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1

Apoptotic mechanisms in T47D and MCF7 human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the mechanisms underlying apoptosis in breast cancer cells, staurosporine was used as an apoptotic stimulus in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Staurosporine induced dose and time dependent increases in DNA fragmentation which was abrogated by z-VAD-fmk. MCF-7 cells did not express caspase-3, suggesting that DNA fragmentation occurred in the absence of caspase-3 and that

L M Mooney; K A Al-Sakkaf; B L Brown; P R M Dobson; PRM Dobson

2002-01-01

2

Human T47D-ER? breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ER? expression reflect ER?/ER? ratios in rat and human breast tissue.  

PubMed

T47D-ER? breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ER? expression and constant ER? expression can be used to investigate effects of varying ER?/ER? ratios on estrogen-induced cellular responses. This study defines conditions at which ER?/ER? ratios in T47D-ER? cells best mimic ER?/ER? ratios in breast and other estrogen-sensitive tissues in vivo in rat as well as in human. Protein and mRNA levels of ER? and ER? were analyzed in T47D-ER? cells exposed to a range of tetracycline concentrations and compared to ER? and ER? levels found in breast, prostate, and uterus from rat and human origin. The ER?/ER? ratio in T47D-ER? cells exposed to >150ng/ml tetracycline is comparable to the ratio found in rat mammary gland and in human breast tissue. The ER?/ER? ratio of other estrogen-sensitive rat and human tissues can also be mimicked in T47D-ER? cells. The ER?/ER? ratio found in MCF-7 and native T47D breast cancer cell lines did not reflect ratios in analyzed rat and human tissues, which further supports the use of T47D-ER? cells as model for estrogen-responsive tissues. Using 17?-estradiol and the T47D-ER? cells under the conditions defined to mimic various tissues it could be demonstrated how these different tissues vary in their proliferative response. PMID:23680332

Evers, N M; van de Klundert, T M C; van Aesch, Y M; Wang, S; de Roos, W K; Romano, A; de Haan, L H J; Murk, A J; Ederveen, A G H; Rietjens, I M C M; Groten, J P

2013-09-01

3

Effects of extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on morphological and biochemical properties of human breast carcinoma cells (T47D).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of 100 and 217 Hz extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on cell proliferation, actin reorganization, and ROS generation in a human breast carcinoma cells (T47D). Cells were exposed for 24-72 h, at 100 and 217 Hz, 0.1 mT. The treatment induced a time dependent decrease in cell growth after 72 h and revealed an increase in fluorescence intensity in cytoplasm and actin aggregations around the nucleus as detected by fluorescence microscopy. The amount of actin in T47D cells increased after 48 h exposure to 100 Hz and 24 h to 217 Hz while no changes in nuclear morphology were detected. Exposing the cells to 217 Hz for 72 h caused a dramatically increase of intracellular ROS generation while with exposure to 100 Hz it remained nearly unchanged. These results suggest that exposure to ELF-PEMF (100, 217 Hz, 0.1 mT) are able inducing an increase of actin level, its migration toward nucleus but despite of these changes and dramatically increase in ROS generation the symptoms of apoptosis were not observed. Our results support the hypothesis that cell response to EMF may only be observed at certain window effects; such as frequency and intensity of EMF parameters. PMID:22676212

Sadeghipour, Razmin; Ahmadian, Shahin; Bolouri, Bahram; Pazhang, Yaghub; Shafiezadeh, Mahshid

2012-12-01

4

Induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and cyclin D1 down-regulation in response to pericarp extract of Baneh in human breast cancer T47D cells  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Natural products from plants have an important role in the development and production of new drugs mainly for cancer therapy. More recently, we have shown that the pericarp methanolic extract of Pistacia atlantica sub kurdica (with local name of Baneh) as a rich source of active biological components with high antioxidant and radical scavenging activities, has ability to cease proliferation and induce apoptosis in T47D human breast cancer cells. The present study aimed to clarify whether Baneh extract able to alter cell cycle progression of T47D cells or not. Methods In order to study the possible effect of Baneh extract on cell cycle of T47D cells, we evaluated cell cycle distribution and its regulatory proteins by flow cytometry and western blot analysis respectively. Results Baneh extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in conjunction with a marked decrease in expression of cyclin D1 and cdk4 that was strongly dependent on time of exposure. In parallel, Dox-treated T47D cells in early time points were accumulated on S phase, but after 48 h cell cycle progression was inhibited on G2/M. Dox promoted striking accumulation of cyclin B1 rapidly and enhanced cyclin A abundance. Conclusion Taken together, our results establish that the antitumor activity of the pericarp extract of Baneh partly is mediated via cell cycle arrest and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cdk4 expression. These findings warrant further evaluation regarding the mechanism(s) of action of this promising anticancer agent. PMID:23351343

2012-01-01

5

Biotin uptake by T47D breast cancer cells: functional and molecular evidence of sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate functional and molecular evidence of carrier mediated system responsible for biotin uptake in breast cancer (T47D) cells and to delineate mechanism of intracellular regulation of this transporter. Cellular accumulation of [3H] biotin was studied in T47D and normal mammary epithelial (MCF-12A) cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to confirm the molecular expression of sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in T47D cells. Quantitative real time PCR analysis was also performed to compare the relative expression of SMVT in T47D and MCF-12A cells. [3H] biotin uptake by T47D cells was found to be concentration dependent with K(m) of 9.24 ?M and V(max) of 27.34 pmol/mg protein/min. Uptake of [3H] biotin on MCF-12A cells was also found to be concentration dependent and saturable, but with a relatively higher K(m) (53.10 ?M) indicating a decrease in affinity of biotin uptake in normal breast cells compared to breast cancer cells. [3H] biotin uptake appears to be time-, temperature-, pH- and sodium ion-dependent but independent of energy and chloride ions. [3H] biotin uptake was significantly inhibited in the presence of biotin, its structural analog desthiobiotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Concentration dependent inhibition of biotin uptake was evident in the presence of valeric acid which possesses free carboxyl group and biocytin and NHS biotin which are devoid of free carboxyl group. No significant inhibition was observed in the presence of structurally unrelated vitamins (ascorbic acid, folic acid, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine and riboflavin). Modulators of PTK, PKC and PKA mediated pathways had no effect, but uptake in presence of calmidazolium (calcium-calmodulin inhibitor) was significantly inhibited. [3H] biotin uptake in the presence of calmidazolium was found to be saturable with a K(m) and V(max) values of 13.49 ?M and 11.20 pmol/mg protein/min, respectively. A band of SMVT mRNA at 774 bp was identified by RT-PCR analysis. Quantitative real time PCR confirmed higher expression of SMVT in T47D cells relative to MCF-12A cells. All these studies demonstrated for the first time the functional and molecular expression of sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), a specific carrier-mediated system for biotin uptake, in human derived breast cancer (T47D) cells. The present study also indicated that cancer cells could import more vitamin compared to normal breast cells possibly for maintaining high proliferative status. We investigated the likelihood of selecting this cell line (T47D) as an in vitro cell culture model to study biotin-conjugated anti-cancer drugs/drug delivery systems. PMID:23142496

Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

2013-01-30

6

Effects of Estetrol on Migration and Invasion in T47-D Breast Cancer Cells through the Actin Cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen present at high concentrations during pregnancy. Due to its high oral bioavailability and long plasma half-life, E4 is particularly suitable for therapeutic applications. E4 acts as a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system, while antagonizing the actions of estradiol in the breast. We tested the effects of E4 on its own or in the presence of 17?-estradiol (E2) on T47-D ER+ breast cancer cell migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices. E4 administration to T47-D cells weakly stimulated migration and invasion. However, E4 decreased the extent of movement and invasion induced by E2. Breast cancer cell movement requires a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. During exposure to E4, a weak, concentration-dependent, re-distribution of actin fibers toward the cell membrane was observed. However, when E4 was added to E2, an inhibition of actin remodeling induced by E2 was seen. Estrogens stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell movement through the ezrin-radixin-moesin family of actin regulatory proteins, inducing actin and cell membrane remodeling. E4 was a weak inducer of moesin phosphorylation on Thr(558), which accounts for its functional activation. In co-treatment with E2, E4 blocked the activation of this actin controller in a concentration-related fashion. These effects were obtained through recruitment of estrogen receptor-?. In conclusion, E4 acted as a weak estrogen on breast cancer cell cytoskeleton remodeling and movement. However, when E2 was present, E4 counteracted the stimulatory actions of E2. This contributes to the emerging hypothesis that E4 may be a naturally occurring ER modulator in the breast. PMID:24904530

Giretti, Maria Silvia; Montt Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Cecchi, Elena; Mannella, Paolo; Palla, Giulia; Spina, Stefania; Bernacchi, Guja; Di Bello, Silvia; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro D; Simoncini, Tommaso

2014-01-01

7

Methylseleninic acid (MSA) inhibits 17?-estradiol-induced cell growth in breast cancer T47D cells via enhancement of the antioxidative thioredoxin/ thioredoxin reductase system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to clarify the cell growth inhibitory mechanism of human breast cancer cells caused by selenium (Se) compounds. In the presence of 17?-estradiol (E(2)) at physiological concentrations, growth of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive T47D cells was markedly inhibited by 1 × 10(-6) mol/L methylseleninic acid (MSA) with no Se related toxicity.Under conditions where cell growth was inhibited, MSA decreased ER? mRNA levels and subsequent protein levels; further decreasing expression of estrogen-responsive finger protein (Efp) which is a target gene product of ER? and promotes G2/M progression of the cell cycle. Therefore, the decline in Efp expression is presumed to be involved in G2 arrest. Coincidentally, the antioxidative thioredoxin/ thioredoxin reductase (Trx/TrxR) system in cells was enhanced by the synergistic action of E(2) and MSA. It has been reported that ROS-induced oxidative stress enhanced ER? expression. E(2) increased production of intracellular ROS in T47D cells. Meanwhile, MSA significantly decreased E(2)-induced ROS accumulation. From these results, activation of the Trx/TrxR system induced by the coexistence of MSA and E(2) suppresses oxidative stress and decreases expression of ER?, and finally induces the growth arrest of T47D cells through disruption of ER? signaling. PMID:22975630

Okuno, Tomofumi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Nakamuro, Katsuhiko; Ueno, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

8

In vitro and in vivo analysis of [64Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7–14)NH2]: a site-directed radiopharmaceutical for positron-emission tomography imaging of T-47D human breast cancer tumors?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human breast cancer, from which the T-47D cell line was derived, is known to overexpress the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in some cases. Bombesin (BBN), an agonist for the GRPR, has been appended with a radionuclide capable of positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging and therapy. 64Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7–14)NH2 (NO2A=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate) has produced high-quality microPET images of GRPR-positive breast cancer xenografted tumors in mice. Methods The imaging probe was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis followed by manual conjugation of the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) bifunctional chelator and radiolabeling in aqueous solution. The radiolabeled conjugate was subjected to in vitro and in vivo studies to determine its specificity for the GRPR and its pharmacokinetic profile. A T-47D tumor-bearing mouse was imaged with microPET/CT and microMRI imaging. Results The 64Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7–14)NH2 targeting vector was determined to specifically localize in GRPR-positive tissue. Accumulation was observed in the tumor in sufficient quantities to allow for identification of tumors in microPET imaging procedures. For example, uptake and retention in T-47D xenografts at 1, 4 and 24 h were determined to be 2.27±0.08, 1.35±0.14 and 0.28±0.07 % ID/g, respectively. Conclusions The 64Cu-NO2A-8-Aoc-BBN(7–14)NH2 produced high-quality microPET images. The pharmacokinetic profile justifies investigation of this bioconjugate as a potentially useful diagnostic/therapeutic agent. Additionally, the bioconjugate would serve as a good starting point for modification and optimization of similar agents to maximize tumor uptake and minimize nontarget accumulation. PMID:19217529

Prasanphanich, Adam F.; Retzloff, Lauren; Lane, Stephanie R.; Nanda, Prasant K.; Sieckman, Gary L.; Rold, Tammy L.; Ma, Lixin; Figueroa, Said D.; Sublett, Samantha V.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Smith, Charles J.

2009-01-01

9

Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines. Methods The in vitro drugs-stimulated cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay. Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program. Apoptosis assay was carried out by double staining method using ethydium bromide-acridin orange. The expression of cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) on T47D cell lines was identified using immunocytochemistry. Results The combination exhibited higher inhibitory effect on cell growth than the single treatment of doxorubicin in T47D cells. In addition, combination of doxorubicin and HIF increased the incidence of cells undergoing apoptosis. HIF could improve doxorubicin cytotoxic effect by changing the accumulation of cell cycle phase from G2/M to G1 phase. The combination also exhibited upregulation of cleaved-PARP in T47D cells. Conclusions Based on this results, HIF is potential to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the molecular mechanism need to be explored further. PMID:23620854

Nugroho, Agung Endro; Hermawan, Adam; Putri, Dyaningtyas Dewi Pamungkas; Novika, Anindya; Meiyanto, Edy

2013-01-01

10

Isodeoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber (Didancao) induces cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Isodeoxyelephantopin (IDOE) isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. (Didancao) is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of some types of cancer. The anti-cancer mechanism of IDOE remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. Methods The growth inhibitory effects of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells, and normal lymphocytes were evaluated by the MTT assay. Morphological analysis of apoptosis induction was performed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual-staining and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining. The cell cycle profile, caspase-3 expression, and annexin V staining were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results IDOE inhibited the growth of A549 and T47D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 values of 10.46 and 1.3 ?g/mL, respectively. IDOE was not significantly toxic to normal lymphocytes. The cells became detached from the monolayer and rounded up, had fragmented nuclei and condensed chromatin, and the numbers of apoptotic cells increased (P?=?0.0003). IDOE-induced cell death was associated with activated caspase-3 expression followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Conclusions IDOE inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells and lung carcinoma cells and induced caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the treated cells. PMID:24742378

2014-01-01

11

PQ1, a Quinoline Derivative, Induces Apoptosis in T47D Breast Cancer Cells through Activation of Caspase-8 and Caspase-9  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis, a programmed cell death, is an important control mechanism of cell homeostasis. Deficiency in apoptosis is one of the key features of cancer cells, allowing cells to escape from death. Activation of apoptotic signaling pathway has been a target of anti-cancer drugs in an induction of cytotoxicity. PQ1, 6-methoxy-8-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]-4-methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenyloxy)quinoline, has been reported to decrease the viability of cancer cells and attenuate xenograft tumor growth. However, the mechanism of the anti-cancer effect is still unclear. To evaluate whether the cytotoxicity of PQ1 is related to induction of apoptosis, the effect of PQ1 on apoptotic pathways was investigated in T47D breast cancer cells. PQ1-treated cells had an elevation of cleaved caspase-3 compared to controls. Studies of intrinsic apoptotic pathway showed that PQ1 can activate the intrinsic checkpoint protein caspase-9, enhance the level of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and release cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol; however, PQ1 has no effect on the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Further studies also demonstrated that PQ1 can activate the key extrinsic player, caspase-8. Pre-treatment of T47D cells with caspase-8 or caspase-9 inhibitor suppressed the cell death induced by PQ1, while pre-treatment with caspase-3 inhibitor completely counteracted the effect of PQ1 on cell viability. This report provides evidence that PQ1 induces cytotoxicity via activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9 in T47D breast cancer cells. PMID:23677255

Ding, Ying; Nguyen, Thu Annelise

2013-01-01

12

Effects of the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway via the c-ros receptor tyrosine kinase on the T47D breast cancer cell line following alcohol exposure.  

PubMed

Compared to other cancers affecting women, breast cancer is significantly associated with alcohol consumption. However, the principles underlying the carcinogenesis of alcohol-induced breast cancer and the related metastatic mechanisms have yet to be established. To observe the effect of alcohol on the growth regulation in breast cancer cells, we identified differentially expressed proteins in alcohol-exposed human breast cancer T47D cells using gel-based proteomics analysis. The expression of c-ros receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) was increased and activated by autophosphorylation, thereby activating mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) through the mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway; activated MSK1, in turn, phosphorylated histone 3 serine 10 (H3S10p) residues in the nucleus. The increase in H3S10 phosphorylation consequently increased the level of expression of immediate-early gene such as c-fos. This study demonstrated that when breast cancer cells are exposed to alcohol, phosphorylated ROS1 activates MSK1 via Erk1/2 in the MAPK pathway, which then induces modifications to histone residues that regulate gene expression by 14-3-3 protein recruitment, leading to a lack of control of breast cancer cell proliferation. PMID:23292247

Lee, Hyung Tae; Kim, Se Kye; Choi, Mi Ran; Park, Ji Hyun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

2013-03-01

13

Stable overexpression of DNA fragmentation factor in T-47D cells: sensitization of breast cancer cells to apoptosis in response to acetazolamide and sulfabenzamide.  

PubMed

Alterations in expression of the DFF40 gene have been reported in some cancers. This study is an in vitro study of the therapeutic effects of gene transfer that lead to elevation in DFF40 expression within T-47D cells in the presence of sulfonamide drugs. In this study, we have constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for DFF40 and transfected it into T-47D cancer cells. We used real time RT-PCR to detect the expression of DFF40 and the MTT assay to determine effects of the sulfonamide drugs acetazolamide, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide on cell viability in the presence of increased and normal DFF40 levels. Cell cycle distribution was assessed by propidium iodide (PI) staining and the rates of apoptosis by annexin V/PI staining. The DNA laddering analysis was employed to evaluate apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of DFF40 was only effective in decreasing viability in cells incubated with acetazolamide and sulfabenzamide. There was enhanced apoptosis in these groups, particularly with acetazolamide. The cell cycle distribution analysis showed that in the presence of sulfonamide drugs there were no substantial changes in empty-vector or DFF40-transfected cells, except for those cells treated with sulfabenzamide or sulfathiazole. There was no DNA laddering in cells that expressed the empty vector when incubated with sulfonamide drugs. In contrast, we observed DNA laddering in cells that expressed DFF40 in the presence of acetazolamide. Our results have demonstrated that combinatorial use of some sulfonamides such as acetazolamide along with increased expression of DFF40 can potently kill tumor cells via apoptosis and may be beneficial for treatment of some chemoresistant cancers. PMID:25086620

Bagheri, Fatemeh; Safarian, Shahrokh; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Sheibani, Nader

2014-11-01

14

Dense Collagen-I Matrices Enhance Pro-Tumorigenic Estrogen-Prolactin Crosstalk in MCF-7 and T47D Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Breast cancers that express estrogen receptor alpha (ER?+) constitute the majority of breast tumors. Estrogen is a major driver of their growth, and targeting ER-mediated signals is a largely successful primary therapeutic strategy. Nonetheless, ER?+ tumors also result in the most breast cancer mortalities. Other factors, including altered characteristics of the extracellular matrix such as density and orientation and consequences for estrogen crosstalk with other hormones such as prolactin (PRL), may contribute to these poor outcomes. Here we employed defined three dimensional low density/compliant and high density/stiff collagen-I matrices to investigate the effects on 17?-estradiol (E2) activity and PRL/E2 interactions in two well-characterized ER?+/PRLR+ luminal breast cancer cell lines in vitro. We demonstrate that matrix density modulated E2-induced transcripts, but did not alter the growth response. However, matrix density was a potent determinant of the behavioral outcomes of PRL/E2 crosstalk. High density/stiff matrices enhanced PRL/E2-induced growth mediated by increased activation of Src family kinases and insensitivity to the estrogen antagonist, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. It also permitted these hormones in combination to drive invasion and modify the alignment of collagen fibers. In contrast, low density/compliant matrices allowed modest if any cooperation between E2 and PRL to growth and did not permit hormone-induced invasion or collagen reorientation. Our studies demonstrate the power of matrix density to determine the outcomes of hormone actions and suggest that stiff matrices are potent collaborators of estrogen and PRL in progression of ER?+ breast cancer. Our evidence for bidirectional interactions between these hormones and the extracellular matrix provides novel insights into the regulation of the microenvironment of ER?+ breast cancer and suggests new therapeutic approaches. PMID:25607819

Barcus, Craig E.; Holt, Elizabeth C.; Keely, Patricia J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Schuler, Linda A.

2015-01-01

15

Dense Collagen-I Matrices Enhance Pro-Tumorigenic Estrogen-Prolactin Crosstalk in MCF-7 and T47D Breast Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

Breast cancers that express estrogen receptor alpha (ER?+) constitute the majority of breast tumors. Estrogen is a major driver of their growth, and targeting ER-mediated signals is a largely successful primary therapeutic strategy. Nonetheless, ER?+ tumors also result in the most breast cancer mortalities. Other factors, including altered characteristics of the extracellular matrix such as density and orientation and consequences for estrogen crosstalk with other hormones such as prolactin (PRL), may contribute to these poor outcomes. Here we employed defined three dimensional low density/compliant and high density/stiff collagen-I matrices to investigate the effects on 17?-estradiol (E2) activity and PRL/E2 interactions in two well-characterized ER?+/PRLR+ luminal breast cancer cell lines in vitro. We demonstrate that matrix density modulated E2-induced transcripts, but did not alter the growth response. However, matrix density was a potent determinant of the behavioral outcomes of PRL/E2 crosstalk. High density/stiff matrices enhanced PRL/E2-induced growth mediated by increased activation of Src family kinases and insensitivity to the estrogen antagonist, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. It also permitted these hormones in combination to drive invasion and modify the alignment of collagen fibers. In contrast, low density/compliant matrices allowed modest if any cooperation between E2 and PRL to growth and did not permit hormone-induced invasion or collagen reorientation. Our studies demonstrate the power of matrix density to determine the outcomes of hormone actions and suggest that stiff matrices are potent collaborators of estrogen and PRL in progression of ER?+ breast cancer. Our evidence for bidirectional interactions between these hormones and the extracellular matrix provides novel insights into the regulation of the microenvironment of ER?+ breast cancer and suggests new therapeutic approaches. PMID:25607819

Barcus, Craig E; Holt, Elizabeth C; Keely, Patricia J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Schuler, Linda A

2015-01-01

16

ANTICANCER MEDICINAL PLANT, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS ELICITED BOTH APOPTOTIC AND NON-APOPTOTIC CELL DEATHS IN T- 47D MAMMARY CARCINOMA CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. chloroform extract produced significant growth inhibition against T-47D breast carcinoma cells and analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited both apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell deaths. T-47D cells exposed to the extract produced a significant up-regulation of c-myc and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels as compared to untreated cells. The up-regulation of caspase-3 mRNA

Tan Mei Lan; Shaida Fariza Sulaiman; Nazalan Najimudin

17

Estrogen regulates the association of intermediate filament proteins with nuclear DNA in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

In a previous study we showed that the levels of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, in the nuclear matrix-intermediate filament (NM-IF) fraction from the hormone-dependent and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell line T-47D5 were regulated by estrogens. In contrast, estrogens did not regulate the cytokeratins in the NM-IF fraction of the hormone-independent and ER-positive cell line, T5-PRF. In this study, human breast cancer cells were treated with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum to cross-link protein to nuclear DNA in situ, and proteins bound to DNA were isolated. We show that cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 of T-47D5 and T5-PRF were associated with nuclear DNA in situ. The levels of the cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 bound to nuclear DNA or associated with the cytoskeleton of T-47D5 human breast cancer cells decreased when estrogens were depleted or the pure antiestrogen ICI 164,384 was added. In contrast, the cytokeratin levels associated with nuclear DNA or cytoskeleton were not significantly affected by estrogen withdrawal or antiestrogen administration in T5-PRF cells. These observations suggest that estrogen regulates the organization of nuclear DNA by rearrangement of the cytokeratin filament network in hormone-dependent, ER-positive human breast cancer cells and that this regulation is lost in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:9786916

Spencer, V A; Coutts, A S; Samuel, S K; Murphy, L C; Davie, J R

1998-10-30

18

Characterisation of VP-16-induced DNA cleavage in oestrogen-stimulated human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cycling cells are recognised to be more susceptible than quiescent cells to the cytotoxic action of many commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic agents. We have found that oestrogen stimulation of T-47D human breast cancer cells is accompanied by a two-fold increase in VP-16-induced DNA cleavage as measured by alkaline DNA unwinding, and that this increase in DNA cleavage is accompanied by

RJ Epstein; PJ Smith; JV Watson; NM Bleehen

1988-01-01

19

METABOLITES OF BENZO[A]FLUORANTHENE ARE POTENT CYP1 INDUCERS IN T-47D HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS. (R827180)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

20

Evaluation of anticancer effects of newly synthesized dihydropyridine derivatives in comparison to verapamil and doxorubicin on T47D parental and resistant cell lines in vitro.  

PubMed

Failure of current anticancer drugs mandates screening for new compounds of synthetic or biological origin to be used in cancer therapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main obstacles in the chemotherapy of cancer. Efflux of cytotoxic agents mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1) is believed to be an important mechanism of multidrug resistance. Therefore, we decided to investigate the antiproliferative effects of seven newly synthesized 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivatives in comparison to verapamil (VP) and doxorubicin (DOX) on human breast cancer T47D cells and its MDR1 overexpressed and moderately resistant cells (RS cells) using MTT cytotoxicity assay. We also examined the effects of these compounds on cytotoxicity of DOX in these two cell types. The cytotoxicity assays using MTT showed that most of the tested new DHP derivatives and VP at 10 microM concentration had varying levels of toxicity on both T47D and RS cells. The toxicity was mostly in the range of 10-25%. However, the cytotoxicity of these DHP derivatives, similar to VP, was significantly less than DOX when comparing IC(50) values. Furthermore, these compounds in general had relatively more cytotoxicity on T47D vs RS cells at 10-microM concentration. Among new DHPs, compounds 7a (3,5-dibenzoyl-4-(2-methylthiazol-4-yl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine) and 7d (3,5-diacetyl-4-[2-(2-chlorophenyl)thiazol-4-yl)]-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine) showed noticeable potentiation of DOX cytotoxicity (reduction of DOX IC(50)) compared to DOX alone in both cells, particularly in RS cells. This effect was similar to that of VP, a known prototype of MDR1 reversal agent. In other words, compounds 7a and 7d resensitized RS cells to DOX or reversed their resistance. Results indicate that compound 7d exerts highest effect on RS cells. Therefore, these two newly synthesized DHP derivatives, compounds 7a and 7d, are promising as potential new MDR1 reversal agents and should be further studied on other highly resistant cells due to MDR1 overexpression and with further molecular investigation. PMID:17805981

Bazargan, L; Fouladdel, S; Shafiee, A; Amini, M; Ghaffari, S M; Azizi, E

2008-04-01

21

Determining estrogenic activity in serum from ovariectomized rats treated with environmental compounds using an in vitro estrogen-mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of cell-based assays to quantify low levels of estrogen in human serum is an accepted method. These assays are more sensitive but less specific than radioimmunoassays (RIA). Thus, we hypothesized that estrogen responsive T47D-KBluc cells would detect estrogenic activity i...

22

Death inducing and cytoprotective autophagy in T-47D cells by two common antibacterial drugs: sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide.  

PubMed

The broad spectrum of the pharmacological effects of sulphonamide family of drugs motivated us to investigate the cellular mechanisms for anti-cancer effects of sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide on T-47D breast cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation assays were used to detect apoptosis. The distribution of the cells among different phases of the cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of several genes with important roles in some critical cellular pathways including apoptosis, mTOR/AKT pathway and autophagy were determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide induced anti-proliferative effects on T-47D cells were independent of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The overexpression of critical genes involved in autophagy including ATG5, p53 and DRAM indicated that the main effect of the drug-induced anti-proliferative effects was through induction of autophagy. This process was induced in two different forms, including death inducing and cytoprotective autophagy. Sulphathiazole treatment was followed by higher expression of p53/DRAM and downregulation of Akt/mTOR pathway resulting in death autophagy. In contrast, sulphacetamide treatment lowered expression of p53/DRAM pathway in parallel with upregulation of Akt/mTOR pathway promoting cytoprotective autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy is the main mechanism mediating the anti-cancer effects of sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide on T-47D cells. Alignment of the p53 and DRAM expression along with activation level of Akt survival pathway therefore determines the type of autophagy that occurs. PMID:23450781

Mohammadpour, Raziye; Safarian, Shahrokh; Sheibani, Nader; Norouzi, Saeed; Razazan, Atefeh

2013-04-01

23

Death Inducing and Cytoprotective Autophagy in T-47D Cells by Two Common Antibacterial Drugs: Sulfathiazole and Sulfacetamide  

PubMed Central

The broad spectrum of the pharmacological effects of sulfonamide family of drugs motivated us to investigate the cellular mechanisms for anti-cancer effects of sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide on T-47D breast cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation assays were used to detect apoptosis. The distribution of the cells among different phases of the cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of several genes with important roles in some critical cellular pathways including apoptosis, mTOR/AKT pathway and autophagy were determined by real time RT-PCR analysis. Sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide induced anti-proliferative effects on T-47D cells were independent of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The overexpression of critical genes involved in autophagy including ATG5, p53 and DRAM indicated that the main effect of the drug-induced anti-proliferative effects was through induction of autophagy. This process was induced in 2 different forms, including death inducing and cytoprotective autophagy. Sulfathiazole treatment was followed by higher expression of p53/DRAM and downregulation of Akt/ mTOR pathway resulting in death autophagy. In contrast, sulfacetamide treatment lowered expression of p53/DRAM pathway in parallel with upregulation of Akt/mTOR pathway promoting cytoprotective autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy is the main mechanism mediating the anti-cancer effects of sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide on T-47D cells. Alignment of the p53 and DRAM expression along with activation level of Akt survival pathway therefore determines the type of autophagy that occurs. PMID:23450781

Mohammadpour, Raziye; Safarian, Shahrokh; Sheibani, Nader; Norouzi, Saeed; Razazan, Atefeh

2013-01-01

24

Somatomedin-C Receptors and Growth Effects in Human Breast Cells Maintained in Long-Term Tissue Culture1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatomedin-C (SM-C) is a growth hormone-dependent poly- peptide with potent mitogenic activity in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we show that four human breast cell lines main tained in long-term tissue culture (MCF-7, T47-D, MDA-MB-231, and HBL-100) have type I somatomedin receptors and that SM- C stimulates DMA synthesis in these cells. The concentration of SM-C required

Richard W. Furlanetto; Joseph N. DiCarlo

25

Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer, T47D cells, but not in hormone-independent breast cancer, MDA-MB231 cells, at 10?ą˛ to 10??M in estrogen withdrawal condition. The proliferative concentrations of glyphosate that induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) transcription activity were 5-13 fold of control in T47D-KBluc cells and this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs. Furthermore, glyphosate also altered both ER? and ? expression. These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study. PMID:23756170

Thongprakaisang, Siriporn; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

2013-09-01

26

Degradation of endothelial basement membrane by human breast cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

During metastasis, it is believed that tumor cells destroy the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels in order to disseminate through the circulatory system. By radioactively labeling the extracellular matrix produced by primary endothelial cells in vitro, the ability of human breast cancer cells to degrade BM components was studied. We found that T-47D, a human breast cancer line, was able to degrade significant amounts of (35S)methionine-labeled and (3H)proline-labeled BM, but not 35SO4-labeled BM. Six other tumor cell lines of human breast origin were assayed in the same manner and were found to degrade BM to varying degrees. Several non-tumor cell lines tested showed relatively little degrading activity. The use of serum-free medium greatly enhanced degradation of the BM by tumor cells, suggesting a role for naturally occurring enzyme inhibitors in the serum. Direct cell contact with the BM was required for BM degradation, suggesting that the active enzymes are cell associated. The addition of hormones implicated in the etiology of breast cancer did not significantly alter the ability of T-47D cells to degrade the BM. The use of this assay affords future studies on the mechanism of invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer.

Yee, C.; Shiu, R.P.

1986-04-01

27

Prostaglandin E2 production and metabolism in human breast cancer cells and breast fibroblasts. Regulation by inflammatory mediators.  

PubMed Central

Malignant human breast tumours contain high levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the mechanisms controlling PGE2 production in breast cancer are unknown. This in vitro study investigates the capacity for PGE2 synthesis and metabolism in several human breast cancer cell lines and early passage human breast fibroblasts and seeks to identify potential regulatory factors which may control these pathways. Basal PGE2 production rose up to 30-fold in breast fibroblast lines on addition of exogenous arachidonic acid (10 microM), whereas no such changes were observed in six out of seven cancer cell lines, with the exception of modest increases in MDA-MB-231 cells. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) also induced PGE2 production in breast fibroblasts in the presence of excess substrate, consistent with cyclo-oxygenase induction by the cytokine. Under these conditions only Hs578T cells and MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated large increases in PGE2 in response to IL-1 beta or phorbol ester; no such responses were seen in MCF-7, T47-D, ZR-75-1, BT-20 or CLF-90-1 cells. In the absence of added arachidonate, bradykinin (BK) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), potentiated PGE2 production in IL-1 beta-treated fibroblasts, possibly by mobilising endogenous substrate. PGE2 also stimulated ET-1 production by breast cancer cells. In co-cultures with T47-D cells both basal and stimulated PGE2 production by breast fibroblasts was greatly reduced. This appeared to be due to metabolic inactivation by the cancer cell since T47-D cells readily converted PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2. This apparent 15-hydroxy-PG dehydrogenase activity was stimulated by TPA and inhibited by cycloheximide. In conclusion, breast fibroblasts, particularly under the influence of inflammatory mediators, provide a potentially rich source for PGE2 production in breast tumours, whereas significant contributions from the epithelial tumour component may be restricted to cancer cells exhibiting an invasive phenotype. Metabolic inactivation by the cancer cells may also play an important role in the regulation of breast tumour PGE2 levels. PMID:8519653

Schrey, M. P.; Patel, K. V.

1995-01-01

28

Stable transfection of protein kinase C alpha cDNA in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

An inverse relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) activity and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in human breast cell lines and tumours has been firmly established over the past 10 years. To determine whether specific alterations in PKC expression accompany hormone-independence, we examined the expression of PKC isozymes in the hormone-independent human breast cancer cell clones MCF-7 5C and T47D:C42 compared with their hormone-dependent counterparts, MCF-7 A4, MCF-7 WS8 and T47D:A18 respectively. Both hormone-independent cell clones exhibit elevated PKC? expression and increased basal AP-1 activity compared with the hormone-dependent cell clones. To determine whether PKC? overexpression is sufficient to mediate the hormone-independent phenotype, we stably transfected an expression plasmid containing PKC? cDNA to the T47D:A18 and MCF-7 A4 cell lines. This is the first report of PKC? transfection in T47D cells. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, T47D has the propensity to lose the ER and more readily forms tamoxifen-stimulated tumours in athymic mice. We find that in T47D:A18/PKC? clones, there is concomitant up-regulation of PKC ?I and ?, whereas in the MCF-7 A4/PKC? transfectants PKC ? is up-regulated. In T47D:A18, but not in MCF-7 A4, PKC? stable transfection is accompanied by down-regulation of ER function whilst basal AP-1 activity is elevated. Our results suggest PKC? overexpression may play a role in growth signalling during the shift from hormone dependent to hormone-independent breast cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952784

Tonetti, D A; Chisamore, M J; Grdina, W; Schurz, H; Jordan, V C

2000-01-01

29

Estradiol-induced regression in T47D:A18/PKCalpha tumors requires the estrogen receptor and interaction with the extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Several breast cancer tumor models respond to estradiol (E(2)) by undergoing apoptosis, a phenomenon known to occur in clinical breast cancer. Before the application of tamoxifen as an endocrine therapy, high-dose E(2) or diethystilbesterol treatment was successfully used, albeit with unfavorable side effects. It is now recognized that such an approach may be a potential endocrine therapy option. We have explored the mechanism of E(2)-induced tumor regression in our T47D:A18/PKCalpha tumor model that exhibits autonomous growth, tamoxifen resistance, and E(2)-induced tumor regression. Fulvestrant, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) down-regulator, prevents T47D:A18/PKCalpha E(2)-induced tumor growth inhibition and regression when given before or after tumor establishment, respectively. Interestingly, E(2)-induced growth inhibition is only observed in vivo or when cells are grown in Matrigel but not in two-dimensional tissue culture, suggesting the requirement of the extracellular matrix. Tumor regression is accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic FasL/FasL ligand proteins and down-regulation of the prosurvival Akt pathway. Inhibition of colony formation in Matrigel by E(2) is accompanied by increased expression of FasL and short hairpin RNA knockdown partially reverses colony formation inhibition. Classic estrogen-responsive element-regulated transcription of pS2, PR, transforming growth factor-alpha, C3, and cathepsin D is independent of the inhibitory effects of E(2). A membrane-impermeable E(2)-BSA conjugate is capable of mediating growth inhibition, suggesting the involvement of a plasma membrane ER. We conclude that E(2)-induced T47D:A18/PKCalpha tumor regression requires participation of ER-alpha, the extracellular matrix, FasL/FasL ligand, and Akt pathways, allowing the opportunity to explore new predictive markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:19372579

Zhang, Yiyun; Zhao, Huiping; Asztalos, Szilard; Chisamore, Michael; Sitabkhan, Yasmin; Tonetti, Debra A

2009-04-01

30

Undecylprodigiosin selectively induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells independent of p53  

SciTech Connect

Undecylprodigiosin (UP) is a bacterial bioactive metabolite produced by Streptomyces and Serratia. In this study, we explored the anticancer effect of UP. Human breast carcinoma cell lines BT-20, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T47D and one nonmalignant human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, were tested in this study. We found that UP exerted a potent cytotoxicity against all breast carcinoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, UP showed limited toxicity to MCF-10A cells, indicating UP's cytotoxic effect is selective for malignant cells. UP's cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, as confirmed by positive TUNEL signals, annexin V-binding, caspase 9 activation and PARP cleavage. Notably, UP-induced apoptosis was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD.fmk, further indicating the involvement of caspase activity. Moreover, UP caused a marked decrease of the levels of antiapoptotic BCL-X{sub L}, Survivin and XIAP while enhancing the levels of proapoptotic BIK, BIM, MCL-1S and NOXA, consequently favoring induction of apoptosis. Additionally, we found that cells with functional p53 (MCF-7, T47D) or mutant p53 (BT-20, MDA-MB-231) were both susceptible to UP's cytotoxicity. Importantly, UP was able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells with p53 knockdown by RNA interference, confirming the dispensability of p53 in UP-induced apoptosis. Overall, our results establish that UP induces p53-independent apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells with no marked toxicity to nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its use as a new chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer irrespective of p53 status.

Ho, T.-F. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40605, Taiwan (China); Ma, C.-J. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lu, C.-H. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Yo-Ting [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Wei, Y.-H. [Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lai, J.-K. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Cheuh, Pin-Ju [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-T. [Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Tang, P.-C. [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Jingua, T.C.; Ko, J.-L. [Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, F.-S. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yen, H.E. [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)] (and others)

2007-12-15

31

Autophagy inhibition enhances apigenin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. The involvement of autophagy in the apigenin-induced apoptotic death of human breast cancer cells was investigated. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and clonogenic assays. Flow cytometry, fluorescent staining and Western blot analysis were employed to detect apoptosis and autophagy, and the role of autophagy was assessed using autophagy inhibitors. Apigenin dose- and time-dependently repressed the proliferation and clonogenic survival of the human breast cancer T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The death of T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells was due to apoptosis associated with increased levels of Caspase3, PARP cleavage and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios. The results from flow cytometry and fluorescent staining also verified the occurrence of apoptosis. In addition, the apigenin-treated cells exhibited autophagy, as characterized by the appearance of autophagosomes under fluorescence microscopy and the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the results of the Western blot analysis revealed that the level of LC3-II, the processed form of LC3-I, was increased. Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), significantly enhanced the apoptosis induced by apigenin, which was accompanied by an increase in the level of PARP cleavage. Similar results were also confirmed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These results indicate that apigenin has apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing effects in breast cancer cells. Autophagy plays a cyto-protective role in apigenin-induced apoptosis, and the combination of apigenin and an autophagy inhibitor may be a promising strategy for breast cancer control. PMID:23592903

Cao, Xuchen; Liu, Bowen; Cao, Wenfeng; Zhang, Weiran; Zhang, Fei; Zhao, Hongmeng; Meng, Ran; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Ruifang; Hao, Xishan

2013-01-01

32

Global gene expression profiling of progesterone receptor modulators in T47D cells provides a new classification system.  

PubMed

Progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) play an important role in women's health. They are widely used in oral contraception or hormone therapy, and provide an attractive treatment approach for gynecological disorders such as uterine leiomyomas, endometriosis or breast cancer. Due to the broad range of activities, various studies were conducted to assess progesterone receptor antagonists (PAs) and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) with respect to progesterone receptor (PR) agonistic and antagonistic activities in vivo. These properties are not always adequately reflected in classical in vitro models, especially differences in the agonistic potential of SPRMs, such as asoprisnil, J1042, and J912, and mixed antagonists, such as mifepristone, are not sufficiently substantiated. The effects of PRMs upon gene expression in progesterone target tissues such as breast epithelium and uterus are poorly understood. This study compares the properties of PR ligands using mammalian two-hybrid assays and gene expression profiling. The protein-protein interaction analyses in HeLa cells provide for specific ligand-induced PR conformations, whereas Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133Plus2.0 analyses in T47D breast cancer cells indicate the transcriptional activity on the level of target genes. The analyses comprise the pure agonist R5020, the non-steroidal PR modulator PRA-910, SPRMs (J1042, asoprisnil, J912), the mixed antagonist mifepristone, classical antagonists (onapristone, ZK 137316) and the pure antagonist lonaprisan to consider all types of ligands described before. Marginal differences were identified in coactivator interaction profiles at all, but significant differences between SPRMs and PR antagonists (PAs) were observed in recruiting the LXXLL-motif containing peptide (LX-H10), very similar to in vivo activities in endometrial transformation in the rabbit (McPhail test). Global gene expression profiles demonstrated progesterone-independent effects for all PR modulators examined and emphasised similarities of asoprisnil and J1042 compared to J912 and all types of PR antagonists. In summary, the data support the popular concept of PR modulator classification in agonists, selective progesterone receptor modulators, mixed and pure antagonists. It further refines previous classification models and accentuates unique effects for each PR modulator. PMID:19130882

Afhüppe, Wiebke; Sommer, Anette; Müller, Jörg; Schwede, Wolfgang; Fuhrmann, Ulrike; Möller, Carsten

2009-01-01

33

Sulfotransferase 2B1b in Human Breast: Differences in Subcellular Localization in African American and Caucasian Women  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women; however, the development of postmenopausal BC is significantly lower in African Americans as compared to Caucasians. Hormonal stimulation is important in BC development and differences in the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into estrogens may be involved in the lower incidence of post-menopausal BC in African American women. DHEA sulfation by SULT2B1b is important in regulating the conversion of DHEA into estrogens in tissues. SULT2B1b is localized in both cytosol and nuclei of some tissues including cancerous and associated-normal breast tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate the total expression and subcellular localization of SULT2B1b in African American and Caucasian breast tissues. Cell fractionation, immunoblot analysis and sulfation assays were used to characterize the subcellular expression and activity of SULT2B1b in BC tissues and T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of SULT2B1b showed that African Americans had a significantly greater amount of SULT2B1b in epithelial cells of associated-normal breast tissue as compared to Caucasians. Also, more SULT2B1b in African American associated-normal breast epithelial cells was localized in the nuclei than in Caucasians. Equivalent levels of SULT2B1b were detected in breast adenocarcinoma tissues from both African American and Caucasian women. Nuclei isolation and immunoblot analysis of both BC tissue and human T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells demonstrated that SULT2B1b is present in nuclei and cytoplasm. PMID:18586095

Dumas, Nicole A; He, Dongning; Frost, Andra R; Falany, Charles N

2008-01-01

34

INDUCTION OF CYP1A1 AND CYP1B1 IN T-47D HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS BY BENZO[A]PYRENE IS DIMINISHED BY ARSENITE. (R827180)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

35

EFFECTS OF BENZO[A]PYRENE AND ARSENITE ON CYP1A1 AND CYP1B1 MRNA LEVELS IN T-47D HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS: DETERMINATION BY A BRANCHED DNA ASSAY. (R827180)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

36

B-cell lymphoma 6 protein stimulates oncogenicity of human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) protein, an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor, showed to be highly expressed in various human cancers in addition to malignancies in the lymphoid system. This study investigated the role of BCL6 expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance in breast cancer patients. Methods Expression of BCL6 protein was assessed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 127 breast cancer patients and 50 patients with breast benign disease as well as in breast cell lines. Expression of BCL6 was restored or knocked down in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D) using BCL6 cDNA and siRNA, respectively. The phenotypic change of these breast cancer cell lines was assessed using cell viability MTT, Transwell invasion, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays and in a xenograft mice model. Luciferase reporter gene, immunoblot, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate the molecular events after manipulated BCL6 expression in breast cancer cells. Results BCL6 protein was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue specimens and expression of BCL6 protein was associated with disease progression and poor survival of breast cancer patients. In vitro, the forced expression of BCL6 results in increased proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion and survival of breast cancer cell lines, whereas knockdown of BCL6 expression reduced these oncogenic properties of breast cancer cells. Moreover, forced expression of BCL6 increased tumor growth and invasiveness in a nude mouse xenograft model. At the gene level, BCL6 was a target gene of miR-339-5p. Expression of BCL6 induced expression of CXCR4 and cyclinD1 proteins. Conclusions The current study demonstrated the oncogenic property of BCL6 in breast cancer and further study could target BCL6 as a novel potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer. PMID:24917186

2014-01-01

37

Properties of retrovirus-like particles produced by a human breast carcinoma cell line: immunological relationship with mouse mammary tumor virus proteins.  

PubMed Central

Clonal derivatives 8 and 11 of the T47D human breast carcinoma cell line release particles that have the biochemical characteristics of a retrovirus. Particles recovered from cultures of [3H]uridine-labeled clone 11 had a density of 1.18 g/ml and contained 60-70S and 35S RNAs associated with reverse transcriptase activity. The production of these particles was steroid-dependent. Clone 8 particles had a higher density, 1.195 g/ml, and their production was independent of steroid hormone. By RIA, antigens crossreactive with the 52,000-dalton envelope glycoprotein gp52, the major external protein of mouse mammary tumor virus, were found associated with these particles and in the media. Most of the gp52-related antigen was in soluble form, but it was enriched in the particle preparation. A lesser amount of antigen was distributed within the cultured cells. Absorption of rabbit antibody to gp52 with clone 11 particle preparations eliminated the ability of this antibody to detect immunocytochemically a crossreactive antigen previously localized in tissue sections of human breast carcinoma. These results indicate that the particle isolates from T47D contain the same gp52-related antigen found in human breast carcinomas and constitute an excellent source for the purification and characterization of this antigen. Images PMID:6330748

Keydar, I; Ohno, T; Nayak, R; Sweet, R; Simoni, F; Weiss, F; Karby, S; Mesa-Tejada, R; Spiegelman, S

1984-01-01

38

Function of RasGRP3 in the formation and progression of human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) mediate the activation of the Ras signaling pathway that is over activated in many human cancers. The RasGRP3, an activator of H-Ras and R-Ras protein exerts oncogenic effects and the overexpression of the protein is observed in numerous malignant cancer types. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of expression and potential function of RasGRP3 in the formation and progression of human breast cancer. Methods The RasGRP3 and phosphoRasGRP3 expressions were examined in human invasive ductal adenocarcinoma derived samples and cell lines (BT-474, JIMT-1, MCF7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-453, T-47D) both in mRNA (Q-PCR) and protein (Western blot; immunohistochemistry) levels. To explore the biological function of the protein, RasGRP3 knockdown cultures were established. To assess the role of RasGRP3 in the viability of cells, annexin-V/PI staining and MitoProbe™ DilC1 (5) assay were performed. To clarify the function of the protein in cell proliferation and in the development of chemotherapeutic resistance, CyQuant assay was performed. To observe the RasGRP3 function in tumor formation, the Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model was used. To investigate the role of the protein in Ras-related signaling Q-PCR and Western blot experiments were performed. Results RasGRP3 expression was elevated in human breast tumor tissue samples as well as in multiple human breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of RasGRP3 expression in breast cancer cells decreased cell proliferation, induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells, and sensitized T-47D cells to the action of drugs Tamoxifen and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Gene silencing of RasGRP3 reduced tumor formation in mouse xenografts as well. Inhibition of RasGRP3 expression also reduced Akt, ERK1/2 and estrogen receptor alpha phosphorylation downstream from IGF-I insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation confirming the functional role of RasGRP3 in the altered behavior of these cells. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that the Ras activator RasGRP3 may have a role in the pathological behavior of breast cancer cells and may constitute a therapeutic target for human breast cancer. PMID:24779681

2014-01-01

39

Cyclin D2 activates Cdk2 in preference to Cdk4 in human breast epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the possibility of differing roles for cyclins D1 and D2 in breast epithelial cells, we examined the expression, cell cycle regulation and activity of these two G1 cyclins in both 184 normal breast epithelial cells and T-47D breast cancer cells. Synchronisation studies in 184 cells demonstrated that cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 were differentially regulated during G1, with

Kimberley J Sweeney; Boris Sarcevic; Robert L Sutherland; Elizabeth A Musgrove

1997-01-01

40

Regulation of human Cripto-1 expression by nuclear receptors and DNA promoter methylation in human embryonal and breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Human Cripto-1 (CR-1) plays an important role in regulating embryonic development while also regulating various stages of tumor progression. However, mechanisms that regulate CR-1 expression during embryogenesis and tumorigenesis are still not well defined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of two nuclear receptors, liver receptor homolog (LRH)-1 and germ cell nuclear factor receptor (GCNF) and epigenetic modifications on CR-1 gene expression in NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells and in breast cancer cells. CR-1 expression in NTERA-2 cells was positively regulated by LRH-1 through direct binding to a DR0 element within the CR-1 promoter, while GCNF strongly suppressed CR-1 expression in these cells. In addition, the CR-1 promoter was unmethylated in NTERA-2 cells, while T47D, ZR75-1 and MCF7 breast cancer cells showed high levels of CR-1 promoter methylation and low CR-1 mRNA and protein expression. Treatment of breast cancer cells with a demethylating agent and histone deacetylase inhibitors reduced methylation of the CR-1 promoter and reactivated CR-1 mRNA and protein expression in these cells, promoting migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Analysis of a breast cancer tissue array revealed that CR-1 was highly expressed in the majority of human breast tumors, suggesting that CR-1 expression in breast cancer cell lines might not be representative of in vivo expression. Collectively, these findings offer some insight into the transcriptional regulation of CR-1 gene expression and its critical role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. PMID:23129342

Bianco, Caterina; Castro, Nadia P.; Baraty, Christina; Rollman, Kelly; Held, Natalie; Rangel, Maria Cristina; Karasawa, Hideaki; Gonzales, Monica; Strizzi, Luigi; Salomon, David S.

2012-01-01

41

Regulation of human Cripto-1 expression by nuclear receptors and DNA promoter methylation in human embryonal and breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Human Cripto-1 (CR-1) plays an important role in regulating embryonic development while also regulating various stages of tumor progression. However, mechanisms that regulate CR-1 expression during embryogenesis and tumorigenesis are still not well defined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of two nuclear receptors, liver receptor homolog (LRH)-1 and germ cell nuclear factor receptor (GCNF) and epigenetic modifications on CR-1 gene expression in NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells and in breast cancer cells. CR-1 expression in NTERA-2 cells was positively regulated by LRH-1 through direct binding to a DR0 element within the CR-1 promoter, while GCNF strongly suppressed CR-1 expression in these cells. In addition, the CR-1 promoter was unmethylated in NTERA-2 cells, while T47D, ZR75-1, and MCF7 breast cancer cells showed high levels of CR-1 promoter methylation and low CR-1 mRNA and protein expression. Treatment of breast cancer cells with a demethylating agent and histone deacetylase inhibitors reduced methylation of the CR-1 promoter and reactivated CR-1 mRNA and protein expression in these cells, promoting migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Analysis of a breast cancer tissue array revealed that CR-1 was highly expressed in the majority of human breast tumors, suggesting that CR-1 expression in breast cancer cell lines might not be representative of in vivo expression. Collectively, these findings offer some insight into the transcriptional regulation of CR-1 gene expression and its critical role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. PMID:23129342

Bianco, Caterina; Castro, Nadia P; Baraty, Christina; Rollman, Kelly; Held, Natalie; Rangel, Maria Cristina; Karasawa, Hideaki; Gonzales, Monica; Strizzi, Luigi; Salomon, David S

2013-06-01

42

Exposure to parabens at the concentration of maximal proliferative response increases migratory and invasive activity of human breast cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are widely used as preservatives in personal care products, foods and pharmaceuticals. Their oestrogenic activity, their measurement in human breast tissue and their ability to drive proliferation of oestrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells has opened a debate on their potential to influence breast cancer development. As proliferation is not the only hallmark of cancer cells, we have investigated the effects of exposure to parabens at concentrations of maximal proliferative response on migratory and invasive properties using three oestrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47-D, ZR-75-1). Cells were maintained short-term (1?week) or long-term (20?±?2?weeks) in phenol-red-free medium containing 5% charcoal-stripped serum with no addition, 10(-8) ?M 17?-oestradiol, 1-5?×?10(-4) ?M methylparaben, 10(-5) ?M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) ?M n-butylparaben. Long-term exposure (20?±?2?weeks) of MCF-7 cells to methylparaben, n-propylparaben or n-butylparaben increased migration as measured using a scratch assay, time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology: invasive properties were found to increase in matrix degradation assays and migration through matrigel on xCELLigence. Western immunoblotting showed an associated downregulation of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in the long-term paraben-exposed cells which could be consistent with a mechanism involving epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Increased migratory activity was demonstrated also in long-term paraben-exposed T-47-D and ZR-75-1 cells using a scratch assay and time-lapse microscopy. This is the first report that in vitro, parabens can influence not only proliferation but also migratory and invasive properties of human breast cancer cells. PMID:24652746

Khanna, Sugandha; Dash, Philip R; Darbre, Philippa D

2014-09-01

43

Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Mediated Stromal Syndecan-1 Shedding Stimulates Breast Carcinoma Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence implicates stromal fibroblasts in breast carcinoma progression. We have recently shown in 3D co-culture experiments that human mammary fibroblasts stimulate the proliferation of T47D breast carcinoma cells and that this activity requires the shedding of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 from the fibroblast surface. The goal of this project was to determine the mechanism of syndecan-1 ectodomain shedding. The broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor GM6001 specifically blocked syndecan-1-mediated carcinoma cell growth stimulation, pointing toward MMPs as critical enzymes involved in syndecan-1 shedding. MMP-2 and membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) were the predominant MMPs expressed by the mammary fibroblasts. Fibroblast-dependent carcinoma cell growth stimulation in 3D co-culture was abolished by MT1-MMP expression silencing with siRNA and restored either by adding recombinant MT1-MMP catalytic domain or by expressing a secreted form of syndecan-1 in the fibroblasts. These findings are consistent with a model where fibroblast-derived MT1-MMP cleaves syndecan-1 at the fibroblast surface, leading to paracrine growth stimulation of carcinoma cells by syndecan-1 ectodomain. The relevance of MT1-MMP in paracrine interactions was further supported by co-culture experiments with T47D cells and primary fibroblasts isolated from human breast carcinomas or matched normal breast tissue. Carcinoma associated fibroblasts stimulated T47D cell proliferation significantly more than normal fibroblasts in 3D co-culture. Function-blocking anti-MT1-MMP antibody significantly inhibited the T47D cell growth stimulation in co-culture with primary fibroblasts. In summary, these results ascribe a novel role to fibroblast-derived MT1-MMP in stromal-epithelial signaling in breast carcinomas. PMID:19010933

Su, Gui; Blaine, Stacy A.; Qiao, Dianhua; Friedl, Andreas

2010-01-01

44

The Novel C24D Synthetic Polypeptide Inhibits Binding of Placenta Immunosuppressive Ferritin to Human T Cells and Elicits Anti–Breast Cancer Immunity In Vitro and In Vivo1  

PubMed Central

Immune tolerance mechanisms supporting normal human pregnancy are exploited by breast cancer and other malignancies. We cloned from human placenta and breast cancer cells the novel human immunomodulator named placenta immunosuppressive ferritin (PLIF). PLIF is composed of a ferritin heavy chain–like domain and a novel cytokine-like domain, named C48. Both intact PLIF and C48 inhibit T cell proliferation. Blocking PLIF by specific antibodies in a tolerant breast cancer model in nude mice resulted in tumor cell apoptosis and rejection. This prompted us to study active immune preventive strategies targeting PLIF activity. Currently, we report on the design and synthesis of the novel C24D polypeptide, which inhibits the binding of PLIF to T cells and therefore inhibits the immune suppressive effect of PLIF. The effect of C24D on the generation of anti–breast cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was studied in vitro in cultures of MCF-7 (HLA-A2+) or T47D (HLA-A2?) breast cancer cells incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. We found that C24D treatment exclusively induced development of CTLs. On reactivation by their specific target cells, the CTLs secreted interferon-? and induced target apoptosis. Anti–MCF-7 CTLs were cross-cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 (HLA-A2+) triple-negative breast cancer but not to T47D. Moreover, C24D treatment in vivo inhibited the growth of MCF-7 tumors engrafted in immune-compromised nude mice transfused with naďve allogeneic human PBMCs. Our results demonstrate that C24D treatment breakdown breast cancer induced tolerance enabling the initiation of effective anti-tumor immune response. PMID:25246274

Solodeev, Inna; Zahalka, Muayad A.; Moroz, Chaya

2014-01-01

45

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

2012-01-01

46

human breast cancer cells  

E-print Network

Background: Colloidal silver has been used as an antimicrobial and disinfectant agent. However, there is scarce information on its antitumor potential. The aim of this study was to determine if colloidal silver had cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and its mechanism of cell death. Methods: MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with colloidal silver (ranged from 1.75 to 17.5 ng/mL) for 5 h at 37°C and 5 % CO2 atmosphere. Cell Viability was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion method and the mechanism of cell death through detection of mono-oligonucleosomes using an ELISA kit and TUNEL assay. The production of NO, LDH, and Gpx, SOD, CAT, and Total antioxidant activities were evaluated by colorimetric assays. Results: Colloidal silver had dose-dependent cytotoxic effect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells through induction of apoptosis, shown an LD50 (3.5 ng/mL) and LD100 (14 ng/mL) (*P colloidal silver. Conclusions: The present results showed that colloidal silver might be a potential alternative agent for human breast cancer therapy. Background

Moisés A Franco-molina; Edgar Mendoza-gamboa; Crystel A Sierra-rivera; Ricardo A Gómez-flores; Pablo Zapata-benavides; Paloma Castillo-tello; Juan Manuel Alcocer-gonzález; Diana F Mir; Reyes S Tamez-guerra; Cristina Rodríguez-padilla

47

Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) gene expression is regulated by members of the NFI transcription factors in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) gene expression is tissue specific, with little to no expression in normal breast epithelia. Expression in breast tumors has been documented, but the transcriptional regulation of SULT1A1 in human breast tissue is poorly understood. We identified Nuclear Factor I (NFI) as a transcription factor family involved in the regulation of SULT1A1 expression. Methods Transcription Factor Activation Profiling Plate Array assay was used to identify the possible transcription factors that regulate the gene expression of SULT1A1in normal breast MCF-10A cells and breast cancer ZR-75-1 cells. Expression levels of NFI-C and SULT1A1 were determined by real-time RT-PCR using total RNA isolated from 84 human liver samples. Expression levels of SULT1A1, NFI-A, NFI-B, NFI-C, and NFI-X were also determined in different human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47D, ZR-75-1, and MDA-MB-231), in the transformed human epithelial cell line MCF-10A, and in ZR-75-1 cells that were transfected with siRNAs directed against NFI-A, NFI-B, NFI-C, or NFI-X for 48 h. The copy numbers of SULT1A1 in cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF-7, T-47D, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A were determined using a pre-designed Custom Plus TaqMan® Copy Number kit from Life Technologies. Results In normal human liver samples, SULT1A1 mRNA level was positively associated with NFI-C. In different human breast cancer and normal epithelial cell lines, SULT1A1 expression was positively correlated with NFI-B and NFI-C. SULT1A1 expression was decreased 41% and 61% in ZR-75-1 cells treated with siRNAs against NFI-A and NFI-C respectively. SULT1A1 gene expression was higher in cells containing more than one SULT1A1 copy numbers. Conclusions Our data suggests that SULT1A1 expression is regulated by NFI, as well as SULT1A1 copy number variation in human breast cancer cell lines. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the differential expression of SULT1A1 in different tissues and different physiological states of disease. PMID:24393253

2014-01-01

48

Alcohol promotes breast cancer cell invasion by regulating the Nm23-ITGA5 pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for breast cancer metastasis. Yet, the mechanism by which alcohol promotes breast cancer metastases is unknown. The ability of cancer cells to invade through tissue barriers (such as basement membrane and interstitial stroma) is an essential step towards establishing cancer metastasis. In the present study, we identify and examine the roles of two genes, Nm23 and ITGA5, in alcohol-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Methods Human breast cancer T47D cells were treated with ethanol at various concentrations. Boyden chamber invasion assays were used to measure cellular invasive ability. The mRNA expression level of metastasis suppressor genes including Nm23 was determined by qRT-PCR. ITGA5 was identified using a qRT-PCR array of 84 genes important for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Nm23 overexpression in addition to Nm23- and ITGA5 knock-down were used to determine the role of the Nm23-ITGA5 pathway on cellular invasive ability of T47D cells. Protein expression levels were verified by Western blot. Results Alcohol increased the invasive ability of human breast cancer T47D cells in a dose-dependent manner through the suppression of the Nm23 metastatic suppressor gene. In turn, Nm23 down-regulation increased expression of fibronectin receptor subunit ITGA5, which subsequently led to increased cellular invasion. Moreover, Nm23 overexpression was effective in suppressing the effects of alcohol on cell invasion. In addition, we show that the effects of alcohol on invasion were also inhibited by knock-down of ITGA5. Conclusions Our results suggest that the Nm23-ITGA5 pathway plays a critical role in alcohol-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Thus, regulation of this pathway may potentially be used to prevent the establishment of alcohol-promoted metastases in human breast cancers. PMID:21838876

2011-01-01

49

Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex, a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Some cases of breast cancer are composed of clones of hormonal-independent growing cells, which do not respond to therapy. In the present study, the effect of Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex (BP-C1) on growth of human breast-cancer cells was tested. BP-C1 is a novel anti-cancer complex of benzene-poly-carboxylic acids with a very low concentration of cis-diammineplatinum (II) dichloride. Human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and T47D, were used. Cell viability was detected by XTT assay and apoptosis was detected by Flow Cytometry and by annexin V/FITC/PI assay. Caspases were detected by western blot analysis and gene expression was measured by using the Applied Biosystems® TaqMan® Array Plates. The results showed that exposure of the cells to BP-C1 for 48 h, significantly (P<0.001) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and activated caspase 8 and caspace 9. Moreover, gene expression experiments indicated that BP-C1 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (CASP8AP1, TNFRSF21, NFkB2, FADD, BCL10 and CASP8) and lowered the level of mRNA transcripts of inhibitory apoptotic genes (BCL2L11, BCL2L2 and XIAP. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of human cancer using BP-C1 analog. PMID:24523856

Fares, Fuad; Azzam, Naiel; Fares, Basem; Larsen, Stig; Lindkaer-Jensen, Steen

2014-01-01

50

Nuclear localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptors (VPACs) are involved in proliferation, survival, and differentiation in human breast cancer cells. Its mechanism of action is traditionally thought to be through specific plasma membrane receptors. There is compelling evidence for a novel intracrine mode of genomic regulation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that implies both endocytosis and nuclear translocation of peripheral GPCR and/or the activation of nuclear-located GPCRs by endogenously-produced, non-secreted ligands. Regarding to VPAC receptors, which are GPCRs, there is only a report suggesting them as a dynamic system for signaling from plasma membrane and nuclear membrane complex. In this study, we show that VPAC(1) receptor is localized in cell nuclear fraction whereas VPAC(2) receptor presents an extranuclear localization and its protein expression is lower than that of VPAC(1) receptor in human breast tissue samples. Both receptors as well as VIP are overexpressed in breast cancer as compared to non-tumor tissue. Moreover, we report the markedly nuclear localization of VPAC(1) receptors in estrogen-dependent (T47D) and independent (MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cell lines. VPAC(1) receptors are functional in plasma membrane and nucleus as shown by VIP stimulation of cAMP production in both cell lines. In addition, VIP increases its own intracellular and extracellular levels, and could be involved in the regulation of VPAC(1)-receptor traffic from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These results support new concepts on function and regulation of nuclear GPCRs which could have an impact on development of new therapeutic drugs. PMID:20691743

Valdehita, Ana; Bajo, Ana M; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Arenas, M Isabel; Vacas, Eva; Valenzuela, Pedro; Ruíz-Villaespesa, Antonio; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

2010-11-01

51

Alpha Cyano-4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxycinnamic Acid Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the underlying mechanism of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ACCA), on the growth of breast cancer cells and normal immortal epithelial cells, and compared their cytotoxic effects responses. Treatment of breast cancer cells (MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-231) with ACCA resulted in dose- and time-dependent decrease of cell proliferation, viability in colony formation assay, and programmed cell death (apoptosis) with minimal effects on non-tumoral cells. The ability of ACCA to suppress growth in cancer cells not expressing or containing defects in p53 gene indicates a lack of involvement of this critical tumor suppressor element in mediating ACCA-induced growth inhibition. Induction of apoptosis correlated with an increase in Bax protein, an established inducer of programmed cell death, and the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, an established inhibitor of apoptosis. We also documented the ability of ACCA to inhibit the migration and invasion of MDA-231 cells with ACCA in vitro. Additionally, tumor growth of MDA-231 breast cancer cells in vivo was dramatically affected with ACCA. On the basis of its selective anticancer inhibitory activity on tumor cells, ACCA may represent a promising therapeutic drug that should be further evaluated as a chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer. PMID:24039831

Hamdan, Lamia; Arrar, Zoheir; Al Muataz, Yacoub; Suleiman, Lutfi; Négrier, Claude; Mulengi, Joseph Kajima; Boukerche, Habib

2013-01-01

52

Alpha cyano-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

This study investigated the underlying mechanism of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ACCA), on the growth of breast cancer cells and normal immortal epithelial cells, and compared their cytotoxic effects responses. Treatment of breast cancer cells (MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-231) with ACCA resulted in dose- and time-dependent decrease of cell proliferation, viability in colony formation assay, and programmed cell death (apoptosis) with minimal effects on non-tumoral cells. The ability of ACCA to suppress growth in cancer cells not expressing or containing defects in p53 gene indicates a lack of involvement of this critical tumor suppressor element in mediating ACCA-induced growth inhibition. Induction of apoptosis correlated with an increase in Bax protein, an established inducer of programmed cell death, and the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, an established inhibitor of apoptosis. We also documented the ability of ACCA to inhibit the migration and invasion of MDA-231 cells with ACCA in vitro. Additionally, tumor growth of MDA-231 breast cancer cells in vivo was dramatically affected with ACCA. On the basis of its selective anticancer inhibitory activity on tumor cells, ACCA may represent a promising therapeutic drug that should be further evaluated as a chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer. PMID:24039831

Hamdan, Lamia; Arrar, Zoheir; Al Muataz, Yacoub; Suleiman, Lutfi; Négrier, Claude; Mulengi, Joseph Kajima; Boukerche, Habib

2013-01-01

53

Interleukin 6 decreases cell-cell association and increases motility of ductal breast carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Treatment of transformed breast duct epithelial cells with IL-6 produces a unique cellular phenotype characterized by diminished proliferation and increased motility. Human ductal carcinoma cells (T-47D and ZR-75-1 lines) are typically epithelioid in shape and form compact colonies in culture. Time-lapse cinemicrography shows that some untreated cells can transiently become fusiform or stellate in shape and separate from each other within a colony, but they usually rejoin their neighbors. While IL-6 suppresses the proliferation of these carcinoma cells, the IL-6-treated cells generally become stellate or fusiform and show increased motility. These changes persist as long as the cells are exposed to IL-6. This results in the dispersal of cells within colonies. The effects on cell growth, shape, and motility are reversible upon removal of IL-6. IL-6-treated T-47D cells display diminished adherens-type cell junctions, as indicated by markedly decreased vinculin-containing adhesions and intercellular desmosomal attachments. The effects on ZR-75-1 cell shape, colony number, and DNA synthesis are dependent on IL-6 concentration in the range from 0.15 to 15 ng/ml. Higher concentrations are required in T-47D cells for equivalent effects. Anti-IL-6 immune serum blocks IL-6 action. IL-6 represents a well-characterized molecule that regulates both the proliferation and junction-forming ability of breast ductal carcinoma cells. PMID:2553849

Tamm, I; Cardinale, I; Krueger, J; Murphy, J S; May, L T; Sehgal, P B

1989-11-01

54

Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. {yields} Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. {yields} Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. {yields} Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

Wang, Yifan [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Pan, Juncheng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe, E-mail: cheli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yin, Jian [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060 (China); Zhao, Qing [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2011-08-26

55

Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp.) are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells. Methods Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 oC for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231) and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A). Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. Results More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 oC hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil treatment. Boswellia sacra essential oil hydrodistilled at 100 oC was more potent than the essential oil prepared at 78 oC in inducing cancer cell death, preventing the cellular network formation (MDA-MB-231) cells on Matrigel, causing the breakdown of multicellular tumor spheroids (T47D cells), and regulating molecules involved in apoptosis, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression. Conclusions Similar to our previous observations in human bladder cancer cells, Boswellia sacra essential oil induces breast cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity. Suppression of cellular network formation and disruption of spheroid development of breast cancer cells by Boswellia sacra essential oil suggest that the essential oil may be effective for advanced breast cancer. Consistently, the essential oil represses signaling pathways and cell cycle regulators that have been proposed as therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are urgently needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Boswellia sacra essential oil as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer. PMID:22171782

2011-01-01

56

Prodigiosin, the red pigment of Serratia marcescens, shows cytotoxic effects and apoptosis induction in HT-29 and T47D cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study, a red pigment of Serratia marcescens PTCC 1111 was purified and identified for antiproliferative activities in HT-29 and T47D cancer cell lines. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and LC/MS analysis confirmed prodigiosin structure. The antiproliferative effects of prodigiosin were determined by employing the MTT assay. The changes in cell cycle pattern were studied with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) reagent using flow cytometry assay, and Annexin V-PI method was used for apoptotic analysis. Results of MTT assay showed that HT-29 cells were more sensitive to prodigiosin than T47D cells. Prodigiosin-treated HT-29 cells showed increase in S phase and decrease in G2/M, but treated T47D cells showed cell cycle pattern relatively similar to Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI). Apoptotic effect of prodigiosin was higher than doxorubicin in HT-29 cells. The data reported here indicate that prodigiosin is a promising antineoplastic agent that triggers apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. PMID:21985476

Dalili, D; Fouladdel, Sh; Rastkari, N; Samadi, N; Ahmadkhaniha, R; Ardavan, A; Azizi, E

2012-01-01

57

Rare steroid receptor-negative basal-like tumorigenic cells in luminal subtype human breast cancer xenografts  

PubMed Central

There are two major subtypes of human breast cancers: the luminal, estrogen, and progesterone receptor-positive, cytokeratin 18-positive (ER+PR+CK18+) subtype, and the basal ER?PR?CK18?CK5+ subtype. Tumor-initiating cells (CD44+) have been described for human breast cancers; whether these are common to the two subtypes is unknown. We have identified a rare population of cells that are both CD44+ and ER?PR?CK5+ in luminal-like ER+PR+ T47D human breast tumor xenografts. The tumor-isolated CD44+ cell fraction was highly enriched for clonogenic (in vitro culture) and tumorigenic (in vivo reimplantation) cells compared with the CD44? cell fraction. Rare ER?PR?CK5+ cells were present within CD44+-derived colonies. Tumor-isolated cells placed in minimal media also contained rare ER?PR?CK5+ cells at early time points (<10 cells); however, this population did not expand with increasing colony size. The number of ER+PR+CK5? cells, conversely, increased linearly with colony growth. Similary, tumors originating in vivo from CD44+ cells contained a rare static ER?PR?CK5+ population, an intermediate ER?PR?CK5? population, and an expanding ER+PR+CK5? population. Putative ER+PR+CK5+ transitional cells could be seen only in colonies or tumors treated with a progestin. We propose that luminal ER+PR+ breast tumors contain a minor ER?PR?CK5+ population that has the capacity to generate the majority of ER+PR+CK18+CK5? cells. Luminal breast cancers are treated with endocrine therapies that target ER. The rare ER?PR?CK5+ progenitor cells would escape such treatments and survive to repopulate the tumor. PMID:18391223

Horwitz, Kathryn B.; Dye, Wendy W.; Harrell, Joshua Chuck; Kabos, Peter; Sartorius, Carol A.

2008-01-01

58

Estrogen-mediated post transcriptional down-regulation of P-glycoprotein in MDR1-transduced human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The human multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) encodes the plasma membrane P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) that functions as an efflux pump for various anticancer agents. We recently reported that estrogens down-regulate the expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). In our present study we demonstrate that estrogens also down-regulate P-gp expression in the MDR1-transduced, estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha)-positive human breast cancer cells, MCF-7/MDR and T-47D/MDR. The P-gp expression levels in MCF-7/MDR cells treated with 100 pM estradiol were found to be 10-20-fold lower than the levels in these same cells that were cultured without estradiol. In contrast, estradiol did not affect the P-gp expression levels in the ER-alpha-negative cancer cells, MDA-MB-231/MDR and NCI/ADR-RES. Estrone and diethylstilbestrol were also found to down-regulate P-gp in MCF-7/MDR cells, but progesterone treatment did not produce this effect. Tamoxifen reversed the estradiol-mediated down-regulation of P-gp in MCF-7/MDR cells, suggesting that ER-alpha activity is necessary for the effects of estradiol upon P-gp. However, estradiol was found not to alter the MDR1 transcript levels in either MCF-7/MDR and T-47D/MDR cells, suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms underlie its effects upon P-gp down-regulation. MCF-7/MDR cells also showed eight-fold higher sensitivity to vincristine when treated with 100 pM estradiol, than when treated with 1 pM estradiol. These results may serve to provide a better understanding of the expression control of ABC transporters, and possibly allow for the establishment of new cancer chemotherapy strategies that would control P-gp expression in breast cancer cells and thereby increase their sensitivity to MDR1-related anticancer agents. PMID:16925584

Mutoh, Kazuyoshi; Tsukahara, Satomi; Mitsuhashi, Junko; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

2006-11-01

59

Novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents have potent inhibitory activities on human breast cancer cells and tumour growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antitumour effects of retinoids are attributed to their influence on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. In our effort to develop useful agents for breast cancer therapy, we evaluated the effects of four representative retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs, VN\\/14-1, VN\\/50-1, VN\\/66-1 and VN\\/69-1) on growth inhibition of oestrogen receptor positive (ER +ve, MCF-7 and T-47D) and oestrogen receptor

J B Patel; J Mehta; A Belosay; G Sabnis; A Khandelwal; A M H Brodie; D R Soprano; V C O Njar; VCO Njar

2007-01-01

60

Nondestructive testing of the human breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of thermal imaging in the evaluation of the human breast has been for the past two decades a highly effective form of screening for breast cancer and other breast disease. The procedure however, is not without controversy and a continuing debate concerning the competitive paradox with mammography as the gold standard in breast cancer screening\\/detection still exists. This

William Cockburn

1999-01-01

61

Immunotherapeutic Potential of Anti-Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K Envelope Protein Antibodies in Targeting Breast Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background The envelope (env) protein of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) family is commonly expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells. We assessed whether HERV-K env is a potential target for antibody-based immunotherapy of breast cancer. Methods We examined the expression of HERV-K env protein in various malignant (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, SKBR3, MDA-MB-453, T47D, and ZR-75-1) and nonmalignant (MCF-10A and MCF-10AT) human breast cell lines by immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence staining, and flow cytometry. Anti-HERV-K env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; 6H5, 4D1, 4E11, 6E11, and 4E6) were used to target expression of HERV-K, and antitumor effects were assessed by quantifying growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo in mice (n = 5 per group) bearing xenograft tumors. The mechanisms responsible for 6H5 mAb–mediated effects were investigated by microarray assays, flow cytometry, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence staining. The expression of HERV-K env protein was assessed in primary breast tumors (n = 223) by immunohistochemistry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The expression of HERV-K env protein in malignant breast cancer cell lines was substantially higher than nonmalignant breast cells. Anti–HERV-K-specific mAbs inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro. Mice treated with 6H5 mAb showed statistically significantly reduced growth of xenograft tumors compared with mice treated with control immunoglobulin (control [mIgG] vs 6H5 mAb, for tumors originating from MDA-MB-231 cells, mean size = 1448.33 vs 475.44 mm3; difference = 972.89 mm3, 95% CI = 470.17 to 1475.61 mm3; P < .001). Several proteins involved in the apoptotic signaling pathways were overexpressed in vitro in 6H5 mAb–treated malignant breast cells compared with mIgG-treated control. HERV-K expression was detected in 148 (66%) of 223 primary breast tumors, and a higher rate of lymph node metastasis was associated with HERV-K-positive compared with HERV-K-negative tumors (43% vs 23%, P = .003). Conclusion Monoclonal antibodies against HERV-K env protein show potential as novel immunotherapeutic agents for breast cancer therapy. PMID:22247020

Rycaj, Kiera; Plummer, Joshua B.; Li, Ming; Yin, Bingnan; Frerich, Katherine; Garza, Jeremy G.; Shen, Jianjun; Lin, Kevin; Yan, Peisha; Glynn, Sharon A.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Ambs, Stefan; Johanning, Gary L.

2012-01-01

62

2DG enhances the susceptibility of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin  

Microsoft Academic Search

2DG causes cytotoxicity in cancer cells by disrupting thiol metabolism while Doxorubicin (DOX) induces cytotoxicity in tumor\\u000a cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we examined the combined cytotoxic action of 2DG and DOX in rapidly\\u000a dividing T47D breast cancer cells vs. slowly growing MCF-7 breast cancer cells. T47D cells exposed to the combination of 2DG\\/DOX\\u000a significantly decreased cell

Iman M. Ahmad; Ebtihal H. Mustafa; Noor H. Mustafa; Lubna H. Tahtamouni; Maher Y. Abdalla

2010-01-01

63

Cloning and characterization of a 77-kDa oestrogen receptor isolated from a human breast cancer cell line.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned and characterized a 77-kDa oestrogen receptor (ER) from an oestrogen-independent subclone of the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. This receptor contains an in-frame, tandem duplication of exons 6 and 7, located in the steroid-binding domain of the ER. This mutation has abrogated ligand binding, but not DNA binding, in this mutant ER. We previously described the partial structure of a unique oestrogen receptor (ER) that is expressed in an oestrogen-independent MCF-7:2A subclone of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (Pink JJ, Wu SQ, Wolf DM, Bilimoria MM, Jordan VC 1996a, Nucleic Acids Res 24 962-969). Sequence analyses determined the molecular weight of this 80-kDa ER to be 77 kDa, and hereafter this protein will be designated as ER77. Examination of the entire coding sequence of the ER77 mRNA indicates that it contains a tandem duplication of exons 6 and 7. Using a coupled transcription/translation system, a 77-kDa ER, which corresponds to the protein observed in the MCF-7:2A cells, was expressed. The ER77 protein does not bind the ligands [3H] oestradiol or [3H]tamoxifen aziridine. In DNA binding gel shift assays, the in vitro synthesized ER77 binds to a consensus vitellogenin A2 oestrogen-response element. In transient transfection experiments, the mutant ER, alone or in combination with the wild-type ER, does not induce expression of an oestrogen-responsive luciferase reporter construct. In fact, expression of the ER77 in the ER-positive T47D:A18 cell line inhibits E2-induced luciferase expression. Overexpression of wild-type ER in T47D:A18 cells leads to elevated constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter, which was inhibited by co-transfection with ER77. These data suggest that the ER77 can interfere with normal ER activity and does not act as a constitutive activator of oestrogen-independent growth in MCF-7:2A cells. Consequently, the constitutive growth observed in MCF-7:2A cells is probably the result of other ER-mediated pathways. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9000593

Pink, J. J.; Fritsch, M.; Bilimoria, M. M.; Assikis, V. J.; Jordan, V. C.

1997-01-01

64

Early estrogen-induced metabolic changes and their inhibition by actinomycin D and cycloheximide in human breast cancer cells: sup 31 P and sup 13 C NMR studies  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic changes following estrogen stimulation and the inhibition of these changes in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide were monitored continuously in perfused human breast cancer T47D clone 11 cells with {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C NMR techniques. The experiments were performed by estrogen rescue of tamoxifen-treated cells. Immediately after perfusion with estrogen-containing medium, a continuous enhancement in the rates of glucose consumption, lactate production by glycolysis, and glutamate synthesis by the Krebs cycle occurred with a persistent 2-fold increase at 4 hr. Pretreatment with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, at concentrations known to inhibit mRNA and protein synthesis, respectively, and simultaneous treatment with estrogen and each inhibitor prevented the estrogen-induced changes in glucose metabolism. This suggested that the observed estrogen stimulation required synthesis of mRNA and protein. These inhibitors also modulated several metabolic activities that were not related to estrogen stimulation. The observed changes in the in vivo kinetics of glucose metabolism may provide a means for the early detection of the response of human breast cancer cells to estrogen versus tamoxifen treatment.

Neeman, M.; Degani, H. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

1989-07-01

65

Early estrogen-induced metabolic changes and their inhibition by actinomycin D and cycloheximide in human breast cancer cells: 31P and 13C NMR studies.  

PubMed Central

Metabolic changes following estrogen stimulation and the inhibition of these changes in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide were monitored continuously in perfused human breast cancer T47D clone 11 cells with 31P and 13C NMR techniques. The experiments were performed by estrogen rescue of tamoxifen-treated cells. Immediately after perfusion with estrogen-containing medium, a continuous enhancement in the rates of glucose consumption, lactate production by glycolysis, and glutamate synthesis by the Krebs cycle occurred with a persistent 2-fold increase at 4 hr. The content of phosphocholine had increased by 10% to 30% within the first hour of estrogen stimulation, but the content of the other observed phosphate metabolites as well as the pH remained unchanged. Pretreatment with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, at concentrations known to inhibit mRNA and protein synthesis, respectively, and simultaneous treatment with estrogen and each inhibitor prevented the estrogen-induced changes in glucose metabolism. This suggested that the observed estrogen stimulation required synthesis of mRNA and protein. These inhibitors also modulated several metabolic activities that were not related to estrogen stimulation. The observed changes in the in vivo kinetics of glucose metabolism may provide a means for the early detection of the response of human breast cancer cells to estrogen versus tamoxifen treatment. PMID:2748604

Neeman, M; Degani, H

1989-01-01

66

Diallyl trisulfide inhibits estrogen receptor-? activity in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Organosulfur compounds from garlic effectively inhibit growth of transplanted as well as spontaneous cancers in preclinical animal models without any adverse side effects. However, the mechanisms underlying anticancer effect of this class of compounds are not fully understood. This study reports, for the first time, that garlic organosulfide diallyl trisulfide (DATS) inhibits estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) activity in human breast cancer cells. Exposure of MCF-7 and T47D cells to DATS resulted in downregulation of ER-? protein, which peaked between 12- and 24-h post-treatment. DATS was relatively more effective in suppressing ER-? protein expression compared with its mono and disulfide analogs. The 17?-estradiol (E2)-induced expression of pS2 and cyclin D1, ER-? target gene products, was also decreased in the presence of DATS. Downregulation of ER-? protein expression resulting from DATS treatment was accompanied by a decrease in nuclear levels of ER-? protein, ER-? mRNA suppression, and inhibition of ERE2e1b-luciferase reporter activity. DATS-mediated inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis induction were not affected in the presence of E2. In agreement with these results, ectopic expression of ER-? in MDA-MB-231 cell line failed to confer any protection against cell proliferation inhibition or apoptosis induction resulting from DATS exposure. DATS treatment caused a decrease in protein levels of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1), and overexpression of Pin1 partially attenuated ER-? downregulation by DATS. DATS-induced apoptosis was modestly but significantly augmented by overexpression of Pin1. In conclusion, this study identifies ER-? as a novel target of DATS in mammary cancer cells. PMID:24487688

Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Singh, Shivendra V

2014-02-01

67

Essiac? and Flor-Essence? herbal tonics stimulate the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

People diagnosed with cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to supplement their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics are commercially available complex mixtures of herbal extracts sold as dietary supplements and used by cancer patients based on anecdotal evidence that they can treat or prevent disease. In this study, we evaluated Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} for their effects on the growth of human tumor cells in culture. The effect of Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics on cell proliferation was tested in MCF-7, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cancer cells isolated from human breast tumors. Estrogen receptor (ER) dependent activation of a luciferase reporter construct was tested in MCF-7 cells. Specific binding to the ER was tested using an ICI 182,780 competition assay. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% stimulated cell proliferation relative to untreated controls and activated ER dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells. A 10{sup -7} M concentration of ICI 870,780 inhibited the induction of ER dependent luciferase activity by Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, but did not affect cell proliferation. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics can stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells through ER mediated as well as ER independent mechanisms of action. Cancer patients and health care providers can use this information to make informed decisions about the use of these CAMs.

Kulp, K S; Montgomery, J L; McLimans, B; Latham, E R; Shattuck, D L; Klotz, D M; Bennett, L M

2005-10-07

68

[CANCER RESEARCH 63, 71587166, November 1, 2003] The Gene Expression Response of Breast Cancer to Growth Regulators: Patterns  

E-print Network

[CANCER RESEARCH 63, 7158­7166, November 1, 2003] The Gene Expression Response of Breast Cancer transcriptional effects elicited in MCF7, T-47D, and MDA-MB-436 breast cancer cell lines by nine regulators at the gene expression level of diverse regulators of breast cancer growth and links the behavior of breast

Ringnér, Markus

69

Expression of NgBR is highly associated with estrogen receptor alpha and survivin in breast cancer.  

PubMed

NgBR is a type I receptor with a single transmembrane domain and was identified as a specific receptor for Nogo-B. Our recent findings demonstrated that NgBR binds farnesylated Ras and recruits Ras to the plasma membrane, which is a critical step required for the activation of Ras signaling in human breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis. Here, we first use immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR approaches to examine the expression patterns of Nogo-B and NgBR in both normal and breast tumor tissues. Then, we examine the relationship between NgBR expression and molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and the roles of NgBR in estrogen-dependent survivin signaling pathway. Results showed that NgBR and Nogo-B protein were detected in both normal and breast tumor tissues. However, the expression of Nogo-B and NgBR in breast tumor tissue was much stronger than in normal breast tissue. The statistical analysis demonstrated that NgBR is highly associated with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. We also found that the expression of NgBR has a strong correlation with the expression of survivin, which is a well-known apoptosis inhibitor. The correlation between NgBR and survivin gene expression was further confirmed by real-time PCR. In vitro results also demonstrated that estradiol induces the expression of survivin in ER-positive T47D breast tumor cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells. NgBR knockdown with siRNA abolishes estradiol-induced survivin expression in ER-positive T47D cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, estradiol increases the expression of survivin and cell growth in ER-positive MCF-7 and T47D cells whereas knockdown of NgBR with siRNA reduces estradiol-induced survivin expression and cell growth. In summary, these results indicate that NgBR is a new molecular marker for breast cancer. The data suggest that the expression of NgBR may be essential in promoting ER-positive tumor cell proliferation via survivin induction in breast cancer. PMID:24223763

Wang, Bei; Zhao, Baofeng; North, Paula; Kong, Amanda; Huang, Jian; Miao, Qing Robert

2013-01-01

70

NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 mediates breast cancer cell resistance to thymoquinone-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Thymoquinone (TQ), a bioactive component of black caraway seed (Nigella sativa) oil, is reported to have antineoplastic properties. In this study we investigated the effect of TQ on a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays showed that TQ killed T-47D, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468 cells via p53-independent induction of apoptosis; however, MCF-7 cells were refractory to the cytotoxic action of TQ. Western Blot analysis showed that MCF-7 cells expressed high levels of cytoprotective NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which was responsible for TQ-resistance since inhibition of NQO1 with dicoumarol rendered MCF-7 cells TQ-sensitive. These findings may be clinically important when considering TQ as a possible adjunct treatment for breast cancer since a high percentage of breast tumors express NQO1. PMID:22960073

Sutton, Kimberly M; Doucette, Carolyn D; Hoskin, David W

2012-09-28

71

The effectiveness of nano chemotherapeutic particles combined with mifepristone depends on the PR isoform ratio in preclinical models of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

There is clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that antiprogestins might be used for the treatment of selected breast cancer patients. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of albumin-bound paclitaxel (Nab-paclitaxel) and pegylated doxorubicin liposomes (PEG-LD) in combination with mifepristone (MFP) in experimental breast cancer models expressing different ratios of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms A and B. We used two antiprogestin-responsive (PRA>PRB) and two resistant (PRAhuman T47D-YA and T47D-YB xenografts growing in immunocompromised NSG mice. MFP improved the therapeutic effects of suboptimal doses of Nab-paclitaxel or PEG-LD in murine and human carcinomas with higher levels of PRA than PRB. MFP induced tissue remodeling in PRA-overexpressing tumors, increasing the stromal/tumor cell ratio and the number of functional vessels. Accordingly, an increase in nanoparticles and drug accumulation was observed in stromal and tumor cells in MFP-treated tumors. We conclude that MFP induces an increase in vessels during tissue remodeling, favoring the selective accumulation of nanoparticles inside the tumors. We propose that antiprogestins have the potential to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy in breast tumors with a high PRA/PRB ratio. PMID:24912774

Rojas, Paola; Lamb, Caroline; Colombo, Lucas; May, María; Molinolo, Alfredo; Lanari, Claudia

2014-01-01

72

PTP1B Suppresses Prolactin Activation of Stat5 in Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Basal levels of nuclear localized, tyrosine phosphorylated Stat5 are present in healthy human breast epithelia. In contrast, Stat5 phosphorylation is frequently lost during breast cancer progression, a finding that correlates with loss of histological differentiation and poor patient prognosis. Identifying the mechanisms underlying loss of Stat5 phosphorylation could provide novel targets for breast cancer therapy. Pervanadate, a general tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, revealed marked phosphatase regulation of Stat5 activity in breast cancer cells. Lentiviral-mediated shRNA allowed specific examination of the regulatory role of five tyrosine phosphatases (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP1, SHP2, and VHR), previously implicated in Stat5 regulation in various systems. Enhanced and sustained prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells selectively in response to PTP1B depletion. Conversely, PTP1B overexpression suppressed prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, PTP1B knockdown increased Stat5 reporter gene activity. Mechanistically, PTP1B suppression of Stat5 phosphorylation was mediated, at least in part, through inhibitory dephosphorylation of the Stat5 tyrosine kinase, Jak2. PTP1B knockdown enhanced sensitivity of T47D cells to prolactin phosphorylation of Stat5 by reducing the EC50 from 7.2 nmol/L to 2.5 nmol/L. Immunohistochemical analyses of two independent clinical breast cancer materials revealed significant negative correlations between levels of active Stat5 and PTP1B, but not TC-PTP. Collectively, our data implicate PTP1B as an important negative regulator of Stat5 phosphorylation in invasive breast cancer. PMID:20952588

Johnson, Kevin J.; Peck, Amy R.; Liu, Chengbao; Tran, Thai H.; Utama, Fransiscus E.; Sjolund, Ashley B.; Schaber, John D.; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Rui, Hallgeir

2010-01-01

73

Estradiol and estrone C-16 derivatives as inhibitors of type 1 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: blocking of ER+ breast cancer cell proliferation induced by estrone.  

PubMed

Estrogens play an important role in the development of breast cancer. Inhibiting 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1)--the enzyme responsible for the last step in the biosynthesis of the most potent estrogen, estradiol (E2)--would thus allow hindering the growth of estrogen-sensitive tumors. Based on a previous study identifying 16beta-benzyl-E2 (1) as a lead compound for developing inhibitors of the transformation of estrone (E1) into E2, we modified the benzyl group of 1 to improve its inhibitory activity. Three strategies were also devised to produce compounds with less residual estrogenic activity: (1) replacing the hydroxy group by a hydrogen at position 3 (C3); (2) adding a methoxy at C2; and (3) adding an alkylamide chain known to be antiestrogenic at C7. In order to test the inhibitory potency of the new compounds, we used the human breast cancer cell line T-47D, which exerts a strong endogenous 17beta-HSD1 activity. In this intact cell model, 16beta-m-carbamoylbenzyl-E2 (4m) emerged as a potent inhibitor of 17beta-HSD1 with an IC50 value of 44 nM for the transformation of [14C]-E1 (60 nM) into [14C]-E2 (24-h incubation). In another assay aimed at assessing the unwanted estrogenic activity, a 10-day treatment with 4m at a concentration of 0.5 microM induced some proliferation (38%) of T-47D estrogen-sensitive (ER+) breast cancer cells. Interestingly, when 4m (0.5 microM) was given with E1 (0.1 nM) in a 10-day treatment, it blocked 62% of the T-47D cell proliferation induced by E1 after its reduction to E2 by 17beta-HSD1. Thus, in addition to generating useful structure-activity relationships for the development of 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors, our study demonstrates that using such inhibitors is a valuable strategy for reducing the level of E2 and consequently its proliferative effect in T-47D ER+ breast cancer cells. PMID:18035543

Laplante, Yannick; Cadot, Christine; Fournier, Michelle-Audrey; Poirier, Donald

2008-02-15

74

Anti-aromatase effect of resveratrol and melatonin on hormonal positive breast cancer cells co-cultured with breast adipose fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Targeting the estrogen pathway has been proven effective in the treatment for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. There are currently two common groups of anti-estrogenic compounds used in the clinic; Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen) and Selective Estrogen Enzyme Modulators (SEEMs e.g. letrozole). Among various naturally occurring, biologically active compounds, resveratrol and melatonin have been suggested to act as aromatase inhibitors, which make them potential candidates in hormonal treatment of breast cancer. Here we used a co-culture model in which we previously demonstrated that primary human breast adipose fibroblasts (BAFs) can convert testosterone to estradiol, which subsequently results in estrogen receptor-mediated breast cancer T47D cell proliferation. In the presence of testosterone in this model, we examined the effect of letrozole, resveratrol and melatonin on cell proliferation, estradiol (E2) production and gene expression of CYP19A1, pS2 and Ki-67. Both melatonin and resveratrol were found to be aromatase inhibitors in this co-culture system, albeit at different concentrations. Our co-culture model did not provide any indications that melatonin is also a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In the T47D-BAF co-culture, a melatonin concentration of 20 nM and resveratrol concentration of 20 ?M have an aromatase inhibitory effect as potent as 20 nM letrozole, which is a clinically used anti-aromatase drug in breast cancer treatment. The SEEM mechanism of action of especially melatonin clearly offers potential advantages for breast cancer treatment. PMID:24929094

Chottanapund, Suthat; Van Duursen, M B M; Navasumrit, Panida; Hunsonti, Potchanee; Timtavorn, Supatchaya; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Van den Berg, Martin

2014-10-01

75

Phenotype-dependent effects of EpCAM expression on growth and invasion of human breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer and stem cells and has emerged as an attractive target for immunotherapy of breast cancer patients. This study analyzes the effects of EpCAM on breast cancer cell lines with epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype. Methods For this purpose, shRNA-mediated knockdown of EpCAM gene expression was performed in EpCAMhigh breast cancer cell lines with epithelial phenotype (MCF-7, T47D and SkBR3). Moreover, EpCAMlow breast carcinoma cell lines with mesenchymal phenotype (MDA-MB-231, Hs578t) and inducible overexpression of EpCAM were used to study effects on proliferation, migration and in vivo growth. Results In comparison to non-specific silencing controls (n/s-crtl) knockdown of EpCAM (E#2) in EpCAMhigh cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation under serum-reduced culture conditions. Moreover, DNA synthesis under 3D culture conditions in collagen was significantly reduced. Xenografts of MCF-7 and T47D cells with knockdown of EpCAM formed smaller tumors that were less invasive. EpCAMlow cell lines with tetracycline-inducible overexpression of EpCAM showed no increased cell proliferation or migration under serum-reduced growth conditions. MDA-MB-231 xenografts with EpCAM overexpression showed reduced invasion into host tissue and more infiltrates of chicken granulocytes. Conclusions The role of EpCAM in breast cancer strongly depends on the epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype of tumor cells. Cancer cells with epithelial phenotype need EpCAM as a growth- and invasion-promoting factor, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype are independent of EpCAM in invasion processes and tumor progression. These findings might have clinical implications for EpCAM-based targeting strategies in patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:23110550

2012-01-01

76

Progestin and antiprogestin responsiveness in breast cancer is driven by the PRA/PRB ratio via AIB1 or SMRT recruitment to the CCND1 and MYC promoters.  

PubMed

There is emerging interest in understanding the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferative effect of progestins and antiprogestins depending on the relative expression of the A (PRA) and B (PRB) isoforms of PR. In mifepristone (MFP)-resistant murine carcinomas antiprogestin responsiveness was restored by re-expressing PRA using demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Consistently, in two human breast cancer xenograft models, one manipulated to overexpress PRA or PRB (IBH-6 cells), and the other expressing only PRA (T47D-YA) or PRB (T47D-YB), MFP selectively inhibited the growth of PRA-overexpressing tumors and stimulated IBH-6-PRB xenograft growth. Furthermore, in cells with high or equimolar PRA/PRB ratios, which are stimulated to proliferate in vitro by progestins, and are inhibited by MFP, MPA increased the interaction between PR and the coactivator AIB1, and MFP favored the interaction between PR and the corepressor SMRT. In a PRB-dominant context in which MFP stimulates and MPA inhibits cell proliferation, the opposite interactions were observed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in T47D cells in the presence of MPA or MFP confirmed the interactions between PR and the coregulators at the CCND1 and MYC promoters. SMRT downregulation by siRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of MFP on MYC expression and cell proliferation. Our results indicate that antiprogestins are therapeutic tools that selectively inhibit PRA-overexpressing tumors by increasing the SMRT/AIB1 balance at the CCND1 and MYC promoters. PMID:25363551

Wargon, Victoria; Riggio, Marina; Giulianelli, Sebastián; Sequeira, Gonzalo R; Rojas, Paola; May, María; Polo, María L; Gorostiaga, María A; Jacobsen, Britta; Molinolo, Alfredo; Novaro, Virginia; Lanari, Claudia

2014-11-01

77

Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.  

PubMed

During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer. PMID:25572806

Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

2015-02-01

78

Effects of biosurfactants on the viability and proliferation of human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Biosurfactants are molecules with surface activity produced by microorganisms that can be used in many biomedical applications. The anti-tumour potential of these molecules is being studied, although results are still scarce and few data are available regarding the mechanisms underlying such activity. In this work, the anti-tumour activity of a surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis 573 and a glycoprotein (BioEG) produced by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei A20 was evaluated. Both biosurfactants were tested against two breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MDA-MB-231, and a non-tumour fibroblast cell line (MC-3 T3-E1), specifically regarding cell viability and proliferation. Surfactin was found to decrease viability of both breast cancer cell lines studied. A 24 h exposure to 0.05 g l-1 surfactin led to inhibition of cell proliferation as shown by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Similarly, exposure of cells to 0.15 g l-1 BioEG for 48 h decreased cancer cells’ viability, without affecting normal fibroblasts. Moreover, BioEG induced the cell cycle arrest at G1 for both breast cancer cell lines. The biosurfactant BioEG was shown to be more active than surfactin against the studied breast cancer cells. The results gathered in this work are very promising regarding the biosurfactants potential for breast cancer treatment and encourage further work with the BioEG glycoprotein. PMID:24949273

2014-01-01

79

Effects of biosurfactants on the viability and proliferation of human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Biosurfactants are molecules with surface activity produced by microorganisms that can be used in many biomedical applications. The anti-tumour potential of these molecules is being studied, although results are still scarce and few data are available regarding the mechanisms underlying such activity. In this work, the anti-tumour activity of a surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis 573 and a glycoprotein (BioEG) produced by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei A20 was evaluated. Both biosurfactants were tested against two breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MDA-MB-231, and a non-tumour fibroblast cell line (MC-3 T3-E1), specifically regarding cell viability and proliferation. Surfactin was found to decrease viability of both breast cancer cell lines studied. A 24 h exposure to 0.05 g l(-1) surfactin led to inhibition of cell proliferation as shown by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Similarly, exposure of cells to 0.15 g l(-1) BioEG for 48 h decreased cancer cells' viability, without affecting normal fibroblasts. Moreover, BioEG induced the cell cycle arrest at G1 for both breast cancer cell lines. The biosurfactant BioEG was shown to be more active than surfactin against the studied breast cancer cells. The results gathered in this work are very promising regarding the biosurfactants potential for breast cancer treatment and encourage further work with the BioEG glycoprotein. PMID:24949273

Duarte, Cristina; Gudińa, Eduardo J; Lima, Cristovao F; Rodrigues, Ligia R

2014-01-01

80

Detection of circulating breast cancer cells using photoacoustic flow cytometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the American Cancer Society, more than 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed this year. Moreover, about 40,000 women died from breast cancer last year alone. As breast cancer progresses in an individual, it can transform from a localized state to a metastatic one with multiple tumors distributed through the body, not necessarily contained within the breast. Metastasis is the spread of cancer through the body by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which can be found in the blood and lymph of the diagnosed patient. Diagnosis of a metastatic state by the discovery of a secondary tumor can often come too late and hence, significantly reduce the patient's chance of survival. There is a current need for a CTC detection method which would diagnose metastasis before the secondary tumor occurs or reaches a size resolvable by current imaging systems. Since earlier detection would improve prognosis, this study proposes a method of labeling of breast cancer cells for detection with a photoacoustic flow cytometry system as a model for CTC detection in human blood. Gold nanoparticles and fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles are proposed as contrast agents for T47D, the breast cancer cell line of choice. The labeling, photoacoustic detection limit, and sensitivity are first characterized and then applied to a study to show detection from human blood.

Bhattacharyya, Kiran

81

Telomere fusions in early human breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence suggest that defects in telomere maintenance play a significant role in the initiation of genomic instability during carcinogenesis. Although the general concept of defective telomere maintenance initiating genomic instability has been acknowledged, there remains a critical gap in the direct evidence of telomere dysfunction in human solid tumors. To address this topic, we devised a multiplex PCR-based assay, termed TAR (telomere-associated repeat) fusion PCR, to detect and analyze chromosome end-to-end associations (telomere fusions) within human breast tumor tissue. Using TAR fusion PCR, we found that human breast lesions, but not normal breast tissues from healthy volunteers, contained telomere fusions. Telomere fusions were detected at similar frequencies during early ductal carcinoma in situ and in the later invasive ductal carcinoma stage. Our results provide direct evidence that telomere fusions are present in human breast tumor tissue and suggest that telomere dysfunction may be an important component of the genomic instability observed in this cancer. Development of this robust method that allows identification of these genetic aberrations (telomere fusions) is anticipated to be a valuable tool for dissecting mechanisms of telomere dysfunction. PMID:22891313

Tanaka, Hiromi; Abe, Satoshi; Huda, Nazmul; Tu, LiRen; Beam, Matthew J.; Grimes, Brenda; Gilley, David

2012-01-01

82

N-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids shift estrogen signaling to inhibit human breast cancer cell growth.  

PubMed

Although evidence has shown the regulating effect of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) on cell signaling transduction, it remains unknown whether n-3 PUFA treatment modulates estrogen signaling. The current study showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) shifted the pro-survival and proliferative effect of estrogen to a pro-apoptotic effect in human breast cancer (BCa) MCF-7 and T47D cells. 17 ?-estradiol (E2) enhanced the inhibitory effect of n-3 PUFAs on BCa cell growth. The IC50 of DHA or EPA in MCF-7 cells decreased when combined with E2 (10 nM) treatment (from 173 µM for DHA only to 113 µM for DHA+E2, and from 187 µm for EPA only to 130 µm for EPA+E2). E2 also augmented apoptosis in n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells. In contrast, in cells treated with stearic acid (SA, C18:0) as well as cells not treated with fatty acid, E2 promoted breast cancer cell growth. Classical (nuclear) estrogen receptors may not be involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of E2 on the n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells because ER? agonist failed to elicit, and ER? knockdown failed to block E2 pro-apoptotic effects. Subsequent studies reveal that G protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) may mediate the pro-apoptotic effect of estrogen. N-3 PUFA treatment initiated the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen by increasing GPER1-cAMP-PKA signaling response, and blunting EGFR, Erk 1/2, and AKT activity. These findings may not only provide the evidence to link n-3 PUFAs biologic effects and the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen in breast cancer cells, but also shed new insight into the potential application of n-3 PUFAs in BCa treatment. PMID:23285198

Cao, Wenqing; Ma, ZhiFan; Rasenick, Mark M; Yeh, ShuYan; Yu, JiangZhou

2012-01-01

83

Systems consequences of amplicon formation in human breast cancer  

E-print Network

Chromosomal structural variations play an important role in determining the transcriptional landscape of human breast cancers. To assess the nature of these structural variations, we analyzed eight breast tumor samples ...

Inaki, Koichiro

84

Rottlerin induces Wnt co-receptor LRP6 degradation and suppresses both Wnt/?-catenin and mTORC1 signaling in prostate and breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling can result in up-regulation of mTORC1 signaling in cancer cells. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 (LRP6) is an essential Wnt co-receptor for Wnt/?-catenin signaling. We found that rottlerin, a natural plant polyphenol, suppressed LRP6 expression and phosphorylation, and inhibited Wnt/?-catenin signaling in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of rottlerin on LRP6 expression/phosphorylation and Wnt/?-catenin signaling were confirmed in human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells. Mechanistically, rottlerin promoted LRP6 degradation, but had no effects on LRP6 transcriptional activity. In addition, rottlerin-mediated LRP6 down-regulation was unrelated to activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Importantly, we also found that rottlerin inhibited mTORC1 signaling in prostate and breast cancer cells. Finally, we demonstrated that rottlerin was able to suppress the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin, two targets of both Wnt/?-catenin and mTORC1 signaling, in prostate and breast cancer cells, and displayed remarkable anticancer activity with IC(50) values between 0.7 and 1.7 ?M for prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells. The IC(50) values are comparable to those shown to suppress the activities of Wnt/?-catenin and mTORC1 signaling in prostate and breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that rottlerin is a novel LRP6 inhibitor and suppresses both Wnt/?-catenin and mTORC1 signaling in prostate and breast cancer cells, and that LRP6 represents a potential therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:24607787

Lu, Wenyan; Lin, Cuihong; Li, Yonghe

2014-06-01

85

Excretion of drugs in human breast milk  

SciTech Connect

The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

1981-01-01

86

17?-estradiol regulates giant vesicle formation via estrogen receptor-alpha in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

A significant proportion of the genes regulated by 17-beta-estradiol (E2) via estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) have roles in vesicle trafficking in breast cancer. Intracellular vesicle trafficking and extracellular vesicles have important roles in tumourigenesis. Here we report the discovery of giant (3-42?m) intracellular and extracellular vesicles (GVs) and the role of E2 on vesicle formation in breast cancer (BC) cell lines using three independent live cell imaging techniques. Large diameter vesicles, GVs were also identified in a patient-derived xenograft BC model, and in invasive breast carcinoma tissue. ER?-positive (MCF-7 and T47D) BC cell lines demonstrated a significant increase in GV formation after stimulation with E2 which was reversed by tamoxifen. ER?-negative (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) BC cell lines produced GVs independently of E2 and tamoxifen. These results indicate the existence of both intracellular and extracellular vesicles with considerably larger dimensions than generally recognised with BC cells and suggest that the GVs are regulated by E2 via ER? in ER?-positive BC but by E2-independent mechanisms in ER-ve BC. PMID:24931391

Wright, Paul K; Jones, Sarah Bowen; Ardern, Nicholas; Ward, Rebecca; Clarke, Robert B; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P; Landberg, Goran; Lamb, Rebecca

2014-01-01

87

The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

2013-10-18

88

Real-Time Growth Kinetics Measuring Hormone Mimicry for ToxCast Chemicals in T-47D Human Ductal Carcinoma Cells  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays capable of profiling thousands of environmentally relevant chemicals for in vitro biological activity provide useful information on the potential for disrupting endocrine pathways. Disruption of the estrogen signaling pathway has been implic...

89

Proteoglycans and human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of proteoglycans in the control and tumor tissue of human mammary gland revealed disorders in the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor cells. Using the methods of reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting for the analysis of decorin expression we showed that these disorders were paralleled by reduced expression of the core protein and changes in the structure of proteoglycan carbohydrate chains and could be a cause of malignant degeneration of mammary gland cells. PMID:18457030

Rykova, V I; Grigorieva, E V; Chernenko, A V; Eshenko, T Y; Dymshits, G M

2007-09-01

90

Histological and biological evolution of human premalignant breast disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most human invasive breast cancers (IBCs) appear to develop over long periods of time from certain pre-existing benign lesions. Of the many types of benign lesions in the human breast, only a few appear to have significant premalignant potential. The best characterized of these include atypical hyperplasias and in situ carcinomas and both categories are probably well on along the

D C Allred; S K Mohsin; SAW Fuqua

2001-01-01

91

Placenta-breast cancer cell interactions promote cancer cell epithelial mesenchymal transition via TGF?/JNK pathway.  

PubMed

Women diagnosed with pregnancy associated breast cancer often have advanced cancer with metastases and reduced expression of ER? compared to non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, metastases to the placenta are uncommon. Previously, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells (MCF-7/T47D) migrated from ex vivo human placental explant implantation sites. We aimed to analyze the effect of factors produced during placental implantation or as a result of the interaction between the implanted placentae to cancer cells on cancer cells migration and aggressiveness. We collected supernatants from implanted placentae and placental-breast cancer cells cocultures and analyzed their effects on cancer cells phenotype and pathways. Supernatants collected from breast cancer cells served as controls. We found that supernatants collected from implanted placentae induced modest cancer cells migration that was not accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), supported breast cancer cells survival and elevated MCF-7 cell number. The coculture supernatant induced excessive motility and EMT of the MCF-7 cells. This EMT was mediated by Smad3 and JNK/ERK activation. Both placenta and coculture supernatants reduced ER? expression in the cancer cells. Finally, we showed that MCF-7 cocultured with the human placental explants underwent continuous activation of JNK and Smad3 pathways and the EMT process, which led to their migration away from the placental implantation sites. These findings may explain the reduced ER? and elevated metastases found in breast cancer during pregnancy and highlights pathways involved in it. PMID:25316285

Epstein Shochet, Gali; Tartakover-Matalon, Shelly; Drucker, Liat; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Pomeranz, Meir; Fishman, Ami; Lishner, Michael

2014-12-01

92

Conjugation of Monoclonal Antibodies to Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Detection of her2/neu Antigen on Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies to super paramagnetic nanoparticles is an effective method for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study the humanized anti her2/neu monoclonal antibody- Herceptin- was conjugated to super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles using EDC method. The concentration of the conjugated antibodies was measured by Bradford assay. The antibody-nanoparticle conjugates were incubated with SKBR-3 and T47D human breast carcinoma cell lines and the presence of the conjugates on cell surface was confirmed by Prussian blue iron staining method. Conjugation of Herceptin to SPIO resulted in a precipitate-free conjugate containing 20µg antibody/mg SPIO. Prussian blue iron-staining of cells showed successful binding of the conjugates to the cell surfaces. Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies to SPIO may be a useful method for detection of tumor cells, especially by MRI techniques. PMID:23407330

Shamsipour, Fereshteh; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Ghods, Roya; Chamankhah, Mahmood; Forouzesh, Flora; Vafaei, Sedigheh; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ali Oghabian, Mohammad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

2009-01-01

93

Comparison of diffuse optical tomography of human breast with whole-body and breast-only positron emission tomography  

E-print Network

Comparison of diffuse optical tomography of human breast with whole-body and breast-only positron-dimensional tomographic breast images of three females with sus- picious masses using diffuse optical tomography DOT information maximization algorithm. We also compared DOT and whole-body PET images of 14 patients with breast

Yodh, Arjun G.

94

A Dielectric Model of Human Breast Tissue in Terahertz Regime.  

PubMed

The double Debye model has been used to understand the dielectric response of different types of biological tissues at terahertz (THz) frequencies but fails in accurately simulating human breast tissue. This leads to limited knowledge about the structure, dynamics, and macroscopic behavior of breast tissue and hence constrains the potential of THz imaging in breast cancer detection. The first goal of this paper is to propose a new dielectric model capable of mimicking the spectra of human breast tissue's complex permittivity in THz regime. Namely, a non-Debye relaxation model is combined with a single Debye model to produce a mixture model of human breast tissue. A sampling gradient algorithm of non-smooth optimization is applied to locate the optimal fitting solution. Samples of healthy breast tissue and breast tumour are used in the simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Our simulation demonstrates exceptional fitting quality in all cases. The second goal is to confirm the potential of using the parameters of the proposed dielectric model to distinguish breast tumour from healthy breast tissue, especially fibrous tissue. Statistical measures are employed to analyse the discrimination capability of the model parameters while support vector machines (SVM) are applied to assess the possibility of using the combinations of these parameters for higher classification accuracy. The obtained analysis confirms the classification potential of these features. PMID:25347869

Truong, Bao C Q; Tuan, H D; Fitzgerald, Anthony J; Wallace, Vincent P; Nguyen, H T

2014-10-20

95

Tongshu Capsule Down-Regulates the Expression of Estrogen Receptor ? and Suppresses Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

The Tongshu Capsule (TSC) is a prevalent form of traditional Chinese medicine widely used for its purported effects in treating mammary gland hyperplasia and inflammation. Though successful in several clinical studies, there is no clear evidence as to why TSC has a positive treatment effect, and little known about underlying mechanism that may account for it. In this study, we examined the effects of TSC and found that it has a comparatively strong growth inhibition on ER? positive breast cancer cells. TSC seems to cause G1 cell cycle arrest instead of apoptosis. Interestingly, TSC also down-regulated the expression of ER? and Cyclin D1. Consistently, TSC suppressed E2 mediated ER? downstream gene expression and cell proliferation in ER? positive breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D. Depletion of ER? partially abolished the effects of TSC on the decrease of Cyclin D1 and cell viability. Our findings suggest that TSC may have therapeutic effects on ER? positive breast cancers and moreover that TSC may suppress breast epithelial cell proliferation by inhibiting the estrogen pathway. PMID:25101695

Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Zhongmei; Wang, Jingkun; Dong, Jian; Chen, Ceshi

2014-01-01

96

Inhibitory effect of ?-elemene on human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

It has been approved for the clinical application of ?-elemene to treat various cancers mainly brain tumors in China. In the present study, we found that ?-elemene significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. In addition, ?-elemene also induced the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II as well as the formation of autolysosomes, indicating the activation of autophagy. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy significantly potentiated the growth-inhibitory effect of ?-elemene on breast cancer cells. In summary, ?-elemene induced cytoprotective autophagy in human breast cancer cells in addition to apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of ?-elemene to human breast cancer cells. Therefore, combination of ?-elemene with autophagy inhibitors could be a promising strategy for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25120771

Guan, Chaying; Liu, Weiguo; Yue, Yongfang; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian; Wang, Xiao-Jia

2014-01-01

97

Gene expression profiles of human breast cancer progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although distinct pathological stages of breast cancer have been described, the molecular differences among these stages are largely unknown. Here, through the combined use of laser capture microdissection and DNA microarrays, we have generated in situ gene expression profiles of the premalignant, preinvasive, and invasive stages of human breast cancer. Our data reveal extensive similarities at the transcriptome level among

Xiao-Jun Ma; Ranelle Salunga; J. Todd Tuggle; Justin Gaudet; Edward Enright; Philip McQuary; Terry Payette; Maria Pistone; Kimberly Stecker; Brian M. Zhang; Yi-Xiong Zhou; Heike Varnholt; Barbara Smith; Michelle Gadd; Erica Chatfield; Jessica Kessler; Thomas M. Baer; Mark G. Erlander; Dennis C. Sgroi

2003-01-01

98

Photoacoustic detection of breast cancer cells in human blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of breast cancer cells in human blood may provide early determination of metastasis, enabling aggressive treatment prior to detection by conventional radiographic methods. We developed a photoacoustic flowmetry system in which we irradiated breast cancer cells in suspension to simulate metastatic breast cancer cells derived from human blood. In order to provide optical discrimination between the breast cancer cells and lymphocytes, we attached antibody labeled latex microspheres and gold nanoparticles to breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells were derived from an estrogen receptor (ER) positive cell line, MCF-7. The particles were conjugated to ER antibodies. We irradiated the cell suspension using the photoacoustic flowmeter consisting of a glass flow chamber with a piezoelectric sensor. We irradiated the suspension at 422 and 530nm and solved a linear system of equations in two variables to separate the contribution of the photoacoustic wave from the breast cancer cells and possible erythrocytes that may be present in a patient blood draw. We found a detection threshold of 10 breast cancer cells using this flowmeter. Future optimization of the system may decrease the detection threshold to single breast cancer cells.

Thomas, T. S.; Dale, P. S.; Weight, R. M.; Atasoy, Ulus; Magee, J.; Viator, J. A.

2008-02-01

99

Calmodulin modulates Akt activity in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth factor-induced activation of Akt occurs in the majority of human breast cancer cell lines resulting in a variety of\\u000a cellular outcomes, including suppression of apoptosis and enhanced survival. We demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-initiated\\u000a activation of Akt is mediated by the ubiquitous calcium sensing molecule, calmodulin, in the majority of human breast cancer\\u000a cell lines. Specifically, in estrogen

Christine M. Coticchia; Chetana M. Revankar; Tushar B. Deb; Robert B. Dickson; Michael D. Johnson

2009-01-01

100

Detection of human cytomegalovirus in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent life-long infection, and can cause severe pathology in the fetus and the immunocompromised host1. Breast milk is the primary route of transmission in humans worldwide, and breast epithelium is thus a likely site of persistent infection and\\/or reactivation, though this phenomenon has not previously been demonstrated. Increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate

Lualhati E Harkins; Lisa A Matlaf; Liliana Soroceanu; Katrin Klemm; William J Britt; Wenquan Wang; Kirby I Bland; Charles S Cobbs

2010-01-01

101

Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease. PMID:24750974

Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M.; Choi, K. Yeon; Sun, Dejun; Nuovo, Gerard

2014-01-01

102

Establishment and Characterization of New Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines.  

PubMed

The establishment of two new breast cancer cell lines, MXT(+) and MXT(-), derived from the murine breast cancer models MXT-M-3, 2 MC (hormone-sensitive) and MXT-M-3, 2 (ovex) MC (hormone-insensitive), is described. Characterization of the cell lines was performed by investigation of morphology, steroid hormone receptor state, growth kinetics, and drug response as well as by cytogenetic analysis. MXT(+) contains estrogen receptors (ER; 6.9 fmol/mg protein) as well as progesterone receptors (PgR; 9.2 fmol/mg protein) and therefore is inhibited by tamoxifen (Tam). MXT(-) proved to be ER(-) but PgR(+) (23.4 fmol/mg protein) and, as expected, resistant against Tam.The sensitivity of MXT(+) and MXT(-) against a pattern of therapeutically established anti-breast cancer drugs (cDDP, cisplatin; JM-8, carboplatin; DX, adriamycin; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; MTX, methotrexate; VLB vinblastine) was studied by use of a computerized, kinetic chemosensitivity assay based on quantification of biomass by staining cells with crystal violet. For each compound the inhibition profile reflecting cytostatic, transient cytotoxic, or cytocidal drug effects as well as development of resistance was evaluated. The following order of activity was found: MTX >, VLB >/= DX > cDDP >/= 5-FU > JM-8. The test data of 5-FU, VLB, cDDP, and Tam on MXT(+) as well as on MXT(-) were compared with those from studies on ER(+) and ER(-) human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D, and MDA-MB-231, respectively). They revealed comparable inhibition profiles and sensitivities of human and murine breast cancer cell lines, an indication that the results achieved in combined in vitro-/in vivo tests by use of the murine test models MXT(+), MXT(-), MXT-M-3, 2 MC, and MXT-M-3, 2(ovex) MC are relevant for therapy in humans. PMID:12007108

Bernhardt, Günther; Beckenlehner, Karin; Spruss, Thilo; Schlemmer, Richard; Reile, Herta; Schönenberger, Helmut

2002-05-01

103

Establishment and characterization of new murine breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The establishment of two new breast cancer cell lines, MXT+ and MXT-, derived from the murine breast cancer models MXT-M-3,2 MC (hormone-sensitive) and MXT-M-3,2 (ovex) MC (hormone-insensitive), is described. Characterization of the cell lines was performed by investigation of morphology, steroid hormone receptor state, growth kinetics, and drug response as well as by cytogenetic analysis. MXT+ contains estrogen receptors (ER; 6.9 fmol/mg protein) as well as progesterone receptors (PgR; 9.2 fmol/mg protein) and therefore is inhibited by tamoxifen (Tam). MXT- proved to be ER- but PgR+ (23.4 fmol/mg protein) and, as expected, resistant against Tam. The sensitivity of MXT+ and MXT- against a pattern of therapeutically established anti-breast cancer drugs (cDDP, cisplatin; JM-8, carboplatin; DX, adriamycin; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; MTX, methotrexate; VLB vinblastine) was studied by use of a computerized, kinetic chemosensitivity assay based on quantification of biomass by staining cells with crystal violet. For each compound the inhibition profile reflecting cytostatic, transient cytotoxic, or cytocidal drug effects as well as development of resistance was evaluated. The following order of activity was found: MTX > VLB > or = DX > cDDP > or = 5-FU > JM-8. The test data of 5-FU, VLB, cDDP, and Tam on MXT+ as well as on MXT- were compared with those from studies on ER+ and ER- human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D, and MDA-MB-231, respectively). They revealed comparable inhibition profiles and sensitivities of human and murine breast cancer cell lines, an indication that the results achieved in combined in vitro-/in vivo tests by use of the murine test models MXT+, MXT-, MXT-M-3,2 MC, and MXT-M-3,2(ovex) MC are relevant for therapy in humans. PMID:12043456

Bernhardt, Günther; Beckenlehner, Karin; Spruss, Thilo; Schlemmer, Richard; Reile, Herta; Schönenberger, Helmut

2002-03-01

104

Human breast duct anatomy, the ‘sick lobe’ hypothesis and intraductal approaches to breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIntroduction  Information about central and peripheral duct anatomy is a requirement for developing intraductal approaches to human breast cancer, but remains sparse. This study looks at the acquisition and digital modelling of data describing breast duct branching from thick (‘subgross’) sections using data structures from the neurosciences, and at high-throughput imaging of duct anatomy in the nipple.Methods  The branching of a large

James J. Going; Timothy J. Mohun

2006-01-01

105

Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Summary We analyzed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, mRNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously-defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at > 10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the Luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein expression-defined subgroups, possibly contributed by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signaling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/p-HER2/HER1/p-HER1 signature within the HER2-Enriched expression subtype. Comparison of Basal-like breast tumors with high-grade Serous Ovarian tumors showed many molecular commonalities, suggesting a related etiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biologic finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biologic subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:23000897

2012-01-01

106

The Oncogenic Potential of Human Cytomegalovirus and Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the leading causes of cancer-related death among women. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. Numerous articles indicate that breast tumors exhibit diverse phenotypes depending on their distinct physiopathological signatures, clinical courses, and therapeutic possibilities. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a multifaceted highly host specific betaherpesvirus that is regarded as asymptomatic or mildly pathogenic virus in immunocompetent host. HCMV may cause serious in utero infections as well as acute and chronic complications in immunocompromised individual. The involvement of HCMV in late inflammatory complications underscores its possible role in inflammatory diseases and cancer. HCMV targets a variety of cell types in vivo, including macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stromal cells, neuronal cells, smooth muscle cells, and hepatocytes. HCMV can be detected in the milk after delivery and thereby HCMV could spread to adjacent mammary epithelial cells. HCMV also infects macrophages and induces an atypical M1/M2 phenotype, close to the tumor-associated macrophage phenotype, which is associated with the release of cytokines involved in cancer initiation or promotion and breast cancer of poor prognosis. HCMV antigens and DNA have been detected in tissue biopsies of breast cancers and elevation in serum HCMV IgG antibody levels has been reported to precede the development of breast cancer in some women. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of HCMV in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. PMID:25202681

Herbein, Georges; Kumar, Amit

2014-01-01

107

Epigenetic and transcriptional determinants of the human breast.  

PubMed

While significant effort has been dedicated to the characterization of epigenetic changes associated with prenatal differentiation, relatively little is known about the epigenetic changes that accompany post-natal differentiation where fully functional differentiated cell types with limited lifespans arise. Here we sought to address this gap by generating epigenomic and transcriptional profiles from primary human breast cell types isolated from disease-free human subjects. From these data we define a comprehensive human breast transcriptional network, including a set of myoepithelial- and luminal epithelial-specific intronic retention events. Intersection of epigenetic states with RNA expression from distinct breast epithelium lineages demonstrates that mCpG provides a stable record of exonic and intronic usage, whereas H3K36me3 is dynamic. We find a striking asymmetry in epigenomic reprogramming between luminal and myoepithelial cell types, with the genomes of luminal cells harbouring more than twice the number of hypomethylated enhancer elements compared with myoepithelial cells. PMID:25690954

Gascard, Philippe; Bilenky, Misha; Sigaroudinia, Mahvash; Zhao, Jianxin; Li, Luolan; Carles, Annaick; Delaney, Allen; Tam, Angela; Kamoh, Baljit; Cho, Stephanie; Griffith, Malachi; Chu, Andy; Robertson, Gordon; Cheung, Dorothy; Li, Irene; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Moksa, Michelle; Mingay, Matthew; Hussainkhel, Angela; Davis, Brad; Nagarajan, Raman P; Hong, Chibo; Echipare, Lorigail; O'Geen, Henriette; Hangauer, Matthew J; Cheng, Jeffrey B; Neel, Dana; Hu, Donglei; McManus, Michael T; Moore, Richard; Mungall, Andrew; Ma, Yussanne; Plettner, Patrick; Ziv, Elad; Wang, Ting; Farnham, Peggy J; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Tlsty, Thea D; Costello, Joseph F; Hirst, Martin

2015-01-01

108

CHL1 is involved in human breast tumorigenesis and progression  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CHL1 is down-regulation in breast cancer tissues. •Down-regulation of CHL1 is related to high grade. •Overexpression of CHL1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. •CHL1 deficiency induces breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play important roles in the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The L1 family of CAMs is comprised of L1, Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1, L1CAM2), NrCAM, and Neurofascin, which are structurally related trans-membrane proteins in vertebrates. Although the L1CAM has been demonstrated play important role in carcinogenesis and progression, the function of CHL1 in human breast cancer is limited. Here, we found that CHL1 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and related to lower grade. Furthermore, overexpression of CHL1 suppresses proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells and knockdown of CHL1 expression results in increased proliferation and invasion in MCF7 cells in vitro. Finally, CHL1 deficiency promotes tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking breast carcinogenesis and progression.

He, Li-Hong [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ma, Qin [Department of Oncology, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Oncology, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Ye-Hui [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Shu-Fen [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Tong, Zhong-Sheng, E-mail: 83352162@qq.com [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

2013-08-23

109

CAPER, a novel regulator of human breast cancer progression.  

PubMed

CAPER is an estrogen receptor (ER) co-activator that was recently shown to be involved in human breast cancer pathogenesis. Indeed, we reported increased expression of CAPER in human breast cancer specimens. We demonstrated that CAPER was undetectable or expressed at relatively low levels in normal breast tissue and assumed a cytoplasmic distribution. In contrast, CAPER was expressed at higher levels in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) specimens, where it assumed a predominantly nuclear distribution. However, the functional role of CAPER in human breast cancer initiation and progression remained unknown. Here, we used a lentiviral-mediated gene silencing approach to reduce the expression of CAPER in the ER-positive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The proliferation and tumorigenicity of MCF-7 cells stably expressing control or human CAPER shRNAs was then determined via both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Knockdown of CAPER expression significantly reduced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro. Importantly, nude mice injected with MCF-7 cells harboring CAPER shRNAs developed smaller tumors than mice injected with MCF-7 cells harboring control shRNAs. Mechanistically, tumors derived from mice injected with MCF-7 cells harboring CAPER shRNAs displayed reduced expression of the cell cycle regulators PCNA, MCM7, and cyclin D1, and the protein synthesis marker 4EBP1. In conclusion, knockdown of CAPER expression markedly reduced human breast cancer cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Mechanistically, knockdown of CAPER abrogated the activity of proliferative and protein synthesis pathways. PMID:24621503

Mercier, Isabelle; Gonzales, Donna M; Quann, Kevin; Pestell, Timothy G; Molchansky, Alexander; Sotgia, Federica; Hulit, James; Gandara, Ricardo; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G; Lisanti, Michael P; Jasmin, Jean-François

2014-04-15

110

Modeling the Interaction of Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Estradiol with Bisphenol A and Bisphenol AF in an In Vitro Estrogen-Mediated Transcriptional Activation Assay (T47D-KBluc)  

PubMed Central

Exposure to xenoestrogens occurs against a backdrop to physiological levels of endogenous estrogens. Endogenous estrogen levels vary from low levels in early childhood to high levels during pregnancy and in young women. However, few studies have addressed how xenoestrogens interact with endogenous estrogens. The current study was designed to characterize the individual dose-response curves of estradiol-17? (E2), bisphenol A (BPA), tetrabromo-bisphenol A (TBBPA), and bisphenol AF (BPAF, 4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphenol) on estrogen-dependent luciferase expression in T47D-KBluc cells and to determine how binary (8 × 8 factorial) and ternary (4 × 4 × 4 factorial) mixtures of an endogenous estrogen (E2) interact with BPA and/or BPAF. Log EC50 and hillslope values with SEs, respectively, for individual compounds were as follows: E2, ?12.10M ± 0.06071, 0.7702 ± 0.1739; BPA, ?6.679M ± 0.08505, 1.194 ± 0.2137; and BPAF, ?7.648M ± 0.05527, 1.273 ± 0.1739. TBBPA was not evaluated in mixture studies because of its minimally estrogenic response at 3 ×10?5M and elicited cytotoxicity at higher concentrations. Both the binary mixtures of E2 with BPA and BPAF and the ternary mixture of E2, BPA, and BPAF behaved in an additive manner. For binary mixtures, as E2 concentration increased, higher concentrations of BPA and BPAF were necessary to induce a significant increase in the estrogenic response. Understanding the behavior of mixture interactions of xenoestrogens, like BPA and BPAF, with endogenous estrogens will allow a better assessment of the potential risk associated with exposure to these chemicals, individually or as mixtures. PMID:20498000

Bermudez, Dieldrich S.; Gray, Leon E.; Wilson, Vickie S.

2010-01-01

111

Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV), a B-type retrovirus, is known to be the most common cause of breast cancer in mice. However, its role in human breast cancer is very controversial. Here we review the evidence that supports the role of this virus in causing human breast cancer. It's historical background, its possible transmission from mice to human

Ish Ahmed; James R. Harvey; Simi Ali; John A. Kirby; Thomas Lennard

2008-01-01

112

T Cell Coinhibition and Immunotherapy in Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Costimulation and coinhibition generated by the B7 family and their receptor CD28 family have key roles in regulating T lymphocyte activation and tolerance. These pathways are very attractive therapeutic targets for human cancers including breast cancer. Gene polymorphisms of B7x (B7-H4/B7S1), PD-1 (CD279), and CTLA-4 (CD152) are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In human breast cancer microenvironment, up-regulation of coinhibitory B7/CD28 members B7x, B7-H3 (CD276), and PD-L1 (B7-H1/CD274) on tumor cells as well as PD-1 and PD-L1 on tumor-infiltrating immune cells are emerging as immune evasion pathways. Chemotherapy can affect the expression of these molecules, and therefore may dampen the immune response against breast cancer. Immunotherapy targeting T cell coinhibition as monotherapy or combined with standard therapies are in early stages of clinical development, but hold great promise for treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:23114578

Janakiram, Murali; Abadi, Yael M.; Sparano, Joseph A.; Zang, Xingxing

2014-01-01

113

A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The skeleton is a preferred homing site for breast cancer metastasis. To date, treatment options for patients with bone metastases are mostly palliative and the disease is still incurable. Indeed, key mechanisms involved in breast cancer osteotropism are still only partially understood due to the lack of suitable animal models to mimic metastasis of human tumor cells to a human bone microenvironment. In the presented study, we investigate the use of a human tissue-engineered bone construct to develop a humanized xenograft model of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis in a murine host. Primary human osteoblastic cell-seeded melt electrospun scaffolds in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. The tissue-engineered constructs led to the formation of a morphologically intact ‘organ’ bone incorporating a high amount of mineralized tissue, live osteocytes and bone marrow spaces. The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. After intracardiac injection, the dissemination of luciferase-expressing human breast cancer cell lines to the humanized bone ossicles was detected by bioluminescent imaging. Histological analysis revealed the presence of metastases with clear osteolysis in the newly formed bone. Thus, human tissue-engineered bone constructs can be applied efficiently as a target tissue for human breast cancer cells injected into the blood circulation and replicate the osteolytic phenotype associated with breast cancer-induced bone lesions. In conclusion, we have developed an appropriate model for investigation of species-specific mechanisms of human breast cancer-related bone metastasis in vivo. PMID:24713276

Thibaudeau, Laure; Taubenberger, Anna V.; Holzapfel, Boris M.; Quent, Verena M.; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Hesami, Parisa; Brown, Toby D.; Dalton, Paul D.; Power, Carl A.; Hollier, Brett G.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

2014-01-01

114

Basal clear cells of the normal human breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ductal system of the human breast consists of two major cell types: epithelial and myoepithelial. In some reports a third cell type, given various names is mentioned. In this study it is called a basal clear cell. The role of this cell, unlike that of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells, remains unclear, although it has been suggested that it

Caroline A. Smith; Paul Monaghan; A. Munro Neville

1984-01-01

115

Systems consequences of amplicon formation in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal structural variations play an important role in determining the transcriptional landscape of human breast cancers. To assess the nature of these structural variations, we analyzed eight breast tumor samples with a focus on regions of gene amplification using mate-pair sequencing of long-insert genomic DNA with matched transcriptome profiling. We found that tandem duplications appear to be early events in tumor evolution, especially in the genesis of amplicons. In a detailed reconstruction of events on chromosome 17, we found large unpaired inversions and deletions connect a tandemly duplicated ERBB2 with neighboring 17q21.3 amplicons while simultaneously deleting the intervening BRCA1 tumor suppressor locus. This series of events appeared to be unusually common when examined in larger genomic data sets of breast cancers albeit using approaches with lesser resolution. Using siRNAs in breast cancer cell lines, we showed that the 17q21.3 amplicon harbored a significant number of weak oncogenes that appeared consistently coamplified in primary tumors. Down-regulation of BRCA1 expression augmented the cell proliferation in ERBB2-transfected human normal mammary epithelial cells. Coamplification of other functionally tested oncogenic elements in other breast tumors examined, such as RIPK2 and MYC on chromosome 8, also parallel these findings. Our analyses suggest that structural variations efficiently orchestrate the gain and loss of cancer gene cassettes that engage many oncogenic pathways simultaneously and that such oncogenic cassettes are favored during the evolution of a cancer. PMID:25186909

Inaki, Koichiro; Menghi, Francesca; Woo, Xing Yi; Wagner, Joel P.; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Lee, Yi Fang; Shreckengast, Phung Trang; Soon, Wendy WeiJia; Malhotra, Ankit; Teo, Audrey S.M.; Hillmer, Axel M.; Khng, Alexis Jiaying; Ruan, Xiaoan; Ong, Swee Hoe; Bertrand, Denis; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Hidalgo Miranda, Alfredo

2014-01-01

116

Cacospongionolide and scalaradial, two marine sesterterpenoids as potent apoptosis-inducing factors in human carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical defence mechanism against the formation and progression of cancer and acts by eliminating potentially deleterious cells without causing such adverse effects, as inflammatory response and ensuing scar formation. Therefore, targeting apoptotic pathways becomes an intriguing strategy for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. In last decades, marine natural products, such as sesterterpenoids, have played an important role in the discovery and development of new drugs. Interestingly, many of these compounds have a strong potential as anticancer drugs by inhibiting cell proliferation and/or inducing cell death. In the present study, we investigated the effects of scalaradial and cacospongionolide, two sesterterpenoids from Cacospongia scalaris and Fasciospongia cavernosa marine sponges, on the apoptotic signalling pathway in three different human tumoral cells. Results were obtained by using DNA fragmentation, comet and viability assays, quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and Western blot. The T47D (human breast carcinoma), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervix carcinoma) and HCT116 (human colon carcinoma) cells were incubated for 24 h with scalaradial or cacospongionolide. Treatment of T47D cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h brought about a significant increase in DNA migration as well as fragmentation. Moreover, incubation of HCT116 and HeLa cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h caused an increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, scalaradial or cacospongionolide, added to HCT116 and HeLa cells overnight, induced a significant and concentration-dependent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, an early apoptosis signalling event. These effects paralleled with those achieved with p50 and p65, NF-?B subunits, nuclear level. In conclusion, scalaradial and cacospongionolide, by determining human cancer cell apoptosis, may represent new promising compounds to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. PMID:22509253

De Stefano, Daniela; Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Iodice, Carmine; De Rosa, Salvatore; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Carnuccio, Rosa

2012-01-01

117

Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using normal, glia and breast cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reveal the biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate cytotoxicity tests were performed as a function of concentration from low (0.1 µg ml-1) to higher concentration (100 µg ml-1) using various human glia, human breast cancer and normal cell lines. Cytotoxicity tests for human glia (D54MG, G9T, SF126, U87, U251, U373), human breast cancer (MB157, SKBR3, T47D) and normal (H184B5F5/M10, WI-38, SVGp12) cell lines exhibited almost nontoxicity and reveal biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the concentration range of 0.1-10 µg ml-1, while accountable cytotoxicity can be seen at 100 µg ml-1. The results of our studies suggest that Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate are biocompatible and promising for bio-applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia.

Ankamwar, B.; Lai, T. C.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.; Hsiao, M.; Chen, C. H.; Hwu, Y. K.

2010-02-01

118

The Consensus Coding Sequences of Human Breast and Colorectal Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elucidation of the human genome sequence has made it possible to identify genetic alterations in cancers in unprecedented detail. To begin a systematic analysis of such alterations, we determined the sequence of well-annotated human protein-coding genes in two common tumor types. Analysis of 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers revealed that individual tumors accumulate an average

Tobias Sjöblom; Siân Jones; Laura D. Wood; D. Williams Parsons; Jimmy Lin; Thomas D. Barber; Diana Mandelker; Rebecca J. Leary; Janine Ptak; Natalie Silliman; Steve Szabo; Phillip Buckhaults; Christopher Farrell; Paul Meeh; Sanford D. Markowitz; Joseph Willis; Dawn Dawson; James K. V. Willson; Adi F. Gazdar; James Hartigan; Leo Wu; Changsheng Liu; Giovanni Parmigiani; Ben Ho Park; Kurtis E. Bachman; Nickolas Papadopoulos; Bert Vogelstein; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Victor E. Velculescu

2006-01-01

119

Two-and three-dimensional simulations of ultrasonic propagation through human breast tissue  

E-print Network

Two- and three-dimensional simulations of ultrasonic propagation through human breast tissue T 16802 Abstract: Simulations of spherical-wave ultrasonic pulse propagation through human breast tissue are presented. Breast tissue models were cre- ated by processing of volumetric photographic data from

Mast, T. Douglas

120

Estradiol as an anti-aromatase agent in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Estradiol (E(2)) is an important risk factor in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, a "direct effect" of E(2) in breast cancerization has not yet been demonstrated. The estrogen receptor complex can mediate the activation of oncogens, proto-oncogens, nuclear proteins and other target genes that can be involved in the transformation of normal to cancerous cells. Breast cancer cells possess all the enzymes (sulfatase, aromatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD)) necessary for the local bioformation of E(2). In the last years, many studies have shown that treatment of breast cancer patients using anti-aromatase agents has beneficial therapeutic effects. The aromatase activity is very low in most breast cancer cells but was significantly increased in a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line: the MCF-7aro, using the aromatase cDNA transfection and G-418 (neomycin) selection. In the present study, we explore the effect of E(2) on the aromatase activity of this cell line. The MCF-7aro cell line was a gift from Dr. S. Chen (Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, U.S.A.). For experiments the cells were stripped of endogenous steroids and incubated with physiological concentrations of [(3)H]-testosterone (5 x 10(-9)mol/l) alone or in the presence of E(2) (5 x 10(-5), 5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-9)mol/l) for 24h at 37 degrees C. The cellular radioactivity uptake was determined in the ethanolic supernatant and the DNA content in the remaining pellet. [(3)H]-E(2), [(3)H]-estrone ([(3)H]-E(1)) and [(3)H]-testosterone were characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified using the corresponding standard. It was observed that [(3)H]-testosterone is converted mainly into [(3)H]-E(2) and not to E(1), which suggests very low or absence of oxidative 17beta-HSD (type 2) activity in these experimental conditions. The aromatase activity, corresponding to the conversion of [(3)H]-testosterone to [(3)H]-E(2) after 24h, is relatively high, since the concentration of E(2) was 2.74+/-0.11pmol/mg DNA in the non-treated cells. E(2) inhibits this conversion by 77, 57 and 21%, respectively, at the concentrations of 5 x 10(-5), 5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-9)mol. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that E(2) exerts a potent anti-sulfatase activity in the MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells. The present data show that E(2) can also block the aromatase activity. The dual inhibition of the aromatase and sulfatase activities, two crucial enzymes for the biosynthesis of E(2) by E(2) itself in breast cancer add interesting and attractive information for the use of estrogen therapeutic treatments. PMID:16413774

Pasqualini, J R; Chetrite, G S

2006-01-01

121

Expression of different proteoglycans in human breast tumors.  

PubMed

The composition of proteoglycans and their changes during malignant transformation are important factors influencing adhesive properties and mitotic activity of tumor cells. In this study, expression level of different proteoglycans (decorin, syndecan-1, lumican, glypican-1, and aggrecan) in tumors and normal human breast tissue was investigated. Multiplex RT-PCR data revealed different expression changes for different proteoglycans in human breast tumors--syndecan expression was activated compared to almost no expression in normal breast tissue, expression of decorin and lumican decreased 2-5- and 2-3-fold, respectively, and aggrecan transcription seems to be unaffected. A change of expression level of decorin correlated with expression of D-glucuronyl-C5-epimerase, a key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of idurone-containing glycosaminoglycans, possessing antimitotic activity. The results suggest that changes in decorin, lumican, and syndecan-1 expression in tumor tissue could induce a distortion of proteoglycan composition and mitotic activity of cells in human breast tumor. PMID:17922662

Eshchenko, T Yu; Rykova, V I; Chernakov, A E; Sidorov, S V; Grigorieva, E V

2007-09-01

122

Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of breast cancer on women across the world has been extensive and severe. As prevalence of breast cancer is greatest in industrialized regions, exposure to light at night has been proposed as a potential risk factor. This theory is supported by the epidemiological observations of decreased breast cancer in blind women and increased breast cancer in women who do shift-work. In addition, human, animal and in vitro studies which have investigated the melatonin-cancer dynamic indicate an apparent relationship between light, melatonin and cancer, albeit complex. Recent developments in understanding melatonin regulation by light in humans are examined, with particular attention to factors that contribute to the sensitivity of the light-induced melatonin suppression response. Specifically, the role of spectral characteristics of light is addressed, and recent relevant action spectrum studies in humans and other mammalian species are discussed. Across five action spectra for circadian and other non-visual responses, a peak sensitivity between 446-484 nm was identified. Under highly controlled exposure circumstances, less than 1 lux of monochromatic light elicited a significant suppression of nocturnal melatonin. In view of the possible link between light exposure, melatonin suppression and cancer risk, it is important to continue to identify the basic related ocular physiology. Visual performance, rather than circadian function, has been the primary focus of architectural lighting systems. It is now necessary to reevaluate lighting strategies, with consideration of circadian influences, in an effort to maximize physiological homeostasis and health.

Glickman, Gena; Levin, Robert; Brainard, George C.

2002-01-01

123

An early history of human breast cancer: West meets East  

PubMed Central

Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer. PMID:23958056

Yan, Shou-He

2013-01-01

124

A Mechanistic Study of the Effect of Doxorubicin/Adriamycin on the Estrogen Response in a Breast Cancer Model  

PubMed Central

Objective Estrogen treatment limits the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that estrogen-pathway signaling may confer chemotherapeutic resistance. This study investigates the molecular responses of ER+ breast cancer cell lines to the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, in the presence or absence of estrogen. Methods ER+ MCF-7 and T47-D cells were cultured in hormone-starved or estrogen-containing media with or without doxorubicin at concentrations mimicking the low concentrations seen in plasma and tumor microenvironments in humans following typical bolus administration. Protein levels, phosphorylations, and interactions of estrogen-signaling molecules were assessed following these treatments, as well the effects of ER signaling inhibitors on cell proliferation. Results Surprisingly, estrogen and doxorubicin co-treatment markedly induced pro-growth alterations compared to doxorubicin alone and modestly enhanced estrogen alone-induced changes. Several inhibitors suppressed cell proliferation in the presence of doxorubicin and estrogen. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that molecular changes caused by doxorubicin in ER+ breast cancer cells can be reversed by estrogen, providing molecular evidence for the poorer responses of ER+ tumors to doxorubicin in the presence of physiologic estrogen levels. Our results also suggest that the addition of drugs targeting the ER, EGFR, the SFKs, MEK, PI3K, and/or the MMP proteins to a conventional chemotherapy regimen may improve chemosensitivity. PMID:22964943

Pritchard, Jessica E.; Dillon, Patrick M.; Conaway, Mark R.; Silva, Corinne M.; Parsons, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

125

IR spectroscopy and IR microscopy of human breast tumors, xenografted breast tumors, and breast tumor cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IR spectra of breast tumor cell lines and breast tumor tissues have been measured. IR measurements of tumor cells revealed that approximately 15 cells are necessary to obtain spectra of good signal-to-noise ratio using an IR microspectrometer equipped with a conventional IR thermal source. Comparative studies of human breast tumor cell line suspensions demonstrated that MCF-7 cells and drug-resistant NCI/ADR cells can be differentiated based on their IR spectra. The most striking differences between MCF-7 and NCI/ADR were found in features assigned to CH2 and CH3 stretching vibrations of lipid acyl chains and PO2 stretching vibrations of nucleic acids. To assess the potential of IR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast tumor tissues, thin sections of tissue were mapped by FTIR microspectroscopy. The spectra of these maps were analyzed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis, and the output values of the different approaches were then reassembled into IR images of the tissue. A comparison of the IR images with the standard light microscopic images of the corresponding areas suggested that: (i) chemical mapping based on single band intensities is an easy way to detect microscopic fat droplets within tissue; (ii) the comparison of IR images based on band intensities at 1054 and 1339 cm-1 provides information on tissue areas containing tumor cells; (iii) cluster analysis of the spectra is superior to the single band approach and more appropriate for differentiation between tissue types.

Fabian, Heinz; Wessel, Ralf; Jackson, Michael; Schwartz, Arnfried; Lasch, Peter; Fichtner, Iduna; Mantsch, Henry H.; Naumann, Dieter

1998-04-01

126

Overexpression of sorcin in multidrug-resistant human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Sorcin is a soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein, which is expressed in normal mammalian tissues, such as the liver, lungs and heart. It has been observed to be elevated in a number of cancer types, including colorectal, gastric and breast cancer. Its upregulation is usually associated with the development of chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sorcin expression levels in human serum samples of breast cancer subjects at various stages, and subsequently compare the outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the sorcin levels fluctuated. In total, 50 subjects were recruited from patients who were admitted to Yantai Yuhunagding Hospital (Yantai, China) and diagnosed with breast cancer. Blood samples prior to and following chemotherapy were assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and western blot analysis. The 2-DE analysis of the serum samples revealed that sorcin was upregulated in six out of 29 neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)-sensitive patients and, in those who developed multidrug resistance, sorcin was upregulated in 15 out of 21 patients (P<0.01). The differential expression levels of sorcin were confirmed by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In conclusion, sorcin expression in the human serum of breast cancer patients who are resistant to NAC was elevated when compared with that of NAC-sensitive patients. PMID:25364401

GONG, ZHAOHUA; SUN, PING; CHU, HONGJIN; ZHU, HUA; SUN, DENGJUN; CHEN, JIAN

2014-01-01

127

The Marine-Derived Sipholenol A-4-O-3?,4?-Dichlorobenzoate Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth and Motility in Vitro and in Vivo through the Suppression of Brk and FAK Signaling  

PubMed Central

Sipholenol A is a natural sipholane triterpenoid isolated from the Red Sea sponge, Callyspongia siphonella. Previous studies showed the antimigratory and antiproliferative activities of the semisynthetic sipholenol A esters against breast cancer cell lines. This study investigated the effects of sipholenol A-4-O-3?,4?-dichlorobenzoate (SPA) on the growth, migration and invasion of diverse human breast cancer cells. Results showed that SPA inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, BT-474 and T-47D, in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescent analysis showed that SPA significantly reduced Ki-67-positive cells in MDA-MB-231 cells. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses revealed that SPA treatment suppressed MDA-MB-231 cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. In addition, SPA suppressed breast cancer cell migration, invasion and decreased Brk and FAK activation in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking study suggested a perfect fitting at the FAK’s FERM domain, inhibiting the main autophosphorylation site, Y397, which was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. Most known small molecule FAK inhibitors target the kinase domain, creating several off-target side effects. The in vivo studies showed that SPA treatment suppressed breast tumor growth and Ki-67, CD31, p-Brk and p-FAK expression in orthotopic breast cancer in nude mice. In conclusion, SPA inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells possibly via deactivating Brk and FAK signaling, suggesting good potential for therapeutic use to control invasive breast cancer. PMID:24736807

Akl, Mohamed R.; Foudah, Ahmed I.; Ebrahim, Hassan Y.; Meyer, Sharon A.; Sayed, Khalid A. El

2014-01-01

128

FT-Raman spectroscopy study of human breast tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm-1, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm-1, 1440 to 1460 cm-1 and 1650 to 1680 cm-1, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.

Bitar Carter, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Netto, Mario M.; Soares, Fernando A.

2004-07-01

129

Concentration of endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites in the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of human breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Increasing evidence also supports their involvement in the development of certain lung, colon and prostate cancers. Methods In this study we systemically surveyed endogenous estrogen and estrogen metabolite levels in each of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, which include human breast, central nerve system, colon, ovarian, prostate, kidney and non-small cell lung cancers, as well as melanomas and leukemia. The absolute abundances of these metabolites were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method that has been previously utilized for biological fluids such as serum and urine. Results Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites were found in all NCI-60 human tumor cell lines and some were substantially elevated and exceeded the levels found in well known estrogen-dependent and estrogen receptor-positive tumor cells such as MCF-7 and T-47D. While estrogens were expected to be present at high levels in cell lines representing the female reproductive system (that is, breast and ovarian), other cell lines, such as leukemia and colon, also contained very high levels of these steroid hormones. The leukemia cell line RMPI-8226 contained the highest levels of estrone (182.06 pg/106 cells) and 17?-estradiol (753.45 pg/106 cells). In comparison, the ovarian cancer cell line with the highest levels of these estrogens contained only 19.79 and 139.32 pg/106 cells of estrone and 17?-estradiol, respectively. The highest levels of estrone and 17?-estradiol in breast cancer cell lines were only 8.45 and 87.37 pg/106 cells in BT-549 and T-47D cells, respectively. Conclusions The data provided evidence for the presence of significant amounts of endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites in cell lines not commonly associated with these steroid hormones. This broad discovery of endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolites in these cell lines suggest that several human tumors may be beneficially treated using endocrine therapy aimed at estrogen biosynthesis and estrogen-related signaling pathways. PMID:22546321

2012-01-01

130

Tuberculosis interferon-gamma responses in the breast milk of human immunodeficiency virus infected mothers.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) cellular immune responses were examined in the breast milk of human immunodeficiency virus infected mothers using the T-SPOT(®). TB interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Positive TB interferon-gamma (IFN-?) responses were detected in 6 of 8 (75%) valid breast milk assays. Among 7 mothers with paired breast milk and blood assays, TB IFN-? responses were higher in breast milk than in blood (P = 0.02). The magnitude of TB IFN-? responses in maternal breast milk and blood were correlated. Elucidating the influence of TB immune responses in breast milk on infant TB susceptibility and immunity may inform future maternal TB vaccine strategies. PMID:25574910

Cranmer, L M; Kanyugo, M; Lohman-Payne, B; Tapia, K; John-Stewart, G C

2015-02-01

131

Paracrine Wnt signaling both promotes and inhibits human breast tumor growth  

E-print Network

a patient with triple-negative breast cancer. Tumor suppression was associated with squamous differentiation and characterized, but its role in human breast cancer remains elusive. Although Wnt inhibitors are in early clinical development, it is unclear whether they will be of therapeutic benefit to breast cancer patients

Wahl, Geoffrey M.

132

Inheritance of Human Breast Cancer: Evidence for Autosomal Dominant Transmission in High-Risk Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segregation analysis of breast cancer in families can provide the logical basis and the specific genetic models for mapping and identifying genes responsible for human breast cancer. Patterns of breast cancer occurrence in families were investigated by complex segregation analysis. In a sample of 1579 nuclear families ascertained through a population-based series of probands, an autosomal dominant model with a

Beth Newman; Melissa A. Austin; Ming Lee; Mary-Claire King

1988-01-01

133

A human breast cell model of preinvasive to invasive transition.  

PubMed

A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from preinvasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur "spontaneously" in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted basement membrane cultures. These cells remained noninvasive; however, unlike their nonmalignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher-grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from preinvasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between preinvasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP9, MMP13, MMP15, and MMP17 was up-regulated in the invasive cells. Using small interfering RNA-based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which preinvasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context. PMID:18316601

Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A; Bascom, Jamie L; Mott, Joni D; Semeiks, Jeremy R; Grate, Leslie R; Mian, I Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D; Jensen, Roy A; Idowu, Michael O; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J; Petersen, Ole W; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

2008-03-01

134

Synthesis and characterization of Bombesin-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging of breast cancer using MRI.  

PubMed

The targeted delivery of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent may facilitate their accumulation in cancer cells and enhance the sensitivity of MR imaging. In this study, SPIONs coated with dextran (DSPIONs) were conjugated with bombesin (BBN) to produce a targeting contrast agent for detection of breast cancer using MRI. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer analyses indicated the formation of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6.0 ± 0.5 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of the BBN with the DSPIONs. A stability study proved the high optical stability of DSPION-BBN in human blood serum. DSPION-BBN biocompatibility was confirmed by cytotoxicity evaluation. A binding study showed the targeting ability of DSPION-BBN to bind to T47D breast cancer cells overexpressing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. T2-weighted and T2*-weighted color map MR images were acquired. The MRI study indicated that the DSPION-BBN possessed good diagnostic ability as a GRP-specific contrast agent, with appropriate signal reduction in T2*-weighted color map MR images in mice with breast tumors. PMID:25642737

Jafari, Atefeh; Salouti, Mojtaba; Shayesteh, Saber Farjami; Heidari, Zahra; Rajabi, Ahmad Bitarafan; Boustani, Komail; Nahardani, Ali

2015-02-20

135

Targeted fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for imaging of human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Magnetic nanoclusters coated with ruthenium (II) complexes doped with silica (fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles or FMNPs) could be used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging (OI) of human breast cancer. To achieve the targeting imaging of tumors, the peptide cyclic-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) was chosen as the probe for specific targeting integrin ?v?3 over expressed in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The cytotoxicity tests in vitro showed little toxicity of the synthesized RGD-FMNPs with the size of 150 nm. The in vivo study also showed no obvious acute toxicity after the injection of RGD-FMNPs in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumors. After 24 hours of co-culture with MDA-MB-231 cells, the cellular uptake of RGD-FMNPs significantly increased compared to that of FMNPs. T2-weighted (T2W) MRI demonstrated a negative enhancement in mice injected with RGD-FMNPs approximately three times of that injected with FMNPs (12.867 ± 0.451 ms vs. 4.833 ± 0.513 ms, P < 0.05). The Prussian blue staining results confirmed more RGD-FMNPs accumulated around the tumors than FMNPs. These results demonstrated the potential application of RGD-FMNPs as a targeting molecular probe for detection of breast cancer using MRI and OI. The synthesized RGD-FMNPs could be potentially used for biomedical imaging in the future.

Sun, Jing; Teng, Zhao-Gang; Tian, Ying; Wang, Jian-Dong; Guo, Yang; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Larson, Andrew C; Lu, Guang-Ming

2014-01-01

136

S2 DELETION VARIANTS OF HUMAN PRL RECEPTORS DEMONSTRATE THAT EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN CONFORMATION CAN ALTER CONFORMATION OF THE INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING DOMAIN (†)  

PubMed Central

Using spacers between the C-termini of the long (LF) or short (SF) human prolactin receptors and luciferase/GFP such that BRET occurred minimally in intact versions of these receptors in the absence of ligand, we have monitored the BRET signal after deletion of regions of the extracellular domain (ECD). Deletion of S2 produced ligand-independent BRET for only those pairings normally occurring in the presence of ligand with the intact receptor. Deletion of the similarly-sized S1, or S1 plus S2, produced no ligand-independent or -dependent BRET. When deleted receptors were transfected into human breast (T47D) or prostate (DU145) cancer cells incubated in the absence of added PRL and presence of anti-PRL, expression of the ?S2LF resulted in increased cell number, whereas expression of the intact receptor did not. When endogenous ?-casein expression was examined in T47D cells, the ?S2LF and ?S2F1a both showed ligand-independent activation of transcription, again not duplicated by the intact receptor. Paired with evidence in the literature for pre-dimerization of PRLRs, these results demonstrate that altered ECD conformation, and not just a change in bulk, produces altered conformation of the intracellular signaling region of the receptors, supporting the concept that ligand binding to the ECD of intact pre-dimerized receptors could initiate signaling. In addition, the current work supports a dual proliferative and differentiative role for the LF receptor, but only a differentiative role for the SF1a receptor. Naturally-occurring ?S2 PRLRs were also found in normal and cancerous human cells. This additionally suggests a heretofore unappreciated ligand-independent role for PRLRs. PMID:18081308

Tan, Dunyong; Huang, Kuang Tzu; Ueda, Eric; Walker, Ameae M.

2008-01-01

137

Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin and risk of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Studies of the induction of mammary tumors by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in a rat model show that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration reduces tumor incidence in a manner comparable to that of a completed pregnancy. On the basis of their studies, Russo and Russo (Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers & Prev., 3: 353-364, 1994) have proposed that hCG treatment of young nulliparous women would reduce their breast cancer risk in a manner similar to that of a term pregnancy. As part of a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among women ages 40 years or younger, we asked women whether they had received hCG injection as part of a weight loss regimen or as a component of infertility treatment. Participants in this study were 744 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between July 1983 and December 1988 and 744 controls individually matched on birthdate (within 36 months), race (white), parity (nulliparous/parous), and neighborhood of residence. Forty-five cases and 65 controls reported exposure to hCG (multivariate odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.50-1.19). Risk was reduced significantly among women whose maximum nonpregnant body mass index was less than 27.5 kg/m2 but no reduction in risk was observed among more obese women. Although the odds ratios were reduced substantially for both nulliparous and parous women with maximum nonpregnant body mass indices less than 27.5, only the result for nulliparous women was statistically significant. These results are consistent with the effects proposed by Russo and Russo based on their animal model. Although not definitive, these results suggest that hCG may be a means for reducing breast cancer risk. PMID:7549796

Bernstein, L; Hanisch, R; Sullivan-Halley, J; Ross, R K

1995-01-01

138

Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line  

PubMed Central

Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70%) extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and MeOH–H2O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC50 (median growth inhibitory concentration) values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10) software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC50 82.26 ± 4.09 ?g/ml) and MeOH-H2O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC50 116.92 ± 8.58 ?g/ml) showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 ?g/ml), respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 ?g/ml). Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines. PMID:22438665

Khanavi, Mahnaz; Gheidarloo, Razieh; Sadati, Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Tavajohi, Shohreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

2012-01-01

139

Distinctive Gene Expression Patterns in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA microarrays and a clustering algorithm were used to identify patterns of gene expression in human mammary epithelial cells growing in culture and in primary human breast tumors. Clusters of coexpressed genes identified through manipulations of mammary epithelial cells in vitro also showed consistent patterns of variation in expression among breast tumor samples. By using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against proteins

Charles M. Perou; Stefanie S. Jeffrey; Matt van de Rijn; Christian A. Rees; Michael B. Eisen; Douglas T. Ross; Alexander Pergamenschikov; Cheryl F. Williams; Shirley X. Zhu; Jeffrey C. F. Lee; Deval Lashkari; Dari Shalon; Patrick O. Brown; David Botstein

1999-01-01

140

AIB1 Cooperates with ER? to Promote Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer through SNAI1 Activation  

PubMed Central

Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) plays a major role in cancer metastasis. Several genes have been shown to play a role in EMT, and one of these is Amplified-in-breast cancer 1 (AIB1), which has oncogenic function and is known to be amplified in breast cancer. However, the role of AIB1 in EMT remains largely undefined at the molecular level. In this study, the effect of AIB1 overexpression on the EMT of the breast cancer cell line T47D was investigated. Overexpression of AIB1 disrupted the epithelial morphology of the cells. At the same time, the cells displayed a strong metastasis and reduced level of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. In contrast, knockdown of AIB1 in T47D cells increased cell-cell adhesion and produced weak metastasis, as well as a higher level of E-cadherin expression. We proposed that the regulation of EMT by AIB1 occurred through the action of the transcription factor SNAI1, and demonstrated that such interaction required the participation of ER? and the presence of ER?-binding site on SNAI1 promoter. The expression level of E-cadherin and the extent of cell migration and invasion in SNAI1-knocked down T47D cells that overexpressed AIB1 were similar to those of T47D cells that did not overexpress AIB1 and had no SNAI1 knockdown. Taken together, these results suggested that AIB1 exerted its effect on EMT through its interaction with ER?, which could directly bind to the ER?-binding site on the SNAI1 promoter, allowing the AIB1-ER? complex to promote the transcription of SNAI1 and eventually led to repression of E-cadherin expression, consistent with the loss of E-cadherin being a hallmark of EMT. PMID:23762395

Wang, Miao; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shujing; Chang, Alan K.; Jia, Zhaojun; Chen, Yixuan; Xu, Feihong; Pan, Hongming; Wu, Huijian

2013-01-01

141

Human mammaglobin in breast cancer: a brief review of its clinical utility  

PubMed Central

Human mammaglobin is a member of the uteroglobin proteins family that has recently been tested as a specific marker for breast cancer. While low levels may be seen in normal breast tissue, expression is increased dramatically in breast cancer and is correlated with higher grade. Detection in blood and body fluids is also correlated with cancer metastasis, and its levels with prognosis. This promises to be a useful screen for early detection of breast cancer, especially in high risk individuals. Mammoglobin has also been used for immunotherapeutic targeting of breast cancer cells. However, there are some controversies regarding its diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value, which warrant further study. PMID:25027076

Al Joudi, Fawwaz Shakir

2014-01-01

142

Clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence suggests that fibroblasts play a pivotal role in promoting the growth of breast cancer cells. The objective of the present study was to characterize and validate an in vitro model of the interaction between small numbers of human breast cancer cells and human fibroblasts. METHODS: We measured the clonogenic growth of small numbers of human breast cancer

Michael Samoszuk; Jenny Tan; Guillaume Chorn

2005-01-01

143

Quercetin: synergistic action with carboxyamidotriazole in human breast carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Quercetin, a plant flavonoid, blocks signal transduction pathways by inhibiting 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (EC 2.7.1.67, PI kinase) and 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (EC 2.7.1.68, PIP kinase), resulting in a reduction of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) concentration which decreases the release of calcium from intracellular sources. Carboxyamidotriazole (CAI), a novel anticancer agent, inhibits calcium entry into cells. Because both drugs reduce cytosolic calcium levels, we tested the action of quercetin and CAI in human carcinoma cells. Human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435 cells were grown in minimum essential medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. In growth inhibition assay the IC50s for quercetin and CAI were 55 and 4.8 microM, respectively; in clonogenic assay, 28 and 1.4 microM, respectively. When quercetin and CAI were added to the cultures, synergism was observed in isobolograms in growth inhibition and clonogenic assays. In growth inhibition assay, the best combination was 20 microM quercetin with 4 microM CAI; in clonogenic assay, 30 microM quercetin with 1.2 microM CAI. Since these drugs are in phase I trials the synergistic action of quercetin and CAI may be of interest in clinical trials for breast carcinoma. PMID:7674820

Yeh, Y A; Herenyiova, M; Weber, G

1995-01-01

144

Effect of soy isoflavones on the growth of human breast tumors: findings from preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and many women with breast cancer live more than 5 years after their diagnosis. Breast cancer patients and survivors have a greater interest in taking soy foods and isoflavone supplements. However, the effect of isoflavones on breast cancer remains controversial. Thus, it is critical to determine if and when isoflavones are beneficial or detrimental to breast cancer patients. According to the available preclinical data, high concentrations of isoflavones inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells, regardless of their estrogen receptor (ER) status. In comparison, genistein, a major isoflavone, has stimulated tumor growth at low concentrations and mitigated tamoxifen efficacy in ER-positive breast cancer. Studies have indicated that the relative levels of genistein and estrogen at the target site are important to determine the genistein effect on the ER-positive tumor growth. However, studies using ovariectomized mice and subcutaneous xenograft models might not truly reflect estrogen concentrations in human breast tumors. Moreover, it may be an oversimplification that isoflavones stimulate hormone-dependent tumor growth due to their potential estrogenic effect since studies also suggest nonestrogenic anticancer effects of isoflavones and ER-independent anticancer activity of tamoxifen. Therefore, the concentrations of isoflavones and estrogen in human breast tumors should be considered better in future preclinical studies and the parameters that can estimate those levels in breast tumors are required in human clinical/epidemiological investigation. In addition, it will be important to identify the molecular mechanisms that either inhibit or promote the growth of breast cancer cells by soy isoflavones, and use those molecules to evaluate the relevance of the preclinical findings to the human disease and to predict the health effects of isoflavones in human breast tumors. PMID:25493176

Kwon, Youngjoo

2014-11-01

145

Nuclear matrix proteins in well and poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The nuclear matrix, besides providing the structural support of the nucleus, is involved in various cellular functions of the nucleus. Nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs), which are both tissue- and cell type-specific, are altered with transformation and state of differentiation. Furthermore, NMPs have been identified as informative markers of disease states. Here, the NMP profiles from human breast cancer cell lines and breast tumours were analyzed using two-dimension gel electrophoresis. We identified NMPs that are associated with well and poorly differentiated human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Five NMPs (NMBC 1-5) were found to be exclusive for well-differentiated human breast cancer cells, while one NMP (NMBC-6) was found to be present only in poorly differentiated human breast cancer cells. The identification of these proteins suggests the potential use of nuclear matrix proteins as prognostic indicators. PMID:9215523

Samuel, S K; Minish, T M; Davie, J R

1997-07-01

146

Human Breast Milk and Antiretrovirals Dramatically Reduce Oral HIV-1 Transmission in BLT Humanized Mice  

PubMed Central

Currently, over 15% of new HIV infections occur in children. Breastfeeding is a major contributor to HIV infections in infants. This represents a major paradox in the field because in vitro, breast milk has been shown to have a strong inhibitory effect on HIV infectivity. However, this inhibitory effect has never been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we address this important paradox using the first humanized mouse model of oral HIV transmission. We established that reconstitution of the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice with human leukocytes, including the human cell types important for mucosal HIV transmission (i.e. dendritic cells, macrophages and CD4+ T cells), renders them susceptible to oral transmission of cell-free and cell-associated HIV. Oral transmission of HIV resulted in systemic infection of lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues that is characterized by the presence of HIV RNA in plasma and a gradual decline of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. Consistent with infection of the oral cavity, we observed virus shedding into saliva. We then evaluated the role of human breast milk on oral HIV transmission. Our in vivo results demonstrate that breast milk has a strong inhibitory effect on oral transmission of both cell-free and cell-associated HIV. Finally, we evaluated the effect of antiretrovirals on oral transmission of HIV. Our results show that systemic antiretrovirals administered prior to exposure can efficiently prevent oral HIV transmission in BLT mice. PMID:22737068

Wahl, Angela; Swanson, Michael D.; Nochi, Tomonori; Olesen, Rikke; Denton, Paul W.; Chateau, Morgan; Garcia, J. Victor

2012-01-01

147

Effects of Recombinant Human Prolactin on Breast Milk Composition  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of recombinant human prolactin (r-hPRL) on the nutritional and immunologic composition of breast milk. METHODS: We conducted 2 trials of r-hPRL treatment. In the first study, mothers with documented prolactin deficiency were given r-hPRL every 12 hours in a 28-day, open-label trial. In the second study, mothers with lactation insufficiency that developed while they were pumping breast milk for their preterm infants were given r-hPRL daily in a 7-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Breast milk characteristics were compared before and during 7 days of treatment. RESULTS: Among subjects treated with r-hPRL (N = 11), milk volumes (73 ± 36 to 146 ± 54 mL/day; P < .001) and milk lactose levels (155 ± 15 to 184 ± 8 mmol/L; P = .01) increased, whereas milk sodium levels decreased (12.1 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L; P = .02). Milk calcium levels increased in subjects treated with r-hPRL twice daily (2.8 ± 0.6 to 5.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L; P = .03). Total neutral (1.5 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 g/L; P = .04) and acidic (33 ± 4 to 60 ± 6 mg/L; P = .02) oligosaccharide levels increased in r-hPRL-treated subjects, whereas total daily milk immunoglobulin A secretionwas unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: r-hPRL treatment increased milk volume and induced changes in milk composition similar to those that occur during normal lactogenesis. r-hPRL also increased antimicrobially active oligosaccharide concentrations. These effects were achieved for women with both prolactin deficiency and lactation insufficiency. PMID:21262884

Powe, Camille E.; Puopolo, Karen M.; Newburg, David S.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Chen, Ceng; Allen, Maureen; Merewood, Anne; Worden, Susan

2011-01-01

148

Estrogen deprivation causes estradiol hypersensitivity in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Genetic and environmental factors can modulate the level of sensitivity to various hormones, including estrogens. Enhanced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) has been demonstrated in several biological conditions, such as in sheep during the nonbreeding season, in untreated patients with Turner's syndrome, and in the prepubertal state in normal girls. We postulated that secondary responses to hormonal therapy in patients with breast cancer could also result from enhanced E2 sensitivity, developing as an adaptive mechanism to E2 deprivation. The present study used the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line as a model system to test the concept that enhanced sensitivity to E2 may occur as a result of adaptation to low E2 levels. After depriving MCF-7 cells of estrogens in tissue culture medium for periods of 1-6 months, we established conditions under which replication could be stimulated maximally by 10(-14)-10(-15) mol/L E2. In contrast, wild-type cells not exposed to estrogen deprivation required 10(-10) mol/L E2 to grow at the same rate. Further, the concentration of the antiestrogen, ICI 164384, needed to inhibit growth by 50% in estrogen-deprived cells was much lower than that required in wild-type cells (i.e. 10(-15) vs. 10(-9) mol/L). Nude mice implanted with these estrogen-deprived cells demonstrated an earlier appearance of palpable tumors in response to E2 than animals bearing wild-type cells. Reexposure to 10(-10)-10(-9) mol/L E2, either in vivo or in vitro, returned these cells to the level of estrogen sensitivity observed in wild-type cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that breast cancer cells can adapt to low levels of estrogens by enhancing their sensitivity to E2. PMID:7559875

Masamura, S; Santner, S J; Heitjan, D F; Santen, R J

1995-10-01

149

Radiosensitization effects of berberine on human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Berberine, an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has recently been shown to have antitumor activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the concomitant administration of berberine and radiation on breast cancer. The effects of berberine on the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells were evaluated by using cell clonogenic assays. Cells pre-treated with berberine or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 24 h were irradiated using a Faxitron Cabinet X-ray System to deliver the indicated doses (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy). Changes in cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry. ?-H2AX foci were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of Ku70, Ku86 and RAD51 proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. We observed that berberine increased the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell radiosensitivity with cell clonogenic assays. the radiation-induced G2/M cell cycle delay was reduced in the MCF-7 cells pre-teated with berberine. Berberine pre-treatment prolonged the persistence of DNA double-strand breaks in the MCF-7 cell line. In comparison with the control cells, the protein levels of RAD51 were decreased in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells treated with berberine, and in the cells pre-treated with 15 µM berberine for 24 h, the level of RAD51 protein decreased significantly at the indicated time-points (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) following X-ray exposure. In conclusion, berberine sensitizes human breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of the homologous recombination repair protein, RAD51. Berberine may be a promising radiosensitizer for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:22895634

Wang, Jing; Liu, Qiao; Yang, Qifeng

2012-11-01

150

Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum.  

PubMed

The concentrations of five esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) were measured using HPLC-MS/MS at four serial locations across the human breast from axilla to sternum using human breast tissue collected from 40 mastectomies for primary breast cancer in England between 2005 and 2008. One or more paraben esters were quantifiable in 158/160 (99%) of the tissue samples and in 96/160 (60%) all five esters were measured. Variation was notable with respect to individual paraben esters, location within one breast and similar locations in different breasts. Overall median values in nanograms per gram tissue for the 160 tissue samples were highest for n-propylparaben [16.8 (range 0-2052.7)] and methylparaben [16.6 (range 0-5102.9)]; levels were lower for n-butylparaben [5.8 (range 0-95.4)], ethylparaben [3.4 (range 0-499.7)] and isobutylparaben 2.1 (range 0-802.9). The overall median value for total paraben was 85.5 ng g(-1) tissue (range 0-5134.5). The source of the paraben cannot be identified, but paraben was measured in the 7/40 patients who reported never having used underarm cosmetics in their lifetime. No correlations were found between paraben concentrations and age of patient (37-91 years), length of breast feeding (0-23 months), tumour location or tumour oestrogen receptor content. In view of the disproportionate incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant, paraben concentrations were compared across the four regions of the breast: n-propylparaben was found at significantly higher levels in the axilla than mid (P = 0.004 Wilcoxon matched pairs) or medial (P = 0.021 Wilcoxon matched pairs) regions (P = 0.010 Friedman ANOVA). PMID:22237600

Barr, L; Metaxas, G; Harbach, C A J; Savoy, L A; Darbre, P D

2012-03-01

151

Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ... liver, or elsewhere. Continue Why Do People Get Breast Cancer? Any woman can get breast cancer, but doctors ...

152

J Biol Chem . Author manuscript Human adipose tissue macrophages display activation of cancer-related  

E-print Network

cell function. Therefore, ATM were isolated and compared to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from accumulation in human T47D and HT-29 cancer cells. Gene expression profile comparison of ATM and MDM revealed in serum of obese subjects. In conclusion, ATM may thus modulate the cancer cell phenotype. MESH Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Efp as a primary estrogen-responsive gene in human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously isolated the efp (estrogen-responsive finger protein) that is required for the normal estrogen-induced cell proliferation. Here, we show the genomic organization of the human efp gene which consists of nine exons. The efp mRNA was expressed in human breast tumors and the estrogen-induced expression of the efp was found in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Moreover, efp

Kazuhiro Ikeda; Akira Orimo; Yasuhiro Higashi; Masami Muramatsu; Satoshi Inoue

2000-01-01

154

The emerging importance of ?-L-fucose in human breast cancer: a review  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer cells incorporate the simple sugar alpha-L-fucose (fucose) into glycoproteins and glycolipids which, in turn, are expressed as part of the malignant phenotype. We have noted that fucose is not simply a bystander molecule, but, in fact, contributes to many of the fundamental oncologic properties of breast cancer cells. Here, we summarize the evidence from us and others that fucose is necessary for key functions of neoplastic progression including hematogenous metastasis, tumor invasion through extracellular matrices including basement membranes and up-regulation of the Notch signaling system, with implications for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and activation of breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, certain breast cancer biomarkers are fucose-rich while a well-known marker of breast cancer progression, soluble E-selectin, is a known counter-receptor of fucosylated selectin ligands. We provide illustrative examples and supportive evidence drawn from work with human breast cancer cell lines in vitro as well as clinical studies with human pathologic material. And finally, we discuss evidence that fucose (or its absence) is central to the mechanisms of action of several experimental targeted therapies which may prove useful in breast cancer treatment. We propose that alpha-L-fucose is essential in order to construct first, the malignant and then the metastatic phenotype of many human breast cancers. This knowledge may inform the search for novel treatment approaches in breast cancer. PMID:21904652

Listinsky, Jay J; Siegal, Gene P; Listinsky, Catherine M

2011-01-01

155

Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT increases breast cancer cell radiosensitivity compared with radiation alone. These findings have salient implications for designing clinical trials using fulvestrant and radiation therapy.

Wang, Jing, E-mail: wangstella5@163.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China) [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Yang, Qifeng, E-mail: qifengy@gmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China)] [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, NB (United States); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xiaoyanli1219@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China)] [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2013-02-08

156

Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro

Brolo, Alexandre G.

157

Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) of human breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a tool for visualizing protein expression employed as part of the diagnostic work-up for the majority of solid tissue malignancies. Existing IHC methods use antibodies tagged with fluorophores or enzyme reporters that generate colored pigments. Because these reporters exhibit spectral and spatial overlap when used simultaneously, multiplexed IHC is not routinely used in clinical settings. We have developed a method that uses secondary ion mass spectrometry to image antibodies tagged with isotopically pure elemental metal reporters. Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is capable of analyzing up to 100 targets simultaneously over a five-log dynamic range. Here, we used MIBI to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human breast tumor tissue sections stained with ten labels simultaneously. The resulting data suggest that MIBI will provide new insights by integrating tissue microarchitecture with highly multiplexed protein expression patterns, and will be valuable for basic research, drug discovery and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24584119

Angelo, Michael; Bendall, Sean C.; Finck, Rachel; Hale, Matthew B.; Hitzman, Chuck; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Levenson, Richard M.; Lowe, John B.; Liu, Scot D.; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Nolan, Garry P.

2014-01-01

158

Estrogen-regulated non-reproductive behaviors and breast cancer risk: Animal models and human studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of personality patterns and psychosocial factors in breast cancer has been studied extensively, through both human and animal experiments. The data are conflicting, and the conclusions controversial. This review will serve two purposes. First, we present evidence that behavioral patterns most commonly linked to breast cancer risk are at least partly regulated by estrogens. This section will

Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

1997-01-01

159

Growth Inhibitory Activity of Extracts and Purified Components of Black Cohosh on Human Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether black cohosh contains constituents that inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells, and therefore might eventually be useful in the prevention or treatment of breast cancer. Black cohosh rhizomes were extracted with methanol\\/water and fractionated by solvent–solvent partitioning to yield three fractions: hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The ethyl acetate

Linda Saxe Einbond; Masahito Shimizu; Danhua Xiao; Paiboon Nuntanakorn; Jin T. E. Lim; Masumi Suzui; Colette Seter; Thomas Pertel; Edward J. Kennelly; Fredi Kronenberg; I. Bernard Weinstein

2004-01-01

160

Induction of Transforming Growth Factor 0, in Human Breast Cancer in Vivo following Tamoxifen Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the ability of tamoxifen to regulate members of the transforming growth factor Ăź (TGF-\\/ĂŹ) family in human breast can cers in vivo. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we find that 3 months of tamoxifen treatment causes a consistent induction of extra cellular TGF-01 in breast cancer biopsies, compared with matched pre treatment samples from the same patient. The induced

Anju Butta; Kenneth MacLennan; Kathleen C. Flanders; Nigel P. M. Sacks; Ian Smith; Alan McKinna; Mitchell Dowsett; Lalage M. Wakefield; Michael B. Sporn; Michael Baum; Anthony A. Colletta

161

The role of annexin A1 in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and invasion of breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the effect of ANXA1 on promoting migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANXA1 siRNA inhibits invasion and migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANXA1 regulates MMP-9 expression and activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANX-1 siRNA inhibits the activation of NF-{kappa}B in MDA-MB-231 cells. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of MMP-9 expression and its biological effects on breast cancer development remain obscure. In the current study, we examined the potential role of annexin A1 (ANXA1) in regulating migration and invasion in breast cancer cell lines. Both ANXA1 mRNA and protein are expressed in the highly invasive, hormone-insensitive human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3, but not in the hormone-responsive cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Downregulation of ANXA1 expression with specific small interfering RNAs (ANXA1 siRNA) in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in decreased cancer cell migration and invasion. Ablation of ANXA1 expression decreases the expression of MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein levels and also reduces the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, silencing ANXA1 also decreases the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-{kappa}B) activity. Collectively, these results indicate that ANXA1 functions as a positive regulator of MMP-9 expression and invasion of breast cancer cells through specific activation of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

Kang, Hyereen [Department of Medicine, Graduate School, University of Ulsan, Pungnap-2 dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Medicine, Graduate School, University of Ulsan, Pungnap-2 dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jesang [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung-Wuk, E-mail: swjang@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Medicine, Graduate School, University of Ulsan, Pungnap-2 dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Medicine, Graduate School, University of Ulsan, Pungnap-2 dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-06-22

162

Gene Expression Analysis in Human Breast Cancer Associated Blood Vessels  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5–72 fold) in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of potentially novel anti-angiogenic targets that are likley to be, but not exclusivley, relevant to breast cancer. PMID:23056178

Jones, Dylan T.; Lechertier, Tanguy; Mitter, Richard; Herbert, John M. J.; Bicknell, Roy; Jones, J. Louise; Li, Ji-Liang; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

2012-01-01

163

Depletion of Human Histone H1 Variants Uncovers Specific Roles in Gene Expression and Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

At least six histone H1 variants exist in somatic mammalian cells that bind to the linker DNA and stabilize the nucleosome particle contributing to higher order chromatin compaction. In addition, H1 seems to be actively involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not well known whether the different variants have distinct roles or if they regulate specific promoters. We have explored this by inducible shRNA-mediated knock-down of each of the H1 variants in a human breast cancer cell line. Rapid inhibition of each H1 variant was not compensated for by changes of expression of other variants. Microarray experiments have shown a different subset of genes to be altered in each H1 knock-down. Interestingly, H1.2 depletion caused specific effects such as a cell cycle G1-phase arrest, the repressed expression of a number of cell cycle genes, and decreased global nucleosome spacing. On its side, H1.4 depletion caused cell death in T47D cells, providing the first evidence of the essential role of an H1 variant for survival in a human cell type. Thus, specific phenotypes are observed in breast cancer cells depleted of individual histone H1 variants, supporting the theory that distinct roles exist for the linker histone variants. PMID:18927631

Sancho, Mónica; Diani, Erika; Beato, Miguel; Jordan, Albert

2008-01-01

164

Triptolide-induced in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity in human breast cancer stem cells and primary breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

We investigated the potential efficacy of the Chinese herbal extract triptolide for the treatment of human breast cancer by measuring the triptolide-induced cytotoxicity in cultures of human primary breast cancer cells (BCCs) and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Human BCCs and BCSCs from invasive ductal carcinoma samples were cultured and treated with 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 µM triptolide. Cell death and apoptosis were measured after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. Mammospheres were found to be highly tumorigenic when implanted subcutaneously in nude BALB/c mice. Triptolide was cytotoxic against both human primary BCCs and BCSCs in vitro (P<0.05), but the cytotoxicity was stronger against the BCCs. In response to 1 µM triptolide for 72 h, the apoptotic rates were approximately 60% for BCCs and 30% for BCSCs. The BCSCs exhibited a high formation rate of tumors when implanted subcutaneously in nude BALB/c mice. Triptolide treatment in vivo significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with mock treatment. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of triptolide against BCCs and BCSCs in vitro and in vivo suggests that this natural diterpenoid triepoxide compound may have clinical applications for the suppression of breast tumor growth. PMID:24676587

Li, Junjie; Liu, Ruilei; Yang, Ye; Huang, Yong; Li, Xi; Liu, Ruiming; Shen, Xiaoyan

2014-05-01

165

Frondoside A inhibits human breast cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and the growth of breast tumor xenografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a major challenge for pharmacologists to develop new drugs to improve the survival of cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. It has been demonstrated that Frondoside A inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on human

Nadia Al Marzouqi; Rabah Iratni; Abderrahim Nemmar; Kholoud Arafat; Mahmood Ahmed Al Sultan; Javed Yasin; Peter Collin; Jan Mester; Thomas E. Adrian; Samir Attoub

2011-01-01

166

Crosstalk between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human breast cancer cells: PPAR{gamma} binds to VDR and inhibits 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} mediated transactivation  

SciTech Connect

Heterodimerization and cross-talk between nuclear hormone receptors often occurs. For example, estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) physically binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and inhibits its transcriptional activity. The interaction between PPAR{gamma} and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) however, is unknown. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms linking PPAR{gamma} and VDR signaling, and for the first time we show that PPAR{gamma} physically associates with VDR in human breast cancer cells. We found that overexpression of PPAR{gamma} decreased 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) mediated transcriptional activity of the vitamin D target gene, CYP24A1, by 49% and the activity of VDRE-luc, a vitamin D responsive reporter, by 75% in T47D human breast cancer cells. Deletion mutation experiments illustrated that helices 1 and 4 of PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains, respectively, governed this suppressive function. Additionally, abrogation of PPAR{gamma}'s AF2 domain attenuated its repressive action on 1,25D{sub 3} transactivation, indicating that this domain is integral in inhibiting VDR signaling. PPAR{gamma} was also found to compete with VDR for their binding partner retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR{alpha}). Overexpression of RXR{alpha} blocked PPAR{gamma}'s suppressive effect on 1,25D{sub 3} action, enhancing VDR signaling. In conclusion, these observations uncover molecular mechanisms connecting the PPAR{gamma} and VDR pathways. -- Highlights: PPAR{gamma}'s role on 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} transcriptional activity is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} physically binds to VDR and inhibits 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains are important for this inhibitory effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} competes with VDR for the availability of their binding partner, RXR{alpha}.

Alimirah, Fatouma; Peng, Xinjian; Yuan, Liang; Mehta, Rajeshwari R. [Cancer Biology Division, IIT Research Institute, 10 West 35th Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)] [Cancer Biology Division, IIT Research Institute, 10 West 35th Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Knethen, Andreas von [Institute of Biochemistry, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Institute of Biochemistry, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Choubey, Divaker [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, 3223 Eden Avenue, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, 3223 Eden Avenue, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Mehta, Rajendra G., E-mail: rmehta@iitri.org [Cancer Biology Division, IIT Research Institute, 10 West 35th Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

2012-11-15

167

Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Salidroside inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Recently, salidroside (p-hydroxyphenethyl-{beta}-D-glucoside) has been identified as one of the most potent compounds isolated from plants of the Rhodiola genus used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, but pharmacokinetic data on the compound are unavailable. We were the first to report the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on cancer cell lines derived from different tissues, and we found that human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor negative) were sensitive to the inhibitory action of low-concentration salidroside. To further investigate the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on breast cancer cells and reveal possible ER-related differences in response to salidroside, we used MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells (estrogen receptor-positive) as models to study possible molecular mechanisms; we evaluated the effects of salidroside on cell growth characteristics, such as proliferation, cell cycle duration, and apoptosis, and on the expression of apoptosis-related molecules. Our results demonstrated for the first time that salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and may be a promising candidate for breast cancer treatment.

Hu, Xiaolan, E-mail: huxiaolan1998@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)] [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xianqi [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)] [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Qiu, Shuifeng [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)] [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yu, Daihua; Lin, Shuxin [Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an (China)] [Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an (China)

2010-07-16

168

BreastDefend™ prevents breast-to-lung cancer metastases in an orthotopic animal model of triple-negative human breast cancer.  

PubMed

We have recently demonstrated that a natural dietary supplement BreastDefend (BD), which contains extracts from medicinal mushrooms (Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus), medicinal herbs (Scutellaria barbata, Astragalus membranaceus, Curcuma longa), and purified biologically active nutritional compounds (diindolylmethane and quercetin), inhibits proliferation and metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 invasive human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated whether BD suppresses growth and breast-to lung cancer metastasis in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer cells implanted in mice. Oral application of BD (100 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks) by intragastric gavage did not affect body weight or activity of liver enzymes and did not show any sign of toxicity in liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart tissues in mice. Moreover, BD significantly decreased the change in tumor volume over time compared to the control group (p=0.002). BD treatment also markedly decreased the incidence of breast-to-lung cancer metastasis from 67% (control) to 20% (BD) (p<0.05) and the number of metastases from 2.8 (0.0, 48.0) in the control group to 0.0 (0.0, 14.2) in the BD treatment group (p<0.05). Finally, anti-metastatic activity of BD in vivo was further confirmed by the downregulation of expression of PLAU (urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA) and CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor-4) genes in breast tumors. In conclusion, BD may be considered as a biological therapeutic agent against invasive breast cancers. PMID:22842551

Jiang, Jiahua; Thyagarajan-Sahu, Anita; Loganathan, Jagadish; Eliaz, Isaac; Terry, Colin; Sandusky, George E; Sliva, Daniel

2012-10-01

169

Frondoside A inhibits human breast cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and the growth of breast tumor xenografts.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a major challenge for pharmacologists to develop new drugs to improve the survival of cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. It has been demonstrated that Frondoside A inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on human breast cancer cell survival, migration and invasion in vitro, and on tumor growth in nude mice, using the human estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The non-tumorigenic MCF10-A cell line derived from normal human mammary epithelium was used as control. Frondoside A (0.01-5 ?M) decreased the viability of breast cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with 50%-effective concentration (EC50) of 2.5 ?M at 24h. MCF10-A cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effect of Frondoside A (EC50 superior to 5 ?M at 24 h). In the MDA-MB-231 cells, Frondoside A effectively increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic) cell fraction through the activation of p53, and subsequently the caspases 9 and 3/7 cell death pathways. In addition, Frondoside A induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion. In vivo, Frondoside A (100 ?g/kg/dayi.p. for 24 days) strongly decreased the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts in athymic mice, without manifest toxic side-effects. Moreover, we found that Frondoside A could enhance the killing of breast cancer cells induced by the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. These findings identify Frondoside A as a promising novel therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:21741966

Al Marzouqi, Nadia; Iratni, Rabah; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Arafat, Kholoud; Ahmed Al Sultan, Mahmood; Yasin, Javed; Collin, Peter; Mester, Jan; Adrian, Thomas E; Attoub, Samir

2011-10-01

170

Human adipose tissue macrophages display activation of cancer-related pathways Thrse Hrve Mayi1,2,3,4  

E-print Network

). Conclusion. ATM may modulate cancer cell function. Significance. ATM may be potential contributors to cancer (ATM) modulate cancer cell function. Therefore, ATM were isolated and compared to monocyte inflammation and lipid accumulation in human T47D and HT- 29 cancer cells. Gene expression profile comparison

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

From The Cover: Reconstruction of functionally normal and malignant human breast tissues in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of normal breast epithelial morphogenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo has largely used rodent models. Efforts at studying mammary morphogenesis and cancer with xenotransplanted human epithelial cells have failed to recapitulate the full extent of development seen in the human breast. We have developed an orthotopic xenograft model in which both the stromal and epithelial components of the reconstructed mammary gland are of human origin. Genetic modification of human stromal cells before the implantation of ostensibly normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in the outgrowth of benign and malignant lesions. This experimental model allows for studies of human epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation in vivo and underscores the critical role of heterotypic interactions in human breast development and carcinogenesis.

Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Chavarria, Tony; Wu, Min; Magrane, Greg; Gray, Joe W.; Carey, Loucinda; Richardson, Andrea; Weinberg, Robert A.

2004-04-01

172

Differences and homologies of chromosomal alterations within and between breast cancer cell lines: a clustering analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The MCF7 (ER+/HER2-), T47D (ER+/HER2-), BT474 (ER+/HER2+) and SKBR3 (ER-/HER2+) breast cancer cell lines are widely used in breast cancer research as paradigms of the luminal and HER2 phenotypes. Although they have been subjected to cytogenetic analysis, their chromosomal abnormalities have not been carefully characterized, and their differential cytogenetic profiles have not yet been established. In addition, techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), microarray-based CGH and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) have described specific regions of gains, losses and amplifications of these cell lines; however, these techniques cannot detect balanced chromosomal rearrangements (e.g., translocations or inversions) or low frequency mosaicism. Results A range of 19 to 26 metaphases of the MCF7, T47D, BT474 and SKBR3 cell lines was studied using conventional (G-banding) and molecular cytogenetic techniques (multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization, M-FISH). We detected previously unreported chromosomal changes and determined the content and frequency of chromosomal markers. MCF7 and T47D (ER+/HER2-) cells showed a less complex chromosomal make up, with more numerical than structural alterations, compared to BT474 and SKBR3 (HER2+) cells, which harbored the highest frequency of numerical and structural aberrations. Karyotype heterogeneity and clonality were determined by comparing all metaphases within and between the four cell lines by hierarchical clustering. The latter analysis identified five main clusters. One of these clusters was characterized by numerical chromosomal abnormalities common to all cell lines, and the other four clusters encompassed cell-specific chromosomal abnormalities. T47D and BT474 cells shared the most chromosomal abnormalities, some of which were shared with SKBR3 cells. MCF7 cells showed a chromosomal pattern that was markedly different from those of the other cell lines. Conclusions Our study provides a comprehensive and specific characterization of complex chromosomal aberrations of MCF7, T47D, BT474 and SKBR3 cell lines. The chromosomal pattern of ER+/HER2- cells is less complex than that of ER+/HER2+ and ER-/HER2+ cells. These chromosomal abnormalities could influence the biologic and pharmacologic response of cells. Finally, although gene expression profiling and aCGH studies have classified these four cell lines as luminal, our results suggest that they are heterogeneous at the cytogenetic level. PMID:24456987

2014-01-01

173

Automated quantification of aligned collagen for human breast carcinoma prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Mortality in cancer patients is directly attributable to the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites from the primary tumor. This migration of tumor cells begins with a remodeling of the local tumor microenvironment, including changes to the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of stromal cells, both of which facilitate invasion of tumor cells into the bloodstream. In breast cancer, it has been proposed that the alignment of collagen fibers surrounding tumor epithelial cells can serve as a quantitative image-based biomarker for survival of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Specific types of collagen alignment have been identified for their prognostic value and now these tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS) are central to several clinical specimen imaging trials. Here, we implement the semi-automated acquisition and analysis of this TACS candidate biomarker and demonstrate a protocol that will allow consistent scoring to be performed throughout large patient cohorts. Methods: Using large field of view high resolution microscopy techniques, image processing and supervised learning methods, we are able to quantify and score features of collagen fiber alignment with respect to adjacent tumor-stromal boundaries. Results: Our semi-automated technique produced scores that have statistically significant correlation with scores generated by a panel of three human observers. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted survival in a cohort of 196 breast cancer patients. Feature rank analysis reveals that TACS positive fibers are more well-aligned with each other, are of generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells at larger angles of interaction. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the utility of a supervised learning protocol for streamlining the analysis of collagen alignment with respect to tumor stromal boundaries. PMID:25250186

Bredfeldt, Jeremy S.; Liu, Yuming; Conklin, Matthew W.; Keely, Patricia J.; Mackie, Thomas R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

2014-01-01

174

CD44v4 Is a Major E-Selectin Ligand that Mediates Breast Cancer Cell Transendothelial Migration  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial E-selectin has been shown to play a pivotal role in mediating cell–cell interactions between breast cancer cells and endothelial monolayers during tumor cell metastasis. However, the counterreceptor for E-selectin and its role in mediating breast cancer cell transendothelial migration remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings By assessing migration of various breast cancer cells across TNF-? pre-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that breast cancer cells migrated across HUVEC monolayers differentially and that transmigration was E-selectin dependent. Cell surface labeling with the E-selectin extracellular domain/Fc chimera (exE-selectin/Fc) showed that the transmigration capacity of breast cancer cells was correlated to both the expression level and localization pattern of E-selectin binding protein(s) on the tumor cell surface. The exE-selectin/Fc strongly bound to metastatic MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-468 cells, but not non-metastatic MCF-7 and T47D cells. Binding of exE-selectin/Fc was abolished by removal of tumor cell surface sialyl lewis x (sLex) moieties. Employing an exE-selectin/Fc affinity column, we further purified the counterreceptor of E-selectin from metastatic breast cancer cells. The N-terminal protein sequence and cDNA sequence identified this E-selectin ligand as a ?170 kD human CD44 variant 4 (CD44v4). Purified CD44v4 showed a high affinity for E-selectin via sLex moieties and, as expected, MDA-MB-231 cell adhesion to and migration across HUVEC monolayers were significantly reduced by down-regulation of tumor cell CD44v4 via CD44v4-specific siRNA. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer cell CD44v4 is a major E-selectin ligand in facilitating tumor cell migration across endothelial monolayers. This finding offers new insights into the molecular basis of E-selectin–dependent adhesive interactions that mediate breast cancer cell transendothelial metastasis. PMID:18350162

Zen, Ke; Liu, Dan-Qing; Guo, Ya-Lan; Wang, Chen; Shan, Jun; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Liu, Yuan

2008-01-01

175

Electrolytes and Trace Elements in Human Breast Cyst Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross cystic breast disease (GCBD) is one of the most common breast diseases, and women with apocrine (type I) cysts are at\\u000a higher risk of developing breast cancer than women with flattened (type II) cysts. Type I cysts contain fluid with an electrolyte\\u000a composition similar to that of intracellular fluid (Na\\/K ratio <3), whereas type II cysts fluid’s content resembles

Ali R?za ?i?man; Banu Sis; Tülay Canda; Banu Önvural

2009-01-01

176

Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) Polymorphism and Expression in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is known to be implicated in a tumor-driven immune escape mechanism in malignancies. The purpose of this study was to investigate HLA-G polymorphism and expression in breast cancer. HLA-G alleles were determined by direct DNA sequencing procedures from blood samples of 80 breast cancer patients and 80 healthy controls. Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from serum specimens. HLA-G expression in breast cancer lesions was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining. The presence of HLA-G 3? untranslated region (UTR) 14-bp sequence was analyzed and found to be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer susceptibility based on HLA-G expression in tissues (P?=?0.0407). Levels of sHLA-G were higher in the breast cancer group (median 117.2 U/mL) compared to the control group (median 10.1 U/mL, P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) values of sHLA-G for differentiating breast cancer from normal controls and for detecting metastasis from other stages of breast cancer were 0.89 and 0.79, respectively. HLA-G polymorphism and expression may be involved in breast carcinogenesis and sHLA-G concentrations could be used as a diagnostic marker for detecting breast cancer. PMID:24870375

Jeong, Seri; Park, Seho; Park, Byeong-Woo; Park, Younhee; Kwon, Oh-Joong; Kim, Hyon-Suk

2014-01-01

177

Modeling the interaction of binary and ternary mixtures of estradiol with bisphenol A and bisphenol A F in an in vitro estrogen mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are concurrently exposed to xenoestrogens and to physiological levels of endogenous estrogens. Endogenous estrogen levels vary from low levels in infants to high levels during pregnancy and in young women. However, few studies have addressed how xenoestrogens interact with...

178

Methylation of the DFNA5 increases risk of lymph node metastasis in human breast cancer ?  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of breast cancer involves multiple genetic and epigenetic events. In this study, we report an epigenetic alteration of DFNA5 in human breast cancer. DFNA5 gene was silenced in breast cancer cell lines that were methylated in the DFNA5 promoter, and restored by treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-dC, and gene knock-down of DFNA5 increased cellular invasiveness in vitro. The mRNA expression of DFNA5 in breast cancer tissues was down-regulated as compared to normal tissues. Moreover, the DFNA5 promoter was found to be methylated in primary tumor tissues with high frequency (53%, 18/34). Quantitative methylation-specific PCR of DFNA5 clearly discriminated primary breast cancer tissues from normal breast tissues (15.3%, 2/13). Moreover, methylation status of DFNA5 was correlated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. Our data implicate DFNA5 promoter methylation as a novel molecular biomarker in human breast cancer. PMID:18346456

Kim, Myoung Sook; Lebron, Cinthia; Nagpal, Jatin K.; Chae, Young Kwang; Chang, Xiaofei; Huang, Yiping; Chuang, Tony; Yamashita, Keishi; Trink, Barry; Ratovitski, Edward A.; Califano, Joseph A.; Sidransky, David

2011-01-01

179

Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of human breast in vivo in the mammographic geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This photoacoustic volume imaging (PAVI) system is designed to study breast cancer detection and diagnosis in the mammographic geometry in combination with automated 3D ultrasound (AUS). The good penetration of near-infrared (NIR) light and high receiving sensitivity of a broad bandwidth, 572 element, 2D PVDF array at a low center-frequency of 1MHz were utilized with 20 channel simultaneous acquisition. The feasibility of this system in imaging optically absorbing objects in deep breast tissues was assessed first through experiments on ex vivo whole breasts. The blood filled pseudo lesions were imaged at depths up to 49 mm in the specimens. In vivo imaging of human breasts has been conducted. 3D PAVI image stacks of human breasts were coregistered and compared with 3D ultrasound image stacks of the same breasts. Using the designed system, PAVI shows satisfactory imaging depth and sensitivity for coverage of the entire breast when imaged from both sides with mild compression in the mammographic geometry. With its unique soft tissue contrast and excellent sensitivity to the tissue hemodynamic properties of fractional blood volume and blood oxygenation, PAVI, as a complement to 3D ultrasound and digital tomosynthesis mammography, might well contribute to detection, diagnosis and prognosis for breast cancer.

Xie, Zhixing; Lee, Won-Mean; Hooi, Fong Ming; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Pinsky, Renee W.; Mueller, Dean; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

2013-03-01

180

Integrin alpha9 (ITGA9) expression and epigenetic silencing in human breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Integrin alpha9 (ITGA9) is one of the less studied integrin subunits that facilitates accelerated cell migration and regulates diverse biological functions such as angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and migration. In this work, integrin alpha9 expression and its epigenetic regulation in normal human breast tissue, primary breast tumors and breast cancer cell line MCF7 were studied. It was shown that integrin alpha9 is expressed in normal human breast tissue. In breast cancer, ITGA9 expression was downregulated or lost in 44% of tumors while another 45% of tumors showed normal or increased ITGA9 expression level (possible aberrations in the ITGA9 mRNA structure were supposed in 11% of tumors). Methylation of ITGA9 CpG-island located in the first intron of the gene was shown in 90% of the breast tumors with the decreased ITGA9 expression while no methylation at 5?-untranslated region of ITGA9 was observed. 5-aza-dC treatment restored integrin alpha9 expression in ITGA9-negative MCF7 breast carcinoma cells, Trichostatin A treatment did not influenced it but a combined treatment of the cells with 5-aza-dC/Trichostatin A doubled the ITGA9 activation. The obtained results suggest CpG methylation as a major mechanism of integrin alpha9 inactivation in breast cancer with a possible involvement of other yet unidentified molecular pathways. PMID:21975548

Mostovich, Luydmila A; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Kondratov, Aleksandr G; Loginova, Dina; Vavilov, Pavel V; Rykova, Valentina I; Sidorov, Sergei V; Pavlova, Tatiana V; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Zabarovsky, Eugene R

2011-01-01

181

Integrin alpha9 (ITGA9) expression and epigenetic silencing in human breast tumors.  

PubMed

Integrin alpha9 (ITGA9) is one of the less studied integrin subunits that facilitates accelerated cell migration and regulates diverse biological functions such as angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and migration. In this work, integrin alpha9 expression and its epigenetic regulation in normal human breast tissue, primary breast tumors and breast cancer cell line MCF7 were studied. It was shown that integrin alpha9 is expressed in normal human breast tissue. In breast cancer, ITGA9 expression was downregulated or lost in 44% of tumors while another 45% of tumors showed normal or increased ITGA9 expression level (possible aberrations in the ITGA9 mRNA structure were supposed in 11% of tumors). Methylation of ITGA9 CpG-island located in the first intron of the gene was shown in 90% of the breast tumors with the decreased ITGA9 expression while no methylation at 5'-untranslated region of ITGA9 was observed. 5-aza-dC treatment restored integrin alpha9 expression in ITGA9-negative MCF7 breast carcinoma cells, Trichostatin A treatment did not influenced it but a combined treatment of the cells with 5-aza-dC/Trichostatin A doubled the ITGA9 activation. The obtained results suggest CpG methylation as a major mechanism of integrin alpha9 inactivation in breast cancer with a possible involvement of other yet unidentified molecular pathways. PMID:21975548

Mostovich, Luydmila A; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Kondratov, Aleksandr G; Loginova, Dina; Vavilov, Pavel V; Rykova, Valentina I; Sidorov, Sergei V; Pavlova, Tatiana V; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Zabarovsky, Eugene R; Grigorieva, Elvira V

2011-01-01

182

Decreased expression of human D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase in breast cancer.  

PubMed

D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) is one of the key enzymes in proteoglycan biosynthesis. However, nothing is known about expression and activity of the protein in cancer. In this study, we investigated GLCE expression in human breast cancer using multipex RT-PCR, QRT-PCR and Western-blot assays. In total, 21 patients without malignancy and 74 patients with breast tumor were investigated. The obtained data showed that in 82-84% of human breast tumors there is either downregulation or loss of D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase mRNA expression and significant decrease of the protein content. In most cases (77%), GLCE expression was decreased also in the normal-appearing tissue surrounding the tumor node but the protein amount was comparable to normal breast tissue. These findings represent the first data about involvement of human D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase in malignant transformation. PMID:17985344

Grigorieva, Elvira; Eshchenko, Tatiana; Rykova, Valentina I; Chernakov, Alexei; Zabarovsky, Eugene; Sidorov, Sergei V

2008-03-01

183

Production of immunoreactive polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase in human breast cancer cells: possible role of polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase in the progression of human breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer cells are known to express various proteolytic enzymes, which make them invasive and favour their dissemination to distant sites. However, it is unclear whether breast cancer cells have the ability to produce polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase (PMN-E). We measured immunoreactive (ir) PMN-E content in the conditioned medium of two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR-75-1, and two normal breast epithelial cell lines, HBL-100 and Hs 578Bst, using a highly specific and sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Furthermore, ir-PMN-E content was determined in tissue extracts from 62 human breast cancers. ir-PMN-E content in the culture medium of MCF-7 cells and ZR-75-1 cells increased as a function of time, regardless of the presence or absence of oestradiol. On the other hand, no detectable ir-PMN-E was secreted into the culture medium of HBL-100 and Hs 578Bst cells. ir-PMN-E was detectable in 59 of 62 tissue extracts prepared from human breast cancers, the concentration ranging from 0.12 to 19.17 micrograms per 100 mg of protein. When 62 breast cancer specimens were categorised into four groups in terms of clinical stage, ir-PMN-E content in breast cancer tissue was significantly higher in stage III (8.90 +/- 5.13 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) and stage IV (12.19 +/- 5.44 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) patients than in stage I (1.64 +/- 1.54 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) and stage II (4.23 +/- 3.74 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) patients. Breast cancer patients with high levels of ir-PMN-E showed significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than those with low levels of ir-PMN-E at the cut-off point of 8.99 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein. In the multivariate analysis, ir-PMN-E content was found to be a significant prognostic factor for disease recurrence and death in human breast cancer. PMID:8286213

Yamashita, J. I.; Ogawa, M.; Ikei, S.; Omachi, H.; Yamashita, S. I.; Saishoji, T.; Nomura, K.; Sato, H.

1994-01-01

184

RecQL4 Helicase Amplification Is Involved in Human Breast Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer occur both in hereditary and sporadic forms, and the later one comprises an overwhelming majority of breast cancer cases among women. Numerical and structural alterations involving chromosome 8, with loss of short arm (8p) and gain of long arm (8q), are frequently observed in breast cancer cells and tissues. In this study, we show that most of the human breast tumor cell lines examined display an over representation of 8q24, a chromosomal locus RecQL4 is regionally mapped to, and consequently, a markedly elevated level of RecQL4 expression. An increased RecQL4 mRNA level was also observed in a majority of clinical breast tumor samples (38/43) examined. shRNA-mediated RecQL4 suppression in MDA-MB453 breast cancer cells not only significantly inhibit the in vitro clonogenic survival and in vivo tumorigenicity. Further studies demonstrate that RecQL4 physically interacts with a major survival factor-survivin and its protein level affects survivin expression. Although loss of RecQL4 function due to gene mutations causally linked to occurrence of human RTS with features of premature aging and cancer predisposition, our studies provide the evidence that overexpression of RecQL4 due to gene amplification play a critical role in human breast tumor progression. PMID:23894508

Chi, Zhenfen; Liu, Jing; Guo, Dan; Lu, Xuemei; Hei, Tom K.; Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Zhao, Yongliang

2013-01-01

185

Presence of mouse mammary tumour?like virus gene sequences may be associated with morphology of specific human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) has a proven role in breast carcinogenesis in wild mice and genetically susceptible in?bred mice. MMTV?like env gene sequences, which indicate the presence of a replication?competent MMTV?like virus, have been identified in some human breast cancers, but rarely in normal breast tissues. However, no evidence for a causal role of an MMTV?like virus in human breast cancer has emerged, although there are precedents for associations between specific histological characteristics of human cancers and the presence of oncogenic viruses. Aim To investigate the possibility of an association between breast cancer and MMTV?like viruses. Methods Histological characteristics of invasive ductal human breast cancer specimens were compared with archival MMTV?associated mammary tumours from C3H experimental mice. The presence of MMTV?like env DNA sequences in the human breast cancer specimens was determined by polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by Southern hybridisation. Results MMTV?like env gene sequences were identified in 22 of 59 (37.3%) human breast cancer specimens. Seventeen of 43 (39.5%) invasive ductal carcinoma breast cancer specimens and 4 of 16 (25%) ductal carcinoma in situ specimens had some histological characteristics, which were similar to MMTV?associated mouse mammary tumours. However, these similarities were not associated with the presence or absence of MMTV?like gene sequences in the human breast tumour specimens. A significant (p?=?0.05) correlation was found between the grade of the human breast cancer and similarity to the mouse mammary tumours. The lower the grade, the greater the similarity. Conclusion Some human breast cancer specimens, in which MMTV?like env DNA sequences have been identified, were shown to have histological characteristics (morphology) similar to MMTV?associated mouse mammary tumours. These observations are compatible with, but not conclusive of, an association between the presence of MMTV?like env DNA sequences and some human breast cancers. PMID:16698952

Lawson, J S; Tran, D D; Carpenter, E; Ford, C E; Rawlinson, W D; Whitaker, N J; Delprado, W

2006-01-01

186

Identification of conserved gene expression features between murine mammary carcinoma models and human breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Although numerous mouse models of breast carcinomas have been developed, we do not know the extent to which any faithfully represent clinically significant human phenotypes. To address this need, we characterized mammary tumor gene expression profiles from 13 different murine models using DNA microarrays and compared the resulting data to those from human breast tumors. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis showed that six models (TgWAP-Myc, TgMMTV-Neu, TgMMTV-PyMT, TgWAP-Int3, TgWAP-Tag, and TgC3(1)-Tag) yielded tumors with distinctive and homogeneous expression patterns within each strain. However, in each of four other models (TgWAP-T121, TgMMTV-Wnt1, Brca1Co/Co;TgMMTV-Cre;p53+/- and DMBA-induced), tumors with a variety of histologies and expression profiles developed. In many models, similarities to human breast tumors were recognized, including proliferation and human breast tumor subtype signatures. Significantly, tumors of several models displayed characteristics of human basal-like breast tumors, including two models with induced Brca1 deficiencies. Tumors of other murine models shared features and trended towards significance of gene enrichment with human luminal tumors; however, these murine tumors lacked expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and ER-regulated genes. TgMMTV-Neu tumors did not have a significant gene overlap with the human HER2+/ER- subtype and were more similar to human luminal tumors. Conclusion Many of the defining characteristics of human subtypes were conserved among the mouse models. Although no single mouse model recapitulated all the expression features of a given human subtype, these shared expression features provide a common framework for an improved integration of murine mammary tumor models with human breast tumors. PMID:17493263

Herschkowitz, Jason I; Simin, Karl; Weigman, Victor J; Mikaelian, Igor; Usary, Jerry; Hu, Zhiyuan; Rasmussen, Karen E; Jones, Laundette P; Assefnia, Shahin; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Backlund, Michael G; Yin, Yuzhi; Khramtsov, Andrey I; Bastein, Roy; Quackenbush, John; Glazer, Robert I; Brown, Powel H; Green, Jeffrey E; Kopelovich, Levy; Furth, Priscilla A; Palazzo, Juan P; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Bernard, Philip S; Churchill, Gary A; Van Dyke, Terry; Perou, Charles M

2007-01-01

187

Compensated individually addressable array technology for human breast imaging  

DOEpatents

A method of forming broad bandwidth acoustic or microwave beams which encompass array design, array excitation, source signal preprocessing, and received signal postprocessing. This technique uses several different methods to achieve improvement over conventional array systems. These methods are: 1) individually addressable array elements; 2) digital-to-analog converters for the source signals; 3) inverse filtering from source precompensation; and 4) spectral extrapolation to expand the bandwidth of the received signals. The components of the system will be used as follows: 1) The individually addressable array allows scanning around and over an object, such as a human breast, without any moving parts. The elements of the array are broad bandwidth elements and efficient radiators, as well as detectors. 2) Digital-to-analog converters as the source signal generators allow virtually any radiated field to be created in the half-space in front of the array. 3) Preprocessing allows for corrections in the system, most notably in the response of the individual elements and in the ability to increase contrast and resolution of signal propagating through the medium under investigation. 4) Postprocessing allows the received broad bandwidth signals to be expanded in a process similar to analytic continuation. Used together, the system allows for compensation to create beams of any desired shape, control the wave fields generated to correct for medium differences, and improve contract and resolution in and through the medium.

Lewis, D. Kent (San Francisco, CA)

2003-01-01

188

Weightlessness acts on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because cells are sensitive to mechanical forces, weightlessness might act on stress-dependent cell changes. Human breast cancer cells MCF-7, flown in space in a Photon capsule, were fixed after 1.5, 22 and 48 h in orbit. Cells subjected to weightlessness were compared to 1g in-flight and ground controls. Post-flight, fluorescent labeling was performed to visualize cell proliferation (Ki-67), three cytoskeleton components and chromatin structure. Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify cycling cells and mitosis, modifications of the cytokeratin network and chromatin structure. Several main phenomena were observed in weightlessness: The perinuclear cytokeratin network and chromatin structure were looser. More cells were cycling and mitosis was prolonged. Finally, cell proliferation was reduced as a consequence of a cell-cycle blockade. Microtubules were altered in many cells. The results reported in the first point are in agreement with basic predictions of cellular tensegrity. The prolongation of mitosis can be explained by an alteration of microtubules. We discuss here the different mechanisms involved in weightlessness alteration of microtubules: i) alteration of their self-organization by reaction-diffusion processes, and a mathematical model is proposed, ii) activation or desactivation of microtubules stabilizing proteins, acting on both microtubule and microfilament networks in cell cortex.

Vassy, J.; Portet, S.; Beil, M.; Millot, G.; Fauvel-Lafčve, F.; Gasset, G.; Schoevaert, D.

2003-10-01

189

Prolactin/Stat5 and androgen R1881 coactivate carboxypeptidase-D gene in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Plasma membrane-bound carboxypeptidase-D (CPD) cleaves C-terminal arginine from extracellular substrates. In the cell, arginine is converted to nitric oxide (NO). We have reported that up-regulation of CPD mRNA/protein levels by 17?-estradiol and prolactin (PRL) in breast cancer cells, and by testosterone in prostate cancer cells, increased NO production and cell survival. The CPD promoter contains a consensus ?-interferon-activated sequence (GAS) and 3 putative androgen response elements (ARE.1, ARE.2, ARE.3) that could potentially bind PRL-activated transcription factor Stat5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) and the liganded androgen receptor (AR), respectively. This study showed that synthetic androgen R1881 and PRL elevated CPD mRNA/protein levels in human MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells in a time-/dose-dependent manner. PRL/R1881-elevated CPD expression was blocked by actinomycin-D, and a CPD promoter construct containing these GAS and AREs was stimulated by PRL or R1881, indicating transcriptional regulation by both hormones. Luciferase reporter assays showed that GAS and the adjacent ARE.1 only were active. Mutation of GAS in the ?GAS-CPD construct (ARE.1 intact) abolished CPD promoter activity in response to PRL and, surprisingly, to R1881 as well. ?GAS-CPD promoter activity was restored by PRL+R1881 in combination, and enhanced by ectopic Stat5, but abolished by Stat5 gene knockdown. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed binding of activated Stat5 and liganded AR to GAS and ARE.1, respectively. Activated Stat5 also induced binding of unliganded AR to ARE.1, and liganded AR induced binding of unactivated Stat5 to GAS. In summary, PRL and R1881, acting through Stat5 and AR, act cooperatively to stimulate CPD gene transcription in breast cancer cells. PMID:24433040

Koirala, Samir; Thomas, Lynn N; Too, Catherine K L

2014-03-01

190

Targeting of two aspects of metabolism in breast cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Deregulated metabolism is gaining recognition as a hallmark of cancer cells, and is being explored for therapeutic potential. The Warburg effect is a metabolic phenotype that occurs in 90% of tumors, where glycolysis is favored despite the presence of oxygen. Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor that can reverse the Warburg effect. PENAO (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid) is a novel anti-mitochondrial agent that targets the adenine nucleotide transporter in mitochondria and is currently in clinical trials for solid tumors. We have investigated the targeting of two aspects of metabolism, using DCA to promote mitochondrial activity combined with PENAO to inhibit mitochondrial activity, in breast and other carcinoma cell lines. PENAO was effective at low uM concentrations in luminal (T-47D) and triple negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, in normoxia and hypoxia. The cytotoxicity of PENAO was enhanced by DCA by a mechanism involving increased reactive oxygen species in both T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cells, however further investigations found it did not always involve PDK2 inhibition or reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, which are the accepted mechanisms for DCA induction of apoptosis. Nevertheless, DCA sensitized all cancer cell lines tested toward apoptosis of PENAO. DCA and PENAO are both currently in clinical trials and targeting cancer metabolism with these drugs may offer options for difficult to treat cancers. PMID:25482950

Gang, Bevan P; Dilda, Pierre J; Hogg, Phillip J; Blackburn, Anneke C

2014-11-01

191

Fibroblast Activation Protein Expression by Stromal Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has long been known to be expressed in the stroma of breast cancer. However, very little is known if the magnitude of FAP expression within the stroma may have prognostic value and reflect the heterogeneous biology of the tumor cell. An earlier study had suggested that stromal FAP expression in breast cancer was inversely proportional to prognosis. We, therefore, hypothesized that stromal FAP expression may correlate with clinicopathologic variables and may serve as an adjunct prognostic factor in breast cancer. We evaluated the expression of FAP in a panel of breast cancer tissues (n=52) using a combination of immunostain analyses at the tissue and single cell level using freshly frozen or freshly digested human breast tumor samples respectively. Our results showed that FAP expression was abundantly expressed in the stroma across all breast cancer subtypes without significant correlation with clinicopathologic factors. We further identified a subset of FAP positive or FAP+ stromal cells that also expressed CD45, a pan-leukocyte marker. Using freshly dissociated human breast tumor specimens (n=5), we demonstrated that some of these FAP+ CD45+ cells were CD11b+CD14+MHC-II+ indicating that they were likely tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). Although FAP+CD45+ cells have been demonstrated in the mouse tumor stroma, our results demonstrating that human breast TAMs expressed FAP was novel and suggested that existing and future FAP directed therapy may have dual therapeutic benefits targeting both stromal mesenchymal cells and immune cells such as TAMs. More work is needed to explore the role of FAP as a potential targetable molecule in breast cancer treatment. PMID:24074532

Julia, Tchou; Zhang Paul, J; Yingtao, Bi; Celine, Satija; Rajrupa, Marjumdar; Stephen, TL; Lo, A; Haiying, Chen; Carolyn, Mies; June, Carl H; Jose, Conejo-Garcia; Ellen, Puré

2013-01-01

192

DEAD-box helicase DP103 defines metastatic potential of human breast cancers  

PubMed Central

Despite advancement in breast cancer treatment, 30% of patients with early breast cancers experience relapse with distant metastasis. It is a challenge to identify patients at risk for relapse; therefore, the identification of markers and therapeutic targets for metastatic breast cancers is imperative. Here, we identified DP103 as a biomarker and metastasis-driving oncogene in human breast cancers and determined that DP103 elevates matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) levels, which are associated with metastasis and invasion through activation of NF-?B. In turn, NF-?B signaling positively activated DP103 expression. Furthermore, DP103 enhanced TGF-?–activated kinase-1 (TAK1) phosphorylation of NF-?B–activating I?B kinase 2 (IKK2), leading to increased NF-?B activity. Reduction of DP103 expression in invasive breast cancer cells reduced phosphorylation of IKK2, abrogated NF-?B–mediated MMP9 expression, and impeded metastasis in a murine xenograft model. In breast cancer patient tissues, elevated levels of DP103 correlated with enhanced MMP9, reduced overall survival, and reduced survival after relapse. Together, these data indicate that a positive DP103/NF-?B feedback loop promotes constitutive NF-?B activation in invasive breast cancers and activation of this pathway is linked to cancer progression and the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance. Furthermore, our results suggest that DP103 has potential as a therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. PMID:25083991

Shin, Eun Myoung; Sin Hay, Hui; Lee, Moon Hee; Goh, Jen Nee; Tan, Tuan Zea; Sen, Yin Ping; Lim, See Wee; Yousef, Einas M.; Ong, Hooi Tin; Thike, Aye Aye; Kong, Xiangjun; Wu, Zhengsheng; Mendoz, Earnest; Sun, Wei; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Lim, Chwee Teck; Lobie, Peter E.; Lim, Yoon Pin; Yap, Celestial T.; Zeng, Qi; Sethi, Gautam; Lee, Martin B.; Tan, Patrick; Goh, Boon Cher; Miller, Lance D.; Thiery, Jean Paul; Zhu, Tao; Gaboury, Louis; Tan, Puay Hoon; Hui, Kam Man; Yip, George Wai-Cheong; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Kumar, Alan Prem; Tergaonkar, Vinay

2014-01-01

193

Comprehensive copy number profiles of breast cancer cell model genomes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and consequently has been extensively investigated in terms of histopathology, immunochemistry and familial history. Advances in genome-wide approaches have contributed to molecular classification with respect to genomic changes and their subsequent effects on gene expression. Cell lines have provided a renewable resource that is readily used as model systems for breast cancer cell biology. A thorough characterization of their genomes to identify regions of segmental DNA loss (potential tumor-suppressor-containing loci) and gain (potential oncogenic loci) would greatly facilitate the interpretation of biological data derived from such cells. In this study we characterized the genomes of seven of the most commonly used breast cancer model cell lines at unprecedented resolution using a newly developed whole-genome tiling path genomic DNA array. Methods Breast cancer model cell lines MCF-7, BT-474, MDA-MB-231, T47D, SK-BR-3, UACC-893 and ZR-75-30 were investigated for genomic alterations with the submegabase-resolution tiling array (SMRT) array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) platform. SMRT array CGH provides tiling coverage of the human genome permitting break-point detection at about 80 kilobases resolution. Two novel discrete alterations identified by array CGH were verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results Whole-genome tiling path array CGH analysis identified novel high-level alterations and fine-mapped previously reported regions yielding candidate genes. In brief, 75 high-level gains and 48 losses were observed and their respective boundaries were documented. Complex alterations involving multiple levels of change were observed on chromosome arms 1p, 8q, 9p, 11q, 15q, 17q and 20q. Furthermore, alignment of whole-genome profiles enabled simultaneous assessment of copy number status of multiple components of the same biological pathway. Investigation of about 60 loci containing genes associated with the epidermal growth factor family (epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2, HER3 and HER4) revealed that all seven cell lines harbor copy number changes to multiple genes in these pathways. Conclusion The intrinsic genetic differences between these cell lines will influence their biologic and pharmacologic response as an experimental model. Knowledge of segmental changes in these genomes deduced from our study will facilitate the interpretation of biological data derived from such cells. PMID:16417655

Shadeo, Ashleen; Lam, Wan L

2006-01-01

194

MMTV mouse models and the diagnostic values of MMTV-like sequences in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transgenic mice are excellent models for breast cancer as they allow for the targeted expression of various oncogenes and growth factors in neoplastic transformation of mammary glands. Numerous MMTV-LTR-driven transgenic mouse models of breast cancer have been created in the past three decades, including MMTV-neu/ErbB2, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Ras, Myc, int-1 and c-rel. These transgenic mice develop mammary tumors with different latency, histology and invasiveness, reflecting the oncogenic pathways activated by the transgene. Recently, homologous sequences of the env gene of MMTV have been identified in approximately 40% of human breast cancers, but not in normal breast or other types of cancers, suggesting possible involvement of mammary tumor virus in human breast carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the association of MMTV provirus with progesterone receptor, p53 mutations and advanced-stage breast cancer. Thus, the detection of MMTV-like sequences may have diagnostic value to predict the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:19580428

Taneja, Pankaj; Frazier, Donna P; Kendig, Robert D; Maglic, Dejan; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kai, Fumitake; Taneja, Neetu K; Inoue, Kazushi

2009-01-01

195

Antiproliferative lactams and spiroenone from adlay bran in human breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Two new lactams, coixspirolactam D (1) and coixspirolactam E (2), and a new spiroenone, coixspiroenone (3), together with seven known compounds, coixspirolactam A (4), coixspirolactam B (5), coixspirolactam C (6), coixlactam (7), coixol (8), ethyl dioxindole-3-acetate (9), and isoindol-1-one (10), and two neolignans, zhepiresionol (11) and ficusal (12), were isolated from the bioactive subfraction of adlay bran ethanolic extract (ABE). Compounds 9 and 10 are the first isolates from natural resources. The structures of new compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods, including infrared (IR) spectrum, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrum (MS). All of the isolated compounds were tested for antiproliferative effects on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D cells. Results showed that compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 at 50 ?M significantly inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by 30.2, 19.2, 21.0, 13.5, and 32.4%, respectively; compounds 2, 4, and 7 significantly inhibited T-47D cells at 50 ?M by 20.7, 24.8, and 28.9%; and compounds 1, 2, and 12 significantly inhibited MDA-MB-231 cells at 50 ?M by 47.4, 25.3, and 69.3%, respectively. In conclusion, ABE has antiproliferative activities, and this effect is partially related to the presence of lactams and spiroenone. PMID:21284381

Chung, Cheng-Pei; Hsu, Chih-Ying; Lin, Jing-Hui; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chiang, Wenchang; Lin, Yun-Lian

2011-02-23

196

Expression of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K Envelope Protein is a Novel Candidate Prognostic Marker for Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

We previously observed that the HERV type K (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein was expressed in the majority of human breast tumors from a U.S. cohort of women from Texas. We also made the preliminary observation that the expression of HERV-K env transcripts was associated with markers of disease progression. In this follow-up study, env protein expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in an additional 195 paraffin-embedded breast tumors from a second U.S. patient cohort (Baltimore, Maryland) and in 110 tumors from Chinese patients. Moreover, we compared env transcript expression between fresh-frozen normal and cancerous breast tissues. We observed that while env mRNA and protein expression was undetectable in normal breast tissue and in a subset of uninvolved normal-appearing tissue adjacent to the tumor epithelium, it was overexpressed in most tumors. Furthermore, env expression was associated with breast cancer progression. In Baltimore cohort women, HERV-K tumor positivity was significantly associated with disease stage and lymph node metastasis. In Chinese women, HERV-K env positivity was significantly associated with tumor size, TNM stage, and lymph node metastases, which is consistent with the observations in the U.S. cohort. We also found that Chinese breast cancer patients with a high expression of HERV-K had a decreased overall survival compared with patients who had either a moderate or low HERV-K expression in their tumors (P = 0.049, ?2 log rank test). In conclusion, the HERV-K env gene is expressed in the majority of breast cancers from U.S. or Chinese women but not in normal breast tissue. High expression of HERV-K env protein in breast cancer patients is associated with markers of disease progression and poor disease outcome, indicating that HERV-K env protein is a novel candidate prognostic marker for breast cancer. PMID:22593804

Zhao, Jing; Rycaj, Kiera; Geng, Shanshan; Li, Ming; Plummer, Joshua B.; Yin, Bingnan; Liu, Hong; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Yinchun; Yan, Yanfang; Glynn, Sharon A.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Ambs, Stefan; Johanning, Gary L.; Gu, Lin

2011-01-01

197

Pretreatment haemoglobin levels significantly predict the tumour response to primary chemotherapy in human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether tumour response to primary chemotherapy in human breast cancer is influenced by baseline haemoglobin (Hb) status. A total of 157 patients with T2-4, N0-1 M0 breast cancer were treated with chemotherapy consisting of either the CMF regimen + tamoxifen (the first 76 cases) or the single-agent epirubicin (the subsequent 81) before

A Bottini; A Berruti; M P Brizzi; A Bersiga; D Generali; G Allevi; S Aguggini; G Bolsi; S Bonardi; G Bertoli; P Alquati; L Dogliotti

2003-01-01

198

Curcumin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through p53-dependent Bax induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of curcumin-induced human breast cancer cell apoptosis. From quantitative image analysis data showing an increase in the percentage of cells with a sub-G0\\/G1 DNA content, we demonstrated curcumin-induced apoptosis in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, in which expression of wild-type p53 could be induced. Apoptosis was accompanied by an

Tathagata Choudhuri; Suman Pal; Munna L Agwarwal; Tanya Das; Gaurisankar Sa

2002-01-01

199

Studies of the HER2\\/neu ProtoOncogene in Human Breast and Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma of the breast and ovary account for one-third of all cancers occurring in women and together are responsible for approximately one-quarter of cancer-related deaths in females. The HER-2\\/neu proto-oncogene is amplified in 25 to 30 percent of human primary breast cancers and this alteration is associated with disease behavior. In this report, several similarities were found in the biology

Dennis J. Slamon; William Godolphin; Lovell A. Jones; John A. Holt; Steven G. Wong; Duane E. Keith; Wendy J. Levin; Susan G. Stuart; Judy Udove; Axel Ullrich

1989-01-01

200

Claudin-20 promotes an aggressive phenotype in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Claudin-20 is a member of the Claudin family of transmembrane proteins located in the tight junction (TJ) of cells of epithelial origin. Due to the increasing evidence supporting the role of TJ proteins in preventing tumor cell metastatic behavior, this study sought to evaluate the distribution of Claudin-20 in human breast cancer and the effect of Claudin-20 overexpression in human breast cancer cells. Q-PCR data from breast cancer primary tumors (n = 114) and matched background tissue (n = 30) showed that high claudin-20 expression was correlated with poor survival of patients with breast cancer (p = 0.022). Following transformation of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 with a Claudin-20 expression construct functional assays were performed to ascertain changes in cell behavior. Claudin-20 transformed cells showed significantly increased invasion (p < 0.005) and were significantly less adhesive than wild type cells (p < 0.05). There was no effect on growth (either in vitro or in vivo) for either cell line. Overexpression of Claudin-20 resulted in reduced transepithelial resistance (induced by the motogen HGF at 25 ng/ml, p = 0.0007). Interestingly, this was not mirrored by paracellular permeability, as overexpression of Claudin-20 caused a decrease in permeability. The introduction of Claudin-20 into human breast cancer cells resulted in breast cancer cells with an aggressive phenotype and reduced trans-epithelial resistance. There was no corresponding decrease in paracellular permeability, indicating that this Claudin has a differential function in epithelial TJ. This provides further insight into the importance of correctly functioning TJ in preventing the progression of human breast cancer. PMID:24665404

Martin, Tracey A; Lane, Jane; Ozupek, Hulya; Jiang, Wen G

2013-01-01

201

DNA barcoding reveals diverse growth kinetics of human breast tumour subclones in serially passaged xenografts  

PubMed Central

Genomic and phenotypic analyses indicate extensive intra- as well as intertumoral heterogeneity in primary human malignant cell populations despite their clonal origin. Cellular DNA barcoding offers a powerful and unbiased alternative to track the number and size of multiple subclones within a single human tumour xenograft and their response to continued in vivo passaging. Using this approach we find clone-initiating cell frequencies that vary from ~1/10 to ~1/10,000 cells transplanted for two human breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer xenografts derived from three different patients. For the cell lines, these frequencies are negatively affected in transplants of more than 20,000 cells. Serial transplants reveal five clonal growth patterns (unchanging, expanding, diminishing, fluctuating or of delayed onset), whose predominance is highly variable both between and within original samples. This study thus demonstrates the high growth potential and diverse growth properties of xenografted human breast cancer cells. PMID:25532760

Nguyen, Long V.; Cox, Claire L.; Eirew, Peter; Knapp, David J. H. F.; Pellacani, Davide; Kannan, Nagarajan; Carles, Annaick; Moksa, Michelle; Balani, Sneha; Shah, Sohrab; Hirst, Martin; Aparicio, Samuel; Eaves, Connie J.

2014-01-01

202

DNA barcoding reveals diverse growth kinetics of human breast tumour subclones in serially passaged xenografts.  

PubMed

Genomic and phenotypic analyses indicate extensive intra- as well as intertumoral heterogeneity in primary human malignant cell populations despite their clonal origin. Cellular DNA barcoding offers a powerful and unbiased alternative to track the number and size of multiple subclones within a single human tumour xenograft and their response to continued in vivo passaging. Using this approach we find clone-initiating cell frequencies that vary from ~1/10 to ~1/10,000 cells transplanted for two human breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer xenografts derived from three different patients. For the cell lines, these frequencies are negatively affected in transplants of more than 20,000 cells. Serial transplants reveal five clonal growth patterns (unchanging, expanding, diminishing, fluctuating or of delayed onset), whose predominance is highly variable both between and within original samples. This study thus demonstrates the high growth potential and diverse growth properties of xenografted human breast cancer cells. PMID:25532760

Nguyen, Long V; Cox, Claire L; Eirew, Peter; Knapp, David J H F; Pellacani, Davide; Kannan, Nagarajan; Carles, Annaick; Moksa, Michelle; Balani, Sneha; Shah, Sohrab; Hirst, Martin; Aparicio, Samuel; Eaves, Connie J

2014-01-01

203

Origin, concentration and structural features of human mammary gland cells cultured from breast secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study traced the origin of cells observed in human breast secretion samples obtained during lactation and describes the appearance of these cells following prolonged maintenance in vitro. Human milk contains a large number of single vacuolated foam cells and a small proportion of non-vacuolated epithelial cells in clusters. Foam cells are identified by their large size, the polarity of

Edwin V. Gaffney; Frank P. Polanowski; Susan E. Blackburn; Jim P. Lambiase

1976-01-01

204

Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in human breast milk from several Asian countries.  

PubMed

In this study, the concentrations of 10 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in 89 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the targeted PFRs, tris(2-chloroexyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the predominant compounds and were detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The concentrations of PFRs in human breast milk were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Philippines (median 70 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) than those in Japan (median 22 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) and Vietnam (median 10 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). The present results suggest that the usage of products containing PFRs in the Philippines is higher than those of Japan and Vietnam. Comparing with a previous literature survey in Sweden, the levels of PFRs in human breast milk from the Philippines were 1.5-2 times higher, whereas levels in Japan and Vietnam were 4-20 times lower, suggesting that these differences might be due to their variation in the usage of flame-retarded products utilized in each country. When daily intake of PFRs to infants via human breast milk was estimated, some individuals accumulated tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and TCEP were close to reference dose (RfD). This is the first report to identify PFRs in human breast milk samples from Asian countries. PMID:24630247

Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Muto, Mamoru; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Malarvannan, Govindan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Prudente, Maricar; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2014-12-01

205

CITED2 modulates estrogen receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •The effects of elevated CITED2 on ER function in breast cancer cells are examined. •CITED2 enhances cell growth in the absence of estrogen and presence of tamoxifen. •CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a member of the CITED family of non-DNA binding transcriptional co-activators of the p300/CBP-mediated transcription complex. Previously, we identified CITED2 as being overexpressed in human breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium. Upon further investigation within the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subset of these breast tumor samples, we found that CITED2 mRNA expression was elevated in those associated with poor survival. In light of this observation, we investigated the effect of elevated CITED2 levels on ER function. While ectopic overexpression of CITED2 in three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and CAMA-1) did not alter cell proliferation in complete media, growth was markedly enhanced in the absence of exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, cells overexpressing CITED2 demonstrated reduced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Subsequent studies revealed that basal ER transcriptional activity was elevated in CITED2-overexpressing cells and was further increased upon the addition of estrogen. Similarly, basal and estrogen-induced expression of the ER-regulated genes trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) was higher in cells overexpressing CITED2. Concordant with this observation, ChIP analysis revealed higher basal levels of CITED2 localized to the TFF-1 and PGR promoters in cells with ectopic overexpression of CITED2, and these levels were elevated further in response to estrogen stimulation. Taken together, these data indicate that CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells and that its increased expression in tumors may result in estrogen-independent ER activation, thereby reducing estrogen dependence and response to anti-estrogen therapy.

Lau, Wen Min; Doucet, Michele; Huang, David; Weber, Kristy L.; Kominsky, Scott L., E-mail: kominsc@jhmi.edu

2013-07-26

206

EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF MUTAGENIC ARYL AMINES IN HUMAN BREAST MILK AND DNA ADDUCTS IN EXFOLIATED BREAST-DUCT EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aromatic (AA) and heterocyclic amines (HAA) are ubiquitous environmental mutagens present in combustions emissions, fried meats, tobacco smoke, etc., and are suspect human mammary carcinogens. To determine the presence of aryl amines in breast tissue and fluid, we examined exfol...

207

S14 protein in breast cancer cells: Direct evidence of regulation by SREBP-1c, superinduction with progestin, and effects on cell growth  

SciTech Connect

Most breast cancers exhibit brisk lipogenesis, and require it for growth. S14 is a lipogenesis-related nuclear protein that is overexpressed in most breast cancers. Sterol response element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is required for induction of lipogenesis-related genes, including S14 and fatty acid synthase (FAS), in hepatocytes, and correlation of SREBP-1c and FAS expression suggested that SREBP-1c drives lipogenesis in tumors as well. We directly tested the hypothesis that SREBP-1c drives S14 expression and mediates lipogenic effects of progestin in T47D breast cancer cells. Dominant-negative SREBP-1c inhibited induction of S14 and FAS mRNAs by progestin, while active SREBP-1c induced without hormone and superinduced in its presence. Changes in S14 mRNA were reflected in protein levels. A lag time and lack of progestin response elements indicated that S14 and FAS gene activation by progestin is indirect. Knockdown of S14 reduced, whereas overexpression stimulated, T47D cell growth, while nonlipogenic MCF10a mammary epithelial cells were not growth-inhibited. These data directly demonstrate that SREBP-1c drives S14 gene expression in breast cancer cells, and progestin magnifies that effect via an indirect mechanism. This supports the prediction, based on S14 gene amplification and overexpression in breast tumors, that S14 augments breast cancer cell growth and survival.

Martel, Peter M. [Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Bingham, Chad M. [Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); McGraw, Charles J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Baker, Christina L. [Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Morganelli, Peter M. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Meng, Marie Louise [Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Armstrong, Jessica M. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Moncur, Joel T. [Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States); Kinlaw, William B. [Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Dartmouth Medical School (United States) and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School (United States)]. E-mail: william.kinlaw@hitchcock.org

2006-02-01

208

CXCL12 chemokine expression suppresses human breast cancer growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Chemokine receptors are now known to play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis. However, there is little information regarding chemokine expression in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate CXCL12 expression in breast cancer and to investigate the question of whether reduced expression of CXCL12 may have any pathological significance in breast cancer development or progression. In this study, we performed western blotting and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of CXCL12 and relevance with clinicopathological factors in the invasive ductal carcinoma. Reduction of CXCL12 was significantly correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and Her-2 expression in breast cancer. Patients with negative CXCL12 expression had significantly lower cumulative postoperative 5 year survival rate than those with positive CXCL12 expression. In addition, we demonstrated that upregulation of CXCL12 expression by infection with an adenovirus containing a CXCL12 vector significantly inhibited cell growth and reduced the migration of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, animal studies revealed that nude mice injected with the Ad-CXCL12 cell lines featured a lighter weight than the control cell lines. These data suggest that CXCL12 plays an important role in cell growth and invasion in human breast cancer and it appears to be a potential prognostic marker for patients with breast cancer. PMID:25400746

Lv, Zhi-Dong; Kong, Bin; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Dong, Qian; Niu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yong-Hua; Li, Fu-Nian; Wang, Hai-Bo

2014-01-01

209

Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is a common disease in women. Current imaging and diagnostic methods for breast cancer confront several limitations, like time-consuming, invasive and with a high cost. Alternative strategies are in high demand to alleviate patients' trauma and lower medical expenses. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging technique offers many advantages, including label-free, sub-wavelength spatial resolution and video-rate imaging speed. Therefore, it has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for various biomedical applications. In this study, we present a label-free fast imaging method to identify breast cancer and its subtypes using CARS microscopy. Human breast tissues, including normal, benign and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo using a custom-built CARS microscope. Compared with results from corresponding hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, the CARS technique has demonstrated its capability in identifying morphological features in a similar way as in H&E stain. These features can be used to distinguish breast cancer from normal and benign tissues, and further separate cancer subtypes from each other. Our pilot study suggests that CARS microscopy could be used as a routine examination tool to characterize breast cancer ex vivo. Moreover, its label-free and fast imaging properties render this technique as a promising approach for in vivo and real-time imaging and diagnosis of breast cancer.

Yang, Yaliang; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J.; Luo, Pengfei; Wong, Kelvin K.; Wong, Stephen T.

2011-03-01

210

Promising antioxidant and anticancer (human breast cancer) oxidovanadium(IV) complex of chlorogenic acid. Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic examination on the transport mechanism with bovine serum albumin.  

PubMed

A new chlorogenate oxidovanadium complex (Na[VO(chlorog)(H2O)3].4H2O) was synthesized by using Schlenk methodology in the course of a reaction at inert atmosphere in which deprotonated chlorogenic acid ligand binds to oxidovanadium(IV) in a reaction experiment controlled via EPR technique and based in a species distribution diagram. The compound was characterized by FTIR, EPR, UV-visible and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and thermogravimetric, differential thermal and elemental analyses. The ligand and the complex were tested for their antioxidant effects on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical), ABTS(+) (radical cation of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt), O2(-), OH and ROO radicals and their cytotoxic activity on different cancer cell lines (SKBR3, T47D and MDAMB231) and primary human mammary epithelial cells. The complex behaved as good antioxidant agent with strongest inhibitory effects on O2(-), OH and ROO radicals and exhibited selective cytotoxicity against SKBR3 cancer cell line. Albumin interaction experiments denoted high affinity toward the complex and its calculated binding constant was indicative of a strong binding to the protein. Based on this study, it is hypothesized that Na[VO(chlorog)(H2O)3].4H2O would be a promising candidate for further evaluation as an antioxidant and anticancer agent. PMID:24681549

Naso, Luciana G; Valcarcel, María; Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Kortazar, Danel; Salado, Clarisa; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teofilo; González-Baró, Ana C; Williams, Patricia A M; Ferrer, Evelina G

2014-06-01

211

Expression and prognostic role of SKIP in human breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) is a nuclear hormone receptor-interacting cofactor, interactions with the proto-oncogene Ski, appears to modulate a number of signalling pathways involved in control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and may play a critical role in oncogenesis. In the present study, to investigate the potential roles of SKIP in breast cancer, expression patterns, interaction and the correlation with clinical/prognostic factors of SKIP and Ki-67 were examined among patients with breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed for SKIP in 85 breast carcinoma samples. The data were correlated with clinicopathological features. The univariate and multivariate survival analyses were also performed to determine their prognostic significance. We found that SKIP was over expressed in breast carcinoma as compared with the adjacent normal tissues. High expression of SKIP was positively associated with histological grade (P = 0.01) and Ki-67 (P = 0.004). Univariate analysis showed that SKIP expression was associated with a poor prognosis (P = 0.006). While in vitro, following release of breast cancer cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of SKIP was up-regulated, whereas p27 was down-regulated. In addition, we employed small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to knock down SKIP expression and observed it effects on MDA-MB-231 cells growth. SKIP depletion by siRNA inhibited cell proliferation, blocked S phase and decreased cyclin A and cyclin B levels. On the basis of these results, we suggested that SKIP overexpression was involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, which might serve as a future target for breast cancer. PMID:24150787

Liu, Xiaobing; Ni, Qichao; Xu, Junfei; Sheng, Chenyi; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Jinpeng; Yang, Shuyun; Wang, Hua

2014-04-01

212

Sensitizing the therapeutic efficacy of taxol with shikonin in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Shikonin, a small-molecule natural product which inhibits the activity of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), has been studied as an anti-cancer drug candidate in human cancer models. Here, our results demonstrate that shikonin is able to sensitize human breast cancer cells to chemotherapy by paclitaxel (taxol). Human breast adenocarcinoma MBA-MD-231 cells, which have higher levels of PKM2 expression and activity compared with MCF-7 cells, were selected to study further. The concentrations of shikonin and taxol were first selected at which they did not significantly induce cytotoxicity when treated alone, whereas the combination induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, PKM2 activity was decreased by shikonin, but not by the combination treatment. To identify the potential targets of this combination, human phospho-kinase antibody array analysis was performed and results indicated that the combination treatment inhibited the activation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6 kinases, which are known to contribute to breast cancer progression. Finally, how the combination affects breast cancer cell growth in vivo was tested using a xenograft tumor model. The results indicated that shikonin plus taxol prolonged animal survival and reduced tumor size than the vehicle treatment group. In summary, our results suggest that shikonin has a potential as an adjuvant for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24710512

Li, Wenjuan; Liu, Joan; Jackson, Kasey; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

2014-01-01

213

Sensitizing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Taxol with Shikonin in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Shikonin, a small-molecule natural product which inhibits the activity of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), has been studied as an anti-cancer drug candidate in human cancer models. Here, our results demonstrate that shikonin is able to sensitize human breast cancer cells to chemotherapy by paclitaxel (taxol). Human breast adenocarcinoma MBA-MD-231 cells, which have higher levels of PKM2 expression and activity compared with MCF-7 cells, were selected to study further. The concentrations of shikonin and taxol were first selected at which they did not significantly induce cytotoxicity when treated alone, whereas the combination induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, PKM2 activity was decreased by shikonin, but not by the combination treatment. To identify the potential targets of this combination, human phospho-kinase antibody array analysis was performed and results indicated that the combination treatment inhibited the activation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6 kinases, which are known to contribute to breast cancer progression. Finally, how the combination affects breast cancer cell growth in vivo was tested using a xenograft tumor model. The results indicated that shikonin plus taxol prolonged animal survival and reduced tumor size than the vehicle treatment group. In summary, our results suggest that shikonin has a potential as an adjuvant for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24710512

Li, Wenjuan; Liu, Joan; Jackson, Kasey; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

2014-01-01

214

Determination of optical parameters of human breast tissue from spatially resolved fluorescence: a diffusion theory model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the measurement of optical transport parameters of pathologically characterized malignant tissues, normal tissues, and different types of benign tumors of the human breast in the visible wavelength region. A spatially resolved steady-state diffuse fluorescence reflectance technique was used to estimate the values for the reduced-scattering coefficient (mu's) and the absorption coefficient (mua) of human breast tissues at three wavelengths (530, 550, and 590 nm). Different breast tissues could be well differentiated from one another, and different benign tumors could also be distinguished by their measured transport parameters. A diffusion theory model was developed to describe fluorescence light energy distribution, especially its spatial variation in a turbid and multiply scattering medium such as human tissue. The validity of the model was checked with a Monte Carlo simulation and also with different tissue phantoms prepared with polystyrene microspheres as scatterers, riboflavin as fluorophores, and methylene blue as absorbers.

Nair, Maya S.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Raju, Narisetti Sundar; Pradhan, Asima

2002-07-01

215

Prolactin-Stimulated Activation of ERK1/2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases is Controlled by PI3-Kinase/Rac/PAK Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer. Therefore, understanding cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways triggered by activation of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), is essential for elucidating the pathogenesis of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we applied a sequential inhibitory analysis of various signaling intermediates to examine the hierarchy of protein interactions within the PRL signaling network and to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple signaling branches downstream of PRL-R to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative measurements of the phosphorylation/activation patterns of proteins showed that PRL simultaneously activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and the JAK/STAT, phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. The specific blockade or siRNA-mediated suppression of SFK/FAK, JAK2/STAT5, PI3-kinase/PDK1/Akt, Rac/PAK or Ras regulatory circuits revealed that (1) the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is required for activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade upon PRL stimulation; (2) PI3-kinase-mediated activation of the c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade occurs independent of signaling dowstream of STATs, Akt and PKC, but requires JAK2, SFKs and FAK activities; (3) activated PRL-R mainly utilizes the PI3-kinase-dependent Rac/PAK pathway rather than the canonical Shc/Grb2/SOS/Ras route to initiate and sustain ERK1/2 signaling. By interconnecting diverse signaling pathways PLR may enhance proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID:21726627

Aksamitiene, Edita; Achanta, Sirisha; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Hoek, Jan B.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

2011-01-01

216

Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be identified by a gene expression profile that partly overlaps with human breast cancer profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Similar to human breast cancer mammary tumors of the female dog are commonly associated with a fatal outcome due to the development of distant metastases. However, the molecular defects leading to metastasis are largely unknown and the value of canine mammary carcinoma as a model for human breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression

Robert Klopfleisch; Dido Lenze; Michael Hummel; Achim D Gruber

2010-01-01

217

Aquaporin-5: A Marker Protein for Proliferation and Migration of Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Aquaporin (AQP) is a family of transmembrane proteins for water transport. Recent studies revealed that AQPs are likely to play a role in tumor progression and invasion. We aimed to examine the potential role of AQP5 in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Expression of AQP5 mRNA and protein was seen in human breast cancer cell line (both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) by RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Immunoperoxidase labeling of AQP5 was observed at ductal epithelial cells of human breast tissues. In benign tumor, AQP5 labeling was mainly seen at the apical domains of ductal epithelial cells. In contrast, in invasive ductal carcinoma, prominent AQP5 labeling was associated with cancer cells, whereas some ducts were unlabeled and apical polarity of AQP5 in ducts was lost. Cell proliferation (BrdU incorporation assay) and migration of MCF7 cells were significantly attenuated by lentivirus-mediated AQP5-shRNA transduction. Hyperosmotic stress induced by sorbitol treatment (100 mM, 24 h) reduced AQP5 expression in MCF7 cells, which was also associated with a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration. Taken together, prominent AQP5 expression in breast cancer cells with the loss of polarity of ductal epithelial cells was seen during the progression of breast carcinoma. shRNA- or hyperosmotic stress-induced reduction in AQP5 expression of MCF7 cells was associated with significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, AQP5 overexpression is likely to play a role in cell growth and metastasis of human breast cancer and could be a novel target for anti-breast cancer treatment. PMID:22145049

Jung, Hyun Jun; Park, Ji-Young; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

2011-01-01

218

Non-existence of caveolin-1 gene mutations in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Caveolin-1 is the principal constituent protein of caveolae, which are specialised plasma membrane invaginations with diverse biological roles. Caveolin-1 is suggested to have tumour suppressive functions and CAV1 gene mutations have been reported in 20% of breast cancers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of CAV1 mutations in a large cohort of optimally accrued breast cancers. Two independent series of breast cancer samples were analysed: 82 fresh-frozen grade 3 and 158 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type were consecutively accrued and subjected to microdissection of neoplastic epithelial cells prior to DNA extraction. Thirty-nine human breast cancer cell lines were also included in this study. The trans-membrane region of CAV1 and adjacent sequences, where mutations are reported to cluster, were amplified by PCR, followed by direct sequencing and mutational analysis. None of the reported CAV1 gene mutations, including CAV1 (P132L), were identified in either clinical samples (95% CI: 0-1.5%) or human breast cancer cell lines analysed. One novel non-synonymous germline polymorphism was detected within a reported region of high mutational frequency. This study does not corroborate the reported frequent occurrence of CAV1 gene mutations, including CAV1 (P132L), in primary human breast carcinomas. Our findings demonstrate that if CAV1 mutations do exist, their overall mutational frequency is substantially lower than positive reports have suggested. Taken together with other studies, which have also failed to identify CAV1 mutations, our data call into question the existence and biological and clinical relevance of CAV1 gene mutations in human breast cancer. PMID:21909981

Patani, Neill; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Dedes, Konstantin J; Geyer, Felipe C; Ward, Eric; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Dowsett, Mitch; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

2012-01-01

219

The Role and Regulatory Mechanism of 14-3-3 Sigma in Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose 14-3-3 sigma (?) is considered to be an important tumor suppressor and decreased expression of the same has been reported in many malignant tumors by hypermethylation at its promoter or ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by estrogen-responsive ring finger protein (Efp). In this study, we investigated the significance of 14-3-3 ? expression in human breast cancer and its regulatory mechanism. Methods Efp was silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in order to examine its influence on the level of 14-3-3 ? protein. The methylation status of the 14-3-3 ? promoter was also evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression of Efp and 14-3-3 ? in 220 human breast carcinoma tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Other clinicopathological parameters were also evaluated. Results Silencing Efp in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line resulted in increased expression of 14-3-3 ?. The Efp-positive human breast cancers were more frequently 14-3-3 ?-negative (60.5% vs. 39.5%). Hypermethylation of 14-3-3 ? was common (64.9%) and had an inverse association with 14-3-3 ? positivity (p=0.072). Positive 14-3-3 ? expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis: disease-free survival (p=0.008) and disease-specific survival (p=0.009). Conclusion Our data suggests that in human breast cancer, the regulation of 14-3-3 ? may involve two mechanisms: ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by Efp and downregulation by hypermethylation. However, the inactivation of 14-3-3 ? is probably achieved mainly by hypermethylation. Interestingly, 14-3-3 ? turned out to be a very significant poor prognostic indicator, which is in contrast to its previously known function as a tumor suppressor, suggesting a different role of 14-3-3 ? in breast cancer. PMID:25320618

Ko, SeungSang; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Joon; Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Woo Ick

2014-01-01

220

Triple negative tumors accumulate significantly less methylglyoxal specific adducts than other human breast cancer subtypes.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by-product, is generated through a non-enzymatic reaction from triose-phosphate intermediates. This dicarbonyl compound is highly reactive and contributes to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine, a MG-arginine adduct, in human breast adenocarcinoma and we observed a consistent increase of Arg-pyrimidine in cancer cells when compared with the non-tumoral counterpart. Further immunohistochemical comparative analysis of breast cancer subtypes revealed that triple negative lesions exhibited low accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine compared with other subtypes. Interestingly, the activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1), an enzyme that detoxifies MG, was significantly higher in triple negative than in other subtype lesions, suggesting that these aggressive tumors are able to develop an efficient response against dicarbonyl stress. Using breast cancer cell lines, we substantiated these clinical observations by showing that, in contrast to triple positive, triple negative cells induced Glo-1 expression and activity in response to MG treatment. This is the first report that Arg-pyrimidine adduct accumulation is a consistent event in human breast cancer with a differential detection between triple negative and other breast cancer subtypes. PMID:24978626

Chiavarina, Barbara; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Durieux, Florence; Bianchi, Elettra; Turtoi, Andrei; Peulen, Olivier; Peixoto, Paul; Irigaray, Philippe; Uchida, Koji; Belpomme, Dominique; Delvenne, Philippe; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcčne, Akeila

2014-07-30

221

Triple negative tumors accumulate significantly less methylglyoxal specific adducts than other human breast cancer subtypes  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by-product, is generated through a non-enzymatic reaction from triose-phosphate intermediates. This dicarbonyl compound is highly reactive and contributes to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine, a MG-arginine adduct, in human breast adenocarcinoma and we observed a consistent increase of Arg-pyrimidine in cancer cells when compared with the non-tumoral counterpart. Further immunohistochemical comparative analysis of breast cancer subtypes revealed that triple negative lesions exhibited low accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine compared with other subtypes. Interestingly, the activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1), an enzyme that detoxifies MG, was significantly higher in triple negative than in other subtype lesions, suggesting that these aggressive tumors are able to develop an efficient response against dicarbonyl stress. Using breast cancer cell lines, we substantiated these clinical observations by showing that, in contrast to triple positive, triple negative cells induced Glo-1 expression and activity in response to MG treatment. This is the first report that Arg-pyrimidine adduct accumulation is a consistent event in human breast cancer with a differential detection between triple negative and other breast cancer subtypes. PMID:24978626

Durieux, Florence; Bianchi, Elettra; Turtoi, Andrei; Peulen, Olivier; Peixoto, Paul; Irigaray, Philippe; Uchida, Koji; Belpomme, Dominique; Delvenne, Philippe; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcčne, Akeila

2014-01-01

222

The aromatase inhibitor letrozole and inhibitors of insulin-like growth factor I receptor synergistically induce apoptosis in in vitro models of estrogen-dependent breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endocrine-dependent, estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells proliferate in response to estrogens, synthesized by the cytochrome p450 aromatase enzyme. Letrozole is a potent nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that is registered for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced metastatic breast cancers and in the neoadjuvant, early, and extended adjuvant indications. Because crosstalk exists between estrogen receptor and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), the effect of combining a selective IGF-IR inhibitor (NVP-AEW541) with letrozole was assessed in two independent in vitro models of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Methods MCF7 and T47D cells stably expressing aromatase (MCF7/Aro and T47D/Aro) were used as in vitro models of aromatase-driven breast cancer. The role of the IGF-IR pathway in breast cancer cells stimulated only by 17?-estradiol or androstenedione was assessed by proliferation assays. The combination of letrozole and NVP-AEW541 was assessed for synergy in inhibiting cell proliferation using Chou-Talalay derived equations. Finally, combination or single agent effects on proliferation and apoptosis were assessed using proliferation assays, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results Both MCF7 and T47D cells, as well as MCF7/Aro and T47D/Aro, exhibited sensitivity to inhibition of 17?-estradiol dependent proliferation by NVP-AEW541. Letrozole combined with NVP-AEW541 synergistically inhibited androstenedione-dependent proliferation in aromatase-expressing cells with combination index values of 0.6 or less. Synergistic combination effects correlated with higher levels of apoptosis as compared with cells treated with the single agent alone. Treatment with either agent also appeared to inhibit IGF-IR signalling via phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Notably, IGF-IR inhibition had limited effect on estrogen-dependent proliferation in the cell lines, but was clearly required for survival, suggesting that the combination of letrozole and IGF-IR inhibition sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Conclusion Inhibition of the IGF-IR pathway and aromatase was synergistic in two independent estrogen-dependent in vitro models of breast cancer. Moreover, synergism of NVP-AEW541 and letrozole correlated with induction of apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest, in the cell lines tested. Combination of IGF-IR inhibitors and letrozole may hold promise for the treatment of patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancers. PMID:18611244

Lisztwan, Joanna; Pornon, Astrid; Chen, Bin; Chen, Shiuan; Evans, Dean B

2008-01-01

223

[Menstrual blood and human milk. Reflections and new proposals on breast-feeding in ancient Greece].  

PubMed

Within a larger study on breast-feeding in ancient Greece, we dwelt on four subjects (the superstitions concerning menstrual blood, milk and dairy products consumption by the Athenians, different kinds of milk and beliefs related to the transmission of hereditary characteristics through human milk, the connection between milk, breast and madness) on which we have identified a certain number of neglected sources. Starting from these, we can gain not only some mosaic tiles of the overall fragmentary view on habits and beliefs about breast-feeding, but also, more generally, helpful hints on some aspects of the Greek world and mentality that we barely know. In attempting to reach some general conclusions, we have also considered the iconographic sources, trying to explain, in part at least, the reason for the almost complete absence of scenes of breast-feeding in the archaic and classical art. PMID:24527558

Pedrucci, Giulia

2013-01-01

224

Identification of breast cancer patients based on human signaling network motifs  

PubMed Central

Identifying breast cancer patients is crucial to the clinical diagnosis and therapy for this disease. Conventional gene-based methods for breast cancer diagnosis ignore gene-gene interactions and thus may lead to loss of power. In this study, we proposed a novel method to select classification features, called “Selection of Significant Expression-Correlation Differential Motifs” (SSECDM). This method applied a network motif-based approach, combining a human signaling network and high-throughput gene expression data to distinguish breast cancer samples from normal samples. Our method has higher classification performance and better classification accuracy stability than the mutual information (MI) method or the individual gene sets method. It may become a useful tool for identifying and treating patients with breast cancer and other cancers, thus contributing to clinical diagnosis and therapy for these diseases. PMID:24284521

Chen, Lina; Qu, Xiaoli; Cao, Mushui; Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Wan; Liang, Binhua; Li, Weiguo; He, Weiming; Feng, Chenchen; Jia, Xu; He, Yuehan

2013-01-01

225

Expression and regulation of Cyr61 in human breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

We have shown that Cyr61, an angiogenic regulator, is overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human breast cancer cells and tumor biopsies. We have further demonstrated that Cyr61 promotes acquisition of estrogen-independence and anti-estrogen resistance in vivo in breast cancer cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that Cyr61 induces tumor formation and tumor vascularization in vivo, events mediated through the activation of the MAPK and the Akt signaling pathways. Here we investigate how Cyr61 expression is regulated in both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that Cyr61 mRNA and protein expression is inducible by estrogen and anti-estrogens in ER-positive breast cancer cells. We show that a labile protein as well as a negative regulator might be involved in Cyr61 expression in estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. Other important regulators of Cyr61 expression in breast cancer cells that we found are the phorbol ester TPA, vitamin D, and retinoic acid. TPA causes positive regulation of Cyr61 expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells. Vitamin D induces a transient stimulatory effect on Cyr61 gene expression. Lastly, retinoic acid has a negative effect on Cyr61 expression and downregulates its expression in MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, most of these effects are not seen in aggressive breast cancer cells that do not express ER and express high levels of Cyr61, such as the MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results are in agreement with our knowledge that Cyr61 promotes tumor growth, and that tumor-promoting agents have a positive impact on cells that express low levels of Cyr61, such as the ER-positive breast cancer cells; however, these agents have no significant effect on cells that express high levels of Cyr61. Our findings suggest an association between increased Cyr61 expression and an aggressive phenotype of breast cancer cells. PMID:11840342

Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Bogart, Daphne F; Li, Patricia; Mehmi, Inderjit; Lupu, Ruth

2002-01-31

226

Altered expression of prolactin receptor-associated signaling proteins in human breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Prolactin receptor signaling can modulate proliferation, survival, motility, angiogenesis, and differentiation in breast cancer. Increased serum prolactin is associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of prolactin receptor-associated signaling proteins in breast cancer vs benign breast tissue. Breast tissue microarrays representing 40 cases of benign and malignant pathologies were obtained from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Standard immunohistochemistry for prolactin and prolactin receptor-associated proteins was performed. Both positive regulators (c-Myb, Nek3, Vav2) and negative regulators (PIAS3, SIRP) of prolactin receptor signaling were examined. Virtual slides were created from the stained breast tissue microarrays. Labels were scored by region of interest and labeling indices incorporating percent target labeled and label intensity were created. Quantitative determinations of labels were made using the Clarient image system. The unpaired t-test was used to compare labels from benign and malignant tissues. Visual scoring data showed upregulation of Nek3 (P=0.000377), PIAS3 (P=0.000257), and prolactin (P=0.002576) in breast cancer vs normal/hyperplastic epithelium. c-Myb showed a trend toward upregulation, but this did not achieve statistical significance (P=0.107374). SIRP (P=0.002060) was downregulated. Vav2 showed a trend toward downregulation (P=0.107456), but this did not achieve statistical significance. Clarient analysis corroborated upregulation in cancer of Nek3 (P=0.000013), PIAS3 (P=0.000067), and prolactin (P=0.017569). In conclusion, regulators of prolactin receptor signaling show heterogeneity in their expression in benign vs malignant breast tissue. Since these species are known to regulate prolactin-mediated actions, these results suggest multiple targets for modulating prolactin receptor-mediated growth and differentiation in breast cancer. PMID:18246042

McHale, Kevin; Tomaszewski, John E; Puthiyaveettil, Ragunath; Livolsi, Virginia A; Clevenger, Charles V

2008-05-01

227

Comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human breast cancer clinical subtypes  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence highlights the potential role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in solid tumors. However, the role of lncRNA expression in human breast cancer biology, prognosis and molecular classification remains unknown. Herein, we established the lncRNA profile of 658 infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We found lncRNA expression to correlate with the gene expression and chromatin landscape of human mammary epithelial cells (non-transformed) and the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Unsupervised consensus clustering of lncRNA revealed four subgroups that displayed different prognoses. Gene set enrichment analysis for cis- and trans-acting lncRNAs showed enrichment for breast cancer signatures driven by master regulators of breast carcinogenesis. Interestingly, the lncRNA HOTAIR was significantly overexpressed in the HER2-enriched subgroup, while the lncRNA HOTAIRM1 was significantly overexpressed in the basal-like subgroup. Estrogen receptor (ESR1) expression was associated with distinct lncRNA networks in lncRNA clusters III and IV. Importantly, almost two thirds of the lncRNAs were marked by enhancer chromatin modifications (i.e., H3K27ac), suggesting that expressed lncRNA in breast cancer drives carcinogenesis through increased activity of neighboring genes. In summary, our study depicts the first lncRNA subtype classification in breast cancer and provides the framework for future studies to assess the interplay between lncRNAs and the breast cancer epigenome. PMID:25296969

Chen, Yunxin; Zhang, Jianping; Yao, Hui; Valero, Vicente; Weinstein, John N; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Khayat, David; Esteva, Francisco J

2014-01-01

228

Effect of Chinese herbal therapy on breast cancer adenocarcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use of medicinal herbs to prevent and treat many diseases, including cancer, there are insufficient scientific data on the safety and efficacy of the majority of herbal therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a unique Chinese herbal therapy (CHT) from controlled manufactured concentrated powders, on an in vitro model of breast cancer. Three breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MDA-231, MDA-453, T47D) were exposed to CHT for 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by XTT (sodium 3'-[1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3, 4-tetra zolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulphonic acid hydrate) assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle stage were determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. CHT decreased cell survival in a dose-dependent manner in all tested cell lines. FACS analysis of treated and non-treated T47D cells demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of CHT was associated with an increase in apoptosis. A randomized clinical trial is currently underway to investigate CHT as supplementary therapy for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:21227007

Maimon, Y; Karaush, V; Yaal-Hahoshen, N; Ben-Yosef, R; Ron, I; Vexler, A; Lev-Ari, S

2010-01-01

229

A genomic analysis of mouse models of breast cancer reveals molecular features of mouse models and relationships to human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Genomic variability limits the efficacy of breast cancer therapy. To simplify the study of the molecular complexity of breast cancer, researchers have used mouse mammary tumor models. However, the degree to which mouse models model human breast cancer and are reflective of the human heterogeneity has yet to be demonstrated with gene expression studies on a large scale. Methods To this end, we have built a database consisting of 1,172 mouse mammary tumor samples from 26 different major oncogenic mouse mammary tumor models. Results In this dataset we identified heterogeneity within mouse models and noted a surprising amount of interrelatedness between models, despite differences in the tumor initiating oncogene. Making comparisons between models, we identified differentially expressed genes with alteration correlating with initiating events in each model. Using annotation tools, we identified transcription factors with a high likelihood of activity within these models. Gene signatures predicted activation of major cell signaling pathways in each model, predictions that correlated with previous genetic studies. Finally, we noted relationships between mouse models and human breast cancer at both the level of gene expression and predicted signal pathway activity. Importantly, we identified individual mouse models that recapitulate human breast cancer heterogeneity at the level of gene expression. Conclusions This work underscores the importance of fully characterizing mouse tumor biology at molecular, histological and genomic levels before a valid comparison to human breast cancer may be drawn and provides an important bioinformatic resource. PMID:25069779

2014-01-01

230

Expression and DNA methylation changes in human breast epithelial cells after bisphenol A (BPA) exposure  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that xenoestrogens, a group of agents termed endocrine disruptors, may contribute to the development of hormone-dependent cancers such as breast and endometrial cancers. We previously demonstrated that the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) was able to induce transformation in vitro of human breast epithelial cells. The normal-like human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F form tubules in collagen (3-D cultures) although, after treatment with BPA (10-5M and 10-6M BPA), the cells produced less tubules (73% and 80%, respectively) and some spherical masses (27% and 20%, respectively). In the present work, expression and DNA methylation analyses were performed in these cells after being exposure to BPA. These cells showed an increased expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, CtIP, RAD51, and BRCC3, all genes involved in DNA repair, and down-regulation of PDCD5 and BCL2L11 (BIM), both involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis shown that BPA exposure induced hypermethylation of BCL2L11, PARD6G, FOXP1, and SFRS11, and hypomethylation of NUP98 and CtIP (RBBP8). Our results indicated that normal human breast epithelial cells exposed to BPA increased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair in order to overcome the DNA damage induced by this chemical. These results suggest that the breast tissue of women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations could be more susceptible to be transformed by BPA. PMID:22576693

Fernandez, Sandra V.; Huang, Yong; Snider, Kara E.; Zhou, Yan; Pogash, Thomas J.; Russo, Jose

2012-01-01

231

Aberrant Methylation of the Maspin Promoter Is an Early Event in Human Breast Cancer1  

PubMed Central

Abstract The maspin gene functions as a tumor suppressor in human breasts, and its expression is frequently lost during breast cancer progression. In vitro models of human breast cancer indicate that the loss of maspin expression is closely linked to aberrant methylation of the maspin promoter. We conducted a study on 30 archival ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) specimens to determine if aberrant methylation of the maspin promoter occurred in vivo, and whether it occurred early in breast cancer evolution. Healthy tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty was used as normal control. Results from immunohistochemical analysis indicate that maspin expression is lost in a substantial fraction of DCIS specimens (57%). Bisulfite sequencing of DNA isolated from laser capture-microdissected normal and neoplastic ducts showed that loss of maspin expression was often, but not always, linked to aberrant methylation of the maspin promoter, suggesting that other mechanisms, in addition to aberrant methylation, participate and/or cooperate to silence maspin gene expression. Taken together, these results indicate that aberrant methylation of the maspin promoter is an early event in human breast cancer. PMID:15256060

Futscher, Bernard W.; O'Meara, Megan M.; Kim, Christina J.; Rennels, Margaret A.; Lu, Di; Gruman, Lynn M.; Seftor, Richard E. B.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Domann, Frederick E.

2004-01-01

232

Proteomic identification of mitochondrial targets of arginase in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

We have previously reported arginase expression in human breast cancer cells and demonstrated that the inhibition of arginase by N(?) hydroxy L-arginine (NOHA) in MDA-MB-468 cells induces apoptosis. However, arginase expression and its possible molecular targets in human breast tumor samples and potential clinical implications have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate arginase expression in human breast tumor samples, and several established breast cancer cell lines, in which NOHA treatment selectively inhibits cell proliferation. The over-expression of Bcl2 in MDA-MB-468 cells abolished NOHA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the mitochondria may be the main site of NOHA's action. We, therefore, undertook a proteomics approach to identify key mitochondrial targets of arginase in MDA-MB-468 cells. We identified 54 non-mitochondrial and 13 mitochondrial proteins that were differentially expressed in control and NOHA treated groups. Mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (mSHMT) was identified as one of the most promising targets of arginase. Both arginase II (Arg II) and mSHMT expressions were higher in human breast tumor tissues compared to the matched normal and there was a strong correlation between Arg II and mSHMT protein expression. MDA-MB-468 xenografts had significant upregulation of Arg II expression that preceded the induction of mSHMT expression. Small inhibitory RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of Arg II in MDA-MB-468 and HCC-1806 cells led to significant inhibition of both the mSHMT gene and protein expression. As mSHMT is a key player in folate metabolism, our data provides a novel link between arginine and folate metabolism in human breast cancer, both of which are critical for tumor cell proliferation. PMID:24223914

Singh, Rajan; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K; Braga, Melissa; Haykinson, Michael J; Martinez, Luis; Singh, Vikash; Parveen, Meher; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Pervin, Shehla

2013-01-01

233

Proteomic Identification of Mitochondrial Targets of Arginase in Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported arginase expression in human breast cancer cells and demonstrated that the inhibition of arginase by N? hydroxy L-arginine (NOHA) in MDA-MB-468 cells induces apoptosis. However, arginase expression and its possible molecular targets in human breast tumor samples and potential clinical implications have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate arginase expression in human breast tumor samples, and several established breast cancer cell lines, in which NOHA treatment selectively inhibits cell proliferation. The over-expression of Bcl2 in MDA-MB-468 cells abolished NOHA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the mitochondria may be the main site of NOHA’s action. We, therefore, undertook a proteomics approach to identify key mitochondrial targets of arginase in MDA-MB-468 cells. We identified 54 non-mitochondrial and 13 mitochondrial proteins that were differentially expressed in control and NOHA treated groups. Mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (mSHMT) was identified as one of the most promising targets of arginase. Both arginase II (Arg II) and mSHMT expressions were higher in human breast tumor tissues compared to the matched normal and there was a strong correlation between Arg II and mSHMT protein expression. MDA-MB-468 xenografts had significant upregulation of Arg II expression that preceded the induction of mSHMT expression. Small inhibitory RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of Arg II in MDA-MB-468 and HCC-1806 cells led to significant inhibition of both the mSHMT gene and protein expression. As mSHMT is a key player in folate metabolism, our data provides a novel link between arginine and folate metabolism in human breast cancer, both of which are critical for tumor cell proliferation. PMID:24223914

Singh, Rajan; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K.; Braga, Melissa; Haykinson, Michael J.; Martinez, Luis; Singh, Vikash; Parveen, Meher; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Pervin, Shehla

2013-01-01

234

Next-generation transcriptome sequencing of the premenopausal breast epithelium using specimens from a normal human breast tissue bank  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our efforts to prevent and treat breast cancer are significantly impeded by a lack of knowledge of the biology and developmental genetics of the normal mammary gland. In order to provide the specimens that will facilitate such an understanding, The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB) was established. The KTB is, to our knowledge, the only biorepository in the world prospectively established to collect normal, healthy breast tissue from volunteer donors. As a first initiative toward a molecular understanding of the biology and developmental genetics of the normal mammary gland, the effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on DNA expression in the normal breast epithelium was examined. Methods Using normal breast tissue from 20 premenopausal donors to KTB, the changes in the mRNA of the normal breast epithelium as a function of phase of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraception were assayed using next-generation whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Results In total, 255 genes representing 1.4% of all genes were deemed to have statistically significant differential expression between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. The overwhelming majority (221; 87%) of the genes have higher expression during the luteal phase. These data provide important insights into the processes occurring during each phase of the menstrual cycle. There was only a single gene significantly differentially expressed when comparing the epithelium of women using hormonal contraception to those in the luteal phase. Conclusions We have taken advantage of a unique research resource, the KTB, to complete the first-ever next-generation transcriptome sequencing of the epithelial compartment of 20 normal human breast specimens. This work has produced a comprehensive catalog of the differences in the expression of protein-coding genes as a function of the phase of the menstrual cycle. These data constitute the beginning of a reference data set of the normal mammary gland, which can be consulted for comparison with data developed from malignant specimens, or to mine the effects of the hormonal flux that occurs during the menstrual cycle. PMID:24636070

2014-01-01

235

TAp73 and ?Np73 Have Opposing Roles in 5-aza-2?-Deoxycytidine-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The p73 gene contains an extrinsic P1 promoter and an intrinsic P2 promoter, controlling the transcription of the pro-apoptotic TAp73 isoform and the anti-apoptotic ??p73 isoform, respectively. The DNA methylation status of both promoters act equally in the epigenetic transcriptional regulation of their relevant isoforms. The aim of this study was to analyze the different effects of these p73 isoforms in 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We investigated the effects of the DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-dC, on the T-47D breast cancer cell line, and evaluated the methylation status of the p73 promoters and expression of TAp73 and ?Np73. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of p53 and p73 isoforms in 5-aza-dC-treated T-47D cells and p53 knockout cells. 5-aza-dC induced significant anti-tumor effects in T-47D cells, including inhibition of cell viability, G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. This was associated with p73 promoter demethylation and a concomitant increase in TAp73 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, the methylation status of promoter P2 was not associated with ?Np73 mRNA or protein levels. Furthermore, demethylation of P2 failed to inhibit the expression of ?Np73 with 5-aza-dC in the p53 knockdown cell model. Our study suggests that demethylation of the P1 and P2 promoters has opposite effects on the expression of p73 isoforms, namely up-regulation of TAp73 and down-regulation of ??p73. We also demonstrate that p53 likely contributes to 5-aza-dC-induced ?Np73 transcriptional inactivation in breast cancer cells. PMID:25134538

Lai, Jing; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Jing; Song, Wei; Huang, Guichun; Gu, Jun; Guan, Xiaoxiang

2014-01-01

236

Alcohol intake stimulates epithelial proliferation in an authentic model of the human breast.  

PubMed

The voluntary consumption of alcohol by humans is a modifiable lifestyle factor that has been consistently linked to a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. We have used an animal model that closely recapitulates breast development in humans to study the effect of alcohol intake on breast growth and morphology. Pubertal female pigs were fed alcohol for 4-5 weeks at 19-21% of total caloric intake, which led to average blood alcohol concentrations of 115-130mg/dL. Alongside increased liver mass, alcohol intake promoted the formation of distended ductules within lobular units in association with increased epithelial proliferation. Alcohol consumption also increased phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT5 in the mammary epithelium, but did not lead to any evidence of precocious lactogenesis. In conclusion, feeding alcohol to female pigs having a similar physiology and mammary gland morphology to humans during a reproductive state equivalent to human adolescence leads to increased mammary gland proliferation and development of atypical lobular structures. These changes may phenocopy how alcohol intake increases the risk for developing breast cancer in humans. PMID:25450420

Schennink, Anke; Trott, Josephine F; Berryhill, Grace E; Donovan, Caitlin E; Manjarin, Rodrigo; VanKlompenberg, Monica K; Rowson-Hodel, Ashley R; Luis, Michelle-Yvette Osorio; Hovey, Russell C

2014-11-01

237

Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?  

PubMed

Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. PMID:24001137

Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

2014-02-10

238

Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-?m-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

2007-01-01

239

Self-Assembly Structure Formation during the Digestion of Human Breast Milk.  

PubMed

An infant's complete diet, human breast milk, is the basis for its survival and development. It contains water-soluble and poorly water-soluble bioactive components, metabolic messages, and energy, all of which are made bioavailable during the digestion process in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Reported is the first discovery of highly geometrically organized structures formed during the digestion of human breast milk under simulated in?vivo conditions using small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. Time of digestion, pH, and bile salt concentration were found to have symbiotic effects gradually tuning the oil-based environment inside the breast milk globules to more water-like structures with high internal surface area. The structure formation is necessarily linked to its function as carriers for poorly water-soluble molecules in the digestive tract of the infant. PMID:25482918

Salentinig, Stefan; Phan, Stephanie; Hawley, Adrian; Boyd, Ben J

2015-01-26

240

Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Bussiere, Marianne [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Dos Santos, Esther [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Leneveu, Marie-Christine [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Giudicelli, Yves [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)]. E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)

2006-06-23

241

Rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus in cultured human breast cells  

PubMed Central

Background The role of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) as a causative agent in human breast carcinogenesis has recently been the subject of renewed interest. The proposed model is based on the detection of MMTV sequences in human breast cancer but not in healthy breast tissue. One of the main drawbacks to this model, however, was that until now human cells had not been demonstrated to sustain productive MMTV infection. Results Here, we show for the first time the rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus, MMTV(GR), in cultured human mammary cells (Hs578T), ultimately leading to the infection of every cell in culture. The replication of the virus was monitored by quantitative PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence imaging. The infected human cells expressed, upon cultivation with dexamethasone, MMTV structural proteins and released spiked B-type virions, the infectivity of which could be neutralized by anti-MMTV antibody. Replication of the virus was efficiently blocked by an inhibitor of reverse transcription, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. The human origin of the infected cells was confirmed by determining a number of integration sites hosting the provirus, which were unequivocally identified as human sequences. Conclusion Taken together, our results show that human cells can support replication of mouse mammary tumor virus. PMID:17931409

Indik, Stanislav; Günzburg, Walter H; Kulich, Pavel; Salmons, Brian; Rouault, Francoise

2007-01-01

242

Identification of p53 and Its Isoforms in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

In breast carcinoma, disruption of the p53 pathway is one of the most common genetic alterations. The observation that the p53 can express multiple protein isoforms adds a novel level of complexity to the outcome of p53 mutations. p53 expression was analysed by Western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies DO-7, Pab240, and polyclonal antiserum CM-1. The more frequently p53-positive nuclear staining has been found in the invasive breast tumors. One of the most intriguing findings is that mutant p53 appears as discrete dot-shaped regions within the nucleus of breast cancer cells. In many malignant cells, the nucleolar sequestration of p53 is evident. These observations support the view that the nucleolus is involved directly in the mediation of p53 function or indirectly by the control of the localization of p53 interplayers. p53 expressed in the nuclear fraction of breast cancer cells revealed a wide spectrum of isoforms. p53 isoforms ?Np53 (47?kDa) and ?133p53? (35?kDa), known as dominant-negative repressors of p53 function, were detected as the most predominant variants in nuclei of invasive breast carcinoma cells. The isoforms expressed also varied between individual tumors, indicating potential roles of these p53 variants in human breast cancer. PMID:24511294

Mili?evi?, Zorka; Baji?, Vladan; Živkovi?, Lada; Kasapovi?, Jelena; Andjelkovi?, Uroš; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

2014-01-01

243

Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography and Microscopy for Ex Vivo Multiscale Evaluation of Human Breast Tissues  

PubMed Central

3D tissue imaging methods are expected to improve surgical management of cancer. In this study, we examined the feasibility of two 3D imaging technologies, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM), to view human breast specimens based on intrinsic optical contrast. Specifically, we imaged 44 ex vivo breast specimens including 34 benign and 10 malignant lesions with an integrated OCT and OCM system developed in our laboratory. The system enabled 4 ?m axial resolution (OCT and OCM) with 14 ?m (OCT) and 2 ?m (OCM) transverse resolution, respectively. OCT and OCM images were compared with corresponding histologic sections to identify characteristic features from benign and malignant breast lesions at multiple resolution scales. OCT and OCM provide complimentary information about tissue microstructure, demonstrating distinctive patterns for adipose tissue, fibrous stroma, breast lobules and ducts, cysts and microcysts, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas. The 3D imaging capability of OCT and OCM provided complementary information to individual 2D images, allowing tracking features from different levels to identify low contrast structures that were difficult to appreciate from single images alone. Our results lay the foundation for future in vivo optical evaluation of breast tissues using OCT and OCM, which has the potential to guide core needle biopsies, assess surgical margins and evaluate nodal involvement in breast cancer. PMID:21056988

Zhou, Chao; Cohen, David W.; Wang, Yihong; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Mondelblatt, Amy E.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Fujimoto, James G.; Connolly, James L.

2011-01-01

244

Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Gamma Secretase Inhibitors with Docetaxel on Human Breast Tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Accumulating evidence supports the existence of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are characterized by their capacity to self-renew and divide indefinitely, and resistance to conventional therapies. The Notch pathway is important for stem cell renewal, and is a potential target for BCSC-directed therapy. Experimental Design Using human breast tumorgraft studies, we evaluated the impact of gamma secretase inhibitors (GSI) on the BCSC population and the efficacy of combining GSI with docetaxel treatment. The mouse experimental therapy paralleled a concurrent clinical trial in advanced breast cancer patients, designed to determine the maximally tolerated dose of the GSI, MK-0752, administered sequentially with docetaxel, and to evaluate BCSC markers in serial tumor biopsies. Results Treatment with GSI reduced BCSCs in MC1 and BMC-2147 tumorgrafts by inhibition of the Notch pathway. GSI enhanced the efficacy of docetaxel in preclinical studies. In the clinical trial, 30 patients with advanced breast cancer were treated with escalating doses of MK-0752 plus docetaxel. Clinically meaningful doses of both drugs were possible, with manageable toxicity and preliminary evidence of efficacy. A decrease in CD44+/CD24?, ALDH+, and MSFE were observed in tumors of patients undergoing serial biopsies. Conclusions These preclinical data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of the Notch pathway can reduce BCSCs in breast tumorgraft models. The clinical trial demonstrates feasibility of combination GSI and chemotherapy, and together these results encourage further study of Notch pathway inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:23340294

Schott, Anne F.; Landis, Melissa D.; Dontu, Gabriela; Griffith, Kent A.; Layman, Rachel M.; Krop, Ian; Paskett, Lacey A; Wong, Helen; Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Froehlich, Amber M.; Paranilam, Jaya; Hayes, Daniel F.; Wicha, Max S.; Chang, Jenny C.

2013-01-01

245

Plasma membrane calcium-ATPase 2 and 4 in human breast cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

There is evidence to suggest that plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (PMCA) isoforms are important mediators sssof mammary gland physiology. PMCA2 in particular is upregulated extensively during lactation. Expression of other isoforms such as PMCA4 may influence mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation and aberrant regulation of PMCA isoform expression may lead or contribute to mammary gland pathophysiology in the form of breast cancers. To explore whether PMCA2 and PMCA4 expression may be deregulated in breast cancer, we compared mRNA expression of these PMCA isoforms in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell lines using real time RT-PCR. PMCA2 mRNA has a higher level of expression in some breast cancer cell lines and is overexpressed more than 100-fold in ZR-75-1 cells, compared to non-tumorigenic 184B5 cells. Although differences in PMCA4 mRNA levels were observed between breast cell lines, they were not of the magnitude observed for PMCA2. We conclude that PMCA2 mRNA can be highly overexpressed in some breast cancer cells. The significance of PMCA2 overexpression on tumorigenicity and its possible correlation with other properties such as invasiveness requires further study.

Lee, Won Jae [School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J. [School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Monteith, Gregory R. [School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: G.Monteith@pharmacy.uq.edu.au

2005-11-25

246

Correlation between extent of osteolytic damage and metastatic burden of human breast cancer metastasis in nude mice: Real-time PCR quantitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotopic or intracardiac injection of human breast cancer cell lines into immunocompromised mice allows study of the molecular\\u000a basis of breast cancer metastasis. We have established a quantitative real-time PCR approach to analyze metastatic spread\\u000a of human breast cancer cells inoculated into nude mice via these routes. We employed MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells\\u000a genetically tagged with a bacterial ?-galactosidase

Angus M. Tester; Julie A. Sharp; Nirada Dhanesuan; Mark Waltham; Erik W. Thompson

2002-01-01

247

Isolation of Fully Human Antagonistic RON Antibodies Showing Efficient Block of Downstream Signaling and Cell Migration1  

PubMed Central

RON belongs to the c-MET family of receptor tyrosine kinases. As its well-known family member MET, RON and its ligand macrophage-stimulating protein have been implicated in the progression and metastasis of tumors and have been shown to be overexpressed in cancer. We generated and tested a large number of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human RON. Our screening yielded three high-affinity antibodies that efficiently block ligand-dependent intracellular AKT and MAPK signaling. This effect correlates with the strong reduction of ligand-activated migration of T47D breast cancer cell line. By cross-competition experiments, we showed that the antagonistic antibodies fall into three distinct epitope regions of the RON extracellular Sema domain. Notably, no inhibition of tumor growth was observed in different epithelial tumor xenografts in nude mice with any of the antibodies. These results suggest that distinct properties beside ligand antagonism are required for anti-RON mAbs to exert antitumor effects in vivo. PMID:21286376

Gunes, Zeynep; Zucconi, Adriana; Cioce, Mario; Meola, Annalisa; Pezzanera, Monica; Acali, Stefano; Zampaglione, Immacolata; De Pratti, Valeria; Bova, Luca; Talamo, Fabio; Demartis, Anna; Monaci, Paolo; La Monica, Nicola; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Vitelli, Alessandra

2011-01-01

248

EBAG9/RCAS1 in human breast carcinoma: a possible factor in endocrine–immune interactions  

PubMed Central

EBAG9 has been recently identified as an oestrogen responsive gene in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. EBAG9 is identical to RCAS1, a cancer cell surface antigen possibly involved in immune escape. In this study, we examined the expression of EBAG9/RCAS1 in human breast carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EBAG9 immunoreactivity was also associated with various clinicopathological parameters, including intratumoural infiltration of inflammatory cells, to examine the biological significance of EBAG9 in human breast carcinomas. EBAG9 immunoreactivity was detected in the entire surface and cytoplasm of carcinoma cells in 82 out of 91 invasive ductal carcinomas (90.1%). In non-neoplastic mammary glands, EBAG9 immunoreactivity was weakly present on the luminal surface of epithelial cells. Results from RT-PCR (n = 7) were consistent with those of immunohistochemistry. EBAG9 immunoreactivity was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) ? labelling index (P = 0.0081), and inversely associated with the degree of intratumoural infiltration of mononuclear cells (P = 0.0020), or CD3+ T lymphocytes (P = 0.0025). This study suggests that EBAG9 is produced via ER in carcinoma cells and inhibits the intratumoural infiltration of T lymphocytes in the context of a possible endocrine–immune interaction in human breast carcinomas. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11742495

Suzuki, T; Inoue, S; Kawabata, W; Akahira, J; Moriya, T; Tsuchiya, F; Ogawa, S; Muramatsu, M; Sasano, H

2001-01-01

249

Bisphosphonates antagonise bone growth factors' effects on human breast cancer cells survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone tissue constitutes a fertile ‘soil’ for metastatic tumours, notably breast cancer. High concentrations of growth factors in bone matrix favour cancer cell proliferation and survival, and a vicious cycle settles between bone matrix, osteoclasts and cancer cells. Classically, bisphosphonates interrupt this vicious cycle by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We and others recently reported that bisphosphonates can also induce human

O Fromigue; N Kheddoumi; J-J Body

2003-01-01

250

Near-infrared imaging of the human breast: complementing hemoglobin concentration maps  

E-print Network

Near-infrared imaging of the human breast: complementing hemoglobin concentration maps range can penetrate through several cen- timeters of tissue and is highly sensitive to the hemoglobin scattered in biologi- cal tissue and photon paths cannot be determined easily. Another approach to enhancing

Fantini, Sergio

251

Expression of Bone Sialoprotein, a Bone Matrix Protein, in Human Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcalcifications are often associated with human mammary lesions, @cuIarly with breast carcinomas. To date, the molecular mechanism that leadsto the depositionof hydroxyapatitein the mammarytissuehas not been elucidated. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a glycoprotein the expres sion of which coincides with the appearance of the first hydroxyapatite crystalsduringbonedevelopment. In this study,wereport the observation that BSP, a bone matrix protein, is expressed

A. BellahcĂ; V. Castronovo

252

In Vivo Gene Expression Profile Analysis of Human Breast Cancer Progression1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of molecular-based therapy for breast cancer and other human malignancies will require a detailed molecular genetic analysis of patient tissues. The recent development of laser capture mi- crodissection and high density cDNA arrays now provides a unique op- portunity to generate gene expression profiles of cells from various stages of tumor progression as it occurs in

Dennis C. Sgroi; Sarena Teng; Greg Robinson; James R. Hudson; Abdel G. Elkahloun

1999-01-01

253

Anti-cancer effects of Kochia scoparia fruit in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background: The fruit of Kochia scoparia Scharder is widely used as a medicinal ingredient for the treatment of dysuria and skin diseases in China, Japan and Korea. Especially, K. scoparia had been used for breast masses and chest and flank pain. Objective: To investigate the anti-cancer effect of K. scoparia on breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We investigated the anti-cancer effects of K. scoparia, methanol extract (MEKS) in vitro. We examined the effects of MEKS on the proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of apoptosis-associated proteins in MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer cells. Results: MTT assay results demonstrated that MEKS decreased the proliferation rates of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 36.2 ?g/ml. MEKS at 25 ?g/ml significantly increased the sub-G1 DNA contents of MDA-MB-231 cells to 44.7%, versus untreated cells. In addition, MEKS induced apoptosis by increasing the levels of apoptosis-associated proteins such as cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 8, cleaved caspase 9 and cleaved Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conclusion: These results suggest that MEKS inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and that MEKS may have potential chemotherapeutic value for the treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:25298688

Han, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Hyungwoo; Son, Yong Hae; Lee, Guemsan; Jeong, Sung-Hee; Ryu, Mi Heon

2014-01-01

254

Asymmetric segregation of template DNA strands in basal-like human breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background and methods Stem or progenitor cells from healthy tissues have the capacity to co-segregate their template DNA strands during mitosis. Here, we set out to test whether breast cancer cell lines also possess the ability to asymmetrically segregate their template DNA strands via non-random chromosome co-segregation, and whether this ability correlates with certain properties attributed to breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). We quantified the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA strands in 12 human breast cancer cell lines, and correlated the frequency to molecular subtype, CD44+/CD24-/lo phenotype, and invasion/migration ability. We tested if co-culture with human mesenchymal stem cells, which are known to increase self-renewal, can alter the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA in breast cancer. Results We found a positive correlation between asymmetric segregation of template DNA and the breast cancer basal-like and claudin-low subtypes. There was an inverse correlation between asymmetric segregation of template DNA and Her2 expression. Breast cancer samples with evidence of asymmetric segregation of template DNA had significantly increased invasion and borderline significantly increased migration abilities. Samples with high CD44+/CD24-/lo surface expression were more likely to harbor a consistent population of cells that asymmetrically segregated its template DNA; however, symmetric self-renewal was enriched in the CD44+/CD24-/lo population. Co-culturing breast cancer cells with human mesenchymal stem cells expanded the breast CSC pool and decreased the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA. Conclusions Breast cancer cells within the basal-like subtype can asymmetrically segregate their template DNA strands through non-random chromosome segregation. The frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA can be modulated by external factors that influence expansion or self-renewal of CSC populations. Future studies to uncover the underlying mechanisms driving asymmetric segregation of template DNA and dictating cell fate at the time of cell division may explain how CSCs are maintained in tumors. PMID:24238140

2013-01-01

255

Cloning and expression of full-length cDNA encoding human vitamin D receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA clones encoding the human vitamin D receptor have been isolated from human intestine and T47D cell cDNA libraries. The nucleotide sequence of the 4605-base pair (bp) cDNA includes a noncoding leader sequence of 115 bp, a 1281-bp open reading frame, and 3209 bp of 3Ⲡnoncoding sequence. Two polyadenylylation signals, AATAAA, are present 25 and 70 bp upstream

A. R. Baker; D. P. McDonnell; M. Hughes; T. M. Crisp; D. J. Mangelsdorf; M. R. Haussler; J. W. Pike; J. Shine; B. W. OMalley

1988-01-01

256

Association of autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 with aggressiveness of human breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

In vitro and in vivo experimental studies have demonstrated the role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling in tumor proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis. Among LPA receptors, the overexpression of LPA receptor 3 (LPAR3) in transgenic mice has resulted in the highest rate of breast cancer metastasis. Our goal is to evaluate the LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin and LPAR3 as potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer patients. The expression of autotaxin and LPAR3 was examined by immunohistochemical analysis of 87 invasive human breast carcinomas. Carcinomas were more frequently positive for autotaxin and LPAR3 (24.4 and 43 %, respectively) compared to adjacent normal breast tissue (6.1 and 2.9 %, respectively). Increased stromal autotaxin expression was found in 16.3 % of the tumors. LPAR3 overexpression was associated with less differentiated tumors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, and absence of progesterone receptors. The luminal type A carcinomas showed the lowest frequency of autotaxin and LPAR3 expression. Strong desmoplastic stromal reaction was more frequent among the carcinomas with autotaxin-positive tumor cells or autotaxin-positive stroma. Patients with carcinomas overexpressing LPAR3 in epithelial cells or autotaxin in stromal cells were more likely to have larger tumors, nodal involvement, and higher stage disease. Autotaxin overexpression in tumor cells also correlated with tumor size and clinical stage. Our data indicate that the increased expression of LPAR3 and autotaxin in human breast cancer is associated with tumor aggressiveness. They also suggest that LPA mediates tumor metastatic ability and peritumoral desmoplastic reaction through autocrine-paracrine mechanisms. A substantial portion of breast cancer patients might benefit from autotoxin/LPA receptor-targeted therapies. PMID:22922883

Popnikolov, Nikolay K; Dalwadi, Bela H; Thomas, Jeff D; Johannes, Gregg J; Imagawa, Walter T

2012-12-01

257

Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen\\u000a and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression\\/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative\\u000a breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about\\u000a 74% of triple-negative breast cancers

Antje Schubert; Thomas Hawighorst; Günter Emons; Carsten Gründker

258

RhoC upregulation is correlated with reduced E-cadherin in human breast cancer specimens after chemotherapy and in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed

Therapy-resistant cancer cells are a major problem in cancer research. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key mechanism in therapy resistance. Yet, the expressions of EMT markers, EMT core regulators, and a stem cell marker of BMI1 during chemotherapy have been poorly analyzed in clinical breast cancer specimens. In the present study, we investigated the roles of RhoC under chemotherapy to follow up on earlier findings demonstrating the involvement of RhoC in prostate cancer resistance to endocrine therapy. Immunohistochemically, E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in human breast cancer specimens analyzed after chemotherapy than specimens biopsied before chemotherapy. Significant upregulation of fibronectin, a mesenchymal EMT marker, was found in post-chemotherapy analysis. A study of the EMT core regulators of SNAIL1, SNAIL2, TWIST1, and a well-known stem cell marker of BMI1 revealed no post-chemotherapy upregulation of these molecules. In contrast, RhoC expression was significantly upregulated in post-chemotherapy breast cancer specimens. MCF-7 cells stably transfected with the constitutive active (CA) RhoC plasmid manifested a reduced level of E-cadherin at the peripheries and disorganization of actin fibers, with no accompanying upregulation of SNAIL1, SNAIL2, TWIST1, or BMI1 in Western blots. Exposure of etoposide on MCF-7 cells showed RhoC upregulation together with reduced membranous expression of E-cadherin and disorganization of actin fibers. In MTT assay, however, the CA-RhoC-expressing MCF-7 cells failed to show chemotherapy resistance under etoposide treatment. Taken in sum, RhoC may contribute to an EMT-like process in human breast cancer during chemotherapy. PMID:25123151

Kawata, Hirotoshi; Kamiakito, Tomoko; Omoto, Yawara; Miyazaki, Chieko; Hozumi, Yasuo; Tanaka, Akira

2014-12-01

259

Human Breast Milk Contamination with Phthalates and Alterations of Endogenous Reproductive Hormones in Infants Three Months of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis. DESIGN: We obtained biologic samples from a prospective Danish-Finnish cohort study on cryp- torchidism from 1997 to 2001. We analyzed individual breast

Katharina M. Main; Gerda K. Mortensen; Marko M. Kaleva; Kirsten A. Boisen; Ida N. Damgaard; Marla Chellakooty; Ida M. Schmidt; Anne-Maarit Suomi; Helena E. Virtanen; Jřrgen H. Petersen; Anna-Maria Andersson; Jorma Toppari; Niels E. Skakkebćk

2006-01-01

260

The Bisphosphonate Ibandronate Promotes Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells in Bone Metastases1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphosphonate (BP), a specific inhibitor of osteoclasts, has been widely used as a beneficial agent for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. It is well recognized that BP reduces osteolysis by promoting apoptosis in osteoclasts. However, recent animal and human data suggest that BPs not only reduce osteolysis associated with metastatic breast cancer, but also decrease

Toru Hiraga; Paul J. Williams; Gregory R. Mundy; Toshiyuki Yoneda

2001-01-01

261

Five-lipoxygenase inhibitors can mediate apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines through complex eicosanoid interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many arachidonic acid metabolites function in growth signaling for epithelial cells, and we previously reported the expression of the major arachidonic acid enzymes in human breast cancer cell lines. To evaluate the role of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway on breast cancer growth regulation, we exposed cells to insulinlike growth factor-1 or transferrin, which increased the levels of the 5-LO metabolite,

Ingalill Avis; Sung H. Hong; Alfredo Martínez; Terry Moody; Yung H. Choi; Jane Trepel; Rina Das; Marti Jett; James L. Mulshine

2001-01-01

262

The PDZ protein TIP-1 facilitates cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human invasive breast cancer cells in athymic mice  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has revealed novel oncogenic functions of TIP-1 in human invasive breast cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated TIP-1 expression levels in human breast cancers correlate to the disease prognosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the expression and functionality of motility-related genes. -- Abstract: Tax-interacting protein 1 (TIP-1, also known as Tax1bp3) inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells through antagonizing the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin. However, in this study, elevated TIP-1 expression levels were detected in human invasive breast cancers. Studies with two human invasive breast cancer cell lines indicated that RNAi-mediated TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in mammary fat pads and pulmonary metastasis in athymic mice. Biochemical studies showed that TIP-1 knockdown had moderate and differential effects on the beta-catenin-regulated gene expression, but remarkably down regulated the genes for cell adhesion and motility in breast cancer cells. The decreased expression of integrins and paxillin was accompanied with reduced cell adhesion and focal adhesion formation on fibronectin-coated surface. In conclusion, this study revealed a novel oncogenic function of TIP-1 suggesting that TIP-1 holds potential as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in the treatment of human invasive breast cancers.

Han, Miaojun [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Yunnan (China) [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Yunnan (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Hailun [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zhang, Hua-Tang [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Yunnan (China)] [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Yunnan (China); Han, Zhaozhong, E-mail: zhaozhong.han@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

2012-05-25

263

Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures.  

PubMed

Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at -80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

Zonneveld, Marijke I; Brisson, Alain R; van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H A; Redegeld, Frank A; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H M; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M

2014-01-01

264

Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures  

PubMed Central

Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at ?80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Brisson, Alain R.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.

2014-01-01

265

Antitumor efficacy of piperine in the treatment of human HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Piperine is a bioactive component of black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn, commonly used for daily consumption and in traditional medicine. Here, the molecular mechanisms by which piperine exerts antitumor effects in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells was investigated. The results showed that piperine strongly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, piperine inhibited HER2 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Blockade of ERK1/2 signaling by piperine significantly reduced SREBP-1 and FAS expression. Piperine strongly suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of AP-1 and NF-?B activation by interfering with ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways resulting in a reduction in migration. Finally, piperine pretreatment enhanced sensitization to paclitaxel killing in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that piperine may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer with HER2 overexpression. PMID:23870999

Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Khanal, Tilak; Park, Bong Hwan; Tran, Thu Phuong; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

2013-12-01

266

Anticancer effects of different seaweeds on human colon and breast cancers.  

PubMed

Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents. PMID:25255129

Moussavou, Ghislain; Kwak, Dong Hoon; Obiang-Obonou, Brice Wilfried; Maranguy, Cyr Abel Ogandaga; Dinzouna-Boutamba, Sylvatrie-Danne; Lee, Dae Hoon; Pissibanganga, Ordelia Gwenaelle Manvoudou; Ko, Kisung; Seo, Jae In; Choo, Young Kug

2014-09-01

267

MicroRNA-185 inhibits proliferation by targeting c-Met in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown to regulate the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. The relevance of miRNAs in the development, progression and prognosis of human breast cancer is not fully understood. miR-185 has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers; however, its role in breast cancer has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the expression of miR-185 was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, an MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression was analyzed by western blotting and the target gene was confirmed using a luciferase reporter assay. The expression of miR-185 was found to be downregulated in the breast cancer tissues. The MTT assay revealed that overexpression of miR-185 inhibited the proliferation of MDF7 and SKBR3 cells. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that increased expression levels of miR-185 promoted the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In addition, c-Met expression was demonstrated to be significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and cells, and the c-Met gene was identified to be a target of miR-185. Therefore, the results demonstrated that miR-185 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of c-Met, indicating its potential as a therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:25371748

FU, PEIFEN; DU, FEIYA; YAO, MINYA; LV, KEZHEN; LIU, YU

2014-01-01

268

Prevalence of human papilloma virus among women with breast cancer since 2005-2009 in Isfahan  

PubMed Central

Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA has been detected in breast carcinoma by different laboratorial techniques, suggesting that the virus could play a role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Materials and Methods: It was a descriptive study. Systematic random sampling was used for selecting 55 cases of breast cancer and 51 controls of benign breast lesions from the file of Seyedshohada hospital of Isfahan since 2005-2009. A total of 106 paraffin-embedded specimens were selected and HPV DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced for different types of HPV in case of positivity for HPV DNA. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software using descriptive statistic, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Results: Out of 55 malignant and 51 benign breast specimens, 18.2% (10) and 13.7% (7) were positive to HPV DNA, respectively (P = 0.53); 70% (7) malignant and 43% (3) benign breast specimens were positive to high-risk HPV genotypes. In malignant specimens, the most common high- and low-risk genotypes were HPV-16 (3.6%) and HPV-11 (3.6%), respectively. In benign specimens, the most common high- and low-risk genotypes were HPV-31 (3.9%) and HPV-43 (3.9%), respectively. Among malignant and benign specimens, ductal carcinoma and fibro adenoma were the most common lesions positive to different types of HPV, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the presence of HPV genome in both malignant and benign tumor tissues in women with breast lesions in Isfahan; therefore, further larger epidemiologic studies need to be analyzed to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. PMID:24627883

Manzouri, Leila; Salehi, Rasoul; Shariatpanahi, Shervin; rezaie, Parisa

2014-01-01

269

Parabens enable suspension growth of MCF-10A immortalized, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are used extensively as preservatives in consumer products, and intact esters have been measured in several human tissues. Concerns of a potential link between parabens and breast cancer have been raised, but mechanistic studies have centred on their oestrogenic activity and little attention has been paid to any carcinogenic properties. In the present study, we report that parabens can induce anchorage-independent growth of MCF-10A immortalized but non-transformed human breast epithelial cells, a property closely related to transformation and a predictor of tumour growth in vivo. In semi-solid methocel suspension culture, MCF-10A cells produced very few colonies and only of a small size but the addition of 5?×?10(-4) M methylparaben, 10(-5) M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) M n-butylparaben resulted in a greater number of colonies per dish (P?human breast tissue samples from 40 mastectomies (Barr et al., 2012) showed that 22/40 of the patients had at least one of the parabens at the site of the primary tumour at or above these concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that parabens can induce a transformed phenotype in human breast epithelial cells in vitro, and further investigation is now justified into a potential link between parabens and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:22744862

Khanna, Sugandha; Darbre, Philippa D

2013-05-01

270

Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced up to 33% by all mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ?15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer. PMID:20921274

Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

2010-11-01

271

Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ER{alpha} signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ER{alpha} was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ER{alpha}-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tim H.-M., E-mail: Tim.Huang@osumc.ed [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2010-10-15

272

Protein kinases C isozymes are differentially expressed in human breast carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Aims The protein kinase C (PKC) family of enzymes has been implicated in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the distribution of specific PKC isoforms with varying functions in normal and malignant human tissues remains to be determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of certain PKC isoforms (?, ?I, ?II, ?) in human breast cancer specimens relative to adjacent uninvolved tissue (n = 24) and in the normal breast tissue obtained from patients undergoing reduction mammoplasty (n = 12). Main methods Western blot analysis using PKC isoform specific antibodies was performed on tissue extracts from breast tumors, adjacent uninvolved tissues, and reduction mammoplasty tissues. Key findings Mean levels of cytosolic and membrane PKC-?, PKC-?I, and PKC-?II were significantly higher in the cancer specimens than in the adjacent uninvolved breast tissues (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test; P<0.05 for each, after adjustment for multiple comparisons). There was a notably higher mean level of membrane PKC-?II isozyme in Her-2 positive and in poorly differentiated tumors. No significant differences were observed when normal tissue adjacent to tumor was compared to breast tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty specimens. Significance Higher level of PKC-?, PKC-?I, and PKC-?II in cancer specimens and higher level of PKC-?II in Her-2 positive tumors require further exploration of the intracellular pathways involving PKC-? and -? isoforms in breast cancer because both could be specific targets for the development of new therapies and for the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:19324060

Ali, Shadan; Al-Sukhun, Sana; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Heilbrun, Lance K.; Philip, Philip A.

2013-01-01

273

Involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its receptor CD74 appear to be involved in tumorigenesis. We evaluated, by immunohistochemical staining, the tissue expression and distribution of MIF and CD74 in serial sections of human invasive breast cancer tumor specimens. The serum MIF level was also determined in breast cancer patients. We showed a significant increase in serum MIF average levels in breast cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. MIF tissue expression, quantified by a modified Allred score, was strongly increased in carcinoma compared to tumor-free specimens, in the cancer cells and in the peritumoral stroma, with fibroblasts the most intensely stained. We did not find any significant correlation with histoprognostic factors, except for a significant inverse correlation between tumor size and MIF stromal positivity. CD74 staining was heterogeneous and significantly decreased in cancer cells but increased in the surrounding stroma, namely in lymphocytes, macrophages and vessel endothelium. There was no significant variation according to classical histoprognostic factors, except that CD74 stromal expression was significantly correlated with triple-negative receptor (TRN) status and the absence of estrogen receptors. In conclusion, our data support the concept of a functional role of MIF in human breast cancer. In addition to auto- and paracrine effects on cancer cells, MIF could contribute to shape the tumor microenvironment leading to immunomodulation and angiogenesis. Interfering with MIF effects in breast tumors in a therapeutic perspective remains an attractive but complex challenge. Level of co-expression of MIF and CD74 could be a surrogate marker for efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs, particularly in TRN breast cancer tumor. PMID:24939415

RICHARD, VINCENT; KINDT, NADČGE; DECAESTECKER, CHRISTINE; GABIUS, HANS-JOACHIM; LAURENT, GUY; NOËL, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE; SAUSSEZ, SVEN

2014-01-01

274

Carbon nanotube electron field emitters for x-ray imaging of human breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For imaging human breast cancer, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve image quality and breast cancer detection in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) mammography. Current DBT systems have limited spatial resolution and lengthy scan times. Stationary DBT (s-DBT), utilizing an array of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission x-ray sources, provides increased spatial resolution and potentially faster imaging than current DBT systems. This study presents the results of detailed evaluations of CNT cathodes for x-ray breast imaging tasks. The following were investigated: high current, long-term stability of CNT cathodes for DBT; feasibility of using CNT cathodes to perform a 2D radiograph function; and cathode performance through several years of imaging. Results show that a breast tomosynthesis system using CNT cathodes could run far beyond the experimentally tested lifetime of one to two years. CNT cathodes were found capable of producing higher currents than typical DBT would require, indicating that the s-DBT imaging time can be further reduced. The feasibility of using a single cathode of the s-DBT tube to perform 2D mammography in 4 s was demonstrated. Over the lifetime of the prototype s-DBT system, it was found that both cathode performance and transmission rate were stable and consistent.

Gidcumb, Emily; Gao, Bo; Shan, Jing; Inscoe, Christy; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

2014-06-01

275

Metabolomics of human breast cancer: new approaches for tumor typing and biomarker discovery  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new technologies for better understanding of the molecular changes involved in breast cancer progression is essential. Metabolic changes precede overt phenotypic changes, because cellular regulation ultimately affects the use of small-molecule substrates for cell division, growth or environmental changes such as hypoxia. Differences in metabolism between normal cells and cancer cells have been identified. Because small alterations in enzyme concentrations or activities can cause large changes in overall metabolite levels, the metabolome can be regarded as the amplified output of a biological system. The metabolome coverage in human breast cancer tissues can be maximized by combining different technologies for metabolic profiling. Researchers are investigating alterations in the steady state concentrations of metabolites that reflect amplified changes in genetic control of metabolism. Metabolomic results can be used to classify breast cancer on the basis of tumor biology, to identify new prognostic and predictive markers and to discover new targets for future therapeutic interventions. Here, we examine recent results, including those from the European FP7 project METAcancer consortium, that show that integrated metabolomic analyses can provide information on the stage, subtype and grade of breast tumors and give mechanistic insights. We predict an intensified use of metabolomic screens in clinical and preclinical studies focusing on the onset and progression of tumor development. PMID:22546809

2012-01-01

276

Effect of human, bovine and ovine prolactin on DNA synthesis by organ cultures of benign human breast tumours.  

PubMed Central

Ten benign breast tumours from 9 female patients (8 with fibrocystic disease and 1 with fibroadenoma) and 1 male patient (with gynaecomastia) were processed into slices and individually cultured for 2 days in serum-free Medium 199. [3H]-TdR was added to the culture medium to assess DNA synthesis. The addition of human prolactin to the culture medium (500 ng/ml) significantly (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.01) increased DNA synthesis; all 9 biopsy specimens from the 9 female patients responded positively to this hormone. Ovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) and bovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) increased the mean incorporation of [3H]-TdR into extracted DNA and increased the mean number of [3H]-TdR-labelled cells, but this increase did not reach the 5% level of probability. The sole case of male breast dysplasia analysed in this study did not respond to either human, ovine or bovine prolactin. These results provide evidence that human prolactin and, to a lesser degree, ovine and bovine prolactin are direct mitogenic stimulants to the epithelium in human (female) benign breast tumours. PMID:575047

Welsch, C. W.; Dombroske, S. E.; McManus, M. J.; Calaf, G.

1979-01-01

277

Gene expression profiling of histologically normal breast tissue in females with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2?positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Gene expression profile?based taxonomy of breast cancer (BC) has been described as a significant breakthrough in comprehending the differences in the origin and behavior of cancer to allow individually tailored therapeutic approaches. In line with this, we hypothesized that the gene expression profile of histologically normal epithelium (HNEpi) could harbor certain genetic abnormalities predisposing breast tissue cells to develop human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)?positive BC. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess gene expression in normal and BC tissue (BCTis) from patients with BC in order to establish its value as a potential diagnostic marker for cancer development. An array study evaluating a panel of 84 pathway? and disease?specific genes in HER2?positive BC and tumor?adjacent HNEpi was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 12 patients using microdissected samples from frozen tissue. Common prognostic and predictive parameters of BC were assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the BCTis and HNEpi samples of 12 HER2?positive subjects with BC, the expression of 2,016 genes was assessed. A total of 39.3% of genes were deregulated at a minimal two?fold deregulation rate and 10.7% at a five?fold deregulation rate in samples of HNEpi or BCTis. Significant differences in gene expression between BCTis and HNEpi samples were revealed for BCL2L2, CD44, CTSD, EGFR, ERBB2, ITGA6, NGFB, RPL27, SCBG2A1 and SCGB1D2 genes (P<0.05), as well as GSN, KIT, KLK5, SERPINB5 and STC2 genes (P<0.01). Insignificant differences (P<0.07) were observed for CCNA1, CLU, DLC1, GABRP and IL6 genes. The ontological gene analyses revealed that the majority of the deregulated genes in the HNEpi samples were part of the functional gene group directly associated with BC origin and prognosis. Functional analysis showed that the most frequent gene deregulations occurred in genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle regulation in BCTis samples, and with angiogenesis, regulation of the cell cycle and transcriptional activity in HNEpi samples. The molecular profiling of HNEpi breast tissue revealed gene expression abnormalities that may represent potential markers of increased risk for HER2?positive malignant transformation of breast tissue, and may be able to be employed as predictors of prognosis. PMID:25373323

Zubor, Pavol; Hatok, Jozef; Moricova, Petra; Kapustova, Ivana; Kajo, Karol; Mendelova, Andrea; Sivonova, Monika Kmetova; Danko, Jan

2015-02-01

278

Inhibitory effect of Erythronium japonicum on the human breast cancer cell metastasis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In this study, the inhibitory effect of Erythronium japonicum extracts on the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line was determined. MATERIALS/METHODS Cells were cultured with DMSO or with 50, 75, 100 or 250 µg/ml of Erythronium japonicum methanol or ethanol extract. RESULTS Both methanol and ethanol extracts significantly inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Erythronium japonicum extracts inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells. The invasion of breast cancer cells was suppressed by Erythronium japonicum extracts in a dose-dependent manner. The motility and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also inhibited by both methanol and ethanol extracts. CONCLUSIONS Our results collectively indicate that Erythronium japonicum extracts inhibit the growth, adhesion, migration and invasion as well as induce the apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. Clinical application of Erythronium japonicum as a potent chemopreventive agent may be helpful in limiting breast cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:25671063

You, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Sook; Rhyu, Jin; Bang, Mi-Ae

2015-01-01

279

Anti-angiogenic activity in metastasis of human breast cancer cells irradiated by a proton beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angiogenesis is an essential process of metastasis in human breast cancer. We investigated the effects of proton beam irradiation on angiogenic enzyme activities and their expressions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The regulation of angiogenic regulating factors, of transforming growth factor- ? (TGF- ?) and of vesicular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast cancer cells irradiated with a proton beam was studied. Aromatase activity and mRNA expression, which is correlated with metastasis, were significantly decreased by irradiation with a proton beam in a dose-dependent manner. TGF- ? and VEGF transcriptions were also diminished by proton beam irradiation. In contrast, transcription of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), also known as biological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), was dose-dependently enhanced. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of TIMPs caused th MMP-9 activity to be diminished and the MMP-9 and the MMP-2 expressions to be decreased. These results suggest that inhibition of angiogenesis by proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells is closely related to inhibitions of aromatase activity and transcription and to down-regulation of TGF- ? and VEGF transcription.

Lee, Kyu-Shik; Shin, Jin-Sun; Nam, Kyung-Soo; Shon, Yun-Hee

2012-07-01

280

The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion  

SciTech Connect

The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, Ren& #233; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

2001-05-12

281

E-cadherin is a tumour/invasion suppressor gene mutated in human lobular breast cancers.  

PubMed Central

Compelling experimental evidence exists for a potent invasion suppressor role of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. In addition, a tumour suppressor effect has been suggested for E-cadherin. In human cancers, partial or complete loss of E-cadherin expression correlates with malignancy. To investigate the molecular basis for this altered expression we developed a comprehensive PCR/SSCP mutation screen for the human E-cadherin gene. For 49 breast cancer patients the occurrence of tumour-specific mutations in the E-cadherin gene was examined. No relevant DNA changes were encountered in any of 42 infiltrative ductal or medullary breast carcinoma samples. In contrast, four out of seven infiltrative lobular breast carcinomas harboured protein truncation mutations (three nonsense and one frameshift) in the extracellular part of the E-cadherin protein. Each of the four lobular carcinomas with E-cadherin mutations showed tumour-specific loss of heterozygosity of chromosomal region 16q22.1 containing the E-cadherin locus. In compliance with this, no E-cadherin expression was detectable by immunohistochemistry in these four tumours. These findings offer a molecular explanation for the typical scattered tumour cell growth in infiltrative lobular breast cancer. Images PMID:8557030

Berx, G; Cleton-Jansen, A M; Nollet, F; de Leeuw, W J; van de Vijver, M; Cornelisse, C; van Roy, F

1995-01-01

282

RCP is a human breast cancer–promoting gene with Ras-activating function  

PubMed Central

Aggressive forms of cancer are often defined by recurrent chromosomal alterations, yet in most cases, the causal or contributing genetic components remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized microarray informatics to identify candidate oncogenes potentially contributing to aggressive breast cancer behavior. We identified the Rab-coupling protein RCP (also known as RAB11FIP1), which is located at a chromosomal region frequently amplified in breast cancer (8p11–12) as a potential candidate. Overexpression of RCP in MCF10A normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in acquisition of tumorigenic properties such as loss of contact inhibition, growth-factor independence, and anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, knockdown of RCP in human breast cancer cell lines inhibited colony formation, invasion, and migration in vitro and markedly reduced tumor formation and metastasis in mouse xenograft models. Overexpression of RCP enhanced ERK phosphorylation and increased Ras activation in vitro. As these results indicate that RCP is a multifunctional gene frequently amplified in breast cancer that encodes a protein with Ras-activating function, we suggest it has potential importance as a therapeutic target. Furthermore, these studies provide new insight into the emerging role of the Rab family of small G proteins and their interacting partners in carcinogenesis. PMID:19620787

Zhang, Jinqiu; Liu, Xuejing; Datta, Arpita; Govindarajan, Kunde; Tam, Wai Leong; Han, Jianyong; George, Joshy; Wong, Christopher; Ramnarayanan, Kalpana; Phua, Tze Yoong; Leong, Wan Yee; Chan, Yang Sun; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Liu, Edison Tak-Bun; Karuturi, Krishna Murthy; Lim, Bing; Miller, Lance David

2009-01-01

283

Progesterone receptor-B enhances estrogen responsiveness of breast cancer cells via scaffolding PELP1- and estrogen receptor-containing transcription complexes.  

PubMed

Progesterone and estrogen are important drivers of breast cancer proliferation. Herein, we probed estrogen receptor-? (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) cross-talk in breast cancer models. Stable expression of PR-B in PR-low/ER+ MCF7 cells increased cellular sensitivity to estradiol and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), as measured in growth assays performed in the absence of exogenous progestin; similar results were obtained in PR-null/ER+ T47D cells stably expressing PR-B. Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that unliganded PR-B induced robust expression of a subset of estradiol-responsive ER target genes, including cathepsin-D (CTSD). Estradiol-treated MCF7 cells stably expressing PR-B exhibited enhanced ER Ser167 phosphorylation and recruitment of ER, PR and the proline-, glutamate- and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) to an estrogen response element in the CTSD distal promoter; this complex co-immunoprecipitated with IGF1 receptor (IGFR1) in whole-cell lysates. Importantly, ER/PR/PELP1 complexes were also detected in human breast cancer samples. Inhibition of IGF1R or phosphoinositide 3-kinase blocked PR-B-dependent CTSD mRNA upregulation in response to estradiol. Similarly, inhibition of IGF1R or PR significantly reduced ER recruitment to the CTSD promoter. Stable knockdown of endogenous PR or onapristone treatment of multiple unmodified breast cancer cell lines blocked estradiol-mediated CTSD induction, inhibited growth in soft agar and partially restored tamoxifen sensitivity of resistant cells. Further, combination treatment of breast cancer cells with both onapristone and IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 was more effective than either agent alone. In summary, unliganded PR-B enhanced proliferative responses to estradiol and IGF1 via scaffolding of ER-?/PELP1/IGF1R-containing complexes. Our data provide a strong rationale for targeting PR in combination with ER and IGF1R in patients with luminal breast cancer. PMID:24469035

Daniel, A R; Gaviglio, A L; Knutson, T P; Ostrander, J H; D'Assoro, A B; Ravindranathan, P; Peng, Y; Raj, G V; Yee, D; Lange, C A

2015-01-22

284

Programmed Cell Death in an Estrogen-independent Human Breast Cancer Cell Line, MDA-MB-4681  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells can be induced to undergo an energy-dependent, genetically programmed series of biochemical changes that result in the active suicide of the cells following estrogen ablation. In contrast, estro gen-independent human breast cancer cells do not activate this pro grammed cell death pathway following estrogen ablation. This could be due either

Deborah K. Armstrong; John T. Isaacs; Yvonne L. Ottaviano; Nancy E. Davidson

1992-01-01

285

Suppression of growth of highly-metastatic human breast cancer cells by norcantharidin and its mechanisms of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of norcantharidin (NCTD) on the growth of highly-metastatic human breast cancer cells were investigated by in\\u000a vitro and ex vivo assays. Our results indicated that norcantharidin inhibited the in vitro growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231\\u000a cell line in dose- and time-dependent manners after the cancer cells were treated with norcantharidin at the concentrations\\u000a of 6, 30 and

Yan Huang; Qian Liu; Kun Liu; Kazumi Yagasaki; Guoying Zhang

2009-01-01

286

Nondestructive testing of the human breast: the validity of dynamic stress testing in medical infrared breast imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of the autonomic cold challenge for use in screening breast thermography is reviewed. A review of the literature is discussed along with reasoning for the choice of the cold stress method used. Breast thermogram results from 23 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancers are presented demonstrating positive and negative responses to the challenge. Cold challenge responses from 500

William C. Amalu

2004-01-01

287

Induction of human breast cell carcinogenesis by triclocarban and intervention by curcumin  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Triclocarban exposure induces breast epithelial cell carcinogenesis. •Triclocarban induces the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, and DNA damage. •Physiological doses of triclocarban induce cellular carcinogenesis. •Non-cytotoxic curcumin blocks triclocarban-induced carcinogenesis and pathways. -- Abstract: More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens and co-carcinogens. To identify co-carcinogens with abilities to induce cellular pre-malignancy, we studied the activity of triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial agent commonly used in household and personal care products. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that chronic exposure to TCC at physiologically-achievable nanomolar concentrations resulted in progressive carcinogenesis of human breast cells from non-cancerous to pre-malignant. Pre-malignant carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly-acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth and increased cell proliferation, without acquisition of cellular tumorigenicity. Long-term TCC exposure also induced constitutive activation of the Erk–Nox pathway and increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. A single TCC exposure induced transient induction of the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, increased cell proliferation, and DNA damage in not only non-cancerous breast cells but also breast cancer cells. Using these constitutively- and transiently-induced changes as endpoints, we revealed that non-cytotoxic curcumin was effective in intervention of TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy. Our results lead us to suggest that the co-carcinogenic potential of TCC should be seriously considered in epidemiological studies to reveal the significance of TCC in the development of sporadic breast cancer. Using TCC-induced transient and constitutive endpoints as targets will likely help identify non-cytotoxic preventive agents, such as curcumin, effective in suppressing TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy.

Sood, Shilpa; Choudhary, Shambhunath; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert, E-mail: hcrwang@utk.edu

2013-09-06

288

Humoral immunity to human breast cancer: antigen definition and quantitative analysis of mRNA expression.  

PubMed

The ability of the immune system to recognize structurally altered, amplified or aberrantly expressed proteins can be used to identify molecules of etiologic relevance to cancer and to define targets for cancer immunotherapy. In the current study, ninety-four distinct antigens reactive with serum IgG from breast cancer patients were identified by immunoscreening breast cancer-derived cDNA expression libraries (SEREX). A serological profile was generated for each antigen on the basis of reactivity with allogeneic sera from normal individuals and cancer patients, and mRNA expression profiles for coding sequences were assembled based upon the tissue distribution of expressed sequence tags, Northern blots and real-time RT-PCR. Forty antigens reacted exclusively with sera from cancer patients. These included well-characterized tumor antigens, e.g. MAGE-3, MAGE-6, NY-ESO-1, Her2neu and p53, as well as newly-defined breast cancer antigens, e.g. kinesin 2, TATA element modulatory factor 1, tumor protein D52 and MAGE D, and novel gene products, e.g. NY-BR-62, NY-BR-75, NY-BR-85, and NY-BR-96. With regard to expression profiles, two of the novel gene products, NY-BR-62 and NY-BR-85, were characterized by a high level of testicular mRNA expression, and were overexpressed in 60% and 90% of breast cancers, respectively. In addition, mRNA encoding tumor protein D52 was overexpressed in 60% of breast cancer specimens, while transcripts encoding SNT-1 signal adaptor protein were downregulated in 70% of these cases. This study adds to the growing list of breast cancer antigens defined by SEREX and to the ultimate objective of identifying the complete repertoire of immunogenic gene products in human cancer (the cancer immunome). PMID:12747765

Scanlan, M J; Gout, I; Gordon, C M; Williamson, B; Stockert, E; Gure, A O; Jäger, D; Chen, Y T; Mackay, A; O'Hare, M J; Old, L J

2001-03-30

289

Expression of melatonin receptor MT1 in cells of human invasive ductal breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

In humans, two main types of membrane melatonin receptors have been identified, MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 in neoplastic cells seems to increase the efficacy of melatonin's oncostatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and the intensity of MT1 expression in breast cancer cells and to correlate it with clinicopathological factors. Immunohistochemical studies (IHC) were conducted on 190 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDC) and molecular studies were performed on 29 cases of frozen tumor fragments and selected breast cancer cell lines. Most of the studied tumors manifested a membranous/cytoplasmic IHC expression of MT1. In IDC, the MT1 expression was higher than in fibrocystic breast disease. MT1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) tumors. Triple negative tumors (TN) manifested the lowest MT1 expression level. The lowest MT1 protein expression level was noted in the TN breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 compared with ER+ cell lines MCF-7 and SK-BR-3. MT1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the malignancy grade of the studied IDC cases. Moreover, higher MT1 expression was associated with patients' longer overall survival (OS) in the group of ER+ breast cancers and treated with tamoxifen. Multivariate analysis indicated that MT1 was an independent prognostic factor in the ER+ tumors for OS and event-free survival in the ER+ tumors. The results of this study may point to a potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of MT1 in IDC. PMID:23330677

Jablonska, Karolina; Pula, Bartosz; Zemla, Agata; Owczarek, Tomasz; Wojnar, Andrzej; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

2013-04-01

290

Comparative Evaluation of Trace Metal Distribution and Correlation in Human Malignant and Benign Breast Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected trace metals were analyzed in human malignant and nonmalignant (benign) breast tissue samples by the flame atomic\\u000a absorption spectrophotometric method. In malignant tissues, dominant mean concentrations were revealed by Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe,\\u000a Zn, and Al at 927, 552, 231, 61.7, 36.5, 18.3, and 8.94 ?g\\/g, respectively, while the mean metal levels in benign tissues\\u000a were 903, 435, 183,

Qaisara Pasha; Salman A. Malik; Javed Iqbal; Nazia Shaheen; Munir H. Shah

2008-01-01

291

Expression of oestrogen receptor beta (ER?1) protein in human breast cancer biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oestrogen action is mediated via specific receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. A monoclonal antibody specific to the C-terminus of human oestrogen receptor beta has been characterized and the prevalence of expression of oestrogen receptor beta protein investigated in a well defined set of breast cancers. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of RNA from tissue biopsies detected oestrogen receptor

P T K Saunders; M R Millar; K Williams; S Macpherson; C Bayne; C O'Sullivan; T J Anderson; N P Groome; W R Miller

2002-01-01

292

Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Human Breast Milk from Mothers Living in Penang and Kedah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins\\/dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB),

Agus Sudaryanto; Tatsuya Kunisue; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mami Niida; Hatijah Hashim

2005-01-01

293

Isolation and Characterization of a Spontaneously Immortalized Human Breast Epithelial Cell Line, MCF101  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sublines of a breast epithelial cell culture, MCF-10, derived from human fibrocystic mammary tissue exhibit immortality after extended cultivation in low calcium concentrations (0.03-0.06 HIM)and floating transfers in low calcium (MCF-10F), or by trypsin-Versene passages in the customary (normal) calcium levels, 1.05 HIM(MCF-10A). Both sublines have been maintained as separate entities after 2.3 years (849 days) in vitro and

Herbert D. Soule; Terry M. Maloney; Sandra R. Wolman; Ward D. Peterson; Richard Brenz; Charles M. McGrath; Jose Russo; Robert J. Pauley; Richard F. Jones; S. C. Brooks

1990-01-01

294

PIK3CA mutations and EGFR overexpression predict for lithium sensitivity in human breast epithelial cells.  

PubMed

A high frequency of somatic mutations has been found in breast cancers within the gene encoding the catalytic p110? subunit of PI3K, PIK3CA. Using isogenic human breast epithelial cells, we have previously demonstrated that oncogenic PIK3CA "hotspot" mutations predict for response to the toxic effects of lithium. However, other somatic genetic alterations occur within this pathway in breast cancers, and it is possible that these changes may also predict for lithium sensitivity. We overexpressed the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) into the non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, and compared these cells to isogenic cell lines previously created via somatic cell gene targeting to model Pten loss, PIK3CA mutations, and the invariant AKT1 mutation, E17K. EGFR overexpressing clones were capable of cellular proliferation in the absence of EGF and were sensitive to lithium similar to the results previously seen with cells harboring PIK3CA mutations. In contrast, AKT1 E17K cells and PTEN -/- cells displayed resistance or partial sensitivity to lithium, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that lithium sensitivity correlated with significant decreases in both PI3K and MAPK signaling that were observed only in EGFR overexpressing and mutant PIK3CA cell lines. These studies demonstrate that EGFR overexpression and PIK3CA mutations are predictors of response to lithium, whereas Pten loss and AKT1 E17K mutations do not predict for lithium sensitivity. Our findings may have important implications for the use of these genetic lesions in breast cancer patients as predictive markers of response to emerging PI3K pathway inhibitors. PMID:21124076

Higgins, Michaela J; Beaver, Julia A; Wong, Hong Yuen; Gustin, John P; Lauring, Josh D; Garay, Joseph P; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mohseni, Morassa; Wang, Grace M; Cidado, Justin; Jelovac, Danijela; Cosgrove, David P; Tamaki, Akina; Abukhdeir, Abde M; Park, Ben Ho

2011-02-01

295

PIK3CA mutations and EGFR overexpression predict for lithium sensitivity in human breast epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

A high frequency of somatic mutations has been found in breast cancers within the gene encoding the catalytic p110? subunit of PI3K, PIK3CA. Using isogenic human breast epithelial cells, we have previously demonstrated that oncogenic PIK3CA “hotspot” mutations predict for response to the toxic effects of lithium. However, other somatic genetic alterations occur within this pathway in breast cancers, and it is possible that these changes may also predict for lithium sensitivity. We overexpressed the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) into the non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, and compared these cells to isogenic cell lines previously created via somatic cell gene targeting to model Pten loss, PIK3CA mutations, and the invariant AKT1 mutation, E17K. EGFR overexpressing clones were capable of cellular proliferation in the absence of EGF and were sensitive to lithium similar to the results previously seen with cells harboring PIK3CA mutations. In contrast, AKT1 E17K cells and PTEN?/? cells displayed resistance or partial sensitivity to lithium, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that lithium sensitivity correlated with significant decreases in both PI3K and MAPK signaling that were observed only in EGFR overexpressing and mutant PIK3CA cell lines. These studies demonstrate that EGFR overexpression and PIK3CA mutations are predictors of response to lithium, whereas Pten loss and AKT1 E17K mutations do not predict for lithium sensitivity. Our findings may have important implications for the use of these genetic lesions in breast cancer patients as predictive markers of response to emerging PI3K pathway inhibitors. PMID:21124076

Higgins, Michaela J; Beaver, Julia A; Wong, Hong yuen; Gustin, John P; Lauring, Josh D; Garay, Joseph P; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mohseni, Morassa; Wang, Grace M; Cidado, Justin; Jelovac, Danijela; Cosgrove, David P; Tamaki, Akina; Park, Ben Ho

2011-01-01

296

Levels of coplanar PCBs in human breast milk at different times of lactation  

SciTech Connect

PCBs are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners which exhibit wide differences in their toxic and biological effects. The coplanar PCB (non-, mono- and di-ortho Chlorine substituted) congeners, the most toxic ones, induce similar toxic effects as 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Thus for risk assessment of exposure to PCBs, the analysis of these coplanar congeners is required. The PCB levels in human breast milk are of specific concern because of the potential health damage which may be caused to the nursing baby. The PCB levels in this sample come from previously accumulated quantities in body fat whose principal source is food, and pass directly to the nursing baby who accumulates the PCBs in adipose tissue. The amount of total PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCC) in human milk at different time intervals after birth was reported earlier, but data concerning individual and coplanar PCBs are sparse in the literature. The results from some studies showed a gradual decrease of residual levels in milk and milk fat. However, other research has shown differences in this respect. We present our first result concerning the concentration of 14 individual PCBs (13 coplanars) in breast milk from the same mother, during weeks 8 to 12 of lactation. We related the different concentration variations observed among the individual PCBs to their molecular structure and % fat in human breast milk. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Hernandez, L.M. [Institute of Organic Chemistry (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

1995-03-01

297

Infrared Spectra of Human Breast Tumor Tissue and Experimental Animal Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy methods to conduct comparative studies of human breast tumors and sarcoma 180 tumor grafted into mice. The IR spectral parameters used to identify tumor tissue in mice with the sarcoma 180 strain proved to be identical to the parameters for human breast tissue in cancer. In the presence of a malignant tumor in humans, the most intense C=O vibrational bands in the protein molecules are observed in the interval 1710-1680 cm-1. For a benign tumor, in the IR spectra of breast tissue the intense bands are located in the interval 1670-1650 cm-1. We spectroscopically monitored the diagnosis and the chemotherapy process using the model of sarcoma 180 in mice. As the therapeutic drugs, we used synthesized coordination compounds based on palladium complexes with diphosphonic acid derivatives. We demonstrate the promising potential of palladium complexes with zoledronic acid as an effective cytostatic. In therapy using a palladium complex with zoledronic acid, the effect of tumor growth inhibition is accompanied by a change in its spectral characteristics. The parameters of the IR spectra for tumor tissue after treatment are close to those of the IR spectra for healthy tissue.

Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Belkov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, H. V.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.; Butra, V. A.

2015-01-01

298

Inhibitory Effects of PC-SPESII Herbal Extract on Human Breast Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Cancer metastasis is refractory to most forms of chemotherapy. Conventional and alternative drugs, such as Chinese herbal remedies, have been developed to target metastatic cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of PC-SPESII, an herbal formulation, on the migration, invasion, and metastasis of an experimental human breast cancer cell line in vivo and in vitro. PC-SPESII suppressed pulmonary metastasis and tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts without affecting body weight, liver function, and kidney function. PC-SPESII also inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Based on ELISA analysis, secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9, proteins associated with extracellular matrix degradation, was reduced in response to PC-SPESII treatment. Western blot analysis of whole-cell extracts revealed that the levels of proteolytic proteins associated with matrix and base membrane degradation (MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA) were decreased and the levels of their endogenous inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) were increased. Moreover, the p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK signaling pathway, which stimulates proteolytic enzymes and matrix degradation, was inhibited by PC-PSESII. Remarkably, cotreatment with PC-PSESII and p38MAPK or SAPK/JNK inhibitors magnified the antimetastatic phenotype. Our results indicate that PC-PSESII impairs human breast cancer metastasis by regulating proteolytic enzymes and matrix dynamics through the p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK pathway. PMID:23878609

Wang, Xiu-Feng; Du, Jia; Zhang, Tian-Ling; Zhou, Qian-Mei; Lu, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Hui; Su, Shi-Bing

2013-01-01

299

Shikonin blocks migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation.  

PubMed

Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been reported to promote tumor cell death. However, there are few reports concerning its effect on metastasis-related cell invasion and migration behavior. In the present study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on human breast cancer invasion and migration. We found that shikonin inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced cell migration and invasion in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which was correlated with modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) through suppression of both expression and proteolytic and promoter activity. We also found that shikonin inhibited both MMP-9 expression and promoter activity in MDA-MB?231 cells with high metastatic potential. These results indicated that shikonin induces the suppression of migration and invasion through modulation of MMP-9 in human breast cancer cells. Therefore, shikonin may be a potential anticancer drug for human breast cancer therapy. PMID:24789371

Jang, Soon Young; Lee, Jae Koan; Jang, Eun Hyang; Jeong, Seo Young; Kim, Jong-Ho

2014-06-01

300

Hypoxic Conditions Induce a Cancer-Like Phenotype in Human Breast Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Solid tumors are less oxygenated than their tissue of origin. Low intra-tumor oxygen levels are associated with worse outcome, increased metastatic potential and immature phenotype in breast cancer. We have reported that tumor hypoxia correlates to low differentiation status in breast cancer. Less is known about effects of hypoxia on non-malignant cells. Here we address whether hypoxia influences the differentiation stage of non-malignant breast epithelial cells and potentially have bearing on early stages of tumorigenesis. Methods Normal human primary breast epithelial cells and immortalized non-malignant mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells were grown in a three-dimensional overlay culture on laminin-rich extracellular matrix for up to 21 days at normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Acinar morphogenesis and expression of markers of epithelial differentiation and cell polarization were analyzed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, qPCR and immunoblot. Results In large ductal carcinoma in situ patient-specimens, we find that epithelial cells with high HIF-1? levels and multiple cell layers away from the vasculature are immature compared to well-oxygenated cells. We show that hypoxic conditions impaired acinar morphogenesis of primary and immortalized breast epithelial cells grown ex vivo on laminin-rich matrix. Normoxic cultures formed polarized acini-like spheres with the anticipated distribution of marker proteins associated with mammary epithelial polarization e.g. ?6-integrin, laminin 5 and Human Milk Fat Globule/MUC1. At hypoxia, cells were not polarized and the sub-cellular distribution pattern of the marker proteins rather resembled that reported in vivo in breast cancer. The hypoxic cells remained in a mitotic state, whereas proliferation ceased with acinar morphogenesis at normoxia. We found induced expression of the differentiation repressor ID1 in the undifferentiated hypoxic MCF-10A cell structures. Acinar morphogenesis was associated with global histone deacetylation whereas the hypoxic breast epithelial cells showed sustained global histone acetylation, which is generally associated with active transcription and an undifferentiated proliferative state. PMID:23029547

Vaapil, Marica; Helczynska, Karolina; Villadsen, René; Petersen, Ole W.; Johansson, Elisabet; Beckman, Siv; Larsson, Christer; Pĺhlman, Sven; Jögi, Annika

2012-01-01

301

Effects of hyaluronan on the invasive properties of human breast cancer cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronan (HA) is a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan present mostly in the extracellular matrix (ECM). HA binds to specific receptors such as CD44. Its production is increased at the tumour–stroma interface, including those in breast cancer tumours. It has been suggested that it facilitates invasion of tumour cells into the ECM by a hydrodynamic effect, or by altering tumour cell behaviour. Using in vitro tests we studied the effect of immobilized (iHA) and soluble (sHA) HA on the invasive properties of four human breast cancer cell lines with different levels of CD44 expression. Our results show that iHA acts as an adhesive, haptotactic, and motility stimulating factor for the CD44 positive Hs578T cells and induces the expression of membrane CD44. sHA also changes the motility properties of the Hs578T and MDA-231 cells and increases their CD44 expression. sHA or iHA have no measurable effect on the adhesion, motility or CD44 expression of the ZR-75–1 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our results establish that in high CD44 expressing breast cancer cells HA modulates tumour cell adhesion and motility and also increases the expression of its own receptor, CD44. PMID:11488992

Herrera-Gayol, Andrea; Jothy, Serge

2001-01-01

302

A second generation of physical anthropomorphic 3D breast phantoms based on human subject data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous fabrication of anthropomorphic breast phantoms has demonstrated their viability as a model for 2D (mammography) and 3D (tomosynthesis) breast imaging systems. Further development of these models will be essential for the evaluation of breast x-ray systems. There is also the potential to use them as the ground truth in virtual clinical trials. The first generation of phantoms was segmented from human subject dedicated breast computed tomography data and fabricated into physical models using highresolution 3D printing. Two variations were made. The first was a multi-material model (doublet) printed with two photopolymers to represent glandular and adipose tissues with the greatest physical contrast available, mimicking 75% and 35% glandular tissue. The second model was printed with a single 75% glandular equivalent photopolymer (singlet) to represent glandular tissue, which can be filled independently with an adipose-equivalent material such as oil. For this study, we have focused on improving the latter, the singlet phantom. First, the temporary oil filler has been replaced with a permanent adipose-equivalent urethane-based polymer. This offers more realistic contrast as compared to the multi-material approach at the expense of air bubbles and pockets that form during the filling process. Second, microcalcification clusters have been included in the singlet model via crushed eggshells, which have very similar chemical composition to calcifications in vivo. The results from these new prototypes demonstrate significant improvement over the first generation of anthropomorphic physical phantoms.

Nolte, Adam; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. P.; Lo, Joseph Y.

2014-03-01

303

Metastatic consequences of immune escape from NK cell cytotoxicity by human breast cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

Breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSC) are crucial for metastasis but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that tumor-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells failed to limit metastasis and were not associated with improved therapeutic outcome of BCSC-rich breast cancer. Primary BCSCs were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by autologous/allogeneic NK cells due to reduced expression of MICA and MICB, two ligands for the stimulatory NK cell receptor NKG2D. Furthermore, the downregulation of MICA/MICB in BCSCs was mediated by aberrantly expressed oncogenic miR20a, which promoted the resistance of BCSC to NK cell cytotoxicity and resultant lung metastasis. The breast cancer cell differentiation-inducing agent, all-trans retinoic acid, restored the miR20a-MICA/MICB axis and sensitized BCSC to NK cell-mediated killing, thereby reducing immune escape-associated BCSC metastasis. Together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for immune escape of human BCSC and identify the miR20a-MICA/MICB signaling axis as a therapeutic target to limit metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25164008

Wang, Bin; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhe; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shi-Cang; Ping, Yi-Fang; Yang, Jing; Xu, Sen-Lin; Ye, Xian-Zong; Xu, Chuan; Yang, Lang; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Ji Ming; Cui, You-Hong; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiu-Wu

2014-10-15

304

MicroRNA Gene Expression Deregulation in Human Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Their aberrant expression may be involved in human diseases, including cancer. Indeed, miRNA aberrant expression has been previously found in human chronic lymphocytic leuke- mias, where miRNA signatures were associated with specific clinicobiological features. Here, we

Marilena V. Iorio; Manuela Ferracin; Chang-Gong Liu; Angelo Veronese; Riccardo Spizzo; Silvia Sabbioni; Massimo Pedriali; Muller Fabbri; Manuela Campiglio; Sylvie Menard; Juan P. Palazzo; Anne Rosenberg; Piero Musiani; Stefano Volinia; Italo Nenci; George A. Calin; Patrizia Querzoli; Massimo Negrini; Carlo M. Croce

2005-01-01

305

Profilin1 regulates invadopodium maturation in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Invadopodia are actin-driven membrane protrusions that show oscillatory assembly and disassembly causing matrix degradation to support invasion and dissemination of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Profilin1, an actin and phosphoinositide binding protein, is downregulated in several adenocarcinomas and it is been shown that its depletion enhances invasiveness and motility of breast cancer cells by increasing PI(3,4)P2 levels at the leading edge. In this study, we show for the first time that depletion of profilin1 leads to an increase in the number of mature invadopodia and these assemble and disassemble more rapidly than in control cells. Previous work by Sharma et al. (2013a), has shown that the binding of the protein Tks5 with PI(3,4)P2 confers stability to the invadopodium precursor causing it to mature into a degradation-competent structure. We found that loss of profilin1 expression increases the levels of PI(3,4)P2 at the invadopodium and as a result, enhances recruitment of the interacting adaptor Tks5. The increased PI(3,4)P2-Tks5 interaction accelerates the rate of invadopodium anchorage, maturation, and turnover. Our results indicate that profilin1 acts as a molecular regulator of the levels of PI(3,4)P2 and Tks5 recruitment in invadopodia to control the invasion efficiency of invadopodia. PMID:25613364

Valenzuela-Iglesias, A; Sharma, V P; Beaty, B T; Ding, Z; Gutierrez-Millan, L E; Roy, P; Condeelis, J S; Bravo-Cordero, J J

2015-02-01

306

Can rye intake decrease risk of human breast cancer?  

PubMed Central

Background Rye contains more fibre and bioactive compounds than other cereals used for bread production. The fibre and compounds of the fibre complex could provide protection against breast cancer (BC). Objective To review the evidence and theoretical background for a role of rye and some of its components in the prevention of BC. Design A short review based to a great extent on the work by scientists in the Nordic countries. Results Some of the possible mechanisms by which the fibre complex could reduce BC risk are presented. The fibre through its effect on fermentation increases esterification of bile acids reducing toxicity of the free bile acids and is involved in the production of butyrate with potential anticancer effects including BC. The fibre reduces the enterohepatic circulation of the oestrogens leading to lower plasma oestrogen concentrations. The fibre complex contains bioactive compounds such as lignans and alkylresorcinols that are antioxidative and potentially anticarcinogenic. In addition, vitamins, minerals, and phytic acid in rye may provide protection against BC. Conclusion Rye products made from wholegrain rye flour are likely to contribute to reduced BC risk. PMID:21311613

Adlercreutz, Herman

2010-01-01

307

Publicly available human breast cancer data were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI-GEO) microarray  

E-print Network

- 2 - Figures Publicly available human breast cancer data were obtained from the National Center data files. Twelve HG-U133 Plus 2.0 affymetrix raw breast cancer series datasets were downloaded from Breast Cancer Patients response profile over 3A-genes Zoom to see details!"#$% !"#%$ !"#&$ !"# !"#% !"## !"#$ !"#$$ !"#&% !"# !"#%$ !"#$ !"#&# !"#%# !"#%& !"#%% !"#%% !"#%' !"#%$ !"#%% !"#%' !"#%' !"#% !"#%& !"#%# !"#% !"#%'$ !"#%' !"#% !"#% !"# !"#% !"#%' !"#%' !"#' !"#%# !"#%$ !"#%& !"#% !"#%' !"#%'' !"#%'# !"# !"#$ !"#& !"#$ !"##% !"##$ !"# !"#& !"# !"#& !"#' !"$# !"$% !"$ !"$' !"#'$ !"$ !"$$ !"$& !"# !"# !"#'' !"# !"# !"#% !"#& !"#% !"#% !"#& !"### !"##& !"#$ !"# !"#% !"#$ !"## !"## !"## !"#%'% !"#% !"#%% !"## !"## !"#$' !"#$ !"# !"#' !"#' !"#%& !"#%' !"### !"#%# !"# !"#$ !"#$& !"#$ !"#'& !"#& !"#&% !"## !"## !"##% !"##% !"#% !"# !"#&' !"## !"#& !"# !"#' !"#' !"# !"# !"#& !"## !"#'% !"# !"# !"#' !"## !"#% !"#% !"# !"# !"#& !"#& !"#&' !"#' !"#% !"## !"#$ !"#$ !"#' !"# !"##& !"#% !"#$ !"## !"#' !"#'$ !"#'# !"# !"#' !"#'' !"# !"#& !"#%'& !"#&$ !"#& !"# !"#$ !"## !"#% !"## !"# !"#% !"#$ !"##' !"# !"## !"# !"#' !"#& !"#& !"#'% !"# !"#% !"##' !"#% !"#%' !"#$ !"#% !"#' !"#&& !"#$ !"#& !"#' !"#% !"# !"# !"'$& !"'#% !"'&%# !"'$% !"'$$ !"'&%$ !"$ !"'$# !"'% !"'$' !"'&% !"'&$# !"'#$ !"'&% !"'&$% !"'# !"'# !"'#& !"'## !"'# !"'#' !"'# !"'&%& !"'&$$ !"'&%% !"'# !"'# !"'&% !"'&% !"'&%' !"#$ !"' !"#& !" !"# !"&% !"$ !"# !"& !"$$ !" !"&# !" !"$ !"# !"& !"% !"$ !" !"& !" !" !"& !" !" !" !"$ !"$ !"# !"&& !"$% !"% !"## !"$' !"& !"#' !"# !"%& !"$ !"$ !"&' !" !"# !"$# !"&$ !" !"% !" !"%% !"' !"$'& !"' !"%' !"$$# !"& !"$# !" !"' !"'# !"# !" !"$$ !"$' !"$% !"# !" !"& !"$## !"$$ !"& !"# !"%$ !"$ !" !"# !"' !"' !" !"% !"$& !"%& !"$$% !"$ !"' !"' !" !"# !"$'% !"$%& !"'%%& !"$'%% !"$'$ !"# !"##%' !"# !"#' !"#'& !" !"'%%% !"$'$' !" !" !"$% !"'%# !"$ !"& !"& !"&% !"$& !"$' !"$& !" !"' !"% !"$'%$ !"'%&' !"$$ !"' !"'%$ !" !"'%&$ !"'&% !"#% !"#' !"# !"#$ !"#' !"# !"#% !"# !"# !"# !"## !"# !"# !"# !"#' !"# !"# !"#$ !"## !"#& !"# !"#& !"'%#% !"'%%$ !"$'# !"#& !"#&# !"#&& !"$& !" !"$$ !"%% !"$& !"$% !"$$' !"$' !"#%& !"$' !"$%' !"$ !"$ !"$'# !"$$ !"$# !"'&$$ !"'&$$ !"& !"'%$ !"'&$% !"'%$$ !"% !"# !"$'% !"'&$$& !"'%$& !"$'$ !"$' !"#%# !"#%& !"$ !"$$ !" !"#% !"$'$ !"$ !" !"'%$% !"$'$ !"#%#$ !"$&' !"#$# !"#%% !"% !"'%# !"$ !" !"'%$ !" !"$'$$ !" !"'%% !"'%%# !"$ !"'%% !"' !"% !"$' !"$''% !"#%&% !"$#' !"$% !"$' !"$## !"$#$ !"$& !"$ !"'&$% !"$%# !"$$% !" !"' !"#' !"#% !"$'% !"'% !"# !"# !"'% !" !"$'#% !"$'$% !"$'' !"'&% !"$ !"'% !" !"$ !"$%$ !"$ !"'&$$ !"' !"'%$' !"$#& !"'&$$$ !"$% !"'&$%# !"'&%' !"$'& !"$'% !" !"# !"$$ !"$& !"$ !"$& !"$' !"$% !"'%$ !"&' !"$' !"'&% !"$ !"$' !"$ !"$$ !"$# !"$'$ !"$' !"$# !"$# !" !"' !" !"$' !"$ !"% !"'%$ !" !"$' !"#% !"$'$ !"$' !"'&$%% !"$ !"$ !"$' !"$' !"#' !"$%$ !"$'' !"'%# !"'%%' !"$& !"$ !"# !"# !"$ !"'%# !"#%#% !"$% !"#%&& !"#%&' !"#%# !"#% !"#%' !"#% !"$'% !"'% !"' !"#%#& !"#%& !"$& !"$'' !"$' !" !"& !"'%'' !"# !" !" !"'%$ !"'%' !"'% !"$' !"$% !"$ !"$#% !"$' !"'%&& !"%$ !"'%' !"&# !" !"'% !"% !"$' !" !"#$ !"'% !"'%# !" !"'&$$% !" !"$% !"# !"$ !"$'$ !"$'$ !"'%% !"'' !"$ !"'&% !"'% !"& !"'%# !" !"' !"'%% !"$# !"$'$ !"'%## !"'%%# !"$'#$ !" !"$'# !"& !"'%% !"'%' !"&$ !" !" !" !"'%$ !"'% !"$'

Kaski, Samuel

308

Phosphosulindac (OXT-328) selectively targets breast cancer stem cells in vitro and in human breast cancer xenografts.  

PubMed

Pharmacological targeting of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) is highly promising for the treatment of breast cancer, as the small population of CSCs appears responsible for tumor initiation and progression and also for resistance to conventional treatment. Here we report that the novel phosphosulindac (OXT-328, PS) selectively and effectively eliminates breast CSCs both in vitro and in vivo. PS reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in various breast CSCs. Breast CSCs are resistant to conventional cancer drugs but are sensitive to PS. Long-term treatment of mixtures of cultured breast CSCs and breast cancer cells with PS preferentially eliminated the CSCs. PS impaired the ability of CSCs to form mammospheres and markedly suppressed the expression of CSC-related genes. More importantly, PS prevented by half (p = .06) the formation of tumors initiated by CSCs in immunodeficient mice, and inhibited by 83% (p < .05) the growth of already formed breast cancer xenografts, reducing the proportion of CSCs in them. PS suppressed the Wnt/?-catenin pathway by stimulating the degradation of ?-catenin and its relocalization to the cell membrane and also blocked the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the generation of breast CSCs. These results indicate that PS has a strong inhibitory effect against breast cancer, acting, at least in part, by targeting CSCs through a signaling mechanism involving Wnt signaling. PMID:22653497

Zhu, Caihua; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Ouyang, Nengtai; Huang, Liqun; Sun, Yu; Constantinides, Panayiotis; Rigas, Basil

2012-10-01

309

Effects of environmental organochlorine pesticides on human breast cancer: Putative involvement on invasive cell ability.  

PubMed

Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a certainty, even to long banned pesticides like o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), and its metabolites p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD). POPs are known to be particularly toxic and have been associated with endocrine-disrupting effects in several mammals, including humans even at very low doses. As environmental estrogens, they could play a critical role in carcinogenesis, such as in breast cancer. With the purpose of evaluating their effect on breast cancer biology, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD (50-1000 nM) were tested on two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 expressing estrogen receptor (ER) ? and MDA-MB-231 negative for ER?, regarding cell proliferation and viability in addition to their invasive potential. Cell proliferation and viability were not equally affected by these compounds. In MCF-7 cells, the compounds were able to decrease cell proliferation and viability. On the other hand, no evident response was observed in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Concerning the invasive potential, the less invasive cell line, MCF-7, had its invasion potential significantly induced, while the more invasive cell line MDA-MB-231, had its invasion potential dramatically reduced in the presence of the tested compounds. Altogether, the results showed that these compounds were able to modulate several cancer-related processes, namely in breast cancer cell lines, and underline the relevance of POP exposure to the risk of cancer development and progression, unraveling distinct pathways of action of these compounds on tumor cell biology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 168-176, 2015. PMID:23913582

Pestana, Diogo; Teixeira, Diana; Faria, Ana; Domingues, Valentina; Monteiro, Rosário; Calhau, Conceiçăo

2015-02-01

310

A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition  

SciTech Connect

A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-03-10

311

Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and compounds from Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report is to explore the growth inhibitory effect of extracts and compounds from black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells and to determine the nature of the active components. Black cohosh fractions enriched for triterpene glycosides and purified components from black cohosh and related Asian species were tested for growth inhibition of the ER? Her2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. Growth inhibitory activity was assayed using the Coulter Counter, MTT and colony formation assays. Results suggested that the growth inhibitory activity of black cohosh extracts appears to be related to their triterpene glycoside composition. The most potent Cimicifuga component tested was 25-acetyl-7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-?-D-xylopyranoside, which has an acetyl group at position C-25. It had an IC50 of 3.2 µg/ml (5 µM) compared to7.2 µg/ml (12.1 µM) for the parent compound 7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-?-D-xylopyranoside. Thus, the acetyl group at position C-25 enhances growth inhibitory activity. The purified triterpene glycoside actein (?-D-xylopyranoside), with an IC50 equal to 5.7 µg/ml (8.4 µM), exhibited activity comparable to cimigenol 3-O-?-D-xyloside. MCF7 (ER+Her2 low) cells transfected for Her2 are more sensitive than the parental MCF7 cells to the growth inhibitory effects of actein from black cohosh, indicating that Her2 plays a role in the action of actein. The effect of actein on Her2 overexpressing MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 (ER+Her2 low) human breast cancer cells was examined by fluorescent microscopy. Treatment with actein altered the distribution of actin filaments and induced apoptosis in these cells. These findings, coupled with our previous evidence that treatment with the triterpene glycoside actein induced a stress response and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, suggest that compounds from Cimicifuga species may be useful in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:17980565

Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wen-Cai, Ye; He, Kan; Wu, Hsan-au; Cruz, Erica; Roller, Marc; Kronenberg, Fredi

2008-01-01

312

Plumbagin Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Reduces Human Breast Cancer-induced Osteolytic Bone Metastasis in Mice through Suppression of RANKL Signaling  

PubMed Central

Bone loss is one of the major complications of advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and multiple myeloma; agents that can suppress this bone loss have therapeutic potential. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays a major role in cancer-associated bone resorption, and thus is a therapeutic target. We investigated the potential of vitamin K3 analogue plumbagin (derived from Chitrak, an Ayurvedic medicinal plant), to modulate RANKL signaling, osteoclastogenesis and breast cancer–induced osteolysis. Plumbagin suppressed RANKL-induced NF-?B activation in mouse monocytes, an osteoclast precursor cell, through sequential inhibition of activation of I?B? kinase, I?B? phosphorylation and I?B? degradation. Plumbagin also suppressed differentiation of these cells into osteoclasts induced either by RANKL or by human breast cancer or human multiple myeloma cells. When examined for its ability to prevent human breast cancer–induced bone loss in animals, plumbagin (2 mg/kg body weight), when administered via the intraperitoneal route, significantly decreased osteolytic lesions resulting in preservation of bone volume in nude mice bearing human breast tumors. Overall, our results indicate that plumbagin, a vitamin K analogue, is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis induced by tumor cells and of breast cancer–induced osteolytic metastasis through suppression of RANKL signaling. PMID:22090419

Sung, Bokyung; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2011-01-01

313

Quantitative changes of collagen in human normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma using nonlinear optical microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of collagen plays a key role in noninvasive diagnosis of human tissue. During the experiment, we observed an interesting phenomenon which two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signal of collagen in human invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tissue becomes much weaker than the normal breast tissue, but the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal of collagen does not get an obvious change . In order to explain the phenomena,this paper emphasizes on the intensity of TPEF and SHG signal from collagen in human invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tissues and normal breast tissue. Further, we respectively obtain the intensity spectral information from collagen in the above two tissues with all parameter unaltered. Our quantitative results show that the intensity of TPEF from collagen in human invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tissue is much lower than the intensity of TPEF from collagen in normal breast tissue. According to the theoretic analysis, it was concluded that the intensity of TPEF declined due to the reduction of the quantum yield when the collagen was intruded by cancer cells. However, the invasion of cancer cells has no effect on decisive factor of SHG. Our theoretical analysis brings more detailed information about intensity of SHG and TPEF from collagen in the above two tissues.

Li, Weiqiang; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

2014-11-01

314

Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Enhances NF-?B/p65 Signaling in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an endemic herpes virus that re-emerges in cancer patients enhancing oncogenic potential. Recent studies have shown that HCMV infection is associated with certain types of cancer morbidity such as glioblastoma. Although HCMV has been detected in breast cancer tissues, its role, if any, in the etiology of specific forms of breast cancer has not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the presence of HCMV infection in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), a rapidly progressing form of breast cancer characterized by specific molecular signature. We screened for anti-CMV IgG antibodies in peripheral blood of 49 non-IBC invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 28 IBC patients. In addition, we screened for HCMV-DNA in postsurgical cancer and non-cancer breast tissues of non-IBC and IBC patients. We also tested whether HCMV infection can modulate the expression and activation of transcriptional factor NF-?B/p65, a hallmark of IBC. Our results reveal that IBC patients are characterized by a statistically significant increase in HCMV IgG antibody titers compared to non-IBC patients. HCMV-DNA was significantly detected in cancer tissues than in the adjacent non-carcinoma tissues of IBC and IDC, and IBC cancer tissues were significantly more infected with HCMV-DNA compared to IDC. Further, HCMV sequence analysis detected different HCMV strains in IBC patients tissues, but not in the IDC specimens. Moreover, HCMV-infected IBC cancer tissues were found to be enhanced in NF-?B/p65 signaling compared to non-IBC patients. The present results demonstrated a correlation between HCMV infection and IBC. Etiology and causality of HCMV infection with IBC now needs to be rigorously examined. PMID:23418456

El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Tantawy, Marwa; Younis, Amal; Schneider, Robert J.; Mohamed, Mona Mostafa

2013-01-01

315

Activation of SNAT1/SLC38A1 in human breast cancer: correlation with p-Akt overexpression  

PubMed Central

Background SNAT1 is a subtype of the amino acid transport system A that has been implicated to play a potential role in cancer development and progression, yet its role in breast cancer remains unclear. In present study, we detected SNAT1 expression in breast cancers and explored its underlying mechanism in promoting breast carcinogenesis. Methods RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to analyze the transcription and protein levels of SNAT1 in breast cancer cell lines and fresh tissues. Tissue microarray blocks containing breast cancer specimens obtained from 210 patients were constructed. Expression of SNAT1 in these specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical studies. SNAT1 was down-regulated by SNAT1-shRNA in breast cancer cells and the functional significance was measured. Results SNAT1 was up-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues. Overexpression of SNAT1 was observed in 127 cases (60.5%). Expression of SNAT1 was significantly associated with tumor size, nodal metastasis, advanced disease stage, Ki-67, and ER status. Suppression of endogenous SNAT1 leads to cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of 4T1 cells and lowered the phosphorylation level of Akt. SNAT1 expression correlated significantly with p-Akt expression in human breast cancer samples. Conclusions The cross-talk between Akt signaling and SNAT1 might play a critical role in the development and progression of breast cancer, providing an important molecular basis for novel diagnostic markers and new attractive targets in the treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID:23848995

2013-01-01

316

Expression Signature Developed from a Complex Series of Mouse Models Accurately Predicts Human Breast Cancer Survival  

PubMed Central

Purpose The capability of microarray platform to interrogate thousands of genes has led to the development of molecular diagnostic tools for cancer patients. While large-scale comparative studies of clinical samples are often limited by the access of human tissues, expression profiling databases of various human cancer types are publicly available for researchers. Given that mouse models have been instrumental to our current understanding of cancer progression, we aimed to test the hypothesis that novel gene signatures possessing predictability in clinical outcome can be derived by coupling genomic analyses in mouse models of cancer with publicly available human cancer datasets. Experimental Design We established a complex series of syngeneic metastatic animal models using a murine breast cancer cell line. Tumor RNA was hybridized on Affymetrix MouseGenome-430A2.0 GeneChips. With the use of Venn logic, gene signatures that represent metastatic competency were derived and tested against publicly available human breast and lung cancer datasets. Results Survival analyses showed that the spontaneous metastasis gene signature was significantly associated with metastasis-free and overall survival (p<0.0005). Consequently, the six-gene model was determined and demonstrated statistical predictability in predicting survival in breast cancer patients. In addition, the model was able to stratify poor from good prognosis for lung cancer patients in majority of the datasets analyzed. Conclusions Together, our data support that novel gene signature derived from mouse models of cancer can be utilized for predicting human cancer outcome. Our approaches set precedence that similar strategies may be used to decipher novel gene signatures for clinical utility. PMID:20028755

He, Mei; Mangiameli, David P.; Kachala, Stefan; Hunter, Kent; Gillespie, John; Bian, Xiaopeng; Shen, H.-C. Jennifer; Libutti, Steven K.

2009-01-01

317

Dracorhodin Perchlorate Induced Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathways  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dracorhodin perchlorate (DP) was a synthetic analogue of the antimicrobial anthocyanin red pigment dracorhodin. It was reported that DP could induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer, human gastric tumor cells and human melanoma, but the cytotoxic effect of DP on human breast cancer was not investigated. This study would investigate whether DP was a candidate chemical of anti-human breast cancer. Methods: The MTT assay reflected the number of viable cells through measuring the activity of cellular enzymes. Phase contrast microscopy visualized cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy detected nuclear fragmentation after Hoechst 33258 staining. Flowcytometric analysis of Annexin V-PI staining and Rodamine 123 staining was used to detect cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Real time PCR detected mRNA level. Western blot examined protein expression. Results: DP dose and time-dependently inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells. DP inhibited MCF-7 cell growth through apoptosis. DP regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were mitochondrial pathway proteins, to decrease MMP, and DP promoted the transcription of Bax and inhibited Bcl-2. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c which localized in mitochondrial in physiological condition were released into cytoplasm when MMP was decreased. DP activated caspase-9, which was the downstream of mitochondrial pathway. Therefore DP decreased MMP to release AIF and cytochrome c into cytoplasm, further activating caspase 9, lastly led to apoptosis. Conclusion: Therefore DP was a candidate for anti-breast cancer, DP induced apoptosis of MCF-7 through mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23869191

Yu, Jing-hua; Zheng, Gui-bin; Liu, Chun-yu; Zhang, Li-ying; Gao, Hong-mei; Zhang, Ya-hong; Dai, Chun-yan; Huang, Lin; Meng, Xian-ying; Zhang, Wen-yan; Yu, Xiao-fang

2013-01-01

318

In Vitro Effects of Herbicides and Insecticides on Human Breast Cells  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have indicated that the pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural processes in the United States and Europe may have detrimental effects upon human health. Many of these compounds have been indicated as potential endocrine and reproductive disruptors, although the studies have examined supraphysiological levels well above the US EPA safe levels for drinking water and have often examined these effects in “model” cell lines such as Chinese hamster ovary cells. We have now examined the cytotoxicity of more environmentally relevant concentrations of four herbicides, acetochlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine, and two insecticides, chlorpyrifos and resmethrin, in three human breast cell lines. Interestingly, cytotoxicity was not observed in the estrogen-dependent MCF-7 mammary epithelial carcinoma cells; rather increases in cell viability were seen for some of the compounds at select concentrations. These results vary greatly from what was observed in the estrogen independent MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and the non-cancerous MCF-10A breast cells. This gives insight into how different tumors may respond to pesticide exposure and allows us to make more accurate conclusions about the potential cytotoxicity or, at times, stimulatory actions of these pesticides. PMID:23762632

Rich, Jessica D.; Gabriel, Seth M.; Schultz-Norton, Jennifer R.

2012-01-01

319

Modification of survival pathway gene expression in human breast cancer cells by tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac).  

PubMed

Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) inhibits the cellular actions of thyroid hormone initiated at the hormone receptor on plasma membrane integrin alphavbeta3. Via interaction with the integrin, tetrac is also capable of inhibiting the angiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. MDA-MB-231 cells are estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cells shown to be responsive to tetrac in terms of decreased cell proliferation. Here we describe actions initiated at the cell surface receptor by unmodified tetrac and nanoparticulate tetrac on a panel of survival pathway genes in estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. Nanoparticulate tetrac is excluded from the cell interior. Expression of apoptosis inhibitors XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis) and MCL1 (myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) was downregulated by nanoparticulate tetrac in these breast cancer cells whereas apoptosis-promoting CASP2 and BCL2L14 were upregulated by the nanoparticulate formulation. Unmodified tetrac affected only XIAP expression. Expression of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) gene was increased by both formulations of tetrac, as was the expression of CBY1, a nuclear inhibitor of catenin activity. The majority of differentially regulated Ras-oncogene family members were downregulated by nanoparticulate tetrac. The latter downregulated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and unmodified tetrac did not. Nanoparticulate tetrac has coherent anti-cancer actions on expression of differentially-regulated genes important to survival of MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:19838061

Glinskii, Anna B; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Lin, Hung-Yun; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Sun, Mingzeng; Davis, Faith B; Luidens, Mary K; Mousa, Shaker A; Hercbergs, Aleck H; Davis, Paul J

2009-11-01

320

Dichloromethane and Methanol Extracts of Scrophularia oxysepala Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and develop therapeutic strategies against this deadly disease. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death of Scrophularia oxysepala extracts in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Methods: Three extracts of Scrophularia oxysepala including the n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were examined. MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and Trypan-blue assays were performed in MCF-7 cells as well as Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the extracts of Scrophularia oxysepala. Further, the apoptosis inducing action of the extracts was determined by TUNEL (terminal deoxy transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick- end labeling) test and cell death assay. Results: The results showed that the n-hexane extract had no cytotoxic effects but dichloromethane and methanol extracts significantly inhibited cell growth and viability in a dose and time dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. In addition, Cell death assay and DNA fragmentation analysis using TUNEL indicated induction of apoptosis by dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Scrophularia oxysepala in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Our studies suggest that this plant may contain potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24312797

Valiyari, Samira; baradaran, behzad; Delazar, Abbas; Pasdaran, Ardalan; Zare, Fateme

2012-01-01

321

Novel thiosemicarbazides induced apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells via JNK signaling.  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, novel thiosemicarbazides and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized derivatives studied, compound 2-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxybutanoyl)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide 4c showed the highest cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells as it reduced cell viability to approximately 15% compared to approximately 25% in normal breast epithelial cells. Therefore, we focused on 4c for further investigations. Our data showed that 4c induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells which was further confirmed by TUNEL assay. Western blotting analysis showed that compound 4c up-regulated the pro-survival proteins Bax, Bad and ERK1/2, while it down-regulated anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Akt and STAT-3. Additionally, 4c induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK in MCF-7 cells. Pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with 10?µM of JNK inhibitor significantly reduced 4c-induced apoptosis. Molecular docking results suggested that compound 4c showed a binding pattern close to the pattern observed in the structure of the lead fragment bound to JNK1. Collectively, the data of current study suggested that the thiosemicarbazide 4c might trigger apoptosis in human MCF-7 cells by targeting JNK signaling. PMID:25363687

Malki, Ahmed; Elbayaa, Rasha Y; Ashour, Hayam M A; Loffredo, Christopher A; Youssef, Amal M

2014-11-01

322

ANTIESTROGENIC GLYCEOLLINS SUPPRESS HUMAN BREAST AND OVARIAN CARCINOMA TUMORIGENESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The flavonoid family of phytochemicals, particularly those derived from soy, has received attention regarding their estrogenic activity as well as their effects on human health and disease. The aim of this study was to identify unique soy phytochemicals that had not been previously assessed for est...

323

Perturbational Metabolic Profiling of Human Breast Cancer Cells  

EPA Science Inventory

A major goal of toxicity testing is to obtain toxicity data for protecting public health and the environment from adverse effects that may be caused by exposure to environmental agents in the air, water, soil and food. The current toxicological studies that target human health ef...

324

Anticancer activity of litchi fruit pericarp extract against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract contains significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds and exhibits powerful antioxidative activity against fat oxidation in vitro. The purpose of this study is to confirm the anticancer activity of LFP extract on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, and to elucidate the mechanism of its activity. Human breast cancer cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, colony formation inhibition, BrdU incorporation, and gene expression profiling after treatment with LFP extract. Seven nude mice bearing human breast infiltrating duct carcinoma orthotopically were tested for its anticancer activity and expression of caspase-3 in vivo by oral administration of 0.3% (0.3 mg/ml) of LFP water-soluble crude ethanolic extract (CEE) for 10 weeks. LFP extract demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth (IC{sub 5} = 80 {mu}g/ml), and it significantly inhibited colony formation and BrdU incorporation of human breast cancer cells. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis identified 41(1.22%) up-regulated and 129 (3.84%) down-regulated genes after LFP water-soluble CEE treatment; the predominantly up-regulated genes were involved in various biological functions including cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, and extracellular matrix/adhesion molecules; and down-regulated genes were mainly associated with adhesion, invasion, and malignancy of cancer cells. A 40.70% tumor mass volume reduction and significant increase of casepase-3 protein expression were observed in vivo experiment. The findings in this study suggested that LFP extract might have potential anticancer activity on both ER positive and negative breast cancers, which could be attributed, in part, to its DNA damage effect, proliferating inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cells through up-regulation and down-regulation of multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, motility and invasiveness of cancer cells; ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase)-like 1 (ADPRTL1), Cytochrome P450, subfamily I (CYP1A1) and Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR) might be the main molecular targets at which LFP water-soluble CEE acted.

Wang Xiujie [Division of Experimental Oncology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China)]. E-mail: xiujiewang@yahoo.com; Yuan Shulan [Division of Experimental Oncology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Wang Jing [Division of Experimental Oncology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Lin Ping [Division of Experimental Oncology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Liu Guanjian [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Lu Yanrong [Division of Experimental Oncology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Zhang Jie [Division of Experimental Oncology, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Wang, Wendong [Department of Pathology of Public Health School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Wei Yuquan [Division of Biotherapy, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China)]. E-mail: yuquanwei@mail.sc.cninfo.net

2006-09-01

325

Identification and Characterization of Nucleolin as a COUP-TFII Coactivator of Retinoic Acid Receptor ? Transcription in Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction The orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII plays an undefined role in breast cancer. Previously we reported lower COUP-TFII expression in tamoxifen/endocrine- resistant versus sensitive breast cancer cell lines. The identification of COUP-TFII-interacting proteins will help to elucidate its mechanism of action as a transcriptional regulator in breast cancer. Results FLAG-affinity purification and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) identified nucleolin among the proteins interacting with COUP-TFII in MCF-7 tamoxifen-sensitive breast cancer cells. Interaction of COUP-TFII and nucleolin was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells. In vitro studies revealed that COUP-TFII interacts with the C-terminal arginine-glycine repeat (RGG) domain of nucleolin. Functional interaction between COUP-TFII and nucleolin was indicated by studies showing that siRNA knockdown of nucleolin and an oligonucleotide aptamer that targets nucleolin, AS1411, inhibited endogenous COUP-TFII-stimulated RARB2 expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed COUP-TFII occupancy of the RARB2 promoter was increased by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). RAR?2 regulated gene RRIG1 was increased by atRA and COUP-TFII transfection and inhibited by siCOUP-TFII. Immunohistochemical staining of breast tumor microarrays showed nuclear COUP-TFII and nucleolin staining was correlated in invasive ductal carcinomas. COUP-TFII staining correlated with ER?, SRC-1, AIB1, Pea3, MMP2, and phospho-Src and was reduced with increased tumor grade. Conclusions Our data indicate that nucleolin plays a coregulatory role in transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor RARB2 by COUP-TFII. PMID:22693611

Litchfield, Lacey M.; Riggs, Krista A.; Hockenberry, Alyson M.; Oliver, Laura D.; Barnhart, Katelyn G.; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Bates, Paula J.; Appana, Savitri N.; Datta, Susmita; Kulesza, Piotr; McBryan, Jean; Young, Leonie S.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

2012-01-01

326

Antenna applicator design for microwave imaging of the interior of human breasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a waveguide antenna applicator design intended to be placed on the surface or in close proximity to a human breast for imaging purposes. Hence, the antenna needs to be compact for easy placement. The design process is carefully carried out dividing the antenna applicator into separate parts, allowing closer analysis towards improved synthesis. A mode applicator antenna was concluded to be necessary, employing a TE10 mode type with minimized near-field and surface (Zennek) wave excitation. Numerical simulations have been used throughout and show that the proposed ridged waveguide antenna is capable of fulfilling the design requirements and the performance goals. Modelling has been carried out using a scenario with a simple breast model and confirms the applicator's capability.

Petrovi?, N.; Otterskog, M.; Risman, P. O.

2014-09-01

327

Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

2012-01-01

328

Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

2011-09-01

329

Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

Successful treatment of breast cancer typically requires surgical removal of the tumor. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been previously developed for real-time imaging of the surgical margin. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between normal stromal tissue and cancer tissue based on scattering intensity and structure alone. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is sensitive to form birefringence of biological tissue. We report on the development of a high-speed PS-OCT system and imaging of ex vivo human breast tissue, showing enhanced contrast between healthy and cancerous tissues based upon collagen content confirmed with corresponding histology. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using PS-OCT to supplement structural OCT as a possible method for intraoperative tumor margin evaluation. PMID:25360360

South, Fredrick A; Chaney, Eric J; Marjanovic, Marina; Adie, Steven G; Boppart, Stephen A

2014-10-01

330

Human 3D vascularized organotypic microfluidic assays to study breast cancer cell extravasation.  

PubMed

A key aspect of cancer metastases is the tendency for specific cancer cells to home to defined subsets of secondary organs. Despite these known tendencies, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we develop a microfluidic 3D in vitro model to analyze organ-specific human breast cancer cell extravasation into bone- and muscle-mimicking microenvironments through a microvascular network concentrically wrapped with mural cells. Extravasation rates and microvasculature permeabilities were significantly different in the bone-mimicking microenvironment compared with unconditioned or myoblast containing matrices. Blocking breast cancer cell A3 adenosine receptors resulted in higher extravasation rates of cancer cells into the myoblast-containing matrices compared with untreated cells, suggesting a role for adenosine in reducing extravasation. These results demonstrate the efficacy of our model as a drug screening platform and a promising tool to investigate specific molecular pathways involved in cancer biology, with potential applications to personalized medicine. PMID:25524628

Jeon, Jessie S; Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Dubini, Gabriele; Charest, Joseph L; Moretti, Matteo; Kamm, Roger D

2015-01-01

331

Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits p53 in Human Breast Adipose Stromal Cells: A Novel Mechanism for the Regulation of Aromatase in Obesity and Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and the majority of these cancers are estrogen dependent. Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and its increased expression in breast adipose stromal cells (ASC) is a major driver of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In particular, obesity-associated and tumor-derived factors, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), have been shown to drive the expression of aromatase by stimulating the activity of the proximal promoter II (PII). The tumor-suppressor p53 is a key regulator of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and is frequently mutated in breast cancer. Mutations in p53 are rare in tumor-associated ASCs. Therefore, it was hypothesized that p53 is regulated by PGE2 and involved in the PGE2-mediated regulation of aromatase. Results demonstrate that PGE2 causes a significant decrease in p53 transcript and nuclear protein expression, as well as phosphorylation at Ser15 in primary human breast ASCs. Stabilization of p53 with RITA leads to a significant decrease in the PGE2-stimulated aromatase mRNA expression and activity, and PII activity. Interaction of p53 with PII was demonstrated and this interaction is decreased in the presence of PGE2. Moreover, mutation of the identified p53 response element leads to an increase in the basal activity of the promoter. Immunofluorescence on clinical samples demonstrates that p53 is decreased in tumor-associated ASCs compared with ASCs from normal breast tissue, and that there is a positive association between perinuclear (inactive) p53 and aromatase expression in these cells. Furthermore, aromatase expression is increased in breast ASCs from Li-Fraumeni patients (germline TP53 mutations) compared with non-Li-Fraumeni breast tissue. Overall, our results demonstrate that p53 is a negative regulator of aromatase in the breast and its inhibition by PGE2 provides a novel mechanism for aromatase regulation in obesity and breast cancer. Cancer Res; 75(4); 645-55. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25634217

Wang, Xuyi; Docanto, Maria M; Sasano, Hironobu; Lo, Camden; Simpson, Evan R; Brown, Kristy A

2015-02-15

332

Na(+),HCO3 (-)-cotransport is functionally upregulated during human breast carcinogenesis and required for the inverted pH gradient across the plasma membrane.  

PubMed

Metabolic and biochemical changes during breast carcinogenesis enhance cellular acid production. Extrusion of the acid load from the cancer cells raises intracellular pH, while it decreases extracellular pH creating an inverted pH gradient across the plasma membrane compared to normal cells and promoting cancer cell metabolism, proliferation, migration, and invasion. We investigated the effects of breast carcinogenesis on the mechanisms of cellular pH control using multicellular epithelial organoids freshly isolated from human primary breast carcinomas and matched normal breast tissue. Intracellular pH was measured by fluorescence microscopy, while protein expression was investigated by immunofluorescence imaging and immunoblotting. We found that cellular net acid extrusion increased during human breast carcinogenesis due to enhanced Na(+),HCO3 (-)-cotransport, which created an alkaline shift (~0.3 units of magnitude) in steady-state intracellular pH of human primary breast carcinomas compared to normal breast tissue. Na(+)/H(+)-exchange activity and steady-state intracellular pH in the absence of CO2/HCO3 (-) were practically unaffected by breast carcinogenesis. These effects were evident under both acidic (pH 6.8, representative of the tumor microenvironment) and physiological (pH 7.4) extracellular conditions. Protein expression of the Na(+),HCO3 (-)-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7), which has been linked to breast cancer susceptibility in multiple genome-wide association studies, was twofold higher in human breast carcinomas compared to matched normal breast tissue. Protein expression of the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger NHE1 (SLC9A1) was markedly less affected. We propose that upregulated NBCn1 during human breast carcinogenesis contributes to the characteristic acid distribution within human breast carcinomas and thereby plays a pathophysiological role for breast cancer development and progression. PMID:24788003

Lee, Soojung; Mele, Marco; Vahl, Pernille; Christiansen, Peer M; Jensen, Vibeke E D; Boedtkjer, Ebbe

2015-02-01

333

Human Breast Progenitor Cell Numbers Are Regulated by WNT and TBX3  

PubMed Central

Background Although human breast development is mediated by hormonal and non-hormonal means, the mechanisms that regulate breast progenitor cell activity remain to be clarified. This limited understanding of breast progenitor cells has been due in part to the lack of appropriate model systems to detect and characterize their properties. Methods To examine the effects of WNT signaling and TBX3 expression on progenitor activity in the breast, primary human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) were isolated from reduction mammoplasty tissues and transduced with lentivirus to overexpress WNT1 or TBX3 or reduce expression of their cognate receptors using shRNA. Changes in progenitor activity were quantified using characterized assays. We identified WNT family members expressed by cell populations within the epithelium and assessed alterations in expression of WNT family ligands by MECs in response to TBX3 overexpression and treatment with estrogen and progesterone. Results Growth of MECs on collagen gels resulted in the formation of distinct luminal acinar and basal ductal colonies. Overexpression of TBX3 in MECs resulted in increased ductal colonies, while shTBX3 expression diminished both colony types. Increased WNT1 expression led to enhanced acinar colony formation, shLRP6 decreased both types of colonies. Estrogen stimulated the formation of acinar colonies in control MEC, but not shLRP6 MEC. Formation of ductal colonies was enhanced in response to progesterone. However, while shLRP6 decreased MEC responsiveness to progesterone, shTBX3 expression did not alter this response. Conclusions We identified two phenotypically distinguishable lineage-committed progenitor cells that contribute to different structural elements and are regulated via hormonal and non-hormonal mechanisms. WNT signaling regulates both types of progenitor activity. Progesterone favors the expansion of ductal progenitor cells, while estrogen stimulates the expansion of acinar progenitor cells. Paracrine WNT signaling is stimulated by estrogen and progesterone, while autocrine WNT signaling is induced by the embryonic T-box transcription factor TBX3. PMID:25350852

Arendt, Lisa M.; St. Laurent, Jessica; Wronski, Ania; Caballero, Silvia; Lyle, Stephen R.; Naber, Stephen P.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

2014-01-01

334

VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, inhibits migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

It has been well characterized that flavonoids possess pronounced anticancer potentials including anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis, and pro-apoptosis. Herein, we report, for the first time, that VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, possesses anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-migration and anti-invasion activities of VI-14 in breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that VI-14 inhibits adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with VI-14 display reduced activities and expressions of ECM degradation-associated proteins including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) at both the protein and mRNA levels. Meanwhile, VI-14 treatment induces an up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and 2 (TIMP-2) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blotting results show that phosphorylation levels of critical components of the MAPK signaling pathway, including ERK, JNK and P38, are dramatically decreased in VI-14-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, treatment of VI-14 significantly decreases the nuclear levels and the binding ability of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Taken together, our data suggest that VI-14 treatment suppresses migration and motility of breast cancer cells, and VI-14 may be a potential compound for cancer therapy. Highlights: ? We report for the first time that VI-14 possesses anti-cancer properties. ? VI-14 weakens the adhesion, migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. ? VI-14 decreases the activities and expressions of MMP-2/9. ? VI-14 suppresses the phosphorylation levels of the MAPK signaling pathway. ? VI-14 decreases the nuclear levels and the binding ability of NF-?B and AP-1.

Li, Fanni; Li, Chenglin; Zhang, Haiwei; Lu, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Lu, Na [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Guo, Qinglong, E-mail: anticancer_drug@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

2012-06-01

335

Functional Significance of Aurora Kinase A Regulatory Interactions with p53–ER? Complex in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A), a proto-oncogenic mitosis-regulating serine\\/threonine kinase, is frequently overexpressed in human\\u000a breast cancer. While the kinase has been shown to cause functional inactivation of tumor suppressor protein p53, which binds\\u000a estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and downregulates its transcriptional activation function, significance of Aurora-A overexpression\\u000a on p53 regulatory interactions in breast cancer cells has not been investigated. We

Hiroshi Katayama; Subrata Sen

2011-01-01

336

CD44 targeting reduces tumour growth and prevents post-chemotherapy relapse of human breast cancers xenografts  

PubMed Central

CD44 is a marker of tumour-initiating cells and is upregulated in invasive breast carcinoma; however, its role in the cancer progression is unknown. Here, we show that antibody-mediated CD44-targeting in human breast cancer xenografts (HBCx) significantly reduces tumour growth and that this effect is associated to induction of growth-inhibiting factors. Moreover, treatment with this antibody prevents tumour relapse after chemotherapy-induced remission in a basal-like HBCx. PMID:19240712

Marangoni, E; Lecomte, N; Durand, L; de Pinieux, G; Decaudin, D; Chomienne, C; Smadja-Joffe, F; Poupon, M-F

2009-01-01

337

Suppression of MDA-MB-435 Breast Carcinoma Cell Metastasis following the Introduction of Human Chromosome II1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relevance of genetic information on chromosome 11 in the development of metastatic breast tumors, we introduced a normal human chromosome II into the highly metastatic MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cell line via the microccll-mediated chromosome transfer tech nique. Although the MDA-MB-435 recipient cell line and four randomly selected microcell hybrid clones remained tumorigenic in nude mice, the hybrids

Karen K. Phillips; Danny R. Welch; Mary E. Miele; Jeong-Hyung Lee; Lisa L. Wei; Bernard E. Weissman

338

Identification of a distinct side population of cancer cells in the Cal51 human breast carcinoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Side population” (SP) cells, which pump out the fluorescent dye H33342 via the ABCG2 transporter, define a putative stem\\/progenitor\\u000a cell population in the mammary gland. Breast cancer SP cells recently isolated from the MCF-7 cell line possess similar properties\\u000a and may represent stem cell-like cancer cells. This study extends SP cell analysis to a broad panel of human breast cancer

Matthias Christgen; Matthias Ballmaier; Henriette Bruchhardt; Reinhard von Wasielewski; Hans Kreipe; Ulrich Lehmann

2007-01-01

339

Quercetin Inhibits Heat Shock Protein Induction but Not Heat Shock Factor DNA-Binding in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid quercetin inhibits the heat-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsps) in a variety of cell lines. To determine whether quercetin could inhibit hsp expression in breast cancer cells, we used the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Treatment of these cells with quercetin decreased the heat-induced synthesis of hsp27 and hsp70. However, inhibition of hsp expression did not

R. K. Hansen; S. Oesterreich; P. Lemieux; K. D. Sarge; S. A. W. Fuqua

1997-01-01

340

First pathological study of canine primary breast lymphoma and the description of its clinicopathological characteristics as an animal model for human primary breast lymphoma.  

PubMed

Canine breast cancer (BC) and human BC are the most prevalent tumors in female dogs and humans, respectively. Several studies have indicated that canine BC is a good model for human BC. Unlike breast carcinomas, human primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is a rare tumor, but no case of canine PBL has been reported thus far. The current study presents a case of canine MC of the primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) type for the first time and subsequently questions the theory of considering it as a model for human PBL. A 2-cm tumor was surgically removed from the left caudal abdominal mammary gland of a 6-year-old female dog of the terrier breed. Microscopic examination did not show any sign for the epithelial origin of the tumor. By contrast, histomorphological view and molecular pathological evaluation by immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor was of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) type [cluster of differentiation 19(+) (CD19(+)), CD20(+), CD10(+), B-cell lymphoma 6(+), CD3(-), CD15(-)]. According to the World Health Organization classification, DLBCL is considered to be an NHL. Canine NHL is common in dogs and certain investigators believe that the biological behavior and clinical course is extremely similar to human NHL, and therefore, consider it as a model of human NHL. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first report of canine PBL. As the most significantly reported human PBL histotype is the DLBCL type, the histomorphological and immunophenotyping characteristics of canine PBL in the study considerably match with human PBL and raise the hypothesis that it can be a model for human PBL. PMID:25469251

Rismanchi, Sanaz; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Amanpour, Saeid; Muhammadnejad, Ahad

2015-01-01

341

Phenotypic and functional characterization in vitro of a multipotent epithelial cell present in the normal adult human breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental relationships between the different mammary epithelial cell lineages in the human mammary gland are not well defined. To characterize human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) with progenitor activity, we used flow cytometry and single cell sorting to analyze the distribution of cellular phenotypes in primary cultures of reduction mammoplasties and their associated ability to generate colonies in 2-dimensional (D)

John Stingl; Joanne T. Emerman; Connie J. Eaves; Urve Kuusk

1998-01-01

342

The effects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation on human cadaver breast tissue.  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for non-invasive breast tumor ablation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HIFU ablation and thermal exposure on ex vivo human breast tissue. HIFU ablations were performed in three unembalmed cadaveric breast specimens using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Sonications were performed in fibroglandular and adipose tissue. During HIFU ablation, time-resolved anatomical MR images were acquired to monitor macroscopic tissue changes. Furthermore, the breast tissue temperature was measured using a thermocouple to investigate heating and cooling under HIFU exposure. After HIFU ablation, breast tissue samples were excised and prepared for histopathological analysis. In addition, thermal exposure experiments were performed to distinguish between different levels of thermal damage using immunohistochemical staining. Irreversible macroscopic deformations up to 3.7 mm were observed upon HIFU ablation both in fibroglandular and in adipose tissue. No relationship was found between the sonication power or the maximum tissue temperature and the size of the deformations. Temperature measurements after HIFU ablation showed a slow decline in breast tissue temperature. Histopathological analysis of sonicated regions demonstrated ablated tissue and morphologically complete cell death. After thermal exposure, samples exposed to three different temperatures could readily be distinguished. In conclusion, the irreversible macroscopic tissue deformations in ex vivo human breast tissue observed during HIFU ablation suggest that it might be relevant to monitor tissue deformations during MR-HIFU treatments. Furthermore, the slow decrease in breast tissue temperature after HIFU ablation increases the risk of heat accumulation between successive sonications. Since cell death was inflicted after already 5 minutes at 75°C, MR-HIFU may find a place in non-invasive treatment of breast tumors. PMID:23583321

Merckel, Laura G; Deckers, Roel; Baron, Paul; Bleys, Ronald L A W; van Diest, Paul J; Moonen, Chrit T W; Mali, Willem P Th M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Bartels, Lambertus W

2013-10-01

343

In Vitro Analysis of Breast Cancer Cell Line Tumourspheres and Primary Human Breast Epithelia Mammospheres Demonstrates Inter- and Intrasphere Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Mammosphere and breast tumoursphere culture have gained popularity as in vitro assays for propagating and analysing normal and cancer stem cells. Whether the spheres derived from different sources or parent cultures themselves are indeed single entities enriched in stem/progenitor cells compared to other culture formats has not been fully determined. We surveyed sphere-forming capacity across 26 breast cell lines, immunophenotyped spheres from six luminal- and basal-like lines by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry and compared clonogenicity between sphere, adherent and matrigel culture formats using in vitro functional assays. Analyses revealed morphological and molecular intra- and inter-sphere heterogeneity, consistent with adherent parental cell line phenotypes. Flow cytometry showed sphere culture does not universally enrich for markers previously associated with stem cell phenotypes, although we found some cell-line specific changes between sphere and adherent formats. Sphere-forming efficiency was significantly lower than adherent or matrigel clonogenicity and constant over serial passage. Surprisingly, self-renewal capacity of sphere-derived cells was similar/lower than other culture formats. We observed significant correlation between long-term-proliferating-cell symmetric division rates in sphere and adherent cultures, suggesting functional overlap between the compartments sustaining them. Experiments with normal primary human mammary epithelia, including sorted luminal (MUC1+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+) cells revealed distinct luminal-like, basal-like and mesenchymal entities amongst primary mammospheres. Morphological and colony-forming-cell assay data suggested mammosphere culture may enrich for a luminal progenitor phenotype, or induce reversion/relaxation of the basal/mesenchymal in vitro selection occurring with adherent culture. Overall, cell line tumourspheres and primary mammospheres are not homogenous entities enriched for stem cells, suggesting a more cautious approach to interpreting data from these assays and careful consideration of its limitations. Sphere culture may represent an alternative 3-dimensional culture system which rather than universally ‘enriching’ for stem cells, has utility as one of a suite of functional assays that provide a read-out of progenitor activity. PMID:23750209

Vargas, Ana Cristina; Keith, Patricia; Reid, Lynne; Wockner, Leesa; Amiri, Marjan Askarian; Sarkar, Debina; Simpson, Peter T.; Clarke, Catherine; Schmidt, Chris W.; Reynolds, Brent A.

2013-01-01

344

Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Transfection Increases Orthotopic Primary Growth and Experimental Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells in Nude Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to activate pro-matrix metalloproteinase (pro-MMP)-2 via membrane type-MMP is a hallmark of human breast cancer cell lines that show increased invasiveness, suggesting that MMP-2 contributes to hu- man breast cancer progression. To investigate this, we have stably trans- fected pro-MMP-2 into the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, which lacks MMP-2 expression but does express its cell surface

Angus M. Tester; Mark Waltham; Se-Jeong Oh; Seog-Nyeon Bae; Margaret M. Bills; Emma C. Walker; Francis G. Kern; William G. Stetler-Stevenson; Marc E. Lippman; Erik W. Thompson

2004-01-01

345

Neoplastic transformation of human breast epithelial cells by estrogens and chemical carcinogens.  

PubMed

Sporadic breast cancer, the most common cancer diagnosed in American and Northern European women, is gradually increasing in incidence in most Western countries. Prevention would be the most efficient way of eradicating this disease. This goal, however, cannot be accomplished until the specific agent(s) or mechanisms that initiate the neoplastic process are identified. Experimental studies have demonstrated that mammary cancer is a hormone-dependent multistep process that can be induced by a variety of compounds and mechanisms, that is, hormones, chemicals, radiation, and viruses, in addition to or in combination with genetic factors. Although estrogens have been shown to play a central role in breast cancer development, their carcinogenicity on human breast epithelial cells (HBECs) has not yet been clearly demonstrated. Breast cancer initiates in the undifferentiated lobules type 1, which are composed of three cell types: highly proliferating cells that are estrogen-receptor negative (ER-), nonproliferating cells that are ER positive (ER+), and very few (<1%) ER+ cells that proliferate. Interestingly, endogenous 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme isoforms CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which also activate benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a carcinogen contained in cigarette smoke. We postulate that if estrogens are carcinogenic in HBECs, they should induce the same transformation phenotypes induced by chemical carcinogens and ultimately genomic changes observed in spontaneously developing primary breast cancers. To test this hypothesis we compared the transforming potential of E(2) on the HBEC MCF-10F with that of B[a]P. Both E(2) and B[a]P induced anchorage-independent growth, colony formation in agar methocel, and loss of ductulogenic capacity in collagen gel, all parameters indicative of cell transformation. In addition, the DNA of E(2)-transformed cells expressed LOH in chromosome 11 at 11q23.3, 11q24.2-q25, and LOH at 13q12-q13. B[a]P-induced cell transformation was also associated with LOH at 13q12-q13 and at 17p13.2. The relevance of these findings is highlighted by the observation that E(2)- and B[a]P-induced genomic alterations in the same loci found in ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. PMID:11921196

Russo, Jose; Tahin, Quivo; Lareef, M Hasan; Hu, Yun-Fu; Russo, Irma H

2002-01-01

346

Digitoxin activates EGR1 and synergizes with paclitaxel on human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous studies have suggested that digitalis derivatives promise to be superior to existing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer as to effects and side-effects. In the present study, we have used gene expression analysis to determine the molecular action of digitoxin on breast cancer cells and assessed digitoxin’s ability to synergize with the chemotherapy agent paclitaxel with respect to inhibition of cell proliferation Materials and Methods: We treated (Her2 overexpressing, ER low) MDA-MB-453 human breast cancer cells with digitoxin at four doses {20 ng/ml (26 nM) to 1 ?g/ml} and collected RNA at 6 h and 24 h for gene expression analysis. To examine the effects on ER positive cells, we treated MCF7 cells with digitoxin at 1 ?g/ml and collected RNA for RT-PCR analysis. In addition, we assayed the growth inhibitory effect of low doses of digitoxin combined with paclitaxel and determined combination index values. Results: To reveal primary effects, we examined digitoxin’s effect 6 h post-treatment with the highest dose, 1?g/ml, and found upregulation of the stress response genes EGR-1 and NAB2, lipid biosynthetic genes and the tumor suppressor gene p21, and downregulation of the mitotic cell cycle gene CDC16 and the replication gene PolR3B. RT-PCR analysis validated effects on stress response, apoptotic and cell cycle genes on MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed induction of EGR1 protein at 1 h and ATF3 at 24 h. Paclitaxel, as well as digitoxin, inhibited the in vitro activity of the purified Na+-K+-ATPase; digitoxin enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of paclitaxel on Her2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Conclusions: Our studies show the potential of digitoxin to prevent and treat breast cancer and indicate that the combination of digitoxin and paclitaxel is a promising treatment for ER negative breast cancer. These findings are the first to alert physicians to the possible dangers to patients who take a combination of digitoxin and paclitaxel. The potential dangers ensuing when paclitaxel and digitoxin are combined are dependent on the dose of digitoxin. PMID:21139994

Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wu, Hsan-au; Su, Tao; Chang, Tangel; Panjikaran, Maya; Wang, Xiaomei; Goldsberry, Sarah

2010-01-01

347

Regulation of Heat Shock Proteins by miRNAs in Human Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

Metabolic rates of cancer cells are faster compared to normal cells. This faster rate yields aberrant protein folding and causes loss of protein function. Therefore, cancer cells need more Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) for proper substrate- protein folding on oncogenic pathways. Pseudogenes regulate tumor suppressors and oncogenes, and pseudogenes are deregulated in cancer progression. Further, alterations in miRNA expression have been identified in different cancer types. MiRNAs also have both oncogenic and tumour-suppressive roles in breast cancer post-transcriptional gene regulation. Breast cancer is a genetic disease and we performed miRNA analysis in human breast cancer cell lines to identify miRNAs in association with HSPs and pseudogenes by employing CellMiner; a web-based suite. CellMiner integrates several databases and help analysing microarray metadata. The experimental data provide a platform for researchers to compare macromolecules' relationships in NCI-60 cell lines. Breast cancer associated miRNAs gathered from literature and analyzed by employing this suite, significantly correlated HSP genes and pseudogenes in the breast cancer are determined as; HSPA13, HSP90AB1, TRAP1, HSPB1, DNAJB4, HSPD1 and HSP90AA4P, HSPB1P1, DNAJC8P1, HSPD1P9 respectively. HSPs involved in breast cancer are regulated by several miRNAs and miRNA regulators from CellMiner data found as hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-22, hsa-miR-93, hsa-miR-106a, hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-130a, and hsamiR- 141. Cross check of the determined miRNAs and target HSPs was performed by target site prediction software. Comparison of the experimental data from CellMiner and software predicted data indicate differences. CellMiner data provide a vast miRNA types compared to prediction softwares-web tools data and reported miRNAs in the literature. Therefore, reported key miRNAs in this work that are not studied earlier may help cancer researchers to uncover novel posttranslational regulation mechanisms. Cancer cells use HSP network as an escape mechanism from apoptosis, therefore inhibition of associated HSPs by modulating miRNAs may provide a novel therapy for the tumorigenesis. PMID:25541910

Ozgur, Aykut; Tutar, Lutfi; Tutar, Yusuf

2015-01-01

348

Cytotoxicity of Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as an antimicrobial and disinfectant agents. However, there is limited information about antitumor potential. Therefore, this study focused on determining cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and its mechanism of cell death. Herein, we developed a green method for synthesis of AgNPs using culture supernatant of Bacillus funiculus, and synthesized AgNPs were characterized by various analytical techniques such as UV-visible spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The toxicity was evaluated using cell viability, metabolic activity, and oxidative stress. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of AgNPs (5 to 25??g/mL) for 24?h. We found that AgNPs inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner using MTT assay. AgNPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells through activation of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), caspase-3, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, eventually leading to induction of apoptosis which was further confirmed through resulting nuclear fragmentation. The present results showed that AgNPs might be a potential alternative agent for human breast cancer therapy. PMID:23936814

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Jeyaraj, Muniyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2013-01-01

349

Nordamnacanthal potentiates the cytotoxic effects of tamoxifen in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Tamoxifen (TAM) is the mainline drug treatment for breast cancer, despite its side effects and the development of resistance. As an alternative approach, in the present study a novel combination therapy was established through combining TAM with nordamnacanthal (NDAM) in order to investigate the additive effect of these drugs in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A significant dose-dependent reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis were observed in the MCF-7 cells cotreated with TAM and NDAM compared with the untreated control cells or the cells treated with TAM and NDAM alone (P<0.05). The cytotoxic influence of the combination of TAM and NDAM was found to be two-fold that of the individual agents. Annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining revealed the typical nuclear features of apoptosis. Furthermore, an increase in the proportion of apoptotic, Annexin V-positive cells was observed with the combination therapy. Moreover, this apoptotic induction was associated with a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the generation of reactive oxygen species. To the best of our knowledge, the findings of the present study are the first to suggest that combining TAM with NDAM may be a potential combination therapy for the treatment of breast cancer and may have the potential to minimize or eliminate the side effects associated with high doses of TAM. PMID:25435988

SUBRAMANI, TAMILSELVAN; YEAP, SWEE KEONG; HO, WAN YANG; HO, CHAI LING; OSMAN, CHE PUTEH; ISMAIL, NOR HADIANI; RAHMAN, NIK MOHD AFIZAN NIK ABDUL; ALITHEEN, NOORJAHAN BANU

2015-01-01

350

Nordamnacanthal potentiates the cytotoxic effects of tamoxifen in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Tamoxifen (TAM) is the mainline drug treatment for breast cancer, despite its side effects and the development of resistance. As an alternative approach, in the present study a novel combination therapy was established through combining TAM with nordamnacanthal (NDAM) in order to investigate the additive effect of these drugs in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A significant dose-dependent reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis were observed in the MCF-7 cells cotreated with TAM and NDAM compared with the untreated control cells or the cells treated with TAM and NDAM alone (P<0.05). The cytotoxic influence of the combination of TAM and NDAM was found to be two-fold that of the individual agents. Annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining revealed the typical nuclear features of apoptosis. Furthermore, an increase in the proportion of apoptotic, Annexin V-positive cells was observed with the combination therapy. Moreover, this apoptotic induction was associated with a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the generation of reactive oxygen species. To the best of our knowledge, the findings of the present study are the first to suggest that combining TAM with NDAM may be a potential combination therapy for the treatment of breast cancer and may have the potential to minimize or eliminate the side effects associated with high doses of TAM. PMID:25435988

Subramani, Tamilselvan; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yang; Ho, Chai Ling; Osman, Che Puteh; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan Nik Abdul; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2015-01-01

351

Synergistic effects of retinoic acid and tamoxifen on human breast cancer cells: Proteomic characterization  

SciTech Connect

The anti-estrogen tamoxifen and vitamin A-related compound, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), in combination act synergistically to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In the present study, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic approach to globally analyze this synergistic effect of RA and tamoxifen. Proteomic study revealed that multiple clusters of proteins were involved in RA and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, including post-transcriptional and splicing factors, proteins related to cellular proliferation or differentiation, and proteins related to energy production and internal degradation systems. The negative growth factor-transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF{beta}) was secreted by RA and/or tamoxifen treatment and was studies as a potential mediator of the synergistic effects of RA and tamoxifen in apoptosis. By comparing protein alterations in treatments of RA and tamoxifen alone or in combination to those of TGF{beta} treatment, or co-treatment with TGF{beta} inhibitor SB 431542, proteomic results showed that a number of proteins were involved in TGF{beta} signaling pathway. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of RA and tamoxifen-induced TGF{beta} signaling pathway in breast cancer cells.

Wang Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); He Qingyu [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Chen Hongming [Department of Biochemistry, University of Vermont, College of Medicine, Burlington 05405 (United States); Chiu Jenfu [Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China) and Department of Biochemistry, University of Vermont, College of Medicine, Burlington 05405 (United States)]. E-mail: jfchiu@hkucc.hku.hk

2007-01-15

352

Pertuzumab in human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: clinical and economic considerations  

PubMed Central

In the absence of specific therapy, the 15%–20% of breast cancers demonstrating human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein overexpression and/or gene amplification are characterized by a more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis compared to their HER2-negative counterparts. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), the first anti-HER2-targeted therapy, has been associated with improved survival outcomes in HER2-positive breast cancer. However, many patients with early stage disease continue to relapse, and metastatic disease remains incurable. In order to further improve these outcomes, several novel HER2-targeted agents have recently been developed. Pertuzumab (Perjeta), a monoclonal antibody against the HER2 dimerization domain, has also been associated with improved patient outcomes in clinical trials, and has recently been approved in combination with chemotherapy and trastuzumab for neoadjuvant therapy of early stage, HER2-positive breast cancer and first-line treatment of metastatic disease. This review briefly summarizes pertuzumab’s clinical development as well as the published evidence supporting its use, and highlights some of the currently unanswered questions that will influence pertuzumab’s incorporation into clinical practice. PMID:24876795

Lamond, Nathan WD; Younis, Tallal

2014-01-01

353

Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia, HCFM/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil)

2012-05-17

354

Cytotoxic activity of nemorosone in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists have been widely used for breast cancer treatment; however, patients have increasingly shown resistance and sensitivity to the high toxicity of these drugs, and identification of novel targeted therapies is therefore required. To determine whether nemorosone, a polycyclic polyisoprenylated benzophenone isolated from floral resins of Clusia rosea Jacq. and Cuban propolis samples, exerts anticancer effects on human breast cancer cells, estrogen receptor positive (ER?+) MCF-7 and estrogen receptor negative (ER?-) MDA-MB-231 and LNCaP cells were used. Cells were treated with nemorosone alone or in association with 17?-estradiol (E2) or an ER antagonist, ICI 182,780, a selective ER downregulator that completely abrogates estrogen-sensitiv