ho; Cha, Seung Heon

    2011-01-01

    Upper thoracic vertebral bodies are difficult to access using standard anterior approaches. It may require sternotomy and claviculectomy, which carries significant possibility of morbidities. We report a case of inferiorly migrated cervicothoracic junction disc treated successfully by anterior upper-vertebral transcorporeal approach. This specific technique obviated the need of sternotomy, created favorable working space and saved the motion segment at cervicothoracic junction. This report is the first transcorporeal approach to a disc fragment at T1-2 space without fusion. PMID:21494366

  15. Inferiorly Migrated Disc Fragment at T1 Body Treated by T1 Transcorporeal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Kwan; Han, In Ho; Cho, Won Ho

    2011-01-01

    Upper thoracic vertebral bodies are difficult to access using standard anterior approaches. It may require sternotomy and claviculectomy, which carries significant possibility of morbidities. We report a case of inferiorly migrated cervicothoracic junction disc treated successfully by anterior upper-vertebral transcorporeal approach. This specific technique obviated the need of sternotomy, created favorable working space and saved the motion segment at cervicothoracic junction. This report is the first transcorporeal approach to a disc fragment at T1-2 space without fusion. PMID:21494366

  16. Effect of the Citrus Lycopene ?-Cyclase Transgene on Carotenoid Metabolism in Transgenic Tomato Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Zhou, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiancheng; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene ?-cyclase (LYCB) is the key enzyme for the synthesis of ?-carotene, a valuable component of the human diet. In this study, tomato constitutively express Lycb-1 was engineered. The ?-carotene level of transformant increased 4.1 fold, and the total carotenoid content increased by 30% in the fruits. In the transgenic line, the downstream ?-branch metabolic fluxes were repressed during the three developmental stages while ?-carotene content increased in the ripe stage. Microarray analysis in the ripe stage revealed that the constitutive expression of Lycb-1 affected a number of pathways including the synthesis of fatty acids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, the degradation of limonene and pinene, starch and sucrose metabolism and photosynthesis. This study provided insight into the regulatory effect of Lycb-1 gene on plant carotenoid metabolism and fruit transcriptome. PMID:22384184

  17. Characterization of transgenic tobacco plants containing bacterial bphC gene and study of their phytoremediation ability.

    PubMed

    Viktorovtá, Jitka; Novakova, Martina; Trbolova, Ladislava; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Mackova, Martina; Macek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified plants can serve as an efficient tool for remediation of diverse dangerous pollutants of the environment such as pesticides, heavy metals, explosives and persistent organic compounds. Transgenic lines of Nicotiana tabacum containing bacterial bphC gene from the degradation pathway of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were tested. The product of the bphC gene - enzyme 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase is responsible for cleaving of the biphenyl ring. The presence of bphC gene in transgenic plants was detected on DNA, RNA and protein level. The expression of the bphC/His gene was verified afterpurification of the enzyme from plants by affinity chromatography followed by a Western blot and immunochemical assay. The enzyme activity of isolated protein was detected. Efficient transformation of 2,3-DHB by transgenic plants was achieved and the lines also exhibited high production of biomass. The transgenic plants were more tolerant to the commercial PCBs mixture Delor 103 than non-transgenic tobacco. And finally, the higher decrease of total PCB content and especially congener 28 in real contaminated soil from a dumpsite was determined after cultivation of transgenic plant in comparison with nontransgenic tobacco. The substrate specificity of transgenic plants was the same as substrate specificity of BphC enzyme. PMID:24933894

  18. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants. PMID:24452332

  19. Transgenic songbirds with suppressed or enhanced activity of CREB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kentaro; Matsui, Sumiko; Watanabe, Dai

    2015-06-16

    Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. By viral vector-mediated modification of genomic DNA, we established germ line-transmitted lines of zebra finches, which exhibited enhanced or suppressed activity of CREB. Although intrinsically acquired vocalizations or their hearing ability were not affected, the transgenic birds showed reduced vocal learning quality of their own songs and impaired audio-memory formation against conspecific songs. These results thus demonstrate that appropriate activity of CREB is necessary for the postnatal acquisition of learned behavior in songbirds, and the CREB transgenic birds offer a unique opportunity to separately manipulate both genetic and environmental factors that impinge on the postnatal song learning. PMID:26048905

  20. Foamy virus vectors expressing anti-HIV transgenes efficiently block HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jason A; Vojtech, Lucia; Bahner, Ingrid; Kohn, Donald B; Laer, Dorothee Von; Russell, David W; Richard, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy has the potential to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients who do not respond to traditional antiviral therapy. In this study, we tested foamy virus (FV) vectors expressing three anti-HIV transgenes, both individually and in a combination vector. The transgenes tested in this study are RevM10, a dominant negative version of the viral rev protein, Sh1, a short hairpin RNA directed against a conserved overlapping sequence of tat and rev, and membrane-associated C46 (maC46), a membrane-attached peptide that blocks HIV cell entry. FV vectors efficiently transduce hematopoietic stem cells and, unlike lentivirus (LV) vectors, do not share viral proteins with HIV. The titers of the FV vectors described in this study were not affected by anti-HIV transgenes. On a direct comparison of FV vectors expressing the individual transgenes, entry inhibition using the maC46 transgene was found to be the most effective at blocking HIV replication. A clinically relevant FV vector expressing three anti-HIV transgenes effectively blocked HIV infection in primary macrophages derived from transduced, peripheral blood CD34-selected cells and in a cell line used for propagating HIV, CEMx174. These results suggest that there are potential benefits of using FV vectors in HIV gene therapy. PMID:17955023

  1. Tol2-Mediated Generation of a Transgenic Haplochromine Cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes represent one of the most species-rich and rapid radiations of a vertebrate family. These ?2200 species, predominantly found in the East African Great Lakes, exhibit dramatic differences in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. However, the genetic bases for this radiation, and for the control of their divergent traits, are unknown. A flood of genomic and transcriptomic data promises to suggest mechanisms underlying the diversity, but transgenic technology will be needed to rigorously test the hypotheses generated. Here we demonstrate the successful use of the Tol2 transposon system to generate transgenic Astatotilapia burtoni, a haplochromine cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, carrying the GFP transgene under the control of the ubiquitous EF1? promoter. The transgene integrates into the genome, is successfully passed through the germline, and the widespread GFP expression pattern is stable across siblings and multiple generations. The stable inheritance and expression patterns indicate that the Tol2 system can be applied to generate A. burtoni transgenic lines. Transgenesis has proven to be a powerful technology for manipulating genes and cells in other model organisms and we anticipate that transgenic A. burtoni and other cichlids will be used to test the mechanisms underlying behavior and speciation. PMID:24204902

  2. Transgene expression from CpG-reduced lentiviral gene delivery vectors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Low, Poh Tee; Lai, Mei I; Ngai, Siew Ching; Abdullah, Syahril

    2014-01-01

    Current viral gene delivery vectors for gene therapy are inefficient due to short-lived transgene expression attributed to the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) motifs in the transgene. Here we assessed the effects of CpG motif reduction in lentiviral (LV) gene delivery context on the level and duration of reporter gene expression in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, Human Immortalized Myelogenous Leukemia (K562) cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The cells were transduced with LV carrying Zero-CpG green fluorescent protein (ZGFP) reporter gene, LV/CMV/ZGFP. The GFP expression was compared to its non CpG-depleted GFP reporter gene LV (LV/CMV/GFP) counterpart. The LV/CMV/ZGFP exhibited prolonged transgene expression in CHO cells and HSCs up to 10 days and 14 days, in the respective cells. This effect was not seen in the transduced K562 cells, which may be due to the DNA hypomethylation status of the cancer cell line. Transgene copy number analysis verified that the GFP expression was not from pseudo-transduction and the transgene remained in the genome of the cells throughout the period of the study. The modest positive effects from the LV/CMV/ZGFP suggest that the reduction of CpG in the LV construct was not substantial to generate higher and more prolonged transgene expression. PMID:24120896

  3. Tol2-mediated generation of a transgenic haplochromine cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni.

    PubMed

    Juntti, Scott A; Hu, Caroline K; Fernald, Russell D

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes represent one of the most species-rich and rapid radiations of a vertebrate family. These ~2200 species, predominantly found in the East African Great Lakes, exhibit dramatic differences in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. However, the genetic bases for this radiation, and for the control of their divergent traits, are unknown. A flood of genomic and transcriptomic data promises to suggest mechanisms underlying the diversity, but transgenic technology will be needed to rigorously test the hypotheses generated. Here we demonstrate the successful use of the Tol2 transposon system to generate transgenic Astatotilapia burtoni, a haplochromine cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, carrying the GFP transgene under the control of the ubiquitous EF1? promoter. The transgene integrates into the genome, is successfully passed through the germline, and the widespread GFP expression pattern is stable across siblings and multiple generations. The stable inheritance and expression patterns indicate that the Tol2 system can be applied to generate A. burtoni transgenic lines. Transgenesis has proven to be a powerful technology for manipulating genes and cells in other model organisms and we anticipate that transgenic A. burtoni and other cichlids will be used to test the mechanisms underlying behavior and speciation. PMID:24204902

  4. Generation of fad2 transgenic mice that produce omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Liu, Qing; Wu, ZhiFang; Wang, ZongYi; Gou, KeMian

    2009-11-01

    Fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2) introduces a double bond in position Delta12 in oleic acid (18:1) to form linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in higher plants and microbes. A new transgenic expression cassette, containing CMV promoter/fad2 cDNA/SV40 polyA, was constructed to produce transgenic mice. Among 63 healthy offspring, 10 founders (15.9%) integrated the cotton fad2 transgene into their genomes, as demonstrated by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. All founder mice were fertile and heterozygous fad2 female and nontransgenic littermates were used for fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography. One fad2 transgenic line showed substantial differences in the fatty acid profiles and the level of linoleic acid was increased 19% (P<0.05) in transgenic muscles compared to their nontransgenic littermates. Moreover, it exhibited an 87% and a 9% increase (P<0.05) in arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in muscles and liver, compared to their nontransgenic littermates. The results indicate that the plant fad2 gene can be functionally expressed in transgenic mice and may playan active role in conversion of oleic acid into linoleic acid. PMID:19937203

  5. Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya.

    PubMed

    Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni

    2011-09-28

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland United States and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These papaya are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry the coat protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The PRSV CP was evaluated for potential allergenicity, an important component in assessing the safety of food derived from transgenic plants. The transgene PRSV CP sequence of Rainbow papaya did not exhibit greater than 35% amino acid sequence homology to known allergens, nor did it have a stretch of eight amino acids found in known allergens which are known common bioinformatic methods used for assessing similarity to allergen proteins. PRSV CP was also tested for stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid and under various heat treatments. The results showed that PRSV CP was degraded under conditions for which allergenic proteins relative to nonallergens are purported to be stable. The potential human intake of transgene-derived PRSV CP was assessed by measuring CP levels in Rainbow and SunUp along with estimating the fruit consumption rates and was compared to potential intake estimates of PRSV CP from naturally infected nontransgenic papaya. Following accepted allergenicity assessment criteria, our results show that the transgene-derived PRSV CP does not pose a risk of food allergy. PMID:21819140

  6. Relationship between transcript production and virus resistance in transgenic tobacco expressing the potato leafroll virus coat protein gene.

    PubMed

    Barker, H; Reavy, B; Webster, K D; Jolly, C A; Kumar, A; Mayo, M A

    1993-11-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of potato leafroll luteovims (PLRV) was inserted into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) using disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404) containing a binary expression vector. PLRV CP gene transcript was detected in transgenic plants but its abundance differed between transformed lines. CP was not detected in virus-free transgenic plants. The segregation of kanamycin resistance in S1 seedling progenies (obtained by selfing transformed plants) indicated that multiple (up to five) integration events involving vector T-DNA had occurred in most transformants. However, the amount of detectable CP transcript was not related to the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene copy number. Multiplication of PLRV in mature transgenic plants was diminished by up to 6-fold; the greatest diminution was in those transformed lines in which most CP gene transcript was detected. However, S1 progeny seedlings of transgenic plants were no more resistant to infection, following inoculation with viruliferous aphids, than seedlings of non-transformed control plants. PMID:24196184

  7. Mono-allelic expression of variegating transgene locus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Opsahl, Margaret L; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard; Colman, Alan; McClenaghan, Margaret; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2003-12-01

    We have generated transgenic mice which express an ovine beta-lactoglobulin transgene during lactation. In two transgenic lines, BLG/7 and BLG/45, beta-lactoglobulin protein levels vary between siblings, reflected at the cellular level by a mosaic transgene expression pattern in the mammary tissue that is reminiscent of position effect variegation. To investigate whether this variegating expression profile can be affected by the introduction of an identical variegating locus on the homologous chromosome, we compared the beta-lactoglobulin expression profiles in mice hemizygous or homozygous for the transgene locus. In BLG/45 mice, milk protein analysis revealed that transgene expression was effectively doubled in homozygous compared to hemizygous mice. In contrast, beta-lactoglobulin protein in hemizygous and homozygous BLG/7 mice displayed a similar range; although minimum expression levels were doubled in the homozygous population, the maximum level of expression was indistinguishable between the two populations. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for transgene mRNA indicated that for a given protein level, the extent of cellular expression is similar in both BLG/7 populations. In homozygous mice genomic DNA and nuclear RNA FISH demonstrated that only one of the two BLG/7 loci is active in expressing cells, while two transcription foci were present in BLG/45 homozygous mice. This mono-allelic transgene expression pattern is not inherited through the germline, as hemizygous mice bred from homozygous parents expressed at the expected hemizygous population level. We discuss these observations in the context of known epigenetic events such as imprinting and trans-inactivation. PMID:14713195

  8. Spin S= 3/2T1? relaxation; the excitation of triple-quantum coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Maarel, J. R. C.; Tromp, R. H.; Leyte, J. C.; Hollander, J. G.; Erkelens, C.

    1990-06-01

    A T1? experiment on 23Na in a sodium poly(methylacrylate) ion-exchange resin is reported. It is shown that due to spin S= 3/2T1? relaxation outside the extreme narrowing limit, triple-quantum coherences are excited. The detected line-shape of the single- as well as the triple-quantum signal contribution consists of a sum of two Lorentzians. These line-shapes and the relative intensity ratio of the single- and triple-quantum signals are in agreement with the theoretical expressions based on previously reported density-operator calculations. The spectral density at two times the precession frequency with respect to the spin-lock field is extracted from the broad component of the detected signals.

  9. Transgene-dependent incompatibility induced by introduction of the SK2:ZPT2-10 chimeric gene in petunia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Kubo; Hiroshi Takatsuji

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to functionally characterize a petunia zinc-finger gene ZPT2-10, which is specifically expressed in style transmitting tissue, we fused its cDNA downstream of the potato SK2 promoter (SK2:ZPT2-10) and then introduced it into Petunia hybrida. We found that some transformants had acquired altered traits in compatibility in mating; these were termed ‘transgene-dependent\\u000a incompatibility (TDI)’. These transgenic lines were

  10. Expression of endogenous and exogenous growth hormone (GH) messenger (m) RNA in a GH-transgenic tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje Caelers; Norman Maclean; Gyulin Hwang; Elisabeth Eppler; Manfred Reinecke

    2005-01-01

    We have previously produced transgenic fish from crosses between a wild-type female tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a G1 transgenic male. This line of growth-enhanced tilapia carries a single copy of a chinook salmon (s) growth hormone (GH) gene spliced to an ocean pout antifreeze promoter (OPAFPcsGH) co-ligated to a carp ß-actin\\/lacZ reporter gene construct, integrated into the tilapia genome. Because

  11. Transformation of pecan and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Dandekar, A M; Uratsu, S L; Yates, I E

    1993-09-01

    A gene transfer system developed for walnut (Juglans regia L.) was successfully applied to pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang] K. Koch). Repetitively embryogenic somatic embryos derived from open-pollinated seed of 'Elliott', 'Wichita', and 'Schley' were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain EHA 101/pCGN 7001, which contains marker genes for beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance to kanamycin. Several modifications of the standard walnut transformation techniques were tested, including a lower concentration of kanamycin and a modified induction medium, but these treatments had no measurable effect on efficiency of transformation. Nineteen of the 764 viable inoculated embryos produced transgenic subclones; 13 of these were from the line 'Elliott'6, 3 from 'Schley'5/3, and 3 from 'Wichita'9. Transgenic embryos of 'Wichita'9 germinated most readily and three subclones were successfully micropropagated. Three transgenic plants of one of these subclones were obtained by grafting the tissue cultured shoots to seedling pecan rootstock in the greenhouse. Gene insertion, initially detected by GUS activity, was confirmed by detection of integrated T-DNA sequences using Southern analysis. PMID:24201878

  12. Creating Transgenic shRNA Mice by Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Premsrirut, Prem K.; Dow, Lukas E.; Park, Youngkyu; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) enables sequence-specific, experimentally induced silencing of virtually any gene by tapping into innate regulatory mechanisms that are conserved among most eukaryotes. The principles that enable transgenic RNAi in cell lines can also be used to create transgenic animals, which express short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in a regulated or tissue-specific fashion. However, RNAi in transgenic animals is somewhat more challenging than RNAi in cultured cells. The activities of promoters that are commonly used for shRNA expression in cell culture can vary enormously in different tissues, and founder lines also typically vary in transgene expression due to the effects of their single integration sites. There are many ways to produce mice carrying shRNA transgenes and the method described here uses recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). RMCE permits insertion of the shRNA transgene into a well-characterized locus that gives reproducible and predictable expression in each founder and enhances the probability of potent expression in many cell types. This procedure is more involved and complex than simple pronuclear injection, but if even a few shRNA mice are envisioned, for example, to probe the functions of several genes, the effort of setting up the processes outlined below are well worthwhile. Note that when creating a transgenic mouse, one should take care to use the most potent shRNA possible. As a rule of thumb, the sequence chosen should provide >90% knockdown when introduced into cultured cells at single copy (e.g., on retroviral infection at a multiplicity of ?0.3). PMID:24003198

  13. THE USE OF TRANSGENES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the ten years of the availability of commercial, transgenic crops, herbicide resistance has been the most important transgenically conferred crop trait. At this time, almost all of these crops are glyphosate-resistant soybean, maize, cotton, or canola. Bromoxynil-resistant crops are no long...

  14. Transgenic farm animals: present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Niemann; W. Kues; J. W. Carnwath

    2005-01-01

    Summary Until recently, pronuclear microinjection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the standard method for producing transgenic animals. This technique is now being replaced by more efficient protocols based on somatic nuclear transfer that also permit targeted genetic modifications. Lentiviral vectors and small interfering ribonucleic acid technology are also becoming important tools for transgenesis. Transgenic farm animals are important in human

  15. Vector and parameters for targeted transgenic

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    -transcriptional silencing and RNAi response. Tissue- or cell-specific expression of the transgenic RNAi constructs method3. Targeting RNAi hairpin constructs to a specific region of the genome with the phiC31 integrase- ple constructs. We built Valium (Vermilion-AttB-Loxp-Intron-UAS-MCS) (Fig. 1a), a transgenic RNAi

  16. Fertile transgenic Brachiaria ruziziensis (ruzigrass) plants by particle bombardment of tetraploidized callus.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Genki; Gondo, Takahiro; Suenaga, Kazuhiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2012-03-15

    We have produced transgenic plants of the tropical forage crop Brachiaria ruziziensis (ruzigrass) by particle bombardment-mediated transformation of multiple-shoot clumps and embryogenic calli. Cultures of multiple-shoot clumps and embryogenic calli were induced on solidified MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or 4mg/L 2,4-D and 0.2mg/L BAP, respectively. Both cultures were bombarded with a vector containing an herbicide resistance gene (bar) as a selectable marker and the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Sixteen hours after bombardment, embryogenic calli showed a significantly higher number of transient GUS expression spots per plate and callus than multiple-shoot clumps, suggesting that embryogenic callus is the more suitable target tissue. Following bombardment and selection with 10mg/L bialaphos, herbicide-resistant embryogenic calli regenerated shoots and roots in vitro, and mature transgenic plants have been raised in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA gel blot analysis verified that the GUS gene was integrated into the genome of the two regenerated lines. In SacI digests, the two transgenic lines showed two or five copies of GUS gene fragments, respectively, and integration at different sites. Histochemical analysis revealed stable expression in roots, shoots and inflorescences. Transgenic plants derived from diploid target callus turned out to be sterile, while transgenics from colchicine-tetraploidized callus were fertile. PMID:22236981

  17. Productive Measles Virus Brain Infection and Apoptosis in CD46 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Evlashev, Alexey; Moyse, Emmanuel; Valentin, Hélčne; Azocar, Olga; Trescol-Biémont, Marie-Claude; Marie, Julien C.; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Horvat, Branka

    2000-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) infection causes acute childhood disease, associated in certain cases with infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and development of neurological disease. To develop a murine model of MV-induced pathology, we generated several lines of transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing as the MV receptor a human CD46 molecule with either a Cyt1 or Cyt2 cytoplasmic tail. All transgenic lines expressed CD46 protein in the brain. Newborn transgenic mice, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, were highly sensitive to intracerebral infection by the MV Edmonston strain. Signs of clinical illness (lack of mobility, tremors, and weight loss) appeared within 5 to 7 days after infection, followed by seizures, paralysis, and death of the infected animals. Virus replication was detected in neurons from infected mice, and virus was reproducibly isolated from transgenic brain tissue. MV-induced apoptosis observed in different brain regions preceded the death of infected animals. Similar results were obtained with mice expressing either a Cyt1 or Cyt2 cytoplasmic tail, demonstrating the ability of different isoforms of CD46 to function as MV receptors in vivo. In addition, maternally transferred immunity delayed death of offspring given a lethal dose of MV. These results document a novel CD46 transgenic murine model where MV neuronal infection is associated with the production of infectious virus, similarly to progressive infectious measles encephalitis seen in immunocompromised patients, and provide a new means to study pathogenesis of MV infection in the CNS. PMID:10627548

  18. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing popW and analysis of its biological phenotype].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Liu, Hongxia; Cao, Jing; Wang, Chao; Guo, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    In a previous study, we cloned popW from Ralstonia solanacearum strain ZJ3721, coding PopW, a new harpin protein. The procaryotically expressed PopW can induce resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), enhance growth and improve quality of tobacco, when sprayed onto tobacco leaves. Here, we constructed an expression vector pB- popW by cloning popW into the bionary vector pBI121 and transformed it into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 via freeze-thaw method. Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. Xanthi nc.) transformation was conducted by infection of tobacco leaf discs with recombinant A. tumefaciens. After screening on MS medium containing kanamycin, PCR and RT-PCR analysis, 21 T3 lines were identified as positive transgenic. Genomic intergration and expression of the transferred gene were determined by PCR and RT-PCR. And GUS staining analysis indicated that the protein expressed in transgenic tobacco was bioactive and exhibited different expression levels among lines. Disease bioassays showed that the transgenic tobacco had enhanced resistance to TMV with biocontrol efficiency up to 54.25%. Transgenic tobacco also exhibited enhanced plant growth, the root length of 15 d old seedlings was 1.7 times longer than that of wild type tobacco. 60 d after transplanting to pots, the height, fresh weight and dry weight of transgenic tobacco were 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 times larger than that of wild type tobacco, respectively. PMID:25195247

  19. Increasing morphinan alkaloid production by over-expressing codeinone reductase in transgenic Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Philip J; Miller, James A C; Allen, Robert S; Chitty, Julie A; Gerlach, Wayne L; Frick, Susanne; Kutchan, Toni M; Fist, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Only plants of the Papaver genus (poppies) are able to synthesize morphinan alkaloids, and cultivation of P. somniferum, opium poppy, remains critical for the production and supply of morphine, codeine and various semi-synthetic analgesics. Opium poppy was transformed with constitutively expressed cDNA of codeinone reductase (PsCor1.1), the penultimate step in morphine synthesis. Most transgenic lines showed significant increases in capsule alkaloid content in replicated glasshouse and field trials over 4 years. The morphinan alkaloid contents on a dry weight basis were between 15% and 30% greater than those in control high-yielding genotypes and control non-transgenic segregants. Transgenic leaves had approximately 10-fold greater levels of Cor transcript compared with non-transgenic controls. Two cycles of crossing of the best transgenic line into an elite high-morphine genotype resulted in significant increases in morphine and total alkaloids relative to the elite recurrent parent. No significant changes in alkaloid profiles or quantities were observed in leaf, roots, pollen and seed. PMID:17207254

  20. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3?years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217?mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

  1. Transgenic RNA interference (RNAi)-derived field resistance to cassava brown streak disease.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Odipio, John; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Bua, Anton; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M; Alicai, Titus

    2012-12-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by the Ipomoviruses Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), is considered to be an imminent threat to food security in tropical Africa. Cassava plants were transgenically modified to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from truncated full-length (894-bp) and N-terminal (402-bp) portions of the UCBSV coat protein (?CP) sequence. Seven siRNA-producing lines from each gene construct were tested under confined field trials at Namulonge, Uganda. All nontransgenic control plants (n = 60) developed CBSD symptoms on aerial tissues by 6 months after planting, whereas plants transgenic for the full-length ?CP sequence showed a 3-month delay in disease development, with 98% of clonal replicates within line 718-001 remaining symptom free over the 11-month trial. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostics indicated the presence of UCBSV within the leaves of 57% of the nontransgenic controls, but in only two of 413 plants tested (0.5%) across the 14 transgenic lines. All transgenic plants showing CBSD were PCR positive for the presence of CBSV, except for line 781-001, in which 93% of plants were confirmed to be free of both pathogens. At harvest, 90% of storage roots from nontransgenic plants were severely affected by CBSD-induced necrosis. However, transgenic lines 718-005 and 718-001 showed significant suppression of disease, with 95% of roots from the latter line remaining free from necrosis and RT-PCR negative for the presence of both viral pathogens. Cross-protection against CBSV by siRNAs generated from the full-length UCBSV ?CP confirms a previous report in tobacco. The information presented provides proof of principle for the control of CBSD by RNA interference-mediated technology, and progress towards the potential control of this damaging disease. PMID:22845735

  2. Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Millwood, Reginald J; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2002-10-01

    The movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. The possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (Brassica rapa (L.)). Hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent interspecific gene flow model system. In laboratory crosses, T3 lines of seven independent transformation events of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) oilseed rape were hybridized with two weedy accessions of B. rapa. Transgenic hybrids were generated from six of these oilseed rape lines, and the hybrids exhibited an intermediate morphology between the parental species. The Bt transgene was present in the hybrids, and the protein was synthesized at similar levels to the corresponding independent oilseed rape lines. Insect bioassays were performed and confirmed that the hybrid material was insecticidal. The hybrids were backcrossed with the weedy parent, and only half the oilseed rape lines were able to produce transgenic backcrosses. After two backcrosses, the ploidy level and morphology of the resultant plants were indistinguishable from B. rapa. Hybridization was monitored under field conditions (Tifton, GA, USA) with four independent lines of Bt oilseed rape with a crop to wild relative ratio of 1200:1. When B. rapa was used as the female parent, hybridization frequency varied among oilseed rape lines and ranged from 16.9% to 0.7%. PMID:15612253

  3. Overexpression of defense response genes in transgenic wheat enhances resistance to Fusarium head blight

    PubMed Central

    Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Radmer, Lorien E.; Shin, Sanghyun; Heinen, Shane J.; Smith, Lisa A.; Wyckoff, Meagen N.; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Evans, Conrad K.; Kravchenko, Sasha; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species, is a major disease problem for wheat production worldwide. To combat this problem, large-scale breeding efforts have been established. Although progress has been made through standard breeding approaches, the level of resistance attained is insufficient to withstand epidemic conditions. Genetic engineering provides an alternative approach to enhance the level of resistance. Many defense response genes are induced in wheat during F. graminearum infection and may play a role in reducing FHB. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop transgenic wheat overexpressing the defense response genes ?-1-purothionin, thaumatin-like protein 1 (tlp-1), and ?-1,3-glucanase; and (2) to test the resultant transgenic wheat lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. Using the wheat cultivar Bobwhite, we developed one, two, and four lines carrying the ?-1-purothionin, tlp-1, and ?-1,3-glucanase transgenes, respectively, that had statistically significant reductions in FHB severity in greenhouse evaluations. We tested these seven transgenic lines under field conditions for percent FHB disease severity, deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin accumulation, and percent visually scabby kernels (VSK). Six of the seven lines differed from the nontransgenic parental Bobwhite line for at least one of the disease traits. A ?-1,3-glucanase transgenic line had enhanced resistance, showing lower FHB severity, DON concentration, and percent VSK compared to Bobwhite. Taken together, the results showed that overexpression of defense response genes in wheat could enhance the FHB resistance in both greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:17103001

  4. Evaluation of tolerance to Pierce's disease and Botrytis in transgenic plants of Vitis vinifera L. expressing the pear PGIP gene.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Cecilia B; Uratsu, Sandra L; Greve, Carl; Powell, Ann L T; Labavitch, John M; Meredith, Carole P; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell-wall proteins that specifically inhibit fungal endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) that contribute to the aggressive decomposition of susceptible plant tissues. The inhibition of fungal PGs by PGIPs suggests that PGIPs have a role in plant tolerance to fungal infections and this has been observed in transgenic plants expressing PGIPs. Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in grapevines, has genes that encode cell-wall-degrading enzymes, including a putative PG. Therefore, we hypothesized that PGIP expression could confer tolerance against this bacterium as well as against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. To test this hypothesis, Vitis vinifera cvs. 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Chardonnay' were transformed to express pear fruit PGIP-encoding gene (pPGIP) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Substantial pear PGIP (pPGIP) activity was found in crude extracts from leaves and in xylem exudate of transgenic lines obtained from independent transformation events, but not in untransformed controls. pPGIP activity was detected in xylem exudate of untransformed scions grafted on to transgenic rootstocks expressing pPGIP. Leaves of transgenic plants infected with B. cinerea had reduced rates of lesion expansion. The development of PD was delayed in some transgenic lines with increased pPGIP activity. PD-tolerant transgenic lines had reduced leaf scorching, lower Xylella titres and better re-growth after pruning than the untransformed controls. PMID:20565637

  5. 6, 1296712999, 2006 The T1-T2 study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    absorption photometers, and organic and elemental carbon analyzers were used to measure the optical City15 over T1 and T2 occurred. Organic and elemental carbon concentrations at T1 showed diurnal cycles carbon as it aged and became coated with compounds such as sulfate and organic carbon, evolving from

  6. High frequency transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiri Stiller; Luca Martirani; Sunil Tuppale; Ru-Ju Chian; Maurizio Chiurazzi; Peter M. Gresshoff

    1997-01-01

    The molecular analysis of plant genes involved in nodu- lation has been slowed by the inability to produce high numbers of transgenic legume lines. The high effici- ency gene transfer and plant regeneration systems of the model legume Lotus japonicus is described. A col- lection of wild-type A. rhizogenes strains was tested for infectivity and the most virulent strains, 9402

  7. In vitro culture may be the major contributing factor for transgenic versus nontransgenic proteomic plant differences.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cátia; Planchon, Sébastien; Serra, Tânia; Chander, Subhash; Saibo, Nelson J M; Renaut, Jenny; Oliveira, M Margarida; Batista, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Identification of differences between genetically modified plants and their original counterparts plays a central role in risk assessment strategy. Our main goal was to better understand the relevance of transgene presence, genetic, and epigenetic changes induced by transgene insertion, and in vitro culture in putative unintended differences between a transgenic and its comparator. Thus, we have used multiplex fluorescence 2DE coupled with MS to characterize the proteome of three different rice lines (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare): a control conventional line (C), an Agrobacterium-transformed transgenic line (Ta) and a negative segregant (NSb). We observed that Ta and NSb appeared identical (with only one spot differentially abundant--fold difference ? 1.5), contrasting with the control (49 spots with fold difference ? 1.5, in both Ta and NSb vs. control). Given that in vitro culture was the only event in common between Ta and NSb, we hypothesize that in vitro culture stress was the most relevant condition contributing for the observed proteomic differences. MS protein identification support our hypothesis, indicating that Ta and NSb lines adjusted their metabolic pathways and altered the abundance of several stress related proteins in order to cope with in vitro culture. PMID:25283639

  8. Analysis of muscle fibre input dynamics using a myog:GFP transgenic trout model.

    PubMed

    Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Ralličre, Cécile; Lebret, Veronique; Fretaud, Maxence

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic increase in myotomal muscle mass in teleosts appears to be related to their sustained ability to produce new fibres in the growing myotomal muscle. To describe muscle fibre input dynamics in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), we generated a stable transgenic line carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA driven by the myogenin promoter. In this myog:GFP transgenic line, muscle cell recruitment is revealed by the appearance of fluorescent, small, nascent muscle fibres. The myog:GFP transgenic line displayed fibre formation patterns in the developing trout and showed that the production of new fluorescent myofibres (muscle hyperplasia) is prevalent in the juvenile stage but progressively decreases to eventually cease at approximately 18?months post-fertilisation. However, fluorescent, nascent myofibres were formed de novo in injured muscle of aged trout, indicating that the inhibition of myofibre formation associated with trout ageing cannot be attributed to the lack of recruitable myogenic cells but rather to changes in the myogenic cell microenvironment. Additionally, the myog:GFP transgenic line demonstrated that myofibre production persists during starvation. PMID:25657208

  9. Biosynthesis and cocoon-export of a recombinant globular protein in transgenic silkworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Royer; Audrey Jalabert; Martine Da Rocha; Anne-Marie Grenier; Bernard Mauchamp; Pierre Couble; Gérard Chavancy

    2005-01-01

    A gene construct was made by fusing the coding sequence of the red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to the exon 2 of the fibrohexamerin gene (fhx), that encodes a subunit of fibroin, the major silk protein of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The fusion gene was inserted into a piggyBac vector to establish a series of transgenic lines. The expression of the

  10. Altered Growth of Transgenic Tobacco Lacking Leaf Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase1

    E-print Network

    Plaxton, William

    on immunoblots of PKc leaf extracts, except in 6-week-old low-light-grown PKc plants, in which leaf PKcAltered Growth of Transgenic Tobacco Lacking Leaf Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase1 Vicki L. Knowles plant lines specifically lack- ing leaf PKc (PKc ) as a result of co-suppression. PKc deficiency

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Creatine in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Ferrante; Ole A. Andreassen; Bruce G. Jenkins; Alpaslan Dedeoglu; Stefan Kuemmerle; James K. Kubilus; Rima Kaddurah-Daouk; Steven M. Hersch; M. Flint Beal

    2000-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative illness for which there is no effective therapy. We examined whether creatine, which may exert neuroprotective effects by increasing phosphocreatine levels or by stabilizing the mito- chondrial permeability transition, has beneficial effects in a transgenic mouse model of HD (line 6\\/2). Dietary creatine sup- plementation significantly improved survival, slowed the devel- opment of

  12. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR WORLDWIDE CONTROL OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was detected in the main papaya growing region of Hawaii in 1992. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s. By 1991, a resistant line was identified, field tri...

  13. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  14. Enhancement of cold tolerance and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by citrus dehydrin in transgenic tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Hara; Shogo Terashima; Tomoko Fukaya; Toru Kuboi

    2003-01-01

    Citrus (Citrus unshiu Marcov.) dehydrin in response to chilling stress was overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and the cold stress tolerance of transgenics at low temperature was analyzed. The freezing at ?4 °C for 3 h of 24 independent lines indicated that a phenotype expressing citrus dehydrin showed less electrolyte leakage than the control. Dehydrin protein content was correlated with freezing

  15. Heterology Expression of the Arabidopsis C-Repeat/Dehydration Response Element Binding Factor 1 Gene Confers Elevated Tolerance to Chilling and Oxidative Stresses in Transgenic Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tsai-Hung; Lee, Jent-Turn; Yang, Pei-Tzu; Chiu, Li-Hui; Charng, Yee-yung; Wang, Yu-Chie; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants, an expression vector containing an Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration responsive element binding factor 1 (CBF1) cDNA driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was transferred into tomato plants. Transgenic expression of CBF1 was proved by northern- and western-blot analyses. The degree of chilling tolerance of transgenic T1 and T2 plants was found to be significantly greater than that of wild-type tomato plants as measured by survival rate, chlorophyll fluorescence value, and radical elongation. The transgenic tomato plants exhibited patterns of growth retardation; however, they resumed normal growth after GA3 (gibberellic acid) treatment. More importantly, GA3-treated transgenic plants still exhibited a greater degree of chilling tolerance compared with wild-type plants. Subtractive hybridization was performed to isolate the responsive genes of heterologous Arabidopsis CBF1 in transgenic tomato plants. CATALASE1 (CAT1) was obtained and showed activation in transgenic tomato plants. The CAT1 gene and catalase activity were also highly induced in the transgenic tomato plants. The level of H2O2 in the transgenic plants was lower than that in the wild-type plants under either normal or cold conditions. The transgenic plants also exhibited considerable tolerance against oxidative damage induced by methyl viologen. Results from the current study suggest that heterologous CBF1 expression in transgenic tomato plants may induce several oxidative-stress responsive genes to protect from chilling stress. PMID:12114563

  16. Transgenic plants of blue grama grass, Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud., from microprojectile bombardment of highly chlorophyllous embryogenic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Aguado-Santacruz; Q. Rascón-Cruz; J. Cabrera-Ponce; A. Martínez-Hernández; V. Olalde-Portugal; L. Herrera-Estrella

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, the production of transgenic plants of the forage grass blue grama, Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K.] Lag. ex Steud., is reported. Transgenic plants containing a gus0nptll fusion driven by a double CaMV35S promoter were obtained by microprojectile bombardment of the highly chlorophyllous embryogenic cell line 'TIANSJ98'. Transformed B. gracilis cell lines resisted a lethal concentration of 160 mg\\/l

  17. Broad-Spectrum Transgenic Resistance against Distinct Tospovirus Species at the Genus Level

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Joseph A. J.; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chien, Wan-Chu; Lin, Chen-Hsuan; Liu, Fang-Lin; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i) translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii) untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii) untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv) untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v) WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3?-terminal consensus sequence (5?-ATTGCTCT-3?) and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7–70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7–100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level. PMID:24811071

  18. Photosynthetic characteristics and tolerance to photo-oxidation of transgenic rice expressing C 4 photosynthesis enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demao Jiao; Xueqing Huang; Xia Li; Wei Chi; Tingyun Kuang; Qide Zhang; Maurice S. B. Ku; Dongha Cho

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of four transgenic rice lines over-expressing rice NADP-malic enzyme (ME), and maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PC), pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase (PK), and PC+PK (CK) were investigated using outdoor-grown plants.\\u000a Relative to untransformed wild-type (WT) rice, PC transgenic rice exhibited high PC activity (25-fold increase) and enhanced\\u000a activity of carbonic anhydrase (more than two-fold increase), while the activity of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase

  19. Testis-specific expression of a metallothionein I-driven transgene correlates with undermethylation of the locus in testicular DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Ashtiani, K; Widrow, R J; Markert, C L; Goldberg, E

    1993-01-01

    Mice carrying a chimeric transgene of the human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase cDNA driven by mouse metallothionein I promoter have been reported to express the transgene in a testis-specific manner in six founder lines. To study the mechanism by which this testis-specific expression is mediated, we have examined genomic placement, expression pattern, and methylation status of the transgene. Our results indicate that transgene expression is repressed in all somatic tissues examined even when heavy metals are administered. Nuclear run-on assays indicate that failure of expression in the liver (in which the metallothionein I promoter is highly active) occurs at the transcriptional level. In contrast, the transgene mRNA is transcribed in male germ cells and is developmentally regulated during spermatogenesis. Examination of the transgene methylation status reveals that expression is inversely correlated with hypermethylation of the locus; all CpG dinucleotides examined in the promoter region were found to be fully methylated in kidney and liver but were undermethylated in testis. Since methylation of the murine metallothionein I promoter is sufficient to inhibit its activity, it is likely that suppression of the transgene in somatic tissues is mediated by methylation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8415626

  20. Increased resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic plants by targeting mannitol biosynthesis to chloroplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Shen; R. G. Jensen; H. J. Bohnert

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of a polyol, mannitol, in oxidative stress protection, a bacterial mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was targeted to chloroplasts by the addition of an aminoterminal transit peptide. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines accumulate mannitol at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 7 ÎĽmol\\/g fresh weight. Line BS1-31 accumulated approximately 100 mm mannitol in chloroplasts and was identical to

  1. Premature Dissolution of the Microsporocyte Callose Wall Causes Male Sterility in Transgenic Tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn Worrall; Diane L. Hird; Wyatt Paul; John Draper

    1992-01-01

    Male sterility in a petunia cytoplasmic male sterile line has been attributed to the early appearance of active callase, a P-1,3-glucanase, in the anther locule. This leads to premature dissolution of the callose walls surrounding the microsporogenous cells. We have mimicked this aspect of the petunia line in transgenic tobacco by engineering the secretion of a modified pathogenesis-related vacuolar P-1,3-glucanase

  2. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D. (Madison, WI); Walker, Joseph M. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  3. Consolidated bioprocessing of transgenic switchgrass by an engineered and evolved Clostridium thermocellum strain

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Kelsey L [ORNL; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel [ORNL; Thompson, Olivia A [ORNL; Fu, Chunxiang [Noble Foundation; Wang, Zeng-Yu [Noble Foundation; Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Background: Switchgrass is an abundant and dedicated bioenergy feedstock however its inherent recalcitrance is one of the economic hurdles for producing biofuels. The down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene in the lignin pathway of switchgrass reduced lignin content and S/G ratio, and the transgenic lines showed improved fermentation yield with S. cerevisiae and C. thermocellum (ATCC 27405) in comparison to the wild-type switchgrass. Results: Here we examine the fermentation potential of the COMT transgenic switchgrass and its wild-type line, with an engineered and evolved Clostridium thermocellum (M1570) strain. The fermentation of the transgenic switchgrass had superior conversion relative to the control line with an increase of 20% and ethanol was the primary metabolite accounting for 90% of the total metabolites measured by HPLC. Conclusions: The down-regulation of the COMT gene in switchgrass reduced recalcitrance and improved microbial bioconversion yield. Moreover, these results showed ethanol as the main fermentation metabolite produced by an engineered and evolved C. thermocellum strain grown on a transgenic switchgrass.

  4. Trichoderma harzianum Endochitinase Does Not Provide Resistance to Meloidogyne hapla in Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Brants, A; Brown, C R; Earle, E D

    2000-09-01

    Eggs of Meloidogyne hapla contain chitin, a substrate for chitinase. Our goal was to determine if endochitinase from the biocontrol fungus T. harzianum expressed in transgenic tobacco increases resistance to this nematode. Endochitinase-transgenic T tobacco seedlings expressing increased endochitinase activity in leaves (11 to 125 times over control) and roots (2 to 15 times over control) were transferred to quartz sand:loam soil mix (4:1 ratio) and inoculated with 5,000 M. hapla eggs/pot. Tomato (cv. Rutgers), pepper (cv. California Dream), and non-transformed tobacco plants were used as susceptible controls. Two experiments were performed in the greenhouse with nine and ten transgenic tobacco lines, respectively. Roots were harvested 55 days after inoculation, and number of eggs, secondstage juveniles (J2), reproductive factor (Rf), and (eggs + nematodes [J2])/g of fresh root weight were determined. The reproduction factor for tobacco plants ranged from 1.06 to 3.40. Significant differences in number of J2 and egg counts were found between some transgenic lines and control tobacco; however, they were not consistent for lines tested in both experiments. No statistical differences were detected for (eggs + nematodes [J2])/g of fresh root weight in either experiment. We conclude that the elevated endochitinase activity did not provide protection against root-knot nematodes. PMID:19270979

  5. Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Yolanda M; McKenna, James A; McGinness, Bruce S; Hinch, Jillian; Poon, Simon; Connelly, Angela A; Anderson, Marilyn A; Heath, Robyn L

    2014-04-01

    The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2-3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2-4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

  6. Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2–3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2–4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

  7. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat. PMID:25487419

  8. Production of dammarenediol-II triterpene in a cell suspension culture of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung-Yeon; Wang, Hong-Yan; Choi, Yong-Eui

    2014-02-01

    Dammarenediol-II is biologically active tetracyclic triterpenoid, which is basic compound of ginsenoside saponin. Here, we established the dammarenediol-II production via a cell suspension culture of transgenic tobacco overexpressing PgDDS. Dammarenediol-II synthase catalyzes the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to dammarenediol-II, which is the basic triterpene skeleton in dammarene-type saponin (ginsenosides) in Panax ginseng. Dammarenediol-II is a useful candidate both for pharmacologically active triterpenes and as a defense compound in plants. Dammarenediol-II is present in the roots of P. ginseng in trace amounts because it is an intermediate product in triterpene biosynthesis. In this work, we established the production of dammarenediol-II via cell suspension culture of transgenic tobacco. The dammarenediol-II synthase gene (PgDDS) isolated from P. ginseng was introduced into the Nicotiana tobacum genome under the control of 35S promoter by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Accumulation of dammarenediol-II in transgenic tobacco plants occurred in an organ-specific manner (roots > stems > leaves > flower buds), and transgenic line 14 (T14) exhibited a high amount (157.8 ?g g?ą DW) of dammarenediol-II in the roots. Dammarenediol-II production in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in reduced phytosterol (?-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) contents. A cell suspension culture was established as a shake flask culture of a callus derived from root segments of transgenic (T14) plants. The amount of dammarenediol-II production in the cell suspension reached 573 ?g g?ą dry weight after 3 weeks of culture, which is equivalent to a culture volume of 5.2 mg dammarenediol-II per liter. Conclusively, the production of dammarenediol-II in a cell suspension culture of transgenic tobacco can be applied to the large-scale production of this compound and utilized as a source of pharmacologically active medicinal materials. PMID:24141692

  9. A 90-Day Dietary Toxicity Study of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 Expressing Cry1C Protein in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xueming; Han, Fangting; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Yan; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Jiang, Lingxi; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study. PMID:23300690

  10. From immunity to susceptibility: virus resistance induced in tomato by a silenced transgene is lost as TGS overcomes PTGS.

    PubMed

    Catoni, Marco; Lucioli, Alessandra; Doblas-Ibáńez, Paula; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Vaira, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Tomato line 30.4 was obtained engineering the nucleocapsid (N) gene of tomato spotted wilt virus into plant genome, and immunity to tomato spotted wilt virus infection of its self-pollinated homozygous progeny was observed. Despite the presence of a high amount of transgenic transcripts, transgenic proteins have not been detected, suggesting a mechanism of resistance mediated by RNA. In the present study, we identify post-transcriptional gene silencing as the main mechanism of resistance, which is able to spread systemically through grafting, and show that the line 30.4 resistant plants produce both 24 and 21-22 nt N-gene specific siRNA classes. The transgenic locus in chromosome 4 shows complex multiple insertions of four T-DNA copies in various orientations, all with 3' end deletions in the terminator and part of the N gene. However, for three of them, polyadenylated transcripts are produced, due to flanking tomato genome sequences acting as alternative terminators. Interestingly, starting at the fifth generation after the transformation event, some individual plants show a tomato spotted wilt virus-susceptible phenotype. The change is associated with the disappearance of transgene-specific transcripts and siRNAs, and with hyper-methylation of the transgene, which proceeds gradually through the generations. Once it reaches a critical threshold, the shift from post-transcriptional gene silencing to transcriptional silencing of the transgene eliminates the previously well established virus resistance. PMID:23738576

  11. Transgenic approach to improve wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) nutritional quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecília Tamás; Boglárka N. Kisgyörgy; Mariann Rakszegi; Mark D. Wilkinson; Moon-Sik Yang; László Láng; László Tamás; Zoltán Bed?

    2009-01-01

    An amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) albumin gene, encoding the 35-kDa AmA1 protein of the seed, with a high content of essential amino acids, was used in the\\u000a biolistic transformation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Cadenza. The transformation cassette carried the ama1 gene under the control of a powerful wheat endosperm-specific promoter (1Bx17 HMW-GS). Southern-blot analysis of T1 lines confirmed

  12. Chronic wasting disease of elk: transmissibility to humans examined by transgenic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingzhong; Huang, Shenghai; Zou, Wenquan; Vanegas, Difernando; Wang, Meiling; Wu, Di; Yuan, Jue; Zheng, Mengjie; Bai, Hua; Deng, Huayun; Chen, Ken; Jenny, Allen L; O'Rourke, Katherine; Belay, Ermias D; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Petersen, Robert B; Sy, Man-Sun; Chen, Shu G; Gambetti, Pierluigi

    2005-08-31

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting free-ranging and captive cervids (deer and elk), is widespread in the United States and parts of Canada. The large cervid population, the popularity of venison consumption, and the apparent spread of the CWD epidemic are likely resulting in increased human exposure to CWD in the United States. Whether CWD is transmissible to humans, as has been shown for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (the prion disease of cattle), is unknown. We generated transgenic mice expressing the elk or human prion protein (PrP) in a PrP-null background. After intracerebral inoculation with elk CWD prion, two lines of "humanized" transgenic mice that are susceptible to human prions failed to develop the hallmarks of prion diseases after >657 and >756 d, respectively, whereas the "cervidized" transgenic mice became infected after 118-142 d. These data indicate that there is a substantial species barrier for transmission of elk CWD to humans. PMID:16135751

  13. Oviduct-specific expression of two therapeutic proteins in transgenic hens

    PubMed Central

    Lillico, S. G.; Sherman, A.; McGrew, M. J.; Robertson, C. D.; Smith, J.; Haslam, C.; Barnard, P.; Radcliffe, P. A.; Mitrophanous, K. A.; Elliot, E. A.; Sang, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in avian transgenesis have led to the possibility of utilizing the laying hen as a production platform for the large-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical proteins. Ovalbumin constitutes more than half of the protein in the white of a laid egg, and expression of the ovalbumin gene is restricted to the tubular gland cells of the oviduct. Here we describe the use of lentiviral vectors to deliver transgene constructs comprising regulatory sequences from the ovalbumin gene designed to direct synthesis of associated therapeutic proteins to the oviduct. We report the generation of transgenic hens that synthesize functional recombinant pharmaceutical protein in a tightly regulated tissue-specific manner, without any evidence of transgene silencing after germ-line transmission. PMID:17259305

  14. A simplified method to prepare PCR template DNA for screening of transgenic and knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, S; Li, M; Cai, H; Hudgins, S; Furth, P A

    2001-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA is the most widely used technique for screening of large numbers of genetically engineered transgenic or knockout mice (Mus musculus). In this report, we present a new DNA preparation procedure for running diagnostic PCR. In this procedure, mouse ear tissue was used directly for PCR after the tissue underwent brief digestion in a solution containing only proteinase K. Using this method, we have successfully screened several lines of single, double, and triple transgenic and knockout mice. The results are reliable and reproducible. The advantage of this new method is that DNA purification by organic extraction or isolation kit was omitted. DNA purification is the limiting factor in terms of time and money when screening transgenic and knockout mice by PCR. In addition, using ear instead of tail tissue can reduce distress of animals because the samples can be obtained when the mice are labeled by ear punch. PMID:11300684

  15. Lens-specific expression of transforming growth factor beta1 in transgenic mice causes anterior subcapsular cataracts.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Y; Lovicu, F J; Overbeek, P A

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated by microinjection of a construct containing a self-activating human TGF-beta1 cDNA driven by the lens-specific alphaA-crystallin promoter. Seven transgenic founder mice were generated, and four transgenic lines expressing TGF-beta1 were characterized. By postnatal day 21, mice from the four families exhibited anterior subcapsular cataracts. The lenses in these mice developed focal plaques of spindle-shaped cells that expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin, and that resembled the plaques seen in human anterior subcapsular cataracts. Transgenic mice showed additional ocular defects, including corneal opacification and structural changes in the iris and ciliary body. The corneal opacities were associated with increased exfoliation of the squamous layer of the corneal epithelium and increased DNA replication in the basal epithelium. PMID:9449696

  16. Transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) expressing polygalacturonase inhibiting protein from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and stilbene synthase from grape (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Jacobsen, H-J; de Kathen, A; de Lorenzo, G; Briviba, K; Hain, R; Ramsay, G; Kiesecker, H

    2006-11-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties Baroness (United Kingdome) and Baccara (France) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pGPTV binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) driven by a double 35S promoter, or the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. Transgenic lines were established and transgenes combined via conventional crossing. Resveratrol, produced by Vst1 transgenic plants, was detected using HPLC and the PGIP expression was determined in functional inhibition assays against fungal polygalacturonases. Stable inheritance of the antifungal genes in the transgenic plants was demonstrated. PMID:16802117

  17. A thermoalkaliphilic lipase of Geobacillus sp. T1.

    PubMed

    Leow, Thean Chor; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2007-05-01

    A thermoalkaliphilic T1 lipase gene of Geobacillus sp. strain T1 was overexpressed in pGEX vector in the prokaryotic system. Removal of the signal peptide improved protein solubility and promoted the binding of GST moiety to the glutathione-Sepharose column. High-yield purification of T1 lipase was achieved through two-step affinity chromatography with a final specific activity and yield of 958.2 U/mg and 51.5%, respectively. The molecular mass of T1 lipase was determined to be approximately 43 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. T1 lipase had an optimum temperature and pH of 70 degrees C and pH 9, respectively. It was stable up to 65 degrees C with a half-life of 5 h 15 min at pH 9. It was stable in the presence of 1 mM metal ions Na(+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+ ), but inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+). Tween 80 significantly enhanced T1 lipase activity. T1 lipase was active towards medium to long chain triacylglycerols (C10-C14) and various natural oils with a marked preference for trilaurin (C12) (triacylglycerol) and sunflower oil (natural oil). Serine and aspartate residues were involved in catalysis, as its activity was strongly inhibited by 5 mM PMSF and 1 mM Pepstatin. The T(m) for T1 lipase was around 72.2 degrees C, as revealed by denatured protein analysis of CD spectra. PMID:17426920

  18. Production of a recombinant mouse monoclonal antibody in transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Masashi; Ogawa, Shingo; Takeuchi, Atsushi; Nakakita, Shinichi; Kubo, Yuhki; Miyawaki, Yoshitaka; Hirabayashi, Jun; Tomita, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, we describe the production of transgenic silkworms expressing a recombinant mouse mAb in their cocoons. Two transgenic lines, L- and H-, were generated that carried cDNAs encoding the L- and H-chains of a mouse IgG mAb, respectively, under the control of the enhancer-linked sericin-1 promoter. Cocoon protein analysis indicated that the IgG L- or H-chain was secreted into the cocoons of each line. We also produced a transgenic line designated L/H, which carried both cDNAs, by crossing the L- and H-lines. This line efficiently produced the recombinant mAb as a fully assembled H(2)L(2) tetramer in its cocoons, with negligible L- or H-chain monomer and H-chain dimer production. Thus, the H(2)L(2) tetramer was synthesized in, and secreted from, the middle silk gland cells. Crossing of the L/H-line with a transgenic line expressing a baculovirus-derived trans-activator produced a 2.4-fold increase in mAb expression. The recombinant mAb was extracted from the cocoons with a buffer containing 3 m urea and purified by protein G affinity column chromatography. The antigen-binding affinity of the purified recombinant mAb was identical to that of the native mAb produced by a hybridoma. Analysis of the structure of the N-glycans attached to the recombinant mAb revealed that the mAb contained high mannose-, hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans. By contrast, insect-specific paucimannose-type glycans were not detected. Fucose residues alpha-1,3- and alpha-1,6-linked to the core N-acetylglucosamine residue, both of which are found in insect N-glycans, were not observed in the N-glycans of the mAb. PMID:19740109

  19. General utility of the chicken betaB1-crystallin promoter to drive protein expression in lens fiber cells of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Taube, Jennifer R; Gao, Chun Y; Ueda, Yoji; Zelenka, Peggy S; David, Larry L; Duncan, Melinda K

    2002-08-01

    Transgenic mouse technology has been very valuable for the study of lens fiber cells since they can not be propagated in cell culture. The targeting of transgenes to the lens has traditionally been done with the alphaA-crystallin promoter. However, while lens-specific, transgenic lines made with the alphaA-crystallin promoter express the transgene at levels 100-300-fold lower than endogenous alphaA-crystallin. Here we propose an alternative, the chicken betaB1-crystallin promoter (-432/+30). Transgenic mice made with this promoter have successfully expressed CAT, d/n m-calpain, Weel, and betaB2-crystallin mRNA at levels comparable to the endogenous betaB1-crystallin gene and no eye abnormalities such as cataracts, have resulted. All of the transgenic lines made with the chicken betaB1-crystallin promoter have expressed the transgene in the lens fiber cells, and the best lines express at levels close to endogenous betaB1-crystallin. While RNA expression is very high, only moderate protein expression has been achieved, implying that the high protein expression of the crystallins is partially controlled at the level of translation. Thus, the chicken betaB1-crystallin promoter directs high level RNA expression to lens fiber cells, which may be especially useful for the expression of ribozyme and anti-sense RNAs in addition to ectopic proteins. PMID:12212842

  20. Transgenic expression of tilapia hepcidin 1-5 and shrimp chelonianin in zebrafish and their resistance to bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Peng, Kuan-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2011-08-01

    Recently, tilapia hepcidin (TH)1-5 was characterized, and its antimicrobial functions against several pathogens were reported. The antimicrobial functions of another shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chelonianin, were also characterized using a recombinant chelonianin protein (rcf) that was expressed by a stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line against pathogen infections in fish. The function of the overexpression of both AMPs in zebrafish muscles was not examined in previous studies. Herein, we investigated the antimicrobial functions of TH1-5 and chelonianin against Vibrio vulnificus (204) and Streptococcus agalactiae (SA48) in transgenic TH1-5 zebrafish and transgenic chelonianin zebrafish. The presence of TH1-5 and chelonianin enhanced the inhibitory ability in transgenic AMP zebrafish against the two different bacterial infections. The bacterial number of either V. vulnificus (204) or S. agalactiae (SA48) had decreased at 96 h after injection into transgenic AMP zebrafish muscle compared to non-transgenic zebrafish muscle. Additionally, immune-related gene expressions analyzed by real-time PCR studies showed the modulation of several genes including interleukin (IL)-10, IL-22, IL-26, MyD88, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1, TLR-3, TLR-4, nuclear factor (NF)-?B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and lysozyme, and significant differences were found between transgenic AMP zebrafish and wild-type zebrafish injected with PBS at 1-24 h. These results suggest that several immune-related gene expressions were induced in transgenic TH1-5 and chelonianin zebrafish which effectively inhibited bacterial growth. The survival rate dropped to 86.6% in transgenic chelonianin zebrafish after 28 days of infection compared of the 50% survival rate in transgenic TH1-5 zebrafish after 28 days of infection. Overall, these results indicate that TH1-5 and chelonianin possess the potential to be novel candidate genes for aquaculture applications to treat fish diseases. PMID:21642002

  1. Sustained high level transgene expression in mammalian cells mediated by the optimized piggyBac transposon system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Cui, Jing; Yan, Zhengjian; Zhang, Hongmei; Chen, Xian; Wang, Ning; Shah, Palak; Deng, Fang; Zhao, Chen; Geng, Nisha; Li, Melissa; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Haydon, Rex C.; Luu, Hue H.; Reid, Russell R.; He, Tong-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Sustained, high level transgene expression in mammalian cells, especially stem cells, may be desired in many cases for studying gene functions. Traditionally, stable transgene expression has been accomplished by using retroviral or lentiviral vectors. However, such viral vector-mediated transgene expression is often at low levels and can be reduced over time due to low copy numbers and/or chromatin remodeling repression. The piggyBac transposon has emerged as a promising non-viral vector system for efficient gene transfer into mammalian cells. Despite its inherent advantages over lentiviral and retroviral systems, piggyBac system has not been widely used, at least in part due to the limited availability of piggyBac vectors with manipulation flexibilities. Here, we seek to optimize piggyBac-mediated transgene expression and generate a more efficient, user-friendly piggyBac system. By engineering a panel of versatile piggyBac vectors and constructing recombinant adenoviruses expressing piggyBac transposase (PBase), we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated PBase expression significantly enhances the integration efficiency and expression level of transgenes in mesenchymal stem cells and osteosarcoma cells, compared to that obtained from co-transfection of the CMV-PBase plasmid. We further determine the drug selection timeline to achieve optimal stable transgene expression. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transgene copy number of piggyBac-mediated integration is approximately 10 times higher than that mediated by retroviral vectors. Using the engineered tandem expression vector, we show that three transgenes can be simultaneously expressed in a single vector with high efficiency. Thus, these results strongly suggest that the optimized piggyBac system is a valuable tool for making stable cell lines with sustained, high transgene expression. PMID:25815368

  2. An agouti mutation lacking the basic domain induces yellow pigmentation but not obesity in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, R. J.; Mynatt, R. L.; Bruce, B. D.; Wilkison, W. O.; Woychik, R. P.; Michaud, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    Chronic antagonism of melanocortin receptors by the paracrine-acting agouti gene product induces both yellow fur and a maturity-onset obesity syndrome in mice that ubiquitously express wild-type agouti. Functional analysis of agouti mutations in transgenic mice indicate that the cysteine-rich C terminus, signal peptide, and glycosylation site are required for agouti activity in vivo. In contrast, no biological activity has been ascribed to the conserved basic domain. To examine the functional significance of the agouti basic domain, the entire 29-aa region was deleted from the agouti cDNA, and the resulting mutation (agouti?basic) was expressed in transgenic mice under the control of the ?-actin promoter (BAPa?basic). Three independent lines of BAPa?basic transgenic mice all developed some degree of yellow pigment in the fur, indicating that the agouti?basic protein was functional in vivo. However, none of the BAPa?basic transgenic mice developed completely yellow fur, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, or hyperglycemia. High levels of agouti?basic expression in relevant tissues exceeded the level of agouti expression in obese viable yellow mice, suggesting that suboptimal activity or synthesis of the agouti?basic protein, rather than insufficient RNA synthesis, accounts for the phenotype of the BAPa?basic transgenic mice. These findings implicate a functional role for the agouti basic domain in vivo, possibly influencing the biogenesis of secreted agouti protein or modulating protein–protein interactions that contribute to effective antagonism of melanocortin receptors. PMID:10411918

  3. An agouti mutation lacking the basic domain induces yellow pigmentation but not obesity in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miltenberger, R J; Mynatt, R L; Bruce, B D; Wilkison, W O; Woychik, R P; Michaud, E J

    1999-07-20

    Chronic antagonism of melanocortin receptors by the paracrine-acting agouti gene product induces both yellow fur and a maturity-onset obesity syndrome in mice that ubiquitously express wild-type agouti. Functional analysis of agouti mutations in transgenic mice indicate that the cysteine-rich C terminus, signal peptide, and glycosylation site are required for agouti activity in vivo. In contrast, no biological activity has been ascribed to the conserved basic domain. To examine the functional significance of the agouti basic domain, the entire 29-aa region was deleted from the agouti cDNA, and the resulting mutation (agoutiDeltabasic) was expressed in transgenic mice under the control of the beta-actin promoter (BAPaDeltabasic). Three independent lines of BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice all developed some degree of yellow pigment in the fur, indicating that the agoutiDeltabasic protein was functional in vivo. However, none of the BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice developed completely yellow fur, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, or hyperglycemia. High levels of agoutiDeltabasic expression in relevant tissues exceeded the level of agouti expression in obese viable yellow mice, suggesting that suboptimal activity or synthesis of the agoutiDeltabasic protein, rather than insufficient RNA synthesis, accounts for the phenotype of the BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice. These findings implicate a functional role for the agouti basic domain in vivo, possibly influencing the biogenesis of secreted agouti protein or modulating protein-protein interactions that contribute to effective antagonism of melanocortin receptors. PMID:10411918

  4. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to leaf blast disease.

    PubMed

    Ignacimuthu, S; Ceasar, S Antony

    2012-03-01

    Finger millet plants conferring resistance to leaf blast disease have been developed by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plasmid pHyg-Chi.11 harbouring the rice chitinase gene under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter was introduced into finger millet using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (pSB1). Transformed plants were selected and regenerated on hygromycin-supplemented medium. Transient expression of transgene was confirmed by GUS histochemical staining. The incorporation of rice chitinase gene in R0 and R1 progenies was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Expression of chitinase gene in finger millet was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a barley chitinase antibody. A leaf blast assay was also performed by challenging the transgenic plants with spores of Pyricularia grisea. The frequency of transient expression was 16.3% to 19.3%. Stable frequency was 3.5% to 3.9%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of 3.1 kb chitinase gene. Western blot analysis detected the presence of 35 kDa chitinase enzyme. Chitinase activity ranged from 19.4 to 24.8. In segregation analysis, the transgenic R1 lines produced three resistant and one sensitive for hygromycin, confirming the normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Transgenic plants showed high level of resistance to leaf blast disease compared to control plants. This is the first study reporting the introduction of rice chitinase gene into finger millet for leaf blast resistance. PMID:22357211

  5. Cellular, Molecular and Functional Characterisation of YAC Transgenic Mouse Models of Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Anjomani Virmouni, Sara; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Pook, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. We have previously established and performed preliminary characterisation of several human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic FRDA mouse models containing GAA repeat expansions, Y47R (9 GAA repeats), YG8R (90 and 190 GAA repeats) and YG22R (190 GAA repeats). Methodology/Principal Findings We now report extended cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of these FXN YAC transgenic mouse models. FXN transgene copy number analysis of the FRDA mice demonstrated that the YG22R and Y47R lines each have a single copy of the FXN transgene while the YG8R line has two copies. Single integration sites of all transgenes were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We identified significant functional deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8R and YG22R FRDA mice compared to Y47R and wild-type control mice. We also confirmed increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the cerebellum and brain of YG22R and YG8R mice, together with significantly reduced levels of FXN mRNA and protein in the brain and liver of YG8R and YG22R compared to Y47R. Conclusions/Significance Together these studies provide a detailed characterisation of our GAA repeat expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models that will help investigations of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy. PMID:25198290

  6. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54 % at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines. PMID:25523085

  7. Fitness Impact and Stability of a Transgene Conferring Resistance to Dengue-2 Virus following Introgression into a Genetically Diverse Aedes aegypti Strain

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Alexander W. E.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Raban, Robyn R.; Black, William C.; James, Anthony A.; Olson, Ken E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1)-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2). Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR) RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS) by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5) lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS) was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in one family, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ. This family has been genetically stable and DENV2 refractory for multiple generations. Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ represents an important line for testing proof-of-principle vector population replacement. PMID:24810399

  8. Proline over-accumulation alleviates salt stress and protects photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Surender Reddy, P; Jogeswar, Gadi; Rasineni, Girish K; Maheswari, M; Reddy, Attipalli R; Varshney, Rajeev K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2015-09-01

    Shoot-tip derived callus cultures of Sorghum bicolor were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as well as by bombardment methods with the mutated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) gene encoding the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis from glutamate. The transgenics were selfed for three generations and T4 plants were examined for 100 mM NaCl stress tolerance in pot conditions. The effect of salt stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal carbon dioxide concentration, transpiration rates, intrinsic transpiration and water use efficiencies, proline content, MDA levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in 40-day-old transgenic lines and the results were compared with untransformed control plants. The results show that chlorophyll content declines by 65% in untransformed controls compared to 30-38% loss (significant at P < 0.05) in transgenics but not carotenoid levels. Photosynthetic rate (PSII activity) was reduced in untransformed controls almost completely, while it declined by 62-88% in different transgenic lines. Salinity induced ca 100% stomatal closure in untransformed plants, while stomatal conductance was decreased only by 64-81% in transgenics after 4 days. The intercellular CO2 decreased by ca 30% in individual transgenic lines. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower in transgenics compared to untransformed controls. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC1.8.1.7) were quantified in leaves exposed to 100 mM NaCl stress and found higher in transgenics. The results suggest that transgenic lines were able to cope better with salt stress than untransformed controls by protecting photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:26065619

  9. Enhanced Whitefly Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing Double Stranded RNA of v-ATPase A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Nidhi; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Praveen C.; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Conclusions/Significance Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops. PMID:24595215

  10. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  11. Transgene flow: facts, speculations and possible countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  12. Cre-mediated targeted gene activation in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jianping; Xu, Hanfu; Ma, Sanyuan; Guo, Huizhen; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-06-01

    Cre-mediated recombination is widely used to manipulate defined genes spatiotemporally in vivo. The present study evaluated the Cre/loxP system in Bombyx mori by establishing two transgenic lines. One line contained a Cre recombinase gene controlled by a sericin-1 gene (Ser1) promoter. The other line contained a loxP-Stop-loxP-DsRed cassette driven by the same Ser1 promoter. The precise deletion of the Stop fragment was found to be triggered by Cre-mediated site-specific excision, and led to the expression of DsRed fluorescence protein in the middle silk glands of all double-transgenic hybrids. This result was also confirmed by phenotypical analysis. Hence, the current study demonstrated the feasibility of Cre-mediated site-specific recombination in B. mori, and opened a new window for further refining genetic tools in silkworms. PMID:23264031

  13. Analysis of internal motions of RNase T1 complexed with a productive substrate involving 15N NMR relaxation measurements.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Masakazu; Ohkuri, Takatoshi; Tanaka, Yoshitsugu; Imoto, Taiji; Ueda, Tadashi

    2006-07-01

    The backbone dynamics of RNase T1 in the presence of exo-guanosine 2',3'-cyclophosphorothioate (exo-cGPS isomer), which is a productive substrate, and in the presence of 3'-guanylic acid (3'GMP), which is an nonproductive substrate, were examined using (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance. Although the X-ray crystal structure suggests that the modes of binding of these substrates to the active-site cleft are very similar, the order parameters in a number of regions in RNase T1 complexed with exo-cGPS isomer were different from those with 3'GMP. Moreover, the chemical exchange in line width observed for RNase T1 complexed with exo-cGPS isomer was also different from that observed for RNase T1 complexed with 3'GMP. From these results, we concluded that the internal motions in RNase T1 complexed with a productive substrate were not always identical to those in RNase T1 complexed with a nonproductive substrate. PMID:16877767

  14. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe T (1) in oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, M. S.; Balamore, D.; Kacher, D. F.; Venkatesh, A. K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    The viability of the new technique of hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI (HypX-MRI) for imaging organs other than the lungs depends on whether the spin-lattice relaxation time, T(1), of (129)Xe is sufficiently long in the blood. In previous experiments by the authors, the T(1) was found to be strongly dependent upon the oxygenation of the blood, with T(1) increasing from about 3 s in deoxygenated samples to about 10 s in oxygenated samples. Contrarily, Tseng et al. (J. Magn. Reson. 1997; 126: 79-86) reported extremely long T(1) values deduced from an indirect experiment in which hyperpolarized (129)Xe was used to create a 'blood-foam'. They found that oxygenation decreased T(1). Pivotal to their experiment is the continual and rapid exchange of hyperpolarized (129)Xe between the gas phase (within blood-foam bubbles) and the dissolved phase (in the skin of the bubbles); this necessitated a complicated analysis to extract the T(1) of (129)Xe in blood. In the present study, the experimental design minimizes gas exchange after the initial bolus of hyperpolarized (129)Xe has been bubbled through the sample. This study confirms that oxygenation increases the T(1) of (129)Xe in blood, from about 4 s in freshly drawn venous blood, to about 13 s in blood oxygenated to arterial levels, and also shifts the red blood cell resonance to higher frequency. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Abbreviations used BOLD blood oxygen level dependent NOE nuclear overhouses effect PO(2) oxygen partial pressure RBC red blood cells RF radio frequency SNR signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Late Blight Resistance of RB Transgenic Potato Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease effecting tuber yield and storage. Recent work has isolated a resistance gene, RB, from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum. Field evaluations with a RB containing somatic hybrid have reported significant levels of ...

  16. A Drosophila Resource of Transgenic RNAi Lines for Neurogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Quan Ni; Lu-Ping Liu; Richard Binari; Robert Hardy; Hye-Seok Shim; Amanda Cavallaro; Matthew Booker; Barret D. Pfeiffer; Michele Markstein; Hui Wang; Christians Villalta; Todd R. Laverty; Lizabeth A. Perkins; Norbert Perrimon

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conditional expression of hairpin constructs in Drosophila is a powerful,method,to disrupt the activity of single genes with a spatial and temporal resolution that is impossible, or exceedingly difficult, using classical genetic methods. We previously described,a method,(Ni et al. 2008) whereby,RNAi constructs are targeted into the genome,by the phiC31-mediated integration approach,using Vermilion-AttB-Loxp-Intron-UAS-MCS (VALIUM), a vector that contains vermilion as a

  17. A reporter mouse line with doxycyclin-inducible expression of ?-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Jay, Freya F; Schneider, Marlon R

    2014-12-01

    Mouse lines allowing the inducible expression of transgenes became essential tools for studying gene function and for developing accurate animal models for human diseases. A key component of this tool is the availability of "reporter" lines, mice expressing transgenes encoding easily detectable enzymes or other proteins normally not associated with eukaryotic tissues. Such lines may be suitable for a number of applications, including lineage tracing, label-retaining experiments, and the identification and monitoring of regulatory elements important for tissue-specific gene expression. However, only a limited number of reporter lines suitable for inducible expression systems are available. Here, we employed pronuclear DNA microinjection to generate a new reporter mouse line that allows the inducible expression of ?-glucosidase, a recently reported stable and easily detectable protein, upon administration of doxycyclin to the drinking water. This novel line was established in the widely used inbreed background C57BL/6, and the transgene is transmitted between generations in a Mendelian fashion. When crossed to a K14-rtTA mouse line, activation of ?-glucosidase expression in the epidermal basal layer is easily detected in double-transgenic animals receiving doxycyclin, while no expression is seen in double-transgenic mice without doxycyclin treatment or in animals carrying only one transgene. We anticipate that this new mouse line will become a valuable tool for a number of applications in vivo, including label-retaining experiments and testing the appropriate regulation of rtTA cassettes under different promoters in novel transgenic mouse lines. PMID:25091595

  18. Transgenic farm animals: applications in agriculture and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Tian, X C; Dai, Y; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in the area of transgenic farm animals. While there are many important transgenic farm animal applications in agriculture, funding has been very limited and progress has been rather slow in this area. Encouragingly, the potential applications of transgenic farm animals as bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and as organ donors for transplantations in humans have attracted vast funding from the private sectors. Several transgenic animal products are already in various phases of clinical trials. Estimates are, that in the near future, the worlds demands on human pharmaceutical proteins may largely be met by transgenic farm animals. While there are still major challenges ahead in the area of xenotransplantation using transgenic animal organs, transgenic tissues or cells have demonstrated promising results as a potential tool for gene therapy. Recent development on cloning, embryonic stem cells and alternative transgenic methods may further expand the transgenic applications in both agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:10875004

  19. The expression of a bean PGIP in transgenic wheat confers increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; Blechl, Ann E; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-02-01

    A possible strategy to control plant pathogens is the improvement of natural plant defense mechanisms against the tools that pathogens commonly use to penetrate and colonize the host tissue. One of these mechanisms is represented by the host plant's ability to inhibit the pathogen's capacity to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIP) are plant defense cell wall glycoproteins that inhibit the activity of fungal endopolygalacturonases (endo-PGs). To assess the effectiveness of these proteins in protecting wheat from fungal pathogens, we produced a number of transgenic wheat lines expressing a bean PGIP (PvPGIP2) having a wide spectrum of specificities against fungal PGs. Three independent transgenic lines were characterized in detail, including determination of the levels of PvPGIP2 accumulation and its subcellular localization and inhibitory activity. Results show that the transgene-encoded protein is correctly secreted into the apoplast, maintains its characteristic recognition specificities, and endows the transgenic wheat with new PG recognition capabilities. As a consequence, transgenic wheat tissue showed increased resistance to digestion by the PG of Fusarium moniliforme. These new properties also were confirmed at the plant level during interactions with the fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. All three lines showed significant reductions in symptom progression (46 to 50%) through the leaves following infection with this pathogen. Our results illustrate the feasibility of improving wheat's defenses against pathogens by expression of proteins with new capabilities to counteract those produced by the pathogens. PMID:18184061

  20. Dog recloning from muscle fibroblasts in transgenic cloned beagle: Regeneration of an identical transgenic dog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Gun Hong; Hyun Ju Oh; Jung Eun Park; Min Jung Kim; Ji Eun Kim; Goo Jang; Byeong Chun Lee

    2010-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) share many common genetic diseases with humans and development of dog disease models using a transgenic approach has long been awaited. However, due to the technical difficulty in obtaining fertilizable eggs and the unavailability of embryonic stem cells, no recloned transgenic dog has been generated. Here, we attempted the recloning of dogs by nuclear transfer of canine

  1. Relationship between expression levels and atherogenesis in scavenger receptor Class B, Type I Transgenics

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yukihiko; Gong, Elaine; Royer, Lori; Cooper, Philip N.; Francone, Omar L; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-03-15

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies of SR-BI have implicated it as a likely participant in the metabolism of HDL cholesterol. To investigate SR-BI's effect on atherogenesis we examined two lines of SR-BI transgenic mice with high (10-fold increases) and low (2-fold increases) in SR-BI expression in an inbred mouse background hemizygous for a human apo B transgene. Unlike non-HDL cholesterol levels which minimally differed in the various groups of animals, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely related to SR-BI expression. Mice with the low expression SR-BI transgene had a 50% reduction in HDL cholesterol while the high expression SR-BI transgene was associated with two-fold decreases in HDL as well as dramatic alterations in HDL composition and size including the near absence of a-migrating particles as determined by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. The low expression SR-BI/apo B transgenics had more than a two-fold decrease in the development of diet induced fatty streak lesions compared t o the apo B transgenics (4448{+-}1908 {mu}m2/aorta to 10133 {+-} 4035 {mu}m2/aorta; p<0.001), while the high expression SR-BI/apo B transgenics had an atherogenic response similar to that of the apo B transgenics (14692{+-}7238 {mu}m2/aorta) but three-fold greater than the low SR-BI/apo B mice (p<0.001). The prominent anti-atherogenic effect of moderate SR-BI expression provides in vivo support for the hypothesis that HDL functions to inhibit atherogenesis through its interactions with SR-BI in facilitating reverse cholesterol transport. The failure of the high SR-BI/apo B transgenics to have similar or even greater reductions in atherogenesis suggests that the changes resulting from extremely high SR-BI expression including dramatic changes in lipoproteins may have both pro- and anti-atherogenic consequences illustrating the complexity of the relationship between SR-BI and atherogenesis.

  2. Transcriptional insulation of the human keratin 18 gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Neznanov, N; Thorey, I S; Ceceńa, G; Oshima, R G

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the 10-kb human keratin 18 (K18) gene in transgenic mice results in efficient and appropriate tissue-specific expression in a variety of internal epithelial organs, including liver, lung, intestine, kidney, and the ependymal epithelium of brain, but not in spleen, heart, or skeletal muscle. Expression at the RNA level is directly proportional to the number of integrated K18 transgenes. These results indicate that the K18 gene is able to insulate itself both from the commonly observed cis-acting effects of the sites of integration and from the potential complications of duplicated copies of the gene arranged in head-to-tail fashion. To begin to identify the K18 gene sequences responsible for this property of transcriptional insulation, additional transgenic mouse lines containing deletions of either the 5' or 3' distal end of the K18 gene have been characterized. Deletion of 1.5 kb of the distal 5' flanking sequence has no effect upon either the tissue specificity or the copy number-dependent behavior of the transgene. In contrast, deletion of the 3.5-kb 3' flanking sequence of the gene results in the loss of the copy number-dependent behavior of the gene in liver and intestine. However, expression in kidney, lung, and brain remains efficient and copy number dependent in these transgenic mice. Furthermore, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression is copy number dependent in transgenic mice when the gene is located between the distal 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences of the K18 gene. Each adult transgenic male expressed the thymidine kinase gene in testes and brain and proportionally to the number of integrated transgenes. We conclude that the characteristic of copy number-dependent expression of the K18 gene is tissue specific because the sequence requirements for transcriptional insulation in adult liver and intestine are different from those for lung and kidney. In addition, the behavior of the transgenic thymidine kinase gene in testes and brain suggests that the property of transcriptional insulation of the K18 gene may be conferred by the distal flanking sequences of the K18 gene and, additionally, may function for other genes. Images PMID:7681143

  3. Technical advance: stringent control of transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using the Top10 promoter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, J.; Scott, A. C.; Thompson, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We show that the tightly regulated tetracycline-sensitive Top10 promoter system (Weinmann et al. Plant J. 1994, 5, 559-569) is functional in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pure breeding A. thaliana line (JL-tTA/8) was generated which expressed a chimeric fusion of the tetracycline repressor and the activation domain of Herpes simplex virus (tTA), from a single transgenic locus. Plants from this line were crossed with transgenics carrying the ER-targeted green fluorescent protein coding sequence (mGFP5) under control of the Top10 promoter sequence. Progeny from this cross displayed ER-targeted GFP fluorescence throughout the plant, indicating that the tTA-Top10 promoter interaction was functional in A. thaliana. GFP expression was repressed by 100 ng ml-1 tetracycline, an order of magnitude lower than the concentration used previously to repress expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Moreover, the level of GFP expression was controlled by varying the concentration of tetracycline in the medium, allowing a titred regulation of transgenic activity that was previously unavailable in A. thaliana. The kinetics of GFP activity were determined following de-repression of the Top10:mGFP5 transgene, with a visible ER-targeted GFP signal appearing from 24 to 48 h after de-repression.

  4. Characterisation of the nociceptive phenotype of suppressible galanin overexpressing transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in many diverse biological functions. There is a substantial data set that demonstrates galanin is upregulated after injury in the DRG, spinal cord and in many brain regions where it plays a predominantly antinociceptive role in addition to being neuroprotective and pro-regenerative. To further characterise the role of galanin following nerve injury, a novel transgenic line was created using the binary transgenic tet-off system, to overexpress galanin in galaninergic tissue in a suppressible manner. The double transgenic mice express significantly more galanin in the DRG one week after sciatic nerve section (axotomy) compared to WT mice and this overexpression is suppressible upon administration of doxycycline. Phenotypic analysis revealed markedly attenuated allodynia when galanin is overexpressed and an increase in allodynia following galanin suppression. This novel transgenic line demonstrates that whether galanin expression is increased at the time of nerve injury or only after allodynia is established, the neuropeptide is able to reduce neuropathic pain behaviour. These new findings imply that administration of a galanin agonist to patients with established allodynia would be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain. PMID:20964829

  5. Generation and characterization of gsu?:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2014-07-01

    The glycoprotein subunit ? (gsu?) gene encodes the shared ? subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone ? (Fsh?), luteinizing hormone ? (Lh?) and thyroid stimulating hormone ? (Tsh?). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsu? and generated a stable gsu?:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsu? expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsu? promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsu?:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsu? expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO4, dexamethasone (Dex), ?-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsu?:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsu?-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. PMID:24747804

  6. Pituitary-specific expression and glucocorticoid regulation of a proopiomelanocortin fusion gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Y; Tretjakoff, I; Peterson, A; Antakly, T; Zhang, C X; Drouin, J

    1988-01-01

    The product of a single gene encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is differentially processed to produce corticotropin and alpha-melanotropin in anterior and intermediate pituitary cells, respectively. Hormonal control of POMC gene transcription and of corticotropin or alpha-melanotropin release is also tissue-specific; for example, glucocorticoids specifically inhibit anterior but not intermediate pituitary POMC transcription. Outside the pituitary gland, very low levels of POMC mRNAs are present in brain, testes, ovaries, and placenta. We have used transgenic mice to identify POMC 5' flanking sequences that are sufficient for tissue-specific expression and glucocorticoid regulation in anterior and intermediate pituitary cells. Three lines of transgenic mice were established, each carrying 50-75 copies (per cell) of a chimeric rPOMCneo gene constituted of rat POMC promoter sequences and of bacterial neomycin-resistance coding sequence. High levels of rPOMCneo transcripts were detected in pituitaries of mice from all three lineages. In situ hybridization revealed that the ratio of intermediate to anterior pituitary transcripts was similar for the transgene and endogenous POMC mRNA. rPOMCneo transcripts were not detected in any other tissue except at very low levels in the testes in two transgenic lines. Endogenous mouse POMC mRNA increased in response to depletion of plasma glucocorticoids (adrenalectomy) and decreased after glucocorticoid treatment; rPOMCneo transcripts were altered to the same extent by these treatments in all three lines. Intermediate pituitary and testicular rPOMCneo transgene expression was not altered by these treatments. Thus, no more than 769 base pairs of the rat POMC promoter are required for pituitary-specific expression and for specific glucocorticoid inhibition of the POMC gene in the anterior pituitary. Images PMID:3194396

  7. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  8. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  9. Production of transgenic goats expressing human coagulation factor IX in the mammary glands after nuclear transfer using transfected fetal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Amiri Yekta, Amir; Dalman, Azam; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Fakheri, Rahman; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Daneshzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Vojgani, Mahdi; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Fatemi, Nayeralsadat; Vahabi, Zeinab; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Ataei, Fariba; Bahraminejad, Elmira; Masoudi, Najmehsadat; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Gourabi, Hamid

    2013-02-01

    There are growing numbers of recombinant proteins that have been expressed in milk. Thus one can consider the placement of any gene of interest under the control of the regulatory elements of a milk protein gene in a dairy farm animal. Among the transgene introducing techniques, only nuclear transfer (NT) allows 100 % efficiency and bypasses the mosaicism associated with counterpart techniques. In this study, in an attempt to produce a transgenic goat carrying the human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) transgene, goat fetal fibroblasts were electroporated with a linearized marker-free construct in which the transgene was juxtaposed to ?-casein promoter designed to secret the recombinant protein in goat milk. Two different lines of transfected cells were used as donors for NT to enucleated oocytes. Two transgenic goats were liveborn. DNA sequencing of the corresponding transgene locus confirmed authenticity of the cloning procedure and the complementary experiments on the whey demonstrated expression of human factor IX in the milk of transgenic goats. In conclusion, our study has provided the groundwork for a prosperous and promising approach for large-scale production and therapeutic application of hFIX expressed in transgenic goats. PMID:22869287

  10. Development of a transgenic hairy root system in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) with gusA reporter gene through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated co-transformation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tirthartha; Roy, Sheuli; Mitra, Adinpunya; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic hairy root system is important in several recalcitrant plants, where Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation and generation of transgenic plants are problematic. Jute (Corchorus spp.), the major fibre crop in Indian subcontinent, is one of those recalcitrant plants where in vitro tissue culture has provided a little success, and hence, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation remains to be a challenging proposition in this crop. In the present work, a system of transgenic hairy roots in Corchorus capsularis L. has been developed through genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes harbouring two plasmids, i.e. the natural Ri plasmid and a recombinant binary vector derived from the disarmed Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens. Our findings indicate that the system is relatively easy to establish and reproducible. Molecular analysis of the independent lines of transgenic hairy roots revealed the transfer of relevant transgenes from both the T-DNA parts into the plant genome, indicating the co-transformation nature of the event. High level expression and activity of the gusA reporter gene advocate that the transgenic hairy root system, thus developed, could be applicable as gene expression system in general and for root functional genomics in particular. Furthermore, these transgenic hairy roots can be used in future as explants for plantlet regeneration to obtain stable transgenic jute plants. PMID:21153028

  11. Virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic plants: transgene silencing and reactivation associate with two patterns of transgene body methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingmin; San León, David; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    We used bisulfite sequencing to study the methylation of a viral transgene whose expression was silenced upon plum pox virus infection of the transgenic plant and its subsequent recovery as a consequence of so-called virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). VIGS was associated with a general increase in the accumulation of small RNAs corresponding to the coding region of the viral transgene. After VIGS, the transgene promoter was not methylated and the coding region showed uneven methylation, with the 5' end being mostly unmethylated in the recovered tissue or mainly methylated at CG sites in regenerated silenced plants. The methylation increased towards the 3' end, which showed dense methylation in all three contexts (CG, CHG and CHH). This methylation pattern and the corresponding silenced status were maintained after plant regeneration from recovered silenced tissue and did not spread into the promoter region, but were not inherited in the sexual offspring. Instead, a new pattern of methylation was observed in the progeny plants consisting of disappearance of the CHH methylation, similar CHG methylation at the 3' end, and an overall increase in CG methylation in the 5' end. The latter epigenetic state was inherited over several generations and did not correlate with transgene silencing and hence virus resistance. These results suggest that the widespread CG methylation pattern found in body gene bodies located in euchromatic regions of plant genomes may reflect an older silencing event, and most likely these genes are no longer silenced. PMID:24916614

  12. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  13. The Ethics of Transgenic Art 

    E-print Network

    Hood, Jennifer L

    2011-11-23

    Is biotechnology an appropriate and ethical medium for contemporary art? In the past decade, the line between science and art has become increasingly blurred as artists have begun to harness the accelerating developments of the life...

  14. Controversies in the management of T1 urothelial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, H; Cauberg, E C C; De Reijke, Th M

    2011-12-01

    T1 urothelial bladder cancers are in majority high-grade and seem to grow rapidly with the potential not only to recur, but also to progress to muscle invasion. Therefore, management discussions for patients with a high-grade T1 urothelial bladder cancer are critical. In this review, we aim to give an overview of the controversies encountered in the management of these tumors. Relevant information on T1 urothelial cell bladder cancer was identified through a literature search of published studies and review articles. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is of utmost importance in T1 bladder cancer; particularly understaging can adversely impact the survival of the patient. Therefore, a standard re-TUR is highly recommended in all T1 bladder cancer patients. On the other hand overtreatment affects the quality of life and can lead to unnecessary morbidity. The available treatment options range widely: they include transurethral resection alone with or without re-resection, adding intravesical therapy, radical cystectomy, and bladder sparing techniques using radiotherapy or combined chemoradiation. The choice and timing of the decision whether to pursue with conservative management (TUR and BCG) or to proceed with cystectomy (selected cases with adverse prognostic factors) should be continuously reconsidered on an individual patient basis. This is why the decision making is so difficult, and although we have come along a way in understanding the biological behavior of these tumors, both the choice and timing of treatment remain controversial. After ensuring that accurate staging has been done, the therapeutic options for T1 bladder tumors vary widely (from bladder sparing approaches to cystectomy) and a choice should be made based on individual patient basis. PMID:21996986

  15. Transgenic Research 12: 497508, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    to increase the plant's defence against fungal pathogens. Transgenic tobacco plants, generated analyses conducted on the transgenic tobacco plants con- firmed transgene expression. Leaf extracts fromTransgenic Research 12: 497­508, 2003. © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed

  16. Generation of a Focused Poly(amino ether) Library: Polymer-mediated Transgene Delivery and Gold-Nanorod based Theranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lucas; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    A focused library of twenty-one cationic poly(amino ethers) was synthesized following ring-opening polymerization of two diglycidyl ethers by different oligoamines. The polymers were screened in parallel for plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery, and transgene expression efficacies of individual polymers were compared to those of 25 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI), a current standard for polymer-mediated transgene delivery. Seven lead polymers that demonstrated higher transgene expression than PEI in pancreatic and prostate cancer cells lines were identified from the screen. All seven lead polymers showed highest transgene expression at a polymer:pDNA weight ratio of 5:1 in the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. Among the conditions studied, transgene expression efficacy correlated with minimal polymer cytotoxicity but not polyplex sizes. In addition, this study indicated that methylene spacing between amine centers in the monomers, amine content, and molecular weight of the polymers are all significant factors and should be considered when designing polymers for transgene delivery. A lead effective polymer was employed for coating gold nanorods, leading to theranostic nanoassemblies that possess combined transgene delivery and optical imaging capabilities, leading to potential theranostic systems. PMID:23382773

  17. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2013-02-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions. PMID:23100369

  18. Germline Transgenic Pigs by Sleeping Beauty Transposition in Porcine Zygotes and Targeted Integration in the Pig Genome

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Mátés, Lajos; Holler, Stephanie; Dalda, Anna; Taylor, Ulrike; Petersen, Björn; Niemann, Heiner; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X) transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases. PMID:21897845

  19. Nuclear expression of a mitochondrial DNA gene: mitochondrial targeting of allotopically expressed mutant ATP6 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Dunn, David A; Pinkert, Carl A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE) represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M) or wildtype (A6W) mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P < 0.05), no locomotor differences (gait analysis; P < 0.05) and enhanced endurance in Rota-Rod evaluations (P < 0.05). A6W mice exhibited inferior muscle strength (wire hang test; P < 0.05), no difference in balance beam footsteps, accelerating Rota-Rod, pole test and gait analyses; (P < 0.05) and superior performance in balance beam time-to-cross and constant velocity Rota-Rod analyses (P < 0.05) in comparison to non-transgenic control mice. Mice of both transgenic lines did not differ from non-transgenic controls in a number of bioenergetic and biochemical tests including measurements of serum lactate and mitochondrial MnSOD protein levels, ATP synthesis rate, and oxygen consumption (P > 0.05). This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics. PMID:22778551

  20. Nuclear Expression of a Mitochondrial DNA Gene: Mitochondrial Targeting of Allotopically Expressed Mutant ATP6 in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, David A.; Pinkert, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE) represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M) or wildtype (A6W) mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P < 0.05), no locomotor differences (gait analysis; P < 0.05) and enhanced endurance in Rota-Rod evaluations (P < 0.05). A6W mice exhibited inferior muscle strength (wire hang test; P < 0.05), no difference in balance beam footsteps, accelerating Rota-Rod, pole test and gait analyses; (P < 0.05) and superior performance in balance beam time-to-cross and constant velocity Rota-Rod analyses (P < 0.05) in comparison to non-transgenic control mice. Mice of both transgenic lines did not differ from non-transgenic controls in a number of bioenergetic and biochemical tests including measurements of serum lactate and mitochondrial MnSOD protein levels, ATP synthesis rate, and oxygen consumption (P > 0.05). This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics. PMID:22778551

  1. Germline transmission in transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Jean, Sherrie; Gould, Kenneth; Chan, Anthony W S

    2015-07-15

    Transgenic nonhuman primate models are an increasingly popular model for neurologic and neurodegenerative disease because their brain functions and neural anatomies closely resemble those of humans. Transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys (HD monkeys) developed clinical features similar to those seen in HD patients, making the monkeys suitable for a preclinical study of HD. However, until HD monkey colonies can be readily expanded, their use in preclinical studies will be limited. In the present study, we confirmed germline transmission of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) transgene in both embryonic stem cells generated from three male HD monkey founders (F0) and in second-generation offspring (F1) produced via artificial insemination by using intrauterine insemination technique. A total of five offspring were produced from 15 females that were inseminated by intrauterine insemination using semen collected from the three HD founders (5 of 15, 33%). Thus far, sperm collected from the HD founder (rHD8) has led to two F1 transgenic HD monkeys with germline transmission rate at 100% (2 of 2). mHTT expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using skin fibroblasts from the F1 HD monkeys and induced pluripotent stem cells established from one of the F1 HD monkeys (rHD8-2). Here, we report the stable germline transmission and expression of the mHTT transgene in HD monkeys, which suggest possible expansion of HD monkey colonies for preclinical and biomedical research studies. PMID:25917881

  2. Quantitative analysis of lentiviral transgene expression in mice over seven generations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Song, Yong-tao; Liu, Qin; Liu, Cang'e; Wang, Lu-lu; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-yang; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-10-01

    Lentiviral transgenesis is now recognized as an extremely efficient and cost-effective method to produce transgenic animals. Transgenes delivered by lentiviral vectors exhibited inheritable expression in many species including those which are refractory to genetic modification such as non-human primates. However, epigenetic modification was frequently observed in lentiviral integrants, and transgene expression found to be inversely correlated with methylation density. Recent data showed that about one-third lentiviral integrants exhibited hypermethylation and low expression, but did not demonstrate whether those integrants with high expression could remain constant expression and hypomethylated during long term germline transmission. In this study, using lentiviral eGFP transgenic mice as the experimental animals, lentiviral eGFP expression levels and its integrant numbers in genome were quantitatively analyzed by fluorescent quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (FQ-PCR), using the house-keeping gene ribosomal protein S18 (Rps18) and the single copy gene fatty acid binding protein of the intestine (Fabpi) as the internal controls respectively. The methylation densities of the integrants were quantitatively analyzed by bisulfite sequencing. We found that the lentiviral integrants with high expression exhibited a relative constant expression level per integrant over at least seven generations. Besides, the individuals containing these integrants exhibited eGFP expression levels which were positively and almost linearly correlated with the integrant numbers in their genomes, suggesting that no remarkable position effect on transgene expression of the integrants analyzed was observed. In addition, over seven generations the methylation density of these integrants did not increase, but rather decreased remarkably, indicating that these high expressing integrants were not subjected to de novo methylation during at least seven generations of germline transmission. Taken together, these data suggested that transgenic lines with long term stable expression and no position effect can be established by lentiviral transgenesis. PMID:20091347

  3. Transformation of Maize Cells and Regeneration of Fertile Transgenic Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Kamm, WJ; Spencer, TM; Mangano, ML; Adams, TR; Daines, RJ; Start, WG; O'Brien, JV; Chambers, SA; Adams, WR; Willetts, NG; Rice, TB; Mackey, CJ; Krueger, RW; Kausch, AP; Lemaux, PG

    1990-01-01

    A reproducible system for the generation of fertile, transgenic maize plants has been developed. Cells from embryogenic maize suspension cultures were transformed with the bacterial gene bar using microprojectile bombardment. Transformed calli were selected from the suspension cultures using the herbicide bialaphos. Integration of bar and activity of the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) encoded by bar were confirmed in all bialaphos-resistant callus lines. Fertile transformed maize plants (R0) were regenerated, and of 53 progeny (R1) tested, 29 had PAT activity. All PAT-positive progeny analyzed contained bar. Localized application of herbicide to leaves of bar-transformed R0 and R1 plants resulted in no necrosis, confirming functional activity of PAT in the transgenic plants. Cotransformation experiments were performed using a mixture of two plasmids, one encoding PAT and one containing the nonselected gene encoding [beta]-glucuronidase. R0 plants regenerated from co-transformed callus expressed both genes. These results describe and confirm the development of a system for introduction of DNA into maize. PMID:12354967

  4. Transfer of Hyperpolarization from Long T1 Storage Nuclei to Short T1 Neighbors Using FLOPSY-8

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Karlos X.; Harrison, Crystal; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclei with long T1s are optimal targets for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Therefore, most of the agents used in metabolic imaging and spectroscopy studies are based on carboxylic acid moieties that lack protons, a strong source of dipolar relaxation. Metabolic flux information encoded into spectra of small molecule metabolites in the form of the 13C isotopomer data cannot be accessed using standard 13C hyperpolarization methods because protonated carbons relax too quickly through T1 dipolar relaxation. It is shown here that the longitudinal mixing sequence FLOPSY-8 can be used to transfer polarization from a long T1 storage nucleus to adjacent protonated carbons so that they may be detected with high sensitivity. We demonstrate that FLOPSY-8 allows a direct readout of isotopomer populations in butyrate and glutamate in vitro. PMID:21974998

  5. Local GDNF expression mediated by lentiviral vector protects facial nerve motoneurons but not spinal motoneurons in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Guillot; Mimoun Azzouz; Nicole Déglon; Anne Zurn; Patrick Aebischer

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 2% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are associated with mutations in the cytosolic Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. Transgenic SOD1 mice constitute useful models of ALS to screen therapeutical approaches. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) holds promises for the treatment of motoneuron disease. In the present study, GDNF expression in motoneurons of SOD1G93A transgenic mice was

  6. PostTranscriptional Gene Silencing of the p23 Silencing Suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus Confers Resistance to the Virus in Transgenic Mexican Lime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Fagoaga; Carmelo López; Alfonso Hermoso de Mendoza; Pedro Moreno; Luis Navarro; Ricardo Flores; Leandro Peńa

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that most Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swing.) expressing the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) exhibit aberrations resembling viral leaf symptoms. Here we report that five independent transgenic lines having normal\\u000a phenotype displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): multiple copies of the transgene,\\u000a low levels of the corresponding mRNA, methylation of the

  7. Out-crossing frequency and genetic analysis of hybrids between transgenic glufosinate herbicide-resistant rice and the weed, red rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nengyi Zhang; Steve Linscombe; James Oard

    2003-01-01

    The potential of transferring herbicide resistance from transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties to sexually compatible weeds is of paramount importance for development of effective weed control strategies.\\u000a The objective of this research was to determine the genetic control and frequency of natural outcrossing between a transgenic,\\u000a glufosinate-resistant rice line and a Louisiana biotype of red rice (Oryza sativa L.).

  8. MR perfusion studies with T1-weighted echo planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Kwong, K K; Chesler, D A; Weisskoff, R M; Donahue, K M; Davis, T L; Ostergaard, L; Campbell, T A; Rosen, B R

    1995-12-01

    The T1 perfusion model has worked well in brain functional studies where flow changes are measured. Using selective and nonselective inversion pulses, a new method has been developed to study steady-state brain blood flow. The authors obtained flow-sensitive images using selective inversion and flow-insensitive images using nonselective inversion. Subtraction of flow-insensitive images from flow-sensitive images gave us flow-weighted images with good gray-white flow contrast in cortical gray matter as well as in the thalamus and basal ganglia. Fitting T1s of flow-insensitive and flow-sensitive images allowed us to obtain preliminary results of brain blood flow maps. Two specific problems can seriously affect the accuracy of the brain blood flow values and the gray-white flow contrast of brain blood flow maps. These are the problems of the partial volume effect of CSF and gray matter, and the difference between blood T1 and white matter T1. The authors discuss in detail the character of these problems and present a number of approaches to manage such problems. PMID:8598815

  9. Session T1A Making a Case for HCI

    E-print Network

    McCrickard, Scott

    , instructors also target development of abstract concepts and appreciation of the scientific method. However with this approach is that students are unable to appreciate the depth of the concepts (or practice the methodsSession T1A Making a Case for HCI: Comparing Materials for Case-Based Teaching Jacob Somervell, C

  10. Be a Food Detective Grades 9-12: T-1

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Be a Food Detective Grades 9-12: T-1 Be a Food Detective Overview Students will explore the exciting area of food and nutrition and answer specific questions about prepared food products, such as, what a food is made from, the source of its ingredients, and how the ingredients were grown. Suggested

  11. The TOTEM T1 read out card motherboard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Minutoli; M. Lo Vetere; E. Robutti

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Read Out Card (ROC) motherboard, which is the main component of the T1 forward telescope front-end electronic system. The ROC main objectives are to acquire tracking data and trigger information from the detector. It performs data conversion from electrical to optical format and transfers the data streams to the next level of the system and it

  12. Ionization properties of titratable groups in ribonuclease T 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assen Koumanov; Normann Spitzner; Heinz Rüterjans; Andrey Karshikoff

    2001-01-01

    The experimental NMR data for the individual titratable groups in ribonuclease T1 presented in the preceding paper were analysed by means of a continuum dielectric model. The role of two factors, the alteration of hydrogen loci on the ionizable groups and the conformational flexibility, were analysed. It was suggested that the position of the titratable hydrogen is essential mainly for

  13. Overexpression of L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Reveals Control Points for Flux into Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Howles, P. A.; Sewalt, VJH.; Paiva, N. L.; Elkind, Y.; Bate, N. J.; Lamb, C.; Dixon, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants overexpressing the enzyme L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) were grown from seeds of a primary transformant containing the bean PAL2 gene, which had shown homology-dependent silencing of the endogenous tobacco PAL genes. Analysis of endogenous and transgene-encoded PAL transcripts and protein in the primary transformant (T0) and first-generation (T1) overexpressor plants indicated that the transgene-encoded PAL is the cause of the greater than wild-type levels of PAL activity (up to 5- and 2-fold greater in leaf and stem tissue, respectively) in the T1 plants. Leaves of PAL-overexpressing plants contained increased levels of the hydroxycinnamic acid ester chlorogenic acid but not of the flavonoid rutin, indicating that PAL is the key control point for flux into chlorogenic acid. In addition, levels of the glucoside of 4-coumaric acid increased in the overexpressing plants, suggesting that the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase or coumarate hydroxylase reactions might have become limiting. These results help to define the regulatory architecture of the phenylpropanoid pathway and indicate the possibility of engineering-selective changes in this complex metabolic pathway by overexpression of a single early pathway gene. PMID:12226468

  14. Tissue culture independent transformation of the forage crop sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.): an easy method towards generation of transgenics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jyothsna P; Agrawal, Pushpa; Mahmood, Riaz; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Rao, K Sankara; Reddy, G R; Suryanarayana, V V S

    2012-01-01

    A transformation system which is free of in vitro plant regeneration following Agrobacterium infection is established for the forage legume, Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) where in the entire embryo axis of the germinating seed was used as the target tissue for transformation. After standardization of transformation conditions, the cotyledonary node of the embryo axis was infected with Agrobacterium host LBA 4404 harboring the recombinant vector pCAMBIA 2301. The bivalent 1D gene of the two major foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes 'O' and 'A22' and the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene were used as the markers for optimization of the protocol. The embryo axes were pricked randomly on the cotyledonary node and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. The germlings were then allowed to grow under standard growth room conditions in to mature fertile plants. 60 T0 plants were established from 3 separate experiments. Three hundred seeds from the 60 T0 plants were sown to raise the T1 generation of which 180 were analyzed for integration of bivalent FMDV gene 1D "O" and "A22" and the nptII gene. Eighteen out of these 180 plants amplified both the marker genes. Two independent transgenic lines 24 and 37, showed elevated levels of expression of 12 ?g and 8 ?g (per gm of fresh leaf) of the bivalent ID antigen "O" and "A22" . The results showed that the transformation efficiency was 3 %. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Sunnhemp. The protocol can generate whole plant transformants with relative ease and should be compatible to all genotypes of Sunnhemp. PMID:23573040

  15. Mammary cancer in transgenic mice expressing insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)

    PubMed Central

    Bates, P.; Fisher, R.; Ward, A.; Richardson, L.; Hill, D. J.; Graham, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) on tumour development in the mouse mammary gland was studied. To promote extra IGF-II expression in the mammary gland, sheep beta-lactoglobulin regulatory elements were attached to the coding regions of the mouse Igf-2 gene and injected into the pronuclei of mouse zygotes. Mammary tumours developed in each of the four independent lines of mice which expressed transgene IGF-II in the gland. Tumours from two of the lines grew after transplantation to both male and female hosts. Primary tumours contained stromal and epithelial regions, but the tumours were dominated by mammary adenocarcinoma after transplantation. The tumours expressed high levels of Igf-2 mRNA transcribed from the integrated transgenes. Images Figure 2 PMID:7577466

  16. Transgenically expressed Parascaris P-glycoprotein-11 can modulate ivermectin susceptibility in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Janssen, I Jana I; Krücken, Jürgen; Demeler, Janina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-08-01

    P-glycoproteins (Pgps) are suspected to mediate drug extrusion in nematodes contributing to macrocyclic lactone resistance. This association was recently shown for Parascaris Pgp-11. Ivermectin resistance was correlated with the presence of three pgp-11 single nucleotide polymorphisms and/or increased pgp-11 mRNA levels. In the present study, the ability of Pgp-11 to modulate ivermectin susceptibility was investigated by its expression in a pgp-11-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans strain. Expression of Parascaris pgp-11 in two transgenic lines significantly decreased ivermectin susceptibility in a motility (thrashing) assay conducted in liquid medium. The EC50 values increased by 3.2- and 4.6-fold in the two lines relative to a transgenic control strain. This is the first report on the successful functional analysis of a parasitic nematode Pgp in the model organism C.?elegans. PMID:25905032

  17. Production of homozygous transgenic rainbow trout with enhanced disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Chen, Maria J; Lin, Chun-Mean; Khoo, Jenny; Larson, Jon; Holt, Rich; Leong, Jo-Ann; Thorgarrd, Gary; Chen, Thomas T

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-viral characteristics in aquaculture important fish species, we produced transgenic rainbow trout expressing cecropin P1 or a synthetic cecropin B analog, CF-17, transgene by sperm-mediated gene transfer method. About 30 % of fish recovered from electroporation were shown to carry the transgene as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification assay. Positive P? transgenic fish were crossed to non-transgenic fish to establish F? transgenic founder families, and subsequently generating F?, and F? progeny. Expression of cecropin P1 and CF-17 transgenes was detected in transgenic fish by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. The distribution of body sizes among F? transgenic fish were not significantly different from those of non-transgenic fish. Results of challenge studies revealed that many families of F? and F? transgenic fish exhibited resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). All-male homozygous cecropin P1 transgenic families were produced by androgenesis from sperm of F? heterozygous transgenic fish in one generation. The resistant characteristic to A. salmonicida was confirmed in progeny derived from the outcross of all-male fish to non-transgenic females. Results of our current studies confirmed the possibility of producing disease-resistant homozygous rainbow trout strains by transgenesis of cecropin P1 or CF-17 gene and followed by androgenesis. PMID:24085608

  18. Overexpression of RoDELLA impacts the height, branching, and flowering behaviour of Pelargonium × domesticum transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Hamama, L; Naouar, A; Gala, R; Voisine, L; Pierre, S; Jeauffre, J; Cesbron, D; Leplat, F; Foucher, F; Dorion, N; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L

    2012-11-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We reported the cloning of a rose DELLA gene. We obtained transgenic Pelargonium lines overexpressing this gene which presented several phenotypes in plant growth, root growth, flowering time and number of inflorescences. Control of development is an important issue for production of ornamental plant. The plant growth regulator, gibberellins (GAs), plays a pivotal role in regulating plant growth and development. DELLA proteins are nuclear negative regulator of GA signalling. Our objective was to study the role of GA in the plant architecture and in the blooming of ornamentals. We cloned a rose DELLA homologous gene, RoDELLA, and studied its function by genetic transformation of pelargonium. Several transgenic pelargonium (Pelargonium × domesticum 'Autum Haze') lines were produced that ectopically expressed RoDELLA under the control of the 35S promoter. These transgenic plants exhibited a range of phenotypes which could be related to the reduction in GA response. Most of transgenic plants showed reduced growth associated to an increase of the node and branch number. Moreover, overexpression of RoDELLA blocked or delayed flowering in transgenic pelargonium and exhibited defects in the root formation. We demonstrated that pelargonium could be used to validate ornamental gene as the rose DELLA gene. RoDELLA overexpression modified many aspects of plant developmental pathways, as the plant growth, the transition of vegetative to floral stage and the ability of rooting. PMID:22898902

  19. Tissue-specific and hormonally regulated expression of a rat alpha 2u globulin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Soares, V da C; Gubits, R M; Feigelson, P; Costantini, F

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the tissue-specific and hormonal regulation of the rat alpha 2u globulin gene family, we introduced one cloned member of the gene family into the mouse germ line and studied its expression in the resulting transgenic mice. Alpha 2u globulingene 207 was microinjected on a 7-kilobase DNA fragment, and four transgenic lines were analyzed. The transgene was expressed at very high levels, specifically in the liver and the preputial gland of adult male mice. The expression in male liver was first detected at puberty, and no expression was detected in female transgenic mice. This pattern of expression is similar to the expression of endogenous alpha 2u globulin genes in the rat but differs from the expression of the homologous mouse major urinary protein (MUP) gene family in that MUPs are synthesized in female liver and not in the male preputial gland. We conclude that these differences between rat alpha 2u globulin and mouse MUP gene expression are due to evolutionary differences in cis-acting regulatory elements. The expression of the alpha 2u globulin transgene in the liver was abolished by castration and fully restored after testosterone replacement. The expression could also be induced in the livers of female mice by treatment with either testosterone or dexamethasone, following ovariectomy and adrenalectomy. Therefore, the cis-acting elements responsible for regulation by these two hormones, as well as those responsible for tissue-specific expression, are closely linked to the alpha 2u globulin gene. Images PMID:2446121

  20. Transgenic Quail as a Model for Research in the Avian Nervous System – A Comparative Study of the Auditory Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.; Sanchez, Jason Tait; Schecterson, Leslayann; Tabor, Kathryn M.; Wang, Yuan; Kashima, Daniel T.; Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Fraser, Scott E.; Lansford, Rusty; Rubel, Edwin W

    2012-01-01

    Research performed on transgenic animals has led to numerous advances in biological research. However, using traditional retroviral methods to generate transgenic avian research models has proven problematic. As a result, experiments aimed at genetic manipulations on birds remained difficult for this popular research tool. Recently, lentiviral methods have enabled production of transgenic birds, including a transgenic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) line showing neuronal-specificity and stable expression of eGFP across generations (termed here as GFP quail). To test whether the GFP quail may serve as a viable alternative to the popular chicken model system, with the additional benefit of gene manipulation, we compared the development, organization, structure and function of a specific neuronal circuit in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) to that of the GFP quail. This study focuses on a well-defined avian brain region, the principal nuclei of the sound localization circuit in the auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). Our results demonstrate that structural and functional properties of NM and NL neurons in the GFP quail, as well as their dynamic properties in response to changes in the environment, are nearly identical to those in chickens. These similarities demonstrate that the GFP quail, as well as other transgenic quail lines, can serve as an attractive avian model system, with the advantage of being able to build on the wealth of information already available from the chicken. PMID:22806400

  1. Effect of antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) on root colonization with Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fathi; Noorian, Mojgan Sharifi; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have always been a major problem in agriculture. One of the effective methods for controlling pathogen fungi to date is the introduction of resistance genes into the genome of crops. It is interesting to find out whether the induced resistance in crops will have a negative effect on non-target organisms such as root colonization with the AM fungi.   The objective of the present research was to study the influence of producing antifungal molecules by four transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines expressing PGIP gene from raspberry, VST-stilbene synthase from vine, a hybrid of PGIP/VST and bacterial Chitinase gene (Chit30) from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis respectively on the colonization potential of Glomus intraradices. Four different experiments were done in greenhouse and climate chamber, colonization was observed in all replications. The following parameters were used for evaluation: frequency of mycorrhization, the intensity of mycorrhization, the average presence of arbuscules within the colonized areas and the presence of arbuscules in the whole root system which showed insignificant difference between transgenic and non-transgenic plants. The root/shoot ratio exhibited different values according to the experiment condition. Compared with negative non-transgenic control all transgenic lines showed the ability to establish symbiosis and the different growth parameters had insignificant effect due to mycorrhization. The results of the present study proved that the introduced pathogen resistance genes did not affect the mycorrhization allocations in pea. PMID:22922179

  2. Transgenic rats with green, red, and blue fluorescence: powerful tools for bioimaging, cell trafficking, and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    The rat represents a perfect animal for broadening medical experiments, because its physiology has been well understood in the history of experimental animals. In addition, its larger body size takes enough advantage for surgical manipulation, compared to the mouse. Many rat models mimicking human diseases, therefore, have been used in a variety of biomedical studies including physiology, pharmacology, transplantation, and immunology. In an effort to create the specifically designed rats for biomedical research and regenerative medicine, we have developed the engineered rat system on the basis of transgenic technology and succeeded in establishing various transgenic rat strains. The transgenic rats with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated in the two different strains (Wistar and Lewis), in which GFP is driven under the chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (CAG promoter). Their GFP expression levels were different in each organ, but the Lewis line expressed GFP strongly and ubiquitously in most of the organs compared with that of Wistar. For red fluorescence, DsRed2 was transduced to the Wistar rats: one line specifically expresses DsRed2 in the liver under the mouse albumin promoter, another is designed for the Cre/LoxP system as the double reporter rat (the initial DsRed2 expression turns on GFP in the presence of Cre recombinase). LacZ-transgenic rats represent blue color, and LacZ is driven the CAG (DA) or ROSA26 promoter (Lewis). Our unique transgenic rats" system highlights the powerful performance for the elucidation of many cellular processes in regenerative medicine, leading to innovative medical treatments.

  3. Increased amyloidogenic processing of transgenic human APP in X11-like deficient mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background X11-family proteins, including X11, X11-like (X11L) and X11-like 2 (X11L2), bind to the cytoplasmic domain of amyloid ?-protein precursor (APP) and regulate APP metabolism. Both X11 and X11L are expressed specifically in brain, while X11L2 is expressed ubiquitously. X11L is predominantly expressed in excitatory neurons, in contrast to X11, which is strongly expressed in inhibitory neurons. In vivo gene-knockout studies targeting X11, X11L, or both, and studies of X11 or X11L transgenic mice have reported that X11-family proteins suppress the amyloidogenic processing of endogenous mouse APP and ectopic human APP with one exception: knockout of X11, X11L or X11L2 has been found to suppress amyloidogenic metabolism in transgenic mice overexpressing the human Swedish mutant APP (APPswe) and the mutant human PS1, which lacks exon 9 (PS1dE9). Therefore, the data on X11-family protein function in transgenic human APP metabolism in vivo are inconsistent. Results To confirm the interaction of X11L with human APP ectopically expressed in mouse brain, we examined the amyloidogenic metabolism of human APP in two lines of human APP transgenic mice generated to also lack X11L. In agreement with previous reports from our lab and others, we found that the amyloidogenic metabolism of human APP increased in the absence of X11L. Conclusion X11L appears to aid in the suppression of amyloidogenic processing of human APP in brain in vivo, as has been demonstrated by previous studies using several human APP transgenic lines with various genetic backgrounds. X11L appears to regulate human APP in a manner similar to that seen in endogenous mouse APP metabolism. PMID:20843325

  4. Silibinin and Paclitaxel Cotreatment Significantly Suppress the Activity and Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative 4T1 Mammary Tumor Cell in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Bing-Ying; Lin, Chun-Hung; Apaya, Maria Karmella; Chao, Wen-Wan; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of silibinin (SB), paclitaxel (PTX) and SB and PTX in combination (SB+PTX) against murine metastatic mammary 4T1 cancer cell line were investigated. Isobologram and combination index (CI) analyses showed that SB and PTX can function synergistically in the inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation with a CI value < 1. Both SB and PTX alone or SB+PTX treatment inhibited 4T1 cell migration and motility possibly through downregulation of the serpin protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and N-cadherin expression, inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 activity, and upregulation of E-cadherin. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both drugs deregulated cell-cycle mediators and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. A real-time in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to monitor the breast cancer cell metastasis in syngeneic BALB/c mice was established using a stable 4T1pGL-COX-2/Luc cell clone carrying a COX-2 promoter driven-luciferase reporter gene. In vivo study using the allograft 4T1pGL-COX-2/Luc metastatic mouse model indicated that SB co-treated with PTX can significantly suppress lung metastasis of 4T1 cells likely through inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SB could act synergistically with PTX in 4T1 cells, providing a therapeutic option for highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer. PMID:24716145

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF ESCAPED TRANSGENIC CREEPING BENTGRASS IN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    When transgenic plants are cultivated near wild species that are sexually compatible with the crop, gene flow between the crop and wild plants is possible. A resultant concern is that transgene flow and transgene introgression within wild populations could have unintended ecologi...

  6. REGULAR ARTICLE Field decomposition of transgenic Bt maize residue

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    and plant biomass on the soil ecosystem. Keywords Transgenic Bt corn . Decomposition process . Risk;Introduction Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize plants expressing toxins against lepidopteran (Cry1AbREGULAR ARTICLE Field decomposition of transgenic Bt maize residue and the impact on non

  7. INVITED REVIEW: TARGETING AND EXPRESSION OF ANTIGENIC PROTEINS IN TRANSGENIC

    E-print Network

    Korban, Schuyler S.

    INVITED REVIEW: TARGETING AND EXPRESSION OF ANTIGENIC PROTEINS IN TRANSGENIC PLANTS FOR PRODUCTION, the tools of genetic engineering have allowed development of transgenic plants that can express various of accumulation of these proteins in transgenic plants by developing constructs whereby antigenic protein

  8. Peter Meyer Lab home page Plant epigenetics and transgene silencing

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Peter

    Peter Meyer Lab ­ home page Plant epigenetics and transgene silencing Epigenetic modifications.e. the complete or partial inactivation of transgene expression. Plants are ideal model systems to study. Epigenetic changes alter chromatin conformation and affect a gene's potential to be transcribed. Transgenes

  9. Biosafety Considerations for Transgenic Insecticidal Plants: Non-Target Herbivores,

    E-print Network

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    Biosafety Considerations for Transgenic Insecticidal Plants: Non-Target Herbivores, Detritivores Transgenic insecticidal plants produce proteins that are toxic to particular groups of insects. In addition,'' is the most widely planted transgenic insecticidal crop in the world. Genetic material from different strains

  10. Maize transgenes containing zein promoters are regulated by opaque2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenes have great potential in crop improvement, but relatively little is known about the epistatic interaction of transgenes with the native genes in the genome. Understanding these interactions is critical for predicting the response of transgenes to different genetic backgrounds and environm...

  11. Transgenic bt rice does not challenge host preference of the target pest of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expressed a synthetic cry2A gene and exhibited high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile cues usually are essential for phytophagous insects to locate the food source and oviposition site. ...

  12. Transcription factor AtbZIP60 regulates expression of Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase genes in transgenic cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Page, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP60 (AtbZIP60) transcription factor regulates stress signaling. However, its molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this investigation, cell suspension cultures of two different plant species rice (Oryza sativa L.) and white pine (Pinus strobes L.) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring pBI-AtZIP60. Integration of the AtbZIP60 gene into the genome of rice and white pine has been confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), southern blotting, and northern blotting analyses. Six transgenic cell lines from O. sativa and three transgenic cell lines from P. strobus were used to analyze the salt, drought, and cold tolerance conferred by the overexpression of the AtbZIP60 gene. Our results demonstrated that expression of the AtbZIP60 gene enhanced salt, drought, and cold tolerance in rice and white pine transgenic cell lines. In rice, transcription factor AtbZIP60 increased expression of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase genes OsCPK6, OsCPK9, OsCPK10, OsCPK19, OsCPK25, and OsCPK26 under treatment of salt, drought, and cold. These results demonstrated that overexpression of the AtbZIP60 gene in transgenic cell lines improved salt, drought, and cold stress tolerances by regulating expression of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase genes. Overexpression of the AtbZIP60 gene could be an alternative choice for engineering plant abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:23275191

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of transgenic poplar dwarf mutant reveals numerous differentially expressed genes involved in energy flow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In our previous research, the Tamarix androssowii LEA gene (Tamarix androssowii late embryogenesis abundant protein Mrna, GenBank ID: DQ663481) was transferred into Populus simonii × Populus nigra. Among the eleven transgenic lines, one exhibited a dwarf phenotype compared to the wild type and other transgenic lines, named dwf1. To uncover the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, digital gene expression libraries were produced from dwf1, wild-type, and other normal transgenic lines, XL-5 and XL-6. Gene expression profile analysis indicated that dwf1 had a unique gene expression pattern in comparison to the other two transgenic lines. Finally, a total of 1246 dwf1-unique differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were further subjected to gene ontology and pathway analysis. Results indicated that photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism related genes were significantly affected. In addition, many transcription factors genes were also differentially expressed in dwf1. These various differentially expressed genes may be critical for dwarf mutant formation; thus, the findings presented here might provide insight for our understanding of the mechanisms of tree growth and development. PMID:25192286

  14. TRANSGENIC INDIAN MUSTARD OVEREXPRESSING SELENOCYSTEINE LYASE, SELENOCYSTEINE METHYLTRANSFERASE, OR METHIONINE METHYLTRANSFERASE EXHIBIT ENHANCED POTENTIAL FOR SELENIUM PHPYTOREMEDIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effective use of phytoremediation of Se as a clean-up technology could be enhanced by improving the ability of plants to accumulate Se. In this regar, three transgenic Indican mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) lines were tested under field conditions for their ability to accumulate selenium...

  15. Photoprotective effects of high level expression of C 4 phospho enol pyruvate carboxylase in transgenic rice during photoinhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Jiao; X. Li; B. H. Ji

    2005-01-01

    With untransformed rice cv. Kitaake as control, the characteristics of carbon assimilation and photoprotection of a transgenic rice line over-expressing maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were investigated. The PEPC activity in untransformed rice was low, but the activity was stimulated under high irradiance or photoinhibitory condition. PEPC in untransformed rice contributed by about 5–10 % to photosynthesis, as shown by the

  16. Changes in fitness-associated traits due to the stacking of transgenic glyphosate resistance and insect resistance in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Londo, J P; Bollman, M A; Sagers, C L; Lee, E H; Watrud, L S

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple ‘stacked' traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and tolerance to environmental stresses. The release of crops that express multiple traits could result in ecological changes in weedy environments if feral crop plants or hybrids formed with compatible weeds results in more competitive plants outside of agriculture. To examine the effects of combining transgenes, we developed a stacked line of canola (Brassica napus L.) from a segregating F2 population that expresses both transgenic glyphosate resistance (CP4 EPSPS) and lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac). Fitness-associated traits were evaluated between this stacked genotype and five other Brassica genotypes in constructed mesocosm plant communities exposed to insect herbivores (Plutella xylostella L.) or glyphosate-drift. Vegetative biomass, seed production and relative fecundity were all reduced in stacked trait plants when compared with non-transgenic plants in control treatments, indicating potential costs of expressing multiple transgenes without selection pressure. Although costs of the transgenes were offset by selective treatment, the stacked genotype continued to produce fewer seeds than either single transgenic line. However, the increase in fitness of the stacked genotype under selective pressure contributed to an increased number of seeds within the mesocosm community carrying unselected, hitchhiking transgenes. These results demonstrate that the stacking of these transgenes in canola results in fitness costs and benefits that are dependent on the type and strength of selection pressure, and could also contribute to changes in plant communities through hitchhiking of unselected traits. PMID:21427753

  17. Regeneration of transgenic Cryptomeria japonica D. Don after Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of embryogenic tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Taniguchi; Yasunori Ohmiya; Manabu Kurita; Miyoko Tsubomura; Teiji Kondo

    2008-01-01

    A genetic transformation procedure for Cryptomeria japonica was developed after co-cultivation of embryogenic tissues with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58\\/pMP90, which harbours the visual reporter gene sgfp and two selectable marker genes, hpt and nptII. We were able to generate eight and three independent transgenic lines per gram of embryogenic tissue after selection on\\u000a hygromycin and kanamycin medium, respectively.

  18. Analysis of junctions between T-DNA and plant genome in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Hoe Kim; Sangman Lee

    2007-01-01

    To understand the mechanism forAgrobacterium- mediated transformation of plants, we analyzed the junctions between T-DNA and plant genome, using 12 individual transgenic lines\\u000a transformed with 7 different plant expression constructs. After performing TAIL-PCR, we sequenced 42 PCR products for analysis.\\u000a All of the RBs were nicked by VirD1\\/VirD2 proteins whereas only 62% of the LBs were. Additional deletions of the

  19. Cryopreservation does not affect the expression of a foreign sam gene in transgenic Papaver somniferum cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Elleuch; C. Gazeau; H. David; A. David

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic cell lines of Papaver somniferum have been obtained via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Papaver somniferum is known to be genetically unstable in in vitro culture conditions. Cryopreservation at ultra-low temperature is an appropriate\\u000a strategy for long-term preservation of germplasm. We have studied the effects of osmotic stress due to cryoprotectants during\\u000a pretreatment and of storage at –196 C on the stability

  20. Flavonoid gene expression and UV photoprotection in transgenic and mutant Petunia leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken G Ryan; Ewald E Swinny; Kenneth R Markham; Chris Winefield

    2002-01-01

    The effects of UVB radiation on plant growth rate, gene expression and flavonoid content in wild-type, and in transgenic and mutant F3?H deficient Petunia lines have been studied for the first time. In wild-type Petunia, UVB induced an increase in total levels of flavonols and this was due to an up-regulation of several genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Furthermore, UVB

  1. Incipient ferroelectrics: Anomalous T1 behaviors and their rotor interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hai-Yao; Hu, Kaige; Lam, Chi Hang; Huang, Haitao

    2012-01-01

    The quantum temperature (denoted by T1) behaviors of three typical incipient ferroelectrics, SrTiO 3, KTaO 3 and CaTiO 3, are studied. This quantity is argued to serve fundamentally in identifying the nature of the local mode responsible for the dielectric responses. Our main findings are as follows. For all compounds, T1 saturates at low temperatures. For CaTiO 3, T1 monotonically increases with temperature and no clear saturation is discernible at high temperatures. For KTaO 3, similar behaviors are observed but with a little twist: a dip shows up around 35 K, above which T1 increases but below it T1 decreases with temperature. Although it is hardly seeable in this compound, this dip might mark a transition, whose nature is unclear for the moment. In parallel with KTiO 3, SrTiO 3 also has a dip, which is much stronger and broader. It happens around 105 K, at which the famous anti-ferrodistortive (AFD) transition occurs. Were it not for this dip, T1 would drop to zero in SrTiO 3 at low temperatures and the ferroelectric (FE) transition would take place. The dip halts the drop and makes T1 rise up to a value that is enough to stabilize the FE instability. In this respect, the dip is essential in preventing the FE transition in SrTiO 3. Since the dip and the AFD transition occur at roughly the same temperature, we attempt to ascribe the former to the latter. This ascription is compatible with previous work [A. Yamanaka, M. Kataoka, Y. Inaba, K. Inoue, B. Hehlen, E. Courtens, Europhys. Lett., 50:(2000) 688]. To interpret the T1 behaviors, we utilize an anisotropic rotor model, according to which the local variable is supposed to move on a non-uniform sphere. By tuning the anisotropy parameter, ?, qualitative agreement can be achieved. Especially, a single ??100 can fit the T1 of CaTiO 3 over the entire temperature range under consideration, whereas the fitting for KTaO 3 requires two different ?, namely, ??260 above the dip temperature and ??40 below it. Analogously, two ? are also required for SrTiO 3. Below the dip temperature, a very good fitting can be obtained with ??40. We did not try to fit the high temperature data of SrTiO 3, because the data in this range are scarce and inaccurate. Nevertheless, we believe that a different and bigger ? should be at work, considering the case with KTaO 3. Assuming the AFD transition as the cause of the dip in SrTiO 3, we may claim that, the true role of the AFD transition in stabilizing the FE instability is to reduce the ? and then enhance quantum fluctuations.

  2. The use of nuclear transfer to produce transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Macháty, Zoltán; Bondioli, Kenneth R; Ramsoondar, Jagdeece J; Fodor, William L

    2002-01-01

    Manipulation of the pig genome has the potential to improve pig production and offers powerful biomedical applications. Genetic manipulation of mammals has been possible for over two decades, but the technology available has proven both difficult and inefficient. The development of new techniques to enhance efficiency and overcome the complications of random insertion is of importance. Nuclear transfer combined with homologous recombination provides a possible solution: precise genetic modifications in the pig genome may be induced via homologous recombination, and viable offspring can be produced by nuclear transfer using cultured transfected cell lines. The technique is still ineffective, but it is believed to have immense potential. One area that would benefit from the technology is that of xenotransplantation: transgenic pigs are expected to be available as organ donors in the foreseeable future. PMID:12006153

  3. Functionally active t1-t1 interfaces revealed by the accessibility of intracellular thiolate groups in kv4 channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Rocha, Carmen A; Strang, Candace; Pfaffinger, Paul J; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2005-07-01

    Gating of voltage-dependent K(+) channels involves movements of membrane-spanning regions that control the opening of the pore. Much less is known, however, about the contributions of large intracellular channel domains to the conformational changes that underlie gating. Here, we investigated the functional role of intracellular regions in Kv4 channels by probing relevant cysteines with thiol-specific reagents. We find that reagent application to the intracellular side of inside-out patches results in time-dependent irreversible inhibition of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 currents. In the absence or presence of Kv4-specific auxiliary subunits, mutational and electrophysiological analyses showed that none of the 14 intracellular cysteines is essential for channel gating. C110, C131, and C132 in the intersubunit interface of the tetramerization domain (T1) are targets responsible for the irreversible inhibition by a methanethiosulfonate derivative (MTSET). This result is surprising because structural studies of Kv4-T1 crystals predicted protection of the targeted thiolate groups by constitutive high-affinity Zn(2+) coordination. Also, added Zn(2+) or a potent Zn(2+) chelator (TPEN) does not significantly modulate the accessibility of MTSET to C110, C131, or C132; and furthermore, when the three critical cysteines remained as possible targets, the MTSET modification rate of the activated state is approximately 200-fold faster than that of the resting state. Biochemical experiments confirmed the chemical modification of the intact alpha-subunit and the purified tetrameric T1 domain by MTS reagents. These results conclusively demonstrate that the T1--T1 interface of Kv4 channels is functionally active and dynamic, and that critical reactive thiolate groups in this interface may not be protected by Zn(2+) binding. PMID:15955876

  4. Terpene-mediated parasitoid host location behavior on transgenic and classically bred apple genotypes.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia

    2009-08-12

    Terpene-mediated interactions between transgenic or classically bred apple genotypes and associated insects were investigated. Apple genotypes were either resistant or susceptible to Venturia inaequalis that causes apple scab. They were subjected to infestation by Phyllonorycter leafminers and/or inoculation with V. inaequalis. Apple leaf extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify squalene, a triterpene known to mediate host location by Pholetesor parasitoids that are specialized on leafminers. Squalene contents in leafminer-infested leaves differed between the transgenic apple scab resistant line and a classically bred cultivar sharing the same resistance gene. This resistant cultivar showed an increase in squalene contents from healthy to leafminer-infested leaves. This was not the case in the transgenic resistant line. However, there was also no increase in the susceptible isogenic cultivar. Behavioral bioassays with parasitoid females also reflected these findings. Hence, alterations in leaf chemistry and corresponding responses of the parasitoid are apparent among classically bred cultivars, rather than in the genetically modified resistant line. PMID:19722568

  5. Two amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse models with Alzheimer?disease-like?pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sturchler-Pierrat, Christine; Abramowski, Dorothee; Duke, Mairead; Wiederhold, Karl-Heinz; Mistl, Claudia; Rothacher, Sabin; Ledermann, Birgit; Bürki, Kurt; Frey, Peter; Paganetti, Paolo A.; Waridel, Caroline; Calhoun, Michael E.; Jucker, Mathias; Probst, Alphonse; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Sommer, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene cause early-onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD) by affecting the formation of the amyloid ? (A?) peptide, the major constituent of AD plaques. We expressed human APP751 containing these mutations in the brains of transgenic mice. Two transgenic mouse lines develop pathological features reminiscent of AD. The degree of pathology depends on expression levels and specific mutations. A 2-fold overexpression of human APP with the Swedish double mutation at positions 670/671 combined with the V717I mutation causes A? deposition in neocortex and hippocampus of 18-month-old transgenic mice. The deposits are mostly of the diffuse type; however, some congophilic plaques can be detected. In mice with 7-fold overexpression of human APP harboring the Swedish mutation alone, typical plaques appear at 6 months, which increase with age and are Congo Red-positive at first detection. These congophilic plaques are accompanied by neuritic changes and dystrophic cholinergic fibers. Furthermore, inflammatory processes indicated by a massive glial reaction are apparent. Most notably, plaques are immunoreactive for hyperphosphorylated tau, reminiscent of early tau pathology. The immunoreactivity is exclusively found in congophilic senile plaques of both lines. In the higher expressing line, elevated tau phosphorylation can be demonstrated biochemically in 6-month-old animals and increases with age. These mice resemble major features of AD pathology and suggest a central role of A? in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:9371838

  6. Event-specific plasmid standards and real-time PCR methods for transgenic Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and transgenic GT73 canola.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, Isabel; Windels, Pieter; Vaďtilingom, Marc; Milcamps, Anne; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van den Eede, Guy; De Loose, Marc

    2005-04-20

    Since the 18th of April 2004, two new regulations, EC/1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed products and EC/1830/2003 on traceability and labeling of GMOs, are in force in the EU. This new, comprehensive regulatory framework emphasizes the need of an adequate tracing system. Unique identifiers, such as the transgene genome junction region or a specific rearrangement within the transgene DNA, should form the basis of such a tracing system. In this study, we describe the development of event-specific tracing systems for transgenic maize lines Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 and for canola event GT73. Molecular characterization of the transgene loci enabled us to clone an event-specific sequence into a plasmid vector, to be used as a marker, and to develop line-specific primers. Primer specificity was tested through qualitative PCRs and dissociation curve analysis in SYBR Green I real-time PCRs. The primers were then combined with event-specific TaqMan probes in quantitative real-time PCRs. Calibration curves were set up both with genomic DNA samples and the newly synthesized plasmid DNA markers. It is shown that cloned plasmid GMO target sequences are perfectly suitable as unique identifiers and quantitative calibrators. Together with an event-specific primer pair and a highly specific TaqMan probe, the plasmid markers form crucial components of a unique and straighforward tracing system for Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and GT73 canola events. PMID:15826057

  7. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard) × Brassica napus (oilseed rape) hybrid populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christy W Rose; Reginald J Millwood; Hong S Moon; Murali R Rao; Matthew D Halfhill; Paul L Raymer; Suzanne I Warwick; Hani Al-Ahmad; Jonathan Gressel; C Neal Stewart

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed) × Brassica napus (crop) transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random\\/linkage-derived

  8. Field resistance of transgenic plantain to nematodes has potential for future African food security.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Changa, Charles; Urwin, Peter E; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce K; Coyne, Danny; Atkinson, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose losses of up to 70% on plantains and cooking bananas in Africa. Application of nematicides is inappropriate and resistant cultivars are unavailable. Where grown, demand for plantain is more than for other staple crops. Confined field testing demonstrated that transgenic expression of a biosafe, anti-feedant cysteine proteinase inhibitor and an anti-root invasion, non-lethal synthetic peptide confers resistance to plantain against the key nematode pests Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. The best peptide transgenic line showed improved agronomic performance relative to non-transgenic controls and provided about 99% nematode resistance at harvest of the mother crop. Its yield was about 186% in comparison with the nematode challenged control non-transgenic plants based on larger bunches and diminished plant toppling in storms, due to less root damage. This is strong evidence for utilizing this resistance to support the future food security of 70 million, mainly poor Africans that depend upon plantain as a staple food. PMID:25634654

  9. Quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR confirms transduction efficiency of transgenes in adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Brindley, Paul J

    2011-05-01

    A quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR (qRAP) that utilizes endogenous retrotransposons as a chromosomal anchor was developed to investigate integration of transgenes in Schistosoma mansoni. The qRAP technique, which builds on earlier techniques, (i) Alu-PCR which has been used to quantify lentiviral (HIV-1) proviral insertions in human chromosomes and (ii) a non-quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR known to detect the presence of transgenes in the S. mansoni genome, was tested here in a model comparison of retrovirus-transduced adult schistosomes in which one group included intact worms, the other included fragments of adult worms. At the outset, after transducing intact and viable fragments of schistosomes with reporter RNAs, we observed more reporter activity in fragments of worms than in intact worms. We considered this simply reflects the increased surface area in fragments compared to intact worms exposed to the exogenous reporter genes. Subsequently, intact worms and worm fragments were transduced with pseudotyped virions. Transgene integration events in genomic DNA extracted from the virion-exposed worms and worm fragments were quantified by the qRAP, which revealed that fragmenting adult schistosomes resulted in increased density of proviral integrations. The qRAP findings confirmed the likely value of this qRAP technique for quantification of transgenes integrated in schistosome chromosomes. Last, considering the absence of schistosome cell or tissue lines, primary culture of fragmented worms offers an opportunity to optimize transgenesis, and other functional genomic approaches. PMID:21251928

  10. Production of recombinant human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xi; Kraft, Jana; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady increasing demand for insulin worldwide. Current insulin manufacturing capacities can barely meet this increasing demand. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of producing human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic animals. Four lines of transgenic mice harboring a human insulin cDNA with expression driven by the goat ?-casein gene promoter were generated. The expression level of human proinsulin in milk was as high as 8.1 g/L. The expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary gland during lactation, with higher levels at mid-lactation and lower levels at early and late lactation. The blood glucose and insulin levels and the major milk compositions were unchanged, and the transgenic animals had no apparent health defects. The mature insulin derived from the milk proinsulin retained its biological activity. In conclusion, our study provides supporting evidence to explore the production of high levels of human proinsulin in the milk of dairy animals. PMID:25267062

  11. A Polyethylene Glycol-Mediated Protoplast Transformation System for Production of Fertile Transgenic Rice Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayashimoto, Akio; Li, Zhijian; Murai, Norimoto

    1990-01-01

    We have established an efficient procedure for protoplast transformation and regeneration of fertile transgenic plants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Nipponbare and Taipei 309. Protoplasts were mixed with a plant-expressible hygromycin resistance gene and treated with 25% (w/v) polyethylene glycol. Stringent selection of transformed colonies was applied to 14-day-old regenerated protoplasts in the presence of 95 micromolar of hygromycin B for 12 days. After selection, 450 and 200 resistant colonies were recovered per million treated Taipei 309 and Nipponbare protoplasts, respectively. Southern hybridization analysis of hygromycin-resistant cell lines and regenerated plants indicated that 1 to 10 copies of transferred DNA were integrated at 1 to 4 loci of the rice genome. Southern DNA analysis suggests that the introduced plasmid DNA may form concatemers by intermolecular recombination prior to integration. Four Taipei 309 and 39 Nipponbare transgenic rice plants were regenerated and grown to maturity in the greenhouse. Two Taipei 309 and 35 Nipponbare plants set viable seeds. Agronomic traits of Taipei 309 transgenic plants and inheritance of the hygromycin resistance trait by progeny of the selfed transgenic plants were analyzed. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667593

  12. Enhanced virus resistance of transgenic mice expressing the human MxA protein.

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, J; Arzet, H A; Hefti, H P; Frese, M; Rost, D; Ernst, B; Kolb, E; Staeheli, P; Haller, O

    1995-01-01

    MxA is a GTPase that accumulates to high levels in the cytoplasm of interferon-treated human cells. Expression of MxA cDNA confers to transfected cell lines a high degree of resistance against several RNA viruses, including influenza, measles, vesicular stomatitis, and Thogoto viruses. We have now generated transgenic mice that express MxA cDNA in the brain and other organs under the control of a constitutive promoter. Embryonic fibroblasts derived from the transgenic mice were nonpermissive for Thogoto virus and showed reduced susceptibility for influenza A and vesicular stomatitis viruses. The transgenic animals survived challenges with high doses of Thogoto virus by the intracerebral or intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, the transgenic mice were more resistant than their nontransgenic littermates to intracerebral infections with influenza A and vesicular stomatitis viruses. These results demonstrate that MxA is a powerful antiviral agent in vivo, indicating that it may protect humans from the deleterious effects of infections with certain viral pathogens. PMID:7769712

  13. Regulation of photomorphogenesis by expression of mammalian biliverdin reductase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lagarias, D M; Crepeau, M W; Maines, M D; Lagarias, J C

    1997-01-01

    The photoregulatory activity of the phytochrome photoreceptor requires the synthesis and covalent attachment of the linear tetrapyrrole prosthetic group phytochromobilin. Because the mammalian enzyme biliverdin IX alpha reductase (BVR) is able to functionally inactivate phytochromobilin in vitro, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether BVR expression in transgenic plants would prevent the synthesis of functionally active phytochrome in vivo. Here, we show that plastid-targeted, constitutive expression of BVR in Arabidopsis yields plants that display aberrant photomorphogenesis throughout their life cycle. Photobiological and biochemical analyses of three transgenic BVR lines exhibiting a 25-fold range of BVR expression established that the BVR-dependent phenotypes are light dependent, pleiotropic, and consonant with the loss of multiple phytochrome activities. Chlorophyll accumulation in BVR-expressing transgenic plants was particularly sensitive to increased light fluence rates, which is consistent with an important role for phytochrome in light tolerance. Under blue light, transgenic BVR plants displayed elongated hypocotyls but retained phototropic behavior and the ability to fully deetiolate. Directed BVR expression may prove to be useful for probing the cellular and developmental basis of phytochrome-mediated responses and for selective control of individual aspects of light-mediated plant growth and development. PMID:9165746

  14. Production of recombinant human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xi; Kraft, Jana; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady increasing demand for insulin worldwide. Current insulin manufacturing capacities can barely meet this increasing demand. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of producing human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic animals. Four lines of transgenic mice harboring a human insulin cDNA with expression driven by the goat ?-casein gene promoter were generated. The expression level of human proinsulin in milk was as high as 8.1?g/L. The expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary gland during lactation, with higher levels at mid-lactation and lower levels at early and late lactation. The blood glucose and insulin levels and the major milk compositions were unchanged, and the transgenic animals had no apparent health defects. The mature insulin derived from the milk proinsulin retained its biological activity. In conclusion, our study provides supporting evidence to explore the production of high levels of human proinsulin in the milk of dairy animals. PMID:25267062

  15. Field resistance of transgenic plantain to nematodes has potential for future African food security

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Changa, Charles; Urwin, Peter E.; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce K.; Coyne, Danny; Atkinson, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose losses of up to 70% on plantains and cooking bananas in Africa. Application of nematicides is inappropriate and resistant cultivars are unavailable. Where grown, demand for plantain is more than for other staple crops. Confined field testing demonstrated that transgenic expression of a biosafe, anti-feedant cysteine proteinase inhibitor and an anti-root invasion, non-lethal synthetic peptide confers resistance to plantain against the key nematode pests Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. The best peptide transgenic line showed improved agronomic performance relative to non-transgenic controls and provided about 99% nematode resistance at harvest of the mother crop. Its yield was about 186% in comparison with the nematode challenged control non-transgenic plants based on larger bunches and diminished plant toppling in storms, due to less root damage. This is strong evidence for utilizing this resistance to support the future food security of 70 million, mainly poor Africans that depend upon plantain as a staple food. PMID:25634654

  16. Optimising ketocarotenoid production in potato tubers: effect of genetic background, transgene combinations and environment.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Raymond; Morris, Wayne L; Mortimer, Cara L; Misawa, Norihiko; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Hedley, Pete E; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Astaxanthin is a high value carotenoid produced by some bacteria, a few green algae, several fungi but only a limited number of plants from the genus Adonis. Astaxanthin has been industrially exploited as a feed supplement in poultry farming and aquaculture. Consumption of ketocarotenoids, most notably astaxanthin, is also increasingly associated with a wide range of health benefits, as demonstrated in numerous clinical studies. Currently astaxanthin is produced commercially by chemical synthesis or from algal production systems. Several studies have used a metabolic engineering approach to produce astaxanthin in transgenic plants. Previous attempts to produce transgenic potato tubers biofortified with astaxanthin have met with limited success. In this study we have investigated approaches to optimising tuber astaxanthin content. It is demonstrated that the selection of appropriate parental genotype for transgenic approaches and stacking carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes with the cauliflower Or gene result in enhanced astaxanthin content, to give six-fold higher tuber astaxanthin content than has been achieved previously. Additionally we demonstrate the effects of growth environment on tuber carotenoid content in both wild type and astaxanthin-producing transgenic lines and describe the associated transcriptome and metabolome restructuring. PMID:25804807

  17. Rapid degradation of dominant-negative Rab27 proteins in vivo precludes their use in transgenic mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, José S; Anders, Ross; Jaissle, Gesine B; Seeliger, Mathias W; Huxley, Clare; Seabra, Miguel C

    2002-01-01

    Background Transgenic mice have proven to be a powerful system to study normal and pathological gene functions. Here we describe an attempt to generate a transgenic mouse model for choroideremia (CHM), a slow-onset X-linked retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1) gene. REP1 is part of the Rab geranylgeranylation machinery, a modification that is essential for Rab function in membrane traffic. The loss of REP1 in CHM patients may trigger retinal degeneration through its effects on Rab proteins. We have previously reported that Rab27a is the Rab most affected in CHM lymphoblasts and hypothesised that the selective dysfunction of Rab27a (and possibly a few other Rab GTPases) plays an essential role in the retinal degenerative process. Results To investigate this hypothesis, we generated several lines of dominant-negative, constitutively-active and wild-type Rab27a (and Rab27b) transgenic mice whose expression was driven either by the pigment cell-specific tyrosinase promoter or the ubiquitous ?-actin promoter. High levels of mRNA and protein were observed in transgenic lines expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab27a and Rab27b. However, only modest levels of transgenic protein were expressed. Pulse-chase experiments suggest that the dominant-negative proteins, but not the constitutively-active or wild type proteins, are rapidly degraded. Consistently, no significant phenotype was observed in our transgenic lines. Coat-colour was normal, indicating normal Rab27a activity. Retinal function as determined by fundoscopy, angiography, electroretinography and histology was also normal. Conclusions We suggest that the instability of the dominant-negative mutant Rab27 proteins in vivo precludes the use of this approach to generate mouse models of disease caused by Rab27 GTPases. PMID:12401133

  18. T1? experiment as a noise spectrum analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Gustavsson, Simon; Bylander, Jonas; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Cory, David; Oliver, William

    2012-02-01

    We performed a T1? (spin-locking) experiment on a superconducting flux qubit, enabling us to resolve the environmental noise in the intermediate-frequency range. By driving the qubit along its state polarization, in the rotating frame, it is effectively spin-locked: the decohering effect of low-frequency noise is thereby dramatically reduced compared to Rabi oscillations. We measured the T1? relaxation rate in the rotating frame, under different driving amplitudes and flux biases. Relating this driven relaxation rate to the noise at the corresponding Rabi frequency, we extracted the noise power spectral densities of the energy-bias (flux) and tunnel-coupling terms of the qubit's Hamiltonian at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 100 MHz. In the flux-noise spectrum, we observed features due to non-Gaussian noise, which can be modeled by a strong random-telegraph fluctuator, supporting observations in the decoherence of a spin-echo.

  19. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  20. Ac transposition in transgenic tomato plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John I. Yoder; Joe Palys; Kevin Alpert; Michael Lassner

    1988-01-01

    As an initial step towards developing a transposon mutagenesis system in tomato, the maize transposable element Ac was transformed into tomato plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Southern analysis of leaf tissue indicated that in nine out of eleven transgenic plants, Ac excised from the T-DNA and reintegrated into new chromosomal locations. The comparison of Ac banding pattern in different leaves of

  1. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Vaeck; Arlette Reynaerts; Herman Höfte; Stefan Jansens; Marc de Beuckeleer; Caroline Dean; Marc Zabeau; Marc Van Montagu; Jan Leemans

    1987-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  2. Antisense and ribozyme constructs in transgenic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Sokol; James D. Murray

    1996-01-01

    Geneticists have long sought the ability to add or subtract individual genes from an organism's genome, or to be able to alter the level of expression of a gene in a targeted, developmentally and tissue-specific manner. The development of transgenic technology realized the possibilities of increasing the expression of a specific gene or the transfer of a new gene into

  3. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  4. Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; )

    2003-01-01

    The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

  5. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  6. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  7. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard Brian (Athens, GA); Summers, Anne O. (Athens, GA); Rugh, Clayton L. (Athens, GA)

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  8. Dolly: a New Form of Transgenic Breedwealth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Franklin

    1997-01-01

    Public debate in Britain surrounding the cloning of Dolly the sheep has primarily focused on the legitimacy of cloning humans, not sheep. This bracketing of the human question relies on a distinction between humans and animals belied by the very constitution of transgenic animals who are made with human DNA, such as Polly. Moreover, the ways in which human beings

  9. Transgenic crops, EU precaution, and developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kym Anderson; Lee Ann Jackson

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies have the potential to offer higher incomes for farmers in developing countries and lower-priced and better-quality food, feed and fibre. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because of strict regulatory systems in the European Union and elsewhere governing transgenically modified (GM) crops. This paper examines why the EU has taken the extreme opposite policy position on GM

  10. Transgenic plants as factories for biopharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Allison; Douglas Brooks; Adrian Carter; Glynis Giddings

    2000-01-01

    Plants have considerable potential for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins and peptides because they are easily transformed and provide a cheap source of protein. Several biotechnology companies are now actively developing, field testing, and patenting plant expression systems, while clinical trials are proceeding on the first biopharmaceuticals derived from them. One transgenic plant-derived biopharmaceutical, hirudin, is now being commercially produced

  11. Use of transgenic animals in toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Kirkland

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic and genetically engineered animals are being increasingly used in the study of diseases and for safety assessments for new products. There are four main areas in which they influence pharmaceutical development; two of these, new disease models and `humanized' animals for the assessment of biopharmaceuticals, have not yet made their impact upon toxicology and so will only be briefly

  12. Transgenic tilapia and the tilapia genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Maclean; M. A Rahman; F Sohm; G Hwang; A Iyengar; H Ayad; A Smith; H Farahmand

    2002-01-01

    The tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) has an important place in the aquaculture of the developing world. It is also a very useful laboratory animal, and readily lends itself to the transgenic technology. Through the use of reporter genes, a range of potential gene promoters have been tested in tilapia, both through transient and stable expression of the reporter construct. Using

  13. Monitoring transgenic plants using in vivo markers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.N. Jr. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)] [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The gene coding for green fluorecent protein (GFP), isolated and cloned from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, is an ideal transgene for the monitoring of any plant species. It has the ability to fluoresce without added substrate, enzyme, or cofactor; it does not introduce morphological or sexual aberrations when expressed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Controlling Transgene Escape in GM Creeping Bentgrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Luo; Albert P. Kausch; Qian Hu; Kimberly Nelson; Joseph K. Wipff; Crystal C. R. Fricker; T. Page Owen; Maria A. Moreno; Jang-Yong Lee; Thomas K. Hodges

    2005-01-01

    Trait improvement of turfgrass through genetic engineering is important to the turfgrass industry and the environment. However, the possible transgene escape to wild and non-transformed species raises ecological and commercial concerns. Male sterility provides an effective way for interrupting gene flow. We have designed and synthesized two chimeric gene constructs consisting of a rice tapetum-specific promoter (TAP) fused to either

  15. HLA class II susceptibility pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Kiani, J; Hajilooi, M; Furst, D; Rezaei, H; Shahryari-Hesami, S; Kowsarifard, S; Zamani, A; Solgi, G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQB1 susceptibility and protection pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a population from Hamadan, north-west of Iran. A total of 133 patients with T1D were tested for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles using PCR-SSP compared to 100 ethnic-matched healthy controls. Alleles and haplotypes frequencies were compared between both groups. The most susceptible alleles for disease were HLA-DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:02, DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*03:02, and protective alleles were HLA-DRB1*07:01, *11:01, *13:01, *14:01 and DRB1*15 and HLA-DQB1*06:01, *06:02 and *06:03. Haplotype analysis revealed that patients with T1D had higher frequencies of DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 (OR = 4.86, P < 10(-7) ) and DRB1*04:02-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 9.93, P < 10(-7) ) and lower frequencies of DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:01 (P = 0.0005), DRB1*11:01-DQB1*03:01 (P = 0.001), DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 (P = 0.002) and DRB1*15-DQB1*06:01 (P = 0.001) haplotypes compared to healthy controls. Heterozygote combination of both susceptible haplotypes (DR3/DR4) confers the highest risk for T1D (RR = 18.80, P = 4 × 10(-5) ). Additionally, patients with homozygote diplotype, DR3/DR3 and DR4/DR4, showed a similar risk with less extent to heterozygote combination (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.01, respectively). Our findings not only confirm earlier reports from Iranians but also are in line with Caucasians and partly with Asians and some African patients with T1D. Remarkable differences were the identification of DRB1*04:01-DQB1*03:02, DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03 and DRB1*16-DQB1*05:02 as neutral and DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 as the most protective haplotypes in this study. PMID:26088816

  16. Transgenic studies on homeobox genes in nervous system development: spina bifida in Isl1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Yaworsky, Paul J.; Muller, Yunhua L.; Salbaum, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    To develop in vivo assays for homeobox gene function in neural development, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a homeobox gene is altered only within the nervous system, in neurons or neuronal precursor cells. Transgenic expression of Hoxc8 did not result in gross abnormalities, while a Hoxd4 transgene caused death shortly after birth. In neural progenitor cells, the motorneuron-specific homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 induced early developmental defects, including absence of anterior neural structures, profound defects in the neuroepithelium and defective neural tube closure. A fraction of Isl1 transgenic mice exhibited spina bifida. Isl1 transgene expression was also associated with decreased proliferation and increased Pbx1 expression in the ventral neural tube. Our results suggest a function for some homeobox genes in development of the nervous system, and that cell-type- and region-specific transgenic models will be useful to identify the cellular and molecular targets of homeobox transcription factors in nervous system development. PMID:23054727

  17. Transgenic studies on homeobox genes in nervous system development: spina bifida in Isl1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kappen, Claudia; Yaworsky, Paul J; Muller, Yunhua L; Salbaum, J Michael

    2013-04-01

    To develop in vivo assays for homeobox gene function in neural development, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a homeobox gene is altered only within the nervous system, in neurons or neuronal precursor cells. Transgenic expression of Hoxc8 did not result in gross abnormalities, while a Hoxd4 transgene caused death shortly after birth. In neural progenitor cells, the motorneuron-specific homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 induced early developmental defects, including absence of anterior neural structures, profound defects in the neuroepithelium and defective neural tube closure. A fraction of Isl1 transgenic mice exhibited spina bifida. Isl1 transgene expression was also associated with decreased proliferation and increased Pbx1 expression in the ventral neural tube. Our results suggest a function for some homeobox genes in development of the nervous system, and that cell-type- and region-specific transgenic models will be useful to identify the cellular and molecular targets of homeobox transcription factors in nervous system development. PMID:23054727

  18. The protective mechanisms of CaHSP26 in transgenic tobacco to alleviate photoinhibition of PSII during chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Meifang; Ji, Lusha; Yang, Xinghong; Meng, Qingwei; Guo, Shangjing

    2012-11-01

    A known sweet pepper cDNA clone, CaHSP26 encoding the chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein (CPsHSP), was isolated and introduced into tobacco plants. It has been reported that CaHSP26 is a member of the CPsHSP gene family related to extreme temperature tolerance in plants. In the present work, the transcripts were detected in the transgenic tobacco lines. The actual quantum yield of photosynthesis (?PSII), non-photochemical quenching, and stomatal conductance (gs) in the transgenic lines overexpressing CaHSP26 were higher than those in the wild-type plants under a range of photosynthetic photon flux density during chilling stress. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the transgenic line (L1) had larger size of stomata to lessen stomatal limitation. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were also higher in the transgenic lines than those in wild-type plants. Additionally, a significant increase in cis-unsaturated fatty acid contents was observed in transgenic lines due to lower temperatures. These results suggested that CaHSP26 protein plays an important role in protection of PSII by maintaining the antioxidative enzyme activities to avoid or mitigate photooxidation and increasing the fluidity of the thylakoid membrane during chilling stress under low irradiance. Key message CaHSP26 protein protects PSII by maintaining the antioxidative enzyme activities to avoid or mitigate photooxidation and increases the fluidity of the thylakoid membrane during chilling stress under low irradiance. PMID:22790321

  19. Uniform accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomato fruit using a fruit-ripening-specific E8 promoter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadayoshi Hirai; You-Wang Kim; Kazuhisa Kato; Kyoko Hiwasa-Tanase; Hiroshi Ezura

    The E8 promoter, a tomato fruit-ripening-specific promoter, and the CaMV 35S promoter, a constitutive promoter, were used to express\\u000a the miraculin gene encoding the taste-modifying protein in tomato. The accumulation of miraculin protein and mRNA was compared among transgenic\\u000a tomatoes expressing the miraculin gene driven by these promoters. Recombinant miraculin protein predominantly accumulated in transgenic tomato lines using\\u000a the E8

  20. Transgenic over-expression of growth differentiation factor 11 propeptide in skeleton results in transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Zhao, Baoping; Moisyadi, Stefan; Yang, Jinzeng

    2010-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is one of the significant genes that control skeletal formation. Knockout of GDF11 function causes abnormal patterning of the anterior/posterior axial skeleton. The mRNA of GDF11 is initially translated to a precursor protein that undergoes a proteolytic cleavage to generate the C-terminal peptide or mature GDF11, and the N-terminal peptide named GDF11 propeptide. The propeptide can antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To investigate the effects of GDF11 propeptide on GDF11 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that over-express the propeptide cDNA in skeletal tissue. The transgenic mice showed formation of extra ribs on the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) as a result of transformation of the C7 vertebra into a thoracic vertebra. The GDF11 propeptide transgene mRNA was detected in tail tissue in embryos and was highly expressed in tail and calvaria bones after birth. A high frequency of C7 rib formation was noticed in the transgenic mouse line with a high level of transgene expression. The anterior boundaries of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 mRNA in situ expressions showed cranial shifts from their normal prevertebra locations in transgenic embryos. These results demonstrated significant effects of GDF11 propeptide transgene on vertebral formation, which are likely occurring through depressing GDF11 function and altered locations of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 expression. PMID:21049546

  1. The CaMV 35S promoter is highly active on floral organs and pollen of transgenic strawberry plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cordero de Mesa; N. Santiago-Doménech; F. Pliego-Alfaro; M. A. Quesada; J. A. Mercado

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the expression of the reporter ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S ( CaMV 35S) promoter in flowers and pollen from 14 independent transgenic strawberry lines. Of the 14 lines evaluated, 13 (92.8%) showed GUS activity—as estimated by the histochemical GUS assay—in some floral organs, with expression being most common in the flower stem, sepals, petals,

  2. Specificity of resistance to pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus in transgenic peas expressing the viral replicase (NIb) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Jones; I. E. Johansen; S. J. Bean; I. Bach; A. J. Maule

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic pea lines carrying the replicase (NIb) gene of pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus (PSbMV) were generated and used in experiments to deter- mine the effectiveness of induced resistance upon heterologous isolates. Three pea lines showed inducible resistance in which an initial infection by the homologous isolate (PSbMV-DPD1) was fol- lowed by a highly resistant state. Resistance was observed in plants

  3. T1 and susceptibility contrast at high fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    Clinical imaging at high magnetic field strengths (? 3Tesla) is sought after primarily due to the increased signal strength available at these fields. This increased SNR can be used to perform: (a) high resolution imaging in the same time as at lower field strengths; (b) the same resolution imaging with much faster acquisition; and (c) functional MR imaging (fMRI), dynamic perfusion and diffusion imaging with increased sensitivity. However they are also associated with increased power deposition (SAR) due to increase in imaging frequency and longer T1 relaxation times. Longer T1s mean longer imaging times for generating good T1 contrast images. On the other hand for faster imaging, at high fields fast spin echo or magnetization prepared sequences are conventionally proposed which are, however, associated with high SAR values. Imaging with low SAR is more and more important as we move towards high fields and particularly for patients with metallic implants like pacemakers or deep brain stimulator. The SAR limit acceptable for these patients is much less than the limit acceptable for normal subjects. A new method is proposed for imaging at high fields with good contrast with simultaneous reduction in power deposition. Further, T1 based contrast optimization problem in FLASH imaging is considered for tissues with different T1s but same spin densities. The solution providing optimal imaging parameters is simplified for quick and easy computation in a clinical setting. The efficacy of the simplification is evaluated and practical limits under which the simplification can be applied are worked out. The phase difference due to variation in magnetic susceptibility property among biological tissues is another unique source of contrast which is different from the conventional T1, T2 and T2* contrast. This susceptibility based phase contrast has become more and more important at high fields, partly due to contrast generation issues due to longer T 1s and shorter T2s and partly because of the invariance of most tissue susceptibilities with field strength. This essentially ensures a constant available phase contrast between tissues across field strengths. In fact, with the increased SNR at high fields, the phase CNR actually increases with field strength which is even better. Susceptibility weighted imaging, which uniquely combines this phase and magnitude information to generate enhanced susceptibility contrast magnitude images, has proven to be an important tool in the study of various neurological conditions like, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis even at conventional field strength of 1.5T and should have more applicability at high fields. A major issue in using phase images for susceptibility contrast, directly or as processed SWI magnitude images, is the large scale background phase variations that obscure the local susceptibility based contrast. A novel method is proposed for removing such geometrically induced large scale phase variations using a Fourier Transform based field calculation method. It is shown that the new method is capable of successfully removing the background field effects. It is shown that the new method is not only capable of successfully removing the background field effects but also helps in preserving more local phase information.

  4. Methodological strategies for transgene copy number quantification in goats (Capra hircus) using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ribrio I T P; Luciano, Maria C S; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M; Andreeva, Lyudmila E; Serova, Irina A; Serov, Oleg L

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the importance of goats as transgenic models, as well as the rarity of copy number (CN) studies in farm animals, the present work aimed to evaluate methodological strategies for accurate and precise transgene CN quantification in goats using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mouse and goat lines transgenic for human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were used. After selecting the best genomic DNA extraction method to be applied in mouse and goat samples, intra-assay variations, accuracy and precision of CN quantifications were assessed. The optimized conditions were submitted to mathematical strategies and used to quantify CN in goat lines. The findings were as follows: validation of qPCR conditions is required, and amplification efficiency is the most important. Absolute and relative quantifications are able to produce similar results. For normalized absolute quantification, the same plasmid fragment used to generate goat lines must be mixed with wild-type goat genomic DNA, allowing the choice of an endogenous reference gene for data normalization. For relative quantifications, a resin-based genomic DNA extraction method is strongly recommended when using mouse tail tips as calibrators to avoid tissue-specific inhibitors. Efficient qPCR amplifications (?95%) allow reliable CN measurements with SYBR technology. TaqMan must be used with caution in goats if the nucleotide sequence of the endogenous reference gene is not yet well understood. Adhering to these general guidelines can result in more exact CN determination in goats. Even when working under nonoptimal circumstances, if assays are performed that respect the minimum qPCR requirements, good estimations of transgene CN can be achieved. PMID:25044808

  5. Characterization and Validation of Cre-Driver Mouse Lines.

    PubMed

    Gofflot, Françoise; Wendling, Olivia; Chartoire, Nathalie; Birling, Marie-Christine; Warot, Xavier; Auwerx, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Conditional gene manipulations in mice are increasingly popular strategies in biomedical research. These approaches rely on the production of conditional genetically engineered mutant mouse (GEMM) lines with mutations in protein-encoding genes. These conditional GEMMs are then bred with one or several transgenic mouse lines expressing a site-specific recombinase, most often the Cre recombinase, in a tissue-specific manner. Conditional GEMMs can only be exploited if Cre transgenic mouse lines are available to generate somatic mutations, and thus the number of Cre transgenic lines has significantly increased over the last 15 years. Once produced, these transgenic lines must be validated for reliable, efficient, and specific Cre expression and Cre-mediated recombination. In this overview, the minimum level of information that is ideally required to validate a Cre-driver transgenic line is first discussed. The vagaries associated with validation procedures are considered next, and some solutions are proposed to assess the expression and activity of constitutive or inducible Cre recombinase before undertaking extensive breeding experiments and exhaustive phenotyping. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:1-15. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26068985

  6. Overexpression of the wasabi defensin gene confers enhanced resistance to blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea) in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H.; Nirasawa, S.; Saitoh, H.; Ito, M.; Nishihara, M.; Terauchi, R.; Nakamura, I.

    2002-11-01

    Transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa cv. Sasanishiki) overexpressing the wasabi defensin gene, a plant defensin effective against the rice blast fungus, was generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Twenty-two T2 homozygous lines harboring the wasabi defensin gene were challenged by the blast fungus. Transformants exhibited resistance to rice blast at various levels. The inheritance of the resistance over generations was investigated. T3 plants derived from two highly blast-resistant T2 lines (WT14-5 and WT43-5) were challenged with the blast fungus using the press-injured spots method. The average size of disease lesions of the transgenic line WT43-5 was reduced to about half of that of non-transgenic plants. The 5-kDa peptide, corresponding to the processed form of the wasabi defensin, was detected in the total protein fraction extracted from the T3 progeny. Transgenic rice plants overproducing wasabi defensin are expected to possess a durable and wide-spectrum resistance (i.e. field resistance) against various rice blast races. PMID:12582903

  7. Antibody therapy to human L1CAM in a transgenic mouse model blocks local tumor growth but induces EMT.

    PubMed

    Doberstein, Kai; Harter, Patrick N; Haberkorn, Uwe; Bretz, Niko P; Arnold, Bernd; Carretero, Rafael; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Mittelbronn, Michel; Altevogt, Peter

    2015-03-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is overexpressed in many human cancers, confers bad prognosis and augments cell motility, invasion and metastasis. Results from xenograft mouse models suggested that L1CAM antibodies might be promising tools for cancer therapy. Here, we generated human L1CAM-transgenic mice to study therapeutic efficacy and putative side effects in a model system. We established three transgenic lines (M2, M3 and F4) expressing the human L1CAM transgene in brain, kidney and colon with decreasing intensity (M2, M3 > F4). The expression pattern was similar to that of L1CAM in humans. No interference of the transgene with the expression of endogenous L1CAM was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed correct expression of the transgene in mouse cortex and collective duct of the kidney. Injection of (125)I-labeled L1CAM antibodies resulted in specific enrichment in the kidney but not in the brain. The injection of the therapeutic anti-human L1CAM mAb L1-9.3/2a into transgenic mice even at high doses did not cause behavioral changes or other side effects. Similar results were obtained using a mouse specific L1CAM mAb in normal mice. Tumor therapy experiments were performed using syngeneic mouse tumor cells (RET melanoma and Panc02 pancreatic adenocarcinoma) transduced with human L1CAM. MAb L1-9.3/2a efficiently and specifically attenuated local tumor growth in both model systems without apparent side effects. The therapeutic effect was dependent on immune effector mechanisms. Analysis of Panc02-huL1CAM tumors after therapy showed elevated levels of EGF and evidence of immune-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The results suggest that our transgenic mice are valuable tools to study L1CAM-based antibody therapy. PMID:25230579

  8. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) transformation using phosphinothricin selection results in a high frequency of single-copy transgene integration.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Hu, Q; Nelson, K; Longo, C; Kausch, A P; Chandlee, J M; Wipff, J K; Fricker, C R

    2004-04-01

    Genetic transformation of creeping bentgrass mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been achieved. Embryogenic callus initiated from seeds (cv. Penn-A-4) was infected with an A. tumefaciens strain (LBA4404) harboring a super-binary vector that contained an herbicide-resistant bar gene driven either by the CaMV 35S promoter or a rice ubiquitin promoter. Plants were regenerated from 219 independent transformation events. The overall stable transformation efficiency ranged from 18% to 45%. Southern blot and genetic analysis confirmed transgene integration in the creeping bentgrass genome and normal transmission and stable expression of the transgene in the T1 generation. All independent transformation events carried one to three copies of the transgene, and a majority (60-65%) contained only a single copy of the foreign gene with no apparent rearrangements. We report here the successful use of Agrobacterium for the large-scale production of transgenic creeping bentgrass plants with a high frequency of a single-copy transgene insertion that exhibit stable inheritance patterns. PMID:14615907

  9. Transgenic plants of blue grama grass, Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud., from microprojectile bombardment of highly chlorophyllous embryogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Santacruz, A.; Rascón-Cruz, Q.; Cabrera-Ponce, L.; Martínez-Hernández, A.; Olalde-Portugal, V.; Herrera-Estrella, L.

    2002-04-01

    For the first time, the production of transgenic plants of the forage grass blue grama, Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K.] Lag. ex Steud., is reported. Transgenic plants containing a gus Colon, two colons nptll fusion driven by a double CaMV35S promoter were obtained by microprojectile bombardment of the highly chlorophyllous embryogenic cell line 'TIANSJ98'. Transformed B. gracilis cell lines resisted a lethal concentration of 160 mg/l of kanamycin for at least 8 months. Chlorophyll development and growth rate were used as useful criteria for discriminating transformed from non-transformed clones. Stable integration of the transgene in the blue grama genome was demonstrated by PCR and Southern-hybridization analysis. Expression of the NPTll protein in transgenic plants grown under greenhouse conditions was confirmed indirectly by spraying kanamycin (150-250 mg/l) on plant foliage, and directly by ELISA immunological tests. Control plants sprayed with kanamycin showed foliar necrosis and reduced growth (tillering) compared to plants containing the transgene. NPTll was found in transgenic plants in levels ranging between 12.6 and 29.6 ng/mg FW of cells, as determined by ELISA reactions. PMID:12582635

  10. Constitutive over-expression of rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 results in enhanced growth, salinity and osmotic stress tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Lalit Dev; Mittal, Dheeraj; Chandra Mishra, Ratnesh; Grover, Anil

    2015-07-01

    Protease inhibitors are involved primarily in defense against pathogens. In recent years, these proteins have also been widely implicated in response of plants to diverse abiotic stresses. Rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is highly induced under salt and osmotic stresses. The construct containing the complete coding sequence of OCPI2 cloned downstream to CaMV35S promoter was transformed in Arabidopsis and single copy, homozygous transgenic lines were produced. The transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to NaCl, PEG and mannitol stress as compared to wild type plants. Importantly, the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic plants under unstressed, control conditions was also enhanced: transgenic plants were more vigorous than wild type, resulting into higher yield in terms of silique number. The RWC values and membrane stability index of transgenic in comparison to wild type plants was higher. Higher proline content was observed in the AtOCPI2 lines, which was associated with higher transcript expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and lowered levels of proline dehydrogenase genes. The chymotrypsin protease activities were lower in the transgenic as against wild type plants, under both unstressed, control as well as stressed conditions. It thus appears that rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is a useful candidate gene for genetic improvement of plants against salt and osmotic stress. PMID:25910649

  11. Generation and characterization of KsprtTA and KsptTA transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xinchao; Small, Erin V.; Igarashi, Peter; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technologies that allow tissue specific expression or ablation of genes has contributed enormously to our knowledge of the mechanism regulating organ development and maintenance in mice. The tetracycline inducible system allows reversible regulation of gene products upon administration of Doxycycline. Here we describe the generation and activity of two transgenic lines expressing the cDNAs for the Tet responsive transcription factors rtTA and tTA (Tet-on and off) respectively under the control of an element that drives expression in the epithelium of the developing and adult kidney. Both lines show inducible and reversible activity in the embryonic and adult organ. PMID:23420736

  12. Composition of transgenic soybean seeds with higher ?-linolenic acid content is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengyun; Kang, Linzhi; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; Song, Jingshen; Zhao, Yinhua

    2012-03-01

    ?-Linolenic acid (GLA) has been used as a general nutraceutical for pharmacologic applications, particularly in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema. Four transgenic soybean lines that produce GLA at high yields (4.21% of total fatty acids, up to 1002-fold) were generated through the stable insertion of the Delta-6-fatty acid desaturase gene isolated from Borago officinalis into the genome of a conventional soybean cultivar. As part of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops, the transgenic soybean seeds were compared with their parental soybean seeds (nontransgenic) by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring the fatty acids, proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, TDF, and ash contents), amino acids, lectins, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The present results showed that the specific transgenic cultivar studied was similar to the conventional control. PMID:22324875

  13. Manipulation of the Rice L-Galactose Pathway: Evaluation of the Effects of Transgene Overexpression on Ascorbate Accumulation and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-Yun; Liu, Ru-Ru; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Tang, Ke-Xuan; Sun, Ming-Fa; Yan, Guo-Hong; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) is the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in plants, and it plays a crucial role in plant growth, development and abiotic stress tolerance. In the present study, six key Arabidopsis or rapeseed genes involved in AsA biosynthesis were constitutively overexpressed in an elite Japonica rice cultivar. These genes encoded the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-mannose-3',5'-epimerase (GME), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH), and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH). The effects of transgene expression on rice leaf AsA accumulation were carefully evaluated. In homozygous transgenic seedlings, AtGGP transgenic lines had the highest AsA contents (2.55-fold greater than the empty vector transgenic control), followed by the AtGME and AtGDH transgenic lines. Moreover, with the exception of the AtGPP lines, the increased AsA content also provoked an increase in the redox state (AsA/DHA ratio). To evaluate salt tolerance, AtGGP and AtGME transgenic seedlings were exposed to salt stress for one week. The relative plant height, root length and fresh weight growth rates were significantly higher for the transgenic lines compared with the control plants. Altogether, our results suggest that GGP may be a key rate-limiting step in rice AsA biosynthesis, and the plants with elevated AsA contents demonstrated enhanced tolerance for salt stress. PMID:25938231

  14. Transgenic expression of coat protein gene of Rice tungro bacilliform virus in rice reduces the accumulation of viral DNA in inoculated plants.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Uma; Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Rajasubramaniam, Shanmugam; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2009-08-01

    Rice tungro, a devastating disease of rice in south and southeast Asia, is caused by the joint infection of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). In order to obtain transgenic resistance against RTBV, indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 was transformed to express the coat protein (CP) gene of an Indian isolate of RTBV. Rice plants containing the transgene integrated in low copy numbers were obtained, in which the CP was shown to accumulate in the leaf tissue. The progenies representing three independent transformation events were challenged with Indian isolates of RTBV using viruliferous Green leafhoppers, and the viral titers in the inoculated plants were monitored using DNA dot-blot hybridization. As compared to non-transgenic controls, two independent transgenic lines showed significantly low levels of RTBV DNA, especially towards later stages of infection and a concomitant reduction of tungro symptoms. PMID:19387813

  15. The Xerophyta viscosa aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) confers enhanced drought and salinity tolerance to transgenic tobacco plants by scavenging methylglyoxal and reducing the membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Preeti; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Hohn, Thomas; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2013-06-01

    We report the efficacy of an aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) enzyme from Xerophyta viscosa Baker in enhancing the prospects of plant's survival under abiotic stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing ALDRXV4 cDNA showed alleviation of NaCl and mannitol-induced abiotic stress. The transgenic plants survived longer periods of water deficiency and salinity stress and exhibited improved recovery after rehydration as compared to the wild type plants. The increased synthesis of aldose reductase in transgenic plants correlated with reduced methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde accumulation and an elevated level of sorbitol under stress conditions. In addition, the transgenic lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency, less electrolyte damage, greater water retention, higher proline accumulation, and favorable ionic balance under stress conditions. Together, these findings suggest the potential of engineering aldose reductase levels for better performance of crop plants growing under drought and salt stress conditions. PMID:22678928

  16. Overexpression of cotton RAV1 gene in Arabidopsis confers transgenic plants high salinity and drought sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Li, Mo; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Shan; Hu, Rong; Chen, Yun; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-01-01

    RAV (related to ABI3/VP1) protein containing an AP2 domain in the N-terminal region and a B3 domain in the C-terminal region, which belongs to AP2 transcription factor family, is unique in higher plants. In this study, a gene (GhRAV1) encoding a RAV protein of 357 amino acids was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Transient expression analysis of the eGFP:GhRAV1 fusion genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) epidermal cells revealed that GhRAV1 protein was localized in the cell nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of GhRAV1 in cotton is induced by abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Overexpression of GhRAV1 in Arabidopsis resulted in plant sensitive to ABA, NaCl and PEG. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, seed germination and green seedling rates of the GhRAV1 transgenic plants were remarkably lower than those of wild type. In the presence of NaCl, the seed germination and seedling growth of the GhRAV1 transgenic lines were inhibited greater than those of wild type. And chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of the transgenic plants were significantly lower than those of wild type. Under drought stress, the GhRAV1 transgenic plants displayed more severe wilting than wild type. Furthermore, expressions of the stress-related genes were altered in the GhRAV1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants under high salinity and drought stresses. Collectively, our data suggested that GhRAV1 may be involved in response to high salinity and drought stresses through regulating expressions of the stress-related genes during cotton development. PMID:25710493

  17. An Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein Confers Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Begcy, Kevin; Mariano, Eduardo D.; Mattiello, Lucia; Nunes, Alessandra V.; Mazzafera, Paulo; Maia, Ivan G.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Background Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs) that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT) plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. Conclusions/Significance Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions. PMID:21912606

  18. RNA Interference Is Responsible for Reduction of Transgene Expression after Sleeping Beauty Transposase Mediated Somatic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Rauschhuber, Christina; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrating non-viral vectors based on transposable elements are widely used for genetically engineering mammalian cells in functional genomics and therapeutic gene transfer. For the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase system it was demonstrated that convergent transcription driven by the SB transposase inverted repeats (IRs) in eukaryotic cells occurs after somatic integration. This could lead to formation of double-stranded RNAs potentially presenting targets for the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and subsequently resulting into silencing of the transgene. Therefore, we aimed at investigating transgene expression upon transposition under RNA interference knockdown conditions. Principal Findings To establish RNAi knockdown cell lines we took advantage of the P19 protein, which is derived from the tomato bushy stunt virus. P19 binds and inhibits 21 nucleotides long, small-interfering RNAs and was shown to sufficiently suppress RNAi. We found that transgene expression upon SB mediated transposition was enhanced, resulting into a 3.2-fold increased amount of colony forming units (CFU) after transposition. In contrast, if the transgene cassette is insulated from the influence of chromosomal position effects by the chicken-derived cHS4 insulating sequences or when applying the Forg Prince transposon system, that displays only negligible transcriptional activity, similar numbers of CFUs were obtained. Conclusion In summary, we provide evidence for the first time that after somatic integration transposon derived transgene expression is regulated by the endogenous RNAi machinery. In the future this finding will help to further improve the molecular design of the SB transposase vector system. PMID:22570690

  19. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Katter, Katharina; Geurts, Aron M.; Hoffmann, Orsolya; Mátés, Lajos; Landa, Vladimir; Hiripi, László; Moreno, Carol; Lazar, Jozef; Bashir, Sanum; Zidek, Vaclav; Popova, Elena; Jerchow, Boris; Becker, Katja; Devaraj, Anantharam; Walter, Ingrid; Grzybowksi, Michael; Corbett, Molly; Filho, Artur Rangel; Hodges, Matthew R.; Bader, Michael; Ivics, Zoltán; Jacob, Howard J.; Pravenec, Michal; B?sze, Zsuzsanna; Rülicke, Thomas; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Germline transgenesis is an important procedure for functional investigation of biological pathways, as well as for animal biotechnology. We have established a simple, nonviral protocol in three important biomedical model organisms frequently used in physiological studies. The protocol is based on the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system, SB100X, which reproducibly promoted generation of transgenic founders at frequencies of 50–64, 14–72, and 15% in mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively. The SB100X-mediated transgene integrations are less prone to genetic mosaicism and gene silencing as compared to either the classical pronuclear injection or to lentivirus-mediated transgenesis. The method was successfully applied to a variety of transgenes and animal models, and can be used to generate founders with single-copy integrations. The transposon vector also allows the generation of transgenic lines with tissue-specific expression patterns specified by promoter elements of choice, exemplified by a rat reporter strain useful for tracking serotonergic neurons. As a proof of principle, we rescued an inborn genetic defect in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat by SB100X transgenesis. A side-by-side comparison of the SB100X- and piggyBac-based protocols revealed that the two systems are complementary, offering new opportunities in genome manipulation.—Katter, K., Geurts, A. M., Hoffmann, O., Mátés, L., Landa,V., Hiripi, L., Moreno, C., Lazar, J., Bashir, S., Zidek, V., Popova, E., Jerchow, B., Becker, K., Devaraj, A., Walter, I., Grzybowksi, M., Corbett, M., Rangel Filho, A., Hodges, M. R., Bader, M., Ivics, Z., Jacob, H. J., Pravenec, M., B?sze, Z., Rülicke, T., Izsvák, Z. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits. PMID:23195032

  20. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    PubMed Central

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding. PMID:18854007

  1. Transgenes for insect resistance reduce herbivory and enhance fecundity in advanced generations of crop–weed hybrids of rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Xia, Hui; Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Snow, Allison A; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow from transgenic crops allows novel traits to spread to sexually compatible weeds. Traits such as resistance to insects may enhance the fitness of weeds, but few studies have tested for these effects under natural field conditions. We created F2 and F3 crop–weed hybrid lineages of genetically engineered rice (Oryza sativa) using lines with two transgene constructs, cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) and a Bt transgene linked to CpTI (Bt/CpTI). Experiments conducted in Fuzhou, China, demonstrated that CpTI alone did not significantly affect fecundity, although it reduced herbivory. In contrast, under certain conditions, Bt/CpTI conferred up to 79% less insect damage and 47% greater fecundity relative to nontransgenic controls, and a 44% increase in fecundity relative to the weedy parent. A small fitness cost was detected in F3 progeny with Bt/CpTI when grown under low insect pressure and direct competition with transgene-negative controls. We conclude that Bt/CpTI transgenes may introgress into co-occurring weedy rice populations and contribute to greater seed production when target insects are abundant. However, the net fitness benefits that are associated with Bt/CpTI could be ephemeral if insect pressure is lacking, for example, because of widespread planting of Bt cultivars that suppress target insect populations. PMID:25568014

  2. Nucleotide sequence-homology-independent breakdown of transgenic resistance by more virulent virus strains and a potential solution.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yi-Jung; You, Bang-Jau; Raja, Joseph A J; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Yang, Ching-Fu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Chang, Chung-Ping; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Controlling plant viruses by genetic engineering, including the globally important Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), mainly involves coat protein (CP) gene mediated resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). However, the breakdown of single- or double-virus resistance in CP-gene-transgenic papaya by more virulent PRSV strains has been noted in repeated field trials. Recombination analysis revealed that the gene silencing suppressor HC-Pro or CP of the virulent PRSV strain 5-19 is responsible for overcoming CP-transgenic resistance in a sequence-homology-independent manner. Transient expression assays using agro-infiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana plants indicated that 5-19 HC-Pro exhibits stronger PTGS suppression than the transgene donor strain. To disarm the suppressor from the virulent strain, transgenic papaya lines were generated carrying untranslatable 5-19 HC-Pro, which conferred complete resistance to 5-19 and other geographic PRSV strains. Our study suggested the potential risk of the emergence of more virulent virus strains, spurred by the deployment of CP-gene-transgenic crops, and provides a strategy to combat such strains. PMID:25913508

  3. Reduction of methylviologen-mediated oxidative stress tolerance in antisense transgenic tobacco seedlings through restricted expression of StAPX.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Hong; Wang, Yong; He, Hua-Gang; Li, Xue; Song, Wan; Du, Bin; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2013-07-01

    Ascorbate peroxidases are directly involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging by reducing hydrogen peroxide to water. The tomato thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase gene (StAPX) was introduced into tobacco. RNA gel blot analysis confirmed that StAPX in tomato leaves was induced by methylviologen-mediated oxidative stress. The sense transgenic seedlings exhibited higher tAPX activity than that of the wild type (WT) plants under oxidative stress conditions, while the antisense seedlings exhibited lower tAPX activity. Lower APX activities of antisense transgenic seedlings caused higher malondialdehyde contents and relative electrical conductivity. The sense transgenic seedlings with higher tAPX activity maintained higher chlorophyll content and showed the importance of tAPX in maintaining the optimal chloroplast development under methylviologen stress conditions, whereas the antisense lines maintained lower chlorophyll content than WT seedlings. Results indicated that the over-expression of StAPX enhanced tolerance to methylviologen-mediated oxidative stress in sense transgenic tobacco early seedlings, whereas the suppression of StAPX in antisense transgenic seedlings showed high sensitivity to oxidative stress. PMID:23825143

  4. Use of the cryptogein gene to stimulate the accumulation of Bacopa saponins in transgenic Bacopa monnieri plants.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2012-10-01

    Genetic transformation of the Indian medicinal plant, Bacopa monnieri, using a gene encoding cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor, via Ri and Ti plasmids, were established and induced bioproduction of bacopa saponins in crypt-transgenic plants were obtained. Transformed roots obtained with A. rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 crypt on selection medium containing kanamycin (100 mg l(-1)) dedifferentiated forming callus and redifferentiated to roots which, spontaneously showed shoot bud induction. Ri crypt-transformed plants thus obtained showed integration and expression of rol genes as well as crypt gene. Ti crypt-transformed B. monnieri plants were established following transformation with disarmed A. tumefaciens strain harboring crypt. Transgenic plants showed significant enhancement in growth and bacopa saponin content. Bacopasaponin D (1.4-1.69 %) was maximally enhanced in transgenic plants containing crypt. In comparison to Ri-transformed plants, Ri crypt-transformed plants showed significantly (p ? 0.05) enhanced accumulation of bacoside A(3), bacopasaponin D, bacopaside II, bacopaside III and bacopaside V. Produced transgenic lines can be used for further research on elicitation in crypt-transgenic plants as well as for large scale production of saponins. Key message The cryptogein gene, which encodes a proteinaceous elicitor is associated with increase in secondary metabolite accumulation-either alone or in addition to the increases associated with transformation by A. rhizogenes. PMID:22733208

  5. Influence of CpG methylation and target spacing on V(D)J recombination in a transgenic substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Engler, P; Weng, A; Storb, U

    1993-01-01

    We have previously described a line of transgenic mice with multiple head-to-tail copies of an artificial V-J recombination substrate and have shown that the methylation of this transgene is under the control of a dominant strain-specific modifier gene, Ssm-1. When the transgene array is highly methylated, no recombination is detectable, but when it is unmethylated, V-J joining is seen in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches but not in the thymus or nonlymphoid tissues, including brain tissue. Strikingly, in mice with partially methylated transgene arrays, rearrangement preferentially occurs in hypomethylated copies. Therefore, V-J recombination is negatively correlated with methylated DNA sequences. In addition, it appears that recombination occurs randomly between any two recombination signal sequences within the transgene array. This lack of target preference in an unselectable array of identical targets rules out simple mechanisms of one-dimensional tracking of a V(D)J recombinase complex. Images PMID:8417353

  6. Construction of a standard reference plasmid containing seven target genes for the detection of transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Tang, Qiaoling; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yufeng; Su, Yueyan; Jia, Shirong; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-07-01

    Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the dominant traits of commercialized transgenic cotton. In this study, we constructed a general standard reference plasmid for transgenic cotton detection. Target genes, including the cowpea trypsin gene cptI, the insect resistance gene cry1Ab/1Ac, the herbicide tolerance gene cp4-epsps, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator that exists in transgenic cotton and part of the endogenous cotton SadI gene were amplified from plasmids pCPT1, pBT, pCP4 and pBI121 and from DNA of the nontransgenic cotton line K312, respectively. The genes cry1Ab/1Ac and cptI, as well as cp4-epsps and the Nos terminator gene, were ligated together to form the fusion genes cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos, respectively, by overlapping PCR. We checked the validity of genes Sad1, cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos by DNA sequencing. Then, positive clones of cptI-Bt, cp4-Nos and Sad1 were digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into vector pCamBIA2300, which contains the CAMV 35S promoter and nptII gene, to form the reference plasmid pMCS. Qualitative detection showed that pMCS is a good positive control for transgenic cotton detection. Real-time PCR detection efficiencies with pMCS as a calibrator ranged from 94.35% to 98.67% for the standard curves of the target genes (R(2)?0.998). The relative standard deviation of the mean value for the known sample was 11.95%. These results indicate that the strategy of using the pMCS plasmid as a reference material is feasible and reliable for the detection of transgenic cotton. Therefore, this plasmid can serve as a useful reference tool for qualitative and quantitative detection of single or stacked trait transgenic cotton, thus paving the way for the identification of various products containing components of transgenic cotton. PMID:24929128

  7. The TOTEM T1 read out card motherboard

    E-print Network

    Minutoli, S; Robutti, E

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Read Out Card (ROC) motherboard, which is the main component of the T1 forward telescope front-end electronic system. The ROC main objectives are to acquire tracking data and trigger information from the detector. It performs data conversion from electrical to optical format and transfers the data streams to the next level of the system and it implements Slow Control modules which are able to receive, decode and distribute the LHC machine low jitter clock and fast command. The ROC also provides a spy mezzanine connection based on programmable FPGA and USB2.0 for laboratory and portable DAQ debugging system

  8. The TOTEM T1 read out card motherboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minutoli, S.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the Read Out Card (ROC) motherboard, which is the main component of the T1 forward telescope front-end electronic system. The ROC main objectives are to acquire tracking data and trigger information from the detector. It performs data conversion from electrical to optical format and transfers the data streams to the next level of the system and it implements Slow Control modules which are able to receive, decode and distribute the LHC machine low jitter clock and fast command. The ROC also provides a spy mezzanine connection based on programmable FPGA and USB2.0 for laboratory and portable DAQ debugging system.

  9. Rapid identification of targeted transgene integrations in ES cells by fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kautschitsch, Susanna; Andersen, Lill; Hammerschmid, Susanne; Rülicke, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The generation of transgenic animals with a gain-of-function mutation is commonly achieved by procedures based on random DNA integration. The resulting transgenic founder lines are unique, not reproducible and have variable expression patterns. In contrast, the targeted integration of transgenes into a predetermined neutral genomic position solves most of the inadequacies of random integration methods. However, homologous recombination (HR) in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) currently requires careful design of the targeting vector and a laborious procedure to identify clones with the correct insertion event. Here, we introduce a feasible strategy that employs a heterozygous double fluorescent reporter ESC line for simple identification of a knock-in HR event via detection of endogenous fluorescence expression. Following positive selection using antibiotics, the system offers a second selection step to identify targeted clones by the loss of one of two fluorescence reporters in lieu of the time consuming Southern blotting and PCR analysis routinely applied in conventional targeting experiments. Moreover, the method allows for the simple detection of chimerism (negating the need for appropriate coat colour combinations) and enables the early detection of germline transmission by fluorescence reporter expression in F1 neonates. PMID:24482264

  10. High levels of human gamma-globin gene expression in adult mice carrying a transgene of deletion-type hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Arcasoy, M O; Romana, M; Fabry, M E; Skarpidi, E; Nagel, R L; Forget, B G

    1997-01-01

    Persistent expression of the gamma-globin genes in adults with deletion types of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is thought to be mediated by enhancer-like effects of DNA sequences at the 3' breakpoints of the deletions. A transgenic mouse model of deletion-type HPFH was generated by using a DNA fragment containing both human gamma-globin genes and HPFH-2 breakpoint DNA sequences linked to the core sequences of the locus control region (LCR) of the human beta-globin gene cluster. Analysis of gamma-globin expression in six HPFH transgenic lines demonstrated persistence of gamma-globin mRNA and peptides in erythrocytes of adult HPFH transgenic mice. Analysis of the hemoglobin phenotype of adult HPFH transgenic animals by isoelectric focusing showed the presence of hybrid mouse alpha2-human gamma2 tetramers as well as human gamma4 homotetramers (hemoglobin Bart's). In contrast, correct developmental regulation of the gamma-globin genes with essentially absent gamma-globin gene expression in adult erythroid cells was observed in two control non-HPFH transgenic lines, consistent with autonomous silencing of normal human gamma-globin expression in adult transgenic mice. Interestingly, marked preferential overexpression of the LCR-distal (A)gamma-globin gene but not of the LCR-proximal (G)gamma-globin gene was observed at all developmental stages in erythroid cells of HPFH-2 transgenic mice. These findings were also associated with the formation of a DNase I-hypersensitive site in the HPFH-2 breakpoint DNA of transgenic murine erythroid cells, as occurs in normal human erythroid cells in vivo. These results indicate that breakpoint DNA sequences in deletion-type HPFH-2 can modify the developmentally regulated expression of the gamma-globin genes. PMID:9121456

  11. Transgenic sugarcane resistant to Sorghum mosaic virus based on coat protein gene silencing by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Gao, Shiwu; Lin, Qinliang; Wang, Hengbo; Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As one of the critical diseases of sugarcane, sugarcane mosaic disease can lead to serious decline in stalk yield and sucrose content. It is mainly caused by Potyvirus sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and/or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), with additional differences in viral strains. RNA interference (RNAi) is a novel strategy for producing viral resistant plants. In this study, based on multiple sequence alignment conducted on genomic sequences of different strains and isolates of SrMV, the conserved region of coat protein (CP) genes was selected as the target gene and the interference sequence with size of 423?bp in length was obtained through PCR amplification. The RNAi vector pGII00-HACP with an expression cassette containing both hairpin interference sequence and cp4-epsps herbicide-tolerant gene was transferred to sugarcane cultivar ROC22 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After herbicide screening, PCR molecular identification, and artificial inoculation challenge, anti-SrMV positive transgenic lines were successfully obtained. SrMV resistance rate of the transgenic lines with the interference sequence was 87.5% based on SrMV challenge by artificial inoculation. The genetically modified SrMV-resistant lines of cultivar ROC22 provide resistant germplasm for breeding lines and can also serve as resistant lines having the same genetic background for study of resistance mechanisms. PMID:25685813

  12. Effects of oxidized and reduced forms of methylthioninium in two transgenic mouse tauopathy models

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Valeria; Magbagbeolu, Mandy; Rickard, Janet E.; Horsley, David; Davidson, Kathleen; Harrington, Kathleen A.; Goatman, Keith; Goatman, Elizabeth A.; Deiana, Serena; Close, Steve P.; Zabke, Claudia; Stamer, Karsten; Dietze, Silke; Schwab, Karima; Storey, John M.D.; Harrington, Charles R.; Wischik, Claude M.; Theuring, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Given the repeated failure of amyloid-based approaches in Alzheimer’s disease, there is increasing interest in tau-based therapeutics. Although methylthioninium (MT) treatment was found to be beneficial in tau transgenic models, the brain concentrations required to inhibit tau aggregation in vivo are unknown. The comparative efficacy of methylthioninium chloride (MTC) and leucomethylthioninium salts (LMTX; 5–75?mg/kg; oral administration for 3–8 weeks) was assessed in two novel transgenic tau mouse lines. Behavioural (spatial water maze, RotaRod motor performance) and histopathological (tau load per brain region) proxies were applied. Both MTC and LMTX dose-dependently rescued the learning impairment and restored behavioural flexibility in a spatial problem-solving water maze task in Line 1 (minimum effective dose: 35?mg MT/kg for MTC, 9?mg MT/kg for LMTX) and corrected motor learning in Line 66 (effective doses: 4?mg MT/kg). Simultaneously, both drugs reduced the number of tau-reactive neurons, particularly in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in Line 1 and in a more widespread manner in Line 66. MT levels in the brain followed a sigmoidal concentration–response relationship over a 10-fold range (0.13–1.38??mol/l). These data establish that diaminophenothiazine compounds, like MT, can reverse both spatial and motor learning deficits and reduce the underlying tau pathology, and therefore offer the potential for treatment of tauopathies. PMID:25769090

  13. Generation of FGF reporter transgenic zebrafish and their utility in chemical screens

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Gabriela A; Watkins, Simon C; Tsang, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) represent a large family of secreted proteins that are required for proper development and physiological processes. Mutations in mouse and zebrafish FGFs result in abnormal embryogenesis and lethality. A key to understanding the precise role for these factors is to determine their spatial and temporal activity during embryogenesis. Results Expression of Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6 (dusp6, also known as Mkp3) is controlled by FGF signalling throughout development. The Dusp6 promoter was isolated from zebrafish and used to drive expression of destabilized green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) in transgenic embryos (Tg(Dusp6:d2EGFP)). Expression of d2EGFP is initiated as early as 4 hours post-fertilization (hpf) within the future dorsal region of the embryo, where fgf3 and fgf8 are initially expressed. At later stages, d2EGFP is detected within structures that correlate with the expression of Fgf ligands and their receptors. This includes the mid-hindbrain boundary (MHB), pharyngeal endoderm, otic vesicle, hindbrain, and Kupffer's vesicle. The expression of d2EGFP is under the control of FGF signalling as treatment with FGF Receptor (FGFR) inhibitors results in the suppression of d2EGFP expression. In a pilot screen of commercially available small molecules we have evaluated the effectiveness of the transgenic lines to identify specific FGF inhibitors within the class of indolinones. These compounds were counter screened with the transgenic line Tg(Fli1:EGFP)y1, that serves as an indirect read-out for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) signalling in order to determine the specificity between related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). From these assays it is possible to determine the specificity of these indolinones towards specific RTK signalling pathways. This has enabled the identification of compounds that can block specifically the VEGFR or the FGFR signalling pathway. Conclusion The generation of transgenic reporter zebrafish lines has allowed direct visualization of FGF signalling within the developing embryo. These FGF reporter transgenic lines provide a tool to screen for specific compounds that can distinguish between two conserved members of the RTK family. PMID:17553162

  14. From XenoMouse technology to panitumumab, the first fully human antibody product from transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Aya; Amado, Rafael G; Yang, Xiaodong; Roskos, Lorin; Schwab, Gisela

    2007-10-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have shown limited efficacy and safety owing to immunogenicity of mouse sequences in humans. Among the approaches developed to overcome these hurdles were transgenic mice genetically engineered with a 'humanized' humoral immune system. One such transgenic system, the XenoMouse, has succeeded in recapitulating the human antibody response in mice, by introducing nearly the entire human immunoglobulin loci into the germ line of mice with inactivated mouse antibody machinery. XenoMouse strains have been used to generate numerous high-affinity, fully human antibodies to targets in multiple disease indications, many of which are progressing in clinical development. However, validation of the technology has awaited the recent regulatory approval of panitumumab (Vectibix), a fully human antibody directed against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as treatment for people with advanced colorectal cancer. The successful development of panitumumab represents a milestone for mice engineered with a human humoral immune system and their future applications. PMID:17921999

  15. Enhanced antioxidant and protective activities on retinal ganglion cells of carotenoids-overexpressing transgenic carrot.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kee Dong; Kang, Suk-Nam; Bae, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Jang, Insurk; Kim, Il-Suk; Lee, Cheol Ho; Bae, Jung Myung; Lee, Shin Woo; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

    2013-08-01

    Carotenoids are considered to act as antioxidants and protect humans from serious disorders such as skin degeneration and ageing, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and age-related diseases of the eye. In this study, these chemopreventive activities of a carotenoids-overexpressing transgenic carrot were evaluated. The results of DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical scavenging tests demonstrate that the acetone extract obtained from the taproots of the carrot plants exhibits significant antioxidant activity. A higher activity was detected in the transgenic carrot extract compared with the wild-type extract. A chemopreventive activity test for degenerative diseases of the eye revealed that pretreatment with the carrot extract reduced cell death in a retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5 cells exposed to 1-buthionine- (R,S)-sulfoximine and L-glutamic acid. PMID:23574281

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza decreases cadmium phytoextraction by transgenic tobacco with inserted metallothionein

    E-print Network

    Janouskova, Martina

    the more Cd tolerant transgenic plants and the less tolerant non-transgenic plants. Mycorrhiza mostly decreased the phytoex- traction efficiency of transgenic plants while increased that of non-transgenicArbuscular mycorrhiza decreases cadmium phytoextraction by transgenic tobacco with inserted

  17. Can Transgenic Crops and IPM Be Compatible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George B. Frisvold

    Drawing on the lessons from Bt cotton, this chapter considers how and to what extent transgenic crop varieties can become\\u000a a useful component of broader IPM strategies. In the United States, Bt cotton has been successfully incorporated into IPM\\u000a programs to control pink bollworm because several pre-conditions have been met. These have included science-based regulatory\\u000a oversight of new variety introduction,

  18. A transgenic insertion causing cryptorchidism in mice.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, P A; Gorlov, I P; Sutherland, R W; Houston, J B; Harrison, W R; Boettger-Tong, H L; Bishop, C E; Agoulnik, A I

    2001-05-01

    A distinctive feature of gonadal maturation in mammals is the movement to an extraabdominal location. Testicular descent is a complex, multistage process whereby the embryonic gonads migrate from their initial abdominal position to the scrotum. Failure in this process results in cryptorchidism, a frequent congenital birth defect in humans. We report here a new mouse transgenic insertional mutation, cryptorchidism with white spotting (crsp). Males homozygous for crsp exhibit a high intraabdominal position of the testes, associated with complete sterility. Heterozygous males have a wild-type phenotype, and homozygous females are fertile. Surgically descended testes in crsp/crsp males show normal spermatogenesis. Using FISH and genetic analyses, the transgenic insert causing the crsp mutation has been mapped to the distal part of mouse chromosome 5. Transgene integration resulted in a 550-kb deletion located upstream of the Brca2 gene. A candidate gene encoding a novel G protein-coupled receptor (Great) with an expression pattern suggesting involvement in testicular descent has been identified. PMID:11353515

  19. Using empirical data to model transgene dispersal.

    PubMed

    Meagher, T R; Belanger, F C; Day, P R

    2003-06-29

    One element of the current public debate about genetically modified crops is that gene flow from transgenic cultivars into surrounding weed populations will lead to more problematic weeds, particularly for traits such as herbicide resistance. Evolutionary biologists can inform this debate by providing accurate estimates of gene flow potential and subsequent ecological performance of resulting hybrids. We develop a model for gene flow incorporating exponential distance and directional effects to be applied to windpollinated species. This model is applied to previously published data on gene flow in experimental plots of Agrostis stolonifera L. (creeping bentgrass), which assessed gene flow from transgenic plants resistant to the herbicide glufosinate to surrounding non-transgenic plants. Our results show that although pollen dispersal can be limited in some sites, it may be extensive in others, depending on local conditions such as exposure to wind. Thus, hybridization under field conditions is likely to occur. Given the nature of the herbicide resistance trait, we regard this trait as unlikely to persist in the absence of herbicide, and suggest that the ecological consequences of such gene flow are likely to be minimal. PMID:12831482

  20. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    PubMed

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275