Sample records for t3 receptor induces

  1. Protein Kinase B/AKT 1 Plays a Pivotal Role in Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Signaling Induced 3T3-L1

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    kinase system in IGF-1 receptor signal-induced 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis is not clear. It is further complicated by the different effects exhibited by p38 MAP kinase and ERK1/2 on 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis (5 and 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis. PI 3-kinase-PKB/Akt as an important intracellular signal cascade has been

  2. Control of insulin receptor level in 3T3 cells: effect of insulin-induced down-regulation and dexamethasone-induced up-regulation on rate of receptor inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, V P; Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D

    1982-01-01

    Chronic exposure of 3T3 mouse fibroblasts to insulin or to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone induces down-regulation and up-regulation, respectively, of cell-surface and total cellular insulin binding capacity. Both processes are reversed upon withdrawal of the inducer. Scatchard analysis of insulin binding for receptors in the down- and up-regulated states indicates that the changes in binding capacity result primarily from alterations in insulin receptor level. That these alterations in total receptor level are due to changes in cell-surface receptor level is indicated by the fact that the level of trypsin-insensitive, presumably intracellular, insulin binding sites does not change appreciably upon down- and up-regulation. The effects of insulin-induced down-regulation and dexamethasone-induced up-regulation on the rates of insulin receptor synthesis and decay were assessed by the heavy-isotope density-shift technique. Cells were shifted to medium containing heavy (2H, 13C, 15N) amino acids and, at various times after the shift, light and heavy receptors solubilized from total cellular membranes were resolved by isopycnic banding on density gradients and then quantitated. It was demonstrated that the insulin- and dexamethasone-induced alterations in insulin receptor level were due entirely to changes in the rate constant for receptor inactivation. The decrease in the first-order rate constant for receptor decay caused by dexamethasone is unexpected in view of the known action of steroid hormones in the induction of the synthesis of specific proteins. PMID:7045873

  3. ?? adrenergic receptor activation suppresses bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takayuki; Ezura, Yoichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Moriya, Shuichi; Shirakawa, Jumpei; Notomi, Takuya; Arayal, Smriti; Kawasaki, Makiri; Izu, Yayoi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    ? adrenergic stimulation suppresses bone formation in vivo while its actions in osteoblastic differentiation are still incompletely understood. We therefore examined the effects of ?2 adrenergic stimulation on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells focusing on BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression. Morphologically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced increase in the numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive small foci in the cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells. Biochemically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner. Isoproterenol suppression of alkaline phosphatase activity is observed even when the cells are treated with high concentrations of BMP. With respect to cell density, isoproterenol treatment tends to suppress BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression more in osteoblasts cultured at higher cell density. In terms of treatment protocol, continuous isoproterenol treatment is compared to cyclic treatment. Continuous isoproterenol treatment is more suppressive against BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression than cyclic regimen. At molecular level, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enhancement of alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression. Regarding the mode of isoproterenol action, isoproterenol suppresses BMP-induced BRE-luciferase activity. These data indicate that isoproterenol regulates BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells. PMID:25536656

  4. PDGF-induced receptor phosphorylation and phosphoinositide hydrolysis are unaffected by protein kinase C activation in mouse swiss 3T3 and human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sturani, E.; Vicentini, L.M.; Zippel, R.; Toschi, L.; Pandiella-Alonso, A.; Comoglio, P.M.; Meldolesi, J.

    1986-05-29

    Short (1-10 min) pretreatment of intact cells with activators of protein kinase C (e.g. phorbol-12 myristate, 13-acetate, PMA) affects the activity of a variety of surface receptors (for growth factors, hormones and neurotransmitters), with inhibition of transmembrane signal generation. In two types of fibroblasts it is demonstrated that the PDGF receptor is unaffected by PMA. Exposure to PMA at concentrations up to 100 nM for 10 min failed to inhibit either one of the agonist-induced, receptor-coupled responses of PDGF: the autophosphorylation of receptor molecules at tyrosine residues, and the hydrolysis of membrane polyphosphoinositides. In contrast, the EGF receptor autophosphorylation (in A 431 cells) and the bombesin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis were readily inhibited by PMA.

  5. Depletion of the p43 Mitochondrial T3 Receptor Increases Sertoli Cell Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fumel, Betty; Roy, Stéphanie; Fouchécourt, Sophie; Livera, Gabriel; Parent, Anne-Simone; Casas, François; Guillou, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Among T3 receptors, TR?1 is ubiquitous and its deletion or a specific expression of a dominant-negative TR?1 isoform in Sertoli cell leads to an increase in testis weight and sperm production. The identification of a 43-kDa truncated form of the nuclear receptor TR?1 (p43) in the mitochondrial matrix led us to test the hypothesis that this mitochondrial transcription factor could regulate Sertoli cell proliferation. Here we report that p43 depletion in mice increases testis weight and sperm reserve. In addition, we found that p43 deletion increases Sertoli cell proliferation in postnatal testis at 3 days of development. Electron microscopy studies evidence an alteration of mitochondrial morphology observed specifically in Sertoli cells of p43?/? mice. Moreover, gene expression studies indicate that the lack of p43 in testis induced an alteration of the mitochondrial-nuclear cross-talk. In particular, the up-regulation of Cdk4 and c-myc pathway in p43?/? probably explain the extended proliferation recorded in Sertoli cells of these mice. Our finding suggests that T3 limits post-natal Sertoli cell proliferation mainly through its mitochondrial T3 receptor p43. PMID:24040148

  6. Ligand Activation of Overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Transforms NIH 3T3 Mouse Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Heimo; Massoglia, Sharon; Schlessinger, Joseph; Ullrich, Axel

    1988-03-01

    The cell surface receptor for the mitogenic peptide epidermal growth factor (EGF) is involved in control of normal cell growth and may play a role in the genesis of human neoplasia such as squamous carcinoma and glioblastoma. Soft-agar growth and focus-formation experiments with NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts transfected with an expression plasmid demonstrated the ligand-dependent transforming potential of the human EGF receptor without structural alterations. Activation of overexpressed normal receptor alone appears to be sufficient for transformation of NIH 3T3 cells in vitro.

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Masiello, Lisa M; Fotos, Joseph S; Galileo, Deni S; Karin, Norman J

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1>LPA4>LPA2>LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G-protein-coupled receptor LPA1. PMID:16487757

  8. T3-induced liver AMP-activated protein kinase signaling: Redox dependency and upregulation of downstream targets

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia; Cornejo, Pamela; Vargas, Romina; Morales, Paula; Ceballo, Juan; Fischer, Alvaro; Escudero, Nicolás; Escobar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the redox dependency and promotion of downstream targets in thyroid hormone (T3)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling as cellular energy sensor to limit metabolic stresses in the liver. METHODS: Fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single ip dose of 0.1 mg T3/kg or T3 vehicle (NaOH 0.1 N; controls) and studied at 8 or 24 h after treatment. Separate groups of animals received 500 mg N-acetylcysteine (NAC)/kg or saline ip 30 min prior T3. Measurements included plasma and liver 8-isoprostane and serum ?-hydroxybutyrate levels (ELISA), hepatic levels of mRNAs (qPCR), proteins (Western blot), and phosphorylated AMPK (ELISA). RESULTS: T3 upregulates AMPK signaling, including the upstream kinases Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-? and transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase-1, with T3-induced reactive oxygen species having a causal role due to its suppression by pretreatment with the antioxidant NAC. Accordingly, AMPK targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cyclic AMP response element binding protein are phosphorylated, with the concomitant carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1? (CPT-1?) activation and higher expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? co-activator-1? and that of the fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-related enzymes CPT-1?, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2. Under these conditions, T3 induced a significant increase in the serum levels of ?-hydroxybutyrate, a surrogate marker for hepatic FAO. CONCLUSION: T3 administration activates liver AMPK signaling in a redox-dependent manner, leading to FAO enhancement as evidenced by the consequent ketogenic response, which may constitute a key molecular mechanism regulating energy dynamics to support T3 preconditioning against ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25516653

  9. Midkine induces the transformation of NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kadomatsu, K.; Hagihara, M.; Akhter, S.; Fan, Q. W.; Muramatsu, H.; Muramatsu, T.

    1997-01-01

    Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor and is frequently expressed at high levels in many human carcinomas. To investigate further the roles of MK in the regulation of cell growth, we introduced MK expression in NIH3T3 cells. A mixture of transfectants of an MK expression vector, but not a control vector, formed colonies in soft agar, showed an elevated cell number at confluence, and formed tumours in nude mice. An interesting characteristic of the transformed cells was that they became spontaneously detached from the culture dish substratum. In the transformed cells, MK was not only secreted, but also localized, in the perinuclear region as spots. The present data indicate that MK has the potential to transform NIH3T3 cells and suggest that overexpression of the MK gene may promote unregulated cell growth in vivo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9020479

  10. The Aporphine Alkaloid Boldine Induces Adiponectin Expression and Regulation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP?) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (100??M) or tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) (1?ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5–100??M). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPAR?, and C/EBP? to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or TNF? and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5–25??M) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50–100??M). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H2O2 or TNF? was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  11. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  12. Mouse Balb/c3T3 cell mutant with low epidermal growth factor receptor activity: induction of stable anchorage-independent growth by transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Kuratomi, Y.; Ono, M.; Yasutake, C.; Mawatari, M.; Kuwano, M.

    1987-01-01

    A mutant clone (MO-5) was originally isolated as a clone resistant to Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ionophoric antibiotic monensin from mouse Balb/c3T3 cells. MO-5 was found to show low receptor-endocytosis activity for epidermal growth factor (EGF):binding activity for EGF in MO-5 was less than one tenth of that in Balb/c3T3. Anchorage-independent growth of MO-5 was compared to that of Balb/c3T3 when assayed by colony formation capacity in soft agar. Coadministration of EGF and TGF-..beta.. efficiently enhanced anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, but neither factor alone was competent to promote the anchorage-independent growth. The frequency of colonies appearing in soft agar of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3 was significantly enhanced by TGF-..beta.. while EGF did not further enhance that of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3. Colonies of Balb/c3T3 formed in soft agar in the presence of TGF-..beta.. showed low colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Colonies of MO-5 formed by TGF-..beta.. in soft agar, however, showed high colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Pretreatment of MO-5 with TGF-..beta.. induced secretion of TGF-..beta..-like activity from the cells, while the treatment of Balb/c3T3 did not induce the secretion of a significant amount of TGF-..beta..-like activity. The loss of EGF-receptor activity in the stable expression and maintenance of the transformed phenotype in MO-5 is discussed.

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor is activated by hyposmolarity and is an early signal modulating osmolyte efflux pathways in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Franco; Ruth Lezama; Benito Ordaz; Herminia Pasantes-Morales

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of cultured Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts to 35% hyposmotic solution activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation to a greater extent than the ligand, EGF. Concanavalin A (Con A) and wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) had the same effect. EGFR phosphorylation seems to be involved in the transduction signalling for hyposmotically induced taurine release, as suggested by the latter’s reduction when EGFR

  14. Inhibition of Insulin and T 3 Induced Fatty Acid Synthase by Hexanoate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murielle M. Akpa; Sabine Sawadogo; Anne Radenne; Catherine Mounier

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is responsible for the de novo synthesis of palmitate and stearate. This enzyme is activated by\\u000a insulin and T3, and inhibited by fatty acids. In this study, we show that insulin and T3 have an inducing effect on FAS enzymatic activity, which is synergetic when both hormones are present. Octanoate and hexanoate\\u000a specifically inhibit this hormonal

  15. Curcumin induces apoptosis in immortalized NIH 3T3 and malignant cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming?Chung Jiang

    1996-01-01

    Curcumin, which is a widely used dietary pigment and spice, has been demonstrated to be an effective inhibitor of tumor promotion in mouse skin carcinogenesis. We report that curcumin induces cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation, characteristics of apoptosis, in immortalized mouse embryo fibroblast NIH 3T3 erb B2 oncogene?transformed NIH 3T3, mouse sarcoma S180, human colon cancer cell HT?29,

  16. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn [Department of Neurosurgery and Laboratory of Molecular Neurosurgery and Biotechnology, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery and Laboratory of Molecular Neurosurgery and Biotechnology, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Stevens, Victoria L. [Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Owens, Timothy R. [Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Oyesiku, Nelson M., E-mail: noyesik@emory.edu [Department of Neurosurgery and Laboratory of Molecular Neurosurgery and Biotechnology, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  17. Heat Shock Induces the Release of Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 from NIH 3T3 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Jackson; Stanley Friedman; Xi Zhan; Kurt A. Engleka; Reza Forough; Thomas Maciag

    1992-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is a potent angiogenic and neurotrophic factor whose structure lacks a classical signal sequence for secretion. Although the initiation of these biological activities involves the interaction between FGF-1 and cell surface receptors, the mechanism responsible for the regulation of FGF-1 secretion is unknown. We report that murine NIH 3T3 cells transfected with a synthetic gene

  18. Methylglyoxal induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, K S; Choi, E M; Rhee, S Y; Kim, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound produced by glycolytic processing and identified as a precursor of advanced glycation end products. The elevated methylglyoxal levels in patients with diabetes are believed to contribute to diabetic complications, including bone defects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylglyoxal on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The data indicated that methylglyoxal decreased osteoblast differentiation and induced osteoblast cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with aminoguanidine (a carbonyl scavenger), Trolox (an antioxidant), and cyclosporin A (a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore) prevented methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells. However, BAPTA/AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) and dantrolene (an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release) did not reverse the cytotoxic effect of methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal increased the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxide, and cardiolipin peroxidation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Methylglyoxal also decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP and nitric oxide levels, suggesting that carbonyl stress-induced loss of mitochondrial integrity contributes to the cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that methylglyoxal induced protein adduct formation, inactivation of glyoxalase I, and activation of glyoxalase II. Aminoguanidine reversed all aforementioned effects of methylglyoxal. Taken together, these data support the notion that high methylglyoxal concentrations have detrimental effects on osteoblasts through a mechanism involving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24164256

  19. Sakuranetin induces adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells through enhanced expression of PPAR?2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Saito; Daigo Abe; Keizo Sekiya

    2008-01-01

    Sakuranetin (5,4?-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone) belongs to the flavanone class of polyphenols predominantly known as phytoalexin in rice plant. In this study, we demonstrate that sakuranetin strongly induces differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, as evidenced by increased triglyceride accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. In addition, even in the absence of adipogenic hormonal stimuli, sakuranetin strongly induced adipogenesis and expression of genes that are

  20. Growth hormone promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of growth hormone receptors in murine 3T3-F442A fibroblasts and adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.M.; Shafer, J.A.; Rozsa, F.W.; Wang, X.; Lewis, S.D.; Renken, D.A.; Natale, J.E.; Schwartz, J.; Carter-Su, C.

    1988-01-12

    Because many growth factor receptors are ligand-activated tyrosine protein kinases, the possibility that growth hormone (GH), a hormone implicated in human growth, promotes tyrosyl phosphorylation of its receptor was investigated. /sup 125/I-Labeled human GH was covalently cross-linked to receptors in intact 3T3-F442A fibroblasts, a cell line which differentiates into adipocytes in response to GH. The cross-linked cells were solubilized and passed over a column of phosphotyrosyl binding antibody immobilized on protein A-Sepharose. Immunoadsorbed proteins were eluted with a hapten (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The eluate from the antibody column contained in M/sub r/ 134,000 /sup 125/I-GH-receptor complex. A similar result was obtained when the adipocyte form of 3T3-F442A cells was used in place of fibroblast form. O-Phosphotyrosine prevented /sup 125/I-GH-receptor complexes from binding to the antibody column, whereas O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine did not. In studies of GH-promoted phosphorylation in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts labeled metabolically with (/sup 32/P)P/sub i/, GH was shown to stimulate formation of a /sup 32/P-labeled protein which bound to immobilized phosphotyrosyl binding antibodies. The molecular weight of 114,000 obtained for this protein is similar to that expected for non-cross-linked GH receptor. These observations provide strong evidence that binding of GH to its receptor stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in the GH receptor.

  1. Sakuranetin induces adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells through enhanced expression of PPARgamma2.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Abe, Daigo; Sekiya, Keizo

    2008-08-01

    Sakuranetin (5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone) belongs to the flavanone class of polyphenols predominantly known as phytoalexin in rice plant. In this study, we demonstrate that sakuranetin strongly induces differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, as evidenced by increased triglyceride accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. In addition, even in the absence of adipogenic hormonal stimuli, sakuranetin strongly induced adipogenesis and expression of genes that are critical for the adipocytes phenotype. Time-course analyses indicated that sakuranetin induces PPARgamma2 expression without prior induction of C/EBPbeta, a transcriptional regulator of PPARgamma2 in adipogenesis. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the transcriptional factors GATA-2 and GATA-3 are known to down-regulate adipogenesis by direct binding to the C/EBPbeta protein and to the GATA-binding site on the PPARgamma2 promoter. We found that sakuranetin significantly reduced the expression of GATA-2. Moreover, we observed that sakuranetin stimulated glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that sakuranetin may contribute to maintain glucose homeostasis in animals. PMID:18522800

  2. Anandamide induced PPAR? transcriptional activation and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monsif Bouaboula; Sandrine Hilairet; Jean Marchand; Lluis Fajas; Gerard Le Fur; Pierre Casellas

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of anandamide on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) activity. In two different transactivation systems using either full-length or only the ligand binding domain of PPAR?, we showed that anandamide, but not palmitoylethanolamide induced transcriptional activation of PPAR? in a dose dependent manner with an EC50 of 8 ?M. In addition, competition binding experiments showed that anandamide

  3. The T3R alpha gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Fraichard, A; Chassande, O; Plateroti, M; Roux, J P; Trouillas, J; Dehay, C; Legrand, C; Gauthier, K; Kedinger, M; Malaval, L; Rousset, B; Samarut, J

    1997-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormones are thought to be mediated by two nuclear receptors, T3R alpha1 and T3R beta, encoded by the genes T3R alpha and T3R beta respectively. The T3R alpha gene also produces a non-ligand-binding protein T3R alpha2. The in vivo functions of these receptors are still unclear. We describe here the homozygous inactivation of the T3R alpha gene which abrogates the production of both T3R alpha1 and T3R alpha2 isoforms and that leads to death in mice within 5 weeks after birth. After 2 weeks of life, the homozygous mice become progressively hypothyroidic and exhibit a growth arrest. Small intestine and bones showed a strongly delayed maturation. In contrast to the negative regulatory function of the T3R beta gene on thyroid hormone production, our data show that the T3R alpha gene products are involved in up-regulation of thyroid hormone production at weaning time. Thus, thyroid hormone production might be balanced through a positive T3R alpha and a negative T3R beta pathway. The abnormal phenotypes observed on the homozygous mutant mice strongly suggest that the T3R alpha gene is essential for the transformation of a mother-dependent pup to an 'adult' mouse. These data define crucial in vivo functions for thyroid hormones through a T3R alpha pathway during post-natal development. PMID:9250685

  4. Proliferative and morphological changes induced by vanadium compounds on Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, A M; Sálice, V C; Vescina, C M; Etcheverry, S B

    1997-04-01

    Vanadium compounds are shown to have a mitogenic effect on fibroblast cells. The effects of vanadate, vanadyl and pervanadate on the proliferation and morphological changes of Swiss 3T3 cells in culture are compared. Vanadium derivatives induced cell proliferation in a biphasic manner, with a toxic-like effect at doses over 50 microM, after 24 h of incubation. Vanadyl and vanadate were equally potent at 2.5-10 microM. At 50 microM vanadate inhibited cell proliferation, whereas slight inhibition was observed at 100 microM of vanadyl. At 10 microM pervanadate was as potent as vanadate and vanadyl in stimulating fibroblast proliferation, but no effect was observed at lower concentrations. A pronounced cytotoxic-like effect was induced by pervanadate at 50 microM. All of these effects were accompanied by morphological changes: transformation of fibroblast shape from polygonal to fusiform; retraction with cytoplasm condensation; and loss of lamellar processes. The magnitude of these transformations correlates with the potency of vanadium derivatives to induce a cytotoxic-like effect: pervanadate > vanadate > vanadyl. These data suggest that the oxidation state and coordination geometry of vanadium determine the degree of the cytotoxicity. PMID:9210295

  5. Microconstituent-induced pitting corrosion in aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.S.; Gao, M.; Wei, R.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Free corrosion immersion experiments were conducted on a commercial airframe material, Al 2024-T3 (UNS A92024), in 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to investigate the role of microconstituents in pitting corrosion. The alloy was found to contain numerous constituent particles (> 300,000 per cm [> 2 million per in.]), and pitting corrosion essentially was attributable to these particles. Two types of constituent particles were identified. Each type played a different role in inducing pitting corrosion. Particles containing Al, Cu, Fe, and Mn acted as cathodes and promoted matrix dissolution at their periphery. Particles containing Al, Cu, and Mg showed anodic behavior and dissolved with preferential dissolution of Mg and Al. It was evident that individual particle-nucleated pits coalesced, laterally and in depth, to form larger pits. Tests conducted in deionized water indicated that only the Al-Cu-Mg-containing particles dissolved to produce localized corrosion damage at the surface. Microconstituent-induced pitting was found to depend upon solution pH.

  6. Mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-sensing receptor and its agonists stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Kifor, O.; Butters, R. R. Jr; Sugimoto, T.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. Osteoblasts appear at sites of osteoclastic bone resorption during bone remodeling in the "reversal" phase following osteoclastic resorption and preceding bone formation. Bone resorption produces substantial local increases in Ca2+o that could provide a signal for osteoblasts in the vicinity, leading us to determine whether such osteoblasts express the CaR. In this study, we used the mouse osteoblastic, clonal cell line MC3T3-E1. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using an antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also identified CaR transcripts in MC3T3-E1 cells by Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to high Ca2+o (up to 4.8 mM) or the polycationic CaR agonists, neomycin and gadolinium (Gd3+), stimulated both chemotaxis and DNA synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 possesses both CaR protein and mRNA very similar, if not identical, to those in parathyroid and kidney. Furthermore, the CaR in these osteoblasts could play a key role in regulating bone turnover by stimulating the proliferation and migration of such cells to sites of bone resorption as a result of local release of Ca2+o.

  7. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-03-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration.

  8. Bis(alpha-furancarboxylato)oxovanadium(IV) prevents and improves dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yi-Qing; Liu, Wei-Ping; Niu, Yan-Fen; Tian, Chang-Fu; Xie, Ming-Jin; Chen, Xi-Zhu; Li, Ling

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies showed that bis(alpha-furancarboxylato)oxovanadium(IV) (BFOV), an orally active anti-diabetic organic vanadium complex, could improve insulin resistance in animals with type 2 diabetes. The present study has been carried out to evaluate the effects of BFOV on insulin-resistant glucose metabolism using dexamethasone-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes as an in-vitro model of insulin resistance. The results showed that BFOV, similar to vanadyl sulfate and rosiglitazone, caused a concentration-dependent increase in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant adipocytes. Moreover, BFOV enhanced the action of insulin and completely prevented the development of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone, leading to glucose consumption equal to that by normal cells. In addition, dexamethasone reduced the mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, while BFOV normalized the expression of IRS-1 and GLUT4. These findings suggest that BFOV prevents and improves dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by enhancing expression of IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA. PMID:18812026

  9. Calcium-sensing receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C-?1 is downstream of phospholipase C-? and protein kinase C in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L Godwin; S. P Soltoff

    2002-01-01

    Elevated extracellular calcium (Cae) stimulates both chemotaxis and mitogenesis of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts via a calcium-sensing receptor (CasR). Cae-mediated chemotaxis of these bone-forming cells is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC) and blocked by the Gi-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin. In this study, we examine the signaling mechanisms by which the CasR stimulates PLC activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. We found that elevated Cae

  10. Epidermal growth factor-nonresponsive 3T3 variants do not contain epidermal growth factor receptor-related antigens or mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.A.; Lim, R.W.; Terwilliger, E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously isolated three independent variants of Swiss 3T3 cells that are unable to generate a mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Each of the variants is unable to bind /sup 125/I-labeled EGF; each lacks a functional EGF receptor. They used an antiserum to murine EGF receptor to look for an EGF-receptor gene product in wild-type 3T3 cells and in the three EGF-nonresponsive variants. No cross-reactive material could be detected in any of the three variants, either in /sup 125/I-labeled cell extracts or in (/sup 35/S)methionine metabolically labeled cells. 3T3 cells contained mRNA molecules homologous to a cDNA probe for the human EGF-receptor coding region. In contrast, no homologous RNA could be detected in any of the three variants. Analysis of genomic Southern blots of the DNA from 3T3 cells and the three EGF-nonresponsive variants indicated sequences from the EGF-receptor gene are present in the DNA of all four cell lines. These EGF-nonresponsive lines, which demonstrate proliferative responses to a variety of mitogens, will be ideal recipients for structure-function studies of the EGF receptor by transfection of the cloned gene.

  11. Purple Sweet Potato Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Reduces Inflammatory Adipokine Expression in 3T3-L1 Differentiated Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Chin, Ting-Yu; Tu, Ssu-Chieh; Wang, Yu-Jie; Hsu, Ya-Ting; Kao, Ming-Ching; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL) are widely grown and are considered a healthy vegetable in Taiwan. PSPL contain a high content of flavonoids, and the boiling water-extracted PSPL (PSPLE) is believed to prevent metabolic syndrome. However, its efficacy has not yet been verified. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PSPLE on adipocytes. Methods. The differentiated 3T3-L1 cells used in this study were derived from preadipocytes that were differentiated into adipocytes using an adipogenic agent (insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine); approximately 90% of the cells were differentiated using this method. Results. Treating the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with PSPLE caused a dose-dependent decrease in the number of adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. In addition, treatment with PSPLE resulted in apoptosis of the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells as determined by DAPI analysis and flow cytometry. PSPLE also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, PSPLE induced downregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) gene expression in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that PSPLE not only induced apoptosis but also downregulated inflammation-associated genes in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26170870

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation and morphological transfordmation induced by four vanadium compounds on MC3T3E1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. Sálice; A. M. Cortizo; C. L. Gómez Dumm; S. B. Etcheverry

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the phosphotyrosine-protein levels induced by insulin and by four vanadium derivatives in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. We have also attempted to associate these patterns vath the vanadium-induced growth and morphological changes of such cells. Vanadate (Vi), vanadyl (VO), bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV) and bis(maltolato)dioxovanadium (V) (BMV) stimulate cell growth in a narrow range of concentration,

  13. Expression of an Exogenous Eukaryotic DNA Methyltransferase Gene Induces Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Wu; Jean-Pierre Issa; James Herman; Douglas E. Bassett Jr.; Barry D. Nelkin; Stephen B. Baylin

    1993-01-01

    Abnormal regional increases in DNA methylation, which have potential for causing gene inactivation and chromosomal instability, are consistently found in immortalized and tumorigenic cells. Increased DNA methyltransferase activity, which is also a characteristic of such cells, is a candidate to mediate these abnormal DNA methylation patterns. We now show that, in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, constitutive overexpression of an exogenous

  14. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, accelerates TNF-?-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Ok Son; Sung-Ho Kook; Ki-Choon Choi; Yong-Suk Jang; Young-Mi Jeon; Jong-Ghee Kim; Kyung-Yeol Lee; Ju Kim; Mi-Sun Chung; Gook-Hyun Chung; Jeong-Chae Lee

    2006-01-01

    The bioflavonoid quercetin is believed to play an important role in preventing bone loss by affecting osteoclastogenesis and regulating many systemic and local factors including hormones and cytokines. This study examined how quercetin acts on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Tritium uptake assay showed that a quercetin treatment accelerated TNF-?-induced inhibition of DNA

  15. Energy metabolism response to calcium activation in isolated rat hearts during development and regression of T3-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Lortet, S; Heckmann, M; Ray, A; Rossi, A; Aussedat, J; Grably, S; Zimmer, H G

    1995-10-18

    The effect of calcium activation on energy production was investigated in isolated perfused hearts from rats treated with triiodothyronine (T3) during 15 days (0.2 mg/kg/day) and in hearts of rats allowed to recover after T3-treatment during 15 days. Changes in phosphorylated compound concentrations were followed in the isolated hearts perfused with a glucose-pyruvate medium by 31P-NMR spectroscopy, when the external calcium concentration was increased from 0.5-1, 1.5 and 2 mM. As expected, T3-treatment resulted in the hypertrophy of the heart (50% increase in HW/BW) that was nearly reversible 15 days after discontinuation of the treatment. When compared to controls, creatine, phosphocreatine (PCr) and glycogen contents were lower (58, 24 and 17% decrease respectively) in the hypertrophied hearts and higher (10, 14 and 18% respectively) after regression of hypertrophy. Intracellular pH, ATP, inorganic phosphate concentrations and the phosphorylation potential were not altered under T3-treatment and after regression of hypertrophy, while calculated free ADP concentration was lower in hypertrophied hearts (control: 40 +/- 2 microM, T3-treatment: 21 +/- 1 microM, regression: 37 +/- 1 microM). Increasing the calcium concentration induced a similar increase in left ventricular developed pressure in the three groups of hearts, with inorganic phosphate concentration increasing with cardiac work. The PCr concentration slightly decreased while the ATP concentration did not change. In spite of different initial PCr concentrations, the evolutions of PCr and Pi concentrations for each stepwise increase in external calcium were similar in the three groups. It is concluded that, in spite of the well-known decrease in efficiency induced by the drug, the mechanisms of PCr (ATP) production remain able to respond to an acute moderate increase in energy demand provoked by a physiological stimulus. This adaptation also persists after the treatment when the energy metabolism balance is apparently improved. PMID:8569765

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Masiello; Joseph S. Fotos; Deni S. Galileo; Norman J. Karin

    2006-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis

  17. Microconstituent-Induced Pitting Corrosion in Aluminum Alloy 2024-T3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Chen; M. S. Gao; R. P. Wei

    1996-01-01

    Free corrosion immersion experiments were conducted on a commercial airframe material, Al 2024-T3 (UNS A92024), in 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to investigate the role of microconstituents in pitting corrosion. The alloy was found to contain numerous constituent particles (> 300,000 per cm [> 2 million per in.]), and pitting corrosion essentially was attributable to these particles. Two types

  18. Tyrosine phosphorylation and morphological transformation induced by four vanadium compounds on MC3T3E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sálice, V C; Cortizo, A M; Gómez Dumm, C L; Etcheverry, S B

    1999-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the phosphotyrosine-protein levels induced by insulin and by four vanadium derivatives in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. We have also attempted to associate these patterns with the vanadium-induced growth and morphological changes of such cells. Vanadate (Vi), vanadyl (VO), bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV) and bis(maltolato)dioxovanadium (V) (BMV) stimulate cell growth in a narrow range of concentration, but are also inhibitors for the cells at high concentrations. Vanadium-treated cells displayed clear changes in their morphology after overnight incubation. However, BMV was the least cytotoxic and the weakest inducer of morphological changes. All the compounds promote the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in several proteins. This effect was more pronounced at low than at high doses. At low doses (10 microM), BMV showed a phosphorylation pattern similar to that of insulin, while Vi, VO and BMOV induced strong phosphorylation of cell proteins. The present findings suggest that the vanadium-induced growth regulation and morphological changes in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells are associated with the ability of these agents to increase the phosphotyrosine protein levels and to inhibit phosphotyrosine phosphatases. These properties are dependent on the oxidation state as well as on the organic ligand which coordinates the vanadium atom. PMID:10497886

  19. Killing two birds with one stone: trans-kingdom suppression of PAMP/MAMP-induced immunity by T3E from enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Malou; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Within the past decade, remarkable similarities between the molecular organization of animal and plant systems for non-self discrimination were revealed. Obvious parallels exist between the molecular structures of the receptors mediating the recognition of pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) with plant pattern recognition receptors strikingly resembling mammalian Toll-like receptors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, leading to the transcriptional activation of immunity-associated genes, illustrate the conservation of whole molecular building blocks of PAMP/MAMP-induced signaling. Enteropathogenic Salmonella and Escherichia coli use a type three secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into the mammalian host cell to subvert defense mechanisms and promote gut infection. Lately, disease occurrence was increasingly associated with bacteria-contaminated fruits and vegetables and common themes have emerged with regard to whether and how effectors target innate immune responses in a trans-kingdom manner. We propose that numerous Salmonella or E. coli effectors may be active in planta and tend to target central components (hubs) of immune signaling pathways. PMID:25101059

  20. A possible role of oxidative stress in the vanadium-induced cytotoxicity in the MC3T3E1 osteoblast and UMR106 osteosarcoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Mar??a Cortizo; Liliana Bruzzone; Silvina Molinuevo; Susana Beatriz Etcheverry

    2000-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and free radical production induced by vanadium compounds were investigated in an osteoblast (MC3T3E1) and an osteosarcoma (UMR106) cell lines in culture. Vanadate induced cell toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1–10 mM) after 4 h. The concentration–response curve of vanadate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in MC3T3E1

  1. A Nanodot Array Modulates Cell Adhesion and Induces an Apoptosis-Like Abnormality in NIH-3T3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Micro-structures that mimic the extracellular substratum promote cell growth and differentiation, while the cellular reaction to a nanostructure is poorly defined. To evaluate the cellular response to a nanoscaled surface, NIH 3T3 cells were grown on nanodot arrays with dot diameters ranging from 10 to 200 nm. The nanodot arrays were fabricated by AAO processing on TaN-coated wafers. A thin layer of platinum, 5 nm in thickness, was sputtered onto the structure to improve biocompatibility. The cells grew normally on the 10-nm array and on flat surfaces. However, 50-nm, 100-nm, and 200-nm nanodot arrays induced apoptosis-like events. Abnormality was triggered after as few as 24 h of incubation on a 200-nm dot array. For cells grown on the 50-nm array, the abnormality started after 72 h of incubation. The number of filopodia extended from the cell bodies was lower for the abnormal cells. Immunostaining using antibodies against vinculin and actin filament was performed. Both the number of focal adhesions and the amount of cytoskeleton were decreased in cells grown on the 100-nm and 200-nm arrays. Pre-coatings of fibronectin (FN) or type I collagen promoted cellular anchorage and prevented the nanotopography-induced programed cell death. In summary, nanotopography, in the form of nanodot arrays, induced an apoptosis-like abnormality for cultured NIH 3T3 cells. The occurrence of the abnormality was mediated by the formation of focal adhesions. PMID:20596320

  2. Structure of the human receptor tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene (PTPRG) and relation to the familial RCC t(3;8) chromosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Kastury, K; Ohta, M; Lasota, J; Moir, D; Dorman, T; LaForgia, S; Druck, T; Huebner, K

    1996-03-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene, PTP gamma (locus name PTPRG), was previously mapped to chromosome region 3p14.2, within a 2- to 4-Mb region centromeric to the 3p14.2 breakpoint of the t(3;8) familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated constitutional chromosome translocation. Because of its chromosomal position, its enzymatic properties as a receptor phosphatase, which might oppose a growth activating kinase activity, its homozygous deletion in murine L cells, and its transcriptional activity in numerous normal tissues, including kidney, the PTP gamma gene was an attractive tumor suppressor gene candidate for renal cell carcinoma. To determine whether the PTP gamma gene was a target of loss of heterozygosity or mutation in RCCs and to determine its map position relative to the t(3;8) break at 3p14.2, we have isolated YAC and lambda genomic clones for the PTP gamma gene and other 3p14.2 markers and determined the relative positions of the t(3;8) break, a 3p14.2 de novo break possibly in a fragile site, and the 5' end of the PTP gamma gene. Additionally, the genomic structure, position of the proximal promotor, and intron-exon border sequences of the 30-exon 780-kb PTP gamma gene have been determined, which will facilitate analysis of the PTP gamma gene in tumors. PMID:8833149

  3. PPAR? agonist fenofibrate attenuates TNF-?-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weirong [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Lin, Qinqin [Physical Education College, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Lin, Rong, E-mail: linrong63@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Zhang, Jiye [Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ji, Meixi; Li, Yanxiang [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2013-06-10

    The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) participates in the regulation of cellular inflammation. More recent studies indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes. However, whether the role of PPAR? in inflammation is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of PPAR? agonist fenofibrate on the expressions of SIRT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine CD40 and underlying mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that fenofibrate inhibited CD40 expression and up-regulated SIRT1 expression in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated adipocytes, and these effects of fenofibrate were reversed by PPAR? antagonist GW6471. Moreover, SIRT1 inhibitors sirtinol/nicotinamide (NAM) or knockdown of SIRT1 could attenuate the effect of fenofibrate on TNF-?-induced CD40 expression in adipocytes. Importantly, NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) augmented the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression in adipocytes. Further study found that fenofibrate decreased the expression of acetylated-NF-?B p65 (Ac-NF-?B p65) in TNF-?-stimulated adipocytes, and the effect of fenofibrate was abolished by SIRT1 inhibition. In addition, fenofibrate up-regulated SIRT1 expression through AMPK in TNF-?-stimulated adipocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that PPAR? agonist fenofibrate inhibits TNF-?-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway. -- Highlights: • Fenofibrate up-regulates SIRT1 expression in TNF-?-stimulated adipocytes. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression through SIRT1 in adipocytes. • The effects of fenofibrate on CD40 and SIRT1 expressions are dependent on PPAR?. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression via SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of NF-?B. • Fenofibrate increases SIRT1 expression through PPAR? and AMPK in adipocytes.

  4. Prostaglandin F2 alpha decreases the affinity of epidermal growth factor receptors in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells via protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed

    Jimenez de Asua, L; Goin, M

    1992-03-16

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) selectively decreases the binding of 125I-labelled epidermal growth factor ([125I]EGF) to intact Swiss 3T3 cells. Scatchard analysis reveals that PGF2 alpha decreases the number of high-affinity EGF binding sites without changing the total number of receptors. Prostaglandins E1 (PGE1), E2 (PGE2) or F2 beta (PGF2 beta) do not alter the EGF binding to these cells and do not enhance the PGF2 alpha effect. R-59022 and R-59949, two diacylglycerol kinase inhibitors, enhance the inhibitory effect of PGF2 alpha, whereas down-modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) abolishes the effect. These results indicate that PGF2 alpha decreases EGF binding in Swiss 3T3 cells via PKC activation. PMID:1312042

  5. Macrophage-conditioned medium inhibits differentiation-induced Rb phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmo, Michelle N.; Landry, Anne; Molgat, Andre S.D.; Gagnon, AnneMarie [Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Chronic Disease Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Chronic Disease Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sorisky, Alexander [Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Chronic Disease Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Chronic Disease Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: asorisky@ohri.ca

    2009-02-01

    This study examines the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic effect of macrophage-secreted products. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate over 8 days in medium conditioned by murine J774 macrophages (MacCM). The inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers was diminished when addition of MacCM was delayed to day 2 of differentiation. Clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, was reduced in the presence of MacCM (89%; n = 3; p < 0.001), and BrdU incorporation was impaired by 55% (n = 3; p < 0.01). Activation of ERK1/2 was not affected by MacCM, and neither was the expression of p27{sup kip1}, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. However, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), required for cell cycle progression, was impaired by MacCM (94% inhibition; n = 3; p < 0.01). Differentiation-dependent expression, nuclear localization, and DNA binding ability of C/EBP{beta} were not inhibited by MacCM. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the anti-adipogenic action of MacCM.

  6. The gene expression profile induced by Wnt 3a in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiong; McLean, Sarah; Carter, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Wnt proteins play important roles in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and polarity. Wnts have been proposed to play roles in tissue repair and fibrosis, yet the gene expression profile of fibroblasts exposed to Wnts has not been examined. We use Affymetrix genome-wide expression profiling to show that a 6-h treatment of fibroblasts of Wnt3a results in the induction of mRNAs encoding known Wnt targets such as the fibrogenic pro-adhesive molecule connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2). Wnt3a also induces mRNAs encoding potent pro-fibrotic proteins such as TGF? and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Moreover, Wnt3a promotes genes associated with cell adhesion and migration, vasculature development, cell proliferation and Wnt signaling. Conversely, Wnt3a suppresses gene associated with skeletal development, matrix degradation and cell death. Results were confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction of cells exposed to Wnt3a and Wnt10b. These results suggest that Wnts induce genes promoting fibroblast differentiation towards angiogenesis and matrix remodeling, at the expense of skeletal development. PMID:18600477

  7. Fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts requires cytoskeleton-integrin interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavalko, F. M.; Chen, N. X.; Turner, C. H.; Burr, D. B.; Atkinson, S.; Hsieh, Y. F.; Qiu, J.; Duncan, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation of bone induces new bone formation in vivo and increases the metabolic activity and gene expression of osteoblasts in culture. We investigated the role of the actin cytoskeleton and actin-membrane interactions in the transmission of mechanical signals leading to altered gene expression in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Application of fluid shear to osteoblasts caused reorganization of actin filaments into contractile stress fibers and involved recruitment of beta1-integrins and alpha-actinin to focal adhesions. Fluid shear also increased expression of two proteins linked to mechanotransduction in vivo, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the early response gene product c-fos. Inhibition of actin stress fiber development by treatment of cells with cytochalasin D, by expression of a dominant negative form of the small GTPase Rho, or by microinjection into cells of a proteolytic fragment of alpha-actinin that inhibits alpha-actinin-mediated anchoring of actin filaments to integrins at the plasma membrane each blocked fluid-shear-induced gene expression in osteoblasts. We conclude that fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in osteoblasts leads to increased expression of COX-2 and c-Fos through a mechanism that involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus Rho-mediated stress fiber formation and the alpha-actinin-dependent anchorage of stress fibers to integrins in focal adhesions may promote fluid shear-induced metabolic changes in bone cells.

  8. Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.

  9. Muscarinic receptors transform NIH 3T3 cells through a Ras-dependent signalling pathway inhibited by the Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain.

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, R R; Sorisky, A; Brann, M R; Macara, I G

    1994-01-01

    Expression of certain subtypes of human muscarinic receptors in NIH 3T3 cells provides an agonist-dependent model of cellular transformation by formation of foci in response to carbachol. Although focus formation correlates with the ability of the muscarinic receptors to activate phospholipase C, the actual mitogenic signal transduction pathway is unknown. Through cotransfection experiments and measurement of the activation state of native and epitope-tagged Ras proteins, the contributions of Ras and Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) to muscarinic receptor-dependent transformation were defined. Transforming muscarinic receptors were able to activate Ras, and such activation was required for transformation because focus formation was inhibited by coexpression of either Ras with a dominant-negative mutation or constructs of Ras-GAP that include the catalytic domain. Coexpression of the N-terminal region of GAP or of its isolated SH3 (Src homology 3) domain, but not its SH2 domain, was also sufficient to suppress muscarinic receptor-dependent focus formation. Point mutations at conserved residues in the Ras-GAP SH3 domain reversed its action, leading to an increase in carbachol-dependent transformation. The inhibitory effect of expression of the Ras-GAP SH3 domain occurs proximal to Ras activation and is selective for the mitogenic pathway activated by carbachol, as cellular transformation by either v-Ras or trkA/nerve growth factor is unaffected. Images PMID:7969134

  10. Original article Impaired peripheral T3 production but normal

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Impaired peripheral T3 production but normal induced thyroid hormone secretion with hepatic 5'-monodeiodination (5'-D) activity, were measured in normal (Dw) and dwarf chick (dw) embryos to the lack of hepatic GH receptors in these animals. chicken / dwarf I thyroidTRH / CRH / GH Résumé &horbar

  11. Ginsenoside 20S-protopanaxatriol (PPT) activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu Lee; Jung, Myeong Ho; Sohn, Jong Hee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the nuclear receptor of ligand-activated transcription factors, regulates the expression of key genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism or adipocyte differentiation. Ligands for this receptor have emerged as potent insulin sensitizers used in the treatment of Type2 diabetes. Ginseng saponins or ginsenosides are reported to provide anti-diabetic activity as well as to modulate glucose metabolism, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of ginsenosides on activation of PPARgamma and adipogenes in 3T3-L1. Using a GAL-4/PPARgamma transactivation assay, 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenoside metabolites, was found to increase PPARgamma-transactivation activity dose-dependently with similar activity as troglitazone, a well-known PPARgamma agonist. PPT enhanced adipogenesis by increasing the expression of PPARgamma target genes such as aP2, LPL and PEPCK. Furthermore, PPT significantly increased expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). These results indicate that PPT can be developed as a PPARgamma agonist for the improvement of insulin resistance associated with diabetes. PMID:16394521

  12. Invasiveness and Metastasis of NIH 3T3 Cells Induced by Met-Hepatocyte Growth Factor\\/Scatter Factor Autocrine Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sing Rong; Shraga Segal; Miriam Anver; James H. Resau; George F. Vande Woude

    1994-01-01

    The met protooncogene product, Met, is the tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor for hepatocyte growth factor\\/scatter factor (HGF\\/SF). NIH 3T3 cells express HGF\\/SF endogenously and become tumorigenic in nude mice via an autocrine mechanism when murine Met is expressed ectopically (Metmu cells) or when human Met and human HGF\\/SF are coexpressed (HMH cells). Here, we show that Metmu and HMH

  13. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B/sub 1/ subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B/sub 1/ to B/sub 2/ and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol and the B/sub 2/ selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using /sup 32/P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells.

  14. The thyroid hormone receptor ? induces DNA damage and premature senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Alberto; García-Carpizo, Verónica; Gallardo, María Esther; Villamuera, Raquel; Gómez-Ferrería, Maria Ana; Pascual, Angel; Buisine, Nicolas; Sachs, Laurent M.; Garesse, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the thyroid hormone (TH) receptors (THRs) can play a role in aging, cancer and degenerative diseases. In this paper, we demonstrate that binding of TH T3 (triiodothyronine) to THRB induces senescence and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in cultured cells and in tissues of young hyperthyroid mice. T3 induces a rapid activation of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)/PRKAA (adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase) signal transduction and recruitment of the NRF1 (nuclear respiratory factor 1) and THRB to the promoters of genes with a key role on mitochondrial respiration. Increased respiration leads to production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which in turn causes oxidative stress and DNA double-strand breaks and triggers a DNA damage response that ultimately leads to premature senescence of susceptible cells. Our findings provide a mechanism for integrating metabolic effects of THs with the tumor suppressor activity of THRB, the effect of thyroidal status on longevity, and the occurrence of tissue damage in hyperthyroidism. PMID:24395638

  15. Lipoprotein Lipase Suppression in 3T3-L1 Cells by an Endotoxin-Induced Mediator from Exudate Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanobu Kawakami; Phillip H. Pekala; Anthony Cerami

    1982-01-01

    Conditioned medium from cultures of mouse peritoneal exudate cells incubated with endotoxin contains a mediator that markedly suppresses (>90%) lipoprotein lipase (triacylglycero-protein acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.34) activity in differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes. The effect is dependent upon the amount of mediator and is evident as early as 30 min after the addition of the mediator-containing medium to 3T3-L1 cell cultures. Neither

  16. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced repression of GKAP42 protein levels through cGMP-dependent kinase (cGK)-I? causes insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yasutoshi; Shinozawa, Yusuke; Iijima, Yumi; Yu, Bu-Chin; Sone, Meri; Ooi, Yuko; Watanaka, Yusuke; Chida, Kazuhiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-02-27

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) have been shown to be major mediators of insulin signaling. Recently, we found that IRSs form high-molecular weight complexes, and here, we identify by yeast two-hybrid screening a novel IRS-1-associated protein: a 42-kDa cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein (GKAP42). GKAP42 knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed insulin-dependent IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream signaling, resulting in suppression of GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane induced by insulin. In addition, GLUT4 translocation was also suppressed in cells overexpressing GKAP42-N (the IRS-1 binding region of GKAP42), which competed with GKAP42 for IRS-1, indicating that GKAP42 binding to IRS-1 is required for insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation. Long term treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TNF-?, which induced insulin resistance, significantly decreased the GKAP42 protein level. We then investigated the roles of cGMP-dependent kinase (cGK)-I?, which bound to GKAP42, in these changes. cGK-I? knockdown partially rescued TNF-?-induced decrease in GKAP42 and impairment of insulin signals. These data indicated that TNF-?-induced repression of GKAP42 via cGK-I? caused reduction of insulin-induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation at least in part. The present study describes analysis of the novel TNF-?-induced pathway, cGK-I?-GKAP42, which regulates insulin-dependent signals and GLUT4 translocation. PMID:25586176

  17. Antisense RNA--Induced Reduction in Murine TIMP Levels Confers Oncogenicity on Swiss 3T3 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rama Khokha; Paul Waterhouse; Simcha Yagel; Peeyush K. Lala; Christopher M. Overall; Gill Norton; David T. Denhardt

    1989-01-01

    Mouse 3T3 cell lines capable of constitutively synthesizing an RNA complementary to the messenger RNA encoding TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, were constructed by transfection with appropriate plasmid constructs. Many of the lines were down-modulated for TIMP messenger RNA levels and secreted less TIMP into the culture medium. In comparison to noninvasive, nontumorigenic controls, these cells not only were invasive

  18. In vitro effects of sodium selenite on nuclear 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) receptor gene expression in rat pituitary GH 4 C 1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julius Brtko; Peter Filip?ík; So?a Hudecová; Vladimír Štrbák; Anastázia Brtková

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the effects of sodium selenite on:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The growth of rat pituitary GH4C1 cells;\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The nuclear T3 receptor gene expression;\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a The cytoplasmic protein phosphorylation; and\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a The prolactin secretion in rat pituitary GH4C1 cell line.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Sodium selenite (up to 2.5 ?M) has no inhibitory effect on GH4C1 cell proliferation

  19. G Alpha-q\\/11 Protein Plays a Key Role in Insulin-Induced Glucose Transport in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAKESHI IMAMURA; PETER VOLLENWEIDER; KATSUYA EGAWA; MARTIN CLODI; KENICHI ISHIBASHI; NAOKI NAKASHIMA; SATOSHI UGI; JOHN W. ADAMS; JOAN HELLER BROWN; JERROLD M. OLEFSKY

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the role of the G alpha-q (Gaq) subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins in the insulin signaling pathway leading to GLUT4 translocation. We inhibited endogenous Gaq function by single cell microinjection of anti-Gaq\\/11 antibody or RGS2 protein (a GAP protein for Gaq), followed by immunostaining to assess GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Gaq\\/11 antibody and RGS2 inhibited insulin-induced GLUT4

  20. Ginsenoside Rh2(S) induces differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through activation of the PKD/AMPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Yeon; Park, Ki Ho; Jung, Mi Song; Huang, Bo; Yuan, Hai-Dan; Quan, Hai-Yan; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2011-11-01

    As part of our search for biologically active anti-osteoporotic agents that enhance differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, we identified the ginsenoside Rh2(S). Mostly known to exhibit beneficial effects in cancer prevention and metabolic diseases, Rh2(S) is one of the most active ginsenosides. Here, we show that Rh2(S) stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization, manifested by the up-regulation of differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteogenic genes) and von Kossa/Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Rh2(S) also activated protein kinase D (PKD) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and Rh2(S)-induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cells were significantly abolished in the presence of specific inhibitors; Go6976 for PKD and Ara-A for AMPK. Furthermore, Go6976 suppressed Rh2(S)-mediated activation of AMPK, indicating that PKD may be an upstream signal for AMPK in Rh2(S)-induced differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Rh2(S) induces the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through activation of PKD/AMPK signaling pathways. These findings provide a molecular basis for the osteogenic effect of Rh2(S). PMID:21769419

  1. Ginsenoside Rh2(S) induces the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells through activation of PKD and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Mi Song; Park, Young Guk; Yuan, Hai Dan; Quan, Hai Yan; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2011-10-01

    As part of the search for biologically active anti-osteoporotic agents that enhance differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, we identified the ginsenoside Rh2(S), which is an active component in ginseng. Rh2(S) stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization, as manifested by the up-regulation of differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteogenic genes) and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Rh2(S) activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in time- and concentration-dependent manners, and Rh2(S)-induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cells were totally inhibited in the presence of the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580. In addition, pretreatment with Go6976, a protein kinase D (PKD) inhibitor, significantly reversed the Rh2(S)-induced p38 MAPK activation, indicating that PKD might be an upstream kinase for p38 MAPK in MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Rh2(S) induces the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through activation of PKD/p38 MAPK signaling pathways, and these findings provide a molecular basis for the osteogenic effect of Rh2(S). PMID:22026999

  2. Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Lee, Soo-Jung; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Gon-Sup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE) in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBP?, as well as the C/EBP? and PPAR? genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3?, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPAR? and C/EBP? and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and PPAR? and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain and inhibited fat accumulation in an HFD-induced animal model of obesity. PMID:23936120

  3. Ajoene exerts potent effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Suresh; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Rayalam, Srujana; Park, Hea Jin; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes effects of several sulfur-containing compounds from garlic on the cell viability, apoptosis and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In both preadipocytes and mature adipocytes, 100 and 200 microM ajoene significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. The effect on apoptosis was further confirmed with Hoechst staining. In contrast, diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, deoxyalliin, and allyl methyl sulfide had no significant effect on cell viability or apoptosis in either preadipocytes or mature adipocytes. In maturing preadipocytes ajoene significantly decreased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner and these results were further confirmed by a decrease in lipid droplet number and lipid content through Oil Red O staining. There was no significant change in lipid accumulation in maturing preadipocytes treated with other garlic derivatives. Thus, despite the same source of origin, garlic, ajoene was the only one with potent effects on cell viability, apoptosis and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:19051208

  4. Novel ATP-binding heat-inducible protein of Mr = 37,000 that is sensitive to transformation in BALB/3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, A.; Hirayama, C.; Ohtsuka, K.; Hirayoshi, K.; Nagata, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Using affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose, we have identified a major ATP-binding protein in Nonidet P-40 extracts of avian and mammalian cells labeled with (35S)methionine. After washing ATP-agarose beads with high-ionic-strength buffer (0.4 M NaCl), the 37-kD protein was shown to be one of the major ATP-binding proteins while p72 and grp78, which are members of the hsp70 family, also bound to ATP-agarose. This protein consisted of several spots on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the most basic spot was approximately 9.2 in chick embryo fibroblasts, whereas it was about 8.8 in mouse 3T3 cells. The identities of these proteins in mouse and chick cells were confirmed by peptide mapping. After heat-shock treatment of BALB/3T3 cells, the major heat-shock protein, hsp70, was shown to be induced very rapidly after heat shock and was recovered in the ATP-binding fraction. Besides hsp70, a 37-kD protein was also found to be induced by heat shock. This protein was drastically induced by treating the cells with alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl, an iron chelating reagent, but not with sodium arsenite, calcium ionophore, or tunicamycin. The synthesis and the total amount of this ATP-binding protein increased in mouse 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, methylcholanthrene, or activated c-Ha-ras oncogene compared to their normal counterparts. The incorporation of (32P)orthophosphate was not detected in either normal or transformed cells. These studies established that a major ATP-binding protein of Mr = 37,000 is a heat-inducible protein and that the synthesis of this protein is regulated by malignant transformation.

  5. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells. PMID:25685661

  6. The ?-SiC Nanowires (~100 nm) Induce Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress in Mouse Osteoblastic Cell Line MC3T3-E1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weili; Xie, Qi; Jin, Meishan; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shao, Zhengkai; Wen, Guangwu

    2014-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC), a compound of silicon and carbon, with chemical formula SiC, the beta modification (?-SiC), with a zinc blende crystal structure (similar to diamond), is formed at temperature below 1700°C. ?-SiC will be the most suitable ceramic material for the future hard tissue replacement, such as bone and tooth. The in vitro cytotoxicity of ?-SiC nanowires was investigated for the first time. Our results indicated that 100?nm long SiC nanowires could significantly induce the apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, compared with 100??m long SiC nanowires. And 100?nm long SiC nanowires increased oxidative stress in MC3T3-E1 cells, as determined by the concentrations of MDA (as a marker of lipid peroxidation) and 8-OHdG (indicator of oxidative DNA damage). Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to evaluate the morphological changes of MC3T3-E1 cells. After treatment with 100?nm long SiC nanowires, the mitochondria were swelled and disintegrated, and the production of ATP and the total oxygen uptake were also decreased significantly. Therefore, ?-SiC nanowires may have limitations as medical material. PMID:24967352

  7. A transmission electron microscopy study of constituent-particle-induced corrosion in 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Wei; Chi-Min Liao; Ming Gao

    1998-01-01

    To better understand particle-induced pitting corrosion in aluminum alloys, thin foil specimens of 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum\\u000a alloys, with identified constituent particles, were immersed in aerated 0.5M NaCl solution and then examined by transmission\\u000a electron microscopy (TEM). The results clearly showed matrix dissolution around the iron- and manganese-containing particles\\u000a (such as Al23CuFe4), as well as the Al2Cu particles. While Al2CuMg

  8. Invasiveness and metastasis of NIH 3T3 cells induced by Met-hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor autocrine stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rong, S; Segal, S; Anver, M; Resau, J H; Vande Woude, G F

    1994-01-01

    The met protooncogene product, Met, is the tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). NIH 3T3 cells express HGF/SF endogenously and become tumorigenic in nude mice via an autocrine mechanism when murine Met is expressed ectopically (Metmu cells) or when human Met and human HGF/SF are coexpressed (HMH cells). Here, we show that Metmu and HMH cells are invasive in vitro and display enhanced protease activity necessary for the invasive phenotype. In experimental and spontaneous metastasis assays, Metmu or HMH cells metastasize to the lung, but lower numbers of subcutaneously injected Metmu and HMH cells produced invasive tumors in the heart, diaphragm, salivary gland, and retroperitoneum. It has been reported elsewhere that Met expression increased with tumor passage in athymic nude mice, and these tumor explants show enhanced activity in the metastasis assays. Autocrine-mediated Met-HGF/SF signal transduction in NIH 3T3 mesenchymal cells may provide an important system for understanding the biological process of metastasis. Images PMID:8197126

  9. Nucleocytoplasmic transport is enhanced concomitant with nuclear accumulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding activity in both 3T3-1 and EGF receptor reconstituted NR-6 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of nucleocytoplasmic transport of fluorescent-labeled macromolecules were performed in both an EGF-nonresponsive mutant fibroblast line (3T3-NR6) and in the same cell line reconstituted with active EGF receptors derived from rat hepatic membrane fraction. Immunolocalization studies of exogenously incorporated EGF receptors in reconstituted 3T3-NR6 fibroblasts demonstrated predominantly intracellular localization. The EGF receptor constructs also showed EGF- stimulated incorporation of [3H]thymidine, providing biochemical evidence for functional integration of the exogenously supplied EGF receptors into the reconstituted fibroblasts. Additional support for the functional incorporation of receptor may be inferred from the enhanced cellular accumulation of 125I-EGF in cells treated with chloroquine and leupeptin. 125I-EGF binding and transnuclear macromolecular transport measurements in mutant and reconstituted cells, in conjunction with such measurements on nuclei isolated from these cells, provide data consistent with a growth factor/nuclear signaling mechanism dependent on the nuclear acquisition of EGF binding activity from the plasma membrane. PMID:2307699

  10. Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  11. A transmission electron microscopy study of constituent-particle-induced corrosion in 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, R.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics; Liao, C.M. [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Gao, M. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Center, Farmers Branch, TX (United States). Material, Corrosion and Inspection Group

    1998-04-01

    To better understand particle-induced pitting corrosion in aluminum alloys, thin foil specimens of 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys, with identified constituent particles, were immersed in aerated 0.5M NaCl solution and then examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results clearly showed matrix dissolution around the iron- and manganese-containing particles (such as Al{sub 23}CuFe{sub 4}), as well as the Al{sub 2}Cu particles. While Al{sub 2}CuMg particles tended to dissolve relative to the matrix, limited local dissolution of the matrix was also observed around these particles. These results are consistent with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of pitting corrosion and are discussed in terms of the electrochemical characteristics of the particles and the matrix.

  12. A transmission electron microscopy study of constituent-particle-induced corrosion in 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Robert P.; Liao, Chi-Min; Gao, Ming

    1998-04-01

    To better understand particle-induced pitting corrosion in aluminum alloys, thin foil specimens of 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys, with identified constituent particles, were immersed in aerated 0.5M NaCl solution and then examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results clearly showed matrix dissolution around the iron- and manganese-containing particles (such as Al23CuFe4), as well as the Al2Cu particles. While Al2CuMg particles tended to dissolve relative to the matrix, limited local dissolution of the matrix was also observed around these particles. These results are consistent with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of pitting corrosion and are discussed in terms of the electrochemical characteristics of the particles and the matrix.

  13. Epigallocathechin-3 Gallate Selectively Inhibits the PDGF-BB–induced Intracellular Signaling Transduction Pathway in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Inhibits Transformation of sis-transfected NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts and Human Glioblastoma Cells (A172)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee-Yul; Hadizadeh, Kourosch Reza; Seul, Claudia; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Vetter, Hans; Sachinidis, Agapios

    1999-01-01

    Enhanced activity of receptor tyrosine kinases such as the PDGF ?-receptor and EGF receptor has been implicated as a contributing factor in the development of malignant and nonmalignant proliferative diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Several epidemiological studies suggest that green tea may prevent the development of cancer and atherosclerosis. One of the major constituents of green tea is the polyphenol epigallocathechin-3 gallate (EGCG). In an attempt to offer a possible explanation for the anti-cancer and anti-atherosclerotic activity of EGCG, we examined the effect of EGCG on the PDGF-BB–, EGF-, angiotensin II-, and FCS-induced activation of the 44 kDa and 42 kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase isoforms (p44mapk/p42mapk) in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rat aorta. VSMCs were treated with EGCG (1–100 ?M) for 24 h and stimulated with the above mentioned agonists for different time periods. Stimulation of the p44mapk/p42mapk was detected by the enhanced Western blotting method using phospho-specific MAP kinase antibodies that recognized the Tyr204-phosphorylated (active) isoforms. Treatment of VSMCs with 10 and 50 ?M EGCG resulted in an 80% and a complete inhibition of the PDGF-BB–induced activation of MAP kinase isoforms, respectively. In striking contrast, EGCG (1–100 ?M) did not influence MAP kinase activation by EGF, angiotensin II, and FCS. Similarly, the maximal effect of PDGF-BB on the c-fos and egr-1 mRNA expression as well as on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration was completely inhibited in EGCG-treated VSMCs, whereas the effect of EGF was not affected. Quantification of the immunoprecipitated tyrosine-phosphorylated PDGF-R?, phosphatidylinositol 3?-kinase, and phospholipase C-?1 by the enhanced Western blotting method revealed that EGCG treatment effectively inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of these kinases in VSMCs. Furthermore, we show that spheroid formation of human glioblastoma cells (A172) and colony formation of sis-transfected NIH 3T3 cells in semisolid agar are completely inhibited by 20–50 ?M EGCG. Our findings demonstrate that EGCG is a selective inhibitor of the tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF-R? and its downstream signaling pathway. The present findings may partly explain the anti-cancer and anti-atherosclerotic activity of green tea. PMID:10198059

  14. Tension Force-Induced ATP Promotes Osteogenesis Through P2X7 Receptor in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Taro; Tanabe, Natsuko; Shionome, Chieko; Manaka, Soichiro; Kawato, Takayuki; Zhao, Ning; Maeno, Masao; Suzuki, Naoto; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement induces alveolar bone resorption and formation by mechanical stimuli. Force exerted on the traction side promotes bone formation. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is one of the key mediators that respond to bone cells by mechanical stimuli. However, the effect of tension force (TF)-induced ATP on osteogenesis is inadequately understood. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of TF on ATP production and osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Cells were incubated in the presence or absence of P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079, and then stimulated with or without cyclic TF (6% or 18%) for a maximum of 24?h using Flexercell Strain Unit 3000. TF significantly increased extracellular ATP release compared to control. Six percent TF had maximum effect on ATP release compared to 18% TF and control. Six percent TF induced the expression of Runx2 and Osterix. Six percent TF also increased the expression of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs), ALP activity, and the calcium content in ECM. A438079 blocked the stimulatory effect of 6% TF on the expression of Runx2, Osterix and ECMPs, ALP activity, and calcium content in ECM. This study indicated that TF-induced extracellular ATP is released in osteoblasts, suggesting that TF-induced ATP promotes osteogenesis by autocrine action through P2X7 receptor in osteoblasts. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 12–21, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24905552

  15. Tension force-induced ATP promotes osteogenesis through P2X7 receptor in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Taro; Tanabe, Natsuko; Shionome, Chieko; Manaka, Soichiro; Kawato, Takayuki; Zhao, Ning; Maeno, Masao; Suzuki, Naoto; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement induces alveolar bone resorption and formation by mechanical stimuli. Force exerted on the traction side promotes bone formation. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is one of the key mediators that respond to bone cells by mechanical stimuli. However, the effect of tension force (TF)-induced ATP on osteogenesis is inadequately understood. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of TF on ATP production and osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Cells were incubated in the presence or absence of P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079, and then stimulated with or without cyclic TF (6% or 18%) for a maximum of 24?h using Flexercell Strain Unit 3000. TF significantly increased extracellular ATP release compared to control. Six percent TF had maximum effect on ATP release compared to 18% TF and control. Six percent TF induced the expression of Runx2 and Osterix. Six percent TF also increased the expression of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs), ALP activity, and the calcium content in ECM. A438079 blocked the stimulatory effect of 6% TF on the expression of Runx2, Osterix and ECMPs, ALP activity, and calcium content in ECM. This study indicated that TF-induced extracellular ATP is released in osteoblasts, suggesting that TF-induced ATP promotes osteogenesis by autocrine action through P2X7 receptor in osteoblasts. PMID:24905552

  16. Promoter Polymorphisms of the Interferon-? Receptor Gene and Development of Interferon-Induced Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C: Preliminary Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keizo Yoshida; Oyetunde Alagbe; Xiaohong Wang; Bobbi Woolwine; Marie Thornbury; Charles L. Raison; Andrew H. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Background: Interferon (IFN)-? treatment frequently induces depression, which can impair quality of life and reduce treatment adherence. Defining relevant risk factors for IFN-?-induced depression is essential for designing preventative treatment strategies. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether promoter polymorphisms of –408C\\/T, –3C\\/T and GT repeat dinucleotide microsatellite in the IFN-?\\/? receptor 1 (IFNAR1) gene are

  17. Death receptor-induced cell killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Thorburn

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis pathways activated by death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family such as Fas, TNFR1, or the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 are implicated in diverse diseases. These are also the best-understood apoptosis pathways and many of our ideas about apoptosis regulation come from studying these pathways. Cell killing from such receptors occurs because of recruitment to the

  18. Implications of epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced egf receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Wofsy, C; Goldstein, B; Lund, K; Wiley, H S

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the role of receptor aggregation in EGF binding, we construct a mathematical model describing receptor dimerization (and higher levels of aggregation) that permits an analysis of the influence of receptor aggregation on ligand binding. We answer two questions: (a) Can Scatchard plots of EGF binding data be analyzed productively in terms of two noninteracting receptor populations with different affinities if EGF induced receptor aggregation occurs? No. If two affinities characterize aggregated and monomeric EGF receptors, we show that the Scatchard plot should have curvature characteristic of positively cooperative binding, the opposite of that observed. Thus, the interpretation that the high affinity population represents aggregated receptors and the low affinity population nonaggregated receptors is wrong. If the two populations are interpreted without reference to receptor aggregation, an important determinant of Scatchard plot shape is ignored. (b) Can a model for EGF receptor aggregation and EGF binding be consistent with the "negative curvature" (i.e., curvature characteristic of negatively cooperative binding) observed in most Scatchard plots of EGF binding data? Yes. In addition, the restrictions on the model parameters required to obtain negatively curved Scatchard plots provide new information about binding and aggregation. In particular, EGF binding to aggregated receptors must be negatively cooperative, i.e., binding to a receptor in a dimer (or higher oligomer) having one receptor already bound occurs with lower affinity than the initial binding event. A third question we consider is whether the model we present can be used to detect the presence of mechanisms other than receptor aggregation that are contributing to Scatchard plot curvature. For the membrane and cell binding data we analyzed, the best least squares fits of the model to each of the four data sets deviate systematically from the data, indicating that additional factors are also important in shaping the binding curves. Because we have controlled experimentally for many sources of receptor heterogeneity, we have limited the potential explanations for residual Scatchard plot curvature. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:1420877

  19. 3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in granular constituency

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, E.T.; Pharr, P.; Ogawa, M.; Serafin, W.E.; Austen, K.F.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessed by ultrastructure, histochemical staining, and T-cell dependency, in vitro-differentiated interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells are comparable to the mast cells that reside in the gastrointestinal mucosa but not in the skin or the serosal cavity of the mouse. The authors now demonstrate that when cloned interleukin 3-dependent mast cells are cocultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of WEHI-3 conditioned medium for 28 days, the mast cells acquire the ability to stain with safranin, increase their histamine content approx. 50-fold and their carboxypeptidase. A content approx. 100-fold, and augment approx. their biosynthesis of proteoglycans bearing /sup 35/S-labeled haparin relative to /sup 35/S-labeled chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Thus, fibroblasts induce interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to change phenotype from mucosal-like to connective tissue-like, indicating that the biochemical and functional characteristics of this mast cell type are strongly influenced by the connective tissue microenvironment.

  20. Activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway alone is not sufficient to induce glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Berghe, N; Ouwens, D M; Maassen, J A; van Mackelenbergh, M G; Sips, H C; Krans, H M

    1994-01-01

    The signal transduction pathway by which insulin stimulates glucose transport is largely unknown, but a role for tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases has been proposed. Since mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is activated by insulin through phosphorylation on both tyrosine and threonine residues, we investigated whether MAP kinase and its upstream regulator, p21ras, are involved in insulin-mediated glucose transport. We did this by examining the time- and dose-dependent stimulation of glucose uptake in relation to the activation of Ras-GTP formation and MAP kinase by thrombin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ras-GTP formation was stimulated transiently by all three agonists, with a peak at 5 to 10 min. Thrombin induced a second peak at approximately 30 min. The activation of p21ras was paralleled by both the phosphorylation and the activation of MAP kinase: transient for insulin and EGF and biphasic for thrombin. However, despite the strong activation of Ras-GTP formation and MAP kinase by EGF and thrombin, glucose uptake was not stimulated by these agonists, in contrast to the eightfold stimulation of 2-deoxy-D-[14C]glucose uptake by insulin. In addition, insulin-mediated glucose transport was not potentiated by thrombin or EGF. Although these results cannot exclude the possibility that p21ras and/or MAP kinase is needed in conjunction with other signaling molecules that are activated by insulin and not by thrombin or EGF, they show that the Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway alone is not sufficient to induce insulin-mediated glucose transport. Images PMID:7511205

  1. PPARgamma induces the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4 in the absence of C/EBPalpha during the conversion of 3T3 fibroblasts into adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Z; Xie, Y; Morrison, R F; Bucher, N L; Farmer, S R

    1998-01-01

    To define the molecular mechanisms that control GLUT4 expression during adipogenesis, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts ectopically expressing different adipogenic transcription factors (C/EBPbeta, C/EBPdelta, C/EBPalpha, and PPARgamma) under the control of a tetracycline-responsive inducible (C/EBPs) or a constitutive retroviral (PPARgamma) expression system were used. Enhanced production of C/EBPbeta (beta2 cell line), C/EBPbeta together with C/EBPdelta (beta/delta39 cell line), C/EBPalpha (alpha1 cell line), or PPARgamma (Pgamma2 cell line) in cells exposed to dexamethasone and the PPARgamma ligand ciglitazone (a thiazolidinedione) resulted in expression of GLUT4 mRNA as well as other members of the adipogenic gene program, including aP2 and adipsin. Focusing our studies on the beta/delta39 cells, we have demonstrated that C/EBPbeta along with C/EBPdelta in the presence of dexamethasone induces PPARgamma, adipsin, and aP2 mRNA production; however, GLUT4 mRNA is only expressed in cells exposed to ciglitazone. In addition, enhanced expression of a ligand-activated form of PPARgamma in the beta/delta39 fibroblasts stimulates synthesis of GLUT4 protein and gives rise to a population of adipocytic cells that take up glucose in direct response to insulin. C/EBPalpha is not expressed in the beta/delta39 cells under conditions that stimulate the adipogenic program. This observation suggests that PPARgamma alone or in combination with C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta is capable of activating GLUT4 gene expression. PMID:9421462

  2. Extracellular calcium-sensing-receptor (CaR)-mediated opening of an outward K(+) channel in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells: evidence for expression of a functional CaR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, C. P.; Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Sanders, J. L.; Vassilev, P. M.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The existence in osteoblasts of the G-protein-coupled extracellular calcium (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) that was originally cloned from parathyroid and kidney remains controversial. In our recent studies, we utilized multiple detection methods to demonstrate the expression of CaR transcripts and protein in several osteoblastic cell lines, including murine MC3T3-E1 cells. Although we and others have shown that high Ca(o)(2+) and other polycationic CaR agonists modulate the function of MC3T3-E1 cells, none of these actions has been unequivocally shown to be mediated by the CaR. Previous investigations using neurons and lens epithelial cells have shown that activation of the CaR stimulates Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Because osteoblastic cells express a similar type of channel, we have examined the effects of specific "calcimimetic" CaR activators on the activity of a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel in MC3T3-E1 cells as a way of showing that the CaR is not only expressed in those cells but is functionally active. Patch-clamp analysis in the cell-attached mode showed that raising Ca(o)(2+) from 0.75 to 2.75 mmol/L elicited about a fourfold increase in the open state probability (P(o)) of an outward K(+) channel with a conductance of approximately 92 pS. The selective calcimimetic CaR activator, NPS R-467 (0.5 micromol/L), evoked a similar activation of the channel, while its less active stereoisomer, NPSS-467 (0.5 micromol/L), did not. Thus, the CaR is not only expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells, but is also functionally coupled to the activity of a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel. This receptor, therefore, could transduce local or systemic changes in Ca(o)(2+) into changes in the activity of this ion channel and related physiological processes in these and perhaps other osteoblastic cells.

  3. GABAB receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Adelfinger, Lisa; Turecek, Rostislav; Ivankova, Klara; Jensen, Anders A.; Moss, Stephen J.; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    GABAB receptors assemble from GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. GABAB2 additionally associates with auxiliary KCTD subunits (named after their K+ channel tetramerization-domain). GABAB receptors couple to heterotrimeric G–proteins and activate inwardly-rectifying K+ channels through the ?? subunits released from the G-protein. Receptor-activated K+ currents desensitize in the sustained presence of agonist to avoid excessive effects on neuronal activity. Desensitization of K+ currents integrates distinct mechanistic underpinnings. GABAB receptor activity reduces protein kinase-A activity, which reduces phosphorylation of serine-892 in GABAB2 and promotes receptor degradation. This form of desensitization operates on the time scale of several minutes to hours. A faster form of desensitization is induced by the auxiliary subunit KCTD12, which interferes with channel activation by binding to the G-protein ?? subunits. Here we show that the two mechanisms of desensitization influence each other. Serine-892 phosphorylation in heterologous cells rearranges KCTD12 at the receptor and slows KCTD12-induced desensitization. Likewise, protein kinase-A activation in hippocampal neurons slows fast desensitization of GABAB receptor-activated K+ currents while protein kinase-A inhibition accelerates fast desensitization. Protein kinase-A fails to regulate fast desensitization in KCTD12 knock-out mice or knock-in mice with a serine-892 to alanine mutation, thus demonstrating that serine-892 phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced desensitization in vivo. Fast current desensitization is accelerated in hippocampal neurons carrying the serine-892 to alanine mutation, showing that tonic serine-892 phosphorylation normally limits KCTD12-induced desensitization. Tonic serine-892 phosphorylation is in turn promoted by assembly of receptors with KCTD12. This cross-regulation of serine-892 phosphorylation and KCTD12 activity sharpens the response during repeated receptor activation. PMID:25065880

  4. Psychostimulant-Induced Neuroadaptations in Nucleus Accumbens AMPA Receptor Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, R. Christopher; Wolf, Marina E.

    2013-01-01

    Medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens serve as the interface between corticolimbic regions that elicit and modulate motivated behaviors, including those related to drugs of abuse, and motor regions responsible for their execution. Medium spiny neurons are excited primarily by AMPA-type glutamate receptors, making AMPA receptor transmission in the accumbens a key regulatory point for addictive behaviors. In animal models of cocaine addiction, changes in the strength of AMPA receptor transmission onto accumbens medium spiny neurons have been shown to underlie cocaine-induced behavioral adaptations related to cocaine seeking. Here we review changes in AMPA receptor levels and subunit composition that occur after discontinuing different types of cocaine exposure, as well as changes elicited by cocaine reexposure following abstinence or extinction. Signaling pathways that regulate these cocaine-induced adaptations will also be considered, as they represent potential targets for addiction pharmacotherapies. PMID:23232118

  5. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  6. Direct action of T3 on phosphorylation potential in the sheep heart in vivo.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michael A; Qian, Kun; Krueger, Julia; Ning, Xue-Han

    2005-05-01

    Thyroid acting through ligand binding to nuclear receptors modifies myocardial respiratory kinetics and oxidative phosphorylation in the heart. Direct nongenomic action of thyroid hormone on high-energy phosphate concentrations and respiratory kinetics has never been proven in vivo but might be responsible for observed changes in oxygen utilization efficiency immediately after triiodothyronine (T3) administration. We tested the hypothesis that T3 directly and rapidly modifies myocardial high-energy phosphate concentrations and phosphorylation potential in vivo. Anesthetized sheep (age 28-40 days) thyroidectomized shortly after birth (Thy) and euthyroid age-matched controls (Con) underwent median sternotomy and received T3 infusion (0.8 microg/kg), followed by epinephrine infusion to increase myocardial oxygen consumption (MVo2). 31P magnetic resonance spectra were monitored via a surface coil over the left ventricle. T3 increased phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP and decreased ADP in Thy animals without causing a change in MVo2. T3 produced no changes in high-energy phosphates in Con animals. T3 did not modify the PCr/ATP or ADP response to epinephrine and elevation in MVo2 in either group. Cardiac mitochondria isolated from Thy and Con animals showed no change in respiratory rate or ADP/ATP exchange efficiency after T3 incubation. T3 infusion in a hypothyroid state decreases ADP concentration, thereby altering the equilibrium between phosphorylation potential and myocardial respiratory rate. These T3-induced effects are not due to changes in ADP/ATP exchange efficiency through action at the adenine nucleotide translocator but may be due to T3 mediation of substrate utilization, confirmed in other models. PMID:15637117

  7. Morphine Induces Desensitization of Insulin Receptor Signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Li; Shoshana Eitan; Jiong Wu; Christopher J. Evans; Brigitte Kieffer; Xiaojian Sun; Roberto D. Polakiewicz

    2003-01-01

    between the MOR and the insulin receptor (IR) signaling cascades. We show that prolonged morphine exposure of cell lines expressing endogenous or transfected MOR, IR, and the insulin substrate 1 (IRS-1) protein specifically desensitizes IR signaling to Akt and ERK cascades. Morphine caused serine phosphory- lation of the IR and impaired the formation of the signaling complex among the IR,

  8. Insulin-Mimetic Action of Rhoifolin and Cosmosiin Isolated from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Leaves: Enhanced Adiponectin Secretion and Insulin Receptor Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Lee, Meng-Jen; Chen, Keru; Lee, Yi-Ching; Wu, Wen-Shi; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2011-01-01

    Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (red wendun) leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting these actions and its active compounds. Two flavone glycosides, rhoifolin and cosmosiin were isolated for the first time from red wendun leaves and, identified these leaves are rich source for rhoifolin (1.1%, w/w). In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, rhoifolin and cosmosiin showed dose-dependent response in concentration range of o.oo1–5??M and 1–20??M, respectively, in biological studies beneficial to diabetes. Particularly, rhoifolin and cosmosiin at 0.5 and 20??M, respectively showed nearly similar response to that 10?nM of insulin, on adiponectin secretion level. Furthermore, 5??M of rhoifolin and 20??M of cosmosiin showed equal potential with 10?nM of insulin to increase the phosphorylation of insulin receptor-?, in addition to their positive effect on GLUT4 translocation. These findings indicate that rhoifolin and cosmosiin from red wendun leaves may be beneficial for diabetic complications through their enhanced adiponectin secretion, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-? and GLUT4 translocation. PMID:20008903

  9. Primary Macrophage Chemotaxis Induced by Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonists Occurs Independently of the CB2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lewis; Christou, Ivy; Kapellos, Theodore S.; Buchan, Alice; Brodermann, Maximillian H.; Gianella-Borradori, Matteo; Russell, Angela; Iqbal, Asif J.; Greaves, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CB2 has been demonstrated to induce directed immune cell migration. However, the ability of CB2 to act as a chemoattractant receptor in macrophages remains largely unexplored. Using a real-time chemotaxis assay and a panel of chemically diverse and widely used CB2 agonists, we set out to examine whether CB2 modulates primary murine macrophage chemotaxis. We report that of 12 agonists tested, only JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 acted as macrophage chemoattractants. Surprisingly, neither pharmacological inhibition nor genetic ablation of CB2 had any effect on CB2 agonist-induced macrophage chemotaxis. As chemotaxis was pertussis toxin sensitive in both WT and CB2-/- macrophages, we concluded that a non-CB1/CB2, Gi/o-coupled GPCR must be responsible for CB2 agonist-induced macrophage migration. The obvious candidate receptors GPR18 and GPR55 could not mediate JWH133 or HU308-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement or JWH133-induced ?-arrestin recruitment in cells transfected with either receptor, demonstrating that neither are the unidentified GPCR. Taken together our results conclusively demonstrate that CB2 is not a chemoattractant receptor for murine macrophages. Furthermore we show for the first time that JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 have off-target effects of functional consequence in primary cells and we believe that our findings have wide ranging implications for the entire cannabinoid field. PMID:26033291

  10. Inhibition of MMP-13 prevents diet-induced obesity in mice and suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chia-Li M; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue remodeling by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is critical for tissue hypertrophy and obesity. MMP-13 is an important protein that is highly expressed in adipose tissue but whose potential role in adipose tissue expansion is poorly characterized. We investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13 with a selective inhibitor, CP-544439, on adipose tissue mass in mice on a high fat diet, and determined the effect of the inhibitor during in vitro adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. CP-544439 was administered for 6 weeks to mice on a high fat diet. Body adiposity and glucose tolerance was determined. Differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes were also treated with the inhibitor for a maximum of 8 days and adipogenesis assessed. Treatment of mice with the inhibitor resulted in reduction in body adiposity and improvement in glucose clearance. Histological examination of epididymal adipose showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy accompanied by increased staining for collagen in the inhibitor treated mice. Treatment of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with the inhibitor resulted in reduced adipocyte differentiation. Knockdown of MMP-13 using small interfering RNA in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells reduced adipocyte differentiation indicated by reduced expression of PPAR?. These results suggest that MMP-13 may play a major role in adipose development and its inhibition could be a potential strategy to prevent obesity. PMID:25682268

  11. Type III secretion needle proteins induce cell signaling and cytokine secretion via Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Danielle L; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S; Nilles, Matthew L

    2014-06-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  12. Type III Secretion Needle Proteins Induce Cell Signaling and Cytokine Secretion via Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Danielle L.; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  13. Cyanidin 3-glucoside protects 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H 2O 2- or TNF-?-induced insulin resistance by inhibiting c-Jun NH 2-terminal kinase activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honghui Guo; Wenhua Ling; Qing Wang; Chi Liu; Yan Hu; Min Xia

    2008-01-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally occurring plant pigments and exhibit an array of pharmacological properties. Our previous study showed that black rice pigment extract rich in anthocyanin prevents and ameliorates high-fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats. In present study, cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy-3-G), a typical anthocyanin most abundant in black rice was used to examine its protective effect on insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

  14. TRPV1 receptor inhibition decreases CCL2-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Spicarova, Diana; Adamek, Pavel; Kalynovska, Nataliia; Mrozkova, Petra; Palecek, Jiri

    2014-06-01

    Modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the spinal cord is implicated in the development and maintenance of several pathological pain states. The chemokine CCL2 (C-C motif ligand 2) was shown to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. In our experiments we have studied the effect of CCL2 application and TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) receptor activation on nociceptive signaling and the modulation of synaptic transmission. Intrathecal drug application in behavioral experiments and patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous, miniature and dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, eEPSCs) from superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute rat spinal cord slices were used. The intrathecal application of CCL2 induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, while pretreatment with the TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB366791 diminished the thermal but not the mechanical hypersensitivity. Patch-clamp experiments showed an increase of sEPSC and mEPSC (124.5 ± 12.8% and 161.2 ± 17.3%, respectively) frequency in dorsal horn neurons after acute CCL2 application. This CCL2-induced increase was prevented by SB366791 pretreatment (89.4 ± 6.0%, 107.5 ± 14.2%). CCL2 application increased the amplitude of eEPSCs (188.1 ± 32.1%); this increase was significantly lower in experiments with SB366791 pretreatment (120.8 ± 17.2%). Our results demonstrate that the activation of spinal TRPV1 receptors plays an important role in the modulation of nociceptive signaling induced by CCL2 application. The mechanisms of cooperation between the CCL2 activated receptors and TRPV1 receptors on the central branches of primary afferent fibers may be especially important during different pathological pain states and need to be further investigated. PMID:24495396

  15. Cellular regulation of poly ADP-ribosylation of proteins: II. Augmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in SV40 3T3 cells following methotrexate-induced G1/S inhibition of cell cycle progression

    SciTech Connect

    Sooki-Toth, A.; Asghari, F.; Kirsten, E.; Kun, E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1987-05-01

    SV40-3T3 cells were exposed in monolayer cultures to 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M methotrexate (MTX), that inhibited thymidylate synthetase, arrested cell growth without cell killing in 24 h and did not induce single- (ss) or double-strand (ds) breaks in DNA. Following 24, up to 72 h, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase content of attached cells was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} MTX and the augmentation of the enzyme increased with the time of exposure to the drug. Inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis abolished augmentation of enzymatic activity; so too did the initiation of maximal cell growth by thymidine + hypoxanthine, by-passing the inhibitory site of MTX. Isolation of the ADP-ribosylated enzyme protein by gel electrophoresis identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein as the molecule that was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M MTX. Under identical conditions, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase induction in 3T3 cells could not be demonstrated. A possible cell-cycle dependent biosynthesis of the enzyme protein is proposed in SV40 3T3 cells.

  16. The Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist Almorexant Induces Sleep and Decreases Orexin-Induced Locomotion by Blocking Orexin 2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; Dürst, Thomas; Bürki, Hugo; Imobersteg, Stefan; Abramowski, Dorothee; Schuepbach, Edi; Hoyer, Daniel; Fendt, Markus; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Orexin peptides activate orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R), regulate locomotion and sleep-wake. The dual OX1R/OX2R antagonist almorexant reduces activity and promotes sleep in multiple species, including man. The relative contributions of the two receptors in locomotion and sleep/wake regulation were investigated in mice. Design: Mice lacking orexin receptors were used to determine the contribution of OX1R and OX2R to orexin A-induced locomotion and to almorexant-induced sleep. Setting: N/A. Patients or Participants: C57BL/6J mice and OX1R+/+, OX1R-/-, OX2R+/+, OX2R-/- and OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Interventions: Intracerebroventricular orexin A; oral dosing of almorexant. Measurements and Results: Almorexant attenuated orexin A-induced locomotion. As in other species, almorexant dose-dependently increased rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and nonREM sleep in mice. Almorexant and orexin A were ineffective in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Both orexin A-induced locomotion and sleep induction by almorexant were absent in OX2R-/- mice. Interestingly, almorexant did not induce cataplexy in wild-type mice under conditions where cataplexy was seen in mice lacking orexins and in OX1R-/-/OX2R-/- mice. Almorexant dissociates very slowly from OX2R as measured functionally and in radioligand binding. Under non equilibrium conditions in vitro, almorexant was a dual antagonist whereas at equilibrium, almorexant became OX2R selective. Conclusions: In vivo, almorexant specifically inhibits the actions of orexin A. The two known orexin receptors mediate sleep induction by almorexant and orexin A-induced locomotion. However, OX2R activation mediates locomotion induction by orexin A and antagonism of OX2R is sufficient to promote sleep in mice. Citation: Mang GM; Dürst T; Bürki H; Imobersteg S; Abramowski D; Schuepbach E; Hoyer D; Fendt M; Gee CE. The dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant induces sleep and decreases orexin-induced locomotion by blocking orexin 2 receptors. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1625-1635. PMID:23204605

  17. A primer on cytokines: sources, receptors, effects, and inducers.

    PubMed Central

    Curfs, J H; Meis, J F; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A

    1997-01-01

    Protection against pathogens is a prerequisite for survival of most organisms. To cope with this continuous challenge, complex defense mechanisms have evolved. The construction, adaptation, and maintenance of these mechanisms are under control of an extensive network of regulatory proteins called cytokines. A great number of cytokines have been described over the last 2 decades. This review consists of an overview of cytokines that are involved in immune responses and describes some historical and general aspects as well as prospective clinical applications. Major biological effects together with information on cytokine receptors, producers, inducers, and biochemical and molecular characteristics are listed in tables. In addition, some basic information is given on cytokine receptor signal transduction. Finally, the recent discoveries of cytokine receptors functioning as coreceptors in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus are summarized. PMID:9336671

  18. Crosslinking-Induced Endocytosis of Acetylcholine Receptors by Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lin; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-?-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  19. Crosslinking-induced endocytosis of acetylcholine receptors by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Wai; Zhang, Hailong; Geng, Lin; Peng, H Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-?-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  20. Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sagara, Chiaki; Takahashi, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)] [School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Takahashi, Noriko, E-mail: t-noriko@hoshi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ? We examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1. ? 9-cis-RA inhibited lipid accumulation in adipogenetically-induced 3T3-L1 cells. ? A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed the inhibitory effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis. ? This antagonist had no effects on RXR? and PPAR? levels in 9-cis-RA-treated cells. ? 9-cis-RA-induced decrease in both RXR? and PPAR? was independent of RXR activation. -- Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is mediated by specific nuclear hormone receptors. Here we examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. 9-cis-RA inhibits the lipid accumulation of adipogenetically induced 3T3-L1 cells. The complex of retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a major transcription factor in the process of adipogenesis, and the levels of these molecules were decreased by 9-cis-RA treatment. A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed 9-cis-RA’s inhibitory effects on adipogenesis, but not on the intracellular levels of both RXR? and PPAR?. These results suggest that 9-cis-RA could inhibit adipogenesis by activating RXR, and decrease both RXR and PPAR?s levels in a RXR activation-independent manner.

  1. HOMOLOGOUS UP-REGULATION OF THE GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE RECEPTOR IN A T3-1 CELLS IS ASSOCIATED WITH UNCHANGED RECEPTOR MESSENGER RNA (MRNA) LEVELS AND ALTERED MRNA ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Depending on the concentration and duration of agonist exposure, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number either increases or decreases in response to GnRH. he molecular basis of this regulation could involve a combination of modulation of gene transcription, RNA pro...

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan) [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)] [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ? Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ? Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ? ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ? Activation of PPAR-? recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-? and interleukin-1? reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  3. PET imaging of dopamine receptors in MPTP-induced parkinsonism

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; DiChiro, G.; Burns, R.S.; Dannals, R.F.; Kopin, I.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Kessler, R.M.; Wagner, R.F.; Eckelman, W.C.; Margolin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    MPTP(N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) induces parkinsonism in animals and man by selectively destroying dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. The postsynaptic neurons (and presumably the dopamine receptors) are intact. The authors have imaged dopamine receptors in a patient with MPTP induced parkinsonism, using /sup 11/CMS (3-N(/sup 11/C) methylspiperone. Seven and 9 mCi's, respectively, were injected at one week intervals while the patient was first off, and then on, L-dopa. As measured by NeuroPET (NIH), putamen to cerebellum concentration ratios rose progressively to 5.5:1, by 90 min. after injection. At this time the concentration of /sup 11/CMS was 10 picomole/cc (off L-dopa), and 14 picomole/cc (on L-dopa). The Duvoisin scale was used to assess the severity of the patient's parkinsonism immediately prior and at the end of PET imaging. On both occasions, despite the small mass amount of /sup 11/CMS injected, (1.1 g/kg), a transient worsening of symptoms was seen. The effect of L-Dopa was almost completely reversed by the /sup 11/CMS. In contrast, off L-Dopa the patients severe basal state was worsened only slightly. The PET scans suggested that dopamine receptors are not reduced in MPTP-induced parkinsonism. The findings were consistent with the hypotheses that PET may identify patients who will benefit from L-Dopa, and that expression of parkinsonian symptoms reflects desaturation of dopamine receptors in striatum.

  4. Involvement of 5HT 1C -receptors in drug-induced penile erections in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemmie H. G. Berendsen; François Jenck; Chris L. E. Broekkamp

    1990-01-01

    Drug-induced penile erections (PE) were initially suggested to be 5-HT1B receptor mediated. However, since the discovery of the 5-HT1C receptor a number of compounds, considered to be 5-HT1B selective, appear to bind more strongly to the 5-HT1C receptor and this prompted a re-evaluation of the receptor subtype involved in PE induction. PE could be induced by the 5-HT agonists mCPP

  5. SP600125 reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and restores the early-stage differentiation of osteoblasts inhibited by LPS through the MAPK pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun; Wang, Sheng-Li; Xu, Song-Tao; Wang, Jian-Guo; Song, Guo-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Bone degradation is a serious complication of chronic inflammatory diseases such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and infected orthopedic implant failure. Effective therapeutic treatments for bacteria-caused bone destruction are limited. In a previous study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced osteoblast apoptosis and inhibited early and late-stage differentiation of osteoblasts via activation of the C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. This study aimed to investigate the effect of JNK inhibition by SP600125 on the apoptosis and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts suppressed by LPS. Following pretreatment with SP600125 for 2 h, MC3T3-E1 cells were treated LPS. Following this treatment, cell viability, activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and caspase-3 were measured. mRNA and protein expression of osteoblast-specific genes, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. The results showed that SP600125 significantly restored LPS-inhibited cell metabolism and ALP activity and reduced the upregulated caspase-3 activity of MC3T3-E1 cells induced by LPS. SP600125 also significantly restored the LPS-suppressed mRNA and protein expression levels of early-stage osteoblast-associated genes in a dose-dependent manner. SP600125 significantly downregulated expression of Bax and caspase-3 but upregulated Bcl-2 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, SP600125 selectively triggered the MAPK pathway by reducing the expression of JNK1, while enhancing the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1). Our results suggested that SP600125 reduced LPS-induced osteoblast apoptosis and restored early-stage differentiation of osteoblasts inhibited by LPS through MAPK signaling. These findings suggest that the therapeutic agent that inhibited JNK1 is of potential use for the restoration of osteoblast function in bacteria-induced bone diseases. PMID:25760015

  6. Elevated serum levels of T3 without metabolic effect in nutritionally deficient rats, attributable to reduced cellular uptake of T3

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; DiStefano, J.J.

    1981-08-01

    Rats receiving a nutritionally deficient diet displayed markedly elevated serum free T3 levels but showed no increase in oxygen consumption. This was associated with greatly reduced ratios of hepatic cellular and nuclear /sub 125/I-T3 to serum /sub 125/I-T3. Kinetic data supported the conclusion that cellular uptake of T3 was decreased in the nutritionally deficient rats. The lack of metabolic effect, despite the elevated serum T3 levels, is attributable to reduced availability of serum T3 to tissue nuclear receptor sites.

  7. 2-Adrenergic receptor supports prolonged theta tetanus-induced LTP Lucas Matt,2

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2-Adrenergic receptor supports prolonged theta tetanus-induced LTP Hai Qian,1 Lucas Matt,2 Mingxu, Lee HK, Hell JW. 2-Adrenergic receptor supports prolonged theta tetanus-induced LTP. J Neurophysiol-term potentiation (LTP) induced by a train of 900 stimuli at 5 Hz (prolonged theta-tetanus-LTP, or PTT-LTP

  8. Analysis of the Functional Role of Steroid Receptor Coactivator1 in Ligand-Induced Transactivation by Thyroid Hormone Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jeyakumar; Michael R. Tanen; Milan K. Bagchi

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptors belonging to the steroid\\/thyroid\\/retinoid receptor superfamily are li- gand-inducible transcription factors. These recep- tors modulate transcription of specific cellular genes, either positively or negatively, by interact- ing with specific hormone response elements lo- cated near the target promoters. Recent studies indicated that the hormone- occupied, DNA-bound receptor acts in concert with a cellular coregula- tory factor,

  9. The nuclear receptor CAR modulates alcohol-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaosong; Meng, Zhipeng; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Zeng, Samuel; Huang, Wendong

    2011-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and a sensor and detoxifier of both xenobiotics and endobiotics. Recent studies also show that CAR participates in metabolism of glucose and lipid, and has an important role in fatty liver disease and diabetes. In this study, we investigate the roles of CAR in chronic and acute alcohol-induced liver injuries. The results showed that absence of CAR in rodents led to significantly increased susceptibility to chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, which was accompanied with elevated hepatocyte apoptosis and fat accumulation. However, pre-activation of CAR by a CAR agonist, TCPOBOP, strongly enhanced the hepatic toxicity by both chronic and acute alcohol infusion in wild-type, but not in CAR(-/-) mice. Gene expression analyses indicated that CAR pre-activation and alcohol infusion synergistically decreased the expression of enzymes that metabolize the alcohol in liver. These results support a role of CAR in modulating alcoholic liver injury and imply a risk of synergistic liver toxicity induced by alcohol and CAR activation. PMID:21519326

  10. Testosterone enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 and macrophage chemotactic protein-1 expression by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/nuclear factor-?B signalling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunlin; Chen, Min; Huang, Haiyan; Lin, Jinfang

    2015-07-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is commonly found in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who exhibit hyperandrogenism or hyperandrogenemia. Clinical studies have shown that hyperandrogenemia is closely correlated with low-grade chronic inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying this correlation remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that adipocytes increase the production of proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) when the inflammatory signal transduction cascade system is activated by external stimuli. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of testosterone on the innate signalling and expression of proinflammatory mediators in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which were or were not induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of testosterone on the expression of proinflammatory mediators, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signalling pathways were investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and an electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Testosterone induces IL-6 and MCP-1, and enhances LPS-induction of IL-6 and MCP-1. However, the effects are not simply additive, testosterone significantly enhanced the effects of LPS-induced inflammation factors. Testosterone induces the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and NF-?B. The effect of testosterone on the expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 is inhibited by PD98059 , an ERK1/2 inhibitor, and PDTC, an NF-?B inhibitor. The results indicate that testosterone enhances LPS-induced IL-6 and MCP-1 expression by activating the ERK1/2/NF-?B signalling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25738264

  11. Post-translational glycosylation-induced activation of aglycoinsulin receptor accumulated during tunicamycin treatment.

    PubMed

    Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D

    1981-05-25

    Tunicamycin, which inhibits N-linked oligosaccharide chain addition to nascent polypeptides, interrupts glycosylation of the insulin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocytes giving rise to inactive receptors. Chronic exposure of cells to low levels (100 ng/ml) of high performance liquid chromatography-purified tunicamycin causes a greater than or equal to 90% depletion of insulin binding to cell surface and Triton X-100-extractable receptors and a 93% inhibition of [3H]glucosamine incorporation into protein in alkali-stable form. Under identical conditions, protein synthesis was inhibited less than 10%. Recovery of insulin binding activity after the removal of tunicamycin achieves 70-80% of control activity within 36 h. Concomitant with the withdrawal of tunicamycin, cells were shifted to medium containing heavy (greater than 95% 15N, 13C, 2H) amino acids after which Triton X-100-solubilized "light" and "heavy" insulin receptors were separated isopycnically on CsCl density gradients. A kinetic analysis of the recovery of functional receptors revealed that the initial appearance of previously synthesized light receptor was followed, after a short lag, by newly synthesized heavy receptor. Similar levels of light receptor, but no new heavy receptor, accrue in the presence of cycloheximide. This strongly suggests that inactive aglycoinsulin receptor accumulated post-translationally during chronic treatment with tunicamycin and then re-entered the glycosylation pathway when the inhibitor was removed giving rise to a functional insulin receptor. PMID:7228853

  12. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  13. Proteomics of Oxidative Stress Using Inducible CYP2E1 Expressing HepG2 Cells and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes as Model Systems

    E-print Network

    Newton, Billy Walker

    2012-07-16

    developed a doxycycline inducible CYP2E1 expressing HepG2 cell line using the pTet-On/pRevTRE expression system to allow greater control and sensitivity in the generation CYP2E1 mediated oxidative stress. Our cell line (RD12) demonstrated stability...

  14. cAMP-induced desensitization of surface cAMP receptors in Dictyostelium: different second messengers mediate receptor phosphorylation, loss of ligand binding, degradation of receptor, and reduction of receptor mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Van Haastert, P J; Wang, M; Bominaar, A A; Devreotes, P N; Schaap, P

    1992-01-01

    Surface cAMP receptors on Dictyostelium cells are linked to several second messenger systems and mediate multiple physiological responses, including chemotaxis and differentiation. Activation of the receptor also triggers events which desensitize signal transduction. These events include the following: 1) loss of ligand binding without loss of receptor protein; 2) phosphorylation of the receptor protein, which may lead to impaired signal transduction; 3) redistribution and degradation of the receptor protein; and 4) decrease of cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor mRNA levels. These mechanisms of desensitization were investigated with the use of mutant synag7, with no activation of adenylyl cyclase; fgdC, with no activation of phospholipase C; and fgdA, with defects in both pathways. cAMP-induced receptor phosphorylation and loss of ligand binding activity was normal in all mutants. In contrast, cAMP-induced degradation of the receptor was absent in all mutants. The cAMP-induced decrease of cAMP-receptor mRNA levels was normal in mutant synag7, but absent in mutant fgdC. Finally, the cAMP analogue (Rp)-cAMPS induced loss of ligand binding without inducing second messenger responses or phosphorylation, redistribution, and degradation of the receptor. We conclude that 1) loss of ligand binding can occur in the absence of receptor phosphorylation; 2) loss of ligand binding and receptor phosphorylation do not require the activation of second messenger systems; 3) cAMP-induced degradation of the receptor may require the phosphorylation of the receptor as well as the activation of at least the synag7 and fgdC gene products; and 4) cAMP-induced decrease of receptor mRNA levels requires the activation of the fgdC gene product and not the synag7 gene product. These results imply that desensitization is composed of multiple components that are regulated by different but partly overlapping sensory transduction pathways. Images PMID:1323348

  15. Individually Monitoring Ligand-Induced Changes in the Structure of the GABAA Receptor at Benzodiazepine

    E-print Network

    Kemnitz, Joseph

    Individually Monitoring Ligand-Induced Changes in the Structure of the GABAA Receptor and benzodiazepine (BZD) binding sites of the GABA-A receptor are allosterically coupled remain elusive., 2001; Rudolph and Mohler, 2004). BZDs exert their effects by binding to the GABA-A receptor

  16. Neurotrophins Induce Death of Hippocampal Neurons via the p75 Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilma J. Friedman

    2000-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and related neurotrophins influence neuronal survival and differentiation via interactions with the trk family of receptors. Recent studies have demonstrated that neu- rotrophins may also induce cell death via the p75 receptor. The importance and generality of neurotrophin-induced death in the brain have not been defined but may play a critical role during development and in

  17. Requirement of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Dependent Pathway and Src for Gas6-Axl Mitogenic and Survival Activities in NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRO GORUPPI; ELISABETTA RUARO; BRIAN VARNUM; CLAUDIO SCHNEIDER

    1997-01-01

    Gas6 is a secreted protein previously identified as the ligand of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase. We have shown that Gas6 is able to induce cell cycle reentry of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells and to efficiently prevent apoptosis after complete growth factor removal, a survival effect uncoupled from Gas6-induced mitogenesis. Here we report that the mitogenic effect of Gas6 requires

  18. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Yang, C; Wang, Z J

    2011-10-13

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy is limited by a long-lasting painful neuropathy that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel may release mast cell tryptase, which activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and, subsequently, protein kinases A and C, resulting in mechanical and thermal (both heat and cold) hypersensitivity. Correlating with the development of neuropathy after repeated administration of paclitaxel, mast cell tryptase activity was found to be increased in the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and peripheral tissues in mice. FSLLRY-amide, a selective PAR2 antagonist, blocked paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain behaviors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, blocking downstream signaling pathways of PAR2, including phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase C? (PKC), effectively attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical, heat, or cold hypersensitivity. Furthermore, sensitized pain response was selectively inhibited by antagonists of transient receptor potential (TRP) V1, TRPV4, or TRPA1. These results revealed specific cellular signaling pathways leading to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, including the activation of PAR2 and downstream enzymes PLC, PKC?, and PKA and resultant sensitization of TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for the treatment of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. PMID:21763756

  19. Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-10-01

    Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 ?g/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? (CEBP?) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:24952133

  20. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  1. Angiotensin receptor type 1 antagonists protect against neuronal injury induced by oxygen–glucose depletion

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X; Kihara, T; Hongo, H; Akaike, A; Niidome, T; Sugimoto, H

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several clinical trials and in vivo animal experiments have suggested that blockade of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) improves ischaemic outcomes. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects has not been elucidated. Here, we have investigated the protective effects of pretreatment with AT1 receptor antagonists, losartan or telmisartan, against ischaemic insult to neurons in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Primary rat neuron–astrocyte co-cultures and astrocyte-defined medium (ADM)-cultured pure astrocyte cultures were prepared. Ischaemic injury was modelled by oxygen–glucose depletion (OGD) and lactate dehydrogenase release after OGD was measured with or without AT1 receptor antagonists or agonists (L162313), AT2 receptor antagonist (PD123319) or agonist (CGP-42112A) pretreatment, for 48 h. Activity of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) was evaluated by [3H]-glutamate uptake assays, after AT1 receptor agonists or antagonists. Immunoblot and real-time PCR were used for analysis of protein and mRNA levels of GLT-1. KEY RESULTS AT1 receptor agonists augmented OGD-induced cellular damage, which was attenuated by AT1 receptor antagonists. AT1 receptor antagonists also suppressed OGD-induced extracellular glutamate release, reactive oxygen species production and nitric oxide generation. GLT-1 expression and glutamate uptake activity were significantly enhanced by AT1 receptor antagonists and impaired by AT1 receptor agonists. AT1 receptor stimulation suppressed both ADM-induced GLT-1 protein expression and mRNA levels. AT1b receptor knock-down with siRNA enhanced GLT-1 expression. In postnatal (P1–P21) rat brains, protein levels of GLT-1 and AT1 receptors were inversely correlated. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Suppression of AT1 receptor stimulation induced GLT-1 up-regulation, which ameliorated effects of ischaemic injury. PMID:20718738

  2. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1? from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1?-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  3. NMDA Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yong; Peng, XiangPing; Liu, Wei; Zhao, FeiYan; Feng, DanDan; Han, JianZhong; Huang, YanHong; Luo, SiWei; Li, Lian; Yue, Shao Jie; Cheng, QingMei; Huang, XiaoTing; Luo, ZiQiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Large amount of glutamate can overstimulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), causing neuronal injury and death. Recently, NMDAR has been reported to be found in the lungs. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of memantine, a NMDAR channel blocker, on bleomycin-induced lung injury mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally injected with bleomycin (BLM) to induce lung injury. Mice were randomized to receive saline, memantine (Me), BLM, BLM plus Me. Lungs and BALF were harvested on day 3 or 7 for further evaluation. Results BLM caused leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary edema and increase in cytokines, and imposed significant oxidative stress (MDA as a marker) in lungs. Memantine significantly mitigated the oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury caused by BLM. Moreover, activation of NMDAR enhances CD11b expression on neutrophils. Conclusions Memantine mitigates oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury in BLM challenged mice. PMID:25942563

  4. GABAA receptor-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase is required for insulin-induced recruitment of postsynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Vetiska, S M; Ahmadian, G; Ju, W; Liu, L; Wymann, M P; Wang, Y T

    2007-01-01

    Type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors mediate most of the fast inhibitory synaptic transmission within the vertebrate brain. The regulation of this inhibition is vital in modulating neural activity. One regulator of GABAA receptor function is insulin, which can serve to enhance GABAA receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, via an increase in the number of receptors at the plasma membrane. We set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the insulin-induced potentiation of GABAA receptor-mediated responses, by examining the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K), a key mediator of the insulin response within the brain. We found that PI3-K associates with the GABAA receptor, and this interaction is increased following insulin treatment. Additionally, the beta2 subunit of the GABAA receptor appears to mediate the insulin-stimulated association with the N-terminal SH2 domain of the p85 subunit of PI3-K. Our results imply a mechanism whereby insulin can regulate changes in synaptic transmission through its downstream actions on the GABAA receptor. PMID:16890252

  5. Histrionicotoxin enhances agonist-induced desensitization of acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Burgermeister, W; Catterall, W A; Witkop, B

    1977-01-01

    Dihydroisohistrionicotoxin inhibits acetylcholine receptor-dependent 22Na+ uptake of cultured chick muscle cells with a KI of 0.2 micrometer. The inhibition is noncompetitive with respect to agonists. The toxin enhances desensitization of the receptor by agonists which is accompanied by a 10-fold increase in receptor affinity for agonists. Dihydroisohistrionicotoxin increases the affinity of the desensitized form of the receptor for agonists but not antagonists. The results suggest that dihydroisohistrionicotoxin inhibits the acetylcholine receptor by causing an increase in the affinity of the desensitized form of the receptor for agonists and thereby stabilizing the desensitized state. PMID:272000

  6. Morphine-induced catalepsy is augmented by NMDA receptor antagonists, but is partially attenuated by an AMPA receptor antagonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Tzschentke; Werner J. Schmidt

    1996-01-01

    High doses of morphine produce a state of behavioural inactivity and muscular rigidity. This type of ‘catalepsy’ is clearly different from the state which is produced by the administration of neuroleptics, e.g. haloperidol. While haloperidol-induced catalepsy can easily be antagonised by NMDA receptor antagonists, there has been a report that the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK-801) potentiates morphine-induced catalepsy.

  7. Prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of c-fos messenger ribonucleic acid is primarily mediated by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Dietz, T. J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism by which the proto-oncogene, c-fos, is up-regulated in response to PGE2 in the mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cell line was investigated using RT-PCR. c-fos messenger RNA up-regulation by dmPGE2 is rapid, starting 10 min post stimulation, and transient. The specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, inhibited c-fos induction. Moreover, down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment had no effect on the induction of c-fos by dmPGE2. We conclude that up-regulation of c-fos by dmPGE2 is primarily dependent on PKA in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In S49 lymphoma wild-type but not S49 cyc- cells, which are deficient in cAMP signaling, dmPGE2 up-regulates c-fos and increases cell growth compared with unstimulated cells. Thus in S49 lymphoma cells, c-fos induction by PGE2 is also dependent on cAMP signaling. The minimal c-fos promoter region required for dmPGE2-induced expression was identified by transfecting c-fos promoter deletion constructs coupled to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene into Vero cells. Transfection of a plasmid containing 99 bp c-fos proximal promoter was sufficient to direct c-fos/CAT expression following stimulation with dmPGE2. Because induction of c-fos is mediated by cAMP, these data are consistent with activation of c-fos via the CRE/ATF cis element.

  8. Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

    2010-11-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149? kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPAR? target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPAR? and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPAR? ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPAR? transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

  9. Design, synthesis and characterization of novel binary V(V)-Schiff base materials linked with insulin-mimetic vanadium-induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. Structure-function correlations at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Halevas, E; Tsave, O; Yavropoulou, M P; Hatzidimitriou, A; Yovos, J G; Psycharis, V; Gabriel, C; Salifoglou, A

    2015-06-01

    Among the various roles of vanadium in the regulation of intracellular signaling, energy metabolism and insulin mimesis, its exogenous activity stands as a contemporary challenge currently under investigation and a goal to pursue as a metallodrug against Diabetes mellitus II. In this regard, the lipogenic activity of vanadium linked to the development of well-defined anti-diabetic vanadodrugs has been investigated through: a) specifically designing and synthesizing Schiff base organic ligands L, bearing a variable number of terminal alcohols, b) a series of well-defined soluble binary V(V)-L compounds synthesized and physicochemically characterized, c) a study of their cytotoxic effect and establishment of adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts toward mature adipocytes, and d) biomarker examination of a closely-linked molecular target involving or influenced by the specific V(V) forms, cumulatively delineating factors involved in potential pathways linked to V(V)-induced insulin-like activity. Collectively, the results a) project the importance of specific structural features in Schiff ligands bound to V(V), thereby influencing the emergence of its (a)toxicity and for the first time its insulin-like activity in pre-adipocyte differentiation, b) contribute to the discovery of molecular targets influenced by the specific vanadoforms seeking to induce glucose uptake, and c) indicate an interplay of V(V) structural speciation and cell-differentiation biological activity, thereby gaining insight into vanadium's potential as a future metallodrug in Diabetes mellitus. PMID:25920352

  10. TRPA1 receptors mediate environmental irritant-induced meningeal vasodilatation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Edward Kunkler; Carrie Jo Ballard; Gerry Stephen Oxford; Joyce Harts Hurley

    2011-01-01

    The TRPA1 receptor is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels expressed in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 receptors are targeted by pungent compounds from mustard and garlic and environmental irritants such as formaldehyde and acrolein. Ingestion or inhalation of these chemical agents causes irritation and burning in the nasal and oral mucosa and respiratory lining. Headaches

  11. Hyperthermia restores apoptosis induced by death receptors through aggregation-induced c-FLIP cytosolic depletion.

    PubMed

    Morlé, A; Garrido, C; Micheau, O

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL is involved in immune tumor surveillance and is considered a promising anti-cancer agent owing to its limited side effects on healthy cells. However, some cancer cells display resistance, or become resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Hyperthermia can enhance sensitivity to TRAIL-induced cell death in various resistant cancer cell lines, including lung, breast, colon or prostate carcinomas. Mild heat shock treatment has been proposed to restore Fas ligand or TRAIL-induced apoptosis through c-FLIP degradation or the mitochondrial pathway. We demonstrate here that neither the mitochondria nor c-FLIP degradation are required for TRAIL-induced cell death restoration during hyperthermia. Our data provide evidence that insolubilization of c-FLIP, alone, is sufficient to enhance apoptosis induced by death receptors. Hyperthermia induced c-FLIP depletion from the cytosolic fraction, without apparent degradation, thereby preventing c-FLIP recruitment to the TRAIL DISC and allowing efficient caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. Hyperthermia-induced c-FLIP depletion was independent of c-FLIP DED2 FL chain assembly motif or ubiquitination-mediated c-FLIP degradation, as assessed using c-FLIP point mutants on lysine 167 and 195 or threonine 166, a phosphorylation site known to regulate ubiquitination of c-FLIP. Rather, c-FLIP depletion was associated with aggregation, because addition of glycerol not only prevented the loss of c-FLIP from the cytosol but also enabled c-FLIP recruitment within the TRAIL DISC, thus inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis during hyperthermia. Altogether our results demonstrate that c-FLIP is a thermosensitive protein whose targeting by hyperthermia allows restoration of apoptosis induced by TNF ligands, including TRAIL. Our findings suggest that combining TRAIL agonists with whole-body or localized hyperthermia may be an interesting approach in cancer therapy. PMID:25675293

  12. Differential subcellular distribution of rat brain dopamine receptors and subtype-specific redistribution induced by cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Voulalas, Pamela J.; Schetz, John; Undieh, Ashiwel S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the subcellular distribution of dopamine D1, D2 and D5 receptor subtypes in rat frontal cortex, and examined whether psychostimulant-induced elevation of synaptic dopamine could alter the receptor distribution. Differential detergent solubilization and density gradient centrifugation were used to separate various subcellular fractions, followed by semi-quantitative determination of the relative abundance of specific receptor proteins in each fraction. D1 receptors were predominantly localized to detergent-resistant membranes, and a portion of these receptors also floated on sucrose gradients. These properties are characteristic of proteins found in lipid rafts and caveolae. D2 receptors exhibited variable distribution between cytoplasmic, detergent-soluble and detergent-resistant membrane fractions, yet were not present in buoyant membranes. Most D5 receptor immunoreactivity was distributed into the cytoplasmic fraction, failing to sediment at forces up to 300,000g, while the remainder was localized to detergent-soluble membranes in cortex. D5 receptors were undetectable in detergent-resistant fractions or raft-like subdomains. Following daily cocaine administration for seven days, a significant portion of D1 receptors translocated from detergent-resistant membranes to detergent-soluble membranes and the cytoplasmic fraction. The distributions of D5 and D2 receptor subtypes were not significantly altered by cocaine treatment. These data imply that D5 receptors are predominantly cytoplasmic, D2 receptors are diffusely distributed within the cell, whereas D1 receptors are mostly localized to lipid rafts within the rat frontal cortex. Dopamine receptor subtype localization is susceptible to modulation by pharmacological manipulations that elevate synaptic dopamine, however the functional implications of such drug-induced receptor warrant further investigation. PMID:21236347

  13. Effect of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists on Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperalgesia in Diabetic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Bujalska

    2008-01-01

    The effect of CB-1 and CB-2 receptor agonists, as well as an influence of a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), L-NOArg, and an inhibitor acting preferentially on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), indomethacin, on the action of cannabinoid receptor agonists in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced neuropathic model was investigated. When administered alone, a non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, a potentially selective

  14. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor by the kinase Jak2 is induced by growth hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshimasa Yamauchi; Kohjiro Ueki; Kazuyuki Tobe; Hiroyuki Tamemoto; Nobuo Sekine; Mitsufumi Wada; Masaru Honjo; Michio Takahashi; Tokiharu Takahashi; Hisamaru Hirai; Toshio Tushima; Yasuo Akanuma; Toshiro Fujita; Issei Komuro; Yoshio Yazaki; Takashi Kadowaki

    1997-01-01

    When growth hormone binds to its receptor, which belongs to the cytokine receptor superfamily, it activates the Janus kinase Jak2 which has tyrosine-kinase activity and initiates an activation of several key intracellular proteins (for example, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases) that eventually execute the biological actions induced by growth hormone, including the expression of particular genes. In contrast to receptors that

  15. Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 participates in vascular endothelial growth factor-induced signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin V. Stoletov; Kirsty E. Ratcliffe; Bruce I. Terman

    2002-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activates endothelial cells, in part, by interacting with the kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) receptor tyrosine kinase. Although progress has been made in the identification of cell-signaling proteins that participate in the VEGF-induced response, questions remain concerning the molecular interactions that allow coupling of receptor activation with an increased cellular response. Evidence is provided in

  16. Beta-adrenergic receptors in DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors: Correlation with progesterone receptor and tumor growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bianca Marchetti; Paulo G. Spinola; Martin Plante; Patrick Poyet; Nicole Folléa; Georges Pelletier; Fernand Labrie

    1989-01-01

    Summary In order to gain further knowledge about the potential role of catecholamines in mammary carcinoma, we have used the potent ?-adrenergic antagonist cyanopindolol (CYP) as iodinated ligand to characterize ?-adrenergic receptors in membranes prepared from mammary tumors induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthraene (DMBA) administration in the rat. The binding of [125I]CYP to membrane preparations of DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors is rapid

  17. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing, E-mail: allenylq@hotmail.com; Liao, Er-Yuan, E-mail: eyliao@21cn.com

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells. • Both Akt and ERK are critical adaptor molecules to mediate the effects of ghrelin.

  18. MODULATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY BY THE XENOBIOTIC RECEPTOR CAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified the xenobiotic receptor CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) as a key regulator of acetaminophen metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Known CAR activators as well as high doses of acetaminophen induced expression of three acetaminophen-metabolizing enzymes in wild-type but not in CAR-...

  19. Receptor-Induced Thiolate Couples Env Activation to Retrovirus Fusion and Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason G. Smith; James M. Cunningham

    2007-01-01

    According to current models of retrovirus infection, receptor binding to the surface subunit (SU) of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) triggers a conformational change in the transmembrane subunit (TM) that mediates virus fusion to cell membranes. To understand how this occurs, we investigated the role of the receptor Tva in avian leukosis virus-A (ALV-A) infection. We find that Tva binding induced

  20. Toward a Consensus on the Operation of Receptor-Induced Calcium Entry Signals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donald L. Gill (University of Maryland School of Medicine; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV)

    2004-07-27

    Receptor-induced Ca2+ signals involve both Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and extracellular Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane. The channels mediating Ca2+ entry and the mechanisms controlling their function remain largely a mystery. Here we critically assess current views on the Ca2+ entry process and consider certain modifications to the widely held hypothesis that Ca2+ store emptying is the fundamental trigger for receptor-induced Ca2+ entry channels. Under physiological conditions, receptor-induced store depletion may be quite limited. A number of distinct channel activities appear to mediate receptor-induced Ca2+ entry, and their activation is observed to occur through quite diverse coupling processes.

  1. 5HT Induces cAMP Production in Crypt Colonocytes at a 5HT 4Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco C. Albuquerque; Elise H. Smith; John M. Kellum

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that both 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) induce chloride efflux from crypt colonocytes in the rat distal colon; antagonist studies suggest that the 5-HT response is mediated primarily by the 5-HT4receptor. Since this receptor is known to be positively coupled to adenylate cyclase, we postulated that 5-HT should induce generation of cAMP, which should be inhibited

  2. Involvement of the ?-opioid receptor in nitrous oxide-induced analgesia in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Koyama; Kazuhiko Fukuda

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O)-induced analgesia is thought to be mediated by endogenous opioids. We previously showed that the ?-opioid receptor is not\\u000a required for the analgesic action of N2O in mice using a gene knockout approach. In this study, we examined the effect of ?- (KOP)- or ?-opioid receptor (DOP)-selective\\u000a antagonists on N2O-induced analgesia. The analgesic effect of N2O was evaluated

  3. Contribution of PGE2 EP1 receptor in hemin-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Shekher; Glushakov, Alexander V.; deCurnou, Alexander; Narumiya, Shuh; Doré, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Although hemin-mediated neurotoxicity has been linked to the production of free radicals and glutamate excitotoxicity, the role of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-EP1 receptor remains unclear. Activation of the EP1 receptor in neurons results in increased intracellular calcium levels; therefore, we hypothesize that the blockade of the EP1 receptor reduces hemin neurotoxicity. Using postnatal primary cortical neurons cultured from wild-type (WT) and EP1?/? mice, we investigated the EP1 receptor role in hemin neurotoxicity measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cell survival assay. Hemin (75 ?M) induced greater release of LDH in WT (34.7 ± 4.5%) than in EP1?/? (27.6 ± 3.3%) neurons. In the presence of the EP1 receptor antagonist SC-51089, the hemin-induced release of LDH decreased. To further investigate potential mechanisms of action, we measured changes in the intracellular calcium level [Ca2+]i following treatment with 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-pt-PGE2) a selective EP1 agonist. In the WT neurons, 17-pt-PGE2 dose-dependently increased [Ca2+]i. However, in EP1?/? neurons, [Ca2+]i was significantly attenuated. We also revealed that hemin dose-dependently increased [Ca2+]i in WT neurons, with a significant decrease in EP1?/? neurons. Both 17-pt-PGE2 and hemin-induced [Ca2+]i were abolished by N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acid receptor and ryanodine receptor blockers. These results suggest that blockade of the EP1 receptor may be protective against hemin neurotoxicity in vitro. We speculate that the mechanism of hemin neuronal death involves [Ca2+]i mediated by NMDA acid receptor-mediated extracellular Ca2+ influx and EP1 receptor-mediated intracellular release from ryanodine receptor-operated Ca2+ stores. Therefore, blockade of the EP1 receptor could be used to minimize neuronal damage following exposure to supraphysiological levels of hemin. PMID:24109429

  4. Protection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to neostriatal dopaminergic neurons by adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Delle Donne, K T; Sonsalla, P K

    1994-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in experimental animals appears to have a glutamatergic component because blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors prevents the neuropathologic consequences. Because adenosine affords neuroprotection against various forms of glutamate-mediated neuronal damage, the present studies were performed to investigate whether adenosine plays a protective role in METH-induced toxicity. METH-induced decrements in neostriatal dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in mice were potentiated by concurrent treatment with caffeine, a nonselective adenosine antagonist that blocks both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors. In contrast, chronic treatment of mice with caffeine through their drinking water for 4 weeks, which increased the number of adenosine A1 receptors in the neostriatum and frontal cortex, followed by drug washout, prevented the neurochemical changes produced by the treatment of mice with METH treatment. In contrast, this treatment did not prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Furthermore, concurrent administration of cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, attenuated the METH-induced neurochemical changes. This protection by cyclopentyladenosine was blocked by cyclopentyltheophylline, an A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicate that activation of A1 receptors can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity in mice. PMID:7996441

  5. Inflammation-induced changes in peripheral glutamate receptor populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M Carlton; R. E Coggeshall

    1999-01-01

    The ionotropic glutamate receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate (KA) have been localized on subpopulations of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory axons in normal skin. Behavioral studies indicate that activation of these receptors results in nociceptive behaviors and contributes to inflammatory pain. The goal of the present study was to determine if these glutamate receptors might contribute to the

  6. Effects of the local administration of selective ?-, ?-and ?-opioid receptor agonists on osteosarcoma-induced hyperalgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Baamonde; Ana Lastra; Lucía Juárez; Verónica García; Agustín Hidalgo; Luis Menéndez

    2005-01-01

    The stimulation of peripheral opioid receptors yields analgesic responses in a model of bone cancer-induced pain in mice.\\u000a In order to know the type(s) of peripheral opiate receptors involved, the paw thermal withdrawal latencies were measured in\\u000a C3H\\/HeJ mice bearing a tibial osteosarcoma, after administering selective agonists of ?-,?-and ?-opiate receptors. The peritumoral\\u000a administration of DAGO (0.6–6 ?g) inhibited the osteosarcoma-induced

  7. Type I IL-4 Receptors Selectively Activate IRS-2 to Induce Target Gene Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Nicola M.; Qi, Xiulan; Junttila, Ilkka S.; Shirey, Kari Ann; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Paul, William E.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2009-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 participate in allergic inflammation and share a receptor subunit (IL-4R?), differential functions for these cytokines have been reported. Therefore, we compared cells expressing type I and II IL-4 receptors with cells expressing only type II receptors for their responsiveness to these cytokines. IL-4 induced highly efficient, ?C-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), whereas IL-13 was less effective, even when phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) was maximal. Only type I receptor-?C+ signaling induced efficient association of IRS-2 with p85 or GRB2. IL-4 signaling through type I receptor complexes induced more robust expression of a subset of genes associated with alternatively activated macrophages than did IL-13, despite equivalent activation of STAT6. Thus, IL-4 activates signaling pathways through the type I receptor complex, qualitatively differently from IL-13, which cooperate to induce optimal gene expression. PMID:19109239

  8. Endothelin-A Receptor Antagonism Attenuates Carcinoma-induced Pain through Opioids in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Phuong N.; Schmidt, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that endothelin A (ET-A) receptor antagonism attenuates carcinoma-induced pain in a cancer pain mouse model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of ET-A receptor-mediated antinociception and evaluated the role of endogenous opioid analgesia. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell culture treated with the ET-A receptor antagonist (BQ-123) at 10?6 M and 10?5 M significantly increased production and secretion of ?-endorphin and leu-enkephalin, respectively. Behavioral studies were performed by inducing tumors in the hind paw of female nude mice with local injection of cells derived from a human oral SCC. Significant pain, as indicated by reduction in withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimulation, began at four days after SCC inoculation and lasted to 18 days, the last day of measurement. Local administration of either naloxone methiodide (500 µg/kg), selective antagonists for µ-opioid receptor (CTOP, 500 µg/kg) or ?-opioid receptor (naltrindole, 11 mg/kg), but not ?-opioid receptor (nor-BNI, 2.5 mg/kg), significantly reversed antinociception observed from ET-A receptor antagonism (BQ-123, 92 mg/kg) in cancer animals. These results demonstrate that antagonism of peripheral endothelin-A receptor attenuates carcinoma pain by modulating release of endogenous opioids to act on opioid receptors in the cancer microenvironment. PMID:20071245

  9. Allopregnanolone prevents dieldrin-induced NMDA receptor internalization and neurotoxicity by preserving GABA(A) receptor function.

    PubMed

    Briz, Víctor; Parkash, Jyoti; Sánchez-Redondo, Sara; Prevot, Vincent; Suñol, Cristina

    2012-02-01

    Dieldrin is an endocrine disruptor that accumulates in mammalian adipose tissue and brain. It induces convulsions due to its antagonism of the ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A)R). We have previously reported that long-term exposure to dieldrin causes the internalization of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) as a result of persistent GABA(A)R inhibition. Because the neurosteroids 17?-estradiol (E2) and allopregnanolone are known to modulate the function and trafficking of GABA(A)R and NMDAR, we examined the effects of E2 and allopregnanolone on dieldrin-induced GABA(A)R inhibition, NMDAR internalization, and neuronal death in cortical neurons. We found that 1 nM E2 increased the membrane expression of NR1/NR2B receptors and postsynaptic density 95 but did not induce their physical association. In contrast, 10 nM E2 had no effect on these proteins but reduced NR2A membrane expression. We also found that exposure to 60 nM dieldrin for 6 d in vitro caused the internalization of NR1 and NR2B but not NR2A. Treatment with either 1 nM E2 or 10 ?M allopregnanolone prevented the dieldrin-induced reduction in membrane levels of the NR1/NR2B receptors. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to 200 nM dieldrin down-regulated the expression of NR2A; this was inhibited only by allopregnanolone. Although both hormones restored NMDAR function, as measured by the NMDA-induced rise in intracellular calcium, allopregnanolone (but not E2) reversed the inhibition of GABA(A)R and neuronal death caused by prolonged exposure to dieldrin. Our results indicate that allopregnanolone protects cortical neurons against the neurotoxicity caused by long-term exposure to dieldrin by maintaining GABA(A)R and NMDAR functionality. PMID:22166974

  10. Carnosic acid inhibits TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Carnosic acid (CA), found in rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) leaves, is known to exhibit anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activities. However, whether its anti-inflammatory potency can contribute to the amelioration of obesity has not been elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of CA on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with CA (0-20 µM) for 1 h, followed by treatment with LPS for 30 min; mRNA expression of adipokines and protein expression of TLR4-related molecules were then measured. RESULTS LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed elevated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and CA significantly inhibited the expression of these adipokine genes. LPS-induced up regulation of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, TNF receptor-associated factor 6, and nuclear factor-?B, as well as phosphorylated extracellular receptor-activated kinase were also suppressed by pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with CA. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study suggest that CA directly inhibits TLR4-MyD88-dependent signaling pathways and decreases the inflammatory response in adipocytes. PMID:25324930

  11. Rapid auxin-induced root growth inhibition requires the TIR and AFB auxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Scheitz, Katharina; Lüthen, Hartwig; Schenck, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the relation between auxin-induced gene expression and the rapid auxin-induced growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced a strong activation of gene expression as visualized by the DR5rev::GFP reporter gene technique. This effect was specific for active auxins and was abolished in knockout mutants of the F-box auxin receptors. We measured the IAA-induced growth inhibition at high time resolution and show that the F-box auxin receptor mutants failed to display this effect. We conclude that the F-box auxin receptors are needed for the response. In hypocotyls, auxin induces an increase in elongation growth, and this effect has been earlier shown to be independent of the F-box receptors. Based on these findings, we discuss differences in the growth control modes in roots and shoots. We demonstrate that the rapid auxin-induced root growth inhibition, unlike the induction of growth in hypocotyls, requires the presence of the F-box auxin receptors. PMID:23925852

  12. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  13. Inhibition of Methylcholanthrene-induced Carcinogenesis by an InterferonReceptor-dependent Foreign Body Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihai Qin; Hye-Jung Kim; Jens Hemme; Thomas Blankenstein

    The foreign body reaction is one of the oldest host defense mechanisms against tissue damage which involves inflammation, scarring, and encapsulation. The chemical carcinogen methyl- cholanthrene (MCA) induces fibrosarcoma and tissue damage in parallel at the injection site. Tumor development induced by MCA but not due to p53-deficiency is increased in inter- feron- ? receptor (IFN- ? R)-deficient mice. In

  14. The tachykinin NK3 receptor agonist senktide induces locomotor activity in male Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; Durkin, Sean; Jacquet, Aurélie; Spooren, Will

    2008-12-14

    The tachykinin family of receptors has been of strong interest recently due to the potential of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonism in treatment of schizophrenia. However, critical differences in the tachykinin NK(3) receptor between rats, mice and humans make rats and mice less acceptable species for testing tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonism. This has led to testing of tachykinin NK(3) receptor activity in gerbils and guinea pigs. As these species are much less common laboratory animals than rats and mice, there is a relative paucity of in vivo testing models for tachykinin NK(3) receptor activation. In the present study, locomotor activity induced by the tachykinin NK(3) receptor agonist senktide was characterized. Injection of senktide i.c.v. was found to dose-dependently induce hyperlocomotion from a dose of 0.06 nmol to the maximal dose tested, 0.6 nmol. Locomotion induced by 0.1 nmol of senktide could be blocked by injection of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonists SB222200 (10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) and talnetant (SB223412; 10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.), as well as by osanetant (SR142801; 10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) when administered in a vehicle containing vitamin E and glycofurol. Senktide-induced activity was also reversed by the antipsychotics haloperidol (0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.) and risperidone (1 mg/kg p.o.), but not by the serotonin 5HT(2a/c) receptor antagonist MDL100907 (tested at 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.). Hyperlocomotion induced by 0.03 nmol of senktide was potentiated by antagonism of the tachykinin NK(1) receptor with aprepitant (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, hyperlocomotion induced by senktide in gerbils is a tachykinin NK(3) receptor-mediated behavior that is appropriate for use in testing tachykinin NK(3) receptor activity of novel compounds. PMID:18930726

  15. Mechanical ventilation induces a Toll\\/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon beta-dependent inflammatory response in healthy mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vaneker; L. M. A. Heunks; L. A. B. Joosten; J. van Hees; D. G. Snijdelaar; F. J. Halbertsma; J. van Egmond; M. G. Netea; J. G. van der Hoeven; G. J. Scheffer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) can induce lung injury. Proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in the development of ventilator-induced lung injury. Previously, the authors have shown a role for Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. The current study aims to investigate the role of Toll\\/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF), a protein downstream of Toll-like receptors, in the

  16. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces cognitive deficits and affects GABAB receptors and IGF-1 receptors in male rats.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jenny; Grönbladh, Alfhild; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the abuse of the club drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has become increasingly popular among adolescents. The drug induces euphoria but can also result in sedation, anaesthesia as well as short-term amnesia. In addition, the abuse of GHB causes cognitive impairments and the mechanism by which GHB induces these impairments is not clarified. The present study investigates the impact of GHB treatment on spatial learning and memory using a water maze (WM) test in rats. Furthermore, the behavioural data is combined with an autoradiographic analysis of the GABAB and the IGF-1 receptor systems. The results demonstrate that the animals administered with GHB display an impaired performance in the WM test as compared to controls. In addition, significant alterations in GABAB and IGF-1 receptor density as well as GABAB receptor functionality, were observed in several brain regions associated with cognitive functions e.g. hippocampus. To conclude, our findings suggest that GHB treatment can affect spatial learning and memory, and that this outcome at least to some extent is likely to involve both GABAB and IGF-1 receptors. PMID:24786330

  17. Dextromethorphan-induced psychotoxic behaviors cause sexual dysfunction in male mice via stimulation of ?-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunsung; Shin, Eun-Joo; Yang, Boo-Keun; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Chung, Yoon Hee; Park, Eon Sub; Li, Zhengyi; Kim, Kee-Won; Kwon, Young-Bae; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2012-11-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a well-known antitussive dextrorotatory morphinan. We and others have demonstrated that sigma (?) receptors may be important for DM-mediated neuromodulation. Because an earlier report suggested that DM might affect sexual function and that ? receptor ligands affect signaling pathways in the periphery, we examined whether DM-induced psychotoxic burden affected male reproductive function. We observed that DM had a high affinity at ?-1 receptors in the brain and testis but relatively low affinity at ?-2 receptors. Prolonged treatment with DM resulted in conditioned place preference and hyperlocomotion, followed by an increase in Fos-related antigen expression in the nucleus accumbens in male mice. Simultaneously, DM induced significant reductions in gonadotropin-releasing-hormone immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus. Moreover, we observed that DM induced increased sperm abnormalities and decreased sperm viability and sexual behavior. These phenomena were significantly attenuated by combined treatment with BD1047, a ?-1 receptor antagonist, but not by SM-21, a ?-2 receptor antagonist. Thus, these results suggest that DM psychotoxicity might lead to reproductive stress in male mice by activating ?-1 receptors. PMID:22326744

  18. Regulatory role of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in stress-induced neuroinflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zoppi, S; Madrigal, J L; Caso, J R; García-Gutiérrez, M S; Manzanares, J; Leza, J C; García-Bueno, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stress exposure produces excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation, contributing to the cellular damage observed in stress-related neuropathologies. The endocannabinoids provide a homeostatic system, present in stress-responsive neural circuits. Here, we have assessed the possible regulatory role of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in stress-induced excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Experimental Approach We used wild type (WT), transgenic overexpressing CB2 receptors (CB2xP) and CB2 receptor knockout (CB2-KO) mice exposed to immobilization and acoustic stress (2?h·day?1 for 4 days). The CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was administered daily (2?mg·kg?1, i.p.) to WT and CB2-KO animals. Glutamate uptake was measured in synaptosomes from frontal cortex; Western blots and RT-PCR were used to measure proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes and mediators in homogenates of frontal cortex. Key Results Increased plasma corticosterone induced by stress was not modified by manipulating CB2 receptors. JWH-133 treatment or overexpression of CB2 receptors increased control levels of glutamate uptake, which were reduced by stress back to control levels. JWH-133 prevented the stress-induced increase in proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and CCL2), in NF-?B, and in NOS-2 and COX-2 and in the consequent cellular oxidative and nitrosative damage (lipid peroxidation). CB2xP mice exhibited anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective actions similar to those in JWH-133 pretreated animals. Conversely, lack of CB2 receptors (CB2-KO mice) exacerbated stress-induced neuroinflammatory responses and confirmed that effects of JWH-133 were mediated through CB2 receptors. Conclusions and Implications Pharmacological manipulation of CB2 receptors is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stress-related pathologies with a neuroinflammatory component, such as depression. PMID:24467609

  19. Viral infection induces dependence of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors on cyclooxygenase in guinea pig lung.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, R M; Okanlami, O A; Jacoby, D B; Fryer, A D

    1996-01-01

    Inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on parasympathetic nerve endings in the lungs decrease release of acetylcholine, inhibiting vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Neuronal M2 receptor function can be studied using selective agonists and antagonists such as pilocarpine and gallamine. In pathogen-free guinea pigs indomethacin (1 mg/kg) did not alter the effect of either gallamine or pilocarpine, thus in pathogen free animals neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors function independently of cyclooxygenase products. However, in guinea pigs infected with virus, (which causes temporary loss of M2 receptor function), and then allowed to recover for 8 wk (to allow recovery of M2 receptors), indomethacin prevented both gallamine's potentiation and pilocarpine's inhibition of vagally induced bronchoconstriction. This new effect of indomethacin was not blocked by the addition of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, AA861. However, the selective COX II inhibitor, L-745,337, had the same effect as indomethacin. Since exposure to ozone also caused neuronal M2 receptors to become dependent upon cyclooxygenase the effects of viral infection are likely to be due to inflammation. Thus, despite apparent recovery of normal M2 receptor function after viral infection or ozone, linkage of these receptors is chronically altered such that they become largely dependent on the activity of COX II. PMID:8755638

  20. Potentiation of retinoic acid-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells by prostaglandin EP2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, S; Takahashi, N; Nemoto, K; Negishi, M; Ichikawa, A

    1998-06-01

    Human promyeloid HL-60 cells are differentiated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) to granulocytes, and prostaglandin (PG) E2 potentiates the RA-induced differentiation. Here we examined which subtype of PGE receptors was involved in this potentiating activity of PGE2. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that HL-60 cells expressed three subtypes of PGE receptor, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Among various EP agonists, and EP2-selective agonist, butaprost, preferentially potentiated the RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. Butaprost not only decreased the half-maximal concentration of RA but also increased the maximal level of the differentiation. Butaprost concentration-dependently stimulated the cAMP formation, and 8-Br-cAMP strongly potentiated the RA-induced differentiation. These results demonstrate that the EP2 receptor enhances the RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells via stimulation of adenylate cyclase. PMID:9785384

  1. Maurocalcine interacts with cardiac ryanodine receptor without inducing channel modification.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to a mild and slowly progressive myopathy with adult onset. We identified RYR1 (ryanodine receptor involve very large genes like RYR1 and NEB as well as genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Citation: Bo

  2. Cold stress, reverse T3 and lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    McCormack, P D; Thomas, J; Malik, M; Staschen, C M

    1998-01-01

    Following a recently reported rise in serum reverse triiodothyronine levels in response to cold exposure, an initial in vitro study has been carried out on human lymphocyte function. The first part of the study demonstrated that the uptake of rT3 on lymphocyte nuclear receptors increased as the rT3 concentration was raised above the normal serum level. The binding is competitive with triiodothyronine. The lymphocytes were harvested from venous blood donated by young male U.S. naval personnel. The second part of the study involved lymphocyte proliferation assays carried out with the addition of increasing amounts of rT3. Both non-specific (three different mitogens) and specific (recall antigen) stimuli were used. There was an indication that lymphocyte function is depressed by increasing serum concentration of rT3. However, with a small number of test subjects and a resulting low statistical power, it was not possible to establish a statistically significant association. Lymphocytes from umbilical cord blood, which has a very high level of rT3 compared to that in normal adult sera, were also found to have a much reduced lymphocyte stimulation index. The requirements for a more definitive investigation are outlined. PMID:9785613

  3. A Novel High-Throughput Technique for Identifying Monoclonal Antibodies Capable of Death Receptor Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Hang Fai; Gormley, Julie A.; Scott, Christopher J.; Johnston, James A.; Olwill, Shane A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of death receptor family induced apoptosis has gained momentum in recent years with the knowledge that therapeutic antibodies targeting DR4 and DR5 (death receptor’s 4 and 5) have proved efficacious in multiple clinical trials. The therapeutic rationale is based on targeting and amplifying a tumour tissues normal cell death programme (apoptosis). While advances in the targeting of DR4 and DR5 have been successful the search for an agonistic antibody to another family member, the Fas receptor, has proven more elusive. This is partly due to the differing in vitro and in vivo characteristics of individual antibodies. In order to induce Fas targeted cell death an antibody must be capable of binding to and trimerising the receptor. It has been shown that antibodies capable of performing this function in vivo, with the assistance of tumour associated cells, do not always induce apoptosis in vitro. As a result the use of current methodologies to detect functional antibodies in vitro may have dismissed potential therapeutic candidates (‘false negative’). Here we report a novel high throughput screening technique which artificially cross-links antibodies bound to the Fas receptor. By combining this process with Annexin-V and Prodidium Iodide (PI) staining we can select for antibodies which have the potential to induce apoptosis in vivo.

  4. Estrogen stimuli promote osteoblastic differentiation via the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase PACE4 in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Tabata, Atsushi; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Ueno, Tomomi; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic compounds include endogenous estrogens such as estradiol as well as soybean isoflavones, such as daidzein and its metabolite equol, which are known phytoestrogens that prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Indeed, mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, a murine osteoblastic cell line, was significantly decreased in medium containing fetal bovine serum treated with charcoal-dextran to deplete endogenous estrogens, but estradiol and these soybean isoflavones dose-dependently restored the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells; equol was tenfold more effective than daidzein. These differentiation-promoting effects were inhibited by the addition of fulvestrant, which is a selective downregulator of estrogen receptors. Analysis of the expression pattern of bone-related genes by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)/quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), which focused on responsiveness to the estrogen stimuli, revealed that the transcription of PACE4, a subtilisin-like proprotein convertase, was tightly linked with the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells induced by estrogen stimuli. Moreover, treatment with RNAi of PACE4 in MC3T3-E1 cells resulted in a drastic decrease of mineralization in the presence of estrogen stimuli. These results strongly suggest that PACE4 participates in bone formation at least in osteoblast differentiation, and estrogen receptor-mediated stimuli induce osteoblast differentiation through the upregulation of PACE4 expression. PMID:24557631

  5. How one TSH receptor antibody induces thyrocyte proliferation while another induces apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Syed A.; Ma, Risheng; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) activates two major G-protein arms, Gs? and Gq leading to initiation of down-stream signaling cascades for survival, proliferation and production of thyroid hormones. Antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR-Abs), found in patients with Graves’ disease, may have stimulating, blocking, or neutral actions on the thyroid cell. We have shown previously that such TSHR-Abs are distinct signaling imprints after binding to the TSHR and that such events can have variable functional consequences for the cell. In particular, there is a great contrast between stimulating (S) TSHR-Abs, which induce thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion as well as thyroid cell proliferation, compared to so called “neutral” (N) TSHR-Abs which may induce thyroid cell apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In the present study, using a rat thyrocyte (FRTL-5) ex vivo model system, our hypothesis was that while N-TSHR-Abs can induce apoptosis via activation of mitochondrial ROS (mROS), the S-TSHR-Abs are able to stimulate cell survival and avoid apoptosis by actively suppressing mROS. Using fluorescent microscopy, fluorometry, live cell imaging, immunohistochemistry and immunoblot assays, we have observed that S-TSHR-Abs do indeed suppress mROS and cellular stress and this suppression is exerted via activation of the PKA/CREB and AKT/mTOR/S6K signaling cascades. Activation of these signaling cascades, with the suppression of mROS, initiated cell proliferation. In sharp contrast, a failure to activate these signaling cascades with increased activation of mROS induced by N-TSHR-Abs resulted in thyroid cell apoptosis. Our current findings indicated that signaling diversity induced by different TSHR-Abs regulated thyroid cell fate. While S-TSHR-Abs may rescue cells from apoptosis and induce thyrocyte proliferation, N-TSHR-Abs aggravate the local inflammatory infiltrate within the thyroid gland, or in the retro-orbit, by inducing cellular apoptosis; a phenomenon known to activate innate and by-stander immune-reactivity via DNA release from the apoptotic cells. PMID:23958398

  6. Central NPY-Y5 receptors activation plays a major role in fasting-induced pituitary-thyroid axis suppression in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Costa-e-Sousa, Ricardo Henrique; Souza, Luana Lopes; Calviño, Camila; Cabanelas, Adriana; Almeida, Norma Aparecida Santos; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas

    2011-11-10

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits TRH neurons in fed state, and hypothalamic NPY higher expression during fasting has been proposed to be involved in fasting-induced suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. We investigated the role of central Y5 receptors in the control of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) secretion. Fed and fasting rats received twice daily central injections (3rd ventricle) of Y5 receptor antagonist (CGP71683; 15nmol/rat) for 72h. Fasted rats also received a single central injection of CGP71683 (15nmol/rat) at the end of 72h of fasting. In fed rats, Y5 receptor blockade reduced total food intake by 32% and body mass by almost 10% (p<0.01), corroborating the role of this receptor in food intake control. 72h-fasted rats exhibited a 4-fold increase in serum TSH (p<0.001), 1h after a single injection of Y5 antagonist. Also with multiple injections during 72h of fasting, Y5 blockade resulted in activation of thyroid axis, as demonstrated by a 3-times rise in serum T4 (p<0.001), accompanied by unchanged TSH and T3. In fed rats, the chronic central administration of CGP71683 resulted in reduced total serum T4 without changes in free T4 and TSH. Serum leptin and PYY were not altered by the NPY central blockade in both fed and fasted rats, suggesting no role of these hormones in the alterations observed. Therefore, the inhibition of central Y5 neurotransmission resulted in activation of thyroid axis during fasting suggesting that NPY-Y5 receptors contribute to fasting-induced TSH and TH suppression. PMID:21771616

  7. Chemerin enhances insulin signaling and potentiates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kenichi; Zolotaryov, Fyodor N; Hong, Kyoung Su; Kitazawa, Riko; Iida, Keiji; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Kaji, Hidesuke; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kasuga, Masato; Chihara, Kazuo

    2008-03-01

    To explore a novel adipokine, we screened adipocyte differentiation-related gene and found that TIG2/chemerin was strongly induced during the adipocyte differentiation. Chemerin was secreted by the mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes and expressed abundantly in adipose tissue in vivo as recently described. Intriguingly, the expression of chemerin was differently regulated in the liver and adipose tissue in db/db mice. In addition, serum chemerin concentration was decreased in db/db mice. Chemerin and its receptor/ChemR23 were expressed in mature adipocytes, suggesting its function in autocrine/paracrine fashion. Finally, chemerin potentiated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake concomitant with enhanced insulin signaling in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data establish that chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipocyte function. PMID:18242188

  8. Fluoxetine-induced transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor type ? receptor reveals a novel heterologous desensitization process.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jeff S; Vasefi, Maryam S; Gondora, Nyasha; Ahmed, Nawaz; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including serotonin (5-HT) receptors promote the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) via intracellular signaling pathways in a process termed transactivation. Although transactivation pathways are commonly initiated by a GPCR, a recent report demonstrated that serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were able to block 5-HT-induced transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) type ? receptor. We show that a 45 min pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with the SSRI fluoxetine indeed blocked 5-HT-induced transactivation of the PDGF? receptor. However, upon further examination, we discovered that during the pretreatment period, fluoxetine itself was transiently transactivating the PDGF? receptor via 5-HT2 receptor activation. After 45min, the increase in PDGF? receptor phosphorylation induced by fluoxetine had returned to baseline, but a subsequent transactivating stimulus (5-HT) failed to "re-transactivate" the PDGF? receptor. We further demonstrate that 45min, but not 3h, 5-HT pretreatment blocks dopamine-induced PDGF? receptor transactivation. This did not involve changes in PDGF receptor function, since ligand (PDGF)-induced PDGF? receptor activation was not inhibited by 5-HT pretreatment. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the heterologous desensitization of an RTK transactivation pathway and reveals a previously unknown short-term "blackout" period where no additional transactivation signaling is possible. PMID:25702926

  9. Dominant Negative Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Receptor 4 on TRAIL Receptor 1 Signaling by Formation of Heteromeric Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Simon; Hasenauer, Jan; Pollak, Nadine; Scheurich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cytokine TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its cell membrane receptors constitute an elaborate signaling system fulfilling important functions in immune regulation and tumor surveillance. Activation of the death receptors TRAILR1 and TRAILR2 can lead to apoptosis, whereas TRAILR3 and TRAILR4 are generally referred to as decoy receptors, which have been shown to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Alike other members of the TNF receptor superfamily, TRAIL receptors contain a pre-ligand binding assembly domain (PLAD) mediating receptor oligomerization. Still, the stoichiometry of TRAIL receptor oligomers as well as the issue of whether the PLAD mediates only homotypic or also heterotypic interactions remained inconclusive until now. Performing acceptor-photobleaching FRET studies with receptors 1, 2, and 4, we demonstrate interactions in all possible combinations. Formation of dimers was shown by chemical cross-linking experiments for interactions of TRAILR2 and heterophilic interactions between the two death receptors or between either of the death receptors and TRAILR4. Implications of the demonstrated receptor-receptor interactions on signaling were investigated in suitable cellular models. Both apoptosis induction and activation of the transcription factor NF?B were significantly reduced in the presence of TRAILR4. Our experimental data combined with mathematical modeling show that the inhibitory capacity of TRAILR4 is attributable to signaling-independent mechanisms, strongly suggesting a reduction of signaling competent death receptors through formation heteromeric receptor complexes. In summary, we propose a model of TRAIL receptor interference driven by PLAD-mediated formation of receptor heterodimers on the cell membrane. PMID:24764293

  10. Tranexamic acid induces kaolin intake stimulating a pathway involving tachykinin neurokinin 1 receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Hitoshi; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Kuwagata, Makiko; Orito, Kensuke

    2014-01-15

    Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of emesis. In this study, we examined the receptors involved in tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats, which reflects the drug's clinical emetogenic potential in humans. Further, we examined the brain regions activated by administration of tranexamic acid and elucidated pivotal pathways of tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. We examined the effects of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, domperidone, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, and aprepitant, a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, on tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats. Then, we determined the brain regions that showed increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Finally, we examined the effects of an antagonist(s) that reduced tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake on the increase in c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Aprepitant significantly decreased tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. However, neither ondansetron nor domperidone decreased kaolin intake. Tranexamic acid significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactive cells by approximately 5.5-fold and 22-fold in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract, respectively. Aprepitant decreased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in both areas. Tranexamic acid induced kaolin intake possibly via stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors in rats. The tachykinin NK1 receptor could be targeted to prevent and/or suppress emesis in patients receiving tranexamic acid. PMID:24333477

  11. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists attenuate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Marti, Matteo; Rodi, Donata; Li, Qin; Guerrini, Remo; Fasano, Stefania; Morella, Ilaria; Tozzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Riccardo; Calabresi, Paolo; Simonato, Michele; Bezard, Erwan; Morari, Michele

    2012-11-14

    In the present study we investigated whether the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), previously implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, also affects L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In striatal slices of naive rodents, N/OFQ (0.1-1 ?m) prevented the increase of ERK phosphorylation and the loss of depotentiation of synaptic plasticity induced by the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 in spiny neurons. In vivo, exogenous N/OFQ (0.03-1 nmol, i.c.v.) or a synthetic N/OFQ receptor agonist given systemically (0.01-1 mg/Kg) attenuated dyskinesias expression in 6-hydroxydopamine hemilesioned rats primed with L-DOPA, without causing primary hypolocomotive effects. Conversely, N/OFQ receptor antagonists worsened dyskinesia expression. In vivo microdialysis revealed that N/OFQ prevented dyskinesias simultaneously with its neurochemical correlates such as the surge of nigral GABA and glutamate, and the reduction of thalamic GABA. Regional microinjections revealed that N/OFQ attenuated dyskinesias more potently and effectively when microinjected in striatum than substantia nigra (SN) reticulata, whereas N/OFQ receptor antagonists were ineffective in striatum but worsened dyskinesias when given in SN. Quantitative autoradiography showed an increase in N/OFQ receptor binding in striatum and a reduction in SN of both unprimed and dyskinetic 6-hydroxydopamine rats, consistent with opposite adaptive changes of N/OFQ transmission. Finally, the N/OFQ receptor synthetic agonist also reduced dyskinesia expression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated dyskinetic macaques without affecting the global parkinsonian score. We conclude that N/OFQ receptor agonists may represent a novel strategy to counteract L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. Their action is possibly mediated by upregulated striatal N/OFQ receptors opposing the D1 receptor-mediated overactivation of the striatonigral direct pathway. PMID:23152595

  12. Oxytocin receptor ligands induce changes in cytoskeleton in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Jan; Strbak, Vladimir; Paulikova, Helena; Krajnakova, Lucia; Lestanova, Zuzana; Bacova, Zuzana

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of ligands of oxytocin receptors on gene expression of neurofilament proteins (nestin and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)) associated with neuronal differentiation and growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) related to neuronal growth. Fluorescent staining of F-actin was used to observe morphology of cells. Co-treatment with oxytocin and oxytocin receptor antagonist--atosiban--resulted in significant increase of MAP2 gene expression in SK-N-SH cells. There was no effect of oxytocin on gene expression of growth factors BDNF and NGF. Surprisingly, oxytocin with atosiban significantly increased mRNA levels for both BDNF and NGF. Gene expression of vasopressin receptor (V1aR) significantly decreased in response to vasopressin. Atosiban decreased mRNA levels for oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and V1aR. Oxytocin significantly decreased OXTR and nestin mRNA levels and increased mRNA levels for BDNF and NGF in U-87 MG cells. The densest recruitment of F-actin filaments was observed in apical parts of filopodia in SK-N-SH cells incubated in oxytocin presence. Present data demonstrate complex role of ligands of oxytocin receptors in regulation of gene expression of intermediate filaments and thus, oxytocin might be considered as a growth factor in neuronal type of cells. PMID:23335033

  13. GABA B Receptors and Opioid Mechanisms Involved in Homotaurine-Induced Analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Isabel Serrano; Jose S. Serrano; Ana Fernández; Ihklas Asadi; M. Carmen Serrano-Martino

    1998-01-01

    1.The involvement of GABAB receptors and opioid mechanisms in homotaurine-induced analgesia has been investigated in current models of nociception by using a GABAB receptor antagonist, morphine, and naloxone. CGP 35348 (50–200 mg\\/kg IP), a highly selective GABAB antagonist, was administered prior to carrying out a dose–response curve of homotaurine (22.6–445 mg\\/kg IP) antinociceptive effect in the abdominal constriction (mice) and

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member RANK Mediates Osteoclast Differentiation and Activation Induced by Osteoprotegerin Ligand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailing Hsu; David L. Lacey; Colin R. Dunstan; Irina Solovyev; Anne Colombero; Emma Timms; Hong-Lin Tan; Gary Elliott; Michael J. Kelley; Ildiko Sarosi; Ling Wang; Xing-Zhong Xia; Robin Elliott; Laura Chiu; Tabitha Black; Sheila Scully; Casey Capparelli; Sean Morony; Grant Shimamoto; Michael B. Bass; William J. Boyle

    1999-01-01

    A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically

  15. Assembly and structural properties of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand: Implications for function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Chattopadhyay; U. A. Ramagopal; A. Mukhopadhaya; V. N. Malashkevich; T. P. Dilorenzo; M. Brenowitz; S. G. Nathenson; S. C. Almo

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a recently identified member of the TNF family, binds to its receptor GITR on both effector and regulatory T cells and generates positive costimulatory signals implicated in a wide range of T cell functions. Structural analysis reveals that the human GITRL (hGITRL) ectodomain self-assembles into an atypical expanded homotrimer with sparse monomer-monomer interfaces. Consistent with

  16. Protein-bound uremic toxins induce tissue remodeling by targeting the EGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chiao-Yin; Young, Guang-Huar; Hsieh, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yau-Hung; Wu, Mai-Szu; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lee, Jia-Hung; Lee, Chin-Chan

    2015-02-01

    Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate have been suggested to induce kidney tissue remodeling. This study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying this tissue remodeling using cultured human proximal renal tubular cells and half-nephrectomized mice treated with indoxyl sulfate or p-cresol sulfate as study models. Molecular docking results suggested that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate dock on a putative interdomain pocket of the extracellular EGF receptor. In vitro spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the presence of a synthetic EGF receptor peptide significantly decreased the spectrophotometric absorption of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate. In cultured cells, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate activated the EGF receptor and downstream signaling by enhancing receptor dimerization, and increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in an EGF receptor-dependent manner. Treatment of mice with indoxyl sulfate or p-cresol sulfate significantly activated the renal EGF receptor and increased the tubulointerstitial expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. In conclusion, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate may induce kidney tissue remodeling through direct binding and activation of the renal EGF receptor. PMID:25012179

  17. AMPA-receptor trafficking and injury-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Michael S; Ferguson, Adam R; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C

    2010-07-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are critical for synaptic plasticity, and are subject to alterations based on subunit composition and receptor trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. One of the most potent regulators of AMPAR trafficking is the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?, which is involved in physiological regulation of synaptic strength (Beattie et al., (2002) Science, 295, 2282-2285; Stellwagen and Malenka, (2006) Nature, 440, 1054-1059) and is also present at high concentrations after CNS injury. Here, we review evidence that TNF can rapidly alter the surface expression of AMPARs so that the proportion of Ca(++) -permeable receptors is increased and that this increase, in combination with increased levels of extracellular glutamate after injury, plays an important role in enhancing excitotoxic cell death after CNS injury. Thus, the pathophysiological hijacking of a critical regulator of synaptic plasticity and homeostasis by the secondary injury cascade may represent a new therapeutic target for neuroprotection. PMID:20646045

  18. Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch

    PubMed Central

    Jae, Lucas T.; Raaben, Matthijs; Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Soh, Timothy; Stubbs, Sarah H.; Janssen, Hans; Damme, Markus; Saftig, Paul; Whelan, Sean P.; Dye, John M.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.

    2014-01-01

    Lassa virus spreads from rodents to humans and can lead to lethal hemorrhagic fever. Despite its broad tropism, chicken cells were reported to resist infection thirty years ago. We show that Lassa virus readily engaged its cell surface receptor ?-dystroglycan in avian cells, but virus entry in susceptible species involved a pH-dependent switch to an intracellular receptor, the lysosome-resident protein LAMP1. Iterative haploid screens revealed that the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 was required for the interaction of the virus glycoprotein with LAMP1. A single glycosylated residue in LAMP1, present in susceptible species but absent in birds, was essential for interaction with the Lassa virus envelope protein and subsequent infection. The resistance of Lamp1-deficient mice to Lassa virus highlights the relevance of this receptor switch in vivo. PMID:24970085

  19. Telmisartan ameliorates glutamate-induced neurotoxicity: roles of AT1 receptor blockade and PPAR? activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Pang, Tao; Hafko, Roman; Benicky, Julius; Sanchez-Lemus, Enrique; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Sartans (Angiotensin II AT1 Receptor Blockers, ARBs) are powerful neuroprotective agents in vivo and protect against IL-1? neurotoxicity in vitro. The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of sartan neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity, a common cause of neuronal injury and apoptosis. The results show that sartans are neuroprotective, significantly reducing glutamate-induced neuronal injury and apoptosis in cultured rat primary cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). Telmisartan was the most potent sartan studied, with an order of potency telmisartan > candesartan > losartan > valsartan. Mechanisms involved reduction of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 activation, protection of the survival PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? pathway, and prevention of glutamate-induced ERK1/2 activation. NMDA receptor stimulation was essential for glutamate-induced cell injury and apoptosis. Participation of AT1A receptor was supported by glutamate-induced upregulation of AT1A gene expression and AT1 receptor binding. Conversely, AT1B or AT2 receptor played no role. Glutamate-induced neuronal injury and the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan were decreased, but not abolished, in CGCs obtained from AT1A knock-out mice. This indicates that although AT1 receptors are necessary for glutamate to exert its full neurotoxic potential, part of the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan is independent of AT1 receptor blockade. PPAR? activation was also involved in the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan, as telmisartan enhanced PPAR? nuclear translocation, and the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 partially reversed the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan. The present results substantiate the therapeutic use of sartans, in particular telmisartan, in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain disorders where glutamate neurotoxicity plays a significant role. PMID:24316465

  20. Telmisartan ameliorates glutamate-induced neurotoxicity: roles of AT(1) receptor blockade and PPAR? activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Pang, Tao; Hafko, Roman; Benicky, Julius; Sanchez-Lemus, Enrique; Saavedra, Juan M

    2014-04-01

    Sartans (Angiotensin II AT(1) Receptor Blockers, ARBs) are powerful neuroprotective agents in vivo and protect against IL-1? neurotoxicity in vitro. The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of sartan neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity, a common cause of neuronal injury and apoptosis. The results show that sartans are neuroprotective, significantly reducing glutamate-induced neuronal injury and apoptosis in cultured rat primary cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). Telmisartan was the most potent sartan studied, with an order of potency telmisartan > candesartan > losartan > valsartan. Mechanisms involved reduction of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 activation, protection of the survival PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? pathway and prevention of glutamate-induced ERK1/2 activation. NMDA receptor stimulation was essential for glutamate-induced cell injury and apoptosis. Participation of AT(1A) receptor was supported by glutamate-induced upregulation of AT(1A) gene expression and AT(1) receptor binding. Conversely, AT(1B) or AT(2) receptors played no role. Glutamate-induced neuronal injury and the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan were decreased, but not abolished, in CGCs obtained from AT(1A) knock-out mice. This indicates that although AT(1) receptors are necessary for glutamate to exert its full neurotoxic potential, part of the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan is independent of AT(1) receptor blockade. PPAR? activation was also involved in the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan, as telmisartan enhanced PPAR? nuclear translocation and the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 partially reversed the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan. The present results substantiate the therapeutic use of sartans, in particular telmisartan, in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain disorders where glutamate neurotoxicity plays a significant role. PMID:24316465

  1. Electric field-induced redistribution and postfield relaxation of epidermal growth factor receptors on A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The lateral mobility of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in the plane of the plasma membrane of cultured A431 cells was investigated using direct and indirect fluorescent probes to measure the generation and relaxation of electric field-induced receptor asymmetry. A steady electric field of 15 V/cm for 30 min at 23 degrees C induced a redistribution of the unoccupied EGF receptor such that there was approximately a three-fold higher concentration of receptors at the cathode-facing pole. After termination of the field, the unoccupied receptors back diffused at 37 degrees C with a rate corresponding to a diffusion coefficient of 2.6-3.5 X 10(-10) cm2/s. No diffusion was detected at 4 degrees C. Formation of the hormone- receptor complex is known to induce receptor clustering and internalization. By inhibiting internalization with metabolic poisons, we were able to study the cell surface mobility of clusters of the hormone-receptor complex. The same degree of asymmetry was induced when the occupied receptor was exposed to an electric field and the rate of back diffusion of clusters of the hormone-receptor complex corresponded to a diffusion coefficient of 0.68-0.95 X 10(-10) cm2/s. Although the unoccupied receptor is somewhat more mobile than the hormone-receptor complex, it was still far less mobile than one would predict for an unconstrained protein imbedded in a phospholipid bilayer. PMID:3494733

  2. Cocaine-Induced Intracellular Signaling and Gene Expression Are Oppositely Regulated by the Dopamine D1 and D3 Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Zhang; Danwen Lou; Hongyuan Jiao; Dongsheng Zhang; Xinkang Wang; Ying Xia; Jianhua Zhang; Ming Xu

    2004-01-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine can induce neuroadaptations in the brain. One mechanism by which persistent changes occur involves alterations in gene expression mediated by the dopamine receptors. Both the dopamine D1 and D3 receptors have been shown to mediate gene expression changes. Moreover, the D1 and D3 receptors are also coexpressed in the same neurons, particularly in the nucleus accumbens

  3. Tazarotene-Induced Gene 1 (TIG1), a Novel Retinoic Acid Receptor-Responsive Gene in Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Nagpal; Sheetal Patel; Arisa T. Asano; Alan T. Johnson; Madeleine Duvic; Roshantha A. S. Chandraratna

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids exert their effect through ligand-dependent transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors (RAR&?, ?, and ?) and retinoid X receptor (RXR?, ?, and ?), which belong to the superfamily of steroid\\/ thyroid\\/vitamin D3 nuclear receptors. Using a subtraction hybridization approach, we have identified a cDNA sequence, Tazarotene Induced Gene 1 (TIG1), which is highly upregulated in skin raft cultures by an

  4. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA’s but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression. PMID:24946016

  5. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker candesartan prevents the fast up-regulation of cerebrocortical benzodiazepine-1 receptors induced by acute inflammatory and restraint stress

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Honda, Masaru; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Centrally acting Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) protect from stress-induced disorders and decrease anxiety in a model of inflammatory stress, the systemic injection of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In order to better understand the anxiolytic effect of ARBs, we treated rats with LPS (50 µg/kg) with or without three days of pretreatment with the ARB candesartan (1 mg/kg/day), and studied cortical benzodiazepine (BZ) and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. We compared the cortical BZ and CRF receptors expression pattern induced by LPS with that produced in restraint stress. Inflammation stress produced a generalized increase in cortical BZ1 receptors and reduced mRNA expression of the GABAA receptor ?2 subunit in cingulate cortex; changes were prevented by candesartan pretreatment. Moreover, restraint stress produced similar increases in cortical BZ1 receptor binding, and candesartan prevented these changes. Treatment with candesartan alone increased cortical BZ1 binding, and decreased ?2 subunit mRNA expression in the cingulate cortex. Conversely, we did not find changes in CRF1 receptor expression in any of the cortical areas studied, either after inflammation or restraint stress. Cortical CRF2 receptor binding was undetectable, but CRF2 mRNA expression was decreased by inflammation stress, a change prevented by candesartan. We conclude that stress promotes rapid and widespread changes in cortical BZ1 receptor expression; and that the stress-induced BZ1 receptor expression is under the control of AT1 receptor activity. The results suggest that the anti-anxiety effect of ARBs may be associated with their capacity to regulate stress-induced alterations in cortical BZ1 receptors. PMID:22503782

  6. Role of substance P and tachykinin receptor antagonists in citric acid-induced cough in pigs.

    PubMed

    Moreaux, B; Nemmar, A; Vincke, G; Halloy, D; Beerens, D; Advenier, C; Gustin, P

    2000-11-24

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the role of tachykinins in cough induced by citric acid (0.8 M) in pigs. With this object, we have studied the effect of citric acid on substance P content in the tracheo-bronchial tree and the effects of substance P and of tachykinin receptor antagonists on citric acid-induced cough. Citric acid exposure significantly increased substance P concentration in both broncho-alveolar and tracheal lavage fluids, while it decreased significantly the substance P content in tracheal mucosa. Substance P did not elicit cough, but significantly potentiated the citric acid-induced cough frequency. Tachykinin NK(1), NK(2) or NK(3) receptor antagonists, SR 140333 (nolpitantium), SR 48968 (saredutant) and SR 142801 (osanetant), respectively, significantly inhibited citric acid-induced cough. The same inhibitory effect of tachykinin receptor antagonists was observed, when substance P was nebulised before citric acid challenge. We conclude that citric acid induces in pigs a release of substance P in the tracheo-bronchial tree, which plays a sensitising role on the cough reflex. The involvement of tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), NK(3) receptors are also demonstrated in this reflex. PMID:11090648

  7. Agonist-induced desensitization of dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity is temporally and biochemically separated from D1 receptor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, G Y; Trogadis, J; Stevens, J; Bouvier, M; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor was investigated by using c-myc epitope-tagged D1 receptors expressed in Sf9 (fall armyworm ovary) cells. Treatment of D1 receptors with 10 microM dopamine for 15 min led to a loss of the dopamine-detected high-affinity state of the receptor accompanying a 40% reduction in the ability of the receptor to mediate maximal dopamine stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. After 60 min of agonist exposure, 45 min after the occurrence of desensitization, 28% of the cell surface receptors were internalized into an intracellular light vesicular membrane fraction as determined by radioligand binding and supported by photoaffinity labeling, immunocytochemical staining, and immunoblot analysis. Pretreatment of cells with concanavalin A or sucrose completely blocked agonist-induced D1 receptor internalization without preventing agonist-induced desensitization, indicating a biochemical separation of these processes. Collectively, these findings indicate that the desensitization of D1 receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase activity and D1 receptor internalization are temporarily and biochemically distinct mechanisms regulating D1 receptor function following agonist activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479745

  8. Magnolol enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Sil Choi; Byung-Yoon Cha; Young-Sil Lee; Takayuki Yonezawa; Toshiaki Teruya; Kazuo Nagai; Je-Tae Woo

    2009-01-01

    AimsThe nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation. Its ligands, including thiazolidinediones, improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. We investigate the effect of magnolol, an ingredient of Magnolia officinalis on adipogenesis and glucose uptake using 3T3-L1 cells.

  9. A Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase Docking Site in the Cytoplasmic Tail of the Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Transmembrane Protein Is Essential for Envelope-Induced Transformation of NIH 3T3 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASSIMO PALMARINI; NAOYOSHI MAEDA; CLAUDIO MURGIA; CLAUDIO DE-FRAJA; ANDREW HOFACRE; HUNG FAN

    2001-01-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer of sheep known as ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recently, we have found that the expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) is sufficient to transform mouse NIH 3T3 cells in classical transformation assays. To further investigate the mechanisms of JSRV oncogenesis, we generated a series of envelope chimeras between

  10. Phorbol ester induced phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor in intact MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Knabbe, C.; Lippman, M.E.; Greene, G.L.; Dickson, R.B.

    1986-05-01

    Recent studies with a variety of cellular receptors have shown that phorbol ester induced phosphorylation modulates ligand binding and function. In this study the authors present direct evidence that the estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state can be enhanced specifically by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Cells were cultured to 6h in the presence of (/sup 32/P)-orthophosphate. Whole cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with a monoclonal antibody (D58) against the estrogen receptor and subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Autoradiography showed a specific band in the region of 60-62 kDa which was significantly increased in preparations from PMA treated cells. Phospho-amino acid analysis demonstrated specific phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues. Cholera toxin or forskolin did not change the phosphorylation state of this protein. In a parallel binding analysis PMA led to a rapid decrease of estrogen binding sites. The estrogen induction of both progesterone receptors and growth in semisolid medium was blocked by PMA, whereas the estrogen induction of the 8kDa protein corresponding to the ps2 gene product and of the 52 kDa protein was not affected. In conclusion, phorbol esters can induce phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor. This process may be associated with the inactivation of certain receptor functions.

  11. Optimal T-cell receptor affinity for inducing autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Koehli, Sabrina; Naeher, Dieter; Galati-Fournier, Virginie; Zehn, Dietmar; Palmer, Ed

    2014-01-01

    T-cell receptor affinity for self-antigen has an important role in establishing self-tolerance. Three transgenic mouse strains expressing antigens of variable affinity for the OVA transgenic-I T-cell receptor were generated to address how TCR affinity affects the efficiency of negative selection, the ability to prime an autoimmune response, and the elimination of the relevant target cell. Mice expressing antigens with an affinity just above the negative selection threshold exhibited the highest risk of developing experimental autoimmune diabetes. The data demonstrate that close to the affinity threshold for negative selection, sufficient numbers of self-reactive T cells escape deletion and create an increased risk for the development of autoimmunity. PMID:25411315

  12. Different Toll-like receptor agonists induce distinct macrophage responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan W. Jones; Terry K. Means; Kurt A. Heldwein; Marc A. Keen; Preston J. Hill; John T. Belisle; Matthew J. Fenton

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that gram-neg- ative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, whereas the mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid lipoarabinoman- nan (LAM) activates cells via TLR2. We also iden- tified a secreted TLR2 agonist activity in short- term culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculo- sis bacilli, termed soluble tuberculosis factor (STF). Here we show that STF contains mannosy-

  13. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade on glucocorticoid-induced renal injury in adrenalectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Ihara, Genei; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Ohashi, Naro; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Yukiko; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Kohno, Masakazu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Aldosterone is well recognized as the selective physiological ligand for mineralocorticoid receptor in epithelia. However, in-vitro studies have demonstrated that the affinity of aldosterone and glucocorticoids for mineralocorticoid receptor is similar. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids are involved in the development of renal injury through an mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanism. Methods and results Uninephrectomized (UNX) rats were treated with 1% NaCl and divided into three groups: vehicle, bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) + hydrocortisone (HYDRO; 5 mg/kg/day, s.c.), ADX + HYDRO + eplerenone (0.125% in chow). HYDRO-treated UNX-ADX rats showed increased blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with an increase in the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor target genes, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 and Na+/H+ exchanger isoform-1, in renal tissues. HYDRO treatment induced morphological changes in the kidney, including glomerulosclerosis and podocyte injury. Treatment with eplerenone markedly decreased the gene expression and reduced the albuminuria and renal morphological changes. In contrast, dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg per day, s.c.) + UNX + ADX induced hypertension and albuminuria in different groups of rats. Eplerenone failed to ameliorate these changes. Conclusions Our findings indicate that chronic glucocorticoid excess could activate mineralocorticoid receptor and, in turn, induce the development of renal injury. PMID:21243738

  14. Pharmacological evaluation of SN79, a sigma (?) receptor ligand, against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Nidhi; Seminerio, Michael J; Robson, Matthew J; McCurdy, Christopher R; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2013-08-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse, causing hyperthermia and neurotoxicity at high doses. Currently, there is no clinically proven pharmacotherapy to treat these effects of methamphetamine, necessitating identification of potential novel therapeutic targets. Earlier studies showed that methamphetamine binds to sigma (?) receptors in the brain at physiologically relevant concentrations, where it "acts in part as an agonist." SN79 (6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-florophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one) was synthesized as a putative ? receptor antagonist with nanomolar affinity and selectivity for ? receptors over 57 other binding sites. SN79 pretreatment afforded protection against methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and striatal dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity in male, Swiss Webster mice (measured as depletions in striatal dopamine and serotonin levels, and reductions in striatal dopamine and serotonin transporter expression levels). In contrast, di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), a well established ? receptor agonist, increased the lethal effects of methamphetamine, although it did not further exacerbate methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. Together, the data implicate ? receptors in the direct modulation of some effects of methamphetamine such as lethality, while having a modulatory role which can mitigate other methamphetamine-induced effects such as hyperthermia and neurotoxicity. PMID:22921523

  15. Dopamine receptors and the persistent neurovascular dysregulation induced by methamphetamine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kousik, Sharanya M; Napier, T Celeste; Ross, Ryan D; Sumner, D Rick; Carvey, Paul M

    2014-11-01

    Recently abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) abusers showed neurovascular dysregulation within the striatum. The factors that contribute to this dysregulation and the persistence of these effects are unclear. The current study addressed these knowledge gaps. First, we evaluated the brains of rats with a history of Meth self-administration following various periods of forced abstinence. Micro-computed tomography revealed a marked reduction in vessel diameter and vascular volume uniquely within the striatum between 1 and 28 days after Meth self-administration. Microvessels showed a greater impairment than larger vessels. Subsequently, we determined that dopamine (DA) D2 receptors regulated Meth-induced striatal vasoconstriction via acute noncontingent administration of Meth. These receptors likely regulated the response to striatal hypoxia, as hypoxia inducible factor 1? was elevated. Acute Meth exposure also increased striatal levels of endothelin receptor A and decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Collectively, the data provide novel evidence that Meth-induced striatal neurovascular dysregulation involves DA receptor signaling that results in vasoconstriction via endothelin receptor A and nitric oxide signaling. As these effects can lead to hypoxia and trigger neuronal damage, these findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the selective striatal toxicity observed in the brains of Meth-abusing humans. PMID:25185214

  16. Amplification of small molecule-inducible gene expression via tuning of intracellular receptor densities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baojun; Barahona, Mauricio; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-responsive transcription factors in prokaryotes found simple small molecule-inducible gene expression systems. These have been extensively used for regulated protein production and associated biosynthesis of fine chemicals. However, the promoter and protein engineering approaches traditionally used often pose significant restrictions to predictably and rapidly tune the expression profiles of inducible expression systems. Here, we present a new unified and rational tuning method to amplify the sensitivity and dynamic ranges of versatile small molecule-inducible expression systems. We employ a systematic variation of the concentration of intracellular receptors for transcriptional control. We show that a low density of the repressor receptor (e.g. TetR and ArsR) in the cell can significantly increase the sensitivity and dynamic range, whereas a high activator receptor (e.g. LuxR) density achieves the same outcome. The intracellular concentration of receptors can be tuned in both discrete and continuous modes by adjusting the strength of their cognate driving promoters. We exemplified this approach in several synthetic receptor-mediated sensing circuits, including a tunable cell-based arsenic sensor. The approach offers a new paradigm to predictably tune and amplify ligand-responsive gene expression with potential applications in synthetic biology and industrial biotechnology. PMID:25589545

  17. Role of synaptic and nonsynaptic glutamate receptors in ischaemia induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Brassai, A; Suvanjeiev, R-G; Bán, E-Gy; Lakatos, M

    2015-03-01

    In acute ischaemic brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration, the first step leading to excitotoxicity and cell death is the excessive release of Glu and the prolonged activation of Glu receptors, followed by intracellular calcium overload. There is apparent agreement that glutamatergic transmission via synaptic NMDA receptors (composed of GluN2A subunits) is neuroprotective, whereas transmission via non-synaptic NMDA receptors (composed of GluN2B subunits) is excitotoxic. Extrasynaptic NMDARs activate cell death pathways and may play a key role in Glu-induced excitotoxic neurodegeneration and apoptosis. Accordingly, the function of protective pathways may be impaired by the concomitant blockade of GluN2A-containing receptors. In contrast, the selective inhibition of non-synaptic GluN2B-containing NMDARs may be beneficial in neuroprotection because it can prevent neuronal cell death and thus maintain protective pathways. PMID:25540918

  18. Endogenous angiotensin II suppresses stretch-induced ANP secretion via AT1 receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Bin; Gao, Shan; Shah, Amin; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Woo Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2011-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is released by stretch of cardiac myocytes and has paracrine and autocrine effects on cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. However, the direct effect of Ang II on the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is unclear. The aim of the present study is to test whether Ang II affects stretch-induced ANP secretion. The isolated perfused beating atria were used from control and two-kidney one-clip hypertensive (2K1C) rats. The volume load was achieved by elevating the height of outflow catheter connected with isolated atria from 5cmH(2)O to 7.5cmH(2)O. Atrial stretch by volume load caused increases in atrial contractility by 60% and in ANP secretion by 100%. Ang II suppressed stretch-induced ANP secretion and tended to increase atrial contractility whereas losartan stimulated stretch-induced ANP secretion. Neither PD123319 nor A779 had direct effect on stretch-induced ANP secretion. The suppressive effect of Ang II on stretch-induced ANP secretion was blocked by the pretreatment of losartan but not by the pretreatment of PD123319 or A779. In hypertrophied atria from 2K1C rats, stretch-induced ANP concentration attenuated and atrial contractility augmented. The response of stretch-induced ANP secretion to Ang II and losartan augmented. The expression of AT1 receptor protein and mRNA increased but AT2 and Mas receptor mRNA did not change in 2K1C rat atria. Therefore, we suggest that Ang II generated endogenously by atrial stretch suppresses stretch-induced ANP secretion through the AT1 receptor and alteration of Ang II effect in 2K1C rat may be due to upregulation of AT1 receptor. PMID:21056071

  19. Effects of cannabinoid receptor ligands on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Berdyshev; E. Boichot; M. Corbel; N. Germain; V Lagente

    1998-01-01

    The effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN 55,212-2, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and palmitoylethanolamide on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced bronchopulmonary inflammation in mice were investigated. WIN 55,212-2 and ?9-THC induced a concentration-dependent decrease in TNF-? level in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (maximum inhibition 52.7% and 36.9% for intranasal doses of 750 nmol.kg?1 and 2.65 mmol.kg?1, respectively). This effect was accompanied

  20. Activation of opioid ?-receptor by loperamide to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-Min Liu; Tzong-Cherng Chi; Yun Chueh Chen; Feng-Hwa Lu; Juei-Tang Cheng

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of loperamide, a selective agonist of opioid ?-receptor, on the plasma glucose in diabetic rats induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg\\/kg). Intravenous injection of loperamide induced a dose-dependent decrease of plasma glucose in fasting STZ-diabetic rats at 30 min later, but did not modify the plasma glucose level in Wistar rats. Plasma

  1. Cortical ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonism protects against methamphetamine-induced striatal neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Noah B.; Duncker, Patrick C.; Marshall, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Binge administration of the psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine (mAMPH), produces long-lasting structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum. mAMPH binges produce non-exocytotic release of dopamine (DA), and mAMPH-induced activation of excitatory afferent inputs to cortex and striatum is evidenced by elevated extracellular glutamate (GLU) in both regions. The mAMPH-induced increases in DA and GLU neurotransmission are thought to combine to injure striatal DA nerve terminals of mAMPH-exposed brains. Systemic pretreatment with either competitive or noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonists protects against mAMPH-induced striatal DA terminal damage, but the locus of these antagonists’ effects has not been determined. Here, we applied either the NMDA receptor antagonist, (DL)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5), or the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), directly to the dura mater over frontoparietal cortex to assess their effects on mAMPH-induced cortical and striatal immediate-early gene (c-fos) expression. In a separate experiment we applied AP5 or DNQX epidurally in the same cortical location of rats during a binge regimen of mAMPH, and assessed mAMPH-induced striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) depletions one week later. Our results indicate that both ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists reduced the mAMPH-induced Fos expression in cerebral cortex regions near the site of epidural application and reduced Fos immunoreactivity in striatal regions innervated by the affected cortical regions. Also, epidural application of the same concentration of either antagonist during a binge mAMPH regimen blunted the mAMPH-induced striatal DAT depletions with a topography similar to its effects on Fos expression. These findings demonstrate that mAMPH-induced dopaminergic injury depends upon cortical NMDA and AMPA receptor activation and suggest the involvement of the corticostriatal projections in mAMPH neurotoxicity. PMID:21946008

  2. Role of transient receptor potential ankyrin subfamily member 1 in pruritus induced by endothelin-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiexian Liang; Qing Ji; Wenjin Ji

    2011-01-01

    Noxious cold reduces pruritus and transient receptor potential ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1), a non-selective cation channel, is known as a noxious cold-activated ion channel. Recent findings implicated the involvement of TRPA1 in pain induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1). Therefore, we evaluated its potential role in pruritus induced by ET-1. We found that ruthenium red (RR; a nonselective TRP inhibitor) and

  3. Effects of ginseng saponins on responses induced by various receptor stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Tachikawa; Kenzo Kudo; Kazuho Harada; Takeshi Kashimoto; Yoshikazu Miyate; Atsushi Kakizaki; Eiji Takahashi

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effects of four ginseng saponins, ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rg2, -Rg3 and -Ro, on the responses induced by receptor stimulation of various stimuli. Ginsenoside-Rg2 (1–100 ?M) reduced the secretions of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine and ?-aminobutyric acid but not by angiotensin II, bradykinin, histamine and neurotensin. In guinea-pig, the ginsenoside also diminished the nicotine-induced secretion

  4. Signal transduction through the fibronectin receptor induces collagenase and stromelysin gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zena Werb; Patrice M. Tremble; Ole Behrendtsen; Eileen Crowley; Caroline H. Damskytll

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of ligation of the fibronectin receptor (FnR) on gene expression in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to the FnR that block initial adhesion of fibroblasts to fibronectin induced the expression of genes encoding the secreted extracellular matrix-degrading metallo- proteinases collagenase and stromelysin. That induc- tion was a direct consequence of interaction with the FnR was

  5. Ligand-induced alterations in the phosphorylation state of ethylene receptors in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Tieman, Denise M; Huber, Donald J; Klee, Harry J

    2012-09-01

    Perception of the plant hormone ethylene is essential to initiate and advance ripening of climacteric fruits. Since ethylene receptors negatively regulate signaling, the suppression is canceled upon ethylene binding, permitting responses including fruit ripening. Although receptors have autophosphorylation activity, the mechanism whereby signal transduction occurs has not been fully determined. Here we demonstrate that LeETR4, a critical receptor for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, is multiply phosphorylated in vivo and the phosphorylation level is dependent on ripening stage and ethylene action. Treatment of preclimacteric fruits with ethylene resulted in accumulation of LeETR4 with reduced phosphorylation whereas treatments of ripening fruits with ethylene antagonists, 1-methylcyclopropene and 2,5-norbornadiene, induced accumulation of the phosphorylated isotypes. A similar phosphorylation pattern was also observed for Never ripe, another ripening-related receptor. Alteration in the phosphorylation state of receptors is likely to be an initial response upon ethylene binding since treatments with ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene rapidly influenced the LeETR4 phosphorylation state rather than protein abundance. The LeETR4 phosphorylation state closely paralleled ripening progress, suggesting that the phosphorylation state of receptors is implicated in ethylene signal output in tomato fruits. We provide insights into the nature of receptor on and off states. PMID:22797658

  6. Neurokinin B induces oedema formation in mouse lung via tachykinin receptor-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew D; Akhtar, Roksana; Gerard, Norma P; Brain, Susan D

    2002-09-15

    The tachykinin neurokinin B (NKB) has been implicated in the hypertension that characterises pre-eclampsia, a condition where tissue oedema is also observed. The ability of NKB, administered intradermally or intravenously, to induce oedema formation (assessed as plasma extravasation) was examined by extravascular accumulation of intravenously injected (125)I-albumin in wild-type and tachykinin NK(1) receptor knockout mice. Intradermal NKB (30-300 pmol) caused dose-dependent plasma extravasation in wild-type (P < 0.05) but not NK(1) knockout mice, indicating an essential role for the NK(1) receptor in mediating NKB-induced skin oedema. Intravenous administration of NKB to wild-type mice produced plasma extravasation in skin, uterus, liver (P < 0.05) and particularly in the lung (P < 0.01). Surprisingly, the same doses of NKB led to plasma extravasation in the lung and liver of NK(1) knockout mice. By comparison, the tachykinin substance P induced only minimal plasma extravasation in the lungs of wild-type mice. The plasma extravasation produced by NKB in the lungs of NK(1) receptor knockout mice was unaffected by treatment with the NK(2) receptor antagonist SR48968 (3 mg kg(-1)), by the NK(3) receptor antagonists SR142801 (3 mg kg(-1)) and SB-222200 (5 mg kg(-1)) or by the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin (20 mg kg(-1)). L-Nitro-arginine methyl ester (15 mg kg(-1)), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), produced only a partial inhibition. We conclude that NKB is a potent stimulator of plasma extravasation through two distinct pathways: via activation of NK(1) receptors, and via a novel neurokinin receptor-independent pathway specific to NKB that operates in the mouse lung. These findings are in keeping with a role for NKB in mediating plasma extravasation in diseases such as pre-eclampsia. PMID:12231654

  7. Neurokinin B induces oedema formation in mouse lung via tachykinin receptor-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Andrew D; Akhtar, Roksana; Gerard, Norma P; Brain, Susan D

    2002-01-01

    The tachykinin neurokinin B (NKB) has been implicated in the hypertension that characterises pre-eclampsia, a condition where tissue oedema is also observed. The ability of NKB, administered intradermally or intravenously, to induce oedema formation (assessed as plasma extravasation) was examined by extravascular accumulation of intravenously injected 125I-albumin in wild-type and tachykinin NK1 receptor knockout mice. Intradermal NKB (30-300 pmol) caused dose-dependent plasma extravasation in wild-type (P < 0.05) but not NK1 knockout mice, indicating an essential role for the NK1 receptor in mediating NKB-induced skin oedema. Intravenous administration of NKB to wild-type mice produced plasma extravasation in skin, uterus, liver (P < 0.05) and particularly in the lung (P < 0.01). Surprisingly, the same doses of NKB led to plasma extravasation in the lung and liver of NK1 knockout mice. By comparison, the tachykinin substance P induced only minimal plasma extravasation in the lungs of wild-type mice. The plasma extravasation produced by NKB in the lungs of NK1 receptor knockout mice was unaffected by treatment with the NK2 receptor antagonist SR48968 (3 mg kg?1), by the NK3 receptor antagonists SR142801 (3 mg kg?1) and SB-222200 (5 mg kg?1) or by the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin (20 mg kg?1). L-Nitro-arginine methyl ester (15 mg kg?1), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), produced only a partial inhibition. We conclude that NKB is a potent stimulator of plasma extravasation through two distinct pathways: via activation of NK1 receptors, and via a novel neurokinin receptor-independent pathway specific to NKB that operates in the mouse lung. These findings are in keeping with a role for NKB in mediating plasma extravasation in diseases such as pre-eclampsia. PMID:12231654

  8. Protection against MDMA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice by methyllycaconitine: involvement of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Chipana, C; Camarasa, J; Pubill, D; Escubedo, E

    2006-09-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a relatively selective dopaminergic neurotoxin in mice. Previous studies demonstrated the participation of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors (nAChR) in the neurotoxic effect of methamphetamine. The aim of this paper was to study the role of this receptor type in the acute effects and neurotoxicity of MDMA in mice. In vivo, methyllycaconitine (MLA), a specific alpha-7 nAChR antagonist, significantly prevented MDMA-induced neurotoxicity at dopaminergic but not at serotonergic level, without affecting MDMA-induced hyperthermia. Glial activation was also fully prevented by MLA. In vitro, MDMA induced intrasynaptosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was calcium-, nitric-oxide synthase-, and protein kinase C-dependent. Also, the increase in ROS was prevented by MLA and alpha-bungarotoxin. Experiments with reserpine point to endogenous dopamine (DA) as the main source of MDMA-induced ROS. MLA also brought the MDMA-induced inhibition of [3H]DA uptake down, from 73% to 11%. We demonstrate that a coordinated activation of alpha-7 nAChR, blockade of DA transporter function and displacement of DA from intracellular stores induced by MDMA produces a neurotoxic effect that can be prevented by MLA, suggesting that alpha-7 nAChR have a key role in the MDMA neurotoxicity in mice; however, the involvement of nicotinic receptors containing the beta2 subunit cannot be conclusively ruled out. PMID:16901518

  9. Alterations in atrial natriuretic peptide and its receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidneys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enyioma N. Obineche; Ernest Adeghate; Irwin S. Chandranath; Sheela Benedict; Laila S. Al Gafri; Abdu Adem

    2004-01-01

    In this study the effect of diabetes mellitus on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rat kidneys was studied. Moreover, plasma ANP concentration was evaluated in diabetic and control rats by using radioimmunoassay. In addition, the expression of ANP in the kidneys of control and diabetic rats was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Body-weight loss and increased glucose

  10. Successful Treatment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor-Induced Periungual Inflammation with Adapalene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junichi Hachisuka; Kazuko Doi; Yoichi Moroi; Masutaka Furue

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are increasingly used for cancer treatment, but commonly carry dermatologic side effects. Periungual inflammation is a particularly painful condition that additionally worsens quality of life. In this paper, we report 3 cases of successful treatment of periungual inflammation induced by 3 different EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib, erlotinib, and cetuximab) with topically applied adapalene.

  11. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . Author manuscript Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation induces 11

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -activated receptor activation induces 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in human alternative macrophages Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi 1 # , Mohamed Amine Bouhlel 1 # , Corinne Copin 1 , Christian Duhem 1 Objectives 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 -HSD1) catalyses the intracellular reduction

  12. Retinoid-induced chromatin structure alterations in the retinoic acid receptor beta2 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, N; Dey, A; Minucci, S; Zimmer, A; John, S; Hager, G; Ozato, K

    1997-01-01

    Transcription of the retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2) gene is induced by retinoic acid (RA) in mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. Here we studied RA-induced chromatin structure alterations in the endogenous RARbeta2 promoter and in an integrated, multicopy RARbeta2 promoter in EC cells. RA markedly increased restriction site accessibility within the promoter, including a site near the RA responsive element (RARE) to which the nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor (RXR)-RAR heterodimer binds. These changes coincided with RA-induced alterations in the DNase I hypersensitivity pattern in and around the promoter. These changes became undetectable upon removal of RA, which coincided with the extinction of transcription. Analyses with receptor-selective ligands and an antagonist showed that increase in restriction site accessibility correlates with transcriptional activation, which parallels the RA-induced in vivo footprint of the promoter. Despite these changes, the micrococcal nuclease digestion profile of this promoter was not altered by RA. These results indicate that concurrent with the binding of the RXR-RAR heterodimer to the RARE, the local chromatin structure undergoes dynamic, reversible changes in and around the promoter without globally affecting the nucleosomal organization. PMID:9343411

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-/ Protects Against Chemically Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    proliferator-activated receptor- / (PPAR / ) in skeletal muscle fatty acid catabolism and epithelial carcinogenesis have re- cently been described. Whereas PPAR / is expressed in liver, its function in this tissue is less clear. To determine the role of PPAR / in chemically induced liver toxicity, wild-type and PPAR

  14. Potentiation of nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by donepezil: Role of sigma-1 receptors and IP 3 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamaki Ishima; Tomoko Nishimura; Masaomi Iyo; Kenji Hashimoto

    2008-01-01

    In addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, donepezil binds to sigma-1 receptors. In this study, we examined the effects of donepezil on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Donepezil significantly potentiated the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner whereas the AChE inhibitor physostigmine did not alter NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Potentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth by donepezil was

  15. Drug-induced mild therapeutic hypothermia obtained by administration of a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 agonist

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of mechanical/physical devices for applying mild therapeutic hypothermia is the only proven neuroprotective treatment for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest. However, this type of therapy is cumbersome and associated with several side-effects. We investigated the feasibility of using a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist for obtaining drug-induced sustainable mild hypothermia. Methods First, we screened a heterogeneous group of TRPV1 agonists and secondly we tested the hypothermic properties of a selected candidate by dose-response studies. Finally we tested the hypothermic properties in a large animal. The screening was in conscious rats, the dose-response experiments in conscious rats and in cynomologus monkeys, and the finally we tested the hypothermic properties in conscious young cattle (calves with a body weight as an adult human). The investigated TRPV1 agonists were administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Results Screening: Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), a component of chili pepper, displayed a desirable hypothermic profile with regards to the duration, depth and control in conscious rats. Dose-response experiments: In both rats and cynomologus monkeys DHC caused a dose-dependent and immediate decrease in body temperature. Thus in rats, infusion of DHC at doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/kg/h caused a maximal ?T (°C) as compared to vehicle control of -0.9, -1.5, -2.0, and -4.2 within approximately 1 hour until the 6 hour infusion was stopped. Finally, in calves the intravenous infusion of DHC was able to maintain mild hypothermia with ?T > -3°C for more than 12 hours. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis that infusion of dihydrocapsaicin is a candidate for testing as a primary or adjunct method of inducing and maintaining therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20932337

  16. Activation of spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors inhibits neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, H; Ikegami, M; Kai, M; Ohsawa, M; Kamei, J

    2013-10-10

    The role of spinal cannabinoid systems in neuropathic pain of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was studied. In normal mice, injection of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 (1 and 3?g, i.t.) dose-dependently prolonged the tail-flick latency, whereas there were no changes with the injection of either cannabinoid CB1 (AM 251, 1 ?g, i.t.) or CB2 (AM 630, 4 ?g, i.t.) receptor antagonists. AM 251 (1 ?g, i.t.), but not AM 630 (4 ?g, i.t.), significantly inhibited the prolongation of the tail-flick latency induced by WIN-55,212-2 (3 ?g, i.t.). In STZ-induced diabetic mice, the tail-flick latency was significantly shorter than that in normal mice. A low dose of WIN-55,212-2 (1 ?g, i.t.) significantly recovered the tail-flick latency in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The effect of WIN-55,212-2 (1 ?g, i.t.) in STZ-induced diabetic mice was significantly inhibited by AM 630 (4 ?g, i.t.), but not AM 251 (1 ?g). The selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist L-759,656 (19 and 38 ?g, i.t.) also dose-dependently recovered the tail-flick latency in STZ-induced diabetic mice, and this recovery was inhibited by AM 630 (4 ?g, i.t.). The protein levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors and diacylglycerol lipase ? (DGL-?), the enzyme that synthesizes endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the spinal cord were examined using Western blotting. The protein levels of both cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors were increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, whereas the protein level of DGL-? was significantly decreased. These results indicate that spinal cannabinoid systems are changed in diabetic mice and suggest that cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists might have an ability to recover diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:23892011

  17. Retinoid X Receptor ? Overexpression Alleviates Mitochondrial Dysfunction-induced Insulin Resistance through Transcriptional Regulation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Koo, Young Do; Lee, Ji Seon; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jung, Hye Seung; Cho, Young Min; Park, Young Joo; Chung, Sung Soo; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. We previously showed that retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) played an important role in transcriptional regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in cells with mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA mutation. In this study, we investigated whether mitochondrial dysfunction induced by incubation with OXPHOS inhibitors affects insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) mRNA and protein levels and whether RXR? activation or overexpression can restore IRS1 expression. Both IRS1 and RXR? protein levels were significantly reduced when C2C12 myotubes were treated with the OXPHOS complex inhibitors, rotenone and antimycin A. The addition of RXR? agonists, 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA) and LG1506, increased IRS1 transcription and protein levels and restored mitochondrial function, which ultimately improved insulin signaling. RXR? overexpression also increased IRS1 transcription and mitochondrial function. Because RXR? overexpression, knock-down, or activation by LG1506 regulated IRS1 transcription mostly independently of mitochondrial function, it is likely that RXR? directly regulates IRS1 transcription. Consistent with the hypothesis, we showed that RXR? bound to the IRS1 promoter as a heterodimer with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). These results suggest that RXR? overexpression or activation alleviates insulin resistance by increasing IRS1 expression. PMID:25728751

  18. Enhanced expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 selectively increases the sensitivity of A2A adenosine receptors to agonist-induced desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Stuart J; Luty, Jason S; Willets, Jon; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Kelly, Eamonn

    1998-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are thought to be important in mediating the agonist-induced phosphorylation and consequent desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responses. We have previously shown that stable expression of a dominant negative mutant G protein- coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) construct in NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma cells suppresses the agonist-induced desensitization of A2A and A2B adenosine receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity (Mundell et al., 1997). To further determine the role of GRK2 in agonist-induced desensitization of these adenosine receptors, we stably overexpressed wild type GRK2 in NG108-15 cells.In homogenates prepared from cells overexpressing GRK2, the acute stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by activation of A2A and A2B adenosine receptors was markedly reduced, but could be reversed by pretreating the cells with AD (adenosine deaminase), to remove extracellular adenosine from the medium. On the other hand, acute stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by secretin, iloprost, NaF and forskolin was the same in GRK2 overexpressing cells and plasmid-transfected control cells.Cells overexpressing GRK2 were more sensitive to adenosine receptor agonist-induced desensitization than plasmid-transfected control cells. This effect was selective since the agonist sensitivity of desensitization for secretin and IP-prostanoid receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was not affected by GRK2 overexpression.These results further implicate GRK2 as the likely mechanism by which A2 adenosine receptors undergo short-term desensitization in NG108-15 cells, and indicate that even when overexpressed, GRK2 retains its substrate specificity for native receptors in intact cells. Furthermore, the susceptibility of GPCRs to desensitization appears to depend on the level of GRK expression, such that in cells that express high levels of GRK2, low agonist concentrations may be sufficient to trigger GRK-mediated desensitization. PMID:9786508

  19. Early role of the ? opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by ? and ? opioid receptors, whereas ? but not ? receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the ? opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol. PMID:22261437

  20. P2X3 receptors induced inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Krimon, Suzy; Araldi, Dionéia; do Prado, Filipe César; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2013-11-01

    It has been described that endogenous ATP via activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors contributes to inflammatory nociception in different models, including the formalin injected in subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. In this study, we have evaluated whether TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, whose activation is essential to formalin-induced inflammatory nociception, are involved in the nociception induced by activation of P2X3 receptors on subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. We have also evaluated whether the activation of P2X3 receptors increases the susceptibility of primary afferent neurons to formalin action modulated by activation of TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors. Nociceptive response intensity was measured by observing the rat's behavior and considering the number of times the animal reflexively raised its hind paw (flinches) in 60min. Local subcutaneous administration of the selective TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists HC 030031, tropisetron and WAY 100,135, respectively, prevented the nociceptive responses induced by the administration in the same site of the non-selective P2X3 receptor agonist ??meATP. Administration of the selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 or pretreatment with oligonucleotides antisense against P2X3 receptor prevented the formalin-induced behavioral nociceptive responses during the first and second phases. Also, the co-administration of a subthreshold dose of ??meATP with a subthreshold dose of formalin induced nociceptive behavior, which was prevented by local administration of tropisetron, HC 030031 or WAY 100, 135. These findings have demonstrated that the activation of P2X3 receptors induces inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors. Also, they suggest that inflammatory nociception is modulated by the release of endogenous ATP and P2X3 receptor activation, which in turn, increases primary afferent nociceptor susceptibility to the action of inflammatory mediators via interaction with TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors in the peripheral tissue. PMID:24120766

  1. Heterogeneity in the physiological states and pharmacological responses of differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Lin, Hai-Jui; Singh, Dinesh K.; Lyons, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in key components of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathways correlate at the population-averaged level during adipogenesis. However, differentiating preadipocytes are highly heterogeneous in cellular and lipid droplet (LD) morphologies, and the degree to which individual cells follow population-averaged trends is unclear. In this study, we analyze the molecular heterogeneity of differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using immunofluorescence microscopy. Unexpectedly, we only observe a small percentage of cells with high simultaneous expression of markers for adipogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? [PPAR?], CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?, and adiponectin) and lipid accumulation (hormone-sensitive lipase, perilipin A, and LDs). Instead, we identify subpopulations of cells with negatively correlated expressions of these readouts. Acute perturbation of adipocyte differentiation with PPAR? agonists, forskolin, and fatty acids induced subpopulation-specific effects, including redistribution of the percentage of cells in observed subpopulations and differential expression levels of PPAR?. Collectively, our results suggested that heterogeneity observed during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis reflects a dynamic mixture of subpopulations with distinct physiological states. PMID:19948481

  2. Zinc-chelated Vitamin C Stimulates Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Yang, Seung Hak; Kim, Jong Geun; Jeon, Tae-Il; Yoon, Byung Hyun; Lee, Jai Young; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Seok Geun; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue development and function play a critical role in the regulation of energy balance, lipid metabolism, and the pathophysiology of metabolic syndromes. Although the effect of zinc ascorbate supplementation in diabetes or glycemic control is known in humans, the underlying mechanism is not well described. Here, we investigated the effect of a zinc-chelated vitamin C (ZnC) compound on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Treatment with ZnC for 8 d significantly promoted adipogenesis, which was characterized by increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Meanwhile, ZnC induced a pronounced up-regulation of the expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and the adipocyte-specific gene adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). Analysis of mRNA and protein levels further showed that ZnC increased the sequential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), the key transcription factors of adipogenesis. These results indicate that ZnC could promote adipogenesis through PPAR? and C/EBP?, which act synergistically for the expression of aP2 and GLUT4, leading to the generation of insulin-responsive adipocytes and can thereby be useful as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of diabetes and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25049900

  3. Oleoylethanolamide dose-dependently attenuates cocaine-induced behaviours through a PPAR? receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Blanco, Eduardo; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Suárez, Juan; Palomino, Ana; Vida, Margarita; Araos, Pedro; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; Fernández-Espejo, Emilio; Spanagel, Rainer; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an acylethanolamide that acts as an agonist of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) to exert their biological functions, which include the regulation of appetite and metabolism. Increasing evidence also suggests that OEA may participate in the control of reward-related behaviours. However, direct experimental evidence for the role of the OEA-PPAR? receptor interaction in drug-mediated behaviours, such as cocaine-induced behavioural phenotypes, is lacking. The present study explored the role of OEA and its receptor PPAR? on the psychomotor and rewarding responsiveness to cocaine using behavioural tests indicative of core components of addiction. We found that acute administration of OEA (1, 5 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and attenuated psychomotor activation induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg) in C57Bl/6 mice. However, PPAR? receptor knockout mice showed normal sensitization, although OEA was capable of reducing behavioural sensitization with fewer efficacies. Furthermore, conditioned place preference and reinstatement to cocaine were intact in these mice. Our results indicate that PPAR? receptor does not play a critical, if any, role in mediating short- and long-term psychomotor and rewarding responsiveness to cocaine. However, further research is needed for the identification of the targets of OEA for its inhibitory action on cocaine-mediated responses. PMID:23163925

  4. Interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion is prevented by inhibitors of mannose receptor activity.

    PubMed Central

    McNally, A. K.; DeFife, K. M.; Anderson, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    A potential role for the macrophage mannose receptor in human monocyte-derived macrophage fusion was explored by testing the effects of previously described inhibitors of its activity on the formation of interleukin-4-induced foreign body giant cells in vitro Giant cell formation was prevented or reduced in the presence of alpha-man-nan and synthetic neoglycoprotein conjugates according to the following pattern of relative inhibition: mannose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) > N-acetylgucosamine-BSA congruent to glucose-BSA. Laminarin (beta-glucan) or galactose-BSA were not inhibitory. Swainsonine and castanospermine, inhibitors of glycoprotein processing that interfere with the arrival of newly synthesized mannose receptors at the cell surface, also attenuated macrophage fusion and the formation of giant cells, whereas another glycosidase inhibitor, deoxymannojirimycin, was without effect. Mannose receptors were confirmed to be specifically up-regulated by interleukin-4 in this culture system and also demonstrated to be present and concentrated at macrophage fusion interfaces. These data suggest that the macrophage mannose receptor may be an essential participant in the mechanism of interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion and implicate a novel function for this endocytic/phagocytic receptor in mediating foreign body giant cell formation at sites of chronic inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8780401

  5. Niacin-induced hyperglycemia is partially mediated via niacin receptor GPR109a in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; So, Wing Yan; Li, Stephen Y T; Cheng, Qianni; Boucher, Barbara J; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-03-15

    The widely used lipid-lowering drug niacin is reported to induce hyperglycemia during chronic and high-dose treatments, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, the niacin receptor [G-protein-coupled receptor, (GPR) 109a], has been localized to islet cells while its potential role therein remains unclear. We, therefore, aimed at investigating how GPR109a regulates islet beta-cell function and its downstream signaling using high-fat diet-induced obese mice and INS-1E beta cells. Eight-week niacin treatment elevated blood glucose concentration in obese mice with increased areas under the curve at oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests. Additionally, niacin treatment significantly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) but induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) and GPR109a expression in isolated pancreatic islets; concomitantly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were transiently increased, with decreases in GSIS, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), but with increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2), Pparg and Gpr109a in INS-1E cells. Corroborating these findings, the decreases in GSIS, ??m and cAMP production and increases in ROS, Pparg and GPR109a expression were abolished in INS-1E cells by GPR109a knockdown. Our data indicate that niacin-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction is probably modulated through activation of the islet beta-cell GPR109a-induced ROS-PPAR?-UCP2 pathways. PMID:25622782

  6. Sigma 1 receptor antagonists determine the behavioral pattern of the methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kitanaka; N. Kitanaka; T. Tatsuta; F. S. Hall; G. R. Uhl; K. Tanaka; N. Nishiyama; Y. Morita; M. Takemura

    2009-01-01

    Objective  The effects of sigma receptor antagonists on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy have not been examined. We examined\\u000a the effects of sigma antagonists on METH-induced stereotypy in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The administration of METH (10 mg\\/kg) to male ddY mice induced stereotyped behavior consisting of biting (90.1%), sniffing\\u000a (4.2%), head bobbing (4.1%), and circling (1.7%) during an observation period of 1 h. Pretreatment of the mice

  7. Sensitization of Cutaneous, Neuronal Purinergic Receptors Contributes to Endothelin-1-Induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Travis P.; Hrnjic, Alen; Khodorova, Alla; Sprague, Jared M.; Strichartz, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin (ET-1), an endogenous peptide with a prominent role in cutaneous pain, causes mechanical hypersensitivity in the rat hind paw, partly through mechanisms involving local release of algogenic molecules in the skin. The present study investigated involvement of cutaneous ATP, which contributes to pain in numerous animal models. Pre-exposure of ND7/104 immortalized sensory neurons to ET-1 (30 nM) for 10 min increased the proportion of cells responding to ATP (2 ?M) with an increase in intracellular calcium, an effect prevented by the ETA receptor-selective antagonist BQ-123. ET-1 (3 nM) pre-exposure also increased the proportion of isolated mouse DRG neurons responding to ATP (0.2-0.4 ?M). Blocking ET-1-evoked increases in intracellular calcium with the IP3 receptor antagonist 2-APB did not inhibit sensitization to ATP, indicating a mechanism independent of ET-1-mediated intracellular calcium increases. ET-1-sensitized ATP calcium responses were largely abolished in the absence of extracellular calcium, implicating ionotropic P2X receptors. Experiments using qPCR and receptor-selective ligands in ND7/104 showed that ET-1-induced sensitization most likely involves the P2X4 receptor subtype. ET-1-sensitized calcium responses to ATP were strongly inhibited by broad spectrum (TNP-ATP) and P2X4-selective (5-BDBD) antagonists, but not antagonists for other P2X subtypes. TNP-ATP and 5-BDBD also significantly inhibited ET-1-induced mechanical sensitization in the rat hind paw, supporting a role for purinergic receptor sensitization in vivo. These data provide evidence that mechanical hypersensitivity caused by cutaneous ET-1 involves an increase in the neuronal sensitivity to ATP in the skin, possibly due to sensitization of P2X4 receptors. PMID:24569146

  8. Structural insights into ligand-induced activation of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Lawrence, M.; Streltsov, V.; Garrett, T.; McKern, N.; Lou, M.-Z.; Lovrecz, G.; Adams, T. (CSIRO); (WEHIMR)

    2008-04-29

    The current model for insulin binding to the insulin receptor proposes that there are two binding sites, referred to as sites 1 and 2, on each monomer in the receptor homodimer and two binding surfaces on insulin, one involving residues predominantly from the dimerization face of insulin (the classical binding surface) and the other residues from the hexamerization face. High-affinity binding involves one insulin molecule using its two surfaces to make bridging contacts with site 1 from one receptor monomer and site 2 from the other. Whilst the receptor dimer has two identical site 1-site 2 pairs, insulin molecules cannot bridge both pairs simultaneously. Our structures of the insulin receptor (IR) ectodomain dimer and the L1-CR-L2 fragments of IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) explain many of the features of ligand-receptor binding and allow the two binding sites on the receptor to be described. The IR dimer has an unexpected folded-over conformation which places the C-terminal surface of the first fibronectin-III domain in close juxtaposition to the known L1 domain ligand-binding surface suggesting that the C-terminal surface of FnIII-1 is the second binding site involved in high-affinity binding. This is very different from previous models based on three-dimensional reconstruction from scanning transmission electron micrographs. Our single-molecule images indicate that IGF-1R has a morphology similar to that of IR. In addition, the structures of the first three domains (L1-CR-L2) of the IR and IGF-1R show that there are major differences in the two regions governing ligand specificity. The implications of these findings for ligand-induced receptor activation will be discussed. This review summarizes the key findings regarding the discovery and characterization of the insulin receptor, the identification and arrangement of its structural domains in the sequence and the key features associated with ligand binding. The remainder of the review deals with a description of the receptor structure and how it explains much of the large body of biochemical data in the literature on insulin binding and receptor activation.

  9. SN79, a sigma receptor ligand, blocks methamphetamine-induced microglial activation and cytokine upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Matthew J.; Turner, Ryan C.; Naser, Zachary J.; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Huber, Jason D.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is associated with several negative side effects including neurotoxicity in specific brain regions such as the striatum. The precise molecular mechanisms by which METH usage results in neurotoxicity remain to be fully elucidated, with recent evidence implicating the importance of microglial activation and neuroinflammation in damaged brain regions. METH interacts with sigma receptors which are found in glial cells in addition to neurons. Moreover, sigma receptor antagonists have been shown to block METH-induced neurotoxicity in rodents although the cellular mechanisms underlying their neuroprotection remain unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the prototypic sigma receptor antagonist, SN79, mitigates METH-induced microglial activation and associated increases in cytokine expression in a rodent model of METH-induced neurotoxicity. METH increased striatal mRNA and protein levels of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), indicative of microglial activation. METH also increased ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) protein expression, further confirming the activation of microglia. Along with microglial activation, METH increased striatal mRNA expression levels of IL-6 family pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukemia inhibitory factor (lif), oncostatin m (osm), and interleukin-6 (il-6). Pretreatment with SN79 reduced METH-induced increases in CD68 and IBA-1 expression, demonstrating its ability to prevent microglial activation. SN79 also attenuated METH-induced mRNA increases in IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine family members. The ability of a sigma receptor antagonist to block METH-induced microglial activation and cytokine production provides a novel mechanism through which the neurotoxic effects of METH may be mitigated. PMID:23631864

  10. Prevention of Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy Through Activation of the Central Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Mohamed; Xu, Jijun J.; Diaz, Philippe; Brown, David L.; Cogdell, David; Bie, Bihua; Hu, Jianhua; Craig, Suzanne; Hittelman, Walter N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, especially after multiple courses of paclitaxel. The development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the activation of microglia followed by the activation and proliferation of astrocytes, and the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn. Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors are expressed in the microglia in neurodegenerative disease models. Methods To explore the potential of CB2 agonists for preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, we designed and synthesized a novel CB2-selective agonist, namely MDA7. The effect of MDA7 in preventing paclitaxel-induced allodynia was assessed in rats and in CB2+/+ and CB2–/– mice. We hypothesize that the CB2 receptor functions in a negative-feedback loop and that early MDA7 administration can blunt the neuroinflammatory response to paclitaxel and prevent mechanical allodynia through interference with specific signaling pathways. Results We found that MDA7 prevents paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner without compromising paclitaxel's antineoplastic effect. MDA7's neuroprotective effect was absent in CB2-/- mice and was blocked by CB2 antagonists, suggesting that MDA7's action directly involves CB2 receptor activation. MDA7 treatment was found to interfere with early events in the paclitaxel-induced neuroinflammatory response as evidenced by relatively reduced Toll-like receptor and CB2 expression in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced levels of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activity, reduced numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators in vivo and in in vitro models. Conclusions Our findings suggest an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and may permit more aggressive use of active chemotherapeutic regimens with reduced long-term sequelae. PMID:22392969

  11. Activation of D1 dopamine receptors induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Norman E.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that selective dopamine receptor activation induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, we tested the effects of chloro-APB (D1 agonist) and quinpirole (D2 agonist) on time to emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. We then performed a dose–response study to test for chloro-APB-induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. SCH-23390 (D1 antagonist) was used to confirm that the effects induced by chloro-APB are specifically mediated by D1 receptors. In a separate group of animals, spectral analysis was performed on surface electroencephalogram recordings to assess neurophysiological changes induced by chloro-APB and quinpirole during isoflurane general anesthesia. RESULTS Chloro-APB decreased median time to emergence from 330s to 50s. The median difference in time to emergence between the saline control group (n=6) and the chloro-APB group (n = 6) was 222s (95% CI: 77–534s, Mann-Whitney test). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0082). During continuous isoflurane anesthesia, chloro-APB dose-dependently restored righting (n = 6) and decreased electroencephalogram delta power (n = 4). These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with SCH-23390. Quinpirole did not restore righting (n = 6) and had no significant effect on the electroencephalogram (n = 4) during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS Activation of D1 receptors by chloro-APB decreases time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia, and produces behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of arousal during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. These findings suggest that selective activation of a D1 receptor-mediated arousal mechanism is sufficient to induce emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. PMID:23221866

  12. SN79, a sigma receptor ligand, blocks methamphetamine-induced microglial activation and cytokine upregulation.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew J; Turner, Ryan C; Naser, Zachary J; McCurdy, Christopher R; Huber, Jason D; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is associated with several negative side effects including neurotoxicity in specific brain regions such as the striatum. The precise molecular mechanisms by which METH usage results in neurotoxicity remain to be fully elucidated, with recent evidence implicating the importance of microglial activation and neuroinflammation in damaged brain regions. METH interacts with sigma receptors which are found in glial cells in addition to neurons. Moreover, sigma receptor antagonists have been shown to block METH-induced neurotoxicity in rodents although the cellular mechanisms underlying their neuroprotection remain unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the prototypic sigma receptor antagonist, SN79, mitigates METH-induced microglial activation and associated increases in cytokine expression in a rodent model of METH-induced neurotoxicity. METH increased striatal mRNA and protein levels of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), indicative of microglial activation. METH also increased ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) protein expression, further confirming the activation of microglia. Along with microglial activation, METH increased striatal mRNA expression levels of IL-6 family pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukemia inhibitory factor (lif), oncostatin m (osm), and interleukin-6 (il-6). Pretreatment with SN79 reduced METH-induced increases in CD68 and IBA-1 expression, demonstrating its ability to prevent microglial activation. SN79 also attenuated METH-induced mRNA increases in IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine family members. The ability of a sigma receptor antagonist to block METH-induced microglial activation and cytokine production provides a novel mechanism through which the neurotoxic effects of METH may be mitigated. PMID:23631864

  13. Elevated epidermal growth factor receptor binding in plutonium-induced lung tumors from dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.C.; Bohn, L.R.; Dagle, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and characterize epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) binding in inhaled plutonium-induced canine lung-tumor tissue and to compare it with that in normal canine lung tissue. Crude membrane preparations from normal and lung-tumor tissue from beagle dogs were examined in a radioreceptor assay, using {sup 125}I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a ligand. Specific EGF receptor binding was determined in the presence of excess unlabeled EGF. We have examined EGF receptor binding in eight lung-tumor samples obtained from six dogs. Epidermal growth factor receptor binding was significantly greater in lung-tumor samples (31.38%) compared with that in normal lung tissue (3.76%). Scatchard plot analysis from the displacement assay revealed that there was no statistical difference in the binding affinity but significantly higher concentration of EGF-R sites in the lung-tumor tissue (619 fmol/mg) than in normal lung tissue (53 fmol/mg). The increase in EGF-R number in plutonium-induced dog lung tumors does not seem to correlate with increase in the initial lung burden exposure to plutonium. Our results demonstrate that there is a significant increase in EGF-R binding in inhaled plutonium-induced dog lung tumors.

  14. Steroid metabolism and steroid receptors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Eechaute, W.; de Thibault de Boesinghe, L.; Lacroix, E.

    1983-09-01

    Mammary tumors were induced in rats by treatment with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cytosol receptors for 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were estimated by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)progesterone, (/sup 14/C)testosterone, and 17 beta-(/sup 14/C)estradiol by minced tumor tissue was studied. The estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels of the tumors varied considerably from less than 5 to 48 fmol/mg protein for ER and to 243 fmol/mg protein for PR. Considering a receptor level lower than 5 fmol/mg protein to be negative, four groups of tumors were found: ER-negative and PR-negative; ER-positive and PR-negative; ER-negative and PR-positive; ER-positive and PR-positive. In dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumor tissue, high 5 alpha-reductase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and somewhat lower 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 6 alpha-hydroxylase activities were found. No aromatization was detectable. Steroids, especially estradiol, were also metabolized in a high degree to unextractable metabolites. It was concluded that steroid metabolism of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors was not related to the ER and/or PR concentration of tumor tissue.

  15. Effects of bovine colostral ultrafiltrates on growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Ho; Hossner, Kim L

    2002-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of whole and size-fractionated bovine colostrum with bovine calf serum (BCS) on the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. High (HMW) and low (LMW)-molecular-mass ultrafiltrate fractions of colostrum were prepared from defatted colostrum (COL) by diafiltration through membranes with a molecular-mass cut-off of 30 kDa. Incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine into the cells was used as a reflection of DNA synthesis/cell proliferation. The growth-promoting activity of LMW was 2.3- and 2.5-fold higher than COL and HMW, respectively (P <0.05), and 185 microg/ml LMW stimulated cell proliferation equivalent to 10% BCS. Although insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II and platelet-derived growth factor AB stimulated 3T3-L1 cells, antibodies to these factors did not inhibit the LMW effects. The LMW fraction was about twice as effective as COL and HMW in stimulating differentiation of the cells into adipocytes, but maximal differentiation was only 60% of that seen with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Treatment with COL, HMW, IGF-I and insulin induced peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma RNA, but levels were about half of that with 10% FBS treatment and LMW induction was 80% of FBS. Low amounts of leptin mRNA were detected in adipocytes and abundance did not differ between treatments with BCS, hormones or COL fractions. This study showed that bovine colostral LMW stimulated the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and may be a useful serum substitute to support the growth of these cells. PMID:12452804

  16. Bixin regulates mRNA expression involved in adipogenesis and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PPAR{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Taimatsu, Aki; Egawa, Kahori; Katoh, Sota; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Ohyane, Chie; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Young-il; Uemura, Taku; Hirai, Shizuka [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Insulin resistance is partly due to suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake into adipocytes. The uptake is dependent on adipocyte differentiation, which is controlled at mRNA transcription level. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, is involved in the differentiation. Many food-derived compounds serve as ligands to activate or inactivate PPAR. In this study, we demonstrated that bixin and norbixin (annatto extracts) activate PPAR{gamma} by luciferase reporter assay using GAL4-PPAR chimera proteins. To examine the effects of bixin on adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with bixin or norbixin. The treatment induced mRNA expression of PPAR{gamma} target genes such as adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adiponectin in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and enhanced insulin-dependent glucose uptake. The observations indicate that bixin acts as an agonist of PPAR{gamma} and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that bixin is a valuable food-derived compound as a PPAR ligand to regulate lipid metabolism and to ameliorate metabolic syndrome.

  17. Neurosteroid Agonist at GABAA receptor induces persistent neuroplasticity in VTA dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Vashchinkina, Elena; Manner, Aino K; Vekovischeva, Olga; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Aitta-Aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R

    2014-02-01

    The main fast-acting inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain are ?-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptors for which neurosteroids, a subclass of steroids synthesized de novo in the brain, constitute a group of endogenous ligands with the most potent positive modulatory actions known. Neurosteroids can act on all subtypes of GABAA receptors, with a preference for ?-subunit-containing receptors that mediate extrasynaptic tonic inhibition. Pathological conditions characterized by emotional and motivational disturbances are often associated with perturbation in the levels of endogenous neurosteroids. We studied the effects of ganaxolone (GAN)-a synthetic analog of endogenous allopregnanolone that lacks activity on nuclear steroid receptors-on the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system involved in emotions and motivation. A single dose of GAN in young mice induced a dose-dependent, long-lasting neuroplasticity of glutamate synapses of DA neurons ex vivo in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Increased ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)/N-methyl-D-aspartate ratio and rectification of AMPA receptor responses even at 6 days after GAN administration suggested persistent synaptic targeting of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. This glutamate neuroplasticity was not observed in GABAA receptor ?-subunit-knockout (?-KO) mice. GAN (500?nM) applied locally to VTA selectively increased tonic inhibition of GABA interneurons and triggered potentiation of DA neurons within 4?h in vitro. Place-conditioning experiments in adult wild-type C57BL/6J and ?-KO mice revealed aversive properties of repeated GAN administration that were dependent on the ?-subunits. Prolonged neuroadaptation to neurosteroids in the VTA might contribute to both the physiology and pathophysiology underlying processes and changes in motivation, mood, cognition, and drug addiction. PMID:24077066

  18. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin-induced activation of HUVECs and platelets may be partially mediated by an alternative mechanism(s) or receptor(s). Images PMID:8386186

  19. An antibody blocking activin type II receptors induces strong skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protects from atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Minetti, Giulia C; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Glass, David J

    2014-02-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings. PMID:24298022

  20. Studies on the role of the Ah receptor in hexachloro-benzene-induced porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the effects of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) resemble those of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), whose effects are initiated by its binding to the AH receptor, the regulatory gene product of the Ah locus. I investigated the ability of HCB to interact with the AH receptor and the involvement of this protein in HCB-induced porphyria. The induction of two cytochrome P450 isozymes regulated by the Ah locus was also examined in light of their possible role in the pathogenesis of HCB- and TCDD-induced porphyria. HCB competitively inhibited the in vitro specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-TCDD to the rat hepatic Ah receptor (K{sub I} = 2.1 {mu}M) without affecting the solubility of ({sup 3}H)TCDD. Following the administration of HCB to rats, the number of ({sup 3}H)TCDD specific binding sites was reduced by up to 40%. HCB induced cytochromes P450b, P450e, P450c, and P450d, confirming that it is a mixed-type P450 inducer. The presence of porphyria in mice was assessed by measuring urinary and hepatic porphyrins and hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity.

  1. Receptor-dependent mechanisms of glucocorticoid and dioxin-induced cleft palate

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Glucocorticoids (triamcinolone) and dioxins (TCDD) are highly specific teratogens in the mouse, in that cleft palate is the major malformation observed. Glucocorticoids and TCDD both readily cross the yolk sac and placenta and appear in the developing secondary palate. Structure-activity relationships for glucocorticoid- and TCDD-induced cleft palate suggest a receptor involvement. Receptors for glucocorticoids and TCDD are present in the palate and their levels in various mouse strains are highly correlated with their sensitivity to cleft palate induction. Receptors for glucocorticoids appear to be more prevalent in the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas those for TCDD are probably located in the palatal epithelial cells. Glucocorticoids exert their teratogenic effect on the palate by inhibiting the growth of the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas TCDD alters the terminal cell differentiation of the media palatal epithelial cells. 71 references.

  2. Neurosteroids and Microneurotrophins Signal Through NGF Receptors to Induce Prosurvival Signaling in Neuronal Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Achille Gravanis (Heraklion; Foundation of Research and Technology REV)

    2012-10-16

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exerts a portion of its neuroprotective effects by directly interacting with the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TrkA and p75NTR to induce prosurvival signaling. DHEA is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrogens and androgens that affects the endocrine system and potentially increases the risk for developing estrogen- and androgen-dependent tumors. We have synthesized 17-spiro analogs of DHEA that lack estrogenic or androgenic properties and bind to and activate NGF receptors, thus exerting potent neuroprotective effects without the tumor risk. These synthetic DHEA derivatives may serve as lead molecules to develop small agonists of NGF receptors that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (microneurotrophins) with potential applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuroprotective properties of microneurotrophins are now being tested in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. IgG Receptor Fc?RIIB Plays a Key Role in Obesity-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sundgren, Nathan C.; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D.; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Chambliss, Ken L.; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fc? receptor IIB (Fc?RIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that Fc?RIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that Fc?RIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas Fc?RIIB+/+ mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, Fc?RIIB?/? mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; Fc?RIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet–fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an Fc?RIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for Fc?RIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting Fc?RIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals. PMID:25368023

  4. Calcium-sensing receptor induces rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocyte apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yihua [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Liu Meina [Public Health College of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li Hong [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Shi Sa [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Yajun [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Wang Rui [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Department of Biology, Lakhead University, Thunder Bay, Ont., P7B 5E1 (Canada); Xu Changqing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)]. E-mail: syh200415@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-12-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) exists in many tissues, and its expression has been identified in rat cardiac tissue. However, Physiological importance and pathophysiological involvement of CaSR in homeostatic regulation of cardiac function are unclear. To investigate the relation of CaSR and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, we examined the role of the CaSR activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) in rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes. Expression of the CaSR protein was observed by Western blot. The apoptotic ratio of rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes was measured with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence techniques. A laser scan confocal microscope was used to detect the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes using the acetoxymethyl ester of fluo-3 (fluo-3/(AM)) as a fluorescent dye. The results showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinases (JNK), and p38. GdCl{sub 3} also activated caspase 9 and increased apoptosis in myocyte by increasing [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. In conclusion, these results suggest that CaSR promotes cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and caspase 9 signaling pathways.

  5. ABCD2 alters peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? signaling in vitro, but does not impair responses to fenofibrate therapy in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Liu, Jingjing; Liang, Shuang; Schlüter, Agatha; Fourcade, Stephane; Aslibekyan, Stella; Pujol, Aurora; Graf, Gregory A

    2014-11-01

    Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? ligand that has been widely used as a lipid-lowering agent in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. ABCD2 (D2) is a peroxisomal long-chain acyl-CoA transporter that is highly induced by fenofibrate in the livers of mice. To determine whether D2 is a modifier of fibrate responses, wild-type and D2-deficient mice were treated with fenofibrate for 14 days. The absence of D2 altered expression of gene clusters associated with lipid metabolism, including PPAR? signaling. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which express high levels of D2, we confirmed that knockdown of D2 modified genomic responses to fibrate treatment. We next evaluated the impact of D2 on effects of fibrates in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Fenofibrate treatment opposed the development of obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance. However, these effects were unaffected by D2 genotype. We concluded that D2 can modulate genomic responses to fibrates, but that these effects are not sufficiently robust to alter the effects of fibrates on diet-induced obesity phenotypes. PMID:25123288

  6. Potent suppressive activity of nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against genotoxin-induced umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002), tumor promotor-dependent ornithine decarboxylase induction of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblast cells, and chemically induced mouse skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Okai, Y; Higashi-Okai, K

    Many experimental studies for anticarcinogenic activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and tea-derived polyphenols have been carried out. However, the anticarcinogenic activity of the nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea has been poorly elucidated. To study this problem, the effect of the nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea leaves was analyzed using in vitro and in vivo experiments associated with tumor initiation and promotion as follows: 1) The nonpolyphenolic fraction caused a strong suppressive effect on umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002) induced by genotoxic substances such as 2-amino-6-methyldipirido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) in the presence of a hepatic metabolizing enzyme mixture. 2) The same fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts induced by a tumor promotor, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). 3) The same fraction also exhibited a significant suppression against mouse skin tumorigenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) (initiator) and TPA (promotor) through inhibition at both stages of tumor initiation and promotion. These results suggest that the nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea has a potent suppressing activity against carcinogenesis associated with tumor initiation and promotion. PMID:9485539

  7. Tachykinin NK(3) receptor agonists induced microvascular leakage hypersensitivity in the guinea-pig airways.

    PubMed

    Daoui, S; Ahnaou, A; Naline, E; Emonds-Alt, X; Lagente, V; Advenier, C

    2001-12-21

    Microvascular leakage hypersensitivity is a main component of neurogenic inflammation and of tachykinin effects. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of neurokinin B and of the tachykinin NK(3) receptor agonists, [MePhe(7)]neurokinin B or senktide, to potentiate when given by aerosol the microvascular leakage induced by histamine in guinea-pig airways and to compare their effects to those of tachykinin NK(1) (substance P, [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P) or tachykinin NK(2) (neurokinin A, [betaAla(8)]neurokinin A (4-10)) receptor agonists. Guinea-pigs were pretreated successively for 10 min with aerolized salbutamol and phosphoramidon; 15 min later, they were exposed for 30 min to an aerosolized solution of tachykinin receptor agonists; 24 h later, the animals were anaesthetized and vascular permeability was quantified by extravasation of Evans blue dye. Neurokinin B, [MePhe(7)]neurokinin B and senktide (3 x 10(-6)-3 x 10(-5)M) induced a potentiation of the effects of histamine on the vascular permeability in the trachea and main bronchi. Compared to other tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptor agonists, the order of potency was: senktide>neurokinin B=[Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P=[betaAla(8)]neurokinin A (4-10)=[MePhe(7)]neurokinin B>neurokinin A>substance P. The potentiation by [MePhe(7)]neurokinin B of histamine-induced microvascular leakage was abolished by the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist SR140333 ([(S)1-(2-[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-iso-propoxyphenylacetyl)piperidin-3-yl]etyl)-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, chloride]) or the tachykinin NK(3) receptor antagonists SR 142801 ([(R)-(N)-(1-(3-(l-benzoyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl) propyl)-4-phenylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-methylacetamide]) and SB 223412 ([(S)-(-)-N-(alpha-ethylbenzyl)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxamide]). In conclusion, these results suggest that tachykinin NK(3) receptors might be involved in the potentiation of histamine-induced increase in microvascular permeability. PMID:11755153

  8. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 ?g/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 ?mol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 ?g/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 ?mol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2 receptor is presynaptic, we raised the hypothesis that tripitramine may alter cholinergic and/or dopaminergic transmission in brain areas responsible for induction of yawning and genital grooming in rats, possibly by control of acetylcholine and/or dopamine release. In addition, the present study showed the involvement of M2 cholinergic receptors in the complex mechanisms of functional interactions between dopaminergic and cholinergic systems involved in the control of yawning and genital grooming. PMID:23041487

  9. Progesterone-induced activation of membrane-bound progesterone receptors in murine macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Reese, Joshua; Zhou, Ying; Hirsch, Emmet

    2014-01-01

    Parturition is an inflammatory process mediated to a significant extent by macrophages. Progesterone maintains uterine quiescence in pregnancy, and a proposed functional withdrawal of progesterone classically regulated by nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs) leads to labor. Progesterone can impact the functions of macrophages despite the reported lack of expression of nPRs in these immune cells. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of the activation of the putative membrane-associated progesterone receptor on the function of macrophages (a key cell for parturition) and discuss the implications of these findings for pregnancy and parturition. In murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7), activation of mPRs by progesterone modified to be active only extracellularly by conjugation to BSA (P4BSA, 1.0×10?7 mol/l) caused a pro-inflammatory shift in mRNA expression profile, with significant up-regulation of the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (Ptgs2), Il1B, and Tnf and down-regulation of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (Paqr7) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr). Pretreatment with PD98059, a MEK 1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced P4BSA-induced Il1B, Tnf and Ptgs2 mRNA. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by H89 blocked P4BSA-induced Il1B and Tnf mRNA levels. P4BSA induced rapid phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB, a downstream target of PKA). This phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with PD98059 and H89, respectively, revealing that MEK1/2 and PKA are two of the components involved in mPR signaling. Taken together, these data demonstrate that changes in membrane progesterone receptor alpha expression and signaling in macrophages are associated with the inflammatory responses; and that these changes might contribute to the functional withdrawal of progesterone related to labor. PMID:25472814

  10. Characteristics of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide and its receptor in streptozotocin?induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Soo Mi; Noh, Hye Jung; Cho, Chong Gu; Kim, Sung Zoo

    2015-08-01

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) shares a functionally important sequence homology with other natriuretic peptides. However, the characteristics of DNP and its receptor in the context of diabetes remafin to be fully elucidated. In the present study, alterations in the plasma levels and tissue contents of DNP and the properties of its receptor in diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection, were investigated. The plasma levels of DNP were 90.01±4.12 and 196.68±5.60 pg/ml in the control and STZ?induced diabetic rats, respectively. The tissue contents of DNP in the cardiac atrium, ventricle, renal cortex and inner medulla of the STZ?induced diabetic rats were also significantly increased compared with the control rats. Specific 125I?DNP?binding sites were located predominantly in the glomeruli and inner medulla of the rat kidney. In the glomeruli of the kidney, the apparent dissociation constants (Kd) of 125I?DNP in the control and STZ?induced diabetic rats were 0.41±0.03 and 0.56±0.06 nM, respectively. The maximum binding capacities (Bmax) of 125I?DNP in control and STZ?induced diabetic rats were 2.98±0.21 and 6.22±1.06 fmol/mg protein, respectively. However, no differences were observed in the apparent Kd and Bmax of 125I?DNP in the inner medulla of the kidney between the control and STZ?induced diabetic rats. In the glomerular and inner medullary kidney membranes, DNP stimulated the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in a dose?dependent manner. The magnitude of cGMP production in glomerular membranes was greater in the STZ?induced diabetic rats, whereas the magnitude of cGMP production in the inner medullary membranes was lower in the STZ?induced diabetic rats compared with the control rats. These results indicated that STZ?induced diabetes modulate DNP and its receptor, and also suggested that modulation of the DNP system is involved in the renal function of diabetic animals via the intracellular domain of the kidney NP receptor. PMID:25937111

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-retinoid X receptor agonists induce beta-cell protection against palmitate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, Karine; Kerckhofs, Karen; Hannaert, Jean-Claude; Martens, Geert; Van Veldhoven, Paul; Pipeleers, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Fatty acids can stimulate the secretory activity of insulin-producing beta-cells. At elevated concentrations, they can also be toxic to isolated beta-cells. This toxicity varies inversely with the cellular ability to accumulate neutral lipids in the cytoplasm. To further examine whether cytoprotection can be achieved by decreasing cytoplasmic levels of free acyl moieties, we investigated whether palmitate toxicity is also lowered by stimulating its beta-oxidation. Lower rates of palmitate-induced beta-cell death were measured in the presence of L-carnitine as well as after addition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists, conditions leading to increased palmitate oxidation. In contrast, inhibition of mitochondrial beta-oxidation by etomoxir increased palmitate toxicity. A combination of PPARalpha and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists acted synergistically and led to complete protection; this was associated with enhanced expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, lipid metabolism, and peroxisome proliferation. PPARalpha-RXR protection was abolished by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 inhibitor etomoxir. These observations indicate that PPARalpha and RXR regulate beta-cell susceptibility to long-chain fatty acid toxicity by increasing the rates of beta-oxidation and by involving peroxisomes in fatty acid metabolism. PMID:17970749

  12. Antagonists of GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors prevent pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Ilse; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Clarke, Vernon R J; Warre, Ruth; Khan, Ghous M; O'Neill, Michael J; Ornstein, Paul L; Bleakman, David; Ogden, AnnMarie; Weiss, Brianne; Stables, James P; Ho, Ken H; Ebinger, Guy; Collingridge, Graham L; Lodge, David; Michotte, Yvette

    2002-08-01

    Developments in the molecular biology and pharmacology of GLU(K5), a subtype of the kainate class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, have enabled insights into the roles of this subunit in synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, little is known about the possible functions of GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors in pathological conditions. We report here that, in hippocampal slices, selective antagonists of GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors prevented development of epileptiform activity--evoked by the muscarinic agonist, pilocarpine--and inhibited the activity when it was pre-established. In conscious rats, these GLU(K5) antagonists prevented and interrupted limbic seizures induced by intra-hippocampal pilocarpine perfusion, and attenuated accompanying rises in extracellular L-glutamate and GABA. This anticonvulsant activity occurred without overt side effects. GLU(K5) antagonism also prevented epileptiform activity induced by electrical stimulation, both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we propose that subtype-selective GLU(K5) kainate receptor antagonists offer a potential new therapy for epilepsy. PMID:12080343

  13. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma participates in T cell receptor-induced T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Isabela; Marqués, Miriam; Kumar, Amit; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias; Carrera, Ana C; Barber, Domingo F

    2007-11-26

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) constitute a family of enzymes that generates 3-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositides at the cell membrane after stimulation of protein tyrosine (Tyr) kinase-associated receptors or G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The class I PI3Ks are divided into two types: class I(A) p85/p110 heterodimers, which are activated by Tyr kinases, and the class I(B) p110gamma isoform, which is activated by GPCR. Although the T cell receptor (TCR) is a protein Tyr kinase-associated receptor, p110gamma deletion affects TCR-induced T cell stimulation. We examined whether the TCR activates p110gamma, as well as the consequences of interfering with p110gamma expression or function for T cell activation. We found that after TCR ligation, p110gamma interacts with G alpha(q/11), lymphocyte-specific Tyr kinase, and zeta-associated protein. TCR stimulation activates p110gamma, which affects 3-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositide levels at the immunological synapse. We show that TCR-stimulated p110gamma controls RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 activity, F-actin polarization, and the interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, illustrating a crucial role for p110gamma in TCR-induced T cell activation. PMID:17998387

  14. Phosphoinositide 3–kinase ? participates in T cell receptor–induced T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Alcázar, Isabela; Marqués, Miriam; Kumar, Amit; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias; Carrera, Ana C.; Barber, Domingo F.

    2007-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3–kinases (PI3Ks) constitute a family of enzymes that generates 3-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositides at the cell membrane after stimulation of protein tyrosine (Tyr) kinase–associated receptors or G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). The class I PI3Ks are divided into two types: class IA p85/p110 heterodimers, which are activated by Tyr kinases, and the class IB p110? isoform, which is activated by GPCR. Although the T cell receptor (TCR) is a protein Tyr kinase–associated receptor, p110? deletion affects TCR-induced T cell stimulation. We examined whether the TCR activates p110?, as well as the consequences of interfering with p110? expression or function for T cell activation. We found that after TCR ligation, p110? interacts with G?q/11, lymphocyte-specific Tyr kinase, and ?-associated protein. TCR stimulation activates p110?, which affects 3-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositide levels at the immunological synapse. We show that TCR-stimulated p110? controls RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 activity, F-actin polarization, and the interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, illustrating a crucial role for p110? in TCR-induced T cell activation. PMID:17998387

  15. TGFbeta induces SIK to negatively regulate type I receptor kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Kowanetz, Marcin; Lönn, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Michael; Kowanetz, Katarzyna; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2008-08-25

    Signal transduction by transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) coordinates physiological responses in diverse cell types. TGFbeta signals via type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases and intracellular Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Strength and duration of TGFbeta signaling is largely dependent on a negative-feedback program initiated during signal progression. We have identified an inducible gene target of TGFbeta/Smad signaling, the salt-inducible kinase (SIK), which negatively regulates signaling together with Smad7. SIK and Smad7 form a complex and cooperate to down-regulate the activated type I receptor ALK5. We further show that both the kinase and ubiquitin-associated domain of SIK are required for proper ALK5 degradation, with ubiquitin functioning to enhance SIK-mediated receptor degradation. Loss of endogenous SIK results in enhanced gene responses of the fibrotic and cytostatic programs of TGFbeta. We thus identify in SIK a negative regulator that controls TGFbeta receptor turnover and physiological signaling. PMID:18725536

  16. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan) [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Hitomi, Hirofumi, E-mail: hitomi@kms.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)] [Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu [Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Ma, Hong [Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Griendling, Kathy K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nishiyama, Akira [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.

  17. Adhesion-induced receptor segregation and adhesion plaque formation: A model membrane study.

    PubMed Central

    Kloboucek, A; Behrisch, A; Faix, J; Sackmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A model system to study the control of cell adhesion by receptor-mediated specific forces, universal interactions, and membrane elasticity is established. The plasma membrane is mimicked by reconstitution of homophilic receptor proteins into solid supported membranes and, together with lipopolymers, into giant vesicles with the polymers forming an artificial glycocalix. The homophilic cell adhesion molecule contact site A, a lipid-anchored glycoprotein from cells of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as receptor. The success of the reconstitution, the structure and the dynamics of the model membranes are studied by various techniques including film balance techniques, micro fluorescence, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, electron microscopy, and phase contrast microscopy. The interaction of the functionalized giant vesicles with the supported bilayer is studied by reflection interference contrast microscopy, and the adhesion strength is evaluated quantitatively by a recently developed technique. At low receptor concentrations adhesion-induced receptor segregation in the membranes leads to decomposition of the contact zone between membranes into domains of strong (receptor-mediated) adhesion and regions of weak adhesion while continuous zones of strong adhesion form at high receptor densities. The adhesion strengths (measured in terms of the spreading pressure S) of the various states of adhesion are obtained locally by analysis of the vesicle contour near the contact line in terms of elastic boundary conditions of adhesion: the balance of tensions and moments. The spreading pressure of the weak adhesion zones is S approximately 10(-9) J/m(2) and is determined by the interplay of gravitation and undulation forces whereas the spreading pressure of the tight adhesion domains is of the order S approximately 10(-6) J/m(2). PMID:10512849

  18. Evaluation of muscarinic agonist-induced analgesia in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Duttaroy, Alokesh; Gomeza, Jesus; Gan, Jai-Wei; Siddiqui, Nasir; Basile, Anthony S; Harman, W Dean; Smith, Philip L; Felder, Christian C; Levey, Allan I; Wess, Jürgen

    2002-11-01

    Centrally active muscarinic agonists display pronounced analgesic effects. Identification of the specific muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype(s) mediating this activity is of considerable therapeutic interest. To examine the roles of the M(2) and M(4) receptor subtypes, the two G(i)/G(o)-coupled mAChRs, in mediating agonist-dependent antinociception, we generated a mutant mouse line deficient in both M(2) and M(4) mAChRs [M(2)/M(4) double-knockout (KO) mice]. In wild-type mice, systemic, intrathecal, or intracerebroventricular administration of centrally active muscarinic agonists resulted in robust analgesic effects, indicating that muscarinic analgesia can be mediated by both spinal and supraspinal mechanisms. Strikingly, muscarinic agonist-induced antinociception was totally abolished in M(2)/M(4) double-KO mice, independent of the route of application. The nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine showed reduced analgesic potency in M(2) receptor single-KO mice, but retained full analgesic activity in M(4) receptor single-KO mice. In contrast, two novel muscarinic agonists chemically derived from epibatidine, CMI-936 and CMI-1145, displayed reduced analgesic activity in both M(2) and M(4) receptor single-KO mice, independent of the route of application. Radioligand binding studies indicated that the two CMI compounds, in contrast to oxotremorine, showed >6-fold higher affinity for M(4) than for M(2) receptors, providing a molecular basis for the observed differences in agonist activity profiles. These data provide unambiguous evidence that muscarinic analgesia is exclusively mediated by a combination of M(2) and M(4) mAChRs at both spinal and supraspinal sites. These findings should be of considerable relevance for the development of receptor subtype-selective muscarinic agonists as novel analgesic drugs. PMID:12391271

  19. Chronic methamphetamine treatment induces oxytocin receptor up-regulation in the amygdala and hypothalamus via an adenosine A2A receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Wright, Sherie R; Georgiou, Polymnia; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that the neuropeptide oxytocin is a possible candidate for the treatment of drug addiction. Oxytocin was shown to reduce methamphetamine self-administration, conditioned place-preference, hyperactivity and reinstatement in rodents, highlighting its potential for the management of methamphetamine addiction. Thus, we hypothesised that the central endogenous oxytocinergic system is dysregulated following chronic methamphetamine administration. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of chronic methamphetamine administration on oxytocin receptor density in mice brains with the use of quantitative receptor autoradiographic binding. Saline (4ml/kg/day, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered daily for 10 days to male, CD1 mice. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of oxytocin receptors was carried out with the use of [(125)I]-vasotocin in brain sections of these animals. Chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor density in the amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. As there is evidence suggesting an involvement of central adenosine A2A receptors on central endogenous oxytocinergic function, we investigated whether these methamphetamine-induced oxytocinergic neuroadaptations are mediated via an A2A receptor-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, autoradiographic oxytocin receptor binding was carried out in brain sections of male CD1 mice lacking A2A receptors which were chronically treated with methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p. for 10 days) or saline. Similar to wild-type animals, chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region-specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala and hypothalamus of A2A receptor knockout mice and no genotype effect was observed. These results indicate that chronic methamphetamine use can induce profound neuroadaptations of the oxytocinergic receptor system in brain regions associated with stress, emotionality and social bonding and that these neuroadaptations are independent on the presence of A2A receptors. These results may at least partly explain some of the behavioural consequences of chronic methamphetamine use. PMID:23680573

  20. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor attenuates morphine-induced inflammatory responses in activated microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Fazzi, Debora; Mirandola, Prisco; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Among several pharmacological properties, analgesia is the most common feature shared by either opioid or cannabinoid systems. Cannabinoids and opioids are distinct drug classes that have been historically used separately or in combination to treat different pain states. In the present study, we characterized the signal transduction pathways mediated by cannabinoid CB2 and µ-opioid receptors in quiescent and LPS-stimulated murine microglial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We examined the effects of µ-opioid and CB2 receptor stimulation on phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt and on IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6 and NO production in primary mouse microglial cells. KEY RESULTS Morphine enhanced release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, and of NO via µ-opioid receptor in activated microglial cells. In contrast, CB2 receptor stimulation attenuated morphine-induced microglial proinflammatory mediator increases, interfering with morphine action by acting on the Akt-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Because glial activation opposes opioid analgesia and enhances opioid tolerance and dependence, we suggest that CB2 receptors, by inhibiting microglial activity, may be potential targets to increase clinical efficacy of opioids. PMID:22428664

  1. Netrin-1 induces proliferation of Schwann cells through Unc5b receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Seo, In Ae [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Eunhui [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Su-Yeong [Department of Microbiology, Medical Science Research Institute, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Jeong [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hwan Tae [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaesin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: phwantae@dau.ac.kr

    2007-11-03

    Netrin and its receptors, DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer) and Unc5, are proposed to be involved in the axon guidance and neuroglial migration during development. However, accumulating evidence implies that they may also participate in the cell survival and apoptosis. Here, we show that netrin-1 induces proliferation of Schwann cells. Unc5b is the sole receptor expressed in RT4 schwannoma cells and adult primary Schwann cells, and netrin-1 and Unc5b are found to be expressed in the injured sciatic nerve. It was also found that the netrin-1-induced Schwann cell proliferation was blocked by the specific inhibition of Unc5b expression with RNAi. These data suggest that netrin-1 could be an endogenous trophic factor for Schwann cells in the injured peripheral nerves.

  2. IFN-alpha/beta-dependent cross-priming induced by specific toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Durand, Vanessa; Wong, Simon Y C; Tough, David F; Le Bon, Agnes

    2006-04-12

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that have been identified as crucial in the initiation of innate immune responses against pathogens. They are thought to be involved in shaping appropriate adaptive immune responses, although their precise contribution has not yet been fully characterised. Our aim was to investigate in vivo the effect of different TLR stimuli on cellular immune responses. We examined the ability of a range of TLR stimuli to induce CD8+ T cell responses against a model soluble protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). We found that TLR 3, TLR 4, and TLR 9 agonists induced functional cross-priming, and that this process was dependent on IFN-alpha/beta signalling pathway. PMID:16823911

  3. Angiotensin-(1-7) through Mas receptor activation induces peripheral antinociception by interaction with adrenoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Castor, Marina G M; Santos, Robson A S; Duarte, Igor D G; Romero, Thiago R L

    2015-07-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] develops its functions interacting with Mas receptor. Mas receptor was recently identified in the DRG and its activation by Ang-(1-7) resulted in peripheral antinociception against PGE2 hyperalgesia in an opioid-independent pathway. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which Ang-(1-7) induce peripheral antinociception was not yet elucidated. Considering that endogenous noradrenaline could induce antinociceptive effects by activation of the adrenoceptors the aim of this study was verify if the Ang-(1-7) is able to induce peripheral antinociception by interacting with the endogenous noradrenergic system. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (2?g). Ang-(1-7) was administered locally into the right hindpaw alone and after either agents, ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (5, 10 and 20?g/paw), ?2C-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (10, 15 and 20?g/paw), ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.5, 1 and 2?g/paw), ?-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (150, 300 and 600ng/paw). Noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (30?g/paw) was administered prior to Ang-(1-7) low dose (20ng) and guanetidine 3 days prior to experiment (30mg/kg/animal, once a day), depleting NA storage. Intraplantar Ang-(1-7) induced peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. This effect was reversed, in dose dependent manner, by intraplantar injection of yohimbine, rauwolscine, prazosin and propranolol. Reboxetine intensified the antinociceptive effects of low-dose of Ang-(1-7) and guanethidine, which depletes peripheral sympathomimetic amines, reversed almost 70% the Ang-(1-7)-induced peripheral antinociception. Then, this study provides evidence that Ang-(1-7) induce peripheral antinociception stimulating an endogenous noradrenaline release that activates peripheral adrenoceptors inducing antinociception. PMID:25895850

  4. Serotonin 5-HT2B Receptor Blockade Prevents Reactive Oxygen SpeciesInduced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    hypertrophy through the regulation of hypertrophic cytokines in cardiac fibroblasts. Moreover, the generation investigated whether 5-HT2B receptors could be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy associatedSerotonin 5-HT2B Receptor Blockade Prevents Reactive Oxygen Species­Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

  5. BINDING OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CLASSIFIED AS EITHER PHENOBARBITONE-, 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE- OR MIXED-TYPE INDUCERS TO CYTOSOLIC AH RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been postulated that reversible, high-affinity binding of 3-methyl-cholanthrene (MC)-type inducers to a receptor protein (the Ah receptor) in hepatic cytosol is essential for induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) enzymic activity. To test this postulate, the bind...

  6. Receptors mediating tachykinin-induced contractile responses in guinea-pig trachea.

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, S. J.; Bailey, F.; Cook, A.; Hagan, R. M.; Jordan, C. C.; Stephens-Smith, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. The classification of tachykinin receptors in the guinea-pig trachea has been investigated. This was of interest because, from previous studies, it was not clear whether the guinea-pig trachea contains either a mixture of NK1 and NK2 receptors or, alternatively, a single type of novel tachykinin receptor. 2. In the present study, the guinea-pig trachea was contracted by tachykinin agonists selective for NK1 receptors (substance P methylester (SPOMe) and GR73632) or NK2 receptors (GR64349) but not NK3 receptors (senktide). 3. Against SPOMe and GR73632, the NK1 antagonist, GR71251, behaved as a reversible competitive antagonist having apparent affinity (pKB 7.05 vs SPOMe) consistent with action at NK1 receptors. GR71251 (3 microM) did not antagonize responses to GR64349. 4. The NK2 antagonists L-659,877 and Ac-Leu-Asp-Gln-Trp-Phe-Gly-NH2 (R396) antagonized GR64349 although only R396 appeared to behave competitively (pKB 5.73). Neither L-659,877 (30 microM) nor R396 (30 microM) blocked responses to SPOMe. 5. For L-659,877 and R396, comparison was made between activity in guinea-pig trachea and in preparations known to contain tachykinin receptors predominantly of the NK2 type. In the rabbit trachea, both L-659,877 and R396 had effects similar to those in guinea-pig trachea. In contrast, in the rat colon muscularis mucosae, both L-659,877 and R396 appeared to behave competitively with pKB values against GR64349 of 7.83 and 6.90 respectively. 6. It is concluded that in guinea-pig trachea, contractile responses can be induced by activation of both NK1 and NK2 receptors. The present data are discussed with reference to the proposed existence of subtypes of the NK2 receptor. PMID:1653074

  7. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: potential role of the retinoic acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Isales, Gregory M; Hipszer, Rachel A; Raftery, Tara D; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M; Volz, David C

    2015-04-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) - a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant - results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) - a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis - in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) - a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) - a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish - and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ?5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RAR?-, RAR?-, or RAR? to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. PMID:25725299

  8. Apoptosis in microencapsulated juvenile rabbit chondrocytes induced by ofloxacin: role played by beta(1)-integrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Chang-Yong; Li, Hong-Bo; Hajela, Ravindra K; Wang, Yim-Ei; Li, Qian-Qian; Liu, Mi-Feng; Dong, Yan-Sheng; Han, Gang

    2007-07-01

    Quinolone(s) (QNs) is widely used in infection therapy due to its good antimicrobial characteristics. However, QNs-induced arthropathy of immature animals has led to restrictions on the therapeutic use of these antimicrobial agents. The exact mechanism(s) of QNs-induced chondrotoxicity remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanism of ofloxacin (one typical QNs)-induced injuries of chondrocytes. Juvenile rabbit joint chondrocytes cultured in alginate microspheres were incubated with ofloxacin at concentrations of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 microg/ml for up to 96 h. Concentration of 10 microg/ml ofloxacin induced apoptosis of chondrocyte with visible apoptotic signs, including degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, caspase-3 activation, and DNA ladder formation. Furthermore, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) were significantly reduced, and similar changes were also observed in the beta(1)-integrin receptor as assessed by immunoblotting. However, the mRNA level of beta(1)-integrin obtained from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction remained unchanged. Results of beta(1)-integrin immunoprecipitation have also shown that beta(1)-integrin did not interact with activated intracellular signaling proteins. In addition, ofloxacin did not induce apoptosis and decrease beta(1)-integrin expression in chondrocytes supplemented with Mg(2+), and the ofloxacin-induced apoptosis was caspase-8-dependent, inhibition of which did not affect the expression mode of phospho-ERK1/2 and beta(1)-integrin. Our results demonstrate that ofloxacin affects beta(1)-integrin receptor functions and the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, causing caspase-8-dependent apoptosis after exposure of 48 h. PMID:17400890

  9. Thrombin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis in platelets. Receptor occupancy and desensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, E M; Detwiler, T C

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between occupancy of thrombin receptors on platelets and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis was analysed by examination of the dose-response relationship, the effects of thrombin inhibitors and the contribution of secondary effects. Washed human platelets were labelled with [3H]inositol, and agonist-induced accumulation of labelled inositol phosphates was measured. The dose-response curves and the time courses for alpha-thrombin- or gamma-thrombin-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates were similar to those for dense-granule secretion. Addition of the thrombin inhibitor hirudin to thrombin-activated platelets revealed that the continuous presence of active thrombin was required to maintain the accumulation of labelled inositol phosphates; the total production of inositol phosphates increased with longer periods of exposure to thrombin, reaching a maximum between 5 and 10 min. After activation with thrombin, the ability of a second, greater, addition of thrombin to induce additional phosphoinositide hydrolysis decreased with time; it was absent within 10 min after the first addition. The failure to sustain accumulation of labelled inositol phosphates or to respond to a second addition of thrombin beyond 10 min was not due to depletion of the pool of labelled precursors, because the platelets retained their ability to respond to collagen. Addition of ADP-consuming enzymes decreased sensitivity to thrombin, but inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase with indomethacin did not impair the thrombin-induced hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. It was concluded that thrombin-induced hydrolysis of phosphoinositides has characteristics consistent with mediation by a receptor that is similar to that that triggers dense-granule secretion, requires continuous presence of active thrombin to be maintained, is mediated by a receptor that displays thrombin-induced desensitization, and is only partially enhanced by secondary agents. PMID:3036080

  10. ?-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Mota, Alba; Jiménez-Garcia, Lidia; Herránz, Sandra; de Las Heras, Beatriz; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2015-08-01

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative ?-hispanolol (?-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of ?-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that ?-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, ?-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. ?-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by ?-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of ?-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of ?-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that ?-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of ?-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. PMID:25930665

  11. ?CCT, AN ANTAGONIST SELECTIVE FOR ?1 GABAA RECEPTORS, REVERSES DIAZEPAM WITHDRAWAL-INDUCED ANXIETY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Divljakovi?, Jovana; Mili?, Marija; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Tiruveedhula, Veera V.; Timi?, Tamara; Cook, James M.; Savi?, Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    The abrupt discontinuation of prolonged benzodiazepine treatment elicits a withdrawal syndrome with increased anxiety as a major symptom. The neural mechanisms underlying benzodiazepine physical dependence are still insufficiently understood. Flumazenil, the non-selective antagonist of the benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA receptors was capable of preventing and reversing the increased anxiety during benzodiazepine withdrawal in animals and humans in some, but not all studies. On the other hand, a number of data suggest that GABAA receptors containing ?1 subunits are critically involved in processes developing during prolonged use of benzodiazepines, such are tolerance to sedative effects, liability to physical dependence and addiction. Hence, we investigated in the elevated plus maze the level of anxiety 24 h following 21 days of diazepam treatment and the influence of flumazenil or a preferential ?1-subunit selective antagonist ?CCt on diazepam withdrawal syndrome in rats. Abrupt cessation of protracted once-daily intraperitoneal administration of 2 mg/kg diazepam induced a withdrawal syndrome, measured by increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze 24 h after treatment cessation. Acute challenge with either flumazenil (10 mg/kg) or ?CCt (1.25, 5 and 20 mg/kg) alleviated the diazepam withdrawal-induced anxiety. Moreover, both antagonists induced an anxiolytic-like response close, though not identical, to that seen with acute administration of diazepam. These findings imply that the mechanism by which antagonism at GABAA receptors may reverse the withdrawal-induced anxiety involves the ?1 subunit and prompt further studies aimed at linking the changes in behavior with possible adaptive changes in subunit expression and function of GABAA receptors. PMID:23149168

  12. Regulation of proteins affecting NMDA receptor- induced excitotoxicity in a Huntington's mouse model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan R. Jarabek; Robert P. Yasuda; Barry B. Wolfe

    2004-01-01

    Summary Symptoms of Huntington's disease may be caused by a toxic insult triggered by the mutant human huntingtin (Htt) protein itself, by a maladaptive protective mech- anism initiated in response to an insult, or by a combin- ation of these. We observed a protection from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced excito- toxicity in striata of symptomatic N171-82Q mice, a new transgenic model

  13. Galantamine prevents apoptosis induced by ?-amyloid and thapsigargin: involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esperanza Arias; Eva Alés; Nelson H. Gabilan; María F. Cano-Abad; Mercedes Villarroya; Antonio G. García; Manuela G. López

    2004-01-01

    Galantamine is currently used to treat Alzheimer’s disease patients; it behaves as a mild blocker of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and has an allosteric modulating action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In this study, we observed that galantamine prevented cell death induced by the peptide ?-amyloid1–40 and thapsigargin in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as well as in bovine chromaffin cells.

  14. Expression of Fas-estrogen receptor fusion protein induces cell death in pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiya Kawaguchi; Hirohide Takebayashi; Akira Kakizuka; Shigeki Arii; Masayuki Kato; Masayuki Imamura

    1997-01-01

    Recently, a novel system to induce apoptosis was reported. Fusion protein between Fas and the ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (MfasER) could cause apoptotic cell death in an estrogen-dependent manner on murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells [1]. To investigate the application of this system to the gene therapy of pancreatic cancer, we introduced MfasER

  15. Bombesin-induced anorexia requires central bombesin receptor activation: independence from interaction with central catecholaminergic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Motamedi; A. Rashidy-Pour; M. R. Zarrindast; M. Badavi

    1993-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of bombesin (BBS; 2.5–20 µg\\/kg) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of food intake. The effect was decreased by intraventricular (ICV) administration of bombesin receptor antagonist [Leu14-? (CH2 NH)-Leu13] (3 µg\\/rat) but not by the D1 antagonist SCH 23390, the D2 antagonists sulpiride and pimozide, the dopamine antagonist cis-flupentixol, adrenoceptor blockers phenoxybenzamine or propranolol and serotonergic antagonist methergoline. It

  16. Molecular mechanism of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-induced AXL receptor tyrosine kinase degradation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Gnana Prakasam; Guida, Teresa; Alfano, Luigi; Avilla, Elvira; Santoro, Massimo; Carlomagno, Francesca; Melillo, Rosa Marina

    2013-06-14

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is overexpressed in many cancer types including thyroid carcinomas and has well established roles in tumor formation and progression. Proper folding, maturation, and activity of several oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases require HSP90 chaperoning. HSP90 inhibition by the antibiotic geldanamycin or its derivative 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes destabilization of its client proteins. Here we show that AXL is a novel client protein of HSP90. 17-AAG induced a time- and dose-dependent down-regulation of endogenous or ectopically expressed AXL protein, thereby inhibiting AXL-mediated signaling and biological activity. 17-AAG-induced AXL down-regulation specifically affected fully glycosylated mature receptor present on cell membrane. By using biotin and [(35)S]methionine labeling, we showed that 17-AAG caused depletion of membrane-localized AXL by mediating its degradation in the intracellular compartment, thus restricting its exposure on the cell surface. 17-AAG induced AXL polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation; under basal conditions, AXL co-immunoprecipitated with HSP90. Upon 17-AAG treatment, AXL associated with the co-chaperone HSP70 and the ubiquitin E3 ligase carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP). Overexpression of CHIP, but not of the inactive mutant CHIP K30A, induced accumulation of AXL polyubiquitinated species upon 17-AAG treatment. The sensitivity of AXL to 17-AAG required its intracellular domain because an AXL intracellular domain-deleted mutant was insensitive to the compound. Active AXL and kinase-dead AXL were similarly sensitive to 17-AAG, implying that 17-AAG sensitivity does not require receptor phosphorylation. Overall our data elucidate the molecular basis of AXL down-regulation by HSP90 inhibitors and suggest that HSP90 inhibition in anticancer therapy can exert its effect through inhibition of multiple kinases including AXL. PMID:23629654

  17. Critical role for BIM in T cell receptor restimulation-induced death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L Snow; João B Oliveira; Lixin Zheng; Janet K Dale; Thomas A Fleisher; Michael J Lenardo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upon repeated or chronic antigen stimulation, activated T cells undergo a T cell receptor (TCR)-triggered propriocidal cell death important for governing the intensity of immune responses. This is thought to be chiefly mediated by an extrinsic signal through the Fas-FasL pathway. However, we observed that TCR restimulation still potently induced apoptosis when this interaction was blocked, or genetically impaired

  18. ? Opioid receptor knockout in mice: effects on ligand-induced analgesia and morphine lethality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horace H Loh; Hsien-Ching Liu; Antonella Cavalli; Wanling Yang; Yuh-Fung Chen; Li-Na Wei

    1998-01-01

    The ? opioid receptor gene (MOR) was mutated in mice by a gene targeting procedure. In these MOR-knockout mice, the analgesic effects of morphine, its major metabolites, morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) and morphine-6-ethereal sulfate (M-6-S), and endomorphin-2, as well as morphine-induced lethality, were drastically reduced, whereas the effects of DPDPE and U50488 remained unchanged. It is concluded that analgesic effects of ?-specific

  19. Agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering in mammalian muscle requires tyrosine phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ferns; Michael Deiner; Zach Hall

    1996-01-01

    Agrin is thought to be the nerve-derived fac- tor that initiates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clus- tering at the developing neuromuscular junction. We have investigated the signaling pathway in mouse C2 myotubes and report that agrin induces a rapid but transient tyrosine phosphorylation of the AChR 13 sub- unit. As the 13-subunit tyrosine phosphorylation occurs before the formation of AChR clusters,

  20. Effects of SEPYLRFamide on acetylcholine-induced currents of Helix aspersa neurones: role of ryanodine receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arkady S. Pivovarov; Robert J. Walker

    1999-01-01

    The possible participation of ryanodine receptors in the modulatory effects of the endogenous Helix heptapeptide, SEPYLRFamide, on the acetylcholine-induced currents (ACh-currents) of Helix aspersa neurones was studied using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. SEPYLRFamide (bath application) caused a reduction of the ACh-currents of D1, D2, F1, F2, F76 and F77 neurones. Ryanodine (10 wM; bath application), which modifies ryanodine-controlled Ca2+

  1. Rapid, Activation-Induced Redistribution of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitri V. Lissin; Reed C. Carroll; Roger A. Nicoll; Robert C. Malenka; Mark von Zastrow

    1999-01-01

    neurotoxicity, and was reversible after the removal of agonist. The activation-induced redistribution of GluR1 subunits was associated with a pronounced (;50%) decrease in the fre- quency of miniature EPSCs, consistent with a role of GluR1 subunit redistribution in mediating rapid regulation of synaptic efficacy. We conclude that ionotropic glutamate receptors are regulated in native neurons by rapid, subtype-specific mem- brane

  2. Assessment of the Role of Oxytocin Receptors in Phenylpropanolamine-Induced Anorexia in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R McMAHON; Paul J Wellman

    1997-01-01

    McMAHON, L. R. AND PAUL J. WELLMAN. Assessment of the role of oxytocin receptors in phenylpropanolamine induced anorexia in rats. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV 57(4) 767–770, 1997.—The anorexic effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) have been attributed to activation by PPA of ?1-adrenoceptors within rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN, however, is a nexus for a number of ascending and descending fibers

  3. Cytokine-induced Endothelial Arginase Expression is Dependent on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif D. Nelin; Louis G. Chicoine; Kristina M. Reber; B. Keith English; Tamara L. Young; Yusen Liu

    2005-01-01

    L-arginine is metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (NOS), or to urea and L-ornithine by arginase. L-ornithine contributes to vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension via metabolism to polyaminesandproline.Previouslywefoundthatcytokinesupregu- late both NOS and arginase in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. We hypothesized that cytokine-induced arginase I and II expression depend on epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) activity. Bovine pulmonary

  4. Endothelin receptor A antagonism prevents hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry G. Thaete; Mark G. Neerhof; Michael S. Caplan

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the hypothesis that endothelin plays a critical role in maternal hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Chronic indwelling venous and arterial catheters were placed on day 17 of a 22-day gestation in timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Twelve rats were infused with saline solution and 12 with 6 mg\\/kg per day FR139317, an endothelin receptor A–specific

  5. The role of estrogen receptors in the contribution of constrictor prostanoids to aortic coarctation-induced hypertension 

    E-print Network

    Sellers, Minga Miown

    2009-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on constrictor prostanoid (CP) function and on the development of mean arterial pressure (MAP) in aortic coarctation-induced hypertension (ACIH). Female Sprague...

  6. Prostate Tumorigenesis Induced by PTEN Deletion Involves Estrogen Receptor ? Repression

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Paul; Li, Jiarong; Samanta, Sanjoy; Chang, Cheng; Jerry, D. Joseph; Davis, Roger J.; Leav, Irwin; Mercurio, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of ER? in prostate cancer is unclear, although its loss of ER? is associated with aggressive disease. Given that mice deficient in ER? do not develop prostate cancer, we hypothesized that ER? loss occurs as a consequence of tumorigenesis caused by other oncogenic mechanisms and that its loss is necessary for tumorigenesis. In support of this hypothesis, we found that ER? is targeted for repression in prostate cancer caused by PTEN deletion and that loss of ER? is important for tumor formation. ER? transcription is repressed by BMI-1, which is induced by PTEN deletion and important for prostate tumorigenesis. This finding provides a mechanism for how ER? expression is regulated in prostate cancer. Repression of ER? contributes to tumorigenesis because it enables HIF-1/VEGF signaling that sustains BMI-1 expression. These data reveal a positive feedback loop that is activated in response to PTEN loss and sustains BMI-1. PMID:25818291

  7. Losartan inhibits monocytic adhesion induced by ADMA via downregulation of chemokine receptors in monocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Fang Chen; Yuan-Jian Li; Tian-Lun Yang; Bin Lou; Xiu-Mei Xie

    2009-01-01

    Objective  Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, can induce the adhesiveness of monocytes\\u000a to vascular endothelium, and chemokines play an important role in this process. The present study was carried out to test\\u000a whether the inhibitory effect of losartan on ADMA-induced monocytic adhesion is mediated by chemokine receptors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human monocytoid cells (THP-1) were incubated with exogenous ADMA

  8. Activation of EGF receptors mediates pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by residual oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Wu, Weidong; Ghio, Andrew J; Carter, Jacqueline D; Silbajoris, Robert; Devlin, Robert B; Samet, James M

    2002-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a constituent of pollutant particles that can produce lung injury and activate protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascade. In this study, we determined whether or not protein tyrosine phosphorylation caused lung injury, and if so, identified critical tyrosinephosphorylated proteins that mediated the injury. ROFA was instilled intratracheally into perfused rabbit lungs and injury responses, including increase in pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), lung weight gain, as well as release of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and nitrite/nitrate were measured. ROFA increased Ppa and IL-1beta, but inhibited nitrite/nitrate accumulation. Vanadyl sulfate at concentration equivalent to the amount of vanadium detected in the perfusate of ROFA-treated lungs induced similar changes. ROFA enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of lung proteins, including a 170-kDa protein, likely the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor as shown by immunoprecipitation. Pretreatment with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the increase in Ppa and tyrosine phosphorylation of the 170-kDa protein. Intravascular administration of human EGF increased Ppa, and pretreatment with PD153035, an EGF receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuated ROFA-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. These results indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF receptors in the lung, possibly as a result of inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases, mediates constriction of pulmonary vessels induced by ROFA. PMID:11792073

  9. Angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates cigarette smoke–induced lung injury and rescues lung architecture in mice

    PubMed Central

    Podowski, Megan; Calvi, Carla; Metzger, Shana; Misono, Kaori; Poonyagariyagorn, Hataya; Lopez-Mercado, Armando; Ku, Therese; Lauer, Thomas; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Berger, Alan; Cheadle, Christopher; Tuder, Rubin; Dietz, Harry C.; Mitzner, Wayne; Wise, Robert; Neptune, Enid

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent smoking-related disease for which no disease-altering therapies currently exist. As dysregulated TGF-? signaling associates with lung pathology in patients with COPD and in animal models of lung injury induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), we postulated that inhibiting TGF-? signaling would protect against CS-induced lung injury. We first confirmed that TGF-? signaling was induced in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to CS as well as in COPD patient samples. Importantly, key pathological features of smoking-associated lung disease in patients, e.g., alveolar injury with overt emphysema and airway epithelial hyperplasia with fibrosis, accompanied CS-induced alveolar cell apoptosis caused by enhanced TGF-? signaling in CS-exposed mice. Systemic administration of a TGF-?–specific neutralizing antibody normalized TGF-? signaling and alveolar cell death, conferring improved lung architecture and lung mechanics in CS-exposed mice. Use of losartan, an angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker used widely in the clinic and known to antagonize TGF-? signaling, also improved oxidative stress, inflammation, metalloprotease activation and elastin remodeling. These data support our hypothesis that inhibition of TGF-? signaling through angiotensin receptor blockade can attenuate CS-induced lung injury in an established murine model. More importantly, our findings provide a preclinical platform for the development of other TGF-?–targeted therapies for patients with COPD. PMID:22182843

  10. Leukotriene D 4 induces brain edema and enhances CysLT 2 receptor-mediated aquaporin 4 expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Ling Wang; Xiao-Jia Huang; San-Hua Fang; Yu-Mei Yuan; Wei-Ping Zhang; Yu-Bi Lu; Qian Ding; Er-Qing Wei

    2006-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (including LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4), potent inflammatory mediators, can induce brain-blood barrier (BBB) disruption and brain edema. These reactions are mediated by their receptors, CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors. On the other hand, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) primarily modulates brain water homeostasis and edema after various injuries. Here, we aimed to determine whether AQP4 is involved in LTD4-induced brain edema.

  11. Selective activation of either mGlu2 or mGlu3 receptors can induce LTD in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sarah J; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Collingridge, Graham L; Lodge, David

    2013-03-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are known to induce a long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in many brain regions including the amygdala. However the roles of the individual receptor subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3, in LTD are not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether activation of mGlu3 receptors is sufficient to induce LTD at synapses in the CNS. In the present study, advantage was taken of a Wistar rat strain not expressing mGlu2 receptors (Ceolin et al., 2011) to investigate the function of mGlu3 receptors in the amygdala. In this preparation, the group II agonist, DCG-IV induced an LTD of the cortical, but not the intra-nuclear, synaptic input to the lateral amygdala. This LTD was concentration dependent and was blocked by the group II mGlu receptor antagonist, LY341495. To investigate further the role of mGlu3 receptors, we used LY395756 (an mGlu2 agonist and mGlu3 antagonist), which acts as a pure mGlu3 receptor antagonist in this rat strain. This compound alone had no effect on basal synaptic transmission, but blocked the LTD induced by DCG-IV. Furthermore, we found that DCG-IV also induces LTD in mGlu2 receptor knock-out (KO) mice to a similar extent as in wild-type mice. This confirms that the activation of mGlu3 receptors alone is sufficient to induce LTD at this amygdala synapse. To address whether mGlu2 activation alone is also sufficient to induce LTD at this synapse we used LY541850 (the active enantiomer of LY395756) in wild-type mice. LY541850 induced a substantial LTD showing that either receptor alone is capable of inducing LTD in this pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. PMID:22531751

  12. Dopamine induces light-adaptive retinomotor movements in bullfrog cones via D2 receptors and in retinal pigment epithelium via D1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Dearry, A; Edelman, J L; Miller, S; Burnside, B

    1990-04-01

    In the eyes of lower vertebrates, retinal photoreceptors and melanin pigment granules of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) exhibit characteristic retinomotor movements in response to changes in ambient illumination and to signals from an endogenous circadian clock. We previously reported that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) mimicked the effect of light on these movements in photo-receptors and RPE cells of green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, by interacting with D2 dopaminergic receptors. Here, we report that dopamine also mimics the effect of light on cone and RPE retinomotor movements in bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, i.e., dopamine induces cone contraction and RPE pigment dispersion. Dopamine induced cone contraction in isolated dark-adapted bullfrog retinas incubated in constant darkness in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). This effect of dopamine was inhibited by a D2 but not a D1 antagonist and mimicked by a D2 but not a D1 agonist. These results suggest that induction of cone contraction by dopamine is mediated by D2 dopaminergic receptors and that cone adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited. Thus, dopamine acts via the same type of receptor in both bullfrog and green sunfish retinas to induce cone contraction. In contrast, dopamine influences RPE retinomotor movement via different receptors in fish and bullfrog. Dopamine induced light-adaptive pigment dispersion in isolated dark-adapted bullfrog RPE-eyecups incubated in constant darkness in normal Ringer's solution. Because the retina was not present, these experiments demonstrate a direct effect of dopamine on bullfrog RPE. This effect of dopamine on bullfrog RPE was inhibited by a D1 but not a D2 antagonist and mimicked by a D1 but not a D2 agonist. Furthermore, agents that increase the concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP also induced pigment dispersion in dark-adapted bullfrog RPE-eyecups incubated in the dark. These results suggest that dopamine induces pigment dispersion in bullfrog RPE via D1 dopaminergic receptors. Thus, dopamine acts via different receptors on bullfrog (D1) versus green sunfish (D2) RPE to induce pigment dispersion. In addition, inhibitor studies indicate that pigment dispersion is actin dependent in teleost but not in bullfrog RPE. Dopamine-induced pigment dispersion was inhibited by cytochalasin D in isolated RPE sheets of green sunfish but not in RPE-eyecups of bullfrogs. Together, these observations indicate that dopamine mimics the effect of light on cone and RPE retinomotor movements in both fish and bullfrogs. However, in the RPE, different receptors mediate the effect of dopamine, and different cytoskeletal mechanisms are used to affect pigment transport.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2156019

  13. Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 but not Shc can activate the insulin receptor independent of insulin and induce proliferation in CHO-IR cells

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, Markus [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland) and Competence Center for Systems Physiology and Metabolic Diseases, ETH Honggerberg, Schafmattstr. 18, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: markus.niessen@usz.ch; Jaschinski, Frank [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Item, Flurin [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); McNamara, Morgan P. [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Spinas, Giatgen A. [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Competence Center for Systems Physiology and Metabolic Diseases, ETH Honggerberg, Schafmattstr. 18, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Trueb, Thomas [Zentrale Dienste der Universitaet, Ausruestung und Logistik, Y10 G 22, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    Ligand-activated insulin receptor (IR) attracts and phosphorylates various substrates such as insulin receptor substrates 1-4 (IRS) and Shc. To investigate how binding affinity for substrate affects signalling we generated chimeric receptors with the {beta}-chain of the insulin receptor containing NPXY motives with different affinities for receptor substrates. We found that the extent of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation positively correlates with binding affinity towards IRS1/2 but not towards Shc. Moreover, overexpression of IRS1 or IRS2 but not of Shc increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, also independent of insulin. Molecular truncations of IRS1 revealed that neither the isolated PH and PTB domains nor the C-terminus with the tyrosine phosphorylation sites alone are sufficient for substrate-dependent receptor activation. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 impaired insulin-induced internalization of the IR in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that IRS proteins prevent endosome-associated receptor dephosphorylation/inactivation. IRS1 and IRS2 could therefore target the activated IR to different cellular compartments. Overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 inhibited insulin-stimulated activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 while it increased/induced activation of Akt/PKB. Finally, overexpression of IRS1 and IRS2 but not of Shc induced DNA synthesis in starved CHO-IR cells independent of exogenous growth factors. Our results demonstrate that variations in cellular IRS1 and IRS2 concentration affect insulin signalling both upstream and downstream and that IRS proteins could play instructive rather than just permissive roles in signal transmission.

  14. Antinociceptive effects of FTY720 during trauma-induced neuropathic pain are mediated by spinal S1P receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Dong; Linke, Bona; Suo, Jing; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Schreiber, Yannick; Ferreirós, Nerea; Henke, Marina; Geisslinger, Gerd; Stark, Holger; Scholich, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is, after its phosphorylation by sphingosine kinase (SPHK) 2, a potent, non-selective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist. FTY720 has been shown to reduce the nociceptive behavior in the paclitaxel model for chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain through downregulation of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) in microglia of the spinal cord. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effects of FTY720 in a model for trauma-induced neuropathic pain. We found that intrathecal administration of phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720-P) decreased trauma-induced pain behavior in mice, while intraplantar administered FTY720-P had no effect. FTY720-P, but not FTY720, reduced the nociceptive behavior in SPHK2-deficient mice, suggesting the involvement of S1P receptors. Fittingly, intrathecal administration of antagonists for S1P1 or S1P3, W146 and Cay10444 respectively, abolished the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered FTY720, demonstrating that activation of both receptors in the spinal cord is necessary to induce antinociceptive effects by FTY720. Accordingly, intrathecal administration of S1P1 receptor agonists was not sufficient to evoke an antinociceptive effect. Taken together, the data show that, in contrast to its effects on chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, FTY720 reduces trauma-induced neuropathic pain by simultaneous activation of spinal S1P1 and S1P3 receptor subtypes. PMID:25720064

  15. Dopamine D(3) receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: role of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Nielsen, Shannon M; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-06-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  16. Dopamine D3 receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: Role of hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Newman, Amy H.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  17. Cisplatin induces neuronal activation and increases central AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ruby A; Leonard, John J; Kensey, Nicholas A; Hannikainen, Paavali A; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2014-09-01

    Although rats and mice do not vomit, these species are widely studied as models of energy balance and sickness behavior. Previous work has shown that rats exhibit similar neuroanatomical activation of brain and visceral afferent pathways following cisplatin chemotherapy compared to vomiting species. However, the neural response to cisplatin in mice is understudied. Here, food intake, body weight, and central c-Fos immunofluorescence were analyzed in the hindbrains of male C57BL/6 mice following IP saline or cisplatin (5mg/kg, and 20mg/kg doses). As glutamate receptor signaling is classically linked to inhibitory feeding pathways in the rodent, gene expression of selected ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits were assessed in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), parabrachial nucleus (PBN), amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Our results show dose-dependent reductions in food intake and body weight following cisplatin treatment, as well as increases in cisplatin-induced c-Fos in the PBN and throughout the DVC. Quantitative PCR analysis shows cisplatin-induced increases in NMDA receptor subunit expression, particularly NR2B, in the DVC, PBN, BNST, and amygdala. In addition, upregulation of AMPA receptor subunits (GluA1 and/or GluA2) were observed in all regions examined except the amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest similar neural pathways mediating cisplatin effects in mice compared to other well-studied species, which are likely mediated by central upregulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors. PMID:24582677

  18. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 3 Receptor Modulates Opioid-induced Hyperalgesia and Tolerance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, De-Yong; Li, XiangQi; Clark, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Background Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and tolerance are challenging maladaptations associated with opioids in managing pain. Recent genetic studies and the existing literature suggest the 5-hydroxy tryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor participates in these phenomena. The location of the relevant receptor populations and the interactions between the 5-HT3 system and other systems controlling OIH and tolerance have not been explored, however. We hypothesized that 5-HT3 receptors modulate OIH and tolerance, and that this modulation involves the control of expression of multiple neurotransmitter and receptor systems. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a standardized 4-day morphine administration protocol. The 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron was administered either during or after the conclusion of morphine administration. Mechanical testing was used to quantify OIH, and thermal tail flick responses were used to measure morphine tolerance. In other experiments spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion tissues were harvested for analysis of messenger RNA levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction or immunochemistry analysis. Results The results showed 1) Systemic or intrathecal injection of ondansetron significantly prevented and reversed OIH, but not local intraplantar injection. 2) Systemic or intrathecal injection of ondansetron prevented and reversed tolerance, and 3) Ondansetron blocked morphine induced increases of multiple genes -relevant to OIH and tolerance in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord. Conclusions Morphine acts via a 5-HT3 dependent mechanism to support multiple maladaptations to the chronic administration of morphine. Furthermore, the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may provide a new avenue to prevent or reverse OIH and tolerance associated with chronic opioid use. PMID:21368652

  19. Differential involvement of dopamine receptors in conditioned suppression induced by cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Grakalic, Ivana; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Thorndike, Eric B.; Schindler, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Cocaine-paired stimuli can suppress food-reinforced operant behavior in rats, providing an animal model of conditioned drug effects. To study the neuropharmacological basis of this phenomenon, we examined the effects of various dopamine receptor antagonists on the acquisition and expression of cocaine-induced conditioned suppression in rats. Superimposed on an ongoing baseline of food-reinforced operant responding, a stimulus was paired with response-independent cocaine (3.0 mg/kg, i.v.) during each of 8 training sessions. To study acquisition, independent groups of rats were given saline, the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH23390) (0.001–0.03 mg/kg, i.p.), or the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist eticlopride (0.001–0.03 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to each training session. To study expression, independent groups of rats were trained first, then given saline, SCH23390, eticlopride, or N-[4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl)butyl]-2- naphthamide (BP897) (a dopamine D3 partial receptor agonist; 0.1–1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) before test sessions in which the stimulus was presented without cocaine. Pretreatment with either SCH23390 or eticlopride during acquisition reduced the direct suppressant effects of cocaine, but conditioning was blocked only in rats that were treated with SCH23390 during acquisition training. Expression of conditioning was attenuated only by eticlopride. Thus, dopamine at least partially mediates both the acquisition and expression of cocaine-induced conditioned suppression, with activation of dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors underlying these respective processes. PMID:17628537

  20. Low-Dose Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Prevents Western Diet-Induced Arterial Stiffening in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Habibi, Javad; Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Bender, Shawn B; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Sun, Zhe; Meininger, Gerald A; Manrique, Camila; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2015-07-01

    Women are especially predisposed to development of arterial stiffening secondary to obesity because of consumption of excessive calories. Enhanced activation of vascular mineralocorticoid receptors impairs insulin signaling, induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and maladaptive immune responses. We tested whether a subpressor dose of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (1 mg/kg per day) prevents aortic and femoral artery stiffening in female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar western diet (WD) for 4 months (ie, from 4-20 weeks of age). Aortic and femoral artery stiffness were assessed using ultrasound, pressurized vessel preparations, and atomic force microscopy. WD induced weight gain and insulin resistance compared with control diet-fed mice and these abnormalities were unaffected by spironolactone. Blood pressures and heart rates were normal and unaffected by diet or spironolactone. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced stiffening of aorta and femoral artery, as well as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, within aortic explants. Spironolactone prevented WD-induced impaired aortic protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, as well as impaired endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation. Spironolactone ameliorated WD-induced aortic medial thickening and fibrosis and the associated activation of the progrowth extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 pathway. Finally, preservation of normal arterial stiffness with spironolactone in WD-fed mice was associated with attenuated systemic and vascular inflammation and an anti-inflammatory shift in vascular immune cell marker genes. Low-dose spironolactone may represent a novel prevention strategy to attenuate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and growth pathway signaling and remodeling to prevent development of arterial stiffening secondary to consumption of a WD. PMID:26015449

  1. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chen; C. Yang; Z. J. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy is limited by a long-lasting painful neuropathy that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel may release mast cell tryptase, which activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and, subsequently, protein kinases A and C, resulting in mechanical and thermal (both heat and cold) hypersensitivity. Correlating with the development of neuropathy after repeated administration

  2. Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes Modulates GABA Receptor Activity in Rat Retinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, David J.; Ripps, Harris; Qian, Haohua

    2007-01-01

    Neural deficits suggestive of involvement of the GABA signaling pathway can often be detected early in the course of diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of blindness in the United States. To examine in greater detail the nature of the neuronal changes associated with hyperglycemia, we investigated GABA receptor activity on retinal bipolar cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; cells from age-matched normal rats served as controls. Patch-clamp recordings from isolated rod-bipolar cells revealed that diabetes enhanced the whole cell currents elicited by GABA. Responses of the GABAC receptor, the predominant GABA receptor on rat rod bipolar cells, exhibited a greater sensitivity to GABA, larger maximum current responses, slower response kinetics, and a smaller single channel conductance among diabetic cells relative to those recorded from normal controls. Compared with the properties of homomeric ?1 and heteromeric ?1?2 receptors formed in a heterologous expression system, these results suggested that there was a greater contribution from the ?1 subunit in the GABAC receptor-mediated response of diabetic cells. The levels of mRNA, measured with real-time RT-PCR, were consistent with this finding. There was a significant enhancement in the ratio of ?1/?2 subunit expression in the retina of diabetic animals, although the levels of GABA ?1 subunit expression were comparable in diabetic and normal retinas. Taken together, the results suggest that diabetes modifies the subunit composition of the GABAC receptor on retinal neurons, most likely through its effect on the efficacy of gene transcription. PMID:17662714

  3. Role of VPAC2 receptor in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Koga, Motokazu; Mizuno, Yusuke; Watanabe, Itaru; Kawakami, Hiromasa; Goto, Takahisa

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) have pulmonary vasodilatory and positive inotropic effects via receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2, which possess a similar affinity for both peptides, and PAC1, a PACAP-preferring receptor. VIP is a promising option for PH treatment; however, various physiological effects of VIP have limited its clinical use. We investigated the effects of VPAC1 and VPAC2 selective agonists VIP and PACAP to explore more appropriate means of treatment for PH. We examined hemodynamic changes in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), systemic blood pressure (SBP), total pulmonary resistance index (TPRI), total systemic resistance index, and cardiac index (CI) in response to their agonists with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH and explored involvement of VIP/PACAP expression and receptors in PH. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the MCT group (administered MCT 60 mg/kg) and control group. In MCT-induced PH, decreased VIP and PACAP were associated with upregulation of VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1 in lung tissues. Intravenous injection of VPAC2-selective agonist BAY 55-9837 and VIP, but not [Ala(11,22,28)]VIP, improved the CI. The decrease in SBP with VPAC2 agonist was significantly less than that in the control. Although they decreased SBP, these agonists hardly affected RVSP in the control. Activation of VPAC2 receptor with BAY 55-9837 effectively improved RVSP, TPRI, and CI in MCT-induced PH, suggesting a VPAC2 agonist as a possible promising treatment for PH. PMID:24947028

  4. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors increases paraoxon-induced apoptosis in cultured neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xuan [Department of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Building A, Room 1036, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Tian Feng [Department of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Building A, Room 1036, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Okagaki, Peter [Department of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Building A, Room 1036, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Marini, Ann M. [Department of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Building A, Room 1036, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)]. E-mail: amarini@usuhs.mil

    2005-10-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds, used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents, are potent neurotoxins. We examined the neurotoxic effect of paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), an organophosphate compound, and the role of NMDA receptors as a mechanism of action in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Paraoxon is neurotoxic to cultured rat cerebellar granule cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cerebellar granule cells are less sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of paraoxon on day in vitro (DIV) 4 than neurons treated on DIV 8. Surprisingly, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, enhances paraoxon-mediated neurotoxicity suggesting that NMDA receptors may play a protective role. Pretreatment with a subtoxic concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) [100 {mu}M] protects about 40% of the vulnerable neurons that would otherwise die from paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, addition of a neuroprotective concentration of NMDA 3 h after treatment with paraoxon provides the same level of protection. Because paraoxon-mediated neuronal cell death is time-dependent, we hypothesized that apoptosis may be involved. Paraoxon increases apoptosis about 10-fold compared to basal levels. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor (Boc-D-FMK) and the caspase-9-specific inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) protect against paraoxon-mediated apoptosis, paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity and neuronal cell death. MK-801 increases, whereas NMDA blocks paraoxon-induced apoptosis and paraoxon-stimulated caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that activation of NMDA receptors protect neurons against paraoxon-induced neurotoxicity by blocking apoptosis initiated by paraoxon.

  5. Augmentation of antipsychotic-induced neurochemical changes by the NK3 receptor antagonist talnetant (SB-223412).

    PubMed

    de la Flor, Raúl; Dawson, Lee A

    2009-02-01

    Neurokinin-3 (NK(3)) receptor distribution and its modulatory influence on dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission have lead to the hypothesis that NK(3) receptor antagonists may be a valid target to ameliorate the symptomatology of schizophrenia. This hypothesis has gained some clinical support as the selective NK(3) receptor antagonist osanetant has shown efficacy in schizophrenic patients. Talnetant (SB-223412) is a potent and selective NK(3) receptor antagonist able to modulate monoaminergic neurotransmission in both cortical and subcortical brain structures. Here we have used in vivo microdialysis to investigate the adjunctive effects of talnetant (10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.) on typical (i.e. haloperidol, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg; i.p.) and atypical (i.e. risperidone, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg; i.p.) antipsychotic drug-induced changes in monoaminergic neurotransmission in forebrain structures of the guinea pig. As seen previously talnetant, produced a dose dependent increase in extracellular levels of both dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in both prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus in a similar manner to the atypical risperidone. Combination studies revealed an additive effect of talnetant on risperidone-induced changes in both NE and DA levels in the PFC but not the hippocampus. Furthermore, addition of talnetant converted the neurochemical profile of the typical antipsychotic, haloperidol, to a profile more akin to that induced by an atypical antipsychotic. These data suggest that addition of talnetant to antipsychotic drugs may facilitate monoaminergic neurotransmission and hence potentially improve their clinical efficacy. PMID:18822303

  6. Radiation-induced autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor in human malignant mammary and squamous epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt-Ullrich, R.K.; Valerie, K.; Fogleman, P.B.; Walters, J. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to identify events initiating up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor after single and repeated radiation exposures, we investigated the role of epidermal growth factor receptor, a receptor protein tyrosine kinase, in radiation-induced signal transduction. Human malignant mammary, MCF-7, and squamous, A431, cells showed low baseline phospho-tyrosine levels of epidermal growth factor receptor, permitting reproducible dose-dependent stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation after exposure to epidermal growth factor. MCF-7 cells exhibited a mean 2.3-fold increase (95% confidence interval: 1.91, 2.65; P < 0.0001) in levels of epidermal growth factor phosphorylation in response to exposures of 2 Gy, which was substantially less than the epidermal growth factor receptor Y phosphorylation induced by epidermal growth factor. A quantitatively similar radiation response was seen in A431 cells. In the dose range of 1 to 4 Gy, no clear dose response was seen. There was a rapid induction of radiation-induced epidermal growth factor receptor Y phosphorylation, starting within 2 min, with maximum values between 0.5 and 5 min after radiation exposure followed by a slower decline to baseline levels after 20 min. The data presented identify the epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase associated with the plasma membrane as one target for ionizing radiation in the dose range used in radiotherapy. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Uveal melanoma expresses NK-1 receptors and cyclosporin A induces apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines overexpressing the NK-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    González-Ortega, Ana; Sánchez-Vaderrábanos, Elia; Ramiro-Fuentes, Susana; Salinas-Martín, Manuel Vicente; Carranza, Andrés; Coveñas, Rafael; Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Substance P and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists respectively induce proliferation and growth inhibition in human melanoma cell lines. The presence of NK-1 receptors in human melanoma cell lines and samples has been reported, but the presence of NK-1 receptors has not been demonstrated in uveal melanomas. It is known that melanoma express the tachykinin 1 receptor (TAC1R) gene. This gene is overexpressed in several human cancer cell lines, but such overexpression is currently unknown in human malignant melanoma cell lines (COLO 858, MEL HO, COLO 679). In this study, we attempt to demonstrate the overexpression of the TAC1R gene in such cells. We performed an in vitro study by real-time quantitative RT-PCR for TAC1R and found that the NK-1 receptor was overexpressed in the three human melanoma cell lines studied. Using a knockdown method, we demonstrate that the NK-1 receptor is involved in the viability of the COLO 858 melanoma cell line. Immunohistochemistry was also used to demonstrate NK-1 receptors in uveal melanoma samples. We observed that NK-1 receptors were present in the 21/21 uveal melanomas. In addition, cyclosporin A inhibited the growth of the three melanoma cell lines studied in a dose-dependent manner, and after the administration of this immunosuppresive drug apoptosis was observed. This indicates at least that the antitumor action of cyclosporin A is mediated by the NK-1 receptor. Our findings suggest that the NK-1 receptor could be a promising target in the treatment of human melanomas. PMID:24548567

  8. Recycling of acetylcholine receptors at ectopic postsynaptic clusters induced by exogenous agrin in living rats.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hans Rudolf; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    During the development of the neuromuscular junction, motor axons induce the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and increase their metabolic stability in the muscle membrane. Here, we asked whether the synaptic organizer agrin might regulate the metabolic stability and density of AChRs by promoting the recycling of internalized AChRs, which would otherwise be destined for degradation, into synaptic sites. We show that at nerve-free AChR clusters induced by agrin in extrasynaptic membrane, internalized AChRs are driven back into the ectopic synaptic clusters where they intermingle with pre-existing and new receptors. The extent of AChR recycling depended on the strength of the agrin stimulus, but not on the development of junctional folds, another hallmark of mature postsynaptic membranes. In chronically denervated muscles, in which both AChR stability and recycling are significantly decreased by muscle inactivity, agrin maintained the amount of recycled AChRs at agrin-induced clusters at a level similar to that at denervated original endplates. In contrast, AChRs did not recycle at agrin-induced clusters in C2C12 or primary myotubes. Thus, in muscles in vivo, but not in cultured myotubes, neural agrin promotes the recycling of AChRs and thereby increases their metabolic stability. PMID:25093969

  9. Liver X receptor agonist prevents LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Zhengkai; Liu, Hui; Song, Xiaojing; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Liver X receptor-? (LXR-?) which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Best known for its ability to regulate lipid metabolism and transport, LXRs have recently also been implicated in regulation of inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of synthetic LXR-? agonist T0901317 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. T0901317 was injected 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The results showed that T0901317 significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO); down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, COX-2 and PEG2; inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B-? and NF-?B p65, caused by LPS. Moreover, we report for the first time that LXR-? activation impaired LPS-induced mastitis. Taken together, these data indicated that T0901317 had protective effect on mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of T0901317 on LPS induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-?B signaling pathway. LXR-? activation can be used as a therapeutic approach to treat mastitis. PMID:25066757

  10. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)] [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo-i@huhs.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan)] [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)] [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P receptor-mediated signaling plays a crucial role for osteoblast differentiation.

  11. Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Járai, Z; Wagner, J A; Varga, K; Lake, K D; Compton, D R; Martin, B R; Zimmer, A M; Bonner, T I; Buckley, N E; Mezey, E; Razdan, R K; Zimmer, A; Kunos, G

    1999-11-23

    Cannabinoids, including the endogenous ligand arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide), elicit not only neurobehavioral but also cardiovascular effects. Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been cloned, and studies with the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A have implicated peripherally located CB1 receptors in the hypotensive action of cannabinoids. In rat mesenteric arteries, anandamide-induced vasodilation is inhibited by SR141716A, but other potent CB1 receptor agonists, such as HU-210, do not cause vasodilation, which implicates an as-yet-unidentified receptor in this effect. Here we show that "abnormal cannabidiol" (Abn-cbd) is a neurobehaviorally inactive cannabinoid that does not bind to CB1 receptors, yet causes SR141716A-sensitive hypotension and mesenteric vasodilation in wild-type mice and in mice lacking CB1 receptors or both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Hypotension by Abn-cbd is also inhibited by cannabidiol (20 microgram/g), which does not influence anandamide- or HU-210-induced hypotension. In the rat mesenteric arterial bed, Abn-cbd-induced vasodilation is unaffected by blockade of endothelial NO synthase, cyclooxygenase, or capsaicin receptors, but it is abolished by endothelial denudation. Mesenteric vasodilation by Abn-cbd, but not by acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, or capsaicine, is blocked by SR141716A (1 microM) or by cannabidiol (10 microM). Abn-cbd-induced vasodilation is also blocked in the presence of charybdotoxin (100 nM) plus apamin (100 nM), a combination of K(+)-channel toxins reported to block the release of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). These findings suggest that Abn-cbd and cannabidiol are a selective agonist and antagonist, respectively, of an as-yet-unidentified endothelial receptor for anandamide, activation of which elicits NO-independent mesenteric vasodilation, possibly by means of the release of EDHF. PMID:10570211

  12. Ursolic Acid, a Pentacyclin Triterpene, Potentiates TRAIL-induced Apoptosis through p53-independent Up-regulation of Death Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R.; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of the molecular targets of traditional medicine and its chemical footprints can validate the use of such medicine. In the present report, we investigated the effect of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in rosemary and holy basil, on apoptosis induced by TRAIL. We found that UA potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. In addition, UA also sensitized TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to the cytokine. When we investigated the mechanism, we found that UA down-regulated cell survival proteins and induced the cell surface expression of both TRAIL receptors, death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and -5). Induction of receptors by UA occurred independently of cell type. Gene silencing of either receptor by small interfering RNA reduced the apoptosis induced by UA and the effect of TRAIL. In addition, UA also decreased the expression of decoy receptor 2 (DcR2) but not DcR1. Induction of DRs was independent of p53 because UA induced DR4 and DR5 in HCT116 p53?/? cells. Induction of DRs, however, was dependent on JNK because UA induced JNK, and its pharmacologic inhibition abolished the induction of the receptors. The down-regulation of survival proteins and up-regulation of the DRs required reactive oxygen species (ROS) because UA induced ROS, and its quenching abolished the effect of the terpene. Also, potentiation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by UA was significantly reduced by both ROS quenchers and JNK inhibitor. In addition, UA was also found to induce the expression of DRs, down-regulate cell survival proteins, and activate JNK in orthotopically implanted human colorectal cancer in a nude mouse model. Overall, our results showed that UA potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of ROS and JNK-mediated up-regulation of DRs and down-regulation of DcR2 and cell survival proteins. PMID:21156789

  13. Antagonists reversibly reverse chemical LTD induced by group I, group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Lodge, David; Tidball, Patrick; Mercier, Marion S; Lucas, Sarah J; Hanna, Lydia; Ceolin, Laura; Kritikos, Minos; Fitzjohn, Stephen M; Sherwood, John L; Bannister, Neil; Volianskis, Arturas; Jane, David E; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Collingridge, Graham L

    2013-11-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are implicated in many neurological and psychiatric diseases and are the targets of therapeutic agents currently in clinical development. Their activation has diverse effects in the central nervous system (CNS) that includes an involvement in synaptic plasticity. We previously reported that the brief exposure of hippocampal slices to dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) can result in a long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic transmission. Surprisingly, this LTD could be fully reversed by mGlu receptor antagonists in a manner that was itself fully reversible upon washout of the antagonist. Here, 15 years after the discovery of DHPG-LTD and its reversible reversibility, we summarise these initial findings. We then present new data on DHPG-LTD, which demonstrates that evoked epileptiform activity triggered by activation of group I mGlu receptors can also be reversibly reversed by mGlu receptor antagonists. Furthermore, we show that the phenomenon of reversible reversibility is not specific to group I mGlu receptors. We report that activation of group II mGlu receptors in the temporo-ammonic pathway (TAP) and mossy fibre pathway within the hippocampus and in the cortical input to neurons of the lateral amygdala induces an LTD that is reversed by LY341495, a group II mGlu receptor antagonist. We also show that activation of group III mGlu8 receptors induces an LTD at lateral perforant path inputs to the dentate gyrus and that this LTD is reversed by MDCPG, an mGlu8 receptor antagonist. In conclusion, we have shown that activation of representative members of each of the three groups of mGlu receptors can induce forms of LTD than can be reversed by antagonists, and that in each case washout of the antagonist is associated with the re-establishment of the LTD. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23542080

  14. Sucrose-induced Receptor Kinase SIRK1 Regulates a Plasma Membrane Aquaporin in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu Na; Sanchez Rodriguez, Clara; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor kinase family is the largest protein kinase family in Arabidopsis, and it contains the highest fraction of proteins with yet uncharacterized functions. Here, we present functions of SIRK1, a receptor kinase that was previously identified with rapid transient phosphorylation after sucrose resupply to sucrose-starved seedlings. SIRK1 was found to be an active kinase with increasing activity in the presence of an external sucrose supply. In sirk1 T-DNA insertional mutants, the sucrose-induced phosphorylation patterns of several membrane proteins were strongly reduced; in particular, pore-gating phosphorylation sites in aquaporins were affected. SIRK1-GFP fusions were found to directly interact with aquaporins in affinity pull-down experiments on microsomal membrane vesicles. Furthermore, protoplast swelling assays of sirk1 mutants and SIRK1-GFP expressing lines confirmed a direct functional interaction of receptor kinase SIRK1 and aquaporins as substrates for phosphorylation. A lack of SIRK1 expression resulted in the failure of mutant protoplasts to control water channel activity upon changes in external sucrose concentrations. We propose that SIRK1 is involved in the regulation of sucrose-specific osmotic responses through direct interaction with and activation of an aquaporin via phosphorylation and that the duration of this response is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent receptor internalization. PMID:23820729

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation Remodels the Plasma Membrane Lipid Environment To Induce Nanocluster Formation? †

    PubMed Central

    Ariotti, Nicholas; Liang, Hong; Xu, Yufei; Zhang, Yueqiang; Yonekubo, Yoshiya; Inder, Kerry; Du, Guangwei; Parton, Robert G.; Hancock, John F.; Plowman, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction is regulated by the lateral segregation of proteins into nanodomains on the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the lateral segregation of cell surface receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases, upon ligand binding are unresolved. Here we used high-resolution spatial mapping to investigate the plasma membrane nanoscale organization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). Our data demonstrate that in serum-starved cells, the EGFR exists in preformed, cholesterol-dependent, actin-independent nanoclusters. Following stimulation with EGF, the number and size of EGFR nanoclusters increase in a time-dependent manner. Our data show that the formation of EGFR nanoclusters requires receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Critically, we show for the first time that production of phosphatidic acid by phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is essential for ligand-induced EGFR nanocluster formation. In accordance with its crucial role in regulating EGFR nanocluster formation, we demonstrate that modulating PLD2 activity tunes the degree of EGFR nanocluster formation and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal output. Together, these data show that EGFR activation drives the formation of signaling domains by regulating the production of critical second-messenger lipids and modifying the local membrane lipid environment. PMID:20516214

  16. Membrane-related specializations associated with acetylcholine receptor aggregates induced by electric fields

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The localization of membrane-associated specializations (basal lamina and cytoplasmic density) at sites of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) aggregation is consistent with an involvement of these structures in receptor stabilization. We investigated the occurrence of these specializations in association with AChR aggregates that develop at the cathode-facing edge of Xenopus muscle cells during exposure to a DC electric field. The cultures were labeled with a fluorescent conjugate of alpha-bungarotoxin and the receptor distribution on selected cells was determined before and after exposure to the field. In thin sections taken from the same cells, the cathode-facing edge was characterized by plaques of basal lamina and cytoplasmic density co-extensive with sarcolemma of increased density. In sections cut in a plane similar to the fluorescence image, it was possible to demonstrate that the specializations were concentrated at areas of field-induced AChR aggregation, and at receptor clusters existing on control cells. This finding further indicates that these structures participate in AChR stabilization, and that the mechanisms involved in AChR aggregation that result from field exposure and nerve contact may be similar. PMID:3965472

  17. Naltrexone pretreatment blocks microwave-induced changes in central cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Wen, Y.F.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rats to pulsed, circularly polarized microwaves (2,450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses at 500 pps, power density 1 mW/cm2, at an averaged, whole-body SAR of 0.6 W/kg) induced biphasic changes in the concentration of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. An increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 45-min sessions of microwave exposure, whereas a decrease in concentration was observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to ten 20-min sessions. These findings, which confirm earlier work in the authors' laboratory, were extended to include pretreatment of rats with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone (1 mg/kg, IP) before each session of exposure. The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems.

  18. Ligand-induced Homotypic and Heterotypic Clustering of Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2*

    PubMed Central

    Divekar, Shailaja D.; Burrell, Teal C.; Lee, Jennifer E.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Rebeck, G. William

    2014-01-01

    ApoE Receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) are type I transmembrane proteins belonging to the LDLR family of receptors. They are neuronal proteins found in synaptic compartments that play an important role in neuronal migration during development. ApoER2 and VLDLR bind to extracellular glycoproteins, such as Reelin and F-spondin, which leads to phosphorylation of adaptor proteins and subsequent activation of downstream signaling pathways. It is thought that ApoER2 and VLDLR undergo clustering upon binding to their ligands, but no direct evidence of clustering has been shown. Here we show strong clustering of ApoER2 induced by the dimeric ligands Fc-RAP, F-spondin, and Reelin but relatively weak clustering with the ligand apoE in the absence of lipoproteins. This clustering involves numerous proteins besides ApoER2, including amyloid precursor protein and the synaptic adaptor protein PSD-95. Interestingly, we did not observe strong clustering of ApoER2 with VLDLR. Clustering was modulated by both extracellular and intracellular domains of ApoER2. Together, our data demonstrate that several multivalent ligands for ApoER2 induce clustering in transfected cells and primary neurons and that these complexes included other synaptic molecules, such as APP and PSD-95. PMID:24755222

  19. Modulation of VEGF-Induced Retinal Vascular Permeability by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-?/?

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Sandra; McCollum, Gary W.; Bretz, Colin A.; Yang, Rong; Capozzi, Megan E.; Penn, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced retinal vascular permeability contributes to diabetic macular edema (DME), a serious vision-threatening condition. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) antagonist/reverse agonist, GSK0660, inhibits VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) proliferation, tubulogenesis, and oxygen-induced retinal vasculopathy in newborn rats. These VEGF-induced HRMEC behaviors and VEGF-induced disruption of endothelial cell junctional complexes may well share molecular signaling events. Thus, we sought to examine the role of PPAR?/? in VEGF-induced retinal hyperpermeability. Methods. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements were performed on HRMEC monolayers to assess permeability. Claudin-1/Claudin-5 localization in HRMEC monolayers was determined by immunocytochemistry. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk 1/2) phosphorylation, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and R2 were assayed by Western blot analysis. Expression of VEGFR1 and R2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Last, retinal vascular permeability was assayed in vivo by Evans blue extravasation. Results. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers treated with VEGF for 24 hours showed decreased TEER values that were completely reversed by the highest concentration of GSK0660 (10 ?M) and PPAR?/?-directed siRNA (20 ?M). In HRMEC treated with VEGF, GSK0660 stabilized tight-junctions as evidenced by Claudin-1 staining, reduced phosphorylation of Erk1/2, and reduced VEGFR1/2 expression. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? siRNA had a similar effect on VEGFR expression and Claudin-1, supporting the specificity of GSK0660 in our experiments. Last, GSK0660 significantly inhibited VEGF-induced retinal vascular permeability and reduced retinal VEGFR1and R2 levels in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions. These data suggest a protective effect for PPAR?/? antagonism against VEGF-induced vascular permeability, possibly through reduced VEGFR expression. Therefore, antagonism/reverse agonism of PPAR?/? siRNA may represent a novel therapeutic methodology against retinal hyperpermeability and is worthy of future investigation. PMID:25406289

  20. T3DB: the toxic exposome database.

    PubMed

    Wishart, David; Arndt, David; Pon, Allison; Sajed, Tanvir; Guo, An Chi; Djoumbou, Yannick; Knox, Craig; Wilson, Michael; Liang, Yongjie; Grant, Jason; Liu, Yifeng; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    The exposome is defined as the totality of all human environmental exposures from conception to death. It is often regarded as the complement to the genome, with the interaction between the exposome and the genome ultimately determining one's phenotype. The 'toxic exposome' is the complete collection of chronically or acutely toxic compounds to which humans can be exposed. Considerable interest in defining the toxic exposome has been spurred on by the realization that most human injuries, deaths and diseases are directly or indirectly caused by toxic substances found in the air, water, food, home or workplace. The Toxin-Toxin-Target Database (T3DB--www.t3db.ca) is a resource that was specifically designed to capture information about the toxic exposome. Originally released in 2010, the first version of T3DB contained data on nearly 2900 common toxic substances along with detailed information on their chemical properties, descriptions, targets, toxic effects, toxicity thresholds, sequences (for both targets and toxins), mechanisms and references. To more closely align itself with the needs of epidemiologists, toxicologists and exposome scientists, the latest release of T3DB has been substantially upgraded to include many more compounds (>3600), targets (>2000) and gene expression datasets (>15,000 genes). It now includes extensive data on 'normal' toxic compound concentrations in human biofluids as well as detailed chemical taxonomies, informative chemical ontologies and a large number of referential NMR, MS/MS and GC-MS spectra. This manuscript describes the most recent update to the T3DB, which was previously featured in the 2010 NAR Database Issue. PMID:25378312

  1. Role of B61, the Ligand for the Eck Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, in TNF- ?-Induced Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Akhilesh; Shao, Haining; Marks, Rory M.; Polverini, Peter J.; Dixit, Vishva M.

    1995-04-01

    B61, a cytokine-inducible endothelial gene product, is the ligand for the Eck receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK). Expression of a B61-immunoglobulin chimera showed that B61 could act as an angiogenic factor in vivo and a chemoattractant for endothelial cells in vitro. The Eck RPTK was activated by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) through induction of B61, and an antibody to B61 attenuated angiogenesis induced by TNF-? but not by basic fibroblast growth factor. This finding suggests the existence of an autocrine or paracrine loop involving activation of the Eck RPTK by its inducible ligand B61 after an inflammatory stimulus, the net effect of which would be to promote angiogenesis, a hallmark of chronic inflammation.

  2. The Effect of OSM on MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells in Simulated Microgravity with Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Goyden, Jake; Tawara, Ken; Hedeen, Danielle; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Thom Oxford, Julia; Jorcyk, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone deterioration is a challenge in long-term spaceflight with significant connections to patients experiencing disuse bone loss. Prolonged unloading and radiation exposure, defining characteristics of space travel, have both been associated with changes in inflammatory signaling via IL-6 class cytokines in bone. While there is also evidence for perturbed IL-6 class signaling in spaceflight, there has been scant examination of the connections between microgravity, radiation, and inflammatory stimuli in bone. Our lab and others have shown that the IL-6 class cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) is an important regulator of bone remodeling. We hypothesize that simulated microgravity alters osteoblast OSM signaling, contributing to the decoupling of osteolysis and osteogenesis in bone homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we induced OSM signaling in murine MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells cultured in modeled microgravity using a rotating wall vessel bioreactor with and without exposure to radiation typical of a solar particle event. We measured effects on inflammatory signaling, osteoblast activity, and mineralization. Results indicated time dependent interactions among all conditions in the regulation of IL-6 production. Furthermore, OSM induced the transcription of OSM receptor ß, IL 6 receptor ? subunits, collagen ?1(I), osteocalcin, sclerostin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. Measurements of osteoid mineralization suggest that the spatial organization of the osteoblast environment is an important consideration in understanding bone formation. Taken together, these results support a role for altered OSM signaling in the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss. PMID:26030441

  3. The Effect of OSM on MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells in Simulated Microgravity with Radiation.

    PubMed

    Goyden, Jake; Tawara, Ken; Hedeen, Danielle; Willey, Jeffrey S; Thom Oxford, Julia; Jorcyk, Cheryl L

    2015-01-01

    Bone deterioration is a challenge in long-term spaceflight with significant connections to patients experiencing disuse bone loss. Prolonged unloading and radiation exposure, defining characteristics of space travel, have both been associated with changes in inflammatory signaling via IL-6 class cytokines in bone. While there is also evidence for perturbed IL-6 class signaling in spaceflight, there has been scant examination of the connections between microgravity, radiation, and inflammatory stimuli in bone. Our lab and others have shown that the IL-6 class cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) is an important regulator of bone remodeling. We hypothesize that simulated microgravity alters osteoblast OSM signaling, contributing to the decoupling of osteolysis and osteogenesis in bone homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we induced OSM signaling in murine MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells cultured in modeled microgravity using a rotating wall vessel bioreactor with and without exposure to radiation typical of a solar particle event. We measured effects on inflammatory signaling, osteoblast activity, and mineralization. Results indicated time dependent interactions among all conditions in the regulation of IL-6 production. Furthermore, OSM induced the transcription of OSM receptor ß, IL 6 receptor ? subunits, collagen ?1(I), osteocalcin, sclerostin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. Measurements of osteoid mineralization suggest that the spatial organization of the osteoblast environment is an important consideration in understanding bone formation. Taken together, these results support a role for altered OSM signaling in the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss. PMID:26030441

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A TIGHTLY REGULATED AND HIGHLY INDUCIBLE ECDYSONE RECEPTOR GENE SWITCH FOR PLANTS THROUGH THE USE OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR CHIMERAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical inducible gene regulation systems provide essential tools for the precise regulation of transgene expression in plants and animals. Recent development of a two-hybrid ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene regulation system has solved some of the drawbacks that were associated with the monopartate ge...

  5. Danshen mediates through estrogen receptors to activate Akt and inhibit apoptosis effect of Leu27IGF-II-induced IGF-II receptor signaling activation in cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tzang, Bor-Show; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Lin, James A; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2013-06-01

    Post-menopausal women show dramatically increased cardiovascular disease morbidity (CVD). Danshen is used widely in China for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary heart disease. Danshen possesses lipid-soluble biologically active components with a structure similar to 17?-estrodiol (E2). This study assesses whether the cardio-protection exerted by Danshen is mediated through the ERs within H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. Cardiomyoblast cells pretreated with Fulvestrant (ICI 182,780), an estrogen receptor antagonist was applied to investigate the estrogenic activity of Danshen. The Danshen extract preventive effects on Leu27IGF-II-induced IGF-IIR signaling activator and H9c2 cell apoptosis were identified using TUNEL assay, JC-1 staining and Western blot assay. We found that Danshen extract treatments significantly enhanced phosphorylated Akt through estrogen receptor activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin activation and block H9c2 cell apoptosis. Danshen extracts suppressed the IGF-IIR signaling proteins, pro-apoptotic proteins and reversed the mitochondrial membrane instability induced by Leu27IGF-II. However, the cardioprotective properties of Danshen to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell apoptosis and promote cell survival were attenuated by applying ICI, which suggests that the Danshen cardioprotective effect is mediated through estrogen receptors. All our data indicated that Danshen exerts strong estrogenic activity which can be considered a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) against IGF2R signaling that blocks cardiac apoptosis. PMID:23419388

  6. Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annakaisa Haapasalo; Tommi Saarelainen; Maxim Moshnyakov; Urmas Arumäe; Tiila-Riikka Kiema; Mart Saarma; Garry Wong; Eero Castrén

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1.

  7. Activation of liver X receptors inhibits cadmium-induced apoptosis of human renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Fongsupa, Somsak; Soodvilai, Sirima; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Soodvilai, Sunhapas

    2015-08-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) including LXR? and LXR? are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, which are expressed in high metabolic organs such as the liver, kidney, and adipose tissue. LXRs have been shown to act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory in several organs. The present study investigated the effects of LXR activation on cadmium-induced cell death in renal proximal tubular cells. Treating human renal proximal tubular cells, HK-2 cells, with 20?M CdCl2 for 24h led to cell death via apoptosis but not necrosis. Interestingly, pretreating HK-2 cells with T0901317, a LXR agonist, significantly inhibited the apoptotic cell death induced by CdCl2. The protective effect of T0901317 was eliminated by incubation with fenofibrate, a LXR antagonist, indicating that the effect of T0901317 on cadmium-induced apoptotic cell death was mediated by LXR activation. In addition, the effect of CdCl2 was attenuated by a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). An increase in ROS induced by CdCl2 was mediated by inhibition of catalase but not superoxide dismutase (SOD) which was attenuated by T0901317. Western blot analysis revealed that CdCl2 stimulated expression of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and the stimulation were inhibited by NAC, indicating the induction of JNK phosphorylation was stimulated following ROS production. Moreover, the increases of ROS and JNK phosphorylation induced by CdCl2 were attenuated by LXR activation. This study provides the first evidence to show LXR activation reduces cadmium-induced apoptotic cell death of human renal proximal tubular cells by inhibition of ROS production and JNK activation. PMID:25980575

  8. 5-HT1A receptor blockade increases penile erections induced by indirect serotonin agonists.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Bertrand, J; Costentin, J

    1993-12-13

    Indirect serotonergic agonists, whether promoters of 5-HT release such as fenfluramine (5 mg kg-1) or inhibitors of 5-HT uptake such as fluoxetine (10 mg kg-1), elicited in rats penile erections at a modest but significant level. Their effects were markedly potentiated by the beta-blocker tertatolol, (0.6-5 mg kg-1) which displays 5-HT1A receptor blocking activity, but not by the beta-blocker labetalol (6.25 and 25 mg kg-1), which lacks such activity. In addition, tertatolol, but not labetalol, potentiated penile erections induced by meta-chloro-phenylpiperazine (1 mg kg-1). Thus, it appears that increasing serotonergic transmission increases only moderately penile erections because of the functional opposition exerted by 5-HT1A (inhibition) and 5-HT1C (activation) serotonin receptors on this response. PMID:7905292

  9. Ultraviolet irradiation induces keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia through the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taghrid B. El-Abaseri; Sumanth Putta; Laura A. Hansen

    2006-01-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin cancer, in part, through epigenetic mechanisms that result in the deregulation of cell proliferation. UV irradi- ation also rapidly activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Since EGFR activation is strongly mito- genic in many cell types including keratinocytes of the skin, we hypothesized that UV-induced cutaneous proliferation results from EGFR activation.

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand Receptors Signal NF-B and JNK Activation and

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wen-Hui

    Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand Receptors Signal NF- B and JNK Activation and Apoptosis through Distinct Pathways* (Received for publication, June 15, 1999, and in revised form, August of Immunology, Denver, Colorado 80206 Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-induc- ing ligand (TRAIL

  11. Nicotine-induced Up-regulation and Desensitization of 4 2 Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors Depend on Subunit Ratio*

    E-print Network

    Lasalde Dominicc, Jose A. - Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico

    Nicotine-induced Up-regulation and Desensitization of 4 2 Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors Depend Caribe, Department of Physiology, Bayamo´n, Puerto Rico 00916 Desensitization induced by chronic nicotine exposure has been hypothesized to trigger the up-regulation of the 4 2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine

  12. P2X4 receptor regulates alcohol-induced responses in microglia.

    PubMed

    Gofman, Larisa; Cenna, Jonathan M; Potula, Raghava

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that alcohol-induced neuropathology may result from multicellular responses in which microglia cells play a prominent role. Purinergic receptor signaling plays a key role in regulating microglial function and, more importantly, mediates alcohol-induced effects. Our findings demonstrate that alcohol increases expression of P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), which alters the function of microglia, including calcium mobilization, migration and phagocytosis. Our results show a significant up-regulation of P2X4 gene expression as analyzed by real-time qPCR (***p?receptor-dependent using the antagonist 5-BDBD, which reversed the effects as compared to alcohol alone (***p?receptor may play a role in modulating microglial function in the context of alcohol abuse. PMID:25135400

  13. Role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:23894460

  14. Role for the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Bichsel, Kyle J.; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:23894460

  15. Topical Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Limits Glucocorticoid-Induced Epidermal Atrophy in Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Maubec, Eve; Laouénan, Cédric; Deschamps, Lydia; Nguyen, Van Tuan; Scheer-Senyarich, Isabelle; Wackenheim-Jacobs, Anne-Catherine; Steff, Maud; Duhamel, Stéphanie; Tubiana, Sarah; Brahimi, Nesrine; Leclerc-Mercier, Stéphanie; Crickx, Béatrice; Perret, Claudine; Aractingi, Selim; Escoubet, Brigitte; Duval, Xavier; Arnaud, Philippe; Jaisser, Frederic; Mentré, France; Farman, Nicolette

    2015-07-01

    A major deleterious side effect of glucocorticoids is skin atrophy. Glucocorticoids activate the glucocorticoid and the mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor, both present in the epidermis. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid-induced epidermal atrophy may be related to inappropriate occupancy of MR by glucocorticoids. We evaluated whether epidermal atrophy induced by the topical glucocorticoid clobetasol could be limited by coadministration of MR antagonist. In cultured human skin explants, the epidermal atrophy induced by clobetasol was significantly limited by MR antagonism (canrenoate and eplerenone). Blockade of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC by phenamil was also efficient, identifying a role of MR-ENaC cascade in keratinocytes, acting through restoration of clobetasol-induced impairment of keratinocyte proliferation. In the SPIREPI randomized double-blind controlled trial, gels containing clobetasol, the MR antagonist spironolactone, both agents, or placebo were applied on four zones of the forearms of 23 healthy volunteers for 28 days. Primary outcome was histological thickness of the epidermis with clobetasol alone or clobetasol+spironolactone. Spironolactone alone did not affect the epidermal thickness but coapplication of clobetasol and spironolactone significantly limited clobetasol-induced atrophy and was well tolerated. Altogether, these findings identify MR as a factor regulating epidermal homeostasis and suggest that topical MR blockade could limit glucocorticoid-induced epidermal atrophy. PMID:25668238

  16. P2X7 Receptor Modulates Inflammatory and Functional Pulmonary Changes Induced by Silica

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Patrícia T.; Vieira, Flávia S.; da Graça, Carolyne Lalucha A. L.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Machado, Mariana N.; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Zin, Walter A.; Borojevic, Radovan; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, characterized by irreversible and progressive fibrosis. Silica exposure leads to intense lung inflammation, reactive oxygen production, and extracellular ATP (eATP) release by macrophages. The P2X7 purinergic receptor is thought to be an important immunomodulator that responds to eATP in sites of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study investigates the role of P2X7 receptor in a murine model of silicosis. To that end wild-type (C57BL/6) and P2X7 receptor knockout mice received intratracheal injection of saline or silica particles. After 14 days, changes in lung mechanics were determined by the end-inflation occlusion method. Bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry analyzes were performed. Lungs were harvested for histological and immunochemistry analysis of fibers content, inflammatory infiltration, apoptosis, as well as cytokine and oxidative stress expression. Silica particle effects on lung alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts were also evaluated in cell line cultures. Phagocytosis assay was performed in peritoneal macrophages. Silica exposure increased lung mechanical parameters in wild-type but not in P2X7 knockout mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, TGF-? and NF-?B activation, as well as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1? secretion were higher in wild-type than knockout silica-exposed mice. In vitro studies suggested that P2X7 receptor participates in silica particle phagocytosis, IL-1? secretion, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. In conclusion, our data showed a significant role for P2X7 receptor in silica-induced lung changes, modulating lung inflammatory, fibrotic, and functional changes. PMID:25310682

  17. Chemerin C9 peptide induces receptor internalization through a clathrin-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-Xian; Liao, Dan; Zhang, Shuo; Cheng, Ni; He, Hui-Qiong; Ye, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The chemerin receptor CMKLR1 is one type of G protein-coupled receptors abundant in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages, which plays a key role in the entry of a subset of immunodeficiency viruses including HIV/SIV into lymphocytes and macrophages. The aim of this work was to investigate how CMKLR1 was internalized and whether its internalization affected cell signaling in vitro. Methods Rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, HEK 293 cells and HeLa cells were used. CMKLR1 internalization was visualized by confocal microscopy imaging or using a FACScan flow cytometer. Six potential phosphorylation sites (Ser337, Ser343, Thr352, Ser344, Ser347 and Ser350) in CMKLR1were substituted with alanine using site-directed mutagenesis. Heterologous expression of wild type and mutant CMKLR1 allowed for functional characterization of endocytosis, Ca2+ flux and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Results Chemerin and the chemerin-derived nonapeptide (C9) induced dose-dependent loss of cell surface CMKLR1-GFP fusion protein and increased its intracellular accumulation in HEK 293 cells and RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CMKLR1. Up to 90% of CMKLR1 was internalized after treatment with C9 (1 µmol/L). By using different agents, it was demonstrated that clathrin-independent mechanism was involved in CMKLR1 internalization. Mutations in Ser343 for G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) phosphorylation and Ser347 for PKC phosphorylation abrogated CMKLR1 internalization. Loss of CMKLR1 internalization partially enhanced the receptor signaling, as shown by increased Ca2+ flux and a shorter latency to peak level of ERK phosphorylation. Conclusion CMKLR1 internalization occurs in a clathrin-independent manner, which negatively regulated the receptor-mediated Ca2+ flux and ERK phosphorylation. PMID:24658352

  18. Ginsenoside Rb1 stimulates glucose uptake through insulin-like signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wenbin; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Libin; Jiang, Boren; Jin, Hua; Chen, Mingdao

    2008-09-01

    A series of clinical trials and animal experiments have demonstrated that ginseng and its major active constituent, ginsenosides, possess glucose-lowering action. In our previous study, ginsenoside Rb(1) has been shown to regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity to facilitate adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. However, the effect of Rb(1) on glucose transport in insulin-sensitive cells and its molecular mechanism need further elucidation. In this study, Rb(1) significantly stimulated basal and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes; the maximal effect was achieved at a concentration of 1 microM and a time of 3 h. In adipocytes, Rb(1) promoted GLUT1 and GLUT4 translocations to the cell surface, which was examined by analyzing their distribution in subcellular membrane fractions, and enhanced translocation of GLUT4 was confirmed using the transfection of GLUT4-green fluorescence protein in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Meanwhile, Rb(1) increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and protein kinase B (PKB), and stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity in the absence of the activation of the insulin receptor. Rb(1)-induced glucose uptake as well as GLUT1 and GLUT4 translocations was inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rb(1) stimulates glucose transport in insulin-sensitive cells by promoting translocations of GLUT1 and GLUT4 by partially activating the insulin signaling pathway. These findings are useful in understanding the hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic properties of ginseng and ginsenosides. PMID:18550785

  19. A? induces astrocytic glutamate release, extrasynaptic NMDA receptor activation, and synaptic loss.

    PubMed

    Talantova, Maria; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Zhang, Xiaofei; Xia, Peng; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Dziewczapolski, Gustavo; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Cao, Gang; Pratt, Alexander E; Kang, Yeon-Joo; Tu, Shichun; Molokanova, Elena; McKercher, Scott R; Hires, Samuel Andrew; Sason, Hagit; Stouffer, David G; Buczynski, Matthew W; Solomon, James P; Michael, Sarah; Powers, Evan T; Kelly, Jeffery W; Roberts, Amanda; Tong, Gary; Fang-Newmeyer, Traci; Parker, James; Holland, Emily A; Zhang, Dongxian; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Chen, H-S Vincent; Wolosker, Herman; Wang, Yuqiang; Parsons, Loren H; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; Masliah, Eliezer; Heinemann, Stephen F; Piña-Crespo, Juan C; Lipton, Stuart A

    2013-07-01

    Synaptic loss is the cardinal feature linking neuropathology to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of synaptic damage remains incompletely understood. Here, using FRET-based glutamate sensor imaging, we show that amyloid-? peptide (A?) engages ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to induce release of astrocytic glutamate, which in turn activates extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (eNMDARs) on neurons. In hippocampal autapses, this eNMDAR activity is followed by reduction in evoked and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Decreased mEPSC frequency may reflect early synaptic injury because of concurrent eNMDAR-mediated NO production, tau phosphorylation, and caspase-3 activation, each of which is implicated in spine loss. In hippocampal slices, oligomeric A? induces eNMDAR-mediated synaptic depression. In AD-transgenic mice compared with wild type, whole-cell recordings revealed excessive tonic eNMDAR activity accompanied by eNMDAR-sensitive loss of mEPSCs. Importantly, the improved NMDAR antagonist NitroMemantine, which selectively inhibits extrasynaptic over physiological synaptic NMDAR activity, protects synapses from A?-induced damage both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23776240

  20. Involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.C.; Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper we examine the role of growth factors (GF) and their receptors (GFR) in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters induced lung tumors in rats, but the molecule/cellular mechanisms are not known. Recent evidence suggests that GF/GFR play a critical role in the growth and development of lung cancer in humans and animals. We have developed immunocytochemical methods for identifying sites of production and action of GF/GFR at the cellular level; for example, the avidin-biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. In radon-induced rat epidermoid carcinomas, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-receptors (EGF-R), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}), and bombesin were found to be abnormally expressed. These abnormal expressions, mainly associated with epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, were not found in any other lung tumor types. Our data suggest that EGF, EGF-R, TGF-{alpha}, and bombesin are involved in radon oncogenesis in rat lungs, especially in epidermoid carcinomas, possibly through the autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  1. ?-caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kechrid, Malek; Patel, Vivek; Tanashian, Galin; Wink, David A.; Gertsch, Jürg; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural sequiterpene found in many essential oils of spice (best known for contributing to the spiciness of black pepper) and food plants with recognized anti-inflammatory properties. Recently it was shown that BCP is a natural agonist of endogenous cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors, which are expressed in immune cells and mediate anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we aimed to test the effects of BCP in a clinically relevant murine model of nephropathy (induced by the widely used antineoplastic drug cisplatin) in which the tubular injury is largely dependent on inflammation and oxidative/nitrative stress. ?-caryophyllene dose-dependently ameliorated cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction, morphological damage, and renal inflammatory response (chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-2, cytokines TNF-? and IL-1?, adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration). It also markedly mitigated oxidative/nitrative stress (NOX-2, NOX-4 expression, 4-HNE and 3-NT content) and cell death. The protective effects of BCP against biochemical and histological markers of nephropathy were absent in CB2 knockout mice. Thus, BCP may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through a CB2 receptor dependent pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of BCP in humans it has tremendous therapeutic potential in multitude of diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:22326488

  2. Dietary Restriction Induced Longevity Is Mediated by Nuclear Receptor NHR-62 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Heestand, Bree N.; Shen, Yidong; Liu, Wei; Magner, Daniel B.; Storm, Nadia; Meharg, Caroline; Habermann, Bianca; Antebi, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in a wide variety of species, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans HNF4?-related nuclear hormone receptor NHR-62 is required for metabolic and physiologic responses associated with DR-induced longevity. nhr-62 mediates the longevity of eat-2 mutants, a genetic mimetic of dietary restriction, and blunts the longevity response of DR induced by bacterial food dilution at low nutrient levels. Metabolic changes associated with DR, including decreased Oil Red O staining, decreased triglyceride levels, and increased autophagy are partly reversed by mutation of nhr-62. Additionally, the DR fatty acid profile is altered in nhr-62 mutants. Expression profiles reveal that several hundred genes induced by DR depend on the activity of NHR-62, including a putative lipase required for the DR response. This study provides critical evidence of nuclear hormone receptor regulation of the DR longevity response, suggesting hormonal and metabolic control of life span. PMID:23935515

  3. Curcumin induces human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression through a vitamin D receptor-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunxiao; Rosoha, Elena; Lowry, Malcolm B; Borregaard, Niels; Gombart, Adrian F

    2013-05-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the pleiotropic biologic effects of 1?,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Recent in vitro studies suggested that curcumin and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) also bind to VDR with low affinity. As potential ligands for the VDR, we hypothesized that curcumin and PUFAs would induce expression of known VDR target genes in cells. In this study, we tested whether these compounds regulated two important VDR target genes - human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) - in human monocytic cell line U937, colon cancer cell line HT-29 and keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. We demonstrated that PUFAs failed to induce CAMP or CYP24A1 mRNA expression in all three cell lines, but curcumin up-regulated CAMP mRNA and protein levels in U937 cells. Curcumin treatment induced CAMP promoter activity from a luciferase reporter construct lacking the VDR binding site and did not increase binding of the VDR to the CAMP promoter as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These findings indicate that induction of CAMP by curcumin occurs through a vitamin D receptor-independent manner. We conclude that PUFAs and curcumin do not function as ligands for the VDR. PMID:22841393

  4. Conformation of the mineralocorticoid receptor N-terminal domain: evidence for induced and stable structure.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina; Kelly, Sharon M; Watt, Kate; Price, Nicholas C; McEwan, Iain J

    2010-10-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) binds the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol and has an important physiological role in the control of salt homeostasis. Regions of the protein important for gene regulation have been mapped to the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and termed activation function (AF)1a, AF1b, and middle domain (MD). In the present study, we used a combination of biophysical and biochemical techniques to investigate the folding and function of the MR-NTD transactivation functions. We demonstrate that MR-AF1a and MR-MD have relatively little stable secondary structure but have the propensity to form ?-helical conformation. Induced folding of the MR-MD enhanced protein-protein binding with a number of coregulatory proteins, including the coactivator cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein and the corepressors SMRT and RIP140. By contrast, the MR-AF1b domain appeared to have a more stable conformation consisting predominantly of ?-secondary structure. Furthermore, MR-AF1b specifically interacted with the TATA-binding protein, via an LxxLL-like motif, in the absence of induced folding. Together, these data suggest that the MR-NTD contains a complex transactivation system made up of distinct structural and functional domains. The results are discussed in the context of the induced folding paradigm for steroid receptor NTDs. PMID:20685853

  5. Signal transduction pathway regulating prostaglandin EP3 receptor-induced neurite retraction: requirement for two different tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Aoki, J; Katoh, H; Yasui, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Nakamura, K; Hasegawa, H; Ichikawa, A; Negishi, M

    1999-06-01

    We reported previously that activation of the prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype triggered neurite retraction through the small GTPase Rho-, and its target, RhoA-binding kinase alpha (ROKalpha)-, dependent pathway in EP3 receptor-expressing PC12 cells. Here we examined the involvement of tyrosine kinases in this pathway in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells. Tyrphostin A25, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked neurite retraction and cell rounding induced by activation of the EP3 receptor, however, it failed to block neurite retraction and cell rounding induced by microinjection of constitutively active RhoA, RhoAV14, indicating that a tyrphostin-sensitive tyrosine kinase was involved in the pathway from the EP3 receptor to Rho activation. On the other hand, genistein, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked neurite retraction and cell rounding induced by both activation of the EP3 receptor and microinjection of RhoAV14. However, genistein did not block neuronal morphological changes induced by microinjection of a constitutively active mutant of ROKalpha. These results indicate that two different tyrosine kinases, tyrphostin A25-sensitive and genistein-sensitive kinases, are involved in the EP3 receptor-mediated neurite retraction acting upstream and downstream of Rho, respectively. PMID:10333476

  6. Effect of a sigma-1 receptor agonist, cutamesine dihydrochloride (SA4503), on photoreceptor cell death against light-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Sugitani, Sou; Inoue, Yuki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    Cutamesine dihydrochloride is an agonist of sigma-1 receptor, which is a ligand-operated receptor chaperone at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. ER stress plays a pivotal role in light irradiation-induced retinal damage. In the present study, we examined whether cutamesine is effective against experimental degenerative retinal damages in vitro and in vivo. The effects of cutamesine against white light-induced retinal photoreceptor damage were evaluated in vitro by measuring cell death. The expression of sigma-1 receptor after the light exposure was examined by immunoblot analysis. The disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3/7 activation after excessive light exposure were also examined. In addition, retinal damage in mice induced by irradiation to white light was evaluated using histological staining and electroretinography. Cutamesine reduced the cell death rate induced by light exposure, and the protective effect was prevented by N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine (BD-1047) dihydrobromide, a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. Sigma-1 receptor expression was decreased by light exposure, and cutamesine suppressed the decreased expression of sigma-1 receptor protein. Cutamesine also reduced the mitochondrial damage and reduced the elevated level of caspase 3/7 activity; this effect was attenuated by BD-1047. In in vivo studies, cutamesine suppressed the light-induced retinal dysfunction and thinning of the outer nuclear layer in the mouse retina. These findings indicate that cutamesine protects against retinal cell death in vitro and in vivo by the agonistic effect of sigma-1 receptor. Therefore, sigma-1 receptor may have a potential as a therapeutic target in retinal diseases mediated by photoreceptor degeneration. PMID:25616094

  7. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  8. The membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 mediates cadmium-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xinyuan [Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Center for Molecular Toxicology, 41 Lower College Road, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Filardo, Edward J. [Department of Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Shaikh, Zahir A., E-mail: ZShaikh@uri.ed [Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Center for Molecular Toxicology, 41 Lower College Road, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metal that is dispersed throughout the environment. It is an endocrine-disrupting element which mimics estrogen, binds to estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), and promotes cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. We have previously published that Cd promotes activation of the extracellular regulated kinases, erk-1 and -2 in both ER-positive and ER-negative human breast cancer cells, suggesting that this estrogen-like effect of Cd is not associated with the ER. Here, we have investigated whether the newly appreciated transmembrane estrogen receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), may be involved in Cd-induced cell proliferation. Towards this end, we compared the effects of Cd in ER-negative human SKBR3 breast cancer cells in which endogenous GPR30 signaling was selectively inhibited using a GPR30 interfering mutant. We found that Cd concentrations from 50 to 500 nM induced a proliferative response in control vector-transfected SKBR3 cells but not in SKBR3 cells stably expressing interfering mutant. Similarly, intracellular cAMP levels increased about 2.4-fold in the vector transfectants but not in cells in which GPR30 was inactivated within 2.5 min after treatment with 500 nM Cd. Furthermore, Cd treatment rapidly activated (within 2.5 min) raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, mek-1, extracellular signal regulated kinases, erk-1/2, ribosomal S6 kinase, rsk, and E-26 like protein kinase, elk, about 4-fold in vector transfectants. In contrast, the activation of these signaling molecules in SKBR3 cells expressing the GPR30 mutant was only about 1.4-fold. These results demonstrate that Cd-induced breast cancer cell proliferation occurs through GPR30-mediated activation in a manner that is similar to that achieved by estrogen in these cells.

  9. Possible involvement of ?? receptors in various emetogen-induced increases in salivary amylase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hideo; Suyama, Yoshimi; Iwachido, Takako; Miwa, Eri

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of ??- or ??-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists on salivary amylase secretion produced by various emetic agents, such as cisplatin, apomorphine, and lithium chloride (LiCl), or the non-emetic agent ?(½)-AR agonist isoprenaline in rats. We also determined the inhibitory effect of metoclopramide, a dopamine D?-receptor antagonist, on increases in the salivary amylase activity induced by apomorphine or granisetron, a 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist, on LiCl-induced increased salivary amylase activity. Isoprenaline (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) produced an increase in salivary amylase and the increase was inhibited by the ?(½)-AR antagonist propranolol (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and ??-AR antagonist atenolol (2 mg/kg, s.c.) but not by the ??-AR antagonist butoxamine (8 mg/kg, s.c.). The increased amylase activity induced by cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.v.), apomorphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.), or LiCl (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was inhibited significantly by atenolol (2 mg/kg, s.c.) but not by butoxamine (8 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, increases in amylase activities induced by apomorphine and LiCl were inhibited significantly by metoclopramide (10 mg/kg, i.v.) and granisetron (3 mg/kg, i.v.), respectively. These results suggest that salivary amylase secretion induced by various emetogens is involved in ??-adrenoceptor activity and that salivary amylase activity is useful to detect emetogens with no direct ??-AR activation in rats, a species that does not exhibit vomiting. PMID:21173550

  10. Involvement of ?-opioid receptors in the effects induced by endogenous enkephalins on learned helplessness model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purificación Tejedor-Real; Juan A. Micó; Claire Smadja; Rafael Maldonado; Bernard P. Roques; Juan Gibert-Rahola

    1998-01-01

    Pharmacological, neurochemical and behavioural findings support a possible role of endogenous opioids in clinical depression. There is evidence from animal studies that ?-opioid receptors are involved in several behavioural responses to opioids, including motivational activities. In the present study, the mixed enkephalin catabolism inhibitor, RB 101 (N(R,S)-2-benzyl-3[(S)-(2-amino-4-methylthiobutyldithio]-1-oxopropyl)-l-phenylalanine benzyl ester) (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg\\/kg), induced a dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect in

  11. A natural androgen receptor antagonist induces cellular senescence in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hessenkemper, Wiebke; Roediger, Julia; Bartsch, Sophie; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; van Royen, Martin E; Petersen, Iver; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Baniahmad, Aria

    2014-11-01

    We have previously identified a natural occurring, androgen receptor-specific antagonist. Atraric acid (AA) inhibits the transactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) and androgen-mediated growth of AR-expressing human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. Here we show that AA treatment of living cells provokes molecular changes of AR signaling. In addition to a deceleration of nuclear translocation a block of the intramolecular amino/carboxy (N/C)-terminal interaction of the AR was observed. Furthermore, using high-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy, a reduced speckle formation of the AR was observed in line with an increased intranuclear mobility of the receptor. This suggests decreased DNA binding of the AR, which is further indicated by an impaired chromatin recruitment of the AR to the prostate-specific antigen promoter and enhancer shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Using inhibitors of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src or Akt, known interaction partners of AR, reduced the level of androgen-induced cellular senescence suggesting a partly non-genomic pathway to induce cellular senescence by AA. Using PP2 (4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) pyrimidine or Akt inhibitors, inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src or Akt, known interaction partners of AR, reduced the level of androgen-induced cellular senescence, suggesting a partly nongenomic pathway to induce cellular senescence by AA. Treatment of LNCaP cells with AA is associated with hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and an increase of p16 expression, whereas the p53-p21 signaling pathway seems not be affected by AA treatment. Analyzing human PCa tissue samples treated with AA ex vivo also indicates an induction of cellular senescence associated with an increase of p16 expression but not p21. Taken together, these data indicate that AA exhibits novel features to inhibit AR amino/carboxy-terminal interaction, the AR-mediated nuclear activities and growth of PCa cells. PMID:25203674

  12. Fas activates lipolysis in a Ca2+-CaMKII-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rapold, Reto A; Wueest, Stephan; Knoepfel, Adrian; Schoenle, Eugen J; Konrad, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Fas (CD95) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and plays a crucial role in the induction of apoptosis. However, like TNF, Fas can induce nonapoptotic signaling pathways. We previously demonstrated that mice lacking Fas specifically in adipocytes are partly protected from diet-induced insulin resistance, potentially via decreased delivery of FAs to the liver, as manifested by lower total liver ceramide content. In the present study, we aimed to delineate the signaling pathway involved in Fas-mediated adipocyte lipid mobilization. Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with membrane-bound Fas ligand (FasL) significantly increased lipolysis after 12 h without inducing apoptosis. In parallel, Fas activation increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and FasL-induced lipolysis was blunted in the presence of the ERK-inhibitor U0126 or in ERK1/2-depleted adipocytes. Furthermore, Fas activation increased phosphorylation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII), and blocking of the CaMKII-pathway (either by the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA or by the CaMKII inhibitor KN62) blunted FasL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and glycerol release. In conclusion, we propose a novel role for CaMKII in promoting lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23089915

  13. Paradata for 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'

  14. Ca2+ entry following P2X receptor activation induces IP3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ release in myocytes from small renal arteries

    PubMed Central

    Povstyan, Oleksandr V; Harhun, Maksym I; Gordienko, Dmitri V

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE P2X receptors mediate sympathetic control and autoregulation of the renal circulation triggering contraction of renal vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) via an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Although it is well-appreciated that the myocyte Ca2+ signalling system is composed of microdomains, little is known about the structure of the [Ca2+]i responses induced by P2X receptor stimulation in vascular myocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES Using confocal microscopy, perforated-patch electrical recordings, immuno-/organelle-specific staining, flash photolysis and RT-PCR analysis we explored, at the subcellular level, the Ca2+ signalling system engaged in RVSMCs on stimulation of P2X receptors with the selective agonist ??-methylene ATP (??-meATP). KEY RESULTS RT-PCR analysis of single RVSMCs showed the presence of genes encoding inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1(IP3R1) and ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2). The amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transients depended on ??-meATP concentration. Depolarization induced by 10 µmol·L?1??-meATP triggered an abrupt Ca2+ release from sub-plasmalemmal (‘junctional’) sarcoplasmic reticulum enriched with IP3Rs but poor in RyRs. Depletion of calcium stores, block of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) or IP3Rs suppressed the sub-plasmalemmal [Ca2+]i upstroke significantly more than block of RyRs. The effect of calcium store depletion or IP3R inhibition on the sub-plasmalemmal [Ca2+]i upstroke was attenuated following block of VGCCs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Depolarization of RVSMCs following P2X receptor activation induces IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from sub-plasmalemmal (‘junctional’) sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is activated mainly by Ca2+ influx through VGCCs. This mechanism provides convergence of signalling pathways engaged in electromechanical and pharmacomechanical coupling in renal vascular myocytes. PMID:21175582

  15. The hippocampal NMDA receptors may be involved in acquisition, but not expression of ACPA-induced place preference.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Sharaf-Dolgari, Elmira; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the functional interactions between the endocannabinoid and glutamate systems in the hippocampus. The present study was made to test whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) are implicated in ACPA (a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist)-induced place preference. Using a 3-day schedule of conditioning, it was found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ACPA (0.02mg/kg) caused a significant conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino NMRI mice. Intra-CA1 microinjection of the NMDA or D-[1]-2-amino-7-Phosphonoheptanoic acid (D-AP7, NMDA receptor antagonist), failed to induce CPP or CPA (condition place aversion), while NMDA (0.5?g/mouse) potentiated the ACPA (0.01mg/kg)-induced CPP; and D-AP7 (a specific NMDA receptor antagonist; 0.5 and 1?g/mouse) reversed the ACPA (0.02mg/kg)-induced CPP. Moreover, microinjection of different doses of glutamatergic agents on the testing day did not alter the expression of ACPA-induced place preference. None of the treatments, with the exception of ACPA (0.04mg/kg), had an effect on locomotor activity. In conclusion, these observations provide evidence that glutamate NMDA receptors of the CA1 may be involved in the potentiation of ACPA rewarding properties in the acquisition, but not expression, of CPP in mice. PMID:26072736

  16. Selective endothelin-A receptor blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Toney, Brent M; Fisher, Amanda J; Albrecht, Marjorie; Lockett, Angelia D; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Lahm, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Endothelin-1 is a potent mediator of sepsis-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pulmonary vascular effects of selective blockade of endothelin receptor subtype A (ETAR) during endotoxemia remain unknown. We hypothesized that selective ETAR antagonism attenuates endotoxin-induced PH and improves pulmonary artery (PA) vasoreactivity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-450 g) received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Salmonella typhimurium; 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle 6 hours before hemodynamic assessment and tissue harvest. The selective ETAR antagonist sitaxsentan (10 or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intravenously 3 hours after receipt of LPS. Right ventricular systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), oxygenation (P/F ratio), and serum bicarbonate were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differential and lung wet-to-dry ratios were obtained. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxations were determined in isolated PA rings. PA interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured. LPS caused PH, decreased MAP, CO, and serum bicarbonate, and increased PA IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and iNOS mRNA. Sitaxsentan attenuated sepsis-induced PH and increased MAP. The P/F ratio, CO, serum bicarbonate, and BAL neutrophilia were not affected by sitaxsentan. In isolated PA rings, while not affecting phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction or endothelium-dependent relaxation, sitaxsentan dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced alterations in endothelium-independent relaxation. PA cytokine mRNA levels were not significantly attenuated by ETAR blockade. We conclude that ETAR blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced alterations in systemic and PA pressures without negatively affecting oxygenation. This protective effect appears to be mediated not by attenuation of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, acidosis, or alveolar inflammation but rather by improved endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. PMID:25006449

  17. Mapping of promoter sites utilized by T3 RNA polymerase on T3 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J N; McAllister, W T

    1980-01-01

    Promoter locations for the T3 RNA polymerase on the physical map of T3 DNa have been determined. Through the use of conditions favoring the synthesis of RNA from the class II region, an agarose-formaldehyde gel system which improves the resolution of high molecular weight RNAs, and template DNA that was cut by one of several restriction endonucleases prior to transcription, seventeen promoter locations for the T3 RNA polymerase have been mapped. Ten promoters have been identified in the class II region and one promotor has been identified in the class II region and one promotor has been identified in the early (class I) region. The locations of previously mapped class III promoters and the internal termination signal for the T3 RNA polymerase have been mapped more precisely than in previous reports. The resulting transcription map demonstrates a striking similarity to the transcription map of bacteriophage T7. Images PMID:7443532

  18. Phenolic antioxidants trolox and caffeic acid modulate the oxidized LDL-induced EGF-receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Vacaresse, Nathalie; Vieira, Otília; Robbesyn, Fanny; Jürgens, Günther; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) are thought to play a major role in atherosclerosis. OxLDL act in part through alteration of intracellular signalling pathways in cells of the vascular wall. We recently reported that the EGF receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway is activated by lipid peroxidation products (among them 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE) contained in oxLDL.The use of phenolic antioxidants, such as trolox, alpha-tocopherol, caffeic acid and tyrphostins A-25, A-46 or A-1478, showed that the oxLDL-induced EGFR activation is constituted by two separate components, the first (early) one being antioxidant-insensitive, the second (late) being antioxidant-sensitive.4-HNE derivatization of EGFR and EGFR activation induced by exogenous 4-HNE, suggest that the early (0.5?–?3?h) component of oxLDL-induced EGFR activation is mediated (at least in part) by 4-HNE (and possibly by other oxidized lipids). This early component is antioxidant-insensitive.The second component (4?–?5?h) of the oxLDL-induced EGFR activation is antioxidant-sensitive, since it is blocked by antioxidants such as trolox, caffeic acid or PDTC, which act by blocking the cellular oxidative stress (H2O2 generation) evoked by oxLDL. Conversely, exogenous H2O2 induced EGFR autophosphorylation (thus mimicking the second component) and was also inhibited by antioxidants. This effect is mediated in part through inhibition by oxidative stress of protein tyrosine phosphatases involved in EGFR dephosphorylation. PMID:11309250

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced adrenomedullin mediates cigarette smoke carcinogenicity in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Shankavaram, Uma T; Rao, Mahadev; Datrice, Nicole; Atay, Scott; Aparicio, Marta; Camphausen, Kevin A; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M; Chang, Han; Lin, Pinpin; Schrump, David S; Garantziotis, Stavros; Cuttitta, Frank; Zudaire, Enrique

    2012-11-15

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a leading cause of death worldwide. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is partially responsible for tobacco-induced carcinogenesis although the underlying mechanisms involving early effector genes have yet to be determined. Here, we report that adrenomedullin (ADM) significantly contributes to the carcinogenicity of tobacco-activated AHR. CS and AHR activating ligands induced ADM in vitro and in vivo but not in AHR-deficient fibroblasts and mice. Ectopic transfection of AHR rescued ADM expression in AHR(-/-) fibroblasts whereas AHR blockage with siRNA in wild type cells significantly decreased ADM expression. AHR regulates ADM expression through two intronic xenobiotic response elements located close to the start codon in the ADM gene. Using tissue microarrays we showed that ADM and AHR were coupregulated in lung tumor biopsies from smoker patients. Microarray meta-analysis of 304 independent microarray experiments showed that ADM is elevated in smokers and smokers with cancer. In addition, ADM coassociated with a subset of AHR responsive genes and efficiently differentiated patients with lung cancer from nonsmokers. In a novel preclinical model of CS-induced tumor progression, host exposure to CS extracts significantly elevated tumor ADM although systemic treatment with the ADM antagonist NSC16311 efficiently blocked tobacco-induced tumor growth. In conclusion, ADM significantly contributes the carcinogenic effect of AHR and tobacco combustion products. We suggest that therapeutics targeting the AHR/ADM axis may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of tobacco-induced pulmonary malignancies. PMID:22993405

  20. Crocidolite Induces Prostaglandin I2 Release Mediated by Vitronectin Receptor and Cyclooxygenase-2 in Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kevan

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) produces disruption of alveolar walls with loss of functionality and scar tissue accumulation. Asbestosis is the ILD produced by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. This study attempts to elucidate the role of lung epithelial cells in the generation of asbestos-induced ILD. When exposed to crocidolite LA-4 cells had a decrease in viability and an increase in the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 6-keto PGF1?, a PGI2 metabolite. PGI2 release was mediated by cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vitronectin receptor (VNR). When LA-4 cells were treated with VNR inhibitors, either RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide or VNR blocking antibody, a statistically significant decrease in PGI2 metabolite production was observed, but crocidolite-induced cytotoxicity was not prevented. These findings propose that crocidolite is coated by an RGD protein and binds VNR-inducing COX-2 expression and PGI2 release. Moreover, when LA-4 cells were exposed to crocidolite in the presence of reduced serum culture media, PGI2 production was prevented, and when bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was added, PGI2 production was rescued. Cytotoxicity did not occur, either in reduced serum culture media or when BALF was added. In conclusion, crocidolite requires the presence of an RGD protein coating the fibers to induce inflammation (PGI2 production) and crocidolite alone cannot induce cytotoxicity in lung cells. PMID:20155273

  1. Farnesoid X Receptor Ligand Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury by Enhancing Small Heterodimer Partner

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui; Choi, Hong Sang; Joo, Soo Yeon; Kim, In Jin; Kim, Chang Seong; Choi, Joon Seok; Ma, Seong Kwon; Lee, JongUn; Kim, Soo Wan

    2014-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is mainly expressed in liver, intestine and kidney. We investigated whether 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6ECDCA), a semisynthetic derivative of chenodeoxycholic aicd (CDCA, an FXR ligand), protects against kidney injury and modulates small heterodimer partner (SHP) in cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Cisplatin inhibited SHP protein expression in the kidney of cisplatin-treated mice and human proximal tubular (HK2) cells; this effect was counteracted by FXR ligand. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed the presence of tubular casts, obstructions and dilatations in cisplatin-induced kidney injury, which was attenuated by FXR ligand. FXR ligand also attenuated protein expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), Smad signaling, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process, inflammatory markers and cytokines, and apoptotic markers in cisplatin-treated mice. Cisplatin induced NF-?B activation in HK2 cell; this effect was attenuated by pretreatment with FXR ligand. In SHP knockdown by small interfering RNA, cisplatin-induced activation of TGF-?1, p-JNK and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was not attenuated, while SHP overexpression and FXR ligand inhibited expression of these proteins in cisplatin-pretreated HK2 cells. In conclusion, FXR ligand, 6ECDCA prevents cisplatin-induced kidney injury, the underlying mechanism of which may be associated with anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects through SHP induction. PMID:24475141

  2. Neurokinin B- and specific tachykinin NK3 receptor agonists-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Daoui, Samira; Naline, Emmanuel; Lagente, Vincent; Emonds-Alt, Xavier; Advenier, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether neurokinin B (NKB) or specific agonists of tachykinin NK3 receptors, [MePhe7]NKB and senktide, were able to induce airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pigs. The effects of these compounds were compared to those of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and the preferential tachykinin NK1 ([Sar9, Met(02)11]SP) or NK2 ([?Ala8]NKA (4-10)) receptor agonists.In guinea-pigs pretreated with phosphoramidon (10?4?M aerosol for 10?min) and salbutamol (8.7×10?3?M for 10?min), all tachykinins administrated by aerosol (3×10?7 to 10?4?M) induced airway hyperresponsiveness 24?h later, displayed by an exaggerated response to the bronchoconstrictor effect of acetylcholine (i.v.). The rank order of potency was: [?Ala8]NKA (4-10)>NKA=NKB=senktide=[MePhe7]NKB=[Sar9,Met(02)11]SP>SP.Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by [MePhe7]NKB was prevented by the tachykinin NK3 (SR 142801) and NK2 (SR 48968) receptor antagonists.Bronchoconstriction induced by tachykinins administered by aerosol was also determined. SP, NKA, NKB and the tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptor agonist induced bronchoconstriction. The rank order of potency was: NKA=[?Ala8]NKA (4-10)>NKB=SP=[Sar9,Met(02)11]SP. Under similar conditions, and for concentrations which induce airway hyperresponsiveness, senktide and [MePhe7]NKB failed to induce bronchoconstriction.It is concluded that tachykinin NK3-receptor stimulation can induce airway hyperresponsiveness and that this effect is not related to the ability of tachykinins to induce bronchoconstriction. PMID:10780997

  3. Lenalidomide Induces Lipid Raft Assembly to Enhance Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Kathy L.; Basiorka, Ashley A.; Johnson, Joseph O.; Clark, Justine; Caceres, Gisela; Padron, Eric; Heaton, Ruth; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Wei, Sheng; Sokol, Lubomir; List, Alan F.

    2014-01-01

    Anemia remains the principal management challenge for patients with lower risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). Despite appropriate cytokine production and cellular receptor display, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) signaling is impaired. We reported that EpoR signaling is dependent upon receptor localization within lipid raft microdomains, and that disruption of raft integrity abolishes signaling capacity. Here, we show that MDS erythroid progenitors display markedly diminished raft assembly and smaller raft aggregates compared to normal controls (p?=?0.005, raft number; p?=?0.023, raft size). Because lenalidomide triggers raft coalescence in T-lymphocytes promoting immune synapse formation, we assessed effects of lenalidomide on raft assembly in MDS erythroid precursors and UT7 cells. Lenalidomide treatment rapidly induced lipid raft formation accompanied by EpoR recruitment into raft fractions together with STAT5, JAK2, and Lyn kinase. The JAK2 phosphatase, CD45, a key negative regulator of EpoR signaling, was displaced from raft fractions. Lenalidomide treatment prior to Epo stimulation enhanced both JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in UT7 and primary MDS erythroid progenitors, accompanied by increased STAT5 DNA binding in UT7 cells, and increased erythroid colony forming capacity in both UT7 and primary cells. Raft induction was associated with F-actin polymerization, which was blocked by Rho kinase inhibition. These data indicate that deficient raft integrity impairs EpoR signaling, and provides a novel strategy to enhance EpoR signal fidelity in non-del(5q) MDS. PMID:25469886

  4. Assembly and Structural Properties of Gluoccorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor Ligand: Implications for Function

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay,K.; Ramagopal, U.; Mukhopadhaya, A.; Malashkevich, V.; DiLorenzo, T.; Brenowitz, M.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a recently identified member of the TNF family, binds to its receptor GITR on both effector and regulatory T cells and generates positive costimulatory signals implicated in a wide range of T cell functions. Structural analysis reveals that the human GITRL (hGITRL) ectodomain self-assembles into an atypical expanded homotrimer with sparse monomer-monomer interfaces. Consistent with the small intersubunit interfaces, hGITRL exhibits a relatively weak tendency to trimerize in solution and displays a monomer-trimer equilibrium not reported for other TNF family members. This unique assembly behavior has direct implications for hGITRL-GITR signaling, because enforced trimerization of soluble hGITRL ectodomain results in an {approx}100-fold increase in its receptor binding affinity and also in enhanced costimulatory activity. The apparent reduction in affinity that is the consequence of this dynamic equilibrium may represent a mechanism to realize the biologically optimal level of signaling through the hGITRL-GITR pathway, as opposed to the maximal achievable level.

  5. M98K-OPTN induces transferrin receptor degradation and RAB12-mediated autophagic death in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Kapil; Chalasani, Madhavi Latha Somaraju; Sudhakar, Cherukuri; Kumari, Asha; Radha, Vegesna; Swarup, Ghanshyam

    2013-04-01

    Mutations in the autophagy receptor OPTN/optineurin are associated with the pathogenesis of glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the underlying molecular basis is poorly understood. The OPTN variant, M98K has been described as a risk factor for normal tension glaucoma in some ethnic groups. Here, we examined the consequence of the M98K mutation in affecting cellular functions of OPTN. Overexpression of M98K-OPTN induced death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line), but not of other neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Enhanced levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, a post-translationally modified form of LC3, in M98K-OPTN-expressing cells and the inability of an LC3-binding-defective M98K variant of OPTN to induce cell death, suggested that autophagy contributes to cell death. Knockdown of Atg5 reduced M98K-induced death of RGC-5 cells, further supporting the involvement of autophagy. Overexpression of M98K-OPTN enhanced autophagosome formation and potentiated the delivery of transferrin receptor to autophagosomes for degradation resulting in reduced cellular transferrin receptor levels. Coexpression of transferrin receptor or supplementation of media with an iron donor reduced M98K-induced cell death. OPTN complexes with RAB12, a GTPase involved in vesicle trafficking, and M98K variant shows enhanced colocalization with RAB12. Knockdown of Rab12 increased transferrin receptor level and reduced M98K-induced cell death. RAB12 is present in autophagosomes and knockdown of Rab12 resulted in reduced formation of autolysosomes during starvation-induced autophagy, implicating a role for RAB12 in autophagy. These results also show that transferrin receptor degradation and autophagy play a crucial role in RGC-5 cell death induced by M98K variant of OPTN. PMID:23357852

  6. Glycine aggravates ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury through N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shiyana; Kaur, Tajpreet; Kaur, Anudeep; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of glycine in ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The AKI was induced in rats by occluding renal pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The AKI was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, plasma uric acid, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria. The oxidative stress in renal tissues was assessed by quantification of myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. Glycine (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to rats 30 min before subjecting to AKI. The glycinergic receptor blocker, strychnine (0.75 mg/kg i.p.), and glycine-binding site blocker at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, kynurenic acid (300 and 600 mg/kg i.p.), were used in the present study. The ischemia reperfusion induced AKI as witnessed by significant change in plasma, urinary, and tissue parameters employed in the present study. Glycine treatment increased ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI. The treatment with strychnine did not show any protection, whereas kynurenic acid ameliorated renal ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI. The results obtained in present study suggest that glycine increases ischemia reperfusion-induced renal damage through NMDA receptor agonism rather than strychnine-sensitive glycinergic receptors. Hence, it is concluded that glycine aggravates ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI. In addition, the activation of strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site of NMDA receptors is responsible for its renal-damaging effect rather than strychnine-sensitive glycinergic receptors. PMID:24740757

  7. The trifunctional protein mediates thyroid hormone receptor-dependent stimulation of mitochondria metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chocron, E Sandra; Sayre, Naomi L; Holstein, Deborah; Saelim, Nuttawut; Ibdah, Jamal A; Dong, Lily Q; Zhu, Xuguang; Cheng, Sheue-Yann; Lechleiter, James D

    2012-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that the thyroid hormone, T(3), acutely stimulates mitochondrial metabolism in a thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-dependent manner. T(3) has also recently been shown to stimulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here we report that TR-dependent stimulation of metabolism is mediated by the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), the enzyme responsible for long-chain FAO. Stimulation of FAO was significant in cells that expressed a nonnuclear amino terminus shortened TR isoform (sTR(43)) but not in adult fibroblasts cultured from mice deficient in both TR? and TR? isoforms (TR?(-/-)?(-/-)). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in MTP (MTP(-/-)) did not support T(3)-stimulated FAO. Inhibition of fatty-acid trafficking into mitochondria using the AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyrrazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidine (compound C) or the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 inhibitor etomoxir prevented T(3)-stimulated FAO. However, T(3) treatment could increase FAO when AMP-activated protein kinase was maximally activated, indicating an alternate mechanism of T(3)-stimulated FAO exists, even when trafficking is presumably high. MTP? protein levels and higher molecular weight complexes of MTP subunits were increased by T(3) treatment. We suggest that T(3)-induced increases in mitochondrial metabolism are at least in part mediated by a T(3)-shortened TR isoform-dependent stabilization of the MTP complex, which appears to lower MTP subunit turnover. PMID:22570332

  8. Pitavastatin Inhibits Remnant Lipoprotein-Induced Macrophage Foam Cell Formation Through ApoB48 Receptor-Dependent Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Kawakami; Mariko Tani; Tsuyoshi Chiba; Katsumasa Yui; Shohei Shinozaki; Katsuyuki Nakajima; Akira Tanaka; Kentaro Shimokado; Masayuki Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    Objective—Atherogenic remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) are known to induce foam cell formation in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. We examined the involvement of apoB48 receptor (apoB48R), a novel receptor for RLPs, in that process in vitro and its potential regulation by pitavastatin. Methods and Results—THP-1 macrophages were incubated in the presence of RLPs (20 mg cholesterol\\/dL, 24 hours) isolated from

  9. Cocaine-induced HIV1 expression in microglia involves sigma-1 receptors and transforming growth factor-?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genya Gekker; Shuxian Hu; Wen S. Sheng; R. Bryan Rock; James R. Lokensgard; Phillip K. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    The neuropharmacological properties of cocaine are known to be associated with the activation of sigma-1 receptors. Cocaine also has been shown to alter both cytokine production and HIV-1 expression in mononuclear phagocytes, including microglial cells. This study tested the hypothesis that sigma-1 receptors and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 are involved in cocaine-induced up-regulation of HIV-1 expression in microglial cell cultures.

  10. Imbalance of neurotrophin receptor isoforms TrkB-FL\\/TrkB-T1 induces neuronal death in excitotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ó G Vidaurre; S Gascón; R Deogracias; M Sobrado; E Cuadrado; J Montaner; Á Rodríguez-Peña; M Díaz-Guerra

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neuronal death in cerebral ischemia is required for the development of stroke therapies. Here we analyze the contribution of the tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) neurotrophin receptor to excitotoxicity, a primary pathological mechanism in ischemia, which is induced by overstimulation of glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type. We demonstrate a significant modification of TrkB

  11. Icilin induces a hyperthermia in rats that is dependent on nitric oxide production and NMDA receptor activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Ding; Teresa Gomez; Jennifer L. Werkheiser; Alan Cowan; Scott M. Rawls

    2008-01-01

    Icilin (AG-3-5) is a cold-inducing agent that activates the transient receptor potential channels TRPM8 and TRPA1. Both channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of ion channels and are activated by cold. Despite the key role of cold-activated TRPM8 and TRPA1 channels in temperature sensation and other physiological processes, the significance of these channels in thermoregulation in

  12. The relationship of the expression of estrogen receptor in cartilage cell and osteoarthritis induced by bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dai Guofeng; Li Jianmin; Liu Xinyu; Liu Qiaohui; Liu Chunmei

    2005-01-01

    Summary  To investigate the estrogen receptor(ER) expression in cartilage cell in the development of osteoarthritis induced by bilateral\\u000a ovariectomy in guinea pig and to find their relationship. 30 two-month-old female guinea pigs were randomly divided into two\\u000a groups (n=15 each): sham operation (control) group and ovariectomized group (OVX); Scanning electorne microscope (SEM) and transmission\\u000a electron microscope (TEM) were obtained to analysis

  13. The Effects of Glutamate and GABA Receptor Antagonists on Nicotine-induced Neurotransmitter Changes in Cognitive Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fallon; E. Shearman; H. Sershen; A. Lajtha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the effects of glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists on nicotine-induced neurotransmitter\\u000a changes in the hippocampal (dorsal and ventral) and cortical (medial temporal and prefrontal) brain areas of conscious freely\\u000a moving rats via microdialysis. Both the antagonists and nicotine were administered intracerebrally. The antagonists tested\\u000a were NMDA, AMPA–kainate, and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype antagonists (MK801,

  14. Colistin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice Involves the Mitochondrial, Death Receptor, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Jichang; Tang, Shusheng

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the dose-limiting factor for colistin, but the exact mechanism is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Mice were intravenously administered 7.5 or 15 mg of colistin/kg of body weight/day (via a 3-min infusion and divided into two doses) for 7 days. Renal function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were measured. Representative biomarkers involved in the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways were investigated, and the key markers involved in apoptosis and autophagy were examined. After 7-day colistin treatment, significant increase was observed with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and malondialdehyde, while activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased in the kidneys. Acute tubular necrosis and mitochondrial dysfunction were detected, and colistin-induced apoptosis was characterized by DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), increase of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and activation of caspases (caspase-8, -9, and -3). It was evident that colistin-induced apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of cytochrome C [cytC] and Bax), death receptor pathway (upregulation of Fas, FasL, and Fas-associated death domain [FADD]), and endoplasmic reticulum pathway (upregulation of Grp78/Bip, ATF6, GADD153/CHOP, and caspase-12). In the 15-mg/kg/day colistin group, expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) significantly increased (P < 0.05), while in the 7.5-mg/kg/day colistin group, a large number of autophagolysosomes and classic autophagy were observed. Western blot results of Beclin-1 and LC3B indicated that autophagy may play a protective role in colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that all three major apoptosis pathways and autophagy are involved in colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24798292

  15. Theoretical evaluation of antiemetic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for prevention of vomiting induced by cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Yokoyama, Haruko; Takayanagi, Risa; Yoshimoto, Koichi; Nakajima, Akihiro; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Iwase, Osamu; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2015-03-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are widely used as antiemetic agents in clinical setting, of which palonosetron, with a long elimination half life (t 1/2), has recently become available. It is important to evaluate the concentration of serotonin when investigating the antiemetic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, as those effects are not based solely on the t 1/2 value. We theoretically evaluated the antiemetic effects of three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (granisetron, azasetron, palonosetron) on cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting by estimating the time course of the 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin. We estimated the 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin in the small intestine, based on the time course of plasma concentration of each 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and the time course of concentration of serotonin near the 5-HT3 receptor in the small intestine after administration of cisplatin. The antiemetic effect of each 5-HT3 receptor antagonist was evaluated based on the normal level of 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin. Our results suggest that an adequate antiemetic effect will be provided when a dose of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin is given to patients along with any single administration of granisetron, azasetron, or palonosetron at a usual dose. On the other hand, the 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin was found to be significantly lower than normal for several days after administration of palonosetron, as compared to granisetron and azasetron, indicating that constipation may be induced. Our results show that granisetron, azasetron, and palonosetron each have an adequate antiemetic effect after administration of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin. PMID:24470169

  16. Tau phosphorylation and tau mislocalization mediate soluble A? oligomer-induced AMPA glutamate receptor signaling deficits

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric C.; Teravskis, Peter J.; Dummer, Benjamin W.; Zhao, Xiaohui; Huganir, Richard L.; Liao, Dezhi

    2014-01-01

    In our previous studies, phosphorylation-dependent tau mislocalization to dendritic spines resulted in early cognitive and synaptic deficits. It is well known that amyloid beta (A?) oligomers cause synaptic dysfunction by inducing calcineurin-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR) internalization. However, it is unknown whether A?-induced synaptic deficits depend upon tau phosphorylation. It is also unknown whether changes in tau can cause calcineurin-dependent loss of AMPARs in synapses. Here, we show that tau mislocalizes to dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons from APPSwe Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-transgenenic mice and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons treated with soluble A? oligomers. Interestingly, A? treatment also impairs synaptic function by decreasing the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). The above tau mislocalization and A?-induced synaptic impairment are both diminished by the expression of AP tau, indicating that these events require tau phosphorylation. The phosphatase activity of calcineurin is important for AMPAR internalization via dephosphorylation of GluA1 residue S845. The effects of A? oligomers on mEPSCs are blocked by the calcineurin inhibitor FK506. A?-induced loss of AMPARs is diminished in neurons from knock-in mice expressing S845A mutant GluA1 AMPA glutamate receptor subunits. This finding suggests that changes in phosphorylation state at S845 are involved in this pathogenic cascade. Furthermore, FK506 rescues deficits in surface AMPAR clustering on dendritic spines in neurons cultured from transgenic mice expressing P301L tau proteins. Together, our results support the role of tau and calcineurin as two intermediate signaling molecules between A? initiation and eventual synaptic dysfunction early in AD pathogenesis. PMID:24713000

  17. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates resistance to apoptosis induced in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Vogel, Helena; Li, Wen; Ito, Tomohiro; Sweeney, Colleen; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Matsumura, Fumio; Vogel, Christoph F A

    2015-05-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known as a ligand binding transcription factor regulating various biological effects. Previously we have shown that long-term exposure to estrogen in breast cancer cells caused not only down regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) but also overexpression of AhR. The AhR interacts with several cell signaling pathways associated with induction of tyrosine kinases, cytokines and growth factors which may support the survival roles of AhR escaping from apoptosis elicited by a variety of apoptosis inducing agents in breast cancer. In this study, we studied the anti-apoptotic role of AhR in different breast cancer cells when apoptosis was induced by exposure to UV light and chemotherapeutic agents. Activation of AhR by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in AhR overexpressing breast cancer cells effectively suppressed the apoptotic response induced by UV-irradiation, doxorubicin, lapatinib and paclitaxel. The anti-apoptotic response of TCDD was uniformly antagonized by the treatment with 3'methoxy-4'nitroflavone (MNF), a specific antagonist of AhR. TCDD's survival action of apoptosis was accompanied with the induction of well-known inflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NF-?B subunit RelB. Moreover, TCDD increased the activity of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), which metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine (Kyn) and mediates tumor immunity. Kyn also acts as an AhR ligand like TCDD, and kyn induced an anti-apoptotic response in breast cancer cells. Accordingly, our present study suggests that AhR plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer via the suppression of apoptosis, and provides an idea that the use of AhR antagonists with chemotherapeutic agents may effectively synergize the elimination of breast cancer cells. PMID:25987214

  18. Role of Fibrinogen and Protease-Activated Receptors in Acute Xenobiotic-Induced Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Luyendyk, James P.; Mackman, Nigel; Sullivan, Bradley P.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)–induced cholestatic liver injury causes tissue factor (TF)–dependent coagulation in mice, and TF deficiency reduces ANIT-induced liver injury. However, the mechanism whereby TF contributes to hepatotoxicity in this model is not known. Utilizing pharmacological and genetic strategies, we evaluated the contribution of fibrinogen and two distinct receptors for thrombin, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and PAR-4, in a model of acute ANIT hepatotoxicity. ANIT administration (60 mg/kg, po) caused a marked induction of the genes encoding the three fibrinogen chains (?, ?, and ?) in liver, an increase in plasma fibrinogen, and concurrent deposition of thrombin-cleaved fibrin in liver. Partial depletion of circulating fibrinogen with ancrod did not impact ANIT hepatotoxicity. However, complete fibrin(ogen) deficiency significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase activity and hepatocellular necrosis in ANIT-treated mice. ANIT-induced hepatocellular necrosis was similar in PAR-1?/? mice compared with PAR-1+/+ mice. Interestingly, the progression of ANIT-induced hepatocellular necrosis was significantly reduced in PAR-4?/? mice and by administration of an inhibitory PAR-4 pepducin (P4Pal-10, 0.5 mg/kg, sc) to wild-type mice 8 h after ANIT treatment. Interestingly, a distinct lesion, parenchymal-type peliosis, was also observed in PAR-4?/? mice treated with ANIT and in mice that were given P4Pal-10 prior to ANIT administration. The results suggest that fibrin(ogen), but not PAR-1, contributes to the progression of ANIT hepatotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the data suggest a dual role for PAR-4 in ANIT hepatotoxicity, both mediating an early protection against peliosis and contributing to the progression of hepatocellular necrosis. PMID:20974703

  19. Role of fibrinogen and protease-activated receptors in acute xenobiotic-induced cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Luyendyk, James P; Mackman, Nigel; Sullivan, Bradley P

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestatic liver injury causes tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation in mice, and TF deficiency reduces ANIT-induced liver injury. However, the mechanism whereby TF contributes to hepatotoxicity in this model is not known. Utilizing pharmacological and genetic strategies, we evaluated the contribution of fibrinogen and two distinct receptors for thrombin, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and PAR-4, in a model of acute ANIT hepatotoxicity. ANIT administration (60 mg/kg, po) caused a marked induction of the genes encoding the three fibrinogen chains (?, ?, and ?) in liver, an increase in plasma fibrinogen, and concurrent deposition of thrombin-cleaved fibrin in liver. Partial depletion of circulating fibrinogen with ancrod did not impact ANIT hepatotoxicity. However, complete fibrin(ogen) deficiency significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase activity and hepatocellular necrosis in ANIT-treated mice. ANIT-induced hepatocellular necrosis was similar in PAR-1(-/-) mice compared with PAR-1(+/+) mice. Interestingly, the progression of ANIT-induced hepatocellular necrosis was significantly reduced in PAR-4(-/-) mice and by administration of an inhibitory PAR-4 pepducin (P4Pal-10, 0.5 mg/kg, sc) to wild-type mice 8 h after ANIT treatment. Interestingly, a distinct lesion, parenchymal-type peliosis, was also observed in PAR-4(-/-) mice treated with ANIT and in mice that were given P4Pal-10 prior to ANIT administration. The results suggest that fibrin(ogen), but not PAR-1, contributes to the progression of ANIT hepatotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the data suggest a dual role for PAR-4 in ANIT hepatotoxicity, both mediating an early protection against peliosis and contributing to the progression of hepatocellular necrosis. PMID:20974703

  20. The blockage of the human transferrin receptor by a monoclonal antibody, EA.3, induces growth inhibition in leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Valentini, M; Gregorini, A; Bartolucci, M; Porcellini, A; Papa, S

    1994-01-01

    In our program to produce monoclonal antibodies against hemopoietic functional antigens we have obtained an hybridoma cell line EA.3 reacting with human transferrin receptor. This monoclonal antibody is an IgM that displays "in vitro" antiproliferative activity against leukemic cells due to its competition with transferrin on the receptor. Cell cytotoxicity was demonstrated either with the blockage of BrdU incorporation in HL-60 cells and with leukemic CFU inhibition. In contrast, K562 cells were insensitive to the blockage of the transferrin receptor induced by this MAb. PMID:8547712

  1. General Strategy to Introduce pH-Induced Allostery in DNA-Based Receptors to Achieve Controlled Release of Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by naturally occurring pH-regulated receptors, here we propose a rational approach to introduce pH-induced allostery into a wide range of DNA-based receptors. To demonstrate this we re-engineered two model DNA-based probes, a molecular beacon and a cocaine-binding aptamer, by introducing in their sequence a pH-dependent domain. We demonstrate here that we can finely tune the affinity of these model receptors and control the load/release of their specific target molecule by a simple pH change. PMID:26053894

  2. General Strategy to Introduce pH-Induced Allostery in DNA-Based Receptors to Achieve Controlled Release of Ligands.

    PubMed

    Porchetta, Alessandro; Idili, Andrea; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by naturally occurring pH-regulated receptors, here we propose a rational approach to introduce pH-induced allostery into a wide range of DNA-based receptors. To demonstrate this we re-engineered two model DNA-based probes, a molecular beacon and a cocaine-binding aptamer, by introducing in their sequence a pH-dependent domain. We demonstrate here that we can finely tune the affinity of these model receptors and control the load/release of their specific target molecule by a simple pH change. PMID:26053894

  3. Evidence for involvement of central vasopressin V1b and V2 receptors in stress-induced baroreflex desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovi?-Smiljani?, Sanja; Šarenac, Olivera; Lozi?-Djuri?, Maja; Murphy, David; Japundži?-Žigon, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose It is well recognized that vasopressin modulates the neurogenic control of the circulation. Here, we report the central mechanisms by which vasopressin modulates cardiovascular response to stress induced by immobilization. Experimental Approach Experiments were performed in conscious male Wistar rats equipped with radiotelemetric device for continuous measurement of haemodynamic parameters: systolic and diastolic BP and heart rate (HR). The functioning of the spontaneous baro-receptor reflex (BRR) was evaluated using the sequence method and the following parameters were evaluated: BRR sensitivity (BRS) and BRR effectiveness index (BEI). Key Results Under baseline physiological conditions intracerebroventricular injection of 100 and 500 ng of selective non-peptide V1a or V1b or V2 receptor antagonist did not modify BP, HR and BRR. Rats exposed to 15 min long stress by immobilization exhibited increase of BP, HR, reduction of BRS and no change in BEI. Pretreatment of rats with V1a receptor antagonist did not modulate the BP, HR, BRS and BEI response to stress. Pretreatment of rats with V1b receptor and V2 receptor antagonist, at both doses, prevented BRR desensitization and tachycardia, but failed to modulate stress-induced hypertension. Conclusions and Implications Vasopressin by the stimulation of central V1b- and V2-like receptors mediates stress-induced tachycardia and BRR desensitization. If these mechanisms are involved, BRR desensitization in heart failure and hypertension associated with poor outcome, they could be considered as novel targets for cardiovascular drug development. PMID:23488898

  4. ?3-Adrenergic receptor antagonist improves exercise performance in pacing-induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Satoshi; Cheng, Heng-Jie; Morimoto, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Han, Qing-Hua; Little, William C; Cheng, Che Ping

    2013-09-15

    In heart failure (HF), the impaired left ventricular (LV) arterial coupling and diastolic dysfunction present at rest are exacerbated during exercise. We have previously shown that in HF at rest stimulation of ?3-adrenergic receptors by endogenous catecholamine depresses LV contraction and relaxation. ?3-Adrenergic receptors are activated at higher concentrations of catecholamine. Thus exercise may cause increased stimulation of cardiac ?3-adrenergic receptors and contribute to this abnormal response. We assessed the effect of L-748,337 (50 ?g/kg iv), a selective ?3-adrenergic receptor antagonist (?3-ANT), on LV dynamics during exercise in 12 chronically instrumented dogs with pacing-induced HF. Compared with HF at rest, exercise increased LV end-systolic pressure (PES), minimum LV pressure (LVPmin), and the time constant of LV relaxation (?) with an upward shift of early diastolic portion of LV pressure-volume loop. LV contractility decreased and arterial elastance (EA) increased. LV arterial coupling (EES/EA) (0.40 vs. 0.51) was impaired. Compared with exercise in HF preparation, exercise after ?3-ANT caused similar increases in heart rate and PES but significantly decreased ? (34.9 vs. 38.3 ms) and LVPmin with a downward shift of the early diastolic portion of LV pressure-volume loop and further augmented dV/dtmax. Both EES and EES/EA (0.68 vs. 0.40) were increased. LV mechanical efficiency improved from 0.39 to 0.53. In conclusion, after HF, ?3-ANT improves LV diastolic filling; increases LV contractility, LV arterial coupling, and mechanical efficiency; and improves exercise performance. PMID:23873794

  5. Impaired glutamine metabolism in NMDA receptor hypofunction induced by MK801.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eiliv; Kondziella, Daniel; Håberg, Asta; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2005-09-01

    Paradoxically, glutamate receptor antagonists have neurotoxic and psychotogenic properties in addition to their neuroprotective potential during excessive glutamate release. In the present study the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK801 was used to examine glial-neuronal interactions in NMDA receptor hypofunction. Rats were given a subanesthetic dose of MK801 together with [1-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]acetate, and brains were removed 20 min later. Analyses of extracts from cingulate, retrosplenial plus middle frontal cortices (CRFC) and temporal lobe were performed using HPLC and 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hypofunction of the NMDA receptor induced similar changes in both brain areas investigated; however, the changes were most pronounced in the temporal lobe. Generally, only labeling from [1-13C]glucose was affected by MK801. In CRFC and temporal lobe amounts of both labeled and unlabeled glutamine were increased, whereas those of aspartate were decreased. In the CRFC the decrease in labeling of aspartate was greater than the decrease in concentration, leading to decreased 13C enrichment. In temporal lobe, not in CRFC, increased concentrations of glutamate, GABA, succinate, glutathione and inositol were detected together with increased labeling of GABA and succinate from [1-13C]glucose. 13C Enrichment was decreased in glutamate and increased in succinate. The results point towards a disturbance in glutamate-glutamine cycling and thus interaction between neurons and glia, since labeling of glutamate and glutamine from glucose was affected differently. PMID:16045441

  6. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) inhibits pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation and protects against acetaminophen- and amiodarone-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Ping; Cheng, Ching-Hao; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Shih-Yu; Hung, Dong-Zong; Chen, Jih-Jung; Wan, Lei; Ma, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Cing-Yu; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Antagonizing the action of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) may have important clinical implications for preventing inducer-drug interactions and improving therapeutic efficacy. We identified a widely distributed isothiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which acts as an effective antagonist of the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3). HepG2 cells were used to assay reporter function, mRNA levels, and protein expression. Catalytic activities of the PXR and CAR target genes, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, respectively, were also assessed in differentiated HepaRG cells. Protective effects of AITC on rifampin-induced cytotoxicity were observed, and transient transfection assays showed that AITC was able to effectively attenuate the agonist effects of rifampin and CITCO on human PXR and CAR activity, respectively. AITC-mediated reduction in the transcriptional activity of PXR and CAR correlated well with the suppression of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 expression in HepG2 cells, which reflected the reduced catalytic activities of both of these genes following AITC treatment in differentiated HepaRG cells. Furthermore, AITC disrupts the co-regulations of PXR with several important co-regulators. Furthermore, the antagonist effect of AITC against PXR was found in HepaRG cells upon addition of acetaminophen (APAP) and amiodarone, indicating that AITC protects cells from drug-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our results show that AITC inhibits the transactivation effects of PXR and CAR and reduces the expression and function of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. Additionally, AITC reversed the cytotoxic effects of APAP and amiodarone induced by PXR ligand. Results from this study suggest that AITC could be a powerful agent for reducing potentially dangerous interactions between transcriptional inducers of CYP enzymes and therapeutic drugs. PMID:25069801

  7. NMDA Receptor Stimulation Induces Reversible Fission of the Neuronal Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Kucharz, Krzysztof; Krogh, Morten; Ng, Ai Na; Toresson, Håkan

    2009-01-01

    With few exceptions the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is considered a continuous system of endomembranes within which proteins and ions can move. We have studied dynamic structural changes of the ER in hippocampal neurons in primary culture and organotypic slices. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to quantify and model ER structural dynamics. Ultrastructure was assessed by electron microscopy. In live cell imaging experiments we found that, under basal conditions, the ER of neuronal soma and dendrites was continuous. The smooth and uninterrupted appearance of the ER changed dramatically after glutamate stimulation. The ER fragmented into isolated vesicles in a rapid fission reaction that occurred prior to overt signs of neuronal damage. ER fission was found to be independent of ER calcium levels. Apart from glutamate, the calcium ionophore ionomycin was able to induce ER fission. The N-methyl, D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 inhibited ER fission induced by glutamate as well as by ionomycin. Fission was not blocked by either ifenprodil or kinase inhibitors. Interestingly, sub-lethal NMDA receptor stimulation caused rapid ER fission followed by fusion. Hence, ER fission is not strictly associated with cellular damage or death. Our results thus demonstrate that neuronal ER structure is dynamically regulated with important consequences for protein mobility and ER luminal calcium tunneling. PMID:19381304

  8. Infusion of oxytocin induces successful delivery in prostanoid FP-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshida, Masahide; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Kimura, Tadashi; Tonomura, Yutaka; Takayanagi, Yuki; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2008-02-13

    The dramatic increase of oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) in the myometrium as well as circulating progesterone withdrawal has been thought to be the most important factor in the induction and accomplishment of parturition since delivery fails in prostaglandin F2alpha receptor (FP) knockout (FP KO) mice. The expression levels of OTR mRNA/protein were not dramatically increased in the near-term uteri of FP KO mice. However, OT-induced myometrial contractions and the concentration-response curves in FP KO in vitro were almost similar to those in wild-type (WT) mice. OT-infusion (0.3 U/day) enabled FP KO mice to experience successful delivery, and furthermore the duration until the onset was hastened by a higher dose of OT (3 U/day). The plasma progesterone levels of FP KO females were maintained at high levels, but decreased during labor by OT-infusion (3 U/day). These results suggest that OT has potentials to induce strong myometrial contractions in uterus with low expression levels of OTR and luteolysis in ovary, which enabled FP KO females to undergo successful delivery. PMID:18083301

  9. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis through the receptor, Gpr44.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Amanda M; Loy, Dorothy E; Lawson, John A; Katseff, Adiya S; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Garza, Luis A

    2013-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are key inflammatory mediators involved in wound healing and regulating hair growth; however, their role in skin regeneration after injury is unknown. Using wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN) as a marker of skin regeneration, we hypothesized that PGD2 decreases follicle neogenesis. PGE2 and PGD2 were elevated early and late, respectively, during wound healing. The levels of WIHN, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds), and its product PGD2 each varied significantly among background strains of mice after wounding, and all correlated such that the highest Ptgds and PGD2 levels were associated with the lowest amount of regeneration. In addition, an alternatively spliced transcript variant of Ptgds missing exon 3 correlated with high regeneration in mice. Exogenous application of PGD2 decreased WIHN in wild-type mice, and PGD2 receptor Gpr44-null mice showed increased WIHN compared with strain-matched control mice. Furthermore, Gpr44-null mice were resistant to PGD2-induced inhibition of follicle neogenesis. In all, these findings demonstrate that PGD2 inhibits hair follicle regeneration through the Gpr44 receptor and imply that inhibition of PGD2 production or Gpr44 signaling will promote skin regeneration. PMID:23190891

  10. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis through the receptor, Gpr44

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Amanda M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Lawson, John A.; Katseff, Adiya S.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Garza, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are key inflammatory mediators involved in wound healing and regulating hair growth; however, their role in skin regeneration after injury is unknown. Using wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN) as a marker of skin regeneration, we hypothesized that PGD2 decreases follicle neogenesis. PGE2 and PGD2 were elevated early and late respectively during wound healing. The levels of WIHN, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) and its product PGD2 each varied significantly among background strains of mice after wounding and all correlated such that the highest Ptgds and PGD2 levels were associated with the lowest amount of regeneration. Additionally, an alternatively spliced transcript variant of Ptgds missing exon 3 correlated with high regeneration in mice. Exogenous application of PGD2 decreased WIHN in wild type mice and PGD2 receptor Gpr44 null mice showed increased WIHN compared to strain-matched control mice. Furthermore, Gpr44 null mice were resistant to PGD2-induced inhibition of follicle neogenesis. In all, these findings demonstrate that PGD2 inhibits hair follicle regeneration through the Gpr44 receptor and imply that inhibition of PGD2 production or Gpr44 signaling will promote skin regeneration. PMID:23190891

  11. Anandamide, Acting via CB2 Receptors, Alleviates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Rat Primary Microglial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Natalia; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Mika, Joanna; Przewlocka, Barbara; Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation is a polarized process divided into potentially neuroprotective phenotype M2 and neurotoxic phenotype M1, predominant during chronic neuroinflammation. Endocannabinoid system provides an attractive target to control the balance between microglial phenotypes. Anandamide as an immune modulator in the central nervous system acts via not only cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) but also other targets (e.g., GPR18/GPR55). We studied the effect of anandamide on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in rat primary microglial cultures. Microglial activation was assessed based on nitric oxide (NO) production. Analysis of mRNA was conducted for M1 and M2 phenotype markers possibly affected by the treatment. Our results showed that lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release in microglia was significantly attenuated, with concomitant downregulation of M1 phenotypic markers, after pretreatment with anandamide. This effect was not sensitive to CB1 or GPR18/GPR55 antagonism. Administration of CB2 antagonist partially abolished the effects of anandamide on microglia. Interestingly, administration of a GPR18/GPR55 antagonist by itself suppressed NO release. In summary, we showed that the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the management of neuroinflammation by dampening the activation of an M1 phenotype. This effect was primarily controlled by the CB2 receptor, although functional cross talk with GPR18/GPR55 may occur. PMID:26090232

  12. Adenosine receptor-induced cyclic AMP generation and inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine release in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, J A; Hill, S J; Alexander, S P; Rubin, P C; Horn, E H

    1995-01-01

    1. We have assessed the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on collagen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release and cyclic AMP generation in human platelets. 2. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and CGS 21680 elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP with mean EC50 values of 2678 and 980 nM, respectively. The maximal response to CGS 21680 was approximately half that of the response to 10 microM NECA. 3. NECA and CGS 21680 inhibited collagen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine release with mean EC50 values of 960 and 210 nM, respectively. The maximal response to CGS 21680 was approximately 25% of the response to 10 microM NECA. 4. The A1/A2a-selective adenosine receptor antagonist PD 115,199 was more potent as an inhibitor of NECA-elicited responses than the A1-selective antagonist DPCPX with calculated Ki values of 22-32 nM and > 10 microM, respectively. 5. In the presence of a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the effects of CGS 21680 on cyclic AMP accumulation and 5-HT release were enhanced to levels similar to those elicited by 10 microM NECA. In the absence of phosphodiesterase inhibition, CGS 21680 did not antagonise the effects of NECA. Furthermore, endogenous adenosine did not contribute to the effects of CGS 21680 when phosphodiesterase was inhibited. 6. We conclude that an A2a adenosine receptor appears to be involved in the NECA-elicited increases in cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of 5-HT release in human platelets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8527267

  13. Dibutyltin Disrupts Glucocorticoid Receptor Function and Impairs Glucocorticoid-Induced Suppression of Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Gumy, Christel; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Dzyakanchuk, Anna A.; Kratschmar, Denise V.; Baker, Michael E.; Odermatt, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background Organotins are highly toxic and widely distributed environmental chemicals. Dibutyltin (DBT) is used as stabilizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride plastics, and it is also the major metabolite formed from tributyltin (TBT) in vivo. DBT is immunotoxic, however, the responsible targets remain to be defined. Due to the importance of glucocorticoids in immune-modulation, we investigated whether DBT could interfere with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function. Methodology We used HEK-293 cells transiently transfected with human GR as well as rat H4IIE hepatoma cells and native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages expressing endogenous receptor to study organotin effects on GR function. Docking of organotins was used to investigate the binding mechanism. Principal Findings We found that nanomolar concentrations of DBT, but not other organotins tested, inhibit ligand binding to GR and its transcriptional activity. Docking analysis indicated that DBT inhibits GR activation allosterically by inserting into a site close to the steroid-binding pocket, which disrupts a key interaction between the A-ring of the glucocorticoid and the GR. DBT inhibited glucocorticoid-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and tyrosine-aminotransferase (TAT) and abolished the glucocorticoid-mediated transrepression of TNF-?-induced NF-?B activity. Moreover, DBT abrogated the glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-? production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages. Conclusions DBT inhibits ligand binding to GR and subsequent activation of the receptor. By blocking GR activation, DBT may disturb metabolic functions and modulation of the immune system, providing an explanation for some of the toxic effects of this organotin. PMID:18958157

  14. Reversal of pancreatitis-induced pain by an orally available, small molecule interleukin-6 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Vardanyan, Marina; Melemedjian, Ohannes K; Price, Theodore J; Ossipov, Michael H.; Lai, Josephine; Roberts, Ed; Boos, Terrence L.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C; Porreca, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic pain resulting from chronic inflammation of the pancreas is often intractable and clinically difficult to manage with available analgesics reflecting the need for more effective therapies. Mechanisms underlying pancreatitis pain are not well understood. Here, the possibility that interleukin-6 (IL-6) may promote pancreatitis pain was investigated with TB-2-081 (3-O-formyl-20R,21-epoxyresibufogenin, EBRF), a small molecule IL-6 receptor antagonist that was semi-synthetically derived from natural sources. The potential activity and mechanism of TB-2-081 was investigated following induction of persistent pancreatitis using dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) in rats. TB-2-081 displaces binding of IL-6 to the human recombinant soluble IL-6 receptor with apparent high affinity and inhibits IL-6 mediated cell growth. Systemic or oral, but not intrathecal, administration of TB-2-081 reversed DBTC-induced abdominal hypersensitivity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-6 levels were significantly upregulated in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats with pancreatitis on day 6 after DBTC injection. IL-6 enhanced capsaicin-evoked release of calcitonin gene related peptide from cultured DRG neurons was blocked by TB-2-081. Our data demonstrate that TB-2-081 acts as a systemically available and orally active small molecule IL-6 receptor antagonist. TB-2-081 effectively reduces pancreatitis-induced pain through peripheral mechanisms that are likely due to (a) increased expression of IL-6 in the DRG and (b) IL-6-mediated sensitization of nociceptive neurons. The activity of TB-2-081 implicates an important role for IL-6 in sustaining pancreatitis pain. Strategies targeting IL-6 actions through small molecule antagonists may offer novel approaches to improve therapy of chronic pancreatitis and other chronic pain states. PMID:20599324

  15. RNA interference targeted to multiple P2X receptor subtypes attenuates zinc-induced calcium entry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lihua; Zsembery, Akos; Schwiebert, Erik M

    2005-08-01

    A postulated therapeutic avenue in cystic fibrosis (CF) is activation of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels via stimulation of Ca(2+) entry from extracellular solutions independent of CFTR functional status. We have shown that extracellular zinc and ATP induce a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) in human airway epithelial cells that translates into stimulation of sustained secretory Cl(-) transport in non-CF and CF human and mouse airway epithelial cells, cell monolayers, and nasal mucosa. On the basis of these studies, the Ca(2+) entry channels most likely involved were P2X purinergic receptor channels. In the present study, molecular and biochemical data show coexpression of P2X(4), P2X(5), and P2X(6) subtypes in non-CF (16HBE14o(-)) and CF (IB3-1) human bronchial epithelial cells. Other P2X receptor Ca(2+) entry channel subtypes are expressed rarely or not at all in airway epithelia, epithelial cell models from other CF-relevant tissues, or vascular endothelia. Novel transient lipid transfection-mediated delivery of small interference RNA fragments specific to P2X(4) and P2X(6) (but not P2X(5)) into IB3-1 CF human airway epithelial cells inhibited extracellular zinc- and ATP-induced Ca(2+) entry markedly in fura-2 Ca(2+) measurements and "knocked down" protein by >65%. These data suggest that multiple P2X receptor Ca(2+) entry channel subtypes are expressed in airway epithelia. P2X(4) and P2X(6) may coassemble on the airway surface as targets for possible therapeutics for CF independent of CFTR genotype. PMID:15800050

  16. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor 1 suppresses nicotinic acid-induced vasodilation in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Wu, Tsuei-Ju; Wu, Kenneth K; Sturino, Claudio; Metters, Kathleen; Gottesdiener, Keith; Wright, Samuel D; Wang, Zhaoyin; O'Neill, Gary; Lai, Eseng; Waters, M Gerard

    2006-04-25

    Nicotinic acid (NA) is commonly used to treat dyslipidemia, but it elicits an adverse effect, termed flushing, which consists of cutaneous vasodilation with associated discomfort. An animal model of NA-induced flushing has been established in mice. As in humans, NA stimulated vasodilation in a dose-dependent manner, was associated with an increase of the vasodilatory prostaglandin (PG) D2 in plasma and could be blocked by pretreatment with aspirin. Two PGD2 receptors have been identified: PGD2 receptor 1 (DP1, also called DP) and PGD2 receptor 2 (DP2, sometimes termed CRTH2). DP2 does not mediate NA-induced vasodilation; the DP2-specific agonist DK-PGD2 (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGD2) did not induce cutaneous vasodilation, and DP2-/- mice had a normal vasodilatory response to NA. By contrast, BW245C, a DP1-selective agonist, induced vasodilation in mice, and MK-0524, a DP1-selective antagonist, blocked both PGD2- and NA-induced vasodilation. NA-induced vasodilation was also studied in DP1+/+, DP1+/-, and DP1-/- mice; although NA-induced vasodilation depended almost completely on DP1 in female mice, it depended only partially on DP1 in male mice. The residual NA-induced vasodilation in male DP-/- mice was aspirin-sensitive. Thus, in the mouse, DP1 appears to be an important component involved in NA-induced vasodilation, but other cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanisms also may be involved. A clinical study in healthy men and women demonstrated that treatment with MK-0524 reduced the symptoms of flushing and the increase in skin perfusion after the administration of NA. These studies suggest that DP1 receptor antagonism may be an effective means to suppress NA-induced flushing in humans. PMID:16617107

  17. The adenosine a2a receptor inhibits matrix-induced inflammation in a novel fashion.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, Kara A; Boodoo, Sada; Collins, Samuel; Black, Katharine E; Chan-Li, Yee; Zarek, Paul; Powell, Jonathan D; Horton, Maureen R

    2009-03-01

    Endogenous mediators within the inflammatory milieu play a critical role in directing the scope, duration, and resolution of inflammation. High-molecular-weight extracellular matrix hyaluronan (HA) helps to maintain homeostasis. During inflammation, hyaluronan is broken down into fragments that induce chemokines and cytokines, thereby augmenting the inflammatory response. Tissue-derived adenosine, released during inflammation, inhibits inflammation via the anti-inflammatory A2 adenosine receptor (A2aR). We demonstrate that adenosine modulates HA-induced gene expression via the A2aR. A2aR stimulation inhibits HA fragment-induced pro-fibrotic genes TNF-alpha, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and MIP-1alpha while simultaneously synergizing with hyaluronan fragments to up-regulate the TH1 cytokine IL-12. Interestingly, A2aR stimulation mediates these affects via the novel cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor EPAC. In addition, A2aR-null mice are more susceptible to bleomycin-induced lung injury, consistent with a role for endogenous adenosine in inhibiting the inflammation that may lead to fibrosis. Indeed, the bleomycin treated A2aR-null mice demonstrate increased lung inflammation, HA accumulation, and histologic damage. Overall, our data elucidate the opposing roles of tissue-derived HA fragments and adenosine in regulating noninfectious lung inflammation and support the pursuit of A2aR agonists as a means of pharmacologically inhibiting inflammation that may lead to fibrosis. PMID:18703794

  18. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) channels mediate clozapine-induced phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Piccolo, Chiara W; Cohen, Bruce M; Buttner, Edgar A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are not fully understood. Here, we characterize phenotypes of missense and knockout mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) channel ortholog gtl-2, a candidate APD target identified in a genome-wide RNAi (RNA interference) screen for Suppressors of Clozapine-induced Larval Arrest (scla genes). We then employ the developmental phenotypes of gtl-2(lf) mutants to validate our previous gtl-2(RNAi) result. GTL-2 acts in the excretory canal cell to regulate Mg(2+) homeostasis. Using exc (excretory canal abnormal) gene mutants, we demonstrate that excretory canal cell function is necessary for clozapine-induced developmental delay and lethality. Moreover, cell-specific promoter-driven expression studies reveal that GTL-2 function in the excretory canal cell is important for its role in the SCLA phenotype. We then investigate the mechanism by which GTL-2 function in the excretory canal cell impacts clozapine-induced phenotypes. gtl-2(lf) mutations cause hypermagnesemia, and we show that exposure of the wild-type strain to high Mg(2+) phenocopies gtl-2(lf) with respect to suppression of clozapine-induced developmental delay and lethality. Our results suggest that GTL-2 TRPM channel function in the excretory canal cell is important for clozapine's developmental effects. TRP channels are expressed in mammalian brain and are implicated in the pathogenesis of mental illnesses but have not been previously implicated in APD action. PMID:24564792

  19. Negative regulation of adipogenesis by kaempferol, a component of Rhizoma Polygonati falcatum in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ui-Hyun; Jeong, Ji-Cheon; Jang, Jae-Sik; Sung, Mi-Ran; Youn, HyeSook; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Joo; Um, Soo-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Rhizoma Polygonati falcatum (RPF) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia, because of its anti-hyperglycemic, anti-triglycemic, and anti-tumor activity. In this study, we determined the anti-adipogenic potential of RPF extract and its component kaempferol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanism(s) using microarray analysis. Adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells was significantly impaired by RPF extract and kaempferol as monitored by Oil Red O staining and quantitative measurement of lipid accumulation. Additionally, the mRNA expression of adipogenesis genes decreased on treatment with kaempferol. The role of kaempferol at the genome-wide level was further assessed by a microarray approach. Our analysis indicated that kaempferol decreased the expression of adipogenic transcription factors (Ppar?, Cebp?, Srebp1, Rxr?, Lxr?, Ror?) and genes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis (Gpd1, Agpat2, Dgat2), while increasing lipolysis-related genes, such as Tnf?, Lsr, and Cel. Finally, co-transfection assays using luciferase reporter gene and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) target genes indicated that kaempferol significantly repressed rosiglitazone-induced PPAR? transcriptional activity. Overall, our data suggests that kaempferol, a major component of RPF, may be beneficial in obesity, by reducing adipogenesis and balancing lipid homeostasis partly through the down-regulation of PPAR?. PMID:22975504

  20. The p75 neurotrophin receptor promotes A?-induced neuritic dystrophy in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Juliet; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Nguyen, Thuy-Vi V.; Yang, Tao; LeMieux, Melburne C.; Griend, Lilith Vander; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Massa, Stephen M.; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Longo, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    Oligomeric forms of amyloid-?(1–42) (A?) are thought to play a causal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has been implicated in A?-induced neurodegeneration. To further define the functions of p75NTR in AD, we examined the interaction of oligomeric A? with p75NTR, and the effects of that interaction on neurite integrity in neuron cultures and in a chronic AD mouse model. Atomic force microscopy was used to ascertain the aggregated state of A?, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis revealed that A? oligomers interact with the extracellular domain of p75NTR. In vitro studies of A?-induced death in neuron cultures isolated from wildtype and p75NTR ?/? mice, in which the p75NTR extracellular domain is deleted, showed reduced sensitivity of mutant cells to A?-induced cell death. Interestingly, A?-induced neuritic dystrophy and activation of c-Jun, a known mediator of A?-induced deleterious signaling, were completely prevented in p75NTR ?/? neuron cultures. Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe X p75NTR?/? mice exhibited significantly diminished hippocampal neuritic dystrophy and complete reversal of basal forebrain cholinergic neurite degeneration relative to those expressing wild type p75NTR. A? levels were not affected, suggesting that removal of p75NTR extracellular domain reduced the ability of excess A? to promote neuritic degeneration. These findings indicate that while p75NTR likely does not mediate all A? effects, it does play a significant role in enabling A?-induced neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo, establishing p75NTR as an important therapeutic target for AD. PMID:19710315

  1. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells are independent of the estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunga [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, 200701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, 200701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Mo [Diabetic Complications Research Center, Division of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) Integrated Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 305811, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Diabetic Complications Research Center, Division of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) Integrated Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 305811, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, 200701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Cordycepin (3-deoxyadenosine), found in Cordyceps spp., has been known to have many therapeutic effects including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-aging effects. Moreover, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of cordycepin have been reported, but the mechanism causing cancer cell death is poorly characterized. The present study was designed to investigate whether the mechanisms of cordycepin-induced cell death were associated with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells. Exposure of both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to cordycepin resulted in dose-responsive inhibition of cell growth and reduction in cell viability. The cordycepin-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with several specific features of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, TUNEL, and biochemical assays. Cordycepin also caused a dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial translocation of Bax, triggering cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases-9 and -3. Interestingly, MCF-7 cells showed autophagy-associated cell death, as observed by the detection of an autophagosome-specific protein and large membranous vacuole ultrastructure morphology in the cytoplasm. Cordycepin-induced autophagic cell death has applications in treating MCF-7 cells with apoptotic defects, irrespective of the ER response. Although autophagy has a survival function in tumorigenesis of some cancer cells, autophagy may be important for cordycepin-induced MCF-7 cell death. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that cordycepin effectively kills MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines in culture. Hence, further studies should be conducted to determine whether cordycepin will be a clinically useful, ER-independent, chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the mechanism which cordycepin-induced cell death association with estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cordycepin-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cordycepin treatment also resulted in autophagy in MCF-7 cells, associated with induction of autophagosome formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The different cordycepin-mediated cell death pathways are irrespective of the ER response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cordycepin proves a clinically useful, ER-independent chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer cells.

  2. Mechanism of Acetylcholine Receptor Cluster Formation Induced by DC Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailong Luke; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Background The formation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster is a key event during the development of the neuromuscular junction. It is induced through the activation of muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) by the heparan-sulfate proteoglycan agrin released from the motor axon. On the other hand, DC electric field, a non-neuronal stimulus, is also highly effective in causing AChRs to cluster along the cathode-facing edge of muscle cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand its molecular mechanism, quantum dots (QDs) were used to follow the movement of AChRs as they became clustered under the influence of electric field. From analyses of trajectories of AChR movement in the membrane, it was concluded that diffuse receptors underwent Brownian motion until they were immobilized at sites of cluster formation. This supports the diffusion-mediated trapping model in explaining AChR clustering under the influence of this stimulus. Disrupting F-actin cytoskeleton assembly and interfering with rapsyn-AChR interaction suppressed this phenomenon, suggesting that these are integral components of the trapping mechanism induced by the electric field. Consistent with the idea that signaling pathways are activated by this stimulus, the localization of tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of AChR ?-subunit and Src was observed at cathodal AChR clusters. Furthermore, disrupting MuSK activity through the expression of a kinase-dead form of this enzyme abolished electric field-induced AChR clustering. Conclusions These results suggest that DC electric field as a physical stimulus elicits molecular reactions in muscle cells in the form of cathodal MuSK activation in a ligand-free manner to trigger a signaling pathway that leads to cytoskeletal assembly and AChR clustering. PMID:22046365

  3. Pharmacological Inhibition of CXCR2 Chemokine Receptors Modulates Paraquat-Induced Intoxication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Kesiane M.; Maciel, Izaque S.; Kist, Luiza W.; Campos, Maria M.; Bogo, Maurício R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Paraquat (PQ) is an agrochemical agent commonly used worldwide, which is allied to potential risks of intoxication. This herbicide induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ends up compromising various organs, particularly the lungs and the brain. This study evaluated the deleterious effects of paraquat on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripherally, with special attempts to assess the putative protective effects of the selective CXCR2 receptor antagonist SB225002 on these parameters. PQ-toxicity was induced in male Wistar rats, in a total dose of 50 mg/kg, and control animals received saline solution at the same schedule of administration. Separate groups of animals were treated with the selective CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 (1 or 3 mg/kg), administered 30 min before each paraquat injection. The major changes found in paraquat-treated animals were: decreased body weight and hypothermia, nociception behavior, impairment of locomotor and gait capabilities, enhanced TNF-? and IL-1? expression in the striatum, and cell migration to the lungs and blood. Some of these parameters were reversed when the antagonist SB225002 was administered, including recovery of physiological parameters, decreased nociception, improvement of gait abnormalities, modulation of striatal TNF-? and IL-1? expression, and decrease of neutrophil migration to the lungs and blood. Taken together, our results demonstrate that damage to the central and peripheral systems elicited by paraquat can be prevented by the pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 chemokine receptors. The experimental evidence presented herein extends the comprehension on the toxicodynamic aspects of paraquat, and opens new avenues to treat intoxication induced by this herbicide. PMID:25153082

  4. Vasopressin V1a receptor antagonism does not reverse adrenocorticotrophin-induced hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fraser, T B; Turner, S W; Wen, C; Li, M; Burrell, L M; Whitworth, J A

    2000-11-01

    1. The role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-induced hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats using the non-peptide AVP V1a receptor antagonist OPC 21268. 2. In an acute study, six rats were pretreated with ACTH for 11 days and direct arterial blood pressure (4 h), plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were measured after OPC 21268 gavage. In a chronic study, 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups: (i) sham injection + sham gavage; (ii) ACTH + sham gavage; (iii) sham injection + OPC 21268; or (iv) ACTH + OPC-21268 for 16 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), water intake, urine volume (UV), urine osmolality and electrolytes, food intake, bodyweight and plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were measured. 3. In the acute study, direct mean arterial blood pressure did not change with OPC 21268 (122+/-2 and 120+/-3 mmHg at 0 and 240 min, respectively). 4. In the chronic study, OPC 21268 did not affect ACTH-induced rises in blood pressure (from 125+/-2 (control) to 145+/-5 mmHg (group 4) compared with 122+/-3 (control) to 149+/-5 mmHg (group2)). Water intake and UV increased (from 29+/-2 to 83+/-6 mL/day; and from 5+/-1 to 36+/-5 mL/day, respectively) and the change in bodyweight decreased from 0+/-2 to -107+/-7 g. 5. These results suggest that AVP (at the V1a receptor) does not play a significant role in the maintenance of ACTH-induced hypertension. PMID:11071300

  5. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in intestinal crypts induces necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Afrazi, Amin; Branca, Maria F; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Good, Misty; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Egan, Charlotte E; Lu, Peng; Jia, Hongpeng; Shaffiey, Shahab; Lin, Joyce; Ma, Congrong; Vincent, Garrett; Prindle, Thomas; Weyandt, Samantha; Neal, Matthew D; Ozolek, John A; Wiersch, John; Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K; Billiar, Timothy R; Mollen, Kevin; Kaser, Arthur; Blumberg, Richard; Hackam, David J

    2014-04-01

    The cellular cues that regulate the apoptosis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) remain incompletely understood, yet may play a role in diseases characterized by ISC loss including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) was recently found to be expressed on ISCs, where its activation leads to ISC apoptosis through mechanisms that remain incompletely explained. We now hypothesize that TLR4 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress within ISCs, leading to their apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis, and that high ER stress within the premature intestine predisposes to NEC development. Using transgenic mice and cultured enteroids, we now demonstrate that TLR4 induces ER stress within Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5)-positive ISCs, resulting in crypt apoptosis. TLR4 signaling within crypts was required, because crypt ER stress and apoptosis occurred in TLR4(?IEC-OVER) mice expressing TLR4 only within intestinal crypts and epithelium, but not TLR4(?IEC) mice lacking intestinal TLR4. TLR4-mediated ER stress and apoptosis of ISCs required PERK (protein kinase-related PKR-like ER kinase), CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), but not ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) or XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Human and mouse NEC showed high crypt ER stress and apoptosis, whereas genetic inhibition of PERK or CHOP attenuated ER stress, crypt apoptosis, and NEC severity. Strikingly, using intragastric delivery into fetal mouse intestine, prevention of ER stress reduced TLR4-mediated ISC apoptosis and mucosal disruption. These findings identify a novel link between TLR4-induced ER stress and ISC apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis and suggest that increased ER stress within the premature bowel predisposes to NEC development. PMID:24519940

  6. Sigma 1 Receptor plays a prominent role in IL-24-induced cancer-specific apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Do, Winchie; Herrera, Cynthia; Mighty, Jason; Shumskaya, Maria; Redenti, Stephen M; Sauane, Moira

    2013-09-20

    Interleukin-24 (IL-24), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays broad cancer-specific suppressor effects. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, sensitization to chemotherapy, and cancer-specific apoptosis. We show that Sigma 1 Receptor (S1R), a ligand-regulated protein chaperone contributes to IL-24 induction of apoptosis. IL-24 generated from an adenovirus expressing IL-24 (Ad.IL-24) induces cancer-specific apoptosis by inducing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, reactive oxygen species production, and calcium mobilization. The present studies reveals that S1R is required for Ad.IL-24-induced cell death. We provide several lines of evidence to confirm a physical and functional interaction between IL-24 and S1R including: (a) S1R and IL-24 co-localize, as judged by immunocytochemical analysis studies; (b) S1R and IL-24 co-immunoprecipitate using either S1R or IL-24 antibody; (c) S1R agonist (+)-SKF10047 inhibits apoptosis by Ad.IL-24; (d) (+)-SKF10047-mediated inhibition of Ad.IL-24 results in: diminished ER stress protein expression; (e) Calcium mobilization; and (f) ROS production. Collectively, these data demonstrate that S1R interacts with IL-24 and suggest that IL-24:S1R interaction determines apoptosis induction by Ad.IL-24. These studies define Sigma 1 Receptor as a key initial mediator of IL-24 induction of cancer-specific killing. These findings have important implications for our understanding of IL-24 as a tumor suppressor protein as well as an immune modulating cytokine. PMID:23988449

  7. Potentiation of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth by Fluvoxamine: Role of Sigma1 Receptors, IP3 Receptors and Cellular Signaling Pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Nishimura; Tamaki Ishima; Masaomi Iyo; Kenji Hashimoto; Bernhard Baune

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been widely used and are a major therapeutic advance in psychopharmacology. However, their pharmacology is quite heterogeneous. The SSRI fluvoxamine, with sigma-1 receptor agonism, is shown to potentiate nerve-growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC 12 cells. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying potentiation by fluvoxamine are not fully understood. In this

  8. Potentiation of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth by Fluvoxamine: Role of Sigma1 Receptors, IP3 Receptors and Cellular Signaling Pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Nishimura; Tamaki Ishima; Masaomi Iyo; Kenji Hashimoto

    2008-01-01

    Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been widely used and are a major therapeutic advance in psychopharmacology. However, their pharmacology is quite heterogeneous. The SSRI fluvoxamine, with sigma-1 receptor agonism, is shown to potentiate nerve-growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC 12 cells. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying potentiation by fluvoxamine are not fully understood. In

  9. SA4503, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, prevents cultured cortical neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death via suppression of MAPK pathway activation and glutamate receptor expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuerhong Tuerxun; Tadahiro Numakawa; Naoki Adachi; Emi Kumamaru; Hiromi Kitazawa; Motoshige Kudo; Hiroshi Kunugi

    2010-01-01

    Many studies suggest that antidepressants act as neuroprotective agents in the central nervous system (CNS), though the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of SA4503, which is a sigma-1 receptor agonist and a novel antidepressant candidate, on oxidative stress-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons. Exposure of the neurons to H2O2

  10. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors and retinoic acid inducible gene-like receptors in human tonsillar T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petterson, Terese; Månsson, Anne; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cardell, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG) -like receptors (RLRs) are recently discovered cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors sensing mainly bacterial components and viral RNA, respectively. Their importance in various cells and disorders is becoming better understood, but their role in human tonsil-derived T lymphocytes remains to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated expression and functional relevance of NLRs and RLRs in human tonsillar CD3+ T lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry revealed expression of NOD1, NOD2, NALP1, NALP3, NAIP, IPAF, RIG-1, MDA-5 and LGP-2 at mRNA and protein levels. Because of the limited number of ligands (iE-DAP, MDP, Alum, Poly(I:C)/LyoVec), functional evaluation was restricted to NOD1, NOD2, NALP3 and RIG-1/MDA-5, respectively. Stimulation with the agonists alone was not enough to induce activation but upon triggering via CD3 and CD28, a profound induction of proliferation was seen in purified CD3+ T cells. However, the proliferative response was not further enhanced by the cognate ligands. Nonetheless, in tonsillar mononuclear cells iE-DAP, MDP and Poly(I:C)/LyoVec were found to augment the CD3/CD28-induced proliferation of tonsillar mononuclear cells. Also, iE-DAP and MDP were found to promote secretion of interleukins 2 and 10 as well as to up-regulate CD69. This study demonstrates for the first time a broad range of NLRs and RLRs in human tonsillar T cells and that NOD1, NOD2 and RIG-1/MDA-5 act synergistically with ?CD3 and ?CD28 to induce proliferation of human T cells. Hence, these results suggest that these receptors have a role in T-cell activation. PMID:21342182

  11. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors and retinoic acid inducible gene-like receptors in human tonsillar T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Terese; Månsson, Anne; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cardell, Lars O

    2011-05-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-like receptors (RLRs) are recently discovered cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors sensing mainly bacterial components and viral RNA, respectively. Their importance in various cells and disorders is becoming better understood, but their role in human tonsil-derived T lymphocytes remains to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated expression and functional relevance of NLRs and RLRs in human tonsillar CD3(+) T lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry revealed expression of NOD1, NOD2, NALP1, NALP3, NAIP, IPAF, RIG-1, MDA-5 and LGP-2 at mRNA and protein levels. Because of the limited number of ligands (iE-DAP, MDP, Alum, Poly(I:C)/LyoVec), functional evaluation was restricted to NOD1, NOD2, NALP3 and RIG-1/MDA-5, respectively. Stimulation with the agonists alone was not enough to induce activation but upon triggering via CD3 and CD28, a profound induction of proliferation was seen in purified CD3(+) T cells. However, the proliferative response was not further enhanced by the cognate ligands. Nonetheless, in tonsillar mononuclear cells iE-DAP, MDP and Poly(I:C)/LyoVec were found to augment the CD3/CD28-induced proliferation of tonsillar mononuclear cells. Also, iE-DAP and MDP were found to promote secretion of interleukins 2 and 10 as well as to up-regulate CD69. This study demonstrates for the first time a broad range of NLRs and RLRs in human tonsillar T cells and that NOD1, NOD2 and RIG-1/MDA-5 act synergistically with ?CD3 and ?CD28 to induce proliferation of human T cells. Hence, these results suggest that these receptors have a role in T-cell activation. PMID:21342182

  12. Muscarinic, but not nicotinic, acetylcholine receptor blockade in the ventral tegmental area attenuates cue-induced sucrose-seeking.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii A; Nunes, Eric J; Wickham, Robert J

    2015-09-15

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is known to play a role in cue-mediated reward-seeking for natural rewards and drugs of abuse. Specifically, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been shown to regulate cue-induced drug-seeking. However, the potential role of these VTA receptors in regulating cue-induced reward seeking for natural rewards is unknown. Here, we examined whether blockade of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) would alter cue-induced sucrose seeking in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects underwent 10 days of sucrose self-administration training (fixed ratio 1 schedule) followed by 7 days of forced abstinence. On withdrawal day 7, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of vehicle, the muscarinic AChR antagonist scopolamine (2.4 or 24?g/side), the nicotinic AChR antagonist mecamylamine (3 or 30?g/side), or the NMDAR antagonist AP-5 (0.1 or 1?g/side) immediately prior to examination of cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Scopolamine infusion led to robust attenuation, but did not completely block, sucrose-seeking behavior. In contrast, VTA administration of mecamylamine or AP-5 did not alter cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Together, the data suggest that VTA muscarinic AChRs, but not nicotinic AChRs nor NMDARs, facilitate the ability of food-associated cues to drive seeking behavior for a food reward. PMID:26026787

  13. Analysis and characterization of the functional TGF? receptors required for BMP6-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, De-ying; Zhao, Yan-fang; Wang, Jin; He, Juan-wen; Luo, Jinyong

    2013-01-01

    Although BMP6 is highly capable of inducing osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), the molecular mechanism involved remains to be fully elucidated. Using dominant negative (dn) mutant form of type I and type II TGF? receptors, we demonstrated that three dn-type I receptors (dnALK2, dnALK3, dnALK6), and three dn-type II receptors (dnBMPRII, dnActRII, dnActRIIB), effectively diminished BMP6-induced osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. These findings suggested that ALK2, ALK3, ALK6, BMPRII, ActRII and ActRIIB are essential for BMP6-induced osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. However, MPCs in this study do not express ActRIIB. Moreover, RNA interference of ALK2, ALK3, ALK6, BMPRII and ActRII inhibited BMP6-induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs. Our results strongly suggested that BMP6-induced osteogenic differentiation of MPCs is mediated by its functional TGF? receptors including ALK2, ALK3, ALK6, BMPRII, and ActRII. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(2): 107-112] PMID:23433114

  14. The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonca, Ersöz; Dar?c?, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. As the adenosine A1 receptor activation confers protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced ventricular arrhythmias, we hypothesized that CBD may have antiarrhythmic effect through the activation of adenosine A1 receptor. Cannabidiol has recently been shown to suppress ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to research the effect of CBD on the incidence and the duration of I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias and to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptor activation in the possible antiarrhythmic effect of CBD. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in anesthetized male rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 minutes and by loosening the bond at the coronary artery, respectively. Cannabidiol alone was given in a dose of 50 µg/kg, 10 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion and coadministrated with adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) in a dose of 100 µg/kg, 15 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion to investigate whether the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD is modified by the activation of adenosine A1 receptors. The experimental groups were as follows: (1) vehicle control (n = 10), (2) CBD (n = 9), (3) DPCPX (n = 7), and (4) CBD + DPCPX group (n = 7). Cannabidiol treatment significantly decreased the incidence and the duration of ventricular tachycardia, total length of arrhythmias, and the arrhythmia scores compared to control during the reperfusion period. The DPCPX treatment alone did not affect the incidence and the duration of any type of arrhythmias. However, DPCPX aborted the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD when it was combined with it. The present results demonstrated that CBD has an antiarrhythmic effect against I/R-induced arrhythmias, and the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD may be mediated through the activation of adenosine A1 receptor. PMID:24853683

  15. Septohippocampal GABAergic neurons mediate the altered behaviors induced by n-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyi; Tai, Siew Kian; Leung, L Stan

    2012-12-01

    We hypothesize that selective lesion of the septohippocampal GABAergic neurons suppresses the altered behaviors induced by an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine or MK-801. In addition, we hypothesize that septohippocampal GABAergic neurons generate an atropine-resistant theta rhythm that coexists with an atropine-sensitive theta rhythm in the hippocampus. Infusion of orexin-saporin (ore-SAP) into the medial septal area decreased parvalbumin-immunoreactive (GABAergic) neurons by ~80%, without significantly affecting choline-acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (cholinergic) neurons. The theta rhythm during walking, or the immobility-associated theta induced by pilocarpine, was not different between ore-SAP and sham-lesion rats. Walking theta was, however, more disrupted by atropine sulfate in ore-SAP than in sham-lesion rats. MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) induced hyperlocomotion associated with an increase in frequency, but not power, of the hippocampal theta in both ore-SAP and sham-lesion rats. However, MK-801 induced an increase in 71-100 Hz gamma waves in sham-lesion but not ore-SAP lesion rats. In sham-lesion rats, MK-801 induced an increase in locomotion and an impairment of prepulse inhibition (PPI), and ketamine (3 mg/kg s.c.) induced a loss of gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials. MK-801-induced behavioral hyperlocomotion and PPI impairment, and ketamine-induced auditory gating deficit were reduced in ore-SAP rats as compared to sham-lesion rats. During baseline without drugs, locomotion and auditory gating were not different between ore-SAP and sham-lesion rats, and PPI was slightly but significantly increased in ore-SAP as compared with sham lesion rats. It is concluded that septohippocampal GABAergic neurons are important for the expression of hyperactive and psychotic symptoms an enhanced hippocampal gamma activity induced by ketamine and MK-801, and for generating an atropine-resistant theta. Selective suppression of septohippocampal GABAergic activity is suggested to be an effective treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:22592894

  16. Sigma1 receptors are essential for capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity: Studies with selective sigma-1 ligands and sigma-1 knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Manuel Entrena; Enrique José Cobos; Francisco Rafael Nieto; Cruz Miguel Cendán; Georgia Gris; Esperanza Del Pozo; Daniel Zamanillo; José Manuel Baeyens

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the role of ?1 receptors on capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and on nociceptive pain induced by punctate mechanical stimuli, using wild-type and ?1 receptor knockout (?1-KO) mice and selective ?1 receptor-acting drugs. Mutation in ?1-KO mice was confirmed by PCR analysis of genomic DNA and, at the protein level, by [3H](+)-pentazocine binding assays. Both wild-type and ?1-KO mice not

  17. Sigma 1 ( ? 1) receptor agonists and neurosteroids attenuate ? 25–35-amyloid peptide-induced amnesia in mice through a common mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Maurice; T.-P Su; A Privat

    1997-01-01

    The sigma1 (?1) receptor agonists exert potent anti-amnesic effects, as they apparently block the learning impairments either induced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine or inherently due to the age-related deficits in senescence-accelerated mice. We recently described the amnesia induced by the ?-amyloid-related peptide ?25–35, administered centrally in an aggregated form, in mice. The deficits

  18. A novel agonistic antibody to human death receptor 4 induces apoptotic cell death in various tumor cells without cytotoxicity in hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Sil Sung; Kyung-Jin Park; Seung-Hyun Lee; Yoon-Seon Jang; Sang-Koo Park; Yoo-Hoi Park; Won-Jae Kwag; Myung-Hee Kwon; Yong-Sung Kim

    The proapoptotic tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 are attractive targets to develop the receptor- specific agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as anti- cancer agents because of their tumor-selective cell death-inducing activity. Here, we report a novel agonistic mAb, AY4, raised against human DR4 in mice. ELISA anal- ysis revealed that AY4 specifically

  19. Drug-induced defaecation in rats: role of central 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Croci, T.; Landi, M.; Bianchetti, A.; Manara, L.

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the acute effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), buspirone and SR 57746A, on rat faecal pellet output and water content. 2. 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and SR 57746A, a new selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, displaced [3H]-8-OH-DPAT from specific binding sites in rat hippocampus membranes (Ki, nM; 1.8, 1.2, 15, 3.1 respectively) and stimulated rat defaecation dose-dependently. SR 57746A and buspirone induced 1 g dry weight of faeces at 1.3 and 6.1 mg kg-1, p.o. (AD1) respectively. 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT stimulated defaecation after s.c. injection (AD1, 0.07 and 7.5 mg kg-1, respectively). All these agents increased faecal water content. 3. The putative 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, pindolol, injected s.c. or i.c.v., significantly reduced the defaecation induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone or SR 57746A, but not 5-HT. 4. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (i.p.) or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (i.c.v.), according to protocols designed to cause either generalized or CNS-limited 5-HT depletion respectively, also reduced the defaecation induced by buspirone or SR 57746A. 5. No specific 5-HT1A binding sites could be labelled by incubating rat colon membranes with [3H]-8-OH-DPAT, and in vitro preparations of rat colon segments showed no response to 8-OH-DPAT or SR 57746A up to 5 microM. 6. After eight days' repeated daily treatment, complete tolerance developed to the stimulant effects of SR 57746A and buspirone on faecal water content, but not on faecal pellet output.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7647978

  20. Reduction of GABA/sub B/ receptor binding induced by climbing fiber degeneration in the rat cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, K.; Fukuda, H.

    1985-07-22

    When the rat cerebellar climbing fibers degenerated, as induced by lesioning the inferior olive with 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP), GABA/sub B/ receptor binding determined with /sup 3/H-(+/-)baclofen was reduced in the cerebellum but not in the cerebral cortex of rats. Computer analysis of saturation data revealed two components of the binding sites, and indicated that decrease of the binding in the cerebellum was due to reduction in receptor density, mainly of the high-affinity sites, the B/sub max/ of which was reduced to one-third that in the control animals. In vitro treatment with 3-AP, of the membranes prepared from either the cerebellum or the cerebral cortex, induced no alteration in the binding sites, thereby indicating that the alteration of GABA/sub B/ sites induced by in vivo treatment with 3-AP is not due to a direct action of 3-AP on the receptor. GABA/sub A/ and benzodiazepine receptor binding labelled with /sup 3/H-muscimol and /sup 3/H-diazepam, respectively, in both of brain regions was not affected by destruction of the inferior olive. These results provide evidence that some of the GABA/sub B/ sites but neither GABA/sub A/ nor benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebellum are located at the climbing fiber terminals. 28 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Progesterone Receptor-Induced Gene Expression in Primary Mouse Granulosa Cell Cultures1

    PubMed Central

    Sriraman, Venkataraman; Sinha, Mala; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2009-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PGR) is induced by luteinizing hormone (LH) in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles, and the PGR-A isoform is essential for ovulation based on the phenotypes of Pgr isoform-specific knockout mice. Although several genes regulated by PGR-A in vivo have been identified, whether these genes are primary targets of PGR-A or if their expression also depends on other signaling molecules that are induced by the LH surge has not been resolved. Therefore, to identify genes that are either induced or repressed by PGR in the absence of LH-mediated signaling cascades, we infected primary cultures of mouse granulosa cells with either PGR-A or PGR-B adenoviral vectors without or with R-5020 as a PGR ligand. Total RNA was extracted from infected cells at 16 h and analyzed by Affymetrix Mouse 430 2.0 microarrays. PGR-A in the presence or absence of ligand significantly induced approximately 50 genes 2-fold or more (local pooled error test at P ? 0.01). Fewer and different genes were induced by PGR-B in the absence of ligand. Edn1, Apoa1, and Cited1 were primarily regulated by PGR-A as verified by additional RT-PCR analyses, suppression by the PGR antagonist RU486, and the lack of induction by protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors pathways. PGR regulation of these genes was confirmed further by gene expression analyses in hormonally primed Pgr mutant mouse ovaries. Because Edn1, Apoa1, and Cited1 are known to regulate angiogenesis, PGR may affect the neovascularization of follicles that is initiated with ovulation. PMID:19726735

  2. Nucleotide receptor P2RX7 stimulation enhances LPS-induced interferon-? production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gavala, M L; Liu, Y-P; Lenertz, L Y; Zeng, L; Blanchette, J B; Guadarrama, A G; Denlinger, L C; Bertics, P J; Smith, J A

    2013-10-01

    Stimulation of P2RX(7) with extracellular ATP potentiates numerous LPS-induced proinflammatory events, including cytokine induction in macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not well defined. Although P2RX(7) ligation has been proposed to activate several transcription factors, many of the LPS-induced mediators affected by P2RX(7) activation are not induced by P2RX(7) agonists alone, suggesting a complementary role for P2RX(7) in transcriptional regulation. Type I IFN production, whose expression is tightly controlled by multiple transcription factors that form an enhanceosome, is critical for resistance against LPS-containing bacteria. The effect of purinergic receptor signaling on LPS-dependent type I IFN is unknown and would be of great relevance to a diverse array of inflammatory conditions. The present study demonstrates that stimulation of macrophages with P2RX(7) agonists substantially enhances LPS-induced IFN-? expression, and this enhancement is ablated in macrophages that do not express functional P2RX(7) or when the MAPK MEK1/2 pathways are inhibited. Potentiation of LPS-induced IFN-? expression following P2RX(7) stimulation is likely transcriptionally regulated, as this enhancement is observed at the IFN-? promoter level. Furthermore, P2RX(7) stimulation is able to increase the phosphorylation and subsequent IFN-? promoter occupancy of IRF-3, a transcription factor that is critical for IFN-? transcription by TLR agonists. This newly discovered role for P2RX(7) in IFN regulation may have implications in antimicrobial defense, which has been linked to P2RX(7) activation in other studies. PMID:23911869

  3. Nucleotide receptor P2RX7 stimulation enhances LPS-induced interferon-? production in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, M. L.; Liu, Y.-P.; Lenertz, L. Y.; Zeng, L.; Blanchette, J. B.; Guadarrama, A. G.; Denlinger, L. C.; Bertics, P. J.; Smith, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of P2RX7 with extracellular ATP potentiates numerous LPS-induced proinflammatory events, including cytokine induction in macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not well defined. Although P2RX7 ligation has been proposed to activate several transcription factors, many of the LPS-induced mediators affected by P2RX7 activation are not induced by P2RX7 agonists alone, suggesting a complementary role for P2RX7 in transcriptional regulation. Type I IFN production, whose expression is tightly controlled by multiple transcription factors that form an enhanceosome, is critical for resistance against LPS-containing bacteria. The effect of purinergic receptor signaling on LPS-dependent type I IFN is unknown and would be of great relevance to a diverse array of inflammatory conditions. The present study demonstrates that stimulation of macrophages with P2RX7 agonists substantially enhances LPS-induced IFN-? expression, and this enhancement is ablated in macrophages that do not express functional P2RX7 or when the MAPK MEK1/2 pathways are inhibited. Potentiation of LPS-induced IFN-? expression following P2RX7 stimulation is likely transcriptionally regulated, as this enhancement is observed at the IFN-? promoter level. Furthermore, P2RX7 stimulation is able to increase the phosphorylation and subsequent IFN-? promoter occupancy of IRF-3, a transcription factor that is critical for IFN-? transcription by TLR agonists. This newly discovered role for P2RX7 in IFN regulation may have implications in antimicrobial defense, which has been linked to P2RX7 activation in other studies. PMID:23911869

  4. Harman induces CYP1A1 enzyme through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    El Gendy, Mohamed A M; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2010-11-15

    Harman is a common compound in several foods, plants and beverages. Numerous studies have demonstrated its mutagenic, co-mutagenic and carcinogenic effects; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully identified. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor regulating the expression of the carcinogen-activating enzyme; cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). In the present study, we examined the ability of harman to induce AhR-mediated signal transduction in human and rat hepatoma cells; HepG2 and H4IIE cells. Our results showed that harman significantly induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, harman significantly induced CYP1A1 at protein and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the AhR antagonist, resveratrol, inhibited the increase in CYP1A1 activity by harman. The RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely abolished the CYP1A1 mRNA induction by harman, indicating a transcriptional activation. The role of AhR in CYP1A1 induction by harman was confirmed by using siRNA specific for human AhR. The ability of harman to induce CYP1A1 was strongly correlated with its ability to stimulate AhR-dependent luciferase activity and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. At post-transcriptional and post-translational levels, harman did not affect the stability of CYP1A1 at the mRNA and the protein levels, excluding other mechanisms participating in the obtained effects. We concluded that harman can directly induce CYP1A1 gene expression in an AhR-dependent manner and may represent a novel mechanism by which harman promotes mutagenicity, co-mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PMID:20732341

  5. P2Y2 receptor inhibits EGF-induced MAPK pathway to stabilise keratinocyte hemidesmosomes.

    PubMed

    Faure, Emilie; Garrouste, Françoise; Parat, Fabrice; Monferran, Sylvie; Leloup, Ludovic; Pommier, Gilbert; Kovacic, Hervé; Lehmann, Maxime

    2012-09-15

    ?6?4 integrin is the main component of hemidesmosomes (HD) that stably anchor the epithelium to the underlying basement membrane. Epithelial cell migration requires HD remodelling, which can be promoted by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We previously showed that extracellular nucleotides inhibit growth factor-induced keratinocyte migration. Here, we investigate the effect of extracellular nucleotides on ?6?4 integrin localisation in HD during EGF-induced cell migration. Using a combination of pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing approaches, we found that UTP activates the P2Y2 purinergic receptor and G?q protein to inhibit EGF/ERK1/2-induced cell migration in keratinocytes. Using a keratinocyte cell line expressing an inducible form of the Raf kinase, we show that UTP inhibits the EGF-induced ERK1/2 pathway activation downstream of Raf. Moreover, we established that ERK1/2 activation by EGF leads to the mobilisation of ?6?4 integrin from HD. Importantly, activation of P2Y2R and G?q by UTP promotes HD formation and protects these structures from EGF-triggered dissolution as revealed by confocal analysis of the distribution of ?6?4 integrin, plectin, BPAG1, BPAG2 and CD151 in keratinocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that the activation of p90RSK, downstream of ERK1/2, is sufficient to promote EGF-mediated HD dismantling and that UTP does not stabilise HD in cells expressing an activated form of p90RSK. Our data underline an unexpected role of P2Y2R and G?q in the inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway and in the modulation of hemidesmosome dynamics and keratinocyte migration. PMID:22718344

  6. Distinct Contributions of TNF Receptor 1 and 2 to TNF-Induced Glomerular Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Taubitz, Anela; Schwarz, Martin; Eltrich, Nuru; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Vielhauer, Volker

    2013-01-01

    TNF is an important mediator of glomerulonephritis. The two TNF-receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 contribute differently to glomerular inflammation in vivo, but specific mechanisms of TNFR-mediated inflammatory responses in glomeruli are unknown. We investigated their expression and function in murine kidneys, isolated glomeruli ex vivo, and glomerular cells in vitro. In normal kidney TNFR1 and TNFR2 were preferentially expressed in glomeruli. Expression of both TNFRs and TNF-induced upregulation of TNFR2 mRNA was confirmed in murine glomerular endothelial and mesangial cell lines. In vivo, TNF exposure rapidly induced glomerular accumulation of leukocytes. To examine TNFR-specific inflammatory responses in intrinsic glomerular cells but not infiltrating leukocytes we performed microarray gene expression profiling on intact glomeruli isolated from wildtype and Tnfr-deficient mice following exposure to soluble TNF ex vivo. Most TNF-induced effects were exclusively mediated by TNFR1, including induced glomerular expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines, complement factors and pro-apoptotic molecules. However, TNFR2 contributed to TNFR1-dependent mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in glomeruli when exposed to low TNF concentrations. Chemokine secretion was absent in TNF-stimulated Tnfr1-deficient glomeruli, but also significantly decreased in glomeruli lacking TNFR2. In vivo, TNF-induced glomerular leukocyte infiltration was abrogated in Tnfr1-deficient mice, whereas Tnfr2-deficiency decreased mononuclear phagocytes infiltrates, but not neutrophils. These data demonstrate that activation of intrinsic glomerular cells by soluble TNF requires TNFR1, whereas TNFR2 is not essential, but augments TNFR1-dependent effects. Previously described TNFR2-dependent glomerular inflammation may therefore require TNFR2 activation by membrane-bound, but not soluble TNF. PMID:23869211

  7. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 enhances mitochondrial function and reduces cisplatin-induced tubule injury.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Amandeep; Rosin, Diane L; Chroscicki, Piotr; Lee, Sangju; Dondeti, Krishna; Ye, Hong; Kinsey, Gilbert R; Stevens, Brian K; Jobin, Katarzyna; Kenwood, Brandon M; Hoehn, Kyle L; Lynch, Kevin R; Okusa, Mark D

    2015-04-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), the natural sphingolipid ligand for a family of five G protein- coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5Rs), regulates cell survival and lymphocyte circulation. We have shown that the pan-S1PR agonist, FTY720, attenuates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury by directly activating S1P1 on proximal tubule (PT) cells, independent of the canonical lymphopenic effects of S1P1 activation on B and T cells. FTY720 also reduces cisplatin-induced AKI. Therefore, in this study, we used conditional PT-S1P1-null (PepckCreS1pr1(fl/fl)) and control (PepckCreS1pr1(w/wt)) mice to determine whether the protective effect of FTY720 in AKI is mediated by PT-S1P1. Cisplatin induced more renal injury in PT-S1P1-null mice than in controls. Although FTY720 produced lymphopenia in both control and PT-S1P1-null mice, it reduced injury only in control mice. Furthermore, the increase in proinflammatory cytokine (CXCL1, MCP-1, TNF-?, and IL-6) expression and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages induced by cisplatin treatment was attenuated by FTY720 in control mice but not in PT-S1P1-null mice. Similarly, S1P1 deletion rendered cultured PT cells more susceptible to cisplatin-induced injury, whereas S1P1 overexpression protected PT cells from injury and preserved mitochondrial function. We conclude that S1P1 may have an important role in stabilizing mitochondrial function and that FTY720 administration represents a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced AKI. PMID:25145931

  8. Arg972 insulin receptor substrate?1 enhances tumor necrosis factor???induced apoptosis in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    You, Yunhui; Liu, Shiqing; Peng, Lijuan; Long, Mei; Deng, Hongxiang; Zhao, Hongjun

    2015-07-01

    The presence of Arg972 insulin receptor substrate?1 (IRS?1) is associated with impaired insulin/IRS?1 signaling to activate phosphatidylinositol?3 kinase (PI3K). Tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??), an inflammatory cytokine with a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), induces apoptosis in osteoblasts, which are the principal cell type responsible for bone loss in RA. In our previous study, an association between Arg972 IRS?1 and a high risk and severity of RA was identified. In the present study, the effects of Arg972 IRS?1 and IRS?1 on TNF???induced apoptosis in human osteoblasts were examined. Normal and RA osteoblasts were stably transfected with Arg972 IRS?1 and IRS?1. In addition, cells were stably transduced with IRS?1?shRNA to knock down IRS?1. Following stimulation with 10 nM insulin for 30 min, the stable overexpression of Arg972 IRS?1 and knock down of IRS?1 significantly decreased IRS?1?associated PI3K activity and Akt activation/phosphorylation at serine 473 (ser473) and enhanced TNF???induced apoptosis in normal and in RA osteoblasts. By contrast, the stable overexpression of IRS?1 significantly increased the levels of IRS?1?associated PI3K activity and Akt phosphorylation (ser473) and inhibited TNF???induced apoptosis, which was eliminated by pretreatment with 50 µn BJM120, a selective PI3K inhibitor, for 30 min. In conclusion, the present study provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that insulin stimulation of Arg972 IRS?1 and IRS?1 enhanced and inhibited TNF???induced apoptosis, respectively in normal and RA osteoblasts by a PI3K?dependent mechanism. These findings suggest that insulin/IRS?1 signaling is important in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:25760103

  9. Humanin Rescues Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons from NMDA-Induced Toxicity Not by NMDA Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ai-Ling; Li, Jian-Zhong; Feng, Zhi-Bo; Ma, Guo-Lin; Gong, Liang; Li, Chun-Ling; Zhang, Ce

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory neurotoxicity has been implicated in many pathological situations and there is no effective treatment available. Humanin is a 24-aa peptide cloned from the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, excitatory toxicity was induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in primarily cultured rat cortical neurons. MTT assessment, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and calcein staining were employed to evaluate the protective activity of humanin on NMDA induced toxicity. The results suggested that NMDA (100??mol/L, 2.5?hr) triggered neuronal morphological changes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (166% of the control), reduction of cell viability (about 50% of the control), and the decrease of living cell density (about 50% of the control). When pretreated with humanin, the toxicity was suppressed. The living cells' density of humanin treated group was similar to that of control. The cell viability was attenuated dose-dependently (IC50 = 0.132?nmol/L). The LDH release was also neutralized in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the intracellular Ca2+ overloading triggered by NMDA reverted quickly and humanin could not inhibit it. These findings indicate that humanin can rescue cortical neurons from NMDA-induced toxicity in rat but not through interfering with NMDA receptor directly. PMID:24959608

  10. Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors as New Targets for Amphetamine-Induced Oxidative Damage and Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pubill, David; Garcia-Ratés, Sara; Camarasa, Jordi; Escubedo, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamine derivatives such as methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) are widely abused drugs in a recreational context. This has led to concern because of the evidence that they are neurotoxic in animal models and cognitive impairments have been described in heavy abusers. The main targets of these drugs are plasmalemmal and vesicular monoamine transporters, leading to reverse transport and increased monoamine efflux to the synapse. As far as neurotoxicity is concerned, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production seems to be one of the main causes. Recent research has demonstrated that blockade of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) inhibits METH- and MDMA-induced ROS production in striatal synaptosomes which is dependent on calcium and on NO-synthase activation. Moreover, ?7 nAChR antagonists (methyllycaconitine and memantine) attenuated in vivo the neurotoxicity induced by METH and MDMA, and memantine prevented the cognitive impairment induced by these drugs. Radioligand binding experiments demonstrated that both drugs have affinity to ?7 and heteromeric nAChR, with MDMA showing lower Ki values, while fluorescence calcium experiments indicated that MDMA behaves as a partial agonist on ?7 and as an antagonist on heteromeric nAChR. Sustained Ca increase led to calpain and caspase-3 activation. In addition, modulatory effects of MDMA on ?7 and heteromeric nAChR populations have been found.

  11. Stimulatory Toll-like receptor 2 suppresses restraint stress-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Denney, James; Liang, Manfei; Javer, Avani; Yang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Ruiliang; Yin, Deling

    2013-01-01

    Stress can enhance or suppress immune functions depending on a variety of factors. Our previous studies observed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) participates in chronic restraint stress-induced immune dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which TLR2 prevents immune suppression remains elusive. Our investigation found that stimulation of TLR2 by peptidoglycan (PGN) significantly attenuates splenocyte apoptosis and markedly blocks alterations of anti-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins. Activation of TLR2 inhibits chronic stress-reduced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and diminishes chronic stress-induced up-regulation of corticosterone production. Additionally, our data show that chronic stress causes a dramatic decrease of cytokine IL-2 level but an increase of IL-4 and IL-17 in CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, PGN could block these alterations of cytokine levels. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that stimulation of TLR2 attenuates chronic stress-induced immune suppression by modulating apoptosis-related proteins and immunoregulatory agents. PMID:23850672

  12. Tumor-induced osteomalacia due to a recurrent mesenchymal tumor overexpressing several growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gerothanasi, Nikolina; Frydas, Athanasios; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Poulios, Chris; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Apostolou, Panagiotis; Papasotiriou, Ioannis; Tournis, Symeon; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Yovos, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and local recurrence occurs in <5% of cases. We investigated a 49-year-old man with a recurrent mesenchymal phosphaturic tumor showing no signs of malignancy. The patient suffered from chronic muscle weakness, myalgia and cramps. His medical record included the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia, for which he was submitted to tumor resection in the left leg three times before. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia and an elevated serum FGF23 level. A radical surgical approach (amputation) was advised, however, complete biochemical and clinical remission was not reached. Molecular analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated overexpression of growth factor receptors implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastatic potential (platelet derived growth factor type A (PDGFRA), PDGFRB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) together with increased expression of FGF23, x-linked-phosphate-regulating endopeptidase and KLOTHO. TIO is usually associated with benign phosphauturic tumors and, when identified, resection of the tumor leads to complete remission in the majority of cases. The underlying pathophysiology of recurrences in these tumors is not known. This is the first report showing increased expression of growth factor receptors in a locally aggressive but histopathologically benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Learning points TIO is usually associated with benign soft tissue or bone neoplasms of mesenchymal origin.These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and even in the rare malignant cases local recurrence occurs in <5%.Successful identification and removal of the tumor leads to full recovery in the majority of cases.

  13. GABA(B) receptors and opioid mechanisms involved in homotaurine-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Serrano, M I; Serrano, J S; Fernández, A; Asadi, I; Serrano-Martino, M C

    1998-03-01

    1. The involvement of GABA(B) receptors and opioid mechanisms in homotaurine-induced analgesia has been investigated in current models of nociception by using a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, morphine, and naloxone. CGP 35348 (50-200 mg/kg IP), a highly selective GABA(B) antagonist, was administered prior to carrying out a dose-response curve of homotaurine (22.6-445 mg/kg IP) antinociceptive effect in the abdominal constriction (mice) and tail flick (rats) tests. 2. The tail flick test was performed in animals pretreated with morphine (0.5 mg/kg SC) and naloxone (1 mg/kg), 15 min before amino acid. Animals treated with saline 10 ml/kg (mice) or 1.25 ml/kg (rats) were included as control for the vehicle used. 3. CGP 35348 antagonized the antinociceptive effect of homotaurine in both tests. The range of doses affected by the interaction depended on the test assayed, but it was coincident for the main part of the dose-response curve. 4. A subanalgesic dose of morphine potentiated the antinociceptive effect of lower doses of homotaurine in the tail flick test. Naloxone pretreatment inhibited the antinociceptive effect of homotaurine. 5. These data imply that GABA(B) receptor subpopulations and opiate mechanisms are involved in the antinociceptive effect of homotaurine. Because functional relationships have been found between GABAergic and opiate systems in analgesic effects, an interaction of the two mechanisms may be operating in the effects described for homotaurine. PMID:9510095

  14. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Rockford, IL 61107 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Rockford, IL 61107 (United States); Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Gnanasekar, Munirathinam, E-mail: mgnanas@uic.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Rockford, IL 61107 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Rockford, IL 61107 (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  15. Differential Effects of a Toll-Like Receptor Antagonist on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Macrophage Responses1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry K. Means; Bryan W. Jones; Andra B. Schromm; Beth A. Shurtleff; Jason A. Smith; Joseph Keane; Douglas T. Golenbock; Stefanie N. Vogel; Matthew J. Fenton

    We previously showed that viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli contain distinct ligands that activate cells via the mammalian Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins TLR2 and TLR4. We now demonstrate that expression of a dominant negative TLR2 or TLR4 proteins in RAW 264.7 macrophages partially blocked Mtb-induced NF-kB activation. Coexpression of both dominant negative proteins blocked virtually all Mtb-induced NF-kB activation. The

  16. Drug-induced phospholipidosis is caused by blockade of mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated targeting of lysosomal enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Ikeda; Masahiro Hirayama; Yuko Hirota; Erika Asa; Jiro Seki; Yoshitaka Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) cause massive intracellular accumulation of phospholipids, thereby resulting in phospholipidosis (PLD); however, the molecular mechanism underlying CAD-induced PLD remains to be resolved. Here, we found that treatment of normal rat kidney cells with CADs known to induce PLD caused redistribution of a mannose 6-phosphate\\/IGF-II receptor (MPR300) from the TGN to endosomes and concomitantly increased the secretion

  17. ?-TEA-induced death receptor dependent apoptosis involves activation of acid sphingomyelinase and elevated ceramide-enriched cell surface membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Weiping Yu; Richa Tiwary; Sook-Kyung Park; Ailian Xiong; Bob G Sanders; Kimberly Kline

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (?-TEA), an analog of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol), is a potent and selective apoptosis-inducing agent for human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. ?-TEA induces apoptosis via activation of extrinsic death receptors Fas (CD95) and DR5, JNK\\/p73\\/Noxa pathways, and suppression of anti-apoptotic mediators Akt, ERK, c-FLIP and survivin in breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells.

  18. Ligand-Induced Alterations in the Phosphorylation State of Ethylene Receptors in Tomato Fruit1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Tieman, Denise M.; Huber, Donald J.; Klee, Harry J.

    2012-01-01

    Perception of the plant hormone ethylene is essential to initiate and advance ripening of climacteric fruits. Since ethylene receptors negatively regulate signaling, the suppression is canceled upon ethylene binding, permitting responses including fruit ripening. Although receptors have autophosphorylation activity, the mechanism whereby signal transduction occurs has not been fully determined. Here we demonstrate that LeETR4, a critical receptor for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, is multiply phosphorylated in vivo and the phosphorylation level is dependent on ripening stage and ethylene action. Treatment of preclimacteric fruits with ethylene resulted in accumulation of LeETR4 with reduced phosphorylation whereas treatments of ripening fruits with ethylene antagonists, 1-methylcyclopropene and 2,5-norbornadiene, induced accumulation of the phosphorylated isotypes. A similar phosphorylation pattern was also observed for Never ripe, another ripening-related receptor. Alteration in the phosphorylation state of receptors is likely to be an initial response upon ethylene binding since treatments with ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene rapidly influenced the LeETR4 phosphorylation state rather than protein abundance. The LeETR4 phosphorylation state closely paralleled ripening progress, suggesting that the phosphorylation state of receptors is implicated in ethylene signal output in tomato fruits. We provide insights into the nature of receptor on and off states. PMID:22797658

  19. Biological effects of THC and a lipophilic cannabis extract on normal and insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gallant, M; Odei-Addo, F; Frost, C L; Levendal, R-A

    2009-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, a chronic disease, affects about 150 million people world wide. It is characterized by insulin resistance of peripheral tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which in turn inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation. It has been reported that cannabis is used in the treatment of diabetes. A few reports indicate that smoking cannabis can lower blood glucose in diabetics. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. This study aimed to determine the effect of a lipophilic cannabis extract on adipogenesis, using 3T3-L1 cells, and to measure its effect on insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant adipocytes. Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and differentiated over a 3 day period for all studies. In the adipogenesis studies, differentiated cells were exposed to the extract in the presence and absence of insulin. Lipid content and glucose uptake was subsequently measured. Insulin-induced glucose uptake increased, while the rate of adipogenesis decreased with increasing THC concentration. Insulin-resistance was induced using TNF-alpha, exposed to the extract and insulin-induced glucose uptake measured. Insulin-induced glucose was increased in these cells after exposure to the extract. Semiquantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed after ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction to evaluate the effects of the extract on glucose transporter isotype 4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 gene expression. PMID:19345076

  20. CCK-Induced Reduction of Food Intake and Hindbrain MAPK Signaling Are Mediated by NMDA Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Carlos A.; Wright, Jason S.; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), receives neural and humoral afferents that contribute to the process of satiation. The gut peptide, cholecystokinin (CCK), promotes satiation by activating gastrointestinal vagal afferents that synapse in the NTS. Previously, we demonstrated that hindbrain administration of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor antagonists attenuate reduction of food intake after ip CCK-8 injection, indicating that these receptors play a necessary role in control of food intake by CCK. However, the signaling pathways through which hindbrain NMDA receptors contribute to CCK-induced reduction of food intake have not been investigated. Here we report CCK increases phospho-ERK1/2 in NTS neurons and in identified vagal afferent endings in the NTS. CCK-evoked phospho-ERK1/2 in the NTS was attenuated in rats pretreated with capsaicin and was abolished by systemic injection of a CCK1 receptor antagonist, indicating that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 occurs in and is mediated by gastrointestinal vagal afferents. Fourth ventricle injection of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevented CCK-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in hindbrain neurons and in vagal afferent endings, as did direct inhibition of MAPK kinase. Finally, fourth ventricle administration of either a MAPK kinase inhibitor or NMDA receptor antagonist prevented the reduction of food intake by CCK. We conclude that activation of NMDA receptors in the hindbrain is necessary for CCK-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the NTS and consequent reduction of food intake. PMID:22508518

  1. Autocrine Regulation of UVA-Induced IL-6 Production via Release of ATP and Activation of P2Y Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Ayumi; Kadomatsu, Remi; Ono, Miyu; Kojima, Shuji; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, are released from cells in response to various stimuli and act as intercellular signaling molecules through activation of P2 receptors. Exposure to the ultraviolet radiation A (UVA) component of sunlight causes molecular and cellular damage, and in this study, we investigated the involvement of extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors in the UVA-induced cellular response. Human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells were irradiated with a single dose of UVA (2.5 J/cm2), and ATP release and interleukin (IL)-6 production were measured. ATP was released from cells in response to UVA irradiation, and the release was blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of gap junction hemichannels or P2X7 receptor antagonist. IL-6 production was increased after UVA irradiation, and this increase was inhibited by ecto-nucleotidase or by antagonists of P2Y11 or P2Y13 receptor. These results suggest that UVA-induced IL-6 production is mediated by release of ATP through hemichannels and P2X7 receptor, followed by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors. Interestingly, P2Y11 and P2Y13 were associated with the same pattern of IL-6 production, though they trigger different intracellular signaling cascades: Ca2+-dependent and PI3K-dependent, respectively. Thus, IL-6 production in response to UVA-induced ATP release involves at least two distinct pathways, mediated by activation of P2Y11 and P2Y13 receptors. PMID:26030257

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type I Receptor Antagonists Decrease Growth and Induce Cell Death of Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Langenfeld, Elaine; Hong, Charles C.; Lanke, Gandhi; Langenfeld, John

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved morphogens that are essential for normal development. BMP-2 is highly expressed in the majority of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) but not in normal lung tissue or benign lung tumors. The effects of the BMP signaling cascade on the growth and survival of cancer cells is poorly understood. We show that BMP signaling is basally active in lung cancer cell lines, which can be effectively inhibited with selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors. Lung cancer cell lines express alk2, alk3, and alk6 and inhibition of a single BMP receptor was not sufficient to decrease signaling. Inhibition of more than one type I receptor was required to decrease BMP signaling in lung cancer cell lines. BMP receptor antagonists and silencing of BMP type I receptors with siRNA induced cell death, inhibited cell growth, and caused a significant decrease in the expression of inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, and Id3) family members, which are known to regulate cell growth and survival in many types of cancers. BMP receptor antagonists also decreased clonogenic cell growth. Knockdown of Id3 significantly decreased cell growth and induced cell death of lung cancer cells. H1299 cells stably overexpressing Id3 were resistant to growth suppression and induction of cell death induced by the BMP antagonist DMH2. These studies suggest that BMP signaling promotes cell growth and survival of lung cancer cells, which is mediated through its regulation of Id family members. Selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors represents a potential means to pharmacologically treat NSCLC and other carcinomas with an activated BMP signaling cascade. PMID:23593444

  3. Modulation of gastric distension-induced sensations by small intestinal receptors.

    PubMed

    Feinle, C; Grundy, D; Fried, M

    2001-01-01

    Duodenal lipid exacerbates gastrointestinal sensations during gastric distension. Using luminal application of the local anesthetic benzocaine, we investigated the role of intestinal receptors in the induction of these sensations. Nine healthy subjects were studied on five occasions, during which isotonic saline or 20% lipid (2 kcal/min), combined with (duodenal or jejunal) 0.75% benzocaine or vehicle at 2.5 ml/min, was infused intraduodenally before and during gastric distension. Intragastric pressures and volumes, gastrointestinal sensations, and plasma CCK levels were determined. Duodenal lipid combined with vehicle increased gastric volume (in ml: saline, -10 +/- 18; lipid/vehicle, 237 +/- 30) and plasma CCK [mean levels (pmol/l): saline, 2.0 +/- 0. 2; lipid/vehicle, 8.0 +/- 1.6] and, during distensions, induced nausea (scores: saline, 3 +/- 2: lipid/vehicle, 58 +/- 19) and decreased pressures at which fullness and discomfort occurred. Duodenal but not jejunal benzocaine attenuated the effect of lipid on gastric volume, plasma CCK, and nausea during distension (135 +/- 38 and 216 +/- 40 ml, 4.6 +/- 0.6 pmol/l and not assessed, and 37 +/- 12 and 64 +/- 21 for lipid + duodenal benzocaine and lipid + jejunal benzocaine, respectively) and on pressures for sensations. In conclusion, intestinal receptors modulate gastrointestinal sensations associated with duodenal lipid and gastric distension. There is also the potential for local neural mechanisms to regulate CCK release and thereby reduce afferent activation indirectly. PMID:11123197

  4. Inducible Human Endothelin-1 Overexpression in Endothelium Raises Blood Pressure via Endothelin Type A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Rautureau, Yohann; Coelho, Suellen C; Fraulob-Aquino, Julio C; Huo, Ku-Geng; Rehman, Asia; Offermanns, Stefan; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of blood pressure regulation by endothelin-1 produced by endothelial cells are complex and still unclear. Transgenic mice with endothelium-restricted human endothelin-1 (EDN1) overexpression presented vascular damage but no significant change in blood pressure, which could be because of adaptation to life-long exposure to elevated endothelin-1 levels. We now generated a tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted EDN1 overexpressing transgenic mouse (ieET-1) using Cre/loxP technology. Sixteen days after tamoxifen treatment, ieET-1 mice presented ?10-fold increase in plasma endothelin-1 (P<0.01) and ?20 mm Hg elevation in systolic blood pressure (P<0.01), which could be reversed by atrasentan (P<0.05). Endothelin-1 overexpression did not cause vascular or kidney injury or changes in kidney perfusion or function. However, endothelin type A and B receptor expression was differentially regulated in the mesenteric arteries and the kidney. Our results demonstrate using this ieET-1 mouse model that 21 days of induction of endothelin-1 overexpression caused endothelin-1-dependent elevated blood pressure mediated by endothelin type A receptors. PMID:26101346

  5. Rac-mediated Stimulation of Phospholipase C?2 Amplifies B Cell Receptor-induced Calcium Signaling.

    PubMed

    Walliser, Claudia; Tron, Kyrylo; Clauss, Karen; Gutman, Orit; Kobitski, Andrei Yu; Retlich, Michael; Schade, Anja; Röcker, Carlheinz; Henis, Yoav I; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Gierschik, Peter

    2015-07-10

    The Rho GTPase Rac is crucially involved in controlling multiple B cell functions, including those regulated by the B cell receptor (BCR) through increased cytosolic Ca(2+). The underlying molecular mechanisms and their relevance to the functions of intact B cells have thus far remained unknown. We have previously shown that the activity of phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2), a key constituent of the BCR signalosome, is stimulated by activated Rac through direct protein-protein interaction. Here, we use a Rac-resistant mutant of PLC?2 to functionally reconstitute cultured PLC?2-deficient DT40 B cells and to examine the effects of the Rac-PLC?2 interaction on BCR-mediated changes of intracellular Ca(2+) and regulation of Ca(2+)-regulated and nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cell-regulated gene transcription at the level of single, intact B cells. The results show that the functional Rac-PLC?2 interaction causes marked increases in the following: (i) sensitivity of B cells to BCR ligation; (ii) BCR-mediated Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores; (iii) Ca(2+) entry from the extracellular compartment; and (iv) nuclear translocation of the Ca(2+)-regulated nuclear factor of activated T cells. Hence, Rac-mediated stimulation of PLC?2 activity serves to amplify B cell receptor-induced Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:25903139

  6. Visfatin is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mayi, Thérèse Hèrvée; Duhem, Christian; Copin, Corinne; Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Rigamonti, Elena; Pattou, François; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a low grade chronic inflammatory disease associated with an increased number of macrophages (ATM) in adipose tissue. Within the adipose tissue, ATM are the major source of visfatin/PBEF/NAMPT. The nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)? exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages by inhibiting cytokine production and enhancing alternative differentiation. In this study, we investigated whether PPAR? modulates visfatin expression in murine (BMDM) and human (RM, M1, M2, ATM) macrophage models and preadipocyte-derived adipocytes. We show that synthetic PPAR? ligands increased visfatin gene expression in a PPAR?-dependent manner in primary human macrophages (RM) and ATM, but not in adipocytes. The increase of visfatin mRNA (3-fold) was paralleled by an increase of protein expression (30%) and secretion (30%). Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) experiments and transient transfection assays indicated that PPAR? induces visfatin promoter activity in human macrophages by binding to a DR1-PPAR? response element. Finally, we show that PPAR? ligands increase NAD+ production in primary human macrophages and this regulation is dampened in the presence of visfatin siRNA or by the visfatin-specific inhibitor FK866. Taken together, our results suggest that PPAR? regulates the expression of visfatin in macrophages leading to increased NAD+ levels. PMID:20608974

  7. Identification of an epithelial cell receptor responsible for Clostridium difficile TcdB-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, Michelle E; Farrow, Melissa A; Chandrasekaran, Ramyavardhanee; Sheng, Jinsong; Rubin, Donald H; Lacy, D Borden

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in the United States. The two main virulence factors of C. difficile are the large toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which enter colonic epithelial cells and cause fluid secretion, inflammation, and cell death. Using a gene-trap insertional mutagenesis screen, we identified poliovirus receptor-like 3 (PVRL3) as a cellular factor necessary for TcdB-mediated cytotoxicity. Disruption of PVRL3 expression by gene-trap mutagenesis, shRNA, or CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis resulted in resistance of cells to TcdB. Complementation of the gene-trap or CRISPR mutants with PVRL3 resulted in restoration of TcdB-mediated cell death. Purified PVRL3 ectodomain bound to TcdB by pull-down. Pretreatment of cells with a monoclonal antibody against PVRL3 or prebinding TcdB to PVRL3 ectodomain also inhibited cytotoxicity in cell culture. The receptor is highly expressed on the surface epithelium of the human colon and was observed to colocalize with TcdB in both an explant model and in tissue from a patient with pseudomembranous colitis. These data suggest PVRL3 is a physiologically relevant binding partner that can serve as a target for the prevention of TcdB-induced cytotoxicity in C. difficile infection. PMID:26038560

  8. Enhanced in vitro refolding of soluble human glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related ligand.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Erika; Szilágyi, László; Koncz, Gábor; Lányi, Szabolcs; Ábrahám, Beáta

    2013-06-01

    The glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Attachment of GITR to its ligand (GITRL) regulates diverse biological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In this study, the extracellular region of human GITRL (hGITRL) was cloned, expressed, and purified. The coding sequence of the extracellular region of hGITRL was isolated from human brain cDNA and inserted in pET20b vector. The hGITRL was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) Star at 37 and 25 °C. The majority of the protein was found in inclusion bodies. We identified three important factors for efficient refolding of hGITRL: a ratio of GSH/GSSG, pH, and addition of polyethylene glycol. The renaturated protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The overall yield of the expression and refolding was higher than 50 mg/l E. coli culture grown at 37 °C. Size exclusion chromatography showed that hGITRL exists as mixture of various multimeric forms in solution. We tested the association of recombinant hGITRL with THP-1 and U937 cell lines and its activity to promote extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation. The results showed that the recombinant protein was biologically active. PMID:23613116

  9. NMDA and PACAP Receptor Signaling Interact to Mediate Retinal-Induced SCN Cellular Rhythmicity in the Absence of Light

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ian C.; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    The “core” region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock responsible for coordinating circadian rhythms, shows a daily rhythm in phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (pERK). This cellular rhythm persists under constant darkness and, despite the absence of light, is dependent upon inputs from the eye. The neural signals driving this rhythmicity remain unknown and here the roles of glutamate and PACAP are examined. First, rhythmic phosphorylation of the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit (pNR1, a marker for receptor activation) was shown to coincide with SCN core pERK, with a peak at circadian time (CT) 16. Enucleation and intraocular TTX administration attenuated the peak in the pERK and pNR1 rhythms, demonstrating that activation of the NMDA receptor and ERK in the SCN core at CT16 are dependent on retinal inputs. In contrast, ERK and NR1 phosphorylation in the SCN shell region were unaffected by these treatments. Intraventricular administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 also attenuated the peak in SCN core pERK, indicating that ERK phosphorylation in this region requires NMDA receptor activation. As PACAP is implicated in photic entrainment and is known to modulate glutamate signaling, the effects of a PAC1 receptor antagonist (PACAP 6-38) on SCN core pERK and pNR1 also were examined. PACAP 6-38 administration attenuated SCN core pERK and pNR1, suggesting that PACAP induces pERK directly, and indirectly via a modulation of NMDA receptor signaling. Together, these data indicate that, in the absence of light, retinal-mediated NMDA and PAC1 receptor activation interact to induce cellular rhythms in the SCN core. These results highlight a novel function for glutamate and PACAP release in the hamster SCN apart from their well-known roles in the induction of photic circadian clock resetting. PMID:24098484

  10. Potentiation of Valproate-induced Anticonvulsant Response by Nigella sativa Seed Constituents: The Role of GABA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Muhammad; Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Alorainy, Mohammad S.; El-Hadiyah, Tarig M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated antiepileptic effects of the main constituents of Nigella sativa (NS) seed (i.e. aqueous extract (AE), fixed oil (FO), volatile oil (VO)) and the main components of its VO (i.e. thymoquinone, ?-pinene and p-cymene) using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions. The potential of these constituents to induce minimal neurological deficit (MND) was also evaluated by using chimney test. Except for the FO, all of the NS seed constituents protected mice effectively against PTZ-induced convulsions. The activity of the VO in this model maybe attributed mainly to its content of thymoquinone and p-cymene and to a lesser extent, ?-pinene. VO and its component p-cymene effectively suppressed convulsions induced by MES. The contents of p-cymene present in the effective dose of the VO maybe partially responsible for its anti-seizure effects. All of the NS seed constituents induced varying degrees of MND in the chimney test. MND induced by VO may pertain to its contents of thymoquinone (63%), p-cymene (23%) and ?-pinene (<14%). Protective indices of p-cymene and thymoquinone were closer to one, but only in PTZ model. Exploration on the role of receptors suggests that picrotoxin and bicuculline-sensitive GABA receptors, most probably GABAA receptors, mediate an increase in GABAergic response. In the part dealing with the interaction of valproate with thymoquinone, it can be mentioned that thymoquinone increased the potency of valproate in both PTZ and MES models. PMID:21475467

  11. Prostaglandin E(2) protects human lung fibroblasts from cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis via EP(2) receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Liu, Xiangde; Togo, Shinsaku; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Shen, Lei; Kawasaki, Shin; Kamio, Koichiro; Wang, Xing Qi; Mao, Li Jun; Rennard, Stephen I

    2007-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) has been shown to have a strong cytoprotective effect, inhibiting apoptosis. In the present study, we evaluated whether PGE(2) has a protective effect on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis in human lung fibroblasts. Apoptosis was assessed by various methods, including DNA content analysis. CSE (15%-20%) led to apoptosis and induced imbalance in favor of pro- over anti-apoptotic protein expression and activated caspases. PGE(2) blocked CSE-induced apoptosis and modulated the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased the activation of caspases. This anti-apoptotic effect was mediated via EP(2) receptor activation as the EP(2) agonist butaprost mimicked PGE(2) activity and siRNA for the EP(2) receptor blocked it. An adenylyl cyclase inhibitor was found to abolish the PGE(2)-mediated cytoprotective effect. Correspondingly, c-AMP analogs blocked CSE-induced apoptosis. Consistently, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 abolished PGE(2)-mediated protection. PGE(2) and butaprost phosphorylated Bad and KT-5720 blocked phosphorylation. These results suggest that PGE(2) inhibits CSE-induced apoptosis via EP(2) receptor activation and activation of PKA, which leads to an alteration in the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. Through such a mechanism, PGE(2) may alter survival of cells in the smoke-exposed lungs, thus affecting the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced disease. PMID:16998801

  12. An exclusive fluoride receptor: Fluoride-induced proton transfer to a quinoline-based thiourea.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Ismet; Khansari, Maryam Emami; Pramanik, Avijit; Wong, Bryan M; Hossain, Alamgir

    2014-02-19

    A new quinoline-based tripodal thiourea has been synthesized, which exclusively binds fluoride anion in DMSO, showing no