Science.gov

Sample records for tabular list-format matrix

  1. The time-dependent reorderable matrix method for visualizing evolving tabular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qeli, Ermir; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Freisleben, Bernd

    2005-03-01

    The reorderable matrix method is a convenient way of representing static tabular data (i.e. matrices) visually. In this paper, we present an approach to use the reorderable matrix method for visualizing time-varying matrix data. Solutions to the problems encountered during the adaptation of this visualization method for time-varying matrices and proposals to solve the problems related to the automatic reordering of static tabular data are discussed. The approach is illustrated by visualizing sensitivity matrices generated during the simulation of metabolic network models.

  2. Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O) DISambiguation Elimination via Siegel-Baez Cognition Category-Semantics(C-S) in Siegel FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (Son of TRIZ)/(F=C) Tabular List-Format Dichotomy Truth-Table Matrix Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Carl Ludwig; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    NOT "philosophy" per se but raising serious salient Arnol'd [Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke(96)] questions begged is Rota empiricism Husserl VS. Frege maths-objects Dichotomy controversy: Hill-Haddock[Husserl or Frege?(00)]as manifestly-demonstrated by Hintikka[B.U.]-Critchey[Derrida Deconstruction Ethics(78)] deconstruction; Altshuler TRIZ; Siegel F=C/C-S; Siegel-Baez(UCR) Cognition C-S = "Category-theory ``+'' Cognitive-Semantics[Wierzbica-Langacker-Lakoff-Nunez[Where Maths Comes From(00)]-Fauconnier-Turner[Blending(98)]-Coulson[Semantic-Leaps (00)

  3. Users' guide for the tabular display report generator program (TABDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braley, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The tabular display report generator (TABDIS) program is described. The program functions as a document generation tool that provides tabular displays of data stored on a data file which has been generated by a user program. The main features of the program are outlined and all necessary inputs are detailed.

  4. 1 CFR 18.10 - Illustrations, tabular material, and forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrations, tabular material, and forms. 18... Illustrations, tabular material, and forms. (a) If it is necessary to publish a form or illustration, a clear and legible original form or illustration, or a clear and completely legible...

  5. 1 CFR 18.10 - Illustrations, tabular material, and forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrations, tabular material, and forms. 18... Illustrations, tabular material, and forms. (a) If it is necessary to publish a form or illustration, a clear and legible original form or illustration, or a clear and completely legible...

  6. Revisiting Bertin Matrices: New Interactions for Crafting Tabular Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Perin, Charles; Dragicevic, Pierre; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present Bertifier, a web app for rapidly creating tabular visualizations from spreadsheets. Bertifier draws from Jacques Bertin's matrix analysis method, whose goal was to "simplify without destroying" by encoding cell values visually and grouping similar rows and columns. Although there were several attempts to bring this method to computers, no implementation exists today that is both exhaustive and accessible to a large audience. Bertifier remains faithful to Bertin's method while leveraging the power of today's interactive computers. Tables are formatted and manipulated through crossets, a new interaction technique for rapidly applying operations on rows and columns. We also introduce visual reordering, a semi-interactive reordering approach that lets users apply and tune automatic reordering algorithms in a WYSIWYG manner. Sessions with eight users from different backgrounds suggest that Bertifier has the potential to bring Bertin's method to a wider audience of both technical and non-technical users, and empower them with data analysis and communication tools that were so far only accessible to a handful of specialists. PMID:26356922

  7. A new model for tabular-type uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Tabular-type uranium deposits occur as tabular, originally subhorizontal bodies entirely within reduced fluvial sandstones of Late Silurian age or younger. This paper proposes that belts of tabular-type uranium deposits formed in areas of mixed local and regional groundwater discharge shortly after deposition of the host sediments. The general characteristics of tabular-type uranium deposits indicate that their essential feature was the formation at a density-stratified ground-water interface in areas of local and regional ground-water discharge. Reconstruction of the paleohydrogeology is the key to understanding the formation of these deposits. Geologic ground-water controls that favor discharge, such as the pinch-out of major aquifers, are also favorable for uranium ore. The combination of topographic and geologic features that both cause discharge is most favorable for ore deposition. -from Author

  8. Interpretation of Magnetic Phase Anomalies over 2D Tabular Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, phase angle (inverse tangent of the ratio of the horizontal to vertical gradients of magnetic anomalies) profile over two-dimensional tabular bodies has been subjected to detailed analysis for determining the source parameters. Distances between certain characteristic positions on this phase curve are related to the parameters of two-dimensional tabular magnetic sources. In this paper, I have derived the mathematical expressions for these relations. It has been demonstrated here that for locating the origin of the 2D tabular source, knowledge on the type of the model (contact, sheet, dyke, and fault) is not necessary. A procedure is evolved to determine the location, depth, width and magnetization angle of the 2D sources from the mathematical expressions. The method is tested on real field data. The effect of the overlapping bodies is also discussed with two synthetic examples. The interpretation technique is developed for contact, sheet, dike and inclined fault bodies.

  9. Min-cut segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian L.; Barrett, William A.; Swingle, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Handwritten tabular documents, such as census, birth, death and marriage records, contain a wealth of information vital to genealogical and related research. Much work has been done in segmenting freeform handwriting, however, segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents is still an unsolved problem. Tabular documents present unique segmentation challenges caused by handwriting overlapping cell-boundaries and other words, both horizontally and vertically, as "ascenders" and "descenders" overlap into adjacent cells. This paper presents a method for segmenting handwriting in tabular documents using a min-cut/max-flow algorithm on a graph formed from a distance map and connected components of handwriting. Specifically, we focus on line, word and first letter segmentation. Additionally, we include the angles of strokes of the handwriting as a third dimension to our graph to enable the resulting segments to share pixels of overlapping letters. Word segmentation accuracy is 89.5% evaluating lines of the data set used in the ICDAR2013 Handwriting Segmentation Contest. Accuracy is 92.6% for a specific application of segmenting first and last names from noisy census records. Accuracy for segmenting lines of names from noisy census records is 80.7%. The 3D graph cutting shows promise in segmenting overlapping letters, although highly convoluted or overlapping handwriting remains an ongoing challenge.

  10. Network-Based Visual Analysis of Tabular Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhicheng

    2012-01-01

    Tabular data is pervasive in the form of spreadsheets and relational databases. Although tables often describe multivariate data without explicit network semantics, it may be advantageous to explore the data modeled as a graph or network for analysis. Even when a given table design conveys some static network semantics, analysts may want to look…

  11. MCNP/X TRANSPORT IN THE TABULAR REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    HUGHES, H. GRADY

    2007-01-08

    The authors review the transport capabilities of the MCNP and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes in the energy regimes in which tabular transport data are available. Giving special attention to neutron tables, they emphasize the measures taken to improve the treatment of a variety of difficult aspects of the transport problem, including unresolved resonances, thermal issues, and the availability of suitable cross sections sets. They also briefly touch on the current situation in regard to photon, electron, and proton transport tables.

  12. Analysis of the dynamics of the vibratory tabular valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragulskis, Kazimieras; Naginevicius, Vytenis; Palevicius, Arvydas; Palevicius, Ramutis

    2008-03-01

    Construction of a novel vibratory tabular valve- and its design optimization is presented in the paper. The principle of the system operation is based on the effect of dynamic positioning of a steel ball in a vibrating tube. Theoretical analysis of the stability of this non-linear system is coupled together with the experimental study of an operating valve. Laser holographic interferometry is used for the identification and optimization of working regimes of the system.

  13. ERDDAP - A Brokering Data Server for Gridded and Tabular Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, R. A.; Mendelssohn, R.

    2012-12-01

    ERDDAP is an open-source data server that gives users a simple, consistent way (OPeNDAP requests) to download subsets of scientific datasets in common file formats and make graphs and maps. ERDDAP is a middle man (a broker) between users and various remote data services (and also local databases and files). Using just two internal structures for datasets (multi-dimensional grids and database-like tables) makes the problem manageable and also works well with OPeNDAP's projection constraints (for gridded data) and selection constraints (for tabular/sequence data).;

  14. Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughin, Ian; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2005-01-01

    We used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar to study the detachment process that allowed two large icebergs to calve from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Time series of rift geometries indicate that rift widths increased steadily, whereas rift lengths increased episodically through several discrete rift-tip propagation events. We also conducted modeling experiments constrained by the observed rift geometry. Both the observations and model suggest that rift opening, and, thus, tabular-iceberg calving, are largely driven by ``glaciological'' stresses-stress introduced by the effect of gravity on the ice shelf-rather than by stress introduced by the ocean and atmosphere, e.g., tides and storms. This style of rift propagation is expected to determine the steady, background calving rate of ice shelves and, thus, differs significantly from styles that led to the recent disintegration of ice shelves in response to climate warming, e.g., the Larsen B Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula.

  15. Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, P.; Wagner, T. M.; Bates, R.

    2012-12-01

    Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg Peter Wadhams (1), Till J W Wagner(1) and Richard Bates(2) (1) Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK (2) Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland KY16 9AL We present observational results from an experiment carried out during July-August 2012 on a giant grounded tabular iceberg off Baffin Island. The iceberg studied was part of the Petermann Ice Island B1 (PIIB1) which calved off the Petermann Glacier in NW Greenland in 2010. Since 2011 it has been aground in 100 m of water on the Baffin Island shelf at 69 deg 06'N, 66 deg 06'W. As part of the project a set of high resolution GPS sensors and tiltmeters was placed on the ice island to record rigid body motion as well as flexural responses to wind, waves, current and tidal forces, while a Waverider buoy monitored incident waves and swell. On July 31, 2012 a major breakup event was recorded, with a piece of 25,000 sq m surface area calving off the iceberg. At the time of breakup, GPS sensors were collecting data both on the main berg as well as on the newly calved piece, while two of us (PW and TJWW) were standing on the broken-out portion which rose by 0.6 m to achieve a new isostatic equilibrium. Crucially, there was no significant swell at the time of breakup, which suggests a melt-driven decay process rather than wave-driven flexural break-up. The GPS sensors recorded two disturbances during the hour preceding the breakup, indicative of crack growth and propagation. Qualitative observation during the two weeks in which our research ship was moored to, or was close to, the ice island edge indicates that an important mechanism for summer ablation is successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wave cut, which creates a submerged ram fringing the berg. A model of buoyancy stresses induced by such rams indicates that they may have the capability through their moment arm of breaking off moderate-sized bergs, which may be the mechanism through which our smaller berg calved.

  16. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  17. Geosites inventory of the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Wartiti, Mohamed; Malaki, Amina; Zahraoui, Mohamed; El Ghannouchi, Abdelilah; di Gregorio, Felice

    2008-07-01

    Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils that provide key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating methods of site conservation as well as remembering that rocks, minerals, fossils, soils, landforms form an integral part of the natural world. The significance of certain sites for aesthetic or tourism reasons is obvious. There are numerous geosites, which could contribute to effective exploitation of geotourism, often in conjunction with ecotourism. The strategy employed to such sites involves close consultation with all communities in the vicinity of the respective geosite and is not only aimed at tourism and education, but also at sustainable improvement of the infrastructure of the people of this area. Geological heritage sites, properly managed, can generate employment and new economic activities, especially in regions in need of new or additional sources of income.

  18. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  19. Automated Generation of Tabular Equations of State with Uncertainty Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, John H.; Robinson, Allen C.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Mattsson, Ann E.

    2015-06-01

    As computational science pushes toward higher fidelity prediction, understanding the uncertainty associated with closure models, such as the equation of state (EOS), has become a key focus. Traditional EOS development often involves a fair amount of art, where expert modelers may appear as magicians, providing what is felt to be the closest possible representation of the truth. Automation of the development process gives a means by which one may demystify the art of EOS, while simultaneously obtaining uncertainty information in a manner that is both quantifiable and reproducible. We describe our progress on the implementation of such a system to provide tabular EOS tables with uncertainty information to hydrocodes. Key challenges include encoding the artistic expert opinion into an algorithmic form and preserving the analytic models and uncertainty information in a manner that is both accurate and computationally efficient. Results are demonstrated on a multi-phase aluminum model. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state.

    PubMed

    Dilts, Gary A

    2006-06-01

    A valid fluid equation of state (EOS) must satisfy the thermodynamic conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Numerical simulations of compressible fluid flow for realistic materials require a tabular EOS, but typical software interfaces to such tables based on polynomial or rational interpolants may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives. The consistency condition is important for the computation of various dimensionless parameters of an EOS that may involve derivatives of up to second order which are important for the development of more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a table interface based on the tuned regression method, which is derived from a constrained local least-squares regression technique. It is applied to several SESAME EOS showing how the consistency and stability conditions can be satisfied to round-off while computing first and second derivatives with demonstrated second-order convergence. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the method is apparently two orders of magnitude slower, due to the fact that every evaluation requires solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. Application is made to the computation of the fundamental derivative. PMID:16907020

  1. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilts, Gary A.

    2006-06-01

    A valid fluid equation of state (EOS) must satisfy the thermodynamic conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Numerical simulations of compressible fluid flow for realistic materials require a tabular EOS, but typical software interfaces to such tables based on polynomial or rational interpolants may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives. The consistency condition is important for the computation of various dimensionless parameters of an EOS that may involve derivatives of up to second order which are important for the development of more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a table interface based on the tuned regression method, which is derived from a constrained local least-squares regression technique. It is applied to several SESAME EOS showing how the consistency and stability conditions can be satisfied to round-off while computing first and second derivatives with demonstrated second-order convergence. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the method is apparently two orders of magnitude slower, due to the fact that every evaluation requires solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. Application is made to the computation of the fundamental derivative.

  2. Wind-driven upwelling around grounded tabular icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alon A.; Johnson, Eric; Holland, David M.; Wagner, Till J. W.; Wadhams, Peter; Bates, Richard; Abrahamsen, E. Povl; Nicholls, Keith W.; Crawford, Anna; Gagnon, Jonathan; Tremblay, Jean-Eric

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and salinity data collected around grounded tabular icebergs in Baffin Bay in 2011, 2012, and 2013 indicate wind-induced upwelling at certain locations around the icebergs. These data suggest that along one side of the iceberg, wind forcing leads to Ekman transport away from the iceberg, which causes upwelling of the cool saline water from below. The upwelling water mixes with the water above the thermocline, causing the mixed layer to become cooler and more saline. Along the opposite side of the iceberg, the surface Ekman transport moves towards the iceberg, which causes a sharpening of the thermocline as warm fresh water is trapped near the surface. This results in higher mixed layer temperatures and lower mixed layer salinities on this side of the iceberg. Based on these in situ measurements, we hypothesize that the asymmetries in water properties around the iceberg, caused by the opposing effects of upwelling and sharpening of the thermocline, lead to differential deterioration around the iceberg. Analysis of satellite imagery around iceberg PII-B-1 reveals differential decay around the iceberg, in agreement with this mechanism.

  3. Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

  4. Analyzing Tabular and State-Transition Requirements Specifications in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Rushby, John; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    We describe PVS's capabilities for representing tabular specifications of the kind advocated by Parnas and others, and show how PVS's Type Correctness Conditions (TCCs) are used to ensure certain well-formedness properties. We then show how these and other capabilities of PVS can be used to represent the AND/OR tables of Leveson and the Decision Tables of Sherry, and we demonstrate how PVS's TCCs can expose and help isolate errors in the latter. We extend this approach to represent the mode transition tables of the Software Cost Reduction (SCR) method in an attractive manner. We show how PVS can check these tables for well-formedness, and how PVS's model checking capabilities can be used to verify invariants and reachability properties of SCR requirements specifications, and inclusion relations between the behaviors of different specifications. These examples demonstrate how several capabilities of the PVS language and verification system can be used in combination to provide customized support for specific methodologies for documenting and analyzing requirements. Because they use only the standard capabilities of PVS, users can adapt and extend these customizations to suit their own needs. Those developing dedicated tools for individual methodologies may find these constructions in PVS helpful for prototyping purposes, or as a useful adjunct to a dedicated tool when the capabilities of a full theorem prover are required. The examples also illustrate the power and utility of an integrated general-purpose system such as PVS. For example, there was no need to adapt or extend the PVS model checker to make it work with SCR specifications described using the PVS TABLE construct: the model checker is applicable to any transition relation, independently of the PVS language constructs used in its definition.

  5. The functional role of tabular structures for large reef fishes: avoiding predators or solar irradiance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Large reef fishes may often be seen sheltering under tabular structures on coral reefs. There are two principle explanations for this behaviour: avoidance of predation or avoidance of solar irradiance. This study sought supporting evidence to distinguish between these two explanations by examining the usage of tabular structures on a shallow mid-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef at midday and sunset. If predation avoidance is most important, usage should increase towards sunset; conversely, if avoidance of solar radiation is most important, more fishes should use cover at midday. Underwater video observations revealed that tabular structures were extensively used by large reef fishes at midday, being characterised by numerous species, especially Lutjanidae and Haemulidae. In contrast, at sunset, tabular structures were used by significantly fewer large reef fishes, being characterised mostly by species of unicornfish ( Naso spp.). Resident times of fishes using tabular structures were also significantly longer at midday (28:06 ± 5:55 min) than at sunset (07:47 ± 2:19 min). The results suggest that the primary function of tabular structures for large reef fishes is the avoidance of solar irradiance. This suggestion is supported by the position of fishes when sheltering. The majority of large reef fishes were found to shelter under the lip of tabular structure, facing outwards. This behaviour is thought to allow protection from harmful downwelling UV-B irradiance while allowing the fish to retain photopic vision and survey more of the surrounding area. These findings help to explain the importance of tabular structures for large reef fishes on coral reefs, potentially providing a valuable energetic refuge from solar irradiance.

  6. Do tabular corals constitute keystone structures for fishes on coral reefs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the changes in community composition of reef fishes by experimentally manipulating the availability of shelter provided by tabular structures on a mid-shelf reef on the Great Barrier Reef. At locations where access to tabular corals ( Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora cytherea) was excluded, a rapid and sustained reduction in the abundance of large reef fishes occurred. At locations where tabular structure was added, the abundance and diversity of large reef fishes increased and the abundance of small reef fishes tended to decrease, although over a longer time frame. Based on their response to changes in the availability of tabular structures, nine families of large reef fishes were separated into three categories; designated as obligate, facultative or non-structure users. This relationship may relate to the particular ecological demands of each family, including avoidance of predation and ultraviolet radiation, access to feeding areas and reef navigation. This study highlights the importance of tabular corals for large reef fishes in shallow reef environments and provides a possible mechanism for local changes in the abundance of reef fishes following loss of structural complexity on coral reefs. Keystone structures have a distinct structure and disproportionate effect on their ecosystem relative to their abundance, as such the result of this study suggests tabular corals may constitute keystone structures on shallow coral reefs.

  7. 9 CFR 205.102 - Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format. 205.102 Section 205.102 Animals and Animal... appear as follows: (a) In the case of a natural person, the surname (last name or family name)...

  8. 9 CFR 205.102 - Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format. 205.102 Section 205.102 Animals and Animal... appear as follows: (a) In the case of a natural person, the surname (last name or family name)...

  9. 9 CFR 205.102 - Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format. 205.102 Section 205.102 Animals and Animal... appear as follows: (a) In the case of a natural person, the surname (last name or family name)...

  10. 9 CFR 205.102 - Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format. 205.102 Section 205.102 Animals and Animal... appear as follows: (a) In the case of a natural person, the surname (last name or family name)...

  11. 9 CFR 205.102 - Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Name of person subjecting a farm product to a security interest, on EFS and master list-format. 205.102 Section 205.102 Animals and Animal... appear as follows: (a) In the case of a natural person, the surname (last name or family name)...

  12. Automated recognition and extraction of tabular fields for the indexing of census records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clawson, Robert; Bauer, Kevin; Chidester, Glen; Pohontsch, Milan; Kennard, Douglas; Ryu, Jongha; Barrett, William

    2013-01-01

    We describe a system for indexing of census records in tabular documents with the goal of recognizing the content of each cell, including both headers and handwritten entries. Each document is automatically rectified, registered and scaled to a known template following which lines and fields are detected and delimited as cells in a tabular form. Whole-word or whole-phrase recognition of noisy machine-printed text is performed using a glyph library, providing greatly increased efficiency and accuracy (approaching 100%), while avoiding the problems inherent with traditional OCR approaches. Constrained handwriting recognition results for a single author reach as high as 98% and 94.5% for the Gender field and Birthplace respectively. Multi-author accuracy (currently 82%) can be improved through an increased training set. Active integration of user feedback in the system will accelerate the indexing of records while providing a tightly coupled learning mechanism for system improvement.

  13. Comparison of Neural Networks and Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding for Hyperspectral Signature Classification in Unresolved Object Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, M.; Ritter, G.; Key, R.

    Accurate and computationally efficient spectral signature classification is a crucial step in the nonimaging detection and recognition of spaceborne objects. In classical hyperspectral recognition applications using linear mixing models, signature classification accuracy depends on accurate spectral endmember discrimination [1]. If the endmembers cannot be classified correctly, then the signatures cannot be classified correctly, and object recognition from hyperspectral data will be inaccurate. In practice, the number of endmembers accurately classified often depends linearly on the number of inputs. This can lead to potentially severe classification errors in the presence of noise or densely interleaved signatures. In this paper, we present an comparison of emerging technologies for nonimaging spectral signature classfication based on a highly accurate, efficient search engine called Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding (TNE) [3,4] and a neural network technology called Morphological Neural Networks (MNNs) [5]. Based on prior results, TNE can optimize its classifier performance to track input nonergodicities, as well as yield measures of confidence or caution for evaluation of classification results. Unlike neural networks, TNE does not have a hidden intermediate data structure (e.g., the neural net weight matrix). Instead, TNE generates and exploits a user-accessible data structure called the agreement map (AM), which can be manipulated by Boolean logic operations to effect accurate classifier refinement algorithms. The open architecture and programmability of TNE's agreement map processing allows a TNE programmer or user to determine classification accuracy, as well as characterize in detail the signatures for which TNE did not obtain classification matches, and why such mis-matches occurred. In this study, we will compare TNE and MNN based endmember classification, using performance metrics such as probability of correct classification (Pd) and rate of false detections (Rfa). As proof of principle, we analyze classification of multiple closely spaced signatures from a NASA database of space material signatures. Additional analysis pertains to computational complexity and noise sensitivity, which are superior to Bayesian techniques based on classical neural networks. [1] Winter, M.E. "Fast autonomous spectral end-member determination in hyperspectral data," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference On Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 337-44 (1999). [2] N. Keshava, "A survey of spectral unmixing algorithms," Lincoln Laboratory Journal 14:55-78 (2003). [3] Key, G., M.S. SCHMALZ, F.M. Caimi, and G.X. Ritter. "Performance analysis of tabular nearest neighbor encoding algorithm for joint compression and ATR", in Proceedings SPIE 3814:115-126 (1999). [4] Schmalz, M.S. and G. Key. "Algorithms for hyperspectral signature classification in unresolved object detection using tabular nearest neighbor encoding" in Proceedings of the 2007 AMOS Conference, Maui HI (2007). [5] Ritter, G.X., G. Urcid, and M.S. Schmalz. "Autonomous single-pass endmember approximation using lattice auto-associative memories", Neurocomputing (Elsevier), accepted (June 2008).

  14. Hydrogeology of an ancient arid closed basin: Implications for tabular sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, R.F. )

    1990-11-01

    Hydrogeologic modeling shows that tabular-type uranium deposits in the grants uranium region of the San Juan basin, New Mexico, formed in zones of ascending and discharging regional ground-water flow. The association of either lacustrine mudstone or actively subsiding structures and uranium deposits can best be explained by the occurrence of lakes at topographic depressions where ground water having different sources and compositions is likely to converge, mix, and discharge. Ascending and discharging flow also explains the association of uranium deposits with underlying evaporites and suggests a brine interface. The simulations contradict previous suggestions that ground water moved downward in the mudflat.

  15. The breakup of large tabular icebergs - direct observations and theoretical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, P.

    2013-12-01

    Peter Wadhams and Till Wagner Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP), University of Cambridge. We review the factors governing the stability, dynamics and decay of icebergs and describe areas where current models are inadequate. These include questions such as draft changes in capsizing icebergs; iceberg trajectory modelling; the melt rate of the ice underside and ways of reducing it; and wave-induced flexure and its role in the break-up of tabular icebergs. In July 2012 the authors worked on a very large (42 sq km) tabular iceberg in Baffin Bay, which had calved from the Petermann Glacier in NW Greenland. We measured incoming swell spectrum and the iceberg response; also the role of buoyancy forces due to erosion of a waterline wave cut and the creation of an underwater ram. The iceberg broke up while we were on it, allowing an instrumental measurement of the calving event. The experiments were included in the BBC-2 film 'Operation Iceberg' shown on Nov 1 2012 and repeated on Nov 18. We conclude that two processes interacted in the break-up event: increased bending stress due to buoyancy of underwater rams; and direct flexural strain due to incidence of ocean swell. Implications for icebergs in the open sea are estimated.

  16. A quantitative model of ground-water flow during formation of tabular sandstone uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a quantitative simulation of regional groundwater flow during uranium deposition in the Westwater Canyon Member and Jackpile Sandstone Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin. Topographic slope, shoreline position, and density contrasts in the lake and pore fluids controlled the directions of flow and recharge-discharge areas. The most important results for uranium ore deposit formation are that regional groundwater discharged throughout the basin, regional discharge was concentrated along the shore line or playa margin, flow was dominantly gravity driven, and compaction dewatering was negligible. A strong association is found between the tabular sandstone uranium deposits and major inferred zones of mixed local and regional groundwater discharge. -from Author

  17. A Simple Tool for Integration and Differentiation of Tabular Values in Microsoft Excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2011-12-01

    There are many software alternatives for analyzing experimental data in our physics teaching. I prefer to use Excel® because of its flexibility and widespread use elsewhere in our society. Whatever our students will work with in their future career, they almost certainly will have access to a spreadsheet. For a long time I have missed a tool for integrating and differentiating tabular values in Excel. For every new version I thought it would appear, but it did not. Such a tool could also be useful if you analyze data from other sources than your own experiment, for example, data from the Internet. Therefore, I have written a simple tool that can be integrated seamlessly into Excel as an add-in. It is written in Excels powerful macro language Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications. The tool can be downloaded online and there are two versions of it: one for Excel 2003 and one for Excel 2007/2010.

  18. CAP: A Computer Code for Generating Tabular Thermodynamic Functions from NASA Lewis Coefficients. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.

    2002-01-01

    For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.

  19. CAP: A Computer Code for Generating Tabular Thermodynamic Functions from NASA Lewis Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.

    2001-01-01

    For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.

  20. Tabular water properties interface for Hydra-TH : CASL THM.CFD.P6.03 milestone report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Noel

    2013-04-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P6.03 provides a tabular material properties capability to the Hydra code. A tabular interpolation package used in Sandia codes was modified to support the needs of multi-phase solvers in Hydra. Use of the interface is described. The package was released to Hydra under a government use license. A dummy physics was created in Hydra to prototype use of the interpolation routines. Finally, a test using the dummy physics verifies the correct behavior of the interpolation for a test water table. 3

  1. Calcium-doped ceria/titanate tabular functional nanocomposite by layer-by-layer coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiang W.; Devaraju, M.K.; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2010-07-15

    Ca-doped ceria (CDC)/tabular titanate (K{sub 0.8}Li{sub 0.27}Ti{sub 1.73}O{sub 4}, TT) UV-shielding functional nanocomposite with fairly uniform CDC coating layers was prepared through a polyelectrolyte-associated layer-by-layer (LbL) coating method. TT with lepidocrocite-like layered structure was used as the substrate, poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used as a coupling agent, CDC nanoparticles were used as the main UV-shielding component. CDC/TT nanocomposites with various coating layers of CDC were obtained through a multistep coating process. The phases were studied by X-ray diffraction. The morphology and coating quality were studied by scanning electron microscopy and element mapping of energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The oxidation catalytic activity, UV-shielding ability and using comfort were characterized by Rancimat test, UV-vis spectra and dynamic friction test, respectively. CDC/TT nanocomposites with low oxidation catalytic activity, high UV-shielding ability and good using comfort were finally obtained. - Graphical abstract: Through the control of surface charge of particles calcium-doped ceria/titanate composites with low oxidation catalytic activity, higher UV-shielding ability and excellent comfort was obtained by a facile layer-by-layer coating method.

  2. Giant Tabular Icebergs as Surrogate Ice Shelves in Field Studies of Antarctica's Response to Environmental Warming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Thom, J.; Bliss, A.

    2003-12-01

    The past 3 years have witnessed approximately 6000 km3 of ice calved from the Antarctic ice sheet as a handful of extremely large tabular icebergs in the Ross and Weddell Seas. Several of these icebergs are comparable to many of the smaller, fringing ice shelves that surround the continent, and which have become the subject of concern since the recent sudden break-up of Larsen B ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula. While the drift and melting of these giant icebergs over the coming decades will undoubtedly have some impact on oceanic conditions beyond the Antarctic, the principal interest in these great wandering ice masses is motivated by the "natural experiments" their evolution in response to northward drift entails. In particular, the melting (both surficial and basal) and fragmentation of these icebergs in response to warmer conditions encountered in the Southern Ocean beyond Antarctica may closely resemble the effects future climate change may have on the stationary ice shelves along the coast of Antarctica. In recognition of this opportunity, we have been maintaining a suite of instruments, including GPS, automatic weather stations, ice-sounding sonars and seismometers on two icebergs in the Ross Sea (B15a and C16), and intend to place such a suite on the Drygalski Ice Tongue in anticipation of it's future calving (to be performed in October, 2003). Our poster summarizes the observations made so far, and discusses the potential for deploying new sensors and undertaking additional field campaigns to examine how these icebergs will ultimately disintegrate.

  3. Ambient seismic, hydroacoustic, and flexural gravity wave noise on a tabular iceberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Wang, Yitan; Okal, Emile A.

    2015-02-01

    Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise between four seismographs on tabular iceberg C16, Ross Sea, Antarctica, reveals both the source and the propagation characteristics of signals associated with icebergs. We find that noise correlation functions computed from station data are asymmetric about zero time lag, and this indicates that noise observed on the iceberg originates primarily from a compact, localized source associated with iceberg collisions between C16 and a neighboring iceberg, B15A. We additionally find two, and possibly more, distinct phases of noise propagation. We believe that flexural gravity wave propagation dominates the low-frequency noise (>10 s period) and that hydroacoustic wave propagation in the water column between the ice and seabed appears to dominate high-frequency noise (>10 Hz). Faster seismic propagation dominates the intermediate band (2-6 Hz); however, we do not have sufficient data to characterize the wave mechanisms more precisely, e.g., by identifying distinct longitudinal and shear body waves and/or surface waves. Secular changes in the amplitude and timing of ambient noise correlations, e.g., a diurnal cycle and an apparent shift in the noise correlation of fast seismic modes between two periods of the deployment, allow us to speculate that ambient noise correlation analysis may be helpful in understanding the sources and environmental controls on iceberg-generated ocean noise as well as geometric properties (such as water column thickness) of subglacial lakes.

  4. Genesis of the tabular-type vanadium-uranium deposits of the Henry Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Northrop, H.R.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    Tabular-type vanadium-uranium deposits occur in fluvial sandstones of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age The mineralized intervals and the weakly mineralized lateral extensions are bounded both above and below by zones rich in dolomite cement. Carbon isotope values of dolomite cements indicate that at least two sources of carbon existed. One source appears to be the same as that which formed the bedded carbonates in the evaporites in the Tidwell Member of the Morrison Formation stratigraphically below the mineralized interval. The second carbon source is typical of terrestrially deposited carbonates generally associated with meteoric water-dominated environments. Oxygen isotope values of these dolomites show the same trend of isotopically light values above the mineralized interval and isotopically heavier values in and below that interval; they indicate that two isotopically distinct fluids were involved in the mineralizing process. Some aspects of the origin of gangue and ore phases are explainable on the basis of processes which occurred solely within the saline fluid, but key aspects of ore genesis involved the interaction of the saline and meteoric waters. It is postulated that the solution interface migrated vertically within the stratigraphic section. -from Authors

  5. Robert E. Slaughter Research Award 1983. The Effect of Tabular and Graphic Presentations on Reader Retention, Reader Reaction and Reading Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Becky K.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a summary of research on the effect of tabular and graphic presentation on reader reaction, reader retention, and reading time that found that comprehension, reaction, and reading time are enhanced by graphic aids. (JOW)

  6. Operations Support of Phase 2 Integrated Demonstration In Situ Bioremediation. Volume 2, Final report: Data in tabular form, Disks 2,3,4

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This document consists solely of data acquired during phase 2 of the integrated demonstration project concerning in situ bioremediation performed at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The data is presented in tabular form.

  7. Tabular data, text, and graphical images in support of the 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, T.R.; Obuch, R.C.; Brewton, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains files in support of the 1995 USGS National assessment of United States oil and gas resources (DDS-30), which was published separately and summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. The study describes about 560 oil and gas plays in the United States; confirmed and hypothetical, conventional and unconventional. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the U.S. Minerals Management Service. This CD-ROM contains files in multiple formats, so that almost any computer user can import them into word processors and spreadsheets. The tabular data include some tables not released in DDS-30. No proprietary data are released on this CD-ROM, but some tables of summary statistics from the proprietary files are provided. The complete text of DDS-30 is also available, as well as many figures. Also included are some of the programs used in the assessment, in source code and with supporting documentation. A companion CD-ROM (DDS-35) includes the map data and the same text data, but none of the tabular data or assessment programs.

  8. Chapter 2: Tabular Data and Graphical Images in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment - The Wind River Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files) because of the number and variety of platforms and software available.

  9. SAMDIST: A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.

  10. SAMDIST: A computer code for calculating statistical distributions for R-matrix resonance parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.

    1995-09-01

    The SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.

  11. Tabular comparisons of the Flynn Creek impact crater, United States, Steinheim impact crater, Germany and Snowball explosion crater, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    A tabular outline of comparative data is presented for 340 basic dimensional, morphological, and structural parameters and related aspects for three craters of the flat-floored, central uplift type, two of which are natural terrestrial impact craters and one is a large-scale experimental explosion crater. The three craters are part of a general class, in terms of their morphology and structural deformation that is represented on each of the terrestrial planets including the moon. One of the considered craters, the Flynn Creek Crater, was formed by a hypervelocity impact event approximately 360 m.y. ago in what is now north central Tennessee. The impacting body appears to have been a carbonaceous chondrite or a cometary mass. The second crater, the Steinheim Crater, was formed by an impact event approximately 14.7 m.y. ago in what is now southwestern Germany. The Snowball Crater was formed by the detonation of a 500-ton TNT hemisphere on flat-lying, unconsolidated alluvium in Alberta, Canada.

  12. From steep feeders to tabular plutons - Emplacement controls of syntectonic granitoid plutons in the Damara Belt, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Duncan; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Granitoid plutons in the deeply eroded south Central Zone of the Damara Belt in Namibia commonly show tabular geometries and pronounced stratigraphic controls on their emplacement. Subhorizontal, sheet-like pluton geometries record emplacement during regional subhorizontal shortening, but the intrusion of spatially and temporally closely-related granitoid plutons at different structural levels and in distinct structural settings suggests independent controls on their levels of emplacement. We describe and evaluate the controls on the loci of the dyke-to-sill transition that initiated the emplacement of three syntectonic (560-530 Ma) plutons in the basement-cover stratigraphy of the Erongo region. Intrusive relationships highlight the significance of (1) rigidity anisotropies associated with competent sedimentary packages or pre-existing subhorizontal granite sheets and (2) rheological anisotropies associated with the presence of thick ductile marble horizons. These mechanical anisotropies may lead to the initial deflection of steep feeder conduits as well as subsequent pluton assembly by the repeated underaccretion of later magma batches. The upward displacement of regional isotherms due to the heat advection associated with granite emplacement is likely to have a profound effect on the mechanical stratification of the upper crust and, consequently, on the level at which granitoid pluton emplacement is initiated. In this way, pluton emplacement at progressively shallower crustal depths may have resulted in the unusually high apparent geothermal gradients recorded in the upper crustal levels of the Damara Belt during its later evolution.

  13. supraHex: an R/Bioconductor package for tabular omics data analysis using a supra-hexagonal map.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Gough, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Biologists are increasingly confronted with the challenge of quickly understanding genome-wide biological data, which usually involve a large number of genomic coordinates (e.g. genes) but a much smaller number of samples. To meet the need for data of this shape, we present an open-source package called 'supraHex' for training, analysing and visualising omics data. This package devises a supra-hexagonal map to self-organise the input data, offers scalable functionalities for post-analysing the map, and more importantly, allows for overlaying additional data for multilayer omics data comparisons. Via applying to DNA replication timing data of mouse embryogenesis, we demonstrate that supraHex is capable of simultaneously carrying out gene clustering and sample correlation, providing intuitive visualisation at each step of the analysis. By overlaying CpG and expression data onto the trained replication-timing map, we also show that supraHex is able to intuitively capture an inherent relationship between late replication, low CpG density promoters and low expression levels. As part of the Bioconductor project, supraHex makes accessible to a wide community in a simple way, what would otherwise be a complex framework for the ultrafast understanding of any tabular omics data, both scientifically and artistically. This package can run on Windows, Mac and Linux, and is freely available together with many tutorials on featuring real examples at http://supfam.org/supraHex. PMID:24309102

  14. Matrix superpotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Anatoly G.; Karadzhov, Yuri

    2011-07-01

    We present a collection of matrix-valued shape invariant potentials which give rise to new exactly solvable problems of SUSY quantum mechanics. It includes all irreducible matrix superpotentials of the generic form W=kQ+\\frac{1}{k} R+P, where k is a variable parameter, Q is the unit matrix multiplied by a real-valued function of independent variable x, and P and R are the Hermitian matrices depending on x. In particular, we recover the Pron'ko-Stroganov 'matrix Coulomb potential' and all known scalar shape invariant potentials of SUSY quantum mechanics. In addition, five new shape invariant potentials are presented. Three of them admit a dual shape invariance, i.e. the related Hamiltonians can be factorized using two non-equivalent superpotentials. We find discrete spectrum and eigenvectors for the corresponding Schrödinger equations and prove that these eigenvectors are normalizable.

  15. Graphical and tabular summaries of decay characteristics for once-through PWR, LMFBR, and FFTF fuel cycle materials. [Spent fuel, high-level waste fuel can scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Liberman, M.S.; Morrison, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the results of ORIGEN2 and a newly developed code called ORMANG, graphical and summary tabular characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel assembly structural material (cladding) waste are presented for a generic pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The characteristics include radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity (water dilution volume). Given are graphs and summary tables containing characteristic totals and the principal nuclide contributors as well as graphs comparing the three reactors for a single material and the three materials for a single reactor.

  16. Radon constrains the transit time of springs water at the border between tabular Middle Atlas and the Sais Basin (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Adriano; Rouai, Mohammed; Saracco, Ginette; Dekayir, Abdelilak; Miche, Héléne

    2010-05-01

    The tabular Middle Atlas (TMA) is an important fractured karstic reservoir in northern Morocco constituted by Liassic limestones and dolomites with a nearly sub-horizontal attitude, overlying basalts, shales and evaporates of Triassic age, as well as Paleozoic anchi-metamorphic schists. The zone is characterised by relative abundant rainfall (700 mm/y) and the absence of a surface watershed, which lead to an important groundwater reservoir hosted in the karstic (k-) aquifer. TMA is bordered to the North by extensive graben-like, normal, northward, fault-systems, which burden the Karstic formations under Plio-quaternary sediments at the Sais Basin border. At this limit, several important springs of high water-quality occur at the northernmost outcropping Lias limestone, which is overlaid in some areas by quaternary travertines. Two of these springs in particular, Bittit and Ribaa springs, provide almost drinking water for the town of Meknes (0.7 Million inhabitants), for local population and agriculture. These springs experienced a significant drop in water flow-rate in the last decades. Although the main origin of this water is certainly the k-aquifer, the drop in water-table raises several questions regarding the modality of water transport (influence of fractured and karstic systems in particular) and the possible participations of other groundwater reservoirs, which may deteriorate the high water-quality. A recent study has been carried out to shed some light on these questions, by using geochemical methods (K, Mg, Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ba, Sr, As, Sb, Hg, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Cl, Br, delta18-O, deltaD, Rn, EC, O2, pH, Eh, Temp). Constraints on the groundwater flow-path have been obtained by using a radon- hydrochemical- isotopic characterisation of spring waters. Here we report the results of the first geochemical sample collection (November 09). Several springs in the TMA yield Mg-Ca HCO3 rich water equilibrated with limestone and dolomite, having a very similar Rn activity of 3000 Bq/m3, unrelated to spring altitude. Similar radon activity is also found in a deep well in the Lias-confined aquifer of the Sais Basin and is hence considered to be the steady state activity in k-aquifer. Other springs situated at lower altitude yield more mineralised water (EC = 1200 uS/cm), richer in Na, K, Cl and Rn (15000 Bq/m3). These waters partially interacted with a non-karstic aquifer, most probably the deeper underlying Paleozoic schists (p-aquifer), as suggested by hydro chemical similarity with a water sample collected from a well in these shists. Since such water springs-out of Liassic carbonates, the measured Rn activity probably differs from the equilibrium activity achieved in the underlying p-aquifer, depending on the transit time from p-aquifer and the radon half-life (3.8 days). Furthermore, three other springs have hydrochemical characteristics intermediate between p- and k-aquifers, suggesting that a binary mixing of these waters occurred, either in the k- or in the p- aquifer. In principle, if the groundwater mixing occurred in k-aquifer, unsupported Rn activity would be lower than the activity expected from the binary mixing because of the time elapsed since the mixing occurred. The data show on the contrary that the mixed water has Rn activity higher than the expected activity calculated from the mixing. This suggests that groundwater mixing occurred in the p-aquifer. The excess of radon relatively to the expected activity calculated after the mixing, is interpreted to result from Rn radioactive ingrowth during the residence time in the p-aquifer, followed by radon decay occurred during uplift from p-aquifer to the spring in the Liassic carbonates. With this simple model, the measured Rn excess constraints the total time elapsed since the beginning of interaction with the p-aquifer on a time scale of 2 weeks. Remote sensed imaging of the area evidences that these "mixed" springs lies on important tectonic alignments, which suggest that fractures system could play a role in the fast upwelling of groundwater.

  17. Modeling State-Space Aeroelastic Systems Using a Simple Matrix Polynomial Approach for the Unsteady Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple matrix polynomial approach is introduced for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the s-plane and ultimately, after combining matrix polynomial coefficients with matrices defining the structure, a matrix polynomial of the flutter equations of motion (EOM) is formed. A technique of recasting the matrix-polynomial form of the flutter EOM into a first order form is also presented that can be used to determine the eigenvalues near the origin and everywhere on the complex plane. An aeroservoelastic (ASE) EOM have been generalized to include the gust terms on the right-hand side. The reasons for developing the new matrix polynomial approach are also presented, which are the following: first, the "workhorse" methods such as the NASTRAN flutter analysis lack the capability to consistently find roots near the origin, along the real axis or accurately find roots farther away from the imaginary axis of the complex plane; and, second, the existing s-plane methods, such as the Roger s s-plane approximation method as implemented in ISAC, do not always give suitable fits of some tabular data of the unsteady aerodynamics. A method available in MATLAB is introduced that will accurately fit generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients in a tabular data form into the coefficients of a matrix polynomial form. The root-locus results from the NASTRAN pknl flutter analysis, the ISAC-Roger's s-plane method and the present matrix polynomial method are presented and compared for accuracy and for the number and locations of roots.

  18. The motion of the earth-moon system in modern tabular ephemerides. II - Inertial motion, mean longitude of the sun, and general precession in longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stumpff, P.; Lieske, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Properties of astronomical time scales (ET and UT) are considered, with particular emphasis on correctly determining of-date longitude as the sum of inertial mean longitude of the sun relative to the mean equinox of a fixed epoch (1950.0), and the general precession in longitude accumulated since the epoch. The inertial mean longitude and motion (relative to the mean equinox) are derived from tabular ephemerides such as the Jet Propulsion Laboratories' DE 102 and DE 96, by comparisons with subroutines based on Newcomb's perturbation theory. An unresolved inconsistency of approximately 1 second per century among the mean inertial motion of DE 102, IAU precession speed (1976), and the classical Newcomb of-date mean motion is found. Interpretation difficulties arising from the use of different systems of Ephemeris Time are also discussed.

  19. A GIS wind resource map with tabular printout of monthly and annual wind speeds for 2,000 towns in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Factor, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Iowa Wind Energy Institute, under a grant from the Iowa Energy Center, undertook in 1994 to map wind resources in Iowa. Fifty-meter met towers were erected at 13 locations across the state deemed promising for utility-scale wind farm development. Two years of summarized wind speed, direction, and temperature data were used to create wind resource maps incorporating effects of elevation, relative exposure, terrain roughness, and ground cover. Maps were produced predicting long-term mean monthly and annual wind speeds on a one-kilometer grid. The estimated absolute standard error in the predicted annual average wind speeds at unobstructed locations is 9 percent. The relative standard error between points on the annual map is estimated to be 3 percent. These maps and tabular data for 2,000 cities and towns in Iowa are now available on the Iowa Energy Center`s web site (http.//www.energy.iastate.edu).

  20. The far field effect of ice shelf calving: the oceanographic effect of the decay of large tabular icebergs at South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. A.; Enderlein, P.; Murphy, E.

    2010-12-01

    South Georgia is a small island approximately 190 x 30 km within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South Atlantic. It is surrounded by a continental shelf which extends typically more than 50 km from the coast and has an average depth ~200 m, although there are deeper submarine canyons. It is downstream of the Antarctic Peninsula and satellite observations have frequently shown that very large tabular icebergs which originate in the Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas, for example B10A, A22B and A38, reach the island. Once there they ground on the relatively wide and extensive shelf. Occasionally they can pass the island and continue their drift and decay in the open ocean of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current however, for many, such as A38 (~300 Gt), the region around the island is effectively the graveyard. When this happens potentially very large volumes of meteoric water are deposited onto the shelf of the island and there are consequent large effects on the regional hydrography. The island has been for many decades a long term study site for cross disciplinary work and from 2002-2006 two oceanographic moorings recorded physical parameters including temperature, salinity and water velocity in the region. This time period encompasses the period of A38’s demise. The effects of the melt water addition are clear in the regional situation and here we present melt rate calculations from both tidal forcing and background hydrography on the tabular icebergs, and consequent impacts of the significant freshwater addition at this isolated site.

  1. Chapter 3: Tabular Data and Graphical Images in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment - Western Gulf Province, Smackover-Austin-Eagle Ford Composite Total Petroleum System (504702)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  2. Extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Vakonakis, Ioannis; Campbell, Iain D

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly organized multimolecular structure, essential for life in higher organisms. Although substantial high-resolution structural information is available for relatively small fragments of ECM components, the inherent difficulty in preparing and analyzing samples of large, fibrous polymers impedes structural efforts. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the structure of three important ECM components: collagen, fibrillin and fibronectin. Emphasis is placed on the key role of intermolecular interactions in assembling larger, μm scale, structures. PMID:17942296

  3. MatrixDB, the extracellular matrix interaction database: updated content, a new navigator and expanded functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Launay, G.; Salza, R.; Multedo, D.; Thierry-Mieg, N.; Ricard-Blum, S.

    2015-01-01

    MatrixDB (http://matrixdb.ibcp.fr) is a freely available database focused on interactions established by extracellular proteins and polysaccharides. It is an active member of the International Molecular Exchange (IMEx) consortium and has adopted the PSI-MI standards for annotating and exchanging interaction data, either at the MIMIx or IMEx level. MatrixDB content has been updated by curation and by importing extracellular interaction data from other IMEx databases. Other major changes include the creation of a new website and the development of a novel graphical navigator, iNavigator, to build and expand interaction networks. Filters may be applied to build sub-networks based on a list of biomolecules, a specified interaction detection method and/or an expression level by tissue, developmental stage, and health state (UniGene data). Any molecule of the network may be selected and its partners added to the network at any time. Networks may be exported under Cytoscape and tabular formats and as images, and may be saved for subsequent re-use. PMID:25378329

  4. MatrixDB, the extracellular matrix interaction database: updated content, a new navigator and expanded functionalities.

    PubMed

    Launay, G; Salza, R; Multedo, D; Thierry-Mieg, N; Ricard-Blum, S

    2015-01-01

    MatrixDB (http://matrixdb.ibcp.fr) is a freely available database focused on interactions established by extracellular proteins and polysaccharides. It is an active member of the International Molecular Exchange (IMEx) consortium and has adopted the PSI-MI standards for annotating and exchanging interaction data, either at the MIMIx or IMEx level. MatrixDB content has been updated by curation and by importing extracellular interaction data from other IMEx databases. Other major changes include the creation of a new website and the development of a novel graphical navigator, iNavigator, to build and expand interaction networks. Filters may be applied to build sub-networks based on a list of biomolecules, a specified interaction detection method and/or an expression level by tissue, developmental stage, and health state (UniGene data). Any molecule of the network may be selected and its partners added to the network at any time. Networks may be exported under Cytoscape and tabular formats and as images, and may be saved for subsequent re-use. PMID:25378329

  5. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  6. BASIC Matrix Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    The curriculum materials and computer programs in this booklet introduce the idea of a matrix. They go on to discuss matrix operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication by a scalar, and matrix multiplication. The last section covers several contemporary applications of matrix multiplication, including problems of communication…

  7. A matrix lower bound

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  8. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1996-12-03

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

  9. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  10. Testing the apatite-magnetite geochronometer: U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of plutonic rocks, massive magnetite-apatite tabular bodies, and IOCG mineralization in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelcich, Sergio; Davis, Donald W.; Spooner, Edward T. C.

    2005-07-01

    Detailed zircon and apatite U-Pb dating and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of actinolite have been carried out on the Carmen-Sierra Aspera Kiruna type magnetite-apatite and iron oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) district in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile (˜26°S). They define a precise succession of magmatic and hydrothermal events associated with early Cretaceous Andean magmatism. Apatite and magnetite from a magnetite-apatite tabular body with intergrowth texture in the Carmen deposit yield a total Pb-U isochron age of 131.0 ± 1.0 Ma. This result is the first direct dating of magnetite-apatite mineralization in an early Andean deposit, and the age coincides with zircon ages of a quartz diorite stock that partially hosts mineralization (130.6 ± 0.3 Ma). Magnetite from the studied tabular body contains only small amounts of radiogenic Pb and serves to constrain the initial common Pb isotopic composition. The high degree of correlation suggests that both minerals closed for Pb diffusion at essentially the same time and at a relatively high temperature (close to that of zircon), making the apatite-magnetite pair a reliable geochronometer for igneous or hydrothermal crystallization. Zircon from the Sierra Aspera composite pluton yields ages between 131.3 ± 0.3 Ma and 127.4 ± 0.1 Ma, clearly resolving the timing of intrusion of discrete intrusive phases. Actinolite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages partially overlap the ages of plutonic phases of the Sierra Aspera pluton, but are younger than the magnetite-apatite tabular body. The initial Pb isotopic composition of the melts and/or fluids from which the magnetite-apatite tabular bodies crystallized is very similar to the primitive Pb isotopic composition of granitic magmas associated with early Cretaceous plutons measured in K-feldspar. The Pb isotopic correspondence, combined with the temporal and spatial association between magnetite-apatite mineralization and the dioritic-quartz dioritic magmatism, strongly suggests a genetic relationship between early Cretaceous continental arc magmatism, massive magnetite-apatite deposits, and IOCG mineralization.

  11. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical

  12. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  13. Supersymmetric quantum matrix cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez, J. L.; Obregn, O.

    2015-12-01

    We exhibit a relation between the SU(2) invariant matrix model arising from the quantization of the 11-dimensional supermembrane in the light cone gauge and supersymmetric quantum cosmology. We use a Dirac-like gamma matrix representation for the fermionic degrees of freedom and find explicit solutions to reduced lower dimensional SU(2) matrix models for the zero energy states. One of the solutions we encounter in the matrix model resembles exactly a wave function found independently in the context of SUSY quantum cosmology; this allows us to give these regularized models a physical meaning and shows a direct relation between the SU(2) matrix model and SUSY quantum cosmology.

  14. Nanocrystal doped matrixes

    DOEpatents

    Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan

    2010-01-12

    Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

  15. Biofilm Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2015-01-01

    Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this chapter, we will review functions of matrix proteins in a selected set of microorganisms, studies of the matrix proteomes of Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and roles of outer membrane vesicles and of nucleoid-binding proteins in biofilm formation. PMID:26104709

  16. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  17. Metal matrix composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Krivov, G.A.; Beletsky, V.M.; Gribkov, A.N.

    1993-12-31

    High strength-weight properties, stiffness and fatigue resistance characteristics together with low sensitivity to stress concentration make metal matrix composites (MMC) rather promising for their use in structures. Metal matrix composites consist of a matrix (aluminum, magnesium, titanium and their alloys are the most frequently used) and reinforcers (carbon and boron fibers, high-strength steel wire, silicon carbide whiskers, etc.). This work considers various types of MMC and their applications in structures. The methods of structure production from metal matrix CM of aluminum-boron system with the help of machining, deformation, part joining by welding and riveting are given.

  18. Transfer function matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

  19. MATRIX AND VECTOR SERVICES

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-10-18

    PETRA V2 provides matrix and vector services and the ability construct, query, and use matrix and vector objects that are used and computed by TRILINOS solvers. It provides all basic matr5ix and vector operations for solvers in TRILINOS.

  20. Time rate collision matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenescu, M.L.; Smith, T.M.

    1980-02-01

    The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations.

  1. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Plut, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

  2. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.

    1995-01-03

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.

  3. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  4. Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-02-01

    Metal matrix composites have found selected application in areas that can cost-effectively capitalize on improvements in specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored, including aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver. However, aluminum is by far the most preferred. For reinforcements, the materials are typically ceramics, which provide a very beneficial combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, metallic materials such as tungsten and steel fibers have been considered.

  5. Tendon functional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F

    2015-06-01

    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030

  6. Chapter 3. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment--East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces, Jurassic Smackover Interior salt basins total petroleum system (504902), Cotton Valley group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on the CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  7. Chapter 6. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment-East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system (504902), Travis Peak and Hosston formations.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on the CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  8. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment--San Juan Basin Province (5022): Chapter 7 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  9. Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-02-01

    Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored for use in metal matrix composites, including Al, Be, Mg, Ti, Fe, Ni, Co, and Ag. By far, the largest usage is in aluminum matrix composites. From a reinforcement perspective, the materials used are typically ceramics since they provide a very desirable combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, there has been work on metallic materials as reinforcements, notably W and steel fibers. The morphology of the reinforcement material is another variable of importance in metal matrix composites. The three major classes of reinforcement morphology are continuous fiber, chopped fiber or whisker, and particulate. Typically, the selection of the reinforcement morphology is determined by the desired property/cost combination. Generally, continuous fiber reinforced MMCs provide the highest properties in the direction of the fiber orientation but are the most expensive. Chopped fiber and whisker reinforced materials can produce significant property improvements in the plane or direction of their orientation, at somewhat lower cost. Particulates provide a comparatively more moderate but isotropic increase in properties and are typically available at the lowest cost. By adding to the three variables of metallic matrix, reinforcement material, and reinforcement morphology the further options of reinforcement volume fraction, orientation, and matrix alloy composition and heat treatment, it is apparent that there is a very wide range of available material combinations and resultant properties. This paper will focus on how MMCs have been applied in specific application areas.

  10. Matrix fractional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.

  11. Optical coherency matrix tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes.

  12. The Exopolysaccharide Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Koo, H.; Falsetta, M.L.; Klein, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24045647

  13. Optical coherency matrix tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes. PMID:26478452

  14. Fuzzyics =CATEGORYICS =PRAGMATYICS (``Son of ``TRIZ''')/CATEGORY-SEMANTICS Cognition (fcp/csc) of Plato-Aristotle ``SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION''(SoO): Linguistics: Antonyms VS ``SYNONYMS'' VS Analogy/ Metaphor: Coarsest-Possible Topology: Shocks/High-Pressures Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward Plato Aristotle Archimedes Carl-Ludwig; Young, Frederic; Lewis, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Siegel[MRS Fall-Mtgs,:Symp.Fractals(89)-5-papers!!!;Symp.Scaling(90)] FCP/CSC {aka SPD}(Tic-Tac-Toe-Matrix/Tabular List-Format) ``COMMON-FUNCTIONING-PRINCIPLE'' DI/TRI-CHOTOMY GENERIC ``INEVITABILITY_-WEB'' PURPOSEFUL PARSIMONY-of-DI/TRI-CHOTOMY STRATEGY REdiscovery of SoO automatically/optimality is in NON-list-format/matrix: DIMENSIONALITY-DOMINATION -INEVIT-ABILITY ROOT-CAUSE(RC) ULTIMATE-ORIGIN(UO): (level-0.-logic) DIMENSIONALITY (level-0. logic): [dst = ODD-Z] <->{Dst=FRACTAL-UNcertainty FLUCTUATIONS} <->(dst = EVEN-Z): CAUSES: (level- I.-logic): EXTENT/SCALE/RADIUS: (relative)-[LOCALITY] <-> (relative)-(...GLOBALITY...) & (level-II.-logic): POWER-SPECTRUM{noise ≅generalized-susceptibility}: [``l''/ω0-White] <->(...-``l''/ω 1 . 000 . . . - HYPERBOLICITY...) & (level-III.-logic) CRITICAL-EXPONENT:n =0 <->n = 1.000... ; BUT ALL 3 ALSO CAUSED BY ANOTHER INdependent RCUO (level-IV.-logic):

  15. Intermetallic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, D.L. ); Martin, P.L. ); Miracle, D.B. ); McMeeking, R. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a symposium on the complex processing-microstructure-property relationships in intermetallic matrix composite materials. It may appear to the reader that some of the work reported in this volume does not bear on this question, but it should be remembered that intermetallic compounds have properties similar to both ceramics (at low temperatures) and metals (at high temperatures). Thus the techniques for toughening brittle matrix composites at ambient temperatures as well as those for strengthening ductile matrix composites at elevated temperatures need to be applied to the intermetallic situation. For this reason, the session on microstructure-based modeling of the behavior of intermetallic matrix composites drew heavily on ceramic and metal matrix experience. The session discussing processing was also a mix of ceramic and metallurgical approaches, while stressing novel methods particular to composite microstructures. Thermodynamic compatibility and conventional microstructure-mechanical property studies make up the bulk of the papers as they address a large deficiency in our understanding in this important area.

  16. Extracellular matrix structure.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. PMID:26562801

  17. Matrix G-strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Darryl D.; Ivanov, Rossen I.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss three examples in which one may extend integrable Euler-Poincaré ordinary differential equations to integrable Euler-Poincaré partial differential equations in the matrix G-Strand context. After describing matrix G-Strand examples for SO(3) and SO(4) we turn our attention to SE(3) where the matrix G-Strand equations recover the exact rod theory in the convective representation. We then find a zero curvature representation of these equations and establish the conditions under which they are completely integrable. Thus, the G-Strand equations turn out to be a rich source of integrable systems. The treatment is meant to be expository and most concepts are explained in examples in the language of vectors in {R}^3 .

  18. Matrix interdiction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  19. Matrix, mesenchyme, and mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lung serves as both a scaffold for resident cells and a mechanical support for respiratory function. The ECM is deposited during development and undergoes continuous turnover and maintenance during organ growth and homeostasis. Cells of the mesenchyme, including the tissue resident fibroblast, take a leading role in depositing and organizing the matrix and do so in an anatomically distinct fashion, with differing composition, organization, and mechanical properties within the airways, vessels, and alveoli of the lung. Recent technological advancements have allowed the lung's ECM biochemical composition and mechanical properties to be studied with improved resolution, thereby identifying novel disease-related changes in ECM characteristics. In parallel, efforts to study cells seeded on normal and disease-derived matrices have illustrated the powerful role the ECM can play in altering key functions of lung resident cells. The mechanical properties of the matrix have been identified as an important modifier of cell-matrix adhesions, with matrices of pathologic stiffness promoting profibrotic signaling and cell function. Ongoing work is identifying both mechanically activated pathways in mesenchymal cells and disease-related ECM molecules that biochemically regulate cell function. Uncovering the control systems by which cells respond to and regulate the matrix, and the failures in these systems that underlie aberrant repair, remains a major challenge. Progress in this area will be an essential element in efforts to engineer functional lung tissue for regenerative approaches and will be key to identifying new therapeutic strategies for lung diseases characterized by disturbed matrix architecture. PMID:25830830

  20. Matrix, Mesenchyme, and Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lung serves as both a scaffold for resident cells and a mechanical support for respiratory function. The ECM is deposited during development and undergoes continuous turnover and maintenance during organ growth and homeostasis. Cells of the mesenchyme, including the tissue resident fibroblast, take a leading role in depositing and organizing the matrix and do so in an anatomically distinct fashion, with differing composition, organization, and mechanical properties within the airways, vessels, and alveoli of the lung. Recent technological advancements have allowed the lung’s ECM biochemical composition and mechanical properties to be studied with improved resolution, thereby identifying novel disease-related changes in ECM characteristics. In parallel, efforts to study cells seeded on normal and disease-derived matrices have illustrated the powerful role the ECM can play in altering key functions of lung resident cells. The mechanical properties of the matrix have been identified as an important modifier of cell–matrix adhesions, with matrices of pathologic stiffness promoting profibrotic signaling and cell function. Ongoing work is identifying both mechanically activated pathways in mesenchymal cells and disease-related ECM molecules that biochemically regulate cell function. Uncovering the control systems by which cells respond to and regulate the matrix, and the failures in these systems that underlie aberrant repair, remains a major challenge. Progress in this area will be an essential element in efforts to engineer functional lung tissue for regenerative approaches and will be key to identifying new therapeutic strategies for lung diseases characterized by disturbed matrix architecture. PMID:25830830

  1. Mitochondrial Matrix Processes.

    PubMed

    Mazunin, I O; Levitskii, S A; Patrushev, M V; Kamenski, P A

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondria possess their own genome that, despite its small size, is critically important for their functioning, as it encodes several dozens of RNAs and proteins. All biochemical processes typical for bacterial and nuclear DNA are described in mitochondrial matrix: replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. Commonly, their mechanisms are similar to those found in bacteria, but they are characterized by several unique features. In this review, we provide an overall description of mitochondrial matrix processes paying special attention to the typical features of such mechanisms. PMID:26615433

  2. Complex matrix model duality

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T. W.

    2011-04-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 noncritical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of operators which preserve half the supersymmetry in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich-Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces.

  3. Constructing the matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John

    2012-09-01

    As part of our 'toolkit' for analysing an extraterrestrial signal, the facility for calculating structural affinity to known phenomena must be part of our core capabilities. Without such a resource, we risk compromising our potential for detection and decipherment or at least causing significant delay in the process. To create such a repository for assessing structural affinity, all known systems (language parameters) need to be structurally analysed to 'place' their 'system' within a relational communication matrix. This will need to include all known variants of language structure, whether 'living' (in current use) or ancient; this must also include endeavours to incorporate yet undeciphered scripts and non-human communication, to provide as complete a picture as possible. In creating such a relational matrix, post-detection decipherment will be assisted by a structural 'map' that will have the potential for 'placing' an alien communication with its nearest known 'neighbour', to assist subsequent categorisation of basic parameters as a precursor to decipherment. 'Universal' attributes and behavioural characteristics of known communication structure will form a range of templates (Elliott, 2001 [1] and Elliott et al., 2002 [2]), to support and optimise our attempt at categorising and deciphering the content of an extraterrestrial signal. Detection of the hierarchical layers, which comprise intelligent, complex communication, will then form a matrix of calculations that will ultimately score affinity through a relational matrix of structural comparison. In this paper we develop the rationales and demonstrate functionality with initial test results.

  4. Leslie matrix models.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P E

    1989-01-01

    A review of the Leslie matrix model theory and its literature 1941-1987 is presented. The point of view is that of a mathematician who focuses on the parts of the theory which are relevant to demography. Works of a decidedly applied nature are not dealt with. PMID:12315965

  5. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Basin Characteristics, 2002 Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents basin characteristics for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). These characteristics are reach catchment shape index, stream density, sinuosity, mean elevation, mean slope and number of road-stream crossings. The source data sets are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) RF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011) and the U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files (U.S. Census Bureau,2006). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  6. Tabular equation of state for gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettger, Jonathan; Honnell, Kevin G.; Peterson, Jeffrey H.; Greeff, Carl; Crockett, Scott

    2012-03-01

    A new, SESAME-type equation of state (EOS) , suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations, is described for gold. Pressures, internal energies, and Helmholtz free energies are tabulated on a rectangular temperature-and-density grid, spanning densities from 0 - 36 g/cc, temperatures from 0 - 800 eV, and extending up to pressures of 800 GPa. The EOS is constructed using the standard decomposition of the pressure into a static-lattice cold curve, a thermal nuclear contribution, and a thermal electronic contribution. The cold curve is derived from existing diamond-anvil-cell measurements, the thermal nuclear contribution from the Johnson model, and the thermal electronic contribution using Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. Predictions of the new EOS (SESAME 2705) for the cold curve, roomtemperature isotherm, principal Hugoniot, thermal expansion, heat capacity, melt line, and vapor pressure compare favorably with experimental data and are superior to the EOS currently available in the SESAME library (SESAME 2700).

  7. Tabular Equation of State for Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettger, Jonathan; Honnell, Kevin; Peterson, Jeffrey; Greeff, Carl; Crockett, Scott

    2011-06-01

    A new, SESAME-type equation of state (EOS) is described for gold, suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations. The EOS is tabulated on a rectangular temperature-and-density grid, spanning densities from 0 - 29 g/cc, temperatures from 0 - 85,000 K, and extending up to pressures of 1000 GPa. It is constructed using the standard decomposition of the pressure into a static-lattice cold curve, a thermal nuclear contribution, and a thermal electronic contribution. The cold curve is derived from a combination of empirical data and density functional theory, the thermal nuclear contribution from the Johnson model, and the thermal electronic contribution using Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. Pressures, internal energies, and Helmholtz free energies are tabulated as functions of temperature and density. Predictions for the room-temperature isotherm, principal Hugoniot, thermal expansion, heat capacity, and vapor pressure are compared with experimental data and with the EOS currently available in the SESAME library (SESAME 2700).

  8. A Tabular Approach to Titration Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kieran F.

    2012-01-01

    Titrations are common laboratory exercises in high school and university chemistry courses, because they are easy, relatively inexpensive, and they illustrate a number of fundamental chemical principles. While students have little difficulty with calculations involving a single titration step, there is a significant leap in conceptual difficulty…

  9. Developments in Alaska in 1979. [Tabular data

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.

    1980-09-01

    Twenty-three exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1979. Six apparent oil discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope and 3 gas discoveries were made in the Cook Inlet basin. Four wells drilled in the Lower Cook Inlet outer continental shelf (OCS) area were dry. Eighty-four development and service wells were drilled and successfully completed. Geologic-geophysical field activity by industry and government consisted of 77.95 crew-months, a decrease of 19%, compared to 1978. This decrease affected most of the major basins of the state except the Cook Inlet basin which had a 90% increase from the previous year. Federal acreage under lease decreased more than 30%, and state lease acreage declined slightly. Oil production showed an increase of 14% as the Prudhoe Bay field reached its potential. Gas production showed an increase of over 20%. The first joint Federal/State OCS lease sale was held in the Beaufort Sea and the first state sale of a 5-year leasing schedule was held. The federal land situation remains unresolved until the 17 (d) (2) question is decided by Congress.

  10. Optical shutter switching matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.

  11. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).

  12. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  13. Delayed beta- and gamma-ray production due to thermal-neutron fission of /sup 239/Pu: tabular and graphical spectral distributions for times after fission between 2 and 14000 sec

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.; England, T.R.; Love, T.A.; McConnell, J.W.; Emergy, J.F.; Northcutt, K.J.; Peelle, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Fission-product decay energy-release rates were measured for thermal-neutron fission of /sup 239/Pu. Samples of mass 1 and 5 ..mu..g were irradiated for 1 to 100 s using the fast pneumatic-tube facility at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The resulting beta- and gamma-ray emissions were separately counted for times-after-fission between 2 and 14,000 s to yield spectral distributions N(E/sub ..gamma../) vs E/sub ..gamma../ and N(E/sub ..beta../) vs E/sub ..beta../. The gamma-ray spectra were obtained by use of a NaI detector, and the beta-ray spectra were obtained by use of an NE-110 detector with an anticoincidence mantle. The raw data were unfolded to provide spectral distributions of moderate resolution. These distributions are given in graphical and tabular form as differential spectral intensity I(E) (MeV/sup -1/ fission/sup -1/) averaged over gamma-ray energy intervals ranging from 10 keV for E/sub ..gamma../ < 0.18 MeV to 100 keV for E/sub ..gamma../ > 6.8 MeV, and beta-ray energy intervals ranging from 20 keV for E/sub ..beta../ < 0.25 MeV to 160 keV for E/sub ..beta../ > 6.4 MeV. Counting-time intervals ranged from 1 s for times-after-fission (t/sub w/) < 6 s to 4000 s for t/sub w/ approx. 10/sup 4/ s. For comparisons the graphical representations show calculated spectra obtained by use of the CINDER-10 summation code and the ENDF/B-IV fission yield and decay scheme data base. 90 figures, 86 tables.

  14. A revision of the genus Paracanthonchus (Cyatholaimidae, Nematoda) with a tabular key to species and a description of P. mamubiae sp. n. from the deep North-Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2015-01-01

    The species-rich genus of marine free-living nematodes, Paracanthonchus Mikoletzky 1924 (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae), is revised. The genus numbers 72 valid species; twenty are indicated as species inquirenda because of poor descriptions and/or doubtful placement in the genus. Species of the genus were described from all oceans and latitudes. Of valid species, 64 ones (90%) were described from the tidal or upper subtidal zones, four species were recorded from the medium or lower shelf, and three species are abyssal. Thirty one species (43%) are known from Europe and the Northern Africa; 19 and 9 ones were described from South and North America (respectively); 8 ones were recorded from Asia; and 6 ones from the Australian region. The type species, Paracanthonchus caecus Mikoletzky 1924 has been recorded by a number of authors from various oceans around the World, yet many of these specimens have only roughly resembled the type description. Evidently, this species represents a complex of closely related species. Possibly, the same situation is in some other Paracanthonchus species, the repeated findings of which have no strong resemblance to type specimens. A tabular key to species is provided. A new abyssal species Paracanthonchus mamubiae from the Zenkevich Rise (North-Western Pacific, off North Japan, 5350 m depth) is described. The new species is characterized by: the tail, which is long with a thin, cylindrical terminal section; the absence of lateral differentiation of the cuticle; the presence of two groups of lateral pores (level of posterior part of pharynx and in cloacal region); one large dorsal tooth and two pairs of small subventral teeth combined with pharyngostomal cuticular ridges forming two denticles which may appear as a third pair of subventral teeth; 3-5 indistinct tubular preanal supplements; and a massive, proximally paired gubernaculum possessing broad flattened plates on each distal end. Each flattened gubernacular plate bears numerous (50-60) small cusps and one large process.

  15. On the Matrix Exponential Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Shui-Hung; Hou, Edwin; Pang, Wan-Kai

    2006-01-01

    A novel and simple formula for computing the matrix exponential function is presented. Specifically, it can be used to derive explicit formulas for the matrix exponential of a general matrix A satisfying p(A) = 0 for a polynomial p(s). It is ready for use in a classroom and suitable for both hand as well as symbolic computation.

  16. The cellulose resource matrix.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the feedstock and the performance in the end-application. The cellulose resource matrix should become a practical tool for stakeholders to make choices regarding raw materials, process or market. Although there is a vast amount of scientific and economic information available on cellulose and lignocellulosic resources, the accessibility for the interested layman or entrepreneur is very difficult and the relevance of the numerous details in the larger context is limited. Translation of science to practical accessible information with modern data management and data integration tools is a challenge. Therefore, a detailed matrix structure was composed in which the different elements or entries of the matrix were identified and a tentative rough set up was made. The inventory includes current commodities and new cellulose containing and raw materials as well as exotic sources and specialties. Important chemical and physical properties of the different raw materials were identified for the use in processes and products. When available, the market data such as price and availability were recorded. Established and innovative cellulose extraction and refining processes were reviewed. The demands on the raw material for suitable processing were collected. Processing parameters known to affect the cellulose properties were listed. Current and expected emerging markets were surveyed as well as their different demands on cellulose raw materials and processes. The setting up of the cellulose matrix as a practical tool requires two steps. Firstly, the reduction of the needed data by clustering of the characteristics of raw materials, processes and markets and secondly, the building of a database that can provide the answers to the questions from stakeholders with an indicative character. This paper describes the steps taken to achieve the defined clusters of most relevant and characteristic properties. These data can be expanded where required. More detailed specification can be obtained from the background literature and handbooks. Where gaps of information are identified, the research questions can be defined that will require further investigation. PMID:23465896

  17. Thermoelastic micromechanical stresses associated with a large alpha-silicon carbide grain in a polycrystalline beta-silicon carbide matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhuang; Bradt, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    The thermoelastic micromechanical stresses associated with a single large hexagonal alpha-SiC grain within a fine-grain-size cubic (3C) beta-SiC matrix were calculated. The naturally occurring residual stresses which are created during cooling from the processing temperatures and the effects of superimposed applied external stresses are both considered. A significant effect of the shape or geometry of the alpha-SiC grain is revealed, with the largest residual stresses associated with the naturally occurring tabular or platelet structure. The stresses are compared with the published strength results for these materials, which suggests that the residual stresses assume a significant role in the strength reduction that is observed.

  18. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  19. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  20. Matrix membranes and integrability

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.; Fairlie, D.; Curtright, T.

    1997-06-01

    This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

  1. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  2. Google matrix of Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, K. M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-10-01

    We construct the Google matrix of the entire Twitter network, dated by July 2009, and analyze its spectrum and eigenstate properties including the PageRank and CheiRank vectors and 2DRanking of all nodes. Our studies show much stronger inter-connectivity between top PageRank nodes for the Twitter network compared to the networks of Wikipedia and British Universities studied previously. Our analysis allows to locate the top Twitter users which control the information flow on the network. We argue that this small fraction of the whole number of users, which can be viewed as the social network elite, plays the dominant role in the process of opinion formation on the network.

  3. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  4. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  5. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  6. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, Paul L.; Mitrani, Jacques E.; Sutter, Robert J.; Vercellone, James J.

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated within the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.

  7. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, R.; Imbriale, W.; Liewer, P.; Lyons, J.; Manshadi, F.; Patterson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Hypercube Matrix Computation (Year 1986-1987) task investigated the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Two existing electromagnetic scattering codes were selected for conversion to the Mark III Hypercube concurrent computing environment. They were selected so that the underlying numerical algorithms utilized would be different thereby providing a more thorough evaluation of the appropriateness of the parallel environment for these types of problems. The first code was a frequency domain method of moments solution, NEC-2, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second code was a time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations to solve for the scattered fields. Once the codes were implemented on the hypercube and verified to obtain correct solutions by comparing the results with those from sequential runs, several measures were used to evaluate the performance of the two codes. First, a comparison was provided of the problem size possible on the hypercube with 128 megabytes of memory for a 32-node configuration with that available in a typical sequential user environment of 4 to 8 megabytes. Then, the performance of the codes was anlyzed for the computational speedup attained by the parallel architecture.

  8. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  9. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    DOEpatents

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  10. Matrix Treatment of Ray Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quon, W. Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method to combine two learning experiences--optical physics and matrix mathematics--in a straightforward laboratory experiment that allows engineering/physics students to integrate a variety of learning insights and technical skills, including using lasers, studying refraction through thin lenses, applying concepts of matrix

  11. Mass matrix with symmetric mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, V.V.; Santhanam, T.S.; Thacker, W.D. )

    1991-02-01

    Extending the work of Barnhill, we propose distributing the mixing matrix between the up and down quarks equally. With this choice of gauge eigenstates, the resulting mixing matrix in the new basis is simply the identity and the gauge bosons couple to these states in an essentially trivial manner.

  12. Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

  13. How to Study a Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  14. How to Study a Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and

  15. New Chorus Diffusion Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Richard B.; Kersten, Tobias; Glauert, Sarah A.; Meredith, Nigel P.; Boscher, Daniel; Sicard, Angelica; Maget, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves play a major role in the loss and acceleration of electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. While high time resolution satellite data show that these waves are highly structured in frequency and time, at present their effects on the electron distribution can only be assessed on a global scale by using quasi-linear diffusion theory. Here we present new quasi-linear diffusion coefficients for upper and lower band chorus waves for use in global radiation belt models. Using data from DE 1 CRRES, Cluster 1, Double Star TC1 and THEMIS, we have constructed a database of wave properties and used this to construct new diffusion coefficients for L* = 1.5 to 10 in steps of 0.5, 10 latitude bins between 0o and 60o ,8 bins in MLT and 5 levels of geomagnetic activity as measured by Kp. We find that the peak frequency of lower band chorus is close to 0.2 fce, which is lower than that used in previous models. The combined upper and lower band chorus diffusion shows structure that should result in an energy dependent pitch angle anisotropy, particularly between 1 keV and 100 keV. The diffusion rates suggest that wave-particle interactions should still be very important outside geostationary orbit, out to at least L* = 8. We find significant energy diffusion near 1 keV near the loss cone, consistent with wave growth. By including the new chorus diffusion matrix into the BAS radiation belt (BRB) model we compare the effects on the evolution of the radiation belts against previous models.

  16. MatrixDB, the extracellular matrix interaction database.

    PubMed

    Chautard, Emilie; Fatoux-Ardore, Marie; Ballut, Lionel; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    MatrixDB (http://matrixdb.ibcp.fr) is a freely available database focused on interactions established by extracellular proteins and polysaccharides. Only few databases report protein-polysaccharide interactions and, to the best of our knowledge, there is no other database of extracellular interactions. MatrixDB takes into account the multimeric nature of several extracellular protein families for the curation of interactions, and reports interactions with individual polypeptide chains or with multimers, considered as permanent complexes, when appropriate. MatrixDB is a member of the International Molecular Exchange consortium (IMEx) and has adopted the PSI-MI standards for the curation and the exchange of interaction data. MatrixDB stores experimental data from our laboratory, data from literature curation, data imported from IMEx databases, and data from the Human Protein Reference Database. MatrixDB is focused on mammalian interactions, but aims to integrate interaction datasets of model organisms when available. MatrixDB provides direct links to databases recapitulating mutations in genes encoding extracellular proteins, to UniGene and to the Human Protein Atlas that shows expression and localization of proteins in a large variety of normal human tissues and cells. MatrixDB allows researchers to perform customized queries and to build tissue- and disease-specific interaction networks that can be visualized and analyzed with Cytoscape or Medusa. PMID:20852260

  17. The matrix of inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.

    2005-04-01

    The research of Odile Meulien and Dietmar Ohlmann is about perceiving a multidimensional world. Not about the cyberspace created for new cinema creation, nor the reality which seems to be created by communication. It's the search for the reality we perceive, when the mind "touches" an object with its senses. In fact, it is a study of the surface of an object, which we can record in its visual appearing, its structure, shape and colors. When using photographic media, the tactile sense of the structure is missing, when using some other reproductive media; we experience somewhere a sensation of fault, something different. When using holography, we are able to record some three dimensional shape which has in fact a lot of parameter of a realistic copy. What is missing is the touch, the smell, the way we can go close and far, surround the object, relate the reflected light to its surrounding. The only interesting attribute of a hologram is for Dietmar Ohlmann its capacity to illustrate a continuum. He likes its changing diffractive character during daytime and surrounds lighting. For Odile Meulien the continuum of a hologram represents a new possible model for understanding wholeness in a social context. In fact, both are working on an educational process together, helping children and adults to find a new position of their own in harmony with living surrounding. Dietmar Ohlmann is working on his artistic side, while Odile Meulien works on educational programs experiencing the perspective of a curator and social analyst. New is the implication of using the latest of the techniques like the atomic force microscopy, which make possible to touch the holographic grating while the holographic image remains untouched. In other words it is the reverse of the usual approach of objects which at first we touch to investigate further. Their difference in experiencing and perceiving scientific and technical approach brings a lot of paradigm in their discussion. Together they will perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.

  18. Matrix Elements for Hylleraas CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.

    The limitation to at most a single interelectron distance in individual configurations of a Hylleraas-type multiconfiguration wave function restricts significantly the types of integrals occurring in matrix elements for energy calculations, but even then if the formulation is not handled efficiently the angular parts of these integrals escalate to create expressions of great complexity. This presentation reviews ways in which the angular-momentum calculus can be employed to systematize and simplify the matrix element formulas, particularly those for the kinetic-energy matrix elements.

  19. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  20. Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Jay D.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Soft connective tissues at steady state are yet dynamic; resident cells continually read environmental cues and respond to promote homeostasis, including maintenance of the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix that are fundamental to cellular and tissue health. The mechanosensing process involves assessment of the mechanics of the matrix by the cells through integrins and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and is followed by a mechano-regulation process that includes the deposition, rearrangement, or removal of matrix to maintain overall form and function. Progress toward understanding the molecular, cellular, and tissue scale effects that promote mechanical homeostasis has helped identify key questions for future research. PMID:25355505

  1. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847

  2. Genotype imputation via matrix completion

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Eric C.; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K.; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546

  3. Genotype imputation via matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546

  4. New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

  5. Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

    1985-01-01

    A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

  6. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination. PMID:26274302

  7. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. PMID:24650524

  8. Universal Keplerian state transition matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepperd, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    A completely general method for computing the Keplerian state transition matrix in terms of Goodyear's universal variables is presented. This includes a new scheme for solving Kepler's problem which is a necessary first step to computing the transition matrix. The Kepler problem is solved in terms of a new independent variable requiring the evaluation of only one transcendental function. Furthermore, this transcendental function may be conveniently evaluated by means of a Gaussian continued fraction.

  9. The matrix rate of return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrzycka, Anna; Piotrowski, Edward W.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we give definitions of matrix rates of return which do not depend on the choice of basis describing baskets. We give their economic interpretation. The matrix rate of return describes baskets of arbitrary type and extends portfolio analysis to the complex variable domain. This allows us for simultaneous analysis of evolution of baskets parameterized by complex variables in both continuous and discrete time models.

  10. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Gibbs, W.S.

    1991-12-03

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions are disclosed. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms. 3 figures.

  11. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix matrials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  12. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  13. Staggered chiral random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, James C.

    2011-02-01

    We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  14. Oriented Matrix Promotes Directional Tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Soucy, Patricia A.; Hoh, Maria; Heinz, Will; Hoh, Jan; Romer, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Detailed control over the structural organization of scaffolds and engineered tissue constructs is a critical need in the quest to engineer functional tissues using biomaterials. This work presents a new approach to the spatial direction of endothelial tubulogenesis. Micropatterned fibronectin substrates were used to control lung fibroblast adhesion and growth and the subsequent deposition of fibroblast-derived matrix during culture. The fibroblast-derived matrix produced on the micropatterned substrates was tightly oriented by these patterns, with an average variation of only 8.5. Further, regions of this oriented extracellular matrix provided directional control of developing endothelial tubes to within 10 of the original micropatterned substrate design. Endothelial cells seeded directly onto the micropatterned substrate did not form tubes. A metric for matrix anisotropy showed a relationship between the fibroblast-derived matrix and the endothelial tubes that were subsequently developed on the same micropatterns with a resulting aspect ratio over 1.5 for endothelial tubulogenesis. Micropatterns in L and Y shapes were used to direct endothelial tubes to turn and branch with the same level of precision. These data demonstrate that anisotropic fibroblast-derived matrices instruct the alignment and shape of endothelial tube networks, thereby introducing an approach that could be adapted for future design of microvascular implants featuring organ-specific natural matrix that patterns microvascular growth. PMID:25219769

  15. Recycling of aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yoshinori; Izawa, Norihisa; Kuramasu, Yukio

    1999-03-01

    Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was separated from the alumina short fiber-reinforced composites. The separation ratio of the matrix from the SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite was low and about 20 vol pct. The separation mechanism was discussed thermodynamically using interface free energies. Since the flux/fiber interface energy is smaller than the aluminum/fiber interface energy, the replacement of aluminum with fluxes in composites takes place easily. Gases released by the decomposition of fluxes act an important role in pushing out the molten matrix metal from the composite. The role was confirmed by the great amount cavity formed in the composite after the matrix metal flowed out.

  16. Octonionic matrix representation and electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanyal, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Keeping in mind the important role of octonion algebra, we have obtained the electromagnetic field equations of dyons with an octonionic 8×8 matrix representation. In this paper, we consider the eight — dimensional octonionic space as a combination of two (external and internal) four-dimensional spaces for the existence of magnetic monopoles (dyons) in a higher-dimensional formalism. As such, we describe the octonion wave equations in terms of eight components from the 8 × 8 matrix representation. The octonion forms of the generalized potential, fields and current source of dyons in terms of 8 × 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. Thus, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons from an 8×8 matrix representation of the octonion wave equations in a compact and consistent manner. The generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, analogous to electric charges and currents. Accordingly, we have obtained the octonionic Dirac wave equations in an external field from the matrix representation of the octonion-valued potentials of dyons.

  17. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Rubensson, Emanuel H.; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.193001] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures.

  18. Matrix model approach to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, A.; Lu, Lei; Stern, A.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a systematic search for rotationally invariant cosmological solutions to toy matrix models. These models correspond to the bosonic sector of Lorentzian Ishibashi, Kawai, Kitazawa and Tsuchiya (IKKT)-type matrix models in dimensions d less than ten, specifically d =3 and d =5 . After taking a continuum (or commutative) limit they yield d -1 dimensional Poisson manifolds. The manifolds have a Lorentzian induced metric which can be associated with closed, open, or static space-times. For d =3 , we obtain recursion relations from which it is possible to generate rotationally invariant matrix solutions which yield open universes in the continuum limit. Specific examples of matrix solutions have also been found which are associated with closed and static two-dimensional space-times in the continuum limit. The solutions provide for a resolution of cosmological singularities, at least within the context of the toy matrix models. The commutative limit reveals other desirable features, such as a solution describing a smooth transition from an initial inflation to a noninflationary era. Many of the d =3 solutions have analogues in higher dimensions. The case of d =5 , in particular, has the potential for yielding realistic four-dimensional cosmologies in the continuum limit. We find four-dimensional de Sitter d S4 or anti-de Sitter AdS4 solutions when a totally antisymmetric term is included in the matrix action. A nontrivial Poisson structure is attached to these manifolds which represents the lowest order effect of noncommutativity. For the case of AdS4 , we find one particular limit where the lowest order noncommutativity vanishes at the boundary, but not in the interior.

  19. Spectral decomposition of a matrix using the generalized sign matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, E. D.; Leyva-Ramos, J.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for spectral decomposition is presented which does not require knowledge of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. A set of eigenprojectors are defined which covers the entire spectrum of a matrix, and special attention is given to the projection on the zero eigenvalue. Some useful applications are discussed in the paper.

  20. Towards Google matrix of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelyansky, D. L.; Zhirov, O. V.

    2010-07-01

    We apply the approach of the Google matrix, used in computer science and World Wide Web, to description of properties of neuronal networks. The Google matrix G is constructed on the basis of neuronal network of a brain model discussed in PNAS 105 (2008) 3593. We show that the spectrum of eigenvalues of G has a gapless structure with long living relaxation modes. The PageRank of the network becomes delocalized for certain values of the Google damping factor α. The properties of other eigenstates are also analyzed. We discuss further parallels and similarities between the World Wide Web and neuronal networks.

  1. The HDTV digital audio matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, A. J.

    Multichannel sound systems are being studied as part of the Eureka 95 and Radio-communication Bureau TG10-1 investigations into high definition television. One emerging sound system has five channels; three at the front and two at the back. This raises some compatibility issues. The listener might have only, say, two loudspeakers or the material to be broadcast may have fewer than five channels. The problem is how best to produce a set of signals to be broadcast, which is suitable for all listeners, from those that are available. To investigate this area, a device has been designed and built which has six input channels and six output channels. Each output signal is a linear combination of the input signals. The inputs and outputs are in AES/EBU digital audio format using BBC-designed AESIC chips. The matrix operation, to produce the six outputs from the six inputs, is performed by a Motorola DSP56001. The user interface and 'housekeeping' is managed by a T222 transputer. The operator of the matrix uses a VDU to enter sets of coefficients and a rotary switch to select which set to use. A set of analog controls is also available and is used to control operations other than the simple compatibility matrixing. The matrix has been very useful for simple tasks: mixing a stereo signal into mono, creating a stereo signal from a mono signal, applying a fixed gain or attenuation to a signal, exchanging the A and B channels of an AES/EBU bitstream, and so on. These are readily achieved using simple sets of coefficients. Additions to the user interface software have led to several more sophisticated applications which still consist of a matrix operation. Different multichannel panning laws have been evaluated. The analog controls adjust the panning; the audio signals are processed digitally using a matrix operation. A digital SoundField microphone decoder has also been implemented. matrix operation, the analog controls being used to adjust the characteristics of the decoded microphone. &DSP software for specific tasks not requiring operator control has also been used. Adaptive filtering and signal restoration are two examples. The transputer in this case can be left to perform the housekeeping. *The design of the HDTV digital audio matrix is such that it can be applied to a wide variety of signal processing tasks. -The combination of a dedicated DSP chip programmed in assembly language for speed of operation and a general purpose processor for user interface tasks programmed in a high level language has been found to be extremely useful.

  2. Shrinkage estimation of the realized relationship matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The additive relationship matrix plays an important role in mixed model prediction of breeding values. For genotype matrix X (loci in columns), the product XX' is widely used as a realized relationship matrix, but the scaling of this matrix is ambiguous. Our first objective was to derive a proper ...

  3. Integrability and generalized monodromy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lhallabi, T.; Moujib, A.

    2007-09-15

    We construct the generalized monodromy matrix M-circumflex({omega}) of two-dimensional string effective action by introducing the T-duality group properties. The integrability conditions with general solutions depending on spectral parameter are given. This construction is investigated for the exactly solvable Wess, Zumino, Novikov, and Witten model in pp-wave limit when B=0.

  4. Matrix Treatment of Ray Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quon, W. Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method to combine two learning experiences--optical physics and matrix mathematics--in a straightforward laboratory experiment that allows engineering/physics students to integrate a variety of learning insights and technical skills, including using lasers, studying refraction through thin lenses, applying concepts of matrix…

  5. The Enrollment Analysis Matrix Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Mark

    The underlying assumptions and the structure of the enrollment analysis matrix (EAM) concept are discussed. EAM is a component of the Strategic Planning Project of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems. EAM relates changes in the population of potential students external to the institution to the impacts that might result…

  6. Reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jenq.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive experimentation and research in the area of particulate and whisker-reinforced ceramic matrix composites is discussed. Diamond, boron carbide, and titanium diboride particles as well as boron carbide whiskers were employed as second phases to improve and enhance the physical properties of the ceramic matrix. Judicious selection of both the toughening agents and the high strength ceramic matrices, as well as the appropriate processing treatment have yielded composite systems distinguished by their outstanding thermal and/or mechanical properties. The main body of this dissertation is comprised of four papers. Two have been published in the Journal of the American Ceramic Society, while the other two have been published in the Ceramic engineering Science Proceedings. The Appendices include two other recently published papers which are also part of this dissertation research.

  7. Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Alman, D.E.

    2002-09-22

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increased with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.

  8. Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.

  9. Naturalness and the neutrino matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, J.; Wiesenfeldt, S.

    2008-03-01

    The observed pattern of neutrino mass splittings and mixing angles indicates that their family structure is significantly different from that of the charged fermions. We investigate the implications of these data for the fermion mass matrices in grand-unified theories with a type-I seesaw mechanism. We show that, with simple assumptions, naturalness leads to a strongly hierarchical Majorana mass matrix for heavy right-handed neutrinos and a partially cascade form for the Dirac neutrino matrix. We consider various model building scenarios which could alter this conclusion, and discuss their consequences for the construction of a natural model. We find that including partially lopsided matrices can aid us in generating a satisfying model.

  10. Tough high performance composite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.

  11. MALDI Matrix Research for Biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Matrices are necessary materials for ionizing analytes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The choice of a matrix appropriate for each analyte controls the analyses. Thus, in some cases, development or improvement of matrices can become a tool for solving problems. This paper reviews MALDI matrix research that the author has conducted in the recent decade. It describes glycopeptide, carbohydrate, or phosphopeptide analyses using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium (TMG) salts of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA), 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA) or 3-AQ/CA and gengeral peptide, peptide containing disulfide bonds or hydrophobic peptide analyses using butylamine salt of CHCA (CHCAB), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN), octyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (alkylated dihydroxybenzoate, ADHB), or 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)octan-1-one (alkylated trihydroxyacetophenone, ATHAP). PMID:26819908

  12. Experimental Space Weathering of Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Helium ion irradiation of Murchison matrix resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, surface vesiculation, and a significant reduction of the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio in fine-grained phyllosilicates.

  13. Fast polar decomposition of an arbitrary matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The polar decomposition of an m x n matrix A of full rank, where m is greater than or equal to n, can be computed using a quadratically convergent algorithm. The algorithm is based on a Newton iteration involving a matrix inverse. With the use of a preliminary complete orthogonal decomposition the algorithm can be extended to arbitrary A. How to use the algorithm to compute the positive semi-definite square root of a Hermitian positive semi-definite matrix is described. A hybrid algorithm which adaptively switches from the matrix inversion based iteration to a matrix multiplication based iteration due to Kovarik, and to Bjorck and Bowie is formulated. The decision when to switch is made using a condition estimator. This matrix multiplication rich algorithm is shown to be more efficient on machines for which matrix multiplication can be executed 1.5 times faster than matrix inversion.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinases: old dogs with new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, Robert PT; Oblander, Samantha A; Apte, Suneel S

    2003-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase family in humans comprises 23 enzymes, which are involved in many biological processes and diseases. It was previously thought that these enzymes acted only to degrade components of the extracellular matrix, but this view has changed with the discovery that non-extracellular-matrix molecules are also substrates. PMID:12801404

  15. Metal-matrix composites: Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Applications of metal matrix composites for air frames and jet engine components are discussed. The current state of the art in primary and secondary fabrication is presented. The present and projected costs were analyzed to determine the cost effectiveness of metal matrix composites. The various types of metal matrix composites and their characteristics are described.

  16. Optimal development of matrix elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Majkut, Stephanie; Idema, Timon; Swift, Joe; Krieger, Christine; Liu, Andrea; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In development and differentiation, morphological changes often accompany mechanical changes [1], but it is unclear if or when cells in embryos sense tissue elasticity. The earliest embryo is uniformly pliable while adult tissues vary widely in mechanics from soft brain and stiff heart to rigid bone [2], but the sensitivity of cells to microenvironment elasticity is debated [3]. Regenerative cardiology provides strong motivation because rigid post-infarct regions limit pumping by the adult heart [4]. Here we focus on embryonic heart and isolated cardiomyocytes, which both beat spontaneously. Tissue elasticity, Et, increases daily for heart to 1-2 kiloPascal by embryonic day-4 (E4), and although this is ∼10-fold softer than adult heart, the beating contractions of E4-cardiomyocytes prove optimal at ∼Et,E4 both in vivo and in vitro. Proteomics reveals daily increases in a small subset of proteins, namely collagen plus cardiac-specific excitation-contraction proteins. Rapid softening of the heart's matrix with collagenase or stiffening it with enzymatic crosslinking suppresses beating. Sparsely cultured E4-cardiomyocytes on collagen-coated gels likewise show maximal contraction on matrices with native E4 stiffness, highlighting cell-intrinsic mechanosensitivity. While an optimal elasticity for striation proves consistent with the mathematics of force-driven sarcomere registration, contraction wave-speed is linear in Et as theorized for Excitation-Contraction Coupled to Matrix Elasticity. Mechanosensitive stem cell cardiogenesis helps generalize tissue results, which demonstrate how myosin-II organization and contractile function is optimally matched to the load presented by matrix elasticity. PMID:24268417

  17. Regenerator matrix physical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Among several cellular ceramic structures manufactured by various suppliers for regenerator application in a gas turbine engine, three have the best potential for achieving durability and performance objectives for use in gas turbines, Stirling engines, and waste heat recovery systems: (1) an aluminum-silicate sinusoidal flow passage made from a corrugated wate paper process; (2) an extruded isosceles triangle flow passage; and (3) a second generation matrix incorporating a square flow passage formed by an embossing process. Key physical and thermal property data for these configurations presented include: heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, compressive strength, tensile strength and elasticity, thermal expansion characteristics, chanical attack, and thermal stability.

  18. Matrix management for aerospace 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The martix management approach to program management is an organized effort for attaining program objectives by defining and structuring all elements so as to form a single system whose parts are united by interaction. The objective of the systems approach is uncompromisingly complete coverage of the program management endeavor. Starting with an analysis of the functions necessary to carry out a given program, a model must be defined; a matrix of responsibility assignment must be prepared; and each operational process must be examined to establish how it is to be carried out and how it relates to all other processes.

  19. Random Matrix Theory and Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenow, Bernd

    2000-03-01

    Random Matrix Theory (RMT) [1] is used in many branches of physics as a ``zero information hypothesis''. It describes generic behavior of different classes of systems, while deviations from its universal predictions allow to identify system specific properties. We use methods of RMT to analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price changes [2] of the largest 1000 US companies. In addition to its scientific interest, the study of correlations between the returns of different stocks is also of practical relevance in quantifying the risk of a given stock portfolio. We find [3,4] that the statistics of most of the eigenvalues of the spectrum of C agree with the predictions of RMT, while there are deviations for some of the largest eigenvalues. We interpret these deviations as a system specific property, e.g. containing genuine information about correlations in the stock market. We demonstrate that C shares universal properties with the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. Furthermore, we analyze the eigenvectors of C through their inverse participation ratio and find eigenvectors with large ratios at both edges of the eigenvalue spectrum - a situation reminiscent of localization theory results. This work was done in collaboration with V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E Stanley and is related to recent work of Laloux et al.. 1. T. Guhr, A. Müller Groeling, and H.A. Weidenmüller, ``Random Matrix Theories in Quantum Physics: Common Concepts'', Phys. Rep. 299, 190 (1998). 2. See, e.g. R.N. Mantegna and H.E. Stanley, Econophysics: Correlations and Complexity in Finance (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1999). 3. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Universal and Nonuniversal Properties of Cross Correlations in Financial Time Series'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1471 (1999). 4. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Random Matrix Theory Analysis of Diffusion in Stock Price Dynamics, preprint

  20. Teaching Tip: When a Matrix and Its Inverse Are Stochastic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, J.; Rhee, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic matrix is a square matrix with nonnegative entries and row sums 1. The simplest example is a permutation matrix, whose rows permute the rows of an identity matrix. A permutation matrix and its inverse are both stochastic. We prove the converse, that is, if a matrix and its inverse are both stochastic, then it is a permutation matrix.

  1. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

  2. The q-Laguerre matrix polynomials.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The Laguerre polynomials have been extended to Laguerre matrix polynomials by means of studying certain second-order matrix differential equation. In this paper, certain second-order matrix q-difference equation is investigated and solved. Its solution gives a generalized of the q-Laguerre polynomials in matrix variable. Four generating functions of this matrix polynomials are investigated. Two slightly different explicit forms are introduced. Three-term recurrence relation, Rodrigues-type formula and the q-orthogonality property are given. PMID:27190749

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sapna, G; Gokul, S; Bagri-Manjrekar, K

    2014-09-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized a complex interaction between periodontopathic bacteria and the host inflammatory response resulting in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to the destruction of periodontal tissues and alveolar bone. One of the important host factors involved in periodontal diseases is matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is responsible for collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation of the periodontal tissues. MMPs comprise a family of around 25 members broadly categorized into six groups, which are involved in various physiological and pathological conditions. The activities of MMP are generally balanced by endogenous inhibitors such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP), and any imbalance between MMP and TIMP levels plays an important role in the disease progression. Assessment of MMP in tissues, GCF, and saliva may serve as an important biomarker in diagnosis of periodontal diseases and also for prognostic follow-up. Targeted therapy aimed at reducing effects of MMP may serve as a useful adjunct for treatment of periodontitis. This review provides an overview of MMP and its role in various physiological and pathological conditions with emphasis on its association with periodontal diseases. A note on its inhibitors and therapeutic importance is also provided. PMID:23849049

  4. Extracellular Matrix and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114

  5. Beam-Forming Electrostrictive Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danicki, Eugene; Tasinkevych, Yuriy

    In this paper a two-dimensional ultrasound transducer comprising crossed periodic metal electrodes placed on both sides of electrostrictive layer and representing the matrix rows and columns is described. Such a system is capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in elevation and azimuth. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional matrix transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The paper presents evaluation of stress in the electrostrictive layer excited by potentials applied to electrodes. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated. Some numerical examples showing the resulting generated electrostrictive stress in the dielectric layer are presented for a simple case of one upper strip excited by a uniform voltage and all bottom strips grounded.

  6. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOEpatents

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  7. Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

  8. Mueller matrix roots algorithm and computational considerations.

    PubMed

    Noble, H D; Chipman, R A

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an order-independent Mueller matrix decomposition was proposed in an effort to elucidate the nine depolarization degrees of freedom [Handbook of Optics, Vol. 1 of Mueller Matrices (2009)]. This paper addresses the critical computational issues involved in applying this Mueller matrix roots decomposition, along with a review of the principal matrix root and common methods for its calculation. The calculation of the pth matrix root is optimized around p = 10(5) for a 53 digit binary double precision calculation. A matrix roots algorithm is provided which incorporates these computational results. It is applied to a statistically significant number of randomly generated physical Mueller matrices in order to gain insight on the typical ranges of the depolarizing Matrix roots parameters. Computational techniques are proposed which allow singular Mueller matrices and Mueller matrices with a half-wave of retardance to be evaluated with the matrix roots decomposition. PMID:22274325

  9. Automatic Generation of Partitioned Matrix Expressions for Matrix Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    We target the automatic generation of formally correct algorithms and routines for linear algebra operations. Given the broad variety of architectures and configurations with which scientists deal, there does not exist one algorithmic variant that is suitable for all scenarios. Therefore, we aim to generate a family of algorithmic variants to attain high-performance for a broad set of scenarios. One of the authors has previously demonstrated that automatic derivation of a family of algorithms is possible when the Partitioned Matrix Expression (PME) of the target operation is available. The PME is a recursive definition that states the relations between submatrices in the input and the output operands. In this paper we describe all the steps involved in the automatic derivation of PMEs, thus making progress towards a fully automated system.

  10. The nuclear matrix prepared by amine modification.

    PubMed

    Wan, K M; Nickerson, J A; Krockmalnic, G; Penman, S

    1999-02-01

    The nucleus is spatially ordered by attachments to a nonchromatin nuclear structure, the nuclear matrix. The nuclear matrix and chromatin are intimately connected and integrated structures, and so a major technical challenge in nuclear matrix research has been to remove chromatin while retaining a native nuclear matrix. Most methods for removing chromatin require first a nuclease digestion and then a salt extraction to remove cut chromatin. We have hypothesized that cut chromatin is held in place by charge interactions involving nucleosomal amino groups. We have tested this hypothesis by chemically modifying amino groups after nuclease digestion. By using this protocol, chromatin could be effectively removed at physiological ionic strength. We compared the ultrastructure and composition of this nuclear matrix preparation with the traditional high-salt nuclear matrix and with the third nuclear matrix preparation that we have developed from which chromatin is removed after extensive crosslinking. All three matrix preparations reveal internal nuclear matrix structures that are built on a network of branched filaments of about 10 nm diameter. That such different chromatin-removal protocols reveal similar principles of nuclear matrix construction increases our confidence that we are observing important architectural elements of the native structure in the living cell. PMID:9927671

  11. Applications of matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warp, Richard J.; Godfrey, Devon J.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2000-04-01

    The improved image quality and characteristics of new flat- panel x-ray detectors have renewed interest in advanced algorithms such as tomosynthesis. Digital tomosynthesis is a method of acquiring and reconstructing a three-dimensional data set with limited-angle tube movement. Historically, conventional tomosynthesis reconstruction has suffered contamination of the planes of interest by blurred out-of- plane structures. This paper focuses on a Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) algorithm to remove unwanted blur from adjacent planes. The algorithm uses a set of coupled equations to solve for the blurring function in each reconstructed plane. This paper demonstrates the use of the MITS algorithm in three imaging applications: small animal microscopy, chest radiography, and orthopedics. The results of the MITS reconstruction process demonstrate an improved reduction of blur from out-of-plane structures when compared to conventional tomosynthesis. We conclude that the MITS algorithm holds potential in a variety of applications to improve three-dimensional image reconstruction.

  12. Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.; Schneibel, J.H.; Waters, S.B.; Menchhofer, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.

  13. Proteases, Extracellular Matrix, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    DeClerck, Yves A.; Mercurio, Arthur M.; Stack, M. Sharon; Chapman, Harold A.; Zutter, Mary M.; Muschel, Ruth J.; Raz, Avraham; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Sloane, Bonnie F.; Noel, Agnes; Hendrix, Mary J.; Coussens, Lisa; Padarathsingh, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tumor microenvironment is not limited to being a barrier against tumor invasion. The ECM is a reservoir of cell binding proteins and growth factors that affect tumor cell behavior. It is also substantially modified by proteases produced by tumor cells or stroma cells. As a result of the activity of these proteases, cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions are altered, new biologically active ECM molecules are generated, and the bioavailability and activity of many growth factors, growth factor receptors, and cytokines are modified. ECM-degrading proteases also play a critical role in angiogenesis, where they can act as positive as well as negative regulators of endothelial cell proliferation and vascular morphogenesis. This review article summarizes some of the most relevant findings made over the recent years that were discussed at a workshop organized by the Path B Study Section of the National Institutes of Health in October 2002. PMID:15039201

  14. Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

  15. Continuous analogues of matrix factorizations

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Alex; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of singular value decomposition (SVD), QR, LU and Cholesky factorizations are presented for problems in which the usual discrete matrix is replaced by a ‘quasimatrix’, continuous in one dimension, or a ‘cmatrix’, continuous in both dimensions. Two challenges arise: the generalization of the notions of triangular structure and row and column pivoting to continuous variables (required in all cases except the SVD, and far from obvious), and the convergence of the infinite series that define the cmatrix factorizations. Our generalizations of triangularity and pivoting are based on a new notion of a ‘triangular quasimatrix’. Concerning convergence of the series, we prove theorems asserting convergence provided the functions involved are sufficiently smooth. PMID:25568618

  16. Evaluation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1971-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of candidate metal-matrix composite materials for shuttle space radiators mounted to external structure are presented. The evaluation was specifically applicable to considerations of the manufacturing and properties of a potential space radiator. Two candidates, boron/aluminum and graphite/aluminum were obtained or made in various forms and tested in sufficient depth to allow selection of one of the two for future scale-up programs. The effort accomplished on this program verified that aluminum reinforced with boron was within the state-of-the-art in industry and possessed properties usable in the external skin areas available for shuttle radiators where re-entry temperatures will not exceed 800 F. It further demonstrated that graphite/aluminum has an apparently attractive future for space applications but requires extension development prior to scale-up.

  17. Light-cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, M. B.

    2009-09-15

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {delta}=0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx_equal}22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  18. Fibronectin Polymerization Regulates the Composition and Stability of Extracellular Matrix Fibrils and Cell-Matrix Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Sottile, Jane; Hocking, Denise C.

    2002-01-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrices occurs during development, wound healing, and in a variety of pathological processes including atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, and angiogenesis. Thus, identifying factors that control the balance between matrix deposition and degradation during tissue remodeling is essential for understanding mechanisms that regulate a variety of normal and pathological processes. Using fibronectin-null cells, we found that fibronectin polymerization into the extracellular matrix is required for the deposition of collagen-I and thrombospondin-1 and that the maintenance of extracellular matrix fibronectin fibrils requires the continual polymerization of a fibronectin matrix. Further, integrin ligation alone is not sufficient to maintain extracellular matrix fibronectin in the absence of fibronectin deposition. Our data also demonstrate that the retention of thrombospondin-1 and collagen I into fibrillar structures within the extracellular matrix depends on an intact fibronectin matrix. An intact fibronectin matrix is also critical for maintaining the composition of cell–matrix adhesion sites; in the absence of fibronectin and fibronectin polymerization, neither α5β1 integrin nor tensin localize to fibrillar cell–matrix adhesion sites. These data indicate that fibronectin polymerization is a critical regulator of extracellular matrix organization and stability. The ability of fibronectin polymerization to act as a switch that controls the organization and composition of the extracellular matrix and cell–matrix adhesion sites provides cells with a means of precisely controlling cell-extracellular matrix signaling events that regulate many aspects of cell behavior including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. PMID:12388756

  19. Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong

    2015-03-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25523040

  20. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald; Couchman, John R

    2016-02-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromolecules are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biological activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor profiles as well as matrix constitution and protein cross-linking. Here we summarize roles of the three major matrix receptor types, with emphasis on how they function in tumor progression. PMID:26519775

  1. A density-dependent Leslie matrix model.

    PubMed

    Allen, L J

    1989-08-01

    A density-dependent Leslie matrix model introduced in 1948 by Leslie is mathematically analyzed. It is shown that the behavior is similar to that of the constant Leslie matrix. In the primitive case, the density-dependent Leslie matrix model has an asymptotic distribution corresponding to the logistic equation. However, in the imprimitive case, the asymptotic distribution is periodic, with period depending on the imprimitivity index. PMID:2520184

  2. Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

    2005-08-11

    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.

  3. Emergent geometry from random multitrace matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydri, B.; Rouag, A.; Ramda, K.

    2016-03-01

    A novel scenario for the emergence of geometry in random multitrace matrix models of a single Hermitian matrix M with unitary U (N ) invariance, i.e. without a kinetic term, is presented. In particular, the dimension of the emergent geometry is determined from the critical exponents of the disorder-to-uniform-ordered transition, whereas the metric is determined from the Wigner semicircle law behavior of the eigenvalues distribution of the matrix M . If the uniform ordered phase is not sustained in the phase diagram, then there is no emergent geometry in the multitrace matrix model.

  4. Extracellular Matrix: Functions in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Claudia S.; Franco, Santos J.; Müller, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    An astonishing number of extracellular matrix glycoproteins are expressed in dynamic patterns in the developing and adult nervous system. Neural stem cells, neurons, and glia express receptors that mediate interactions with specific extracellular matrix molecules. Functional studies in vitro and genetic studies in mice have provided evidence that the extracellular matrix affects virtually all aspects of nervous system development and function. Here we will summarize recent findings that have shed light on the specific functions of defined extracellular matrix molecules on such diverse processes as neural stem cell differentiation, neuronal migration, the formation of axonal tracts, and the maturation and function of synapses in the peripheral and central nervous system. PMID:21123393

  5. Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1975-01-01

    Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.

  7. The Evolution of Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Özbek, Suat; Balasubramanian, Prakash G.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a perspective on the molecular evolution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in metazoa that draws on research publications and data from sequenced genomes and expressed sequence tag libraries. ECM components do not function in isolation, and the biological ECM system or “adhesome” also depends on posttranslational processing enzymes, cell surface receptors, and extracellular proteases. We focus principally on the adhesome of internal tissues and discuss its origins at the dawn of the metazoa and the expansion of complexity that occurred in the chordate lineage. The analyses demonstrate very high conservation of a core adhesome that apparently evolved in a major wave of innovation in conjunction with the origin of metazoa. Integrin, CD36, and certain domains predate the metazoa, and some ECM-related proteins are identified in choanoflagellates as predicted sequences. Modern deuterostomes and vertebrates have many novelties and elaborations of ECM as a result of domain shuffling, domain innovations and gene family expansions. Knowledge of the evolution of metazoan ECM is important for understanding how it is built as a system, its roles in normal tissues and disease processes, and has relevance for tissue engineering, the development of artificial organs, and the goals of synthetic biology. PMID:21160071

  8. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  9. Channeled partial Mueller matrix polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenin, Andrey S.; Tyo, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In prior work,1,2 we introduced methods to treat channeled systems in a way that is similar to Data Reduction Method (DRM), by focusing attention on the Fourier content of the measurement conditions. Introduction of Q enabled us to more readily extract the performance of the system and thereby optimize it to obtain reconstruction with the least noise. The analysis tools developed for that exercise can be expanded to be applicable to partial Mueller Matrix Polarimeters (pMMPs), which were a topic of prior discussion as well. In this treatment, we combine the principles involved in both of those research trajectories and identify a set of channeled pMMP families. As a result, the measurement structure of such systems is completely known and the design of a channeled pMMP intended for any given task becomes a search over a finite set of possibilities, with the additional channel rotation allowing for a more desirable Mueller element mixing.

  10. Advanced Integration Matrix Education Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul Heather L.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) will design a ground-based test facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions in order to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper describes development plans for educational outreach activities related to technological and operational integration scenarios similar to the challenges that will be encountered through this project. The education outreach activities will provide hands-on, interactive exercises to allow students of all levels to experience design and operational challenges similar to what NASA deals with everyday in performing the integration of complex missions. These experiences will relate to and impact students everyday lives by demonstrating how their interests in science and engineering can develop into future careers, and reinforcing the concepts of teamwork and conflict resolution. Allowing students to experience and contribute to real-world development, research, and scientific studies of ground-based simulations for complex exploration missions will stimulate interest in the space program, and bring NASA's challenges to the student level. By enhancing existing educational programs and developing innovative activities and presentations, AIM will support NASA s endeavor to "inspire the next generation of explorers.. .as only NASA can."

  11. Micromechanics of the pericellular matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, J. E.; Boehm, H.; Schmitz, C. H. J.; Spatz, J. P.

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, much attention has been directed towards the properties and activities of the cell surface. In particular, the coupling of the membrane to the underlying protein polymer network called the actin cortex plays an important role in many events. The other side of the cell surface is less studied, although it too has a bound polymer network comprised of gigantic cross-linked polysaccharides (sugars). Called the pericellular matrix (PCM), it is associated with many cells including fibroblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Its thickness can vary from 10's of nanometers to 10 microns and it is associated with adhesion dependent events like migration and mitosis. Biologists often hypothesize that its viscoelastic properties are responsible for the modulation of cell adhesion activities. To investigate this proposal, we measure the PCM's viscoelasticity using microrheology and probe the sharpness of its edge and its mesh size. The elastic modulus of the PCM under different condition is determined, and we characterize the long, elastic cables that can be pulled from the PCM. These results are compared with an externally reconstituted model PCM on the cell surface.

  12. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  13. Fragmentation of extracellular matrix by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Woods, Alan A; Davies, Michael J

    2003-11-15

    The interaction of extracellular matrix with cells regulates their adhesion, migration and proliferation, and it is believed that damage to vascular matrix components is a factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Evidence has been provided for a role for the haem enzyme MPO (myeloperoxidase), released by activated monocytes (and possibly macrophages), in oxidative events within the artery wall. As MPO is released extracellularly, and is highly basic, it might be expected to associate with poly-anionic matrix components thereby localizing damage to these materials. In this study the reaction of the MPO-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with extracellular matrix from vascular smooth muscle cells and healthy pig arteries has been examined. HOCl is rapidly consumed by such matrix samples, with the formation of matrix-derived chloramines or chloramides. The yield of these intermediates increases with HOCl dose. These materials undergo a time- and temperature-dependent decay, which parallels the release of sugar and protein components from the treated matrix, consistent with these species being important intermediates. Matrix damage is enhanced by species that increase chloramine/chloramide decomposition, with copper and iron ions being effective catalysts, and decreased by compounds which scavenge chloramines/chloramides, or species derived from them. The effect of such matrix modifications on cellular behaviour is poorly understood, though it is known that changes in matrix materials can have profound effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, growth and phenotype. The observed matrix modifications reported here may therefore modulate cellular behaviour in diseases such as atherosclerosis where MPO-derived oxidants are generated. PMID:12911330

  14. Effectiveness of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites as orbital debris shield materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, Preston B.; Mount, Angela R.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of two metal matrix composites and one ceramic matrix material in defeating hypervelocity impacts at about 3.8 km/s are evaluated to determine the potential of these composites as spacecraft shield materials. The metal matrix composites investigated consist of SiC particles (70 percent by volume) in an aluminum matrix and Al2O3 particles (50 percent by volume) in an Al matrix. The ceramic composite consists of ZrB2 platelets in a ZrC matrix. Both the metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites are found to perform as well or better than 6061-T6 aluminum, which is presently used in the Whipple type bumper shield of Space Station Freedom. Test results indicate that the composites tested may have applications as micrometeoroid/orbital debris shield materials.

  15. 7 CFR 1770.17 - Expense matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expense matrix. 1770.17 Section 1770.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.17 Expense matrix. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1770.17 - Expense matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expense matrix. 1770.17 Section 1770.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.17 Expense matrix. The...

  17. Proceedings of intermetallic matrix composites II

    SciTech Connect

    Miracle, D.B. ); Anton, D.L. ); Graves, J.A. . Science Center)

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of Intermetallic Matrix Composites II. Topics covered include: intermetallic composites; integration of the Ti aluminide metal matrix composite; limitations of the fiber pushout test; quantitative test techniques; intermetallic eutectics; physical vapor deposition; deformation processing; melt infiltration; solid state displacement, niobium base alloys; and molybdenum alloys.

  18. Optimum interface properties for metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch (CTE) between the fiber and the matrix, high residual sresses exist in metal matrix composite systems upon cool down from processing temperature to room temperature. An interface material can be placed between the fiber and the matrix to reduce the high tensile residual stresses in the matrix. A computer program was written to minimize the residual stress in the matrix subject to the interface material properties. The decision variables are the interface modulus, thickness and thermal expansion coefficient. The properties of the interface material are optimized such that the average distortion energy in the matrix and the interface is minimized. As a result, the only active variable is the thermal expansion coefficient. The optimum modulus of the interface is always the minimum allowable value and the interface thickness is always the maximum allowable value, independent of the fiber/matrix system. The optimum interface thermal expansion coefficient is always between the values of the fiber and the matrix. Using this analysis, a survey of materials was conducted for use as fiber coatings in some specific composite systems.

  19. Weak matrix elements for CP violation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Gupta, R.; Christ, N.; Fleming, G. T.; Kilcup, G.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Sharpe, S.; Wu, L.; Bhattacharya, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results of matrix elements of four fermion operators relevant to the determination of e and E ' / E using staggered fermions. To calculate the matrix elements relevant to CP violation in Kaon decays it is important to use a lattice formulation which preserves (some) chiral symmetry.

  20. Risk Management using Dependency Stucture Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    An efficient method based on dependency structure matrix (DSM) analysis is given for ranking risks in a complex system or process whose entities are mutually dependent. This rank is determined according to the element's values of the unique positive eigenvector which corresponds to the matrix spectral radius modeling the considered engineering system. For demonstration, the risk problem of NASA's robotic spacecraft is analyzed.

  1. An introduction to metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clyne, T.W.; Withers, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book has the stated aim of covering the physical and mechanical metallurgy, interfacial physics and mechanics, and processing of metal matrix composites (MMCs). The term metal matrix composites covers particle, short-fiber, and continuous-fiber reinforced metals. The book covers most of the important topics relevant to the mechanical characteristics of MMCs such as load transfer from the matrix to the fiber, plastic deformation of the metal matrix, effect of thermal mismatch between the fiber and the matrix, and microstructural changes in the matrix caused by the presence of reinforcements. Fracture, transport properties, environmental properties, and tribological characteristics of MMCs are dealt with. Analytical treatments of various topics are provided in a very able manner. The last two chapters include practical information on special techniques such as MMC specimen preparation for transmission electron microscopy, etc. and commercial applications of MMCs. What is surprising is that among the applications of MMCs, no mention is made of filamentary superconductors, conventional or high [Tc] ceramic oxide superconductors. This book is a welcome addition to the literature on metal matrix composites. It is suitable for scientists, engineers, and practicing engineers who deal with metal matrix composites. There is a wealth of line diagrams, micrographs, and references to the literature, and there are subject and author indexes.

  2. Metal matrix composites microfracture - Computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, S. K.; Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Fiber/matrix fracture and fiber-matrix interface debonding in a metal matrix composite (MMC) are computationally simulated. These simulations are part of a research activity to develop computational methods for microfracture, microfracture propagation and fracture toughness of the metal matrix composites. The three-dimensional finite element model used in the simulation consists of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in three by three unit cell array of SiC/Ti15 metal matrix composite with a fiber volume ration of 0.35. This computational procedure is used to predict the fracture process and establish the hierarchy of fracture modes based on strain energy release rate. It is also used to predict stress redistribution to surrounding matrix-fibers due to initial and progressive fracture of fiber/matrix and due to debonding of fiber-matrix interface. Microfracture results for various loading cases such as longitudinal, transverse, shear and bending are presented and discussed. Step-by-step procedures are outlined to evaluate composite microfracture for a given composite system.

  3. Metal matrix composites microfracture: Computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Caruso, John J.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Fiber/matrix fracture and fiber-matrix interface debonding in a metal matrix composite (MMC) are computationally simulated. These simulations are part of a research activity to develop computational methods for microfracture, microfracture propagation and fracture toughness of the metal matrix composites. The three-dimensional finite element model used in the simulation consists of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in three by three unit cell array of SiC/Ti15 metal matrix composite with a fiber volume ration of 0.35. This computational procedure is used to predict the fracture process and establish the hierarchy of fracture modes based on strain energy release rate. It is also used to predict stress redistribution to surrounding matrix-fibers due to initial and progressive fracture of fiber/matrix and due to debonding of fiber-matrix interface. Microfracture results for various loading cases such as longitudinal, transverse, shear and bending are presented and discussed. Step-by-step procedures are outlined to evaluate composite microfracture for a given composite system.

  4. The Molecules of the Cell Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Klaus; Osborn, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins form a highly structured yet changeable matrix that affects cell shape, division, motion, and transport of vesicles and organelles. Types of microfilaments, research techniques, actin and myosin, tumor cells, and other topics are addressed. Evidence indicates that the cell matrix might have a bearing on metabolism. (DH)

  5. Systolic triple-matrix product calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caulfield, H. J.; Verber, C. M.; Stermer, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to handle arbitrary-sized matrices with fixed-sized optical matrix processors, it is necessary to expand or contract the problem to fit the processor. This preprocessing is examined. It is applied to the type of triple-matrix product calculation needed for Kalman filtering. Emphasis will be placed on systolic-type processors.

  6. Multimedia Matrix: A Cognitive Strategy for Designers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Annette C.

    This instructional development project evaluates the effect of a matrix-based strategy to assist multimedia authors in acquiring and applying principles for effective multimedia design. The Multimedia Matrix, based on the Park and Hannafin "Twenty Principles and Implications for Interactive Multimedia" design, displays a condensed version of those…

  7. Matrix model description of baryonic deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu

    2003-03-13

    We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.

  8. Finding nonoverlapping substructures of a sparse matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

    2004-08-09

    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices, thus the design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of non overlapping rectangular dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which has not been studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum non overlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm for 2 times 2 blocks that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. We discuss alternatives to rectangular blocks such as diagonal blocks and cross blocks and present complexity analysis and approximation algorithms.

  9. COMMUNITY MATRIX IN THREE SPECIES COMMUNITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The explicit function of the community matrix of a three dimensional Lotka-Volterra model is delineated by a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for a positive equilibrium to be asymptotically stable. In the special case that the community matrix is quasi weakly diagonally...

  10. The matrix exponential in transient structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    1987-01-01

    The primary usefulness of the presented theory is in the ability to represent the effects of high frequency linear response with accuracy, without requiring very small time steps in the analysis of dynamic response. The matrix exponential contains a series approximation to the dynamic model. However, unlike the usual analysis procedure which truncates the high frequency response, the approximation in the exponential matrix solution is in the time domain. By truncating the series solution to the matrix exponential short, the solution is made inaccurate after a certain time. Yet, up to that time the solution is extremely accurate, including all high frequency effects. By taking finite time increments, the exponential matrix solution can compute the response very accurately. Use of the exponential matrix in structural dynamics is demonstrated by simulating the free vibration response of multi degree of freedom models of cantilever beams.

  11. Introduction to metal/matrix composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schoutens, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide a general introduction to metal matrix composite (MMC) materials and technology to individuals who have had little or no previous training in the field. The tutorial is also designed to acquaint new Department of Defense (DOD) contractors assigned to MMC programs with the breadth of the field and as a refresher for materials scientists and engineers who need a review of MMC technology. Composite materials are considered, taking into account dispersion-strengthened composites, particle-reinforced composites, fiber-reinforced composites, the mechanical behavior of laminae and laminates, cost advantages, applications, and metal matrix composite materials. Attention is given to interfacial reactions between fibers and matrix, metal matrix composites fabrication methods, the mechanical behavior of composite materials, typical metal matrix composite material properties, and test methods. 238 references.

  12. Graphical evaluation of relativistic matrix elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    A graphical representation of angular momentum was used to evaluate relativistic matrix elements between antisymmetrized states of many particle configurations having any number of open shells. The antisymmetrized matrix element was expanded as a sum of semisymmetrized matrix elements. The diagram representing a semisymmetrized matrix element was composed of four diagram blocks; the bra block, the ket block, the spectator block, and the interaction block. The first three blocks indicate the couplings of the two interacting configurations while the last depends on the interaction and is the replaceable component. Interaction blocks for relativistic operators and commonly used potentials were summarized in ready to use forms. A simple step by step procedure was prescribed generally for calculating antisymmetrized matrix elements of one and two particle operators.

  13. Fiber-matrix interfaces in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, E.R.; Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are governed by the relationships between the matrix, the interface material, and the fibers. In non-oxide matrix systems compliant pyrolytic carbon and BN have been demonstrated to be effective interface materials, allowing for absorption of mismatch stresses between fiber and matrix and offering a poorly bonded interface for crack deflection. The resulting materials have demonstrated remarkable strain/damage tolerance together with high strength. Carbon or BN, however, suffer from oxidative loss in many service environments, and thus there is a major search for oxidation resistant alternatives. This paper reviews the issues related to developing a stable and effective interface material for non-oxide matrix CMCs.

  14. Computing matrix inversion with optical networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kan; Soci, Cesare; Shum, Perry Ping; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2014-01-13

    With this paper we bring about a discussion on the computing potential of complex optical networks and provide experimental demonstration that an optical fiber network can be used as an analog processor to calculate matrix inversion. A 3x3 matrix is inverted as a proof-of-concept demonstration using a fiber network containing three nodes and operating at telecomm wavelength. For an NxN matrix, the overall solving time (including setting time of the matrix elements and calculation time of inversion) scales as O(N(2)), whereas matrix inversion by most advanced computer algorithms requires ~O(N(2.37)) computational time. For well-conditioned matrices, the error of the inversion performed optically is found to be around 3%, limited by the accuracy of measurement equipment. PMID:24514991

  15. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  16. Domino: Extracting, Comparing, and Manipulating Subsets across Multiple Tabular Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Gratzl, Samuel; Gehlenborg, Nils; Lex, Alexander; Pfister, Hanspeter; Streit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Answering questions about complex issues often requires analysts to take into account information contained in multiple interconnected datasets. A common strategy in analyzing and visualizing large and heterogeneous data is dividing it into meaningful subsets. Interesting subsets can then be selected and the associated data and the relationships between the subsets visualized. However, neither the extraction and manipulation nor the comparison of subsets is well supported by state-of-the-art techniques. In this paper we present Domino, a novel multiform visualization technique for effectively representing subsets and the relationships between them. By providing comprehensive tools to arrange, combine, and extract subsets, Domino allows users to create both common visualization techniques and advanced visualizations tailored to specific use cases. In addition to the novel technique, we present an implementation that enables analysts to manage the wide range of options that our approach offers. Innovative interactive features such as placeholders and live previews support rapid creation of complex analysis setups. We introduce the technique and the implementation using a simple example and demonstrate scalability and effectiveness in a use case from the field of cancer genomics. PMID:26356916

  17. Developments in Michigan in 1979. [Tabular data and maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ells, G.D.

    1980-09-01

    Niagaran reef exploration dominated drilling activity for the 11th straight year. Exploration and development drilling for these Middle Silurian reef reservoirs were heaviest in northern counties along the reef trend. Other pockets of high activity were associated with deeper development drilling in older fields in the central basin, in parts of southeastern Michigan, and in the Ingham-Calhoun-Eaton County region of southern Michigan. Exploration resulted in 70 new discoveries, one of which resulted from reworking of an earlier dry hole drilled in 1960. Of the new discoveries credited to 1979, 55 were new Niagaran reef reservoirs, 39 of which were located along various parts of the northern reef trend. Two new reef reservoirs in the Livingston-Oakland County region indicate additional prospects in this area of the basin. Exploration and development footage figures, derived from Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division records, amounted to 1,146,515 ft exploratory and 1,150,710 ft development compared with 1,128,691 ft exploratory and 1,176,270 ft development drilled in 1978. An additional 202,791 ft, mainly gas-storage facility wells, is credited to 1979. Oil and gas production continued to set new records. Preliminary figures show that 35,428,411 bbl of oil (including condensate) and 161,707,877 Mcf of gas were produced in 1979. Both figures are new records for annual production. Niagaran reef reservoirs distributed along the northern reef trend accounted for about 72% of the oil and 84% of the gas produced in 1979.

  18. MATRIX City: A Multi-Risk Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, F.; Mignan, A.

    2012-04-01

    MATRIX City (the MATRIX Common IT sYstem) is the computational platform that is being developed in the course of the New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe (MATRIX) project. MATRIX aims to develop multi-type hazard and risk assessment and mitigation tools suited to the European context. The core of MATRIX City is a risk engine of a novel type that is based on a sequential simulation approach, which allows to quantify interactions and other time-dependent processes at the hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk levels. For risk estimation in realistic scenarios, data availability is crucial. To overcome this limitation, MATRIX City provides a component called Virtual City. It is a collection of heuristic databases, which provides a generic approach to quantifying multi-type hazard and risk when data coverage is poor, and for sensitivity analysis. MATRIX City results are intended to provide a "big picture" of the expected impact of multi-type hazard and risk modelling (as opposed to static modelling), thus being a valuable tool for decision support. MATRIX City development uses a modern software engineering approach (test-driven development, continuous integration). The architecture is flexible, so that new perils, new models and large datasets can be accommodated easily. However, it should be noted that hazard computation is not part of MATRIX City. Hazard footprints have to be provided as input data, as well as exposure and vulnerability. The data model used in MATRIX City is an enhancement of the Natural hazards' Risk Markup Language (NRML). An XML serialization of this data model, which is a GML (Geographic Markup Language) application schema, is used for data interchange.

  19. Active Matrix OLED Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits from the environmental testing results by understanding its performance limitations/shortcomings to improve subsequent generations of AMOLED technology. Note that the AMOLED used in this test was not deSigned for the space environment but rather for commercial/industrial terrestrial applications.

  20. Polymer-reinforced metal-matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    London, G.J.; Frazier, W.E.; Williams, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    This patent application discloses an invention that relates generally to metal matrix composites (MMC) materials, and more particularly to polymer-reinforced metal matrix composites wherein polymer filaments are formed during processing of the MMC. MMC's incorporating a less-dense reinforcing non-metal have been developed for use in low-density applications such as for aircraft components. Other improved mechanical properties are toughness, specific strength, and specific modulus of metals such as aluminum and titanium. These can be enhanced by reinforcing them with boron, carbon, or silicon carbide filaments. It is the general object of the present invention to provide a method of producing a polymer-reinforced metal matrix composite. More particularly, it is an object to provide a simple and relatively inexpensive method of producing a polymer-reinforced metal matrix composite and to provide a method of producing a polymer-reinforced metal matrix composite wherein polymer filaments or films are formed during processing. Another object is to provide a polymer-reinforced metal matrix composite which can be subsequently processed by a variety of methods. The invention is to provide an aluminum matrix composite material with reduced density, increased specific strength, enhanced damage tolerance, and increased mechanical damping capability compared to the corresponding properties of the aluminum material alone.

  1. [Modern polymers in matrix tablets technology].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Łukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Matrix tablets are the most popular method of oral drug administration, and polymeric materials have been used broadly in matrix formulations to modify and modulate drug release rate. The main goal of the system is to extend drug release profiles to maintain a constant in vivo plasma drug concentration and a consistent pharmacological effect. Polymeric matrix tablets offer a great potential as oral controlled drug delivery systems. Cellulose derivatives, like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are often used as matrix formers. However, also other types of polymers can be used for this purpose including: Kollidon SR, acrylic acid polymers such as Eudragits and Carbopols. Nevertheless, polymers of natural origin like: carragens, chitosan and alginates widely used in the food and cosmetics industry are now coming to the fore of pharmaceutical research and are used in matrix tablets technology. Modern polymers allow to obtain matrix tablets by 3D printing, which enables to develop new formulation types. In this paper, the polymers used in matrix tablets technology and examples of their applications were described. PMID:25739125

  2. Cardiac matrix: a clue for future therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Givvimani, Srikanth; Chavali, Vishalakshi; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac muscle is unique because it contracts ceaselessly throughout the life and is highly resistant to fatigue. The marvelous nature of the cardiac muscle is attributed to its matrix that maintains structural and functional integrity and provides ambient micro-environment required for mechanical, cellular and molecular activities in the heart. Cardiac matrix dictates the endothelium-myocyte (E-M) coupling and contractility of cardiomyocytes. The Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate matrix degradation that determines cardiac fibrosis and myocardial performance. We have shown that MMP-9 regulates differential expression of micro RNAs (miRNAs), calcium cycling and contractility of cardiomyocytes. The differential expression of miRNAs is associated with angiogenesis, hypertrophy and fibrosis in the heart. MMP-9, which is involved in the degradation of cardiac matrix and induction of fibrosis, is also implicated in inhibition of survival and differentiation of cardiac stem cells (CSC). Cardiac matrix is distinct because it renders mechanical properties and provides a framework essential for differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) into specific lineage. Cardiac matrix regulates myocyte contractility by E-M coupling and calcium transients and also directs miRNAs required for precise regulation of continuous and synchronized beating of cardiomyocytes that is indispensible for survival. Alteration in the matrix homeostasis due to induction of MMPs, altered expression of specific miRNAs or impaired signaling for contractility of cardiomyocytes leads to catastrophic effects. This review describes the mechanisms by which cardiac matrix regulates myocardial performance and suggests future directions for the development of treatment strategies in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24055000

  3. Earthquake prediction decision and risk matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Qi-Jia

    1993-08-01

    The issuance of an earthquake prediction must cause widespread social responses. It is suggested and discussed in this paper that the comprehensive decision issue for earthquake prediction considering the factors of the social and economic cost. The method of matrix decision for earthquake prediction (MDEP) is proposed in this paper and it is based on the risk matrix. The goal of decision is that search the best manner issuing earthquake prediction so that minimize the total losses of economy. The establishment and calculation of the risk matrix is discussed, and the decision results taking account of economic factors and not considering the economic factors are compared by examples in this paper.

  4. Learned fusion operators based on matrix completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risko, Kelly K. D.; Hester, Charles F.

    2011-05-01

    The efficient and timely management of imagery captured in the battlefield requires methods capable of searching the voluminous databases and extracting highly symbolic concepts. When processing images, a semantic and definition gap exists between machine representations and the user's language. Based on matrix completion techniques, we present a fusion operator that fuses imagery and expert knowledge provided by user inputs during post analysis. Specifically, an information matrix is formed from imagery and a class map as labeled by an expert. From this matrix an image operator is derived for the extraction/prediction of information from future imagery. We will present results using this technique on single mode data.

  5. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    SciTech Connect

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2011-08-15

    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  6. Anderson transition for Google matrix eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a number of random matrix models describing the Google matrix G of directed networks. The properties of their spectra and eigenstates are analyzed by numerical matrix diagonalization. We show that for certain models it is possible to have an algebraic decay of PageRank vector with the exponent similar to real directed networks. At the same time the spectrum has no spectral gap and a broad distribution of eigenvalues in the complex plain. The eigenstates of G are characterized by the Anderson transition from localized to delocalized states and a mobility edge curve in the complex plane of eigenvalues.

  7. Matrigel: basement membrane matrix with biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Hynda K; Martin, George R

    2005-10-01

    The basement membrane extracellular matrix contacts epithelial, endothelial, fat and smooth muscle cells. Because this extracellular matrix is so thin, it had been hard to study its composition, structure, and function. An extract of a tumor was found to contain all of the components present in basement and to be very biologically active. This extract, termed Matrigel, Cultrex, or EHS matrix, promotes cell differentiation, and is used to measure the invasive activity of tumor cells. In vivo, it is used for measuring angiogenic inhibitors and stimulators, to improve graft survival, repair damaged tissues, and increase tumor growth. PMID:15975825

  8. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  9. 48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...

  10. 48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...

  11. 48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...

  12. Matrix Models, Emergent Spacetime and Symmetry Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Harald; Lizzi, Fedele; Steinacker, Harold

    2009-12-01

    We discuss how a matrix model recently shown to describe emergent gravity may contain extra degrees of freedom which reproduce some characteristics of the standard model, in particular the breaking of symmetries and the correct quantum numbers of fermions.

  13. Structural Analysis and Matrix Interpretive System /SAMIS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Structural Analysis and Matrix Interpretive System eliminates high-speed digital computer restrictions of lack of generalization and lack of flexibility. Programming concepts of the system are standardization, modularity, and programming for intermediate-size problems.

  14. Simplex Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Blisk Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mash, Matt; McConnaughey, Helen V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the testing and demonstration of the Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Blisk. Also discussed are material damping, fatigue life, damage to trailing edges, performance, unsteady blade loading, and stress.

  15. ZZ brane amplitudes from matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akira; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2005-02-01

    We study instanton contribution to the partition function of the one matrix model in the k-th multicritical region, which corresponds to the (2,2k-1) minimal model coupled to Liouville theory. The instantons in the one matrix model are given by local extrema of the effective potential for a matrix eigenvalue and identified with the ZZ branes in Liouville theory. We show that the 2-instanton contribution in the partition function is universal as well as the 1-instanton contribution and that the connected part of the 2-instanton contribution reproduces the annulus amplitudes between the ZZ branes in Liouville theory. Our result serves as another nontrivial check on the correspondence between the instantons in the one matrix model and the ZZ branes in Liouville theory, and also suggests that the expansion of the partition function in terms of the instanton numbers are universal and gives systematically ZZ brane amplitudes in Liouville theory.

  16. Comix, a New Matrix Element Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoche, Stefan; /Durham U., IPPP

    2008-09-03

    We present a new tree-level matrix element generator, based on the color dressed Berends-Giele recursive relations. We discuss two new algorithms for phase space integration, dedicated to be used with large multiplicities and color sampling.

  17. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  18. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  19. Software for Fault-Tolerant Matrix Multiplication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel; Tisdale, Edwin; Quintana-Orti, Enrique; Gunnels, John; van de Geijn, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Formal Linear Algebra Recovery Environment is a computer program for high-performance, fault-tolerant matrix multiplication. The program is based on an extension of the prior theory and practice of fault-tolerant matrix matrix multiplication of the form C = AB. This extension provides low-overhead methods for detecting errors, not only in C, but also in A and/or B. These methods enable the detection of all errors as long as, in a given case, only one entry in A, B, or C is corrupted. The program also provides for following a low-overhead rollback approach to correct errors once detected. Results of computational experiments have demonstrated that the methods implemented in this program work well in practice while imposing an acceptably low level of overhead, relative to high-performance matrix-multiplication methods that do not afford fault tolerance.

  20. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  1. Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.

    2011-09-27

    A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.

  2. Density-matrix functionals from Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöchl, Peter E.; Pruschke, Thomas; Potthoff, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The exact reduced density-matrix functional is derived from the Luttinger-Ward functional of the single-particle Green's function. Thereby, a formal link is provided between diagrammatic many-body approaches using Green's functions on the one hand and theories based on many-body wave functions on the other. This link can be used to explicitly construct approximations for the density-matrix functional that are equivalent to standard diagrammatic resummation techniques and to nonperturbative dynamical mean field theory in particular. Contrary to functionals of the Green's function, the exact density-matrix functional is convex and thus provides a true minimum principle which facilitates the calculation of the grand potential and derived equilibrium properties. The benefits of the proposed Green's-function-based density-matrix functional theory for geometrical structure optimization of strongly correlated materials are discussed.

  3. Measuring strangeness matrix elements of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J. ); Krein, G. Instituto de Fisica Teorica , Sao Paulo, SP ); Williams, A.G. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL )

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are proposed to measure various strangeness matrix elements of the nucleon. Examples are electro- and neutrino- production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering from isospin zero targets, e.g., deuterons.

  4. Measuring strangeness matrix elements of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J.; Krein, G. |; Williams, A.G. |

    1991-12-31

    Experiments are proposed to measure various strangeness matrix elements of the nucleon. Examples are electro- and neutrino- production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering from isospin zero targets, e.g., deuterons.

  5. Matrix rank in variational nodal approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Carrico, C.B.; Palmoitti, G.; Lewis, E.E.

    1994-12-31

    Diffusion and transport variational nodal methods are being used increasingly for two and three-dimensinal fast reactor calculations in both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries. This report is concerned with matrix rank in variational nodal approximations.

  6. Matrix effects in plasma desorption mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchonnet, Stephane; Hoppilliard, Yannik; Mauriac, Christine

    1993-07-01

    In Plasma Desorption (PD) Mass Spectrometry, valine/matrix mixtures have been studied in order to specify the influence of a matrix during the desorption-ionization (DI) of volume. The different matrices used were carboxylic acids (barbituric acid, 2-chloronicotinic acid, 3-chloropropionic acid, cysteine, pentafluorobenzoic acid, picric acid, sinapinic acid) and CsI, an inorganic salt. Three effects are proposed to explain the influence of each matrix on the DI of valine: a physical effect, a chemical effect and a (de)cationization effect. Thermodynamic diagrams are proposed to explain each effect. Each matrix gives either a specific effect or a superimposition of effects. The concentration effect of matrices is also studied.

  7. Matrix Models, Emergent Spacetime and Symmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Harald; Steinacker, Harold; Lizzi, Fedele

    2009-12-15

    We discuss how a matrix model recently shown to describe emergent gravity may contain extra degrees of freedom which reproduce some characteristics of the standard model, in particular the breaking of symmetries and the correct quantum numbers of fermions.

  8. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    DOEpatents

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  9. Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

  10. Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.

  11. Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zaoyang

    2010-05-21

    Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.

  12. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  13. Semisupervised kernel matrix learning by kernel propagation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Enliang; Chen, Songcan; Zhang, Daoqiang; Yin, Xuesong

    2010-11-01

    The goal of semisupervised kernel matrix learning (SS-KML) is to learn a kernel matrix on all the given samples on which just a little supervised information, such as class label or pairwise constraint, is provided. Despite extensive research, the performance of SS-KML still leaves some space for improvement in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. For example, a recent pairwise constraints propagation (PCP) algorithm has formulated SS-KML into a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem, but its computation is very expensive, which undoubtedly restricts PCPs scalability in practice. In this paper, a novel algorithm, called kernel propagation (KP), is proposed to improve the comprehensive performance in SS-KML. The main idea of KP is first to learn a small-sized sub-kernel matrix (named seed-kernel matrix) and then propagate it into a larger-sized full-kernel matrix. Specifically, the implementation of KP consists of three stages: 1) separate the supervised sample (sub)set X(l) from the full sample set X; 2) learn a seed-kernel matrix on X(l) through solving a small-scale SDP problem; and 3) propagate the learnt seed-kernel matrix into a full-kernel matrix on X . Furthermore, following the idea in KP, we naturally develop two conveniently realizable out-of-sample extensions for KML: one is batch-style extension, and the other is online-style extension. The experiments demonstrate that KP is encouraging in both effectiveness and efficiency compared with three state-of-the-art algorithms and its related out-of-sample extensions are promising too. PMID:20923733

  14. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix debonding, reasonably good qualitative and quantitative correlation is achieved between model and experiment.

  15. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOEpatents

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  16. Mechanisms balancing skeletal matrix synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C; Zaidi, Mone; Schlesinger, Paul H

    2002-01-01

    Bone is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signals that balance continuous differentiation of bone matrix-producing cells against apoptosis and matrix removal. This is continued from embryogenesis, where the skeleton differentiates as a solid mass and is shaped into separate bones by cell death and proteolysis. The two major tissues of the skeleton are avascular cartilage, with an extracellular matrix based on type II collagen and hydrophilic proteoglycans, and bone, a stronger and lighter material based on oriented type I collagen and hydroxyapatite. Both differentiate from the same mesenchymal stem cells. This differentiation is regulated by a family of related signals centred on bone morphogenic proteins. Fibroblast growth factors, Indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein are important in determining the type of matrix and the relation of skeletal and non-skeletal structures. Removal of mineralized matrix involves apoptosis of matrix cells and differentiation of acid-secreting cells (osteoclasts) from macrophage precursors. Key regulators of matrix removal are signals in the tumour-necrosis-factor family. Osteoclasts dissolve bone by isolating a region of the matrix and secreting HCl and proteinases at that site. Successive cycles of removal and replacement allow growth, repair and remodelling. The signals for bone turnover are predominantly cell-membrane-associated, allowing very specific spatial regulation. In addition to its support function, bone is a reservoir of Ca2+, PO3-(4) and OH-. Secondary modulation of mineral secretion and bone degradation are mediated by humoral signals, including parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, as well as the cytokines that also regulate the underlying cell differentiation. PMID:12023876

  17. Topological string correlators from matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Nkumane, Lwazi

    2015-03-01

    We discuss how to compute connected matrix model correlators for operators related to the gravitational descendants of the puncture operator, for the topological A model on P 1. The relevant correlators are determined by recursion relations that follow from a systematic 1/ N expansion of well chosen Schwinger-Dyson equations. Our results provide further compelling evidence for Gopakumar's proposed "simplest gauge string duality" between the Gaussian matrix model and the topological A model on P 1.

  18. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  19. Instructive roles of extracellular matrix on autophagy.

    PubMed

    Neill, Thomas; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy plays an essential role in maintaining an intricate balance between nutrient demands and energetic requirements during normal homeostasis. Autophagy recycles metabolic substrates from nonspecific bulk degradation of proteins and excess or damaged organelles. Recent work posits an active and dynamic signaling role for extracellular matrix-evoked autophagic regulation, that is, allosteric and independent of prevailing nutrient conditions. Several candidates, representing a diverse repertoire of matrix constituents (decorin, collagen VI, laminin α2, endostatin, endorepellin, and kringle V), can modulate autophagic signaling pathways. Importantly, a novel principle indicates that matrix constituents can differentially modulate autophagic induction and repression via interaction with specific receptors. Most of the matrix-derived factors described here appear to control autophagy in a canonical manner but independent of nutrient deprivation. Because the molecular composition and structure of the extracellular matrix are dynamically remodeled during various physiological and pathological conditions, we propose that matrix-regulated autophagy is key for maintaining proper tissue homeostasis and disease prevention, such as cancer progression and muscular dystrophies. PMID:24976620

  20. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

  1. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  2. Endothelial Matrix Assembly during Capillary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fumin; Lemmon, Christopher A.; Nilaratanakul, Voraphoj; Rotter, Varda

    2014-01-01

    Biologically relevant, three-dimensional extracellular matrix is an essential component of in vitro vasculogenesis models. WI-38 fibroblasts assemble a 3D matrix that induces endothelial tubulogenesis, but this model is challenged by fibroblast senescence and the inability to distinguish endothelial cell-derived matrix from matrix made by WI-38 fibroblasts. Matrices produced by hTERT-immortalized WI-38 recapitulated those produced by wild type fibroblasts. ECM fibrils were heavily populated by tenascin-C, fibronectin, and type VI collagen. Nearly half of the total type I collagen, but only a small fraction of the type IV collagen, were incorporated into ECM. Stable hTERT-WI-38 transfectants expressing TagRFP-fibronectin incorporated TagRFP into ~90% of the fibronectin in 3D matrices. TagRFP-fibronectin colocalized with tenascin-C and with type I collagen in a pattern that was similar to that seen in matrices from wild type WI-38. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) formed 3D adhesions and tubes on WI38-hTERT-TagRFP-FN-derived matrices, and the TagRFP-fibronectin component of this new 3D human fibroblast matrix model facilitated the demonstration of concentrated membrane type 1 metalloprotease and new HUVEC FN and collagen type IV fibrils during EC tubulogenesis. These findings indicate that WI-38-hTERT- and WI-38-hTERT-TagRFP-FN-derived matrices provide platforms for the definition of new matrix assembly and remodeling events during vasculogenesis. PMID:25063001

  3. Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.; Liang, Y.-Z.

    1984-01-01

    A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4 percent, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.

  4. Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y Z; Liu, H K

    1984-08-01

    A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4%, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy. PMID:19721585

  5. Fatigue damage criteria - Matrix, fibers and interfaces of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  6. Auger analysis of a fiber/matrix interface in a ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecy, Frank S.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1988-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was used to characterize the fiber/matrix interface of an SiC fiber, reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composite. Depth profiles of the as received double coated fiber revealed concentration oscillations which disappeared after annealing the fiber in the environment used to fabricate the composite. After the composite was fractured, the Auger depth profiles showed that failure occurred in neither the Beta-SiC fiber body nor in the Si3N4 matrix but, concurrently, at the fiber coating/matrix interface and within the fiber coating itself.

  7. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-12-31

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003({micro}m). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation.

  8. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2006-03-28

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  9. Modeling for Matrix Multicracking Evolution of Cross-ply Ceramic-Matrix Composites Using Energy Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    The matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated using energy balance approach. The multicracking of cross-ply CMCs was classified into five modes, i.e., (1) mode 1: transverse multicracking; (2) mode 2: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; (3) mode 3: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding; (4) mode 4: matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; and (5) mode 5: matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding. The stress distributions of four cracking modes, i.e., mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, are analysed using shear-lag model. The matrix multicracking evolution of mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, has been determined using energy balance approach. The effects of ply thickness and fiber volume fraction on matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply CMCs have been investigated.

  10. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 3

  11. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 1

  12. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN-PC is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. An 80286 machine with an 80287 math co-processor is required for execution. The executable requires at least 640K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher. The package includes sample executables which were compiled under Microsoft FORTRAN v. 5.1. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. METCAN-PC was developed in 1992.

  13. Estimating the Inertia Matrix of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Keim, Jason; Shields, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A paper presents a method of utilizing some flight data, aboard a spacecraft that includes reaction wheels for attitude control, to estimate the inertia matrix of the spacecraft. The required data are digitized samples of (1) the spacecraft attitude in an inertial reference frame as measured, for example, by use of a star tracker and (2) speeds of rotation of the reaction wheels, the moments of inertia of which are deemed to be known. Starting from the classical equations for conservation of angular momentum of a rigid body, the inertia-matrix-estimation problem is formulated as a constrained least-squares minimization problem with explicit bounds on the inertia matrix incorporated as linear matrix inequalities. The explicit bounds reflect physical bounds on the inertia matrix and reduce the volume of data that must be processed to obtain a solution. The resulting minimization problem is a semidefinite optimization problem that can be solved efficiently, with guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, by use of readily available algorithms. In a test case involving a model attitude platform rotating on an air bearing, it is shown that, relative to a prior method, the present method produces better estimates from few data.

  14. Image encryption using the Sudoku matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue; Zhou, Yicong; Noonan, Joseph P.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2010-04-01

    This paper introduces a new effective and lossless image encryption algorithm using a Sudoku Matrix to scramble and encrypt the image. The new algorithm encrypts an image through a three stage process. In the first stage, a reference Sudoku matrix is generated as the foundation for the encryption and scrambling processes. The image pixels' intensities are then changed by using the reference Sudoku matrix values, and then the pixels' positions are shuffled using the Sudoku matrix as a mapping process. The advantages of this method is useful for efficiently encrypting a variety of digital images, such as binary images, gray images, and RGB images without any quality loss. The security keys of the presented algorithm are the combination of the parameters in a 1D chaotic logistic map, a parameter to control the size of Sudoku Matrix and the number of iteration times desired for scrambling. The possible security key space is extremely large. The principles of the presented scheme could be applied to provide security for a variety of systems including image, audio and video systems.

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinase Control of Capillary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ghajar, Cyrus M; George, Steven C; Putnam, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play crucial roles in a variety of normal (e.g. blood vessel formation, bone development) and pathophysiological (e.g. wound healing, cancer) processes. This is not only due to their ability to degrade the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), but also because MMPs function to reveal cryptic matrix binding sites, release matrix-bound growth factors inherent to these processes, and activate a variety of cell surface molecules. The process of blood vessel formation, in particular, is regulated by what is widely classified as the angiogenic switch: a mixture of both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors that function to counteract each other unless the stimuli from one side exceeds the other to disrupt the quiescent state. While it was initially thought that MMPs were strictly pro-angiogenic, new functions for this proteolytic family such as mediating vascular regression and generating matrix fragments with antiangiogenic capacities have been discovered in the last decade. These findings cast MMPs as multi-faceted pro- and anti-angiogenic effectors. The purpose of this review is to introduce the reader to the general structure and characterization of the MMP family and to discuss the temporal and spatial regulation of their gene expression and enzymatic activity in the following crucial steps associated with angiogenesis: degradation of the vascular basement membrane; proliferation and invasion of endothelial cells within the subjacent ECM, organization into immature tubules; maturation of these nascent vessels; and the pruning and regression of the vascular network. PMID:18540825

  16. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Herakovich, C. T.; Pindera, M-J.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model capable of predicting the thermomechanical response of continuously reinforced metal matrix composite laminates subjected to multiaxial loading was developed. A micromechanical model is used in conjunction with nonlinear lamination theory to determine inelastic laminae response. Matrix viscoplasticity, residual stresses, and damage to the fiber/matrix interfacial zone are explicitly included in the model. The representative cell of the micromechanical model is considered to be in a state of generalized plane strain, enabling a quasi two-dimensional analysis to be performed. Constant strain finite elements are formulated with elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. Interfacial debonding is incorporated into the model through interface elements based on the interfacial debonding theory originally presented by Needleman, and modified by Tvergaard. Nonlinear interfacial constitutive equations relate interfacial tractions to displacement discontinuities at the interface. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of an experimental program conducted on silicon carbide/titanium (SiC/Ti) unidirectional, (O4), and angle-ply, (+34)(sub s), tubular specimens. Multiaxial loading included increments of axial tension, compression, torque, and internal pressure. Loadings were chosen in an effort to distinguish inelastic deformation due to damage from matrix plasticity and separate time-dependent effects from time-independent effects. Results show that fiber/matrix debonding is nonuniform throughout the composite and is a major factor in the effective response. Also, significant creep behavior occurs at relatively low applied stress levels at room temperature.

  17. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, Vivek; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks. PMID:23671568

  18. Phylogenetic stochastic mapping without matrix exponentiation.

    PubMed

    Irvahn, Jan; Minin, Vladimir N

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic stochastic mapping is a method for reconstructing the history of trait changes on a phylogenetic tree relating species/organism carrying the trait. State-of-the-art methods assume that the trait evolves according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) and works well for small state spaces. The computations slow down considerably for larger state spaces (e.g., space of codons), because current methodology relies on exponentiating CTMC infinitesimal rate matrices-an operation whose computational complexity grows as the size of the CTMC state space cubed. In this work, we introduce a new approach, based on a CTMC technique called uniformization, which does not use matrix exponentiation for phylogenetic stochastic mapping. Our method is based on a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that targets the distribution of trait histories conditional on the trait data observed at the tips of the tree. The computational complexity of our MCMC method grows as the size of the CTMC state space squared. Moreover, in contrast to competing matrix exponentiation methods, if the rate matrix is sparse, we can leverage this sparsity and increase the computational efficiency of our algorithm further. Using simulated data, we illustrate advantages of our MCMC algorithm and investigate how large the state space needs to be for our method to outperform matrix exponentiation approaches. We show that even on the moderately large state space of codons our MCMC method can be significantly faster than currently used matrix exponentiation methods. PMID:24918812

  19. Thermal shock resistance of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, D. M.; Nied, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental and analytical investigation of the thermal shock phenomena in ceramic matrix composites is detailed. The composite systems examined were oxide-based, consisting of an aluminosilicate matrix with either polycrystalline aluminosilicate or single crystal alumina fiber reinforcement. The program was divided into three technical tasks; baseline mechanical properties, thermal shock modeling, and thermal shock testing. The analytical investigation focused on the development of simple expressions for transient thermal stresses induced during thermal shock. The effect of various material parameters, including thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and thermal expansion, were examined analytically for their effect on thermal shock performance. Using a simple maximum stress criteria for each constituent, it was observed that fiber fracture would occur only at the most extreme thermal shock conditions and that matrix fracture, splitting parallel to the reinforcing fiber, was to be expected for most practical cases. Thermal shock resistance for the two material systems was determined experimentally by subjecting plates to sudden changes in temperature on one surface while maintaining the opposite surface at a constant temperature. This temperature change was varied in severity (magnitude) and in number of shocks applied to a given sample. The results showed that for the most severe conditions examined that only surface matrix fracture was present with no observable fiber fracture. The impact of this damage on material performance was limited to the matrix dominated properties only. Specifically, compression strength was observed to decrease by as much as 50 percent from the measured baseline.

  20. Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Without Matrix Exponentiation

    PubMed Central

    Irvahn, Jan; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic stochastic mapping is a method for reconstructing the history of trait changes on a phylogenetic tree relating species/organism carrying the trait. State-of-the-art methods assume that the trait evolves according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) and works well for small state spaces. The computations slow down considerably for larger state spaces (e.g., space of codons), because current methodology relies on exponentiating CTMC infinitesimal rate matrices—an operation whose computational complexity grows as the size of the CTMC state space cubed. In this work, we introduce a new approach, based on a CTMC technique called uniformization, which does not use matrix exponentiation for phylogenetic stochastic mapping. Our method is based on a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that targets the distribution of trait histories conditional on the trait data observed at the tips of the tree. The computational complexity of our MCMC method grows as the size of the CTMC state space squared. Moreover, in contrast to competing matrix exponentiation methods, if the rate matrix is sparse, we can leverage this sparsity and increase the computational efficiency of our algorithm further. Using simulated data, we illustrate advantages of our MCMC algorithm and investigate how large the state space needs to be for our method to outperform matrix exponentiation approaches. We show that even on the moderately large state space of codons our MCMC method can be significantly faster than currently used matrix exponentiation methods. PMID:24918812

  1. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  2. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vineet

    2011-12-01

    Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.

  3. Quaternion from rotation matrix. [four-parameter representation of coordinate transformation matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepperd, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A quaternion is regarded as a four-parameter representation of a coordinate transformation matrix, where the four components of the quaternion are treated on an equal basis. This leads to a unified, compact, and singularity-free approach to determining the quaternion when the matrix is given.

  4. Cache oblivious storage and access heuristics for blocked matrix-matrix multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, Nicolas; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt; Salek, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate effects of ordering in blocked matrix-matrix multiplication. They find that submatrices do not have to be stored contiguously in memory in order to achieve near optimal performance. They also find a good choice of execution order of submatrix operations can lead to a speedup of up to four times for small block sizes.

  5. Superbosonization of Invariant Random Matrix Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littelmann, P.; Sommers, H.-J.; Zirnbauer, M. R.

    2008-10-01

    ‘Superbosonization’ is a new variant of the method of commuting and anti-commuting variables as used in studying random matrix models of disordered and chaotic quantum systems. We here give a concise mathematical exposition of the key formulas of superbosonization. Conceived by analogy with the bosonization technique for Dirac fermions, the new method differs from the traditional one in that the superbosonization field is dual to the usual Hubbard-Stratonovich field. The present paper addresses invariant random matrix ensembles with symmetry group U n , O n , or USp n , giving precise definitions and conditions of validity in each case. The method is illustrated at the example of Wegner’s n-orbital model. Superbosonization promises to become a powerful tool for investigating the universality of spectral correlation functions for a broad class of random matrix ensembles of non-Gaussian and/or non-invariant type.

  6. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  7. Phosphorylated silk fibroin matrix for methotrexate release.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim; Sárria, Marisa P; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Silk-based matrix was produced for delivery of a model anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX). The calculation of net charge of silk fibroin and MTX was performed to better understand the electrostatic interactions during matrix formation upon casting. Silk fibroin films were cast at pH 7.2 and pH 3.5. Protein kinase A was used to prepare phosphorylated silk fibroin. The phosphorylation content of matrix was controlled by mixing at specific ratios the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated solutions. In vitro release profiling data suggest that the observed interactions are mainly structural and not electrostatical. The release of MTX is facilitated by use of proteolytic enzymes and higher pHs. The elevated β-sheet content and crystallinity of the acidified-cast fibroin solution seem not to favor drug retention. All the acquired data underline the prevalence of structural interactions over electrostatical interactions between methotrexate and silk fibroin. PMID:25435334

  8. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, T. R. Chui, S. T.

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  9. Peroxisome assembly: matrix and membrane protein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changle; Agrawal, Gaurav; Subramani, Suresh

    2011-04-01

    The biogenesis of peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins is substantially different from the biogenesis of proteins of other subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, that are of endosymbiotic origin. Proteins are targeted to the peroxisome matrix through interactions between specific targeting sequences and receptor proteins, followed by protein translocation across the peroxisomal membrane. Recent advances have shed light on the nature of the peroxisomal translocon in matrix protein import and the molecular mechanisms of receptor recycling. Furthermore, the endoplasmic reticulum has been shown to play an important role in peroxisomal membrane protein biogenesis. Defining the molecular events in peroxisome assembly may enhance our understanding of the etiology of human peroxisome biogenesis disorders. PMID:21464226

  10. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Chao M.; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1999-01-01

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  11. Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

  12. Accelerated matrix element method with parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, D.; DeAbreu, A.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-07-01

    The matrix element method utilizes ab initio calculations of probability densities as powerful discriminants for processes of interest in experimental particle physics. The method has already been used successfully at previous and current collider experiments. However, the computational complexity of this method for final states with many particles and degrees of freedom sets it at a disadvantage compared to supervised classification methods such as decision trees, k nearest-neighbor, or neural networks. This note presents a concrete implementation of the matrix element technique using graphics processing units. Due to the intrinsic parallelizability of multidimensional integration, dramatic speedups can be readily achieved, which makes the matrix element technique viable for general usage at collider experiments.

  13. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering. PMID:26545748

  14. Propulsive matrix of a helical flagellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He-Peng; Liu, Bin; Bruce, Rodenborn; Harry, L. Swinney

    2014-11-01

    We study the propulsion matrix of bacterial flagella numerically using slender body theory and the regularized Stokeslet method in a biologically relevant parameter regime. All three independent elements of the matrix are measured by computing propulsive force and torque generated by a rotating flagellum, and the drag force on a translating flagellum. Numerical results are compared with the predictions of resistive force theory, which is often used to interpret micro-organism propulsion. Neglecting hydrodynamic interactions between different parts of a flagellum in resistive force theory leads to both qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between the theoretical prediction of resistive force theory and the numerical results. We improve the original theory by empirically incorporating the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and propose new expressions for propulsive matrix elements that are accurate over the parameter regime explored.

  15. Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1987-01-01

    Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot-pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when uniaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaixial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber-matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0-deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.

  16. Floquet thermalization: Symmetries and random matrix ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnault, Nicolas; Nandkishore, Rahul

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the role of symmetries in determining the random matrix class describing quantum thermalization in a periodically driven many-body quantum system. Using a combination of analytical arguments and numerical exact diagonalization, we establish that a periodically driven "Floquet" system can be in a different random matrix class from the instantaneous Hamiltonian. A periodically driven system can thermalize even when the instantaneous Hamiltonian is integrable. A Floquet system that thermalizes in general can display integrable behavior at commensurate driving frequencies. When the instantaneous Hamiltonian and the Floquet operator both thermalize, the Floquet problem can be in the unitary class while the instantaneous Hamiltonian is always in the orthogonal class, and vice versa. We extract general principles regarding when a Floquet problem can thermalize to a different symmetry class from the instantaneous Hamiltonian. A (finite-sized) Floquet system can even display crossovers between different random matrix classes as a function of driving frequency.

  17. Google matrix analysis of directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade modern societies have developed enormous communication and social networks. Their classification and information retrieval processing has become a formidable task for the society. Because of the rapid growth of the World Wide Web, and social and communication networks, new mathematical methods have been invented to characterize the properties of these networks in a more detailed and precise way. Various search engines extensively use such methods. It is highly important to develop new tools to classify and rank a massive amount of network information in a way that is adapted to internal network structures and characteristics. This review describes the Google matrix analysis of directed complex networks demonstrating its efficiency using various examples including the World Wide Web, Wikipedia, software architectures, world trade, social and citation networks, brain neural networks, DNA sequences, and Ulam networks. The analytical and numerical matrix methods used in this analysis originate from the fields of Markov chains, quantum chaos, and random matrix theory.

  18. Membrane sorting via the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Sina; Vink, Richard L C

    2015-02-01

    We consider the coupling between a membrane and the extracellular matrix. Computer simulations demonstrate that the latter coupling is able to sort lipids. It is assumed that membranes are elastic manifolds, and that this manifold is disrupted by the extracellular matrix. For a solid-supported membrane with an actin network on top, regions of positive curvature are induced below the actin fibers. A similar mechanism is conceivable by assuming that the proteins which connect the cytoskeleton to the membrane induce local membrane curvature. The regions of non-zero curvature exist irrespective of any phase transition the lipids themselves may undergo. For lipids that prefer certain curvature, the extracellular matrix thus provides a spatial template for the resulting lateral domain structure of the membrane. PMID:25450353

  19. Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.

  20. Import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sohel; Platta, Harald W.; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment in all nucleated cells. They fulfill diverse metabolic tasks in response to environmental changes and cellular demands. This adaptation is implemented by modulation of the enzyme content of the organelles, which is accomplished by dynamically operating peroxisomal protein transport machineries. Soluble import receptors recognize their newly synthesized cargo proteins in the cytosol and ferry them to the peroxisomal membrane. Subsequently, the cargo is translocated into the matrix, where the receptor is ubiquitinated and exported back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. This review discusses the recent progress in our understanding of the peroxisomal matrix protein import and its regulation by ubiquitination events as well as the current view on the translocation mechanism of folded proteins into peroxisomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Origin and spatiotemporal dynamics of the peroxisomal endomembrane system. PMID:24069002

  1. Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.

  2. Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

  3. Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1986-01-01

    Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when unaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaxial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0 deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.

  4. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  5. Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kekäläinen, Pekka

    2014-10-06

    We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronuding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechanism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhanced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laboratory as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

  6. Glueball Matrix Elements on Anisotropic Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; S.-J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F.-X. Lee; N. Mathur; C. Morningstar; M. Peardon; S. Tamhankar; B.L. Young; J.-B. Zhang

    2004-03-01

    The glueball-to-vacuum matrix elements of local gluonic operators in scalar, tensor, and pseudoscalar channels are investigated numerically on several anisotropic lattices with the spatial lattice spacing in the range 0.1fm-0.2fm. These matrix elements are needed to predict the glueball branching ratios in J/{psi} radiative decays which will help to identify the glueball states in experiments. Two types of improved local gluonic operators are constructed for a self-consistent check, and the finite volume effects are also studied. The lattice spacing dependence of our results is very small and the continuum limits are reliably extrapolated.

  7. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  8. Matrix Perturbation Techniques in Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1973-01-01

    Matrix perturbation are developed techniques which can be used in the dynamical analysis of structures where the range of numerical values in the matrices extreme or where the nature of the damping matrix requires that complex valued eigenvalues and eigenvectors be used. The techniques can be advantageously used in a variety of fields such as earthquake engineering, ocean engineering, aerospace engineering and other fields concerned with the dynamical analysis of large complex structures or systems of second order differential equations. A number of simple examples are included to illustrate the techniques.

  9. Matrix laser IR-visible image converter

    SciTech Connect

    Lipatov, N I; Biryukov, A S

    2006-04-30

    A new type of a focal matrix IR-visible image converter is proposed. The pixel IR detectors of the matrix are tunable microcavities of VCSEL (vertical-cavity surface emitting laser) semiconductor microstructures. The image conversion is performed due to the displacements of highly reflecting cavity mirrors caused by thermoelastic stresses in their microsuspensions appearing upon absorption of IR radiation. Analysis of the possibilities of the converter shows that its sensitivity is 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} K and the time response is 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} s. These characteristics determine the practical application of the converter. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. On Matrix Representations of Participation Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Sven; Leck, Uwe; Link, Sebastian

    We discuss the existence of matrix representations for generalised and minimum participation constraints which are frequently used in database design and conceptual modelling. Matrix representations, also known as Armstrong relations, have been studied in literature e.g. for functional dependencies and play an important role in example-based design and for the implication problem of database constraints. The major tool to achieve the results in this paper is a theorem of Hajnal and Szemerédi on the occurrence of clique graphs in a given graph.

  11. Polymer Matrix Composites for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    The Access-to-Space study identified the requirement for lightweight structures to achieve orbit with a single-stage vehicle. Thus a task was undertaken to examine the use of polymer matrix composites for propulsion components. It was determined that the effort of this task would be to extend previous efforts with polymer matrix composite feedlines and demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing large diameter feedlines with a complex shape and integral flanges, (i.e. all one piece with a 90 deg bend), and assess their performance under a cryogenic atmosphere.

  12. More on rotations as spin matrix polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L.

    2015-09-15

    Any nonsingular function of spin j matrices always reduces to a matrix polynomial of order 2j. The challenge is to find a convenient form for the coefficients of the matrix polynomial. The theory of biorthogonal systems is a useful framework to meet this challenge. Central factorial numbers play a key role in the theoretical development. Explicit polynomial coefficients for rotations expressed either as exponentials or as rational Cayley transforms are considered here. Structural features of the results are discussed and compared, and large j limits of the coefficients are examined.

  13. New components of the Golgi matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2012-01-01

    The eukaryotic Golgi apparatus is characterized by a stack of flattened cisternae that are surrounded by transport vesicles. The organization and function of the Golgi require Golgi matrix proteins, including GRASPs and golgins, which exist primarily as fiber-like bridges between Golgi cisternae or between cisternae and vesicles. In this review, we highlight recent findings on Golgi matrix proteins, including their roles in maintaining the Golgi structure, vesicle tethering, and novel, unexpected functions. These new discoveries further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that maintain the structure and the function of the Golgi, as well as its relationship with other cellular organelles such as the centrosome. PMID:21494806

  14. Corporate bond liquidity and matrix pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagraoka, Yusho

    2005-09-01

    Matrix priced bond price data are investigated to model the liquidity of a corporate bond. Preliminary study shows that the yield spread is wide when a yield history records jumps. As well as respecting the way how matrix prices are generated, this finding leads us to a conjecture that time series of yield is represented by a jump-diffusion process. Then the kurtosis of a yield distribution can be regarded as a proxy variable for the liquidity. The conjecture is empirically validiated by regression analysis of yield spreads.

  15. HXeOBr in a xenon matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tapio, Salla; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Raesaenen, Markku; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lundell, Jan

    2011-03-28

    We report on a new noble-gas molecule HXeOBr prepared in a low-temperature xenon matrix from the HBr and N{sub 2}O precursors by UV photolysis and thermal annealing. This molecule is assigned with the help of deuteration experiments and ab initio calculations including anharmonic methods. The H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeOBr is observed at 1634 cm{sup -1}, which is larger by 56 cm{sup -1} than the frequency of HXeOH identified previously. The experiments show a higher thermal stability of HXeOBr molecules in a xenon matrix compared to HXeOH.

  16. Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2014-04-22

    A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

  17. Reaction kinetics between fiber and matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, M. W.; Tien, J. K.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Interdiffusion and interdiffusion controlled intermediate phase formation in metal matrix composites can be of interest for the prolonged application of these systems at high temperatures. Methods are discussed that address the kinetics of interdiffusion in systems that exhibit solid solution intermixing or the formation of a third intermediate phase at the fiber/matrix interface, or both. The tungsten fiber reinforced niobium and tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy systems are employed as model systems for experimentation and discussion. In an effort to impede interdiffusion, the concept of ion implanted diffusion barriers have been examined. Preliminary results on the feasibility and effectiveness of ion implanted diffusion barriers are presented.

  18. Postglacial matrix diffusion in a boulder sample

    SciTech Connect

    Rasilainen, K.; Suksi, J.; Kulmala, S.; Hellmuth, K.H.; Lindberg, A.

    1996-08-01

    A boulder sample was studied for its unusual U content. Analyses of U-series nuclides within the rock matrix perpendicular to an assumed fracture face show abrupt pulse-like concentration distributions with very low concentrations of U daughters. Both Th-230/U-234 and Pa-231/U-235 activity ratios are low, indicating recent U accumulation into the rock. Matrix diffusion is tested as a possible cause for the experimental observations. The authors assume that the diffusion process was triggered and controlled by rock expansion, strong mixing of different water types and rapid land uplift at the end phase of the last glaciation.

  19. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.L.; Goddard, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming alloys were used to synthesis metal matrix composites with the BMG as the matrix. The second phase in the composite is a refractory ceramic material (e.g. tungsten-carbide) or a heavy ductile metal (e.g. tungsten and tantalum). Composites containing up to 80% reinforcement were fabricated and characterized with respect to mechanical properties. Dynamic deformation behavior of BMG/tungsten composites was studied at ballistic impact velocities. The 13 BMG/tungsten composite has potentially useful properties as a kinetic energy penetrator.

  20. Imaging Podosome Dynamics and Matrix Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Starnes, Taylor W.; Cortesio, Christa L.; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Summary Invasive cell migration is critical for leukocyte trafficking into tissues. Podosomes are matrix-degrading adhesive structures that are formed by macrophages and are necessary for macrophage migration and invasion. Here, we describe methods for imaging and quantifying podosomes in primary human macrophages and in THP-1 cells, a monocyte cell line that can be differentiated to a macrophage-like state. Moreover, we outline detailed methods for live imaging of podosomes, which are highly dynamic, and for the quantification of rates of podosome turnover. Finally, we discuss methods for the quantitative analysis of matrix degradation on fluorescent-gelatin coated cover slips. PMID:21748673

  1. Some remarks on unilateral matrix equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Zumino, Bruno

    2001-02-01

    We briefly review the results of our paper LBNL-46775: We study certain solutions of left-unilateral matrix equations. These are algebraic equations where the coefficients and the unknown are square matrices of the same order, or, more abstractly, elements of an associative, but possibly noncommutative algebra, and all coefficients are on the left. Recently such equations have appeared in a discussion of generalized Born-Infeld theories. In particular, two equations, their perturbative solutions and the relation between them are studied, applying a unified approach based on the generalized Bezout theorem for matrix polynomials.

  2. Diffusion method in random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a calculational tool useful in computing ratios and products of characteristic polynomials averaged over Gaussian measures with an external source. The method is based on Dysons Brownian motion and Grassmann/complex integration formulas for determinants. The resulting formulas are exact for finite matrix size N and form integral representations convenient for large N asymptotics. Quantities obtained by the method are interpreted as averages over standard matrix models. We provide several explicit and novel calculations with special emphasis on the ? =2 Girko-Ginibre ensembles.

  3. Generating Nice Linear Systems for Matrix Gaussian Elimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homewood, L. James

    2004-01-01

    In this article an augmented matrix that represents a system of linear equations is called nice if a sequence of elementary row operations that reduces the matrix to row-echelon form, through matrix Gaussian elimination, does so by restricting all entries to integers in every step. Many instructors wish to use the example of matrix Gaussian…

  4. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  5. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  6. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  7. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 1652... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  8. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Use of the matrix. 1652.370... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used...

  9. A matrix approach for assessing biosolids stability

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Moss, L.H.; Epstein, E.; Pincince, A.B.; Donovan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Stability assessment of biosolids must be made on the basis of the stabilization process used and the intended use of the manufactured biosolids. In this manner, a matrix based on technology and use was developed as an approach for assessing biosolids stability. Specific tests were recommended as to the most useful methods of stability assessment for each of the stabilization technologies examined.

  10. Matrix Models from Operators and Topological Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos; Zakany, Szabolcs

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new family of matrix models whose 1/N expansion captures the all-genus topological string on toric Calabi-Yau threefolds. These matrix models are constructed from the trace class operators appearing in the quantization of the corresponding mirror curves. The fact that they provide a non-perturbative realization of the (standard) topological string follows from a recent conjecture connecting the spectral properties of these operators, to the enumerative invariants of the underlying Calabi-Yau threefolds. We study in detail the resulting matrix models for some simple geometries, like local P^2 and local F_2, and we verify that their weak 't Hooft coupling expansion reproduces the topological string free energies near the conifold singularity. These matrix models are formally similar to those appearing in the Fermi-gas formulation of Chern-Simons-matter theories, and their 1/N expansion receives non-perturbative corrections determined by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string.

  11. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  12. Critical state of sand matrix soils.

    PubMed

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

  13. The algebras of large N matrix mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.

    1999-09-16

    Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden!) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.

  14. Matrix vesicles: Are they anchored exosomes?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Irving M; Landis, William J; Risbud, Makarand V

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have documented that matrix vesicles are unique extracellular membrane-bound microparticles that serve as initial sites for mineral formation in the growth plate and most other vertebrate mineralizing tissues. Microparticle generation is not confined to hard tissues, as cells in soft tissues generate similar structures; numerous studies have shown that a common type of extracellular particle, termed an exosome, a product of the endosomal pathway, shares many characteristics of matrix vesicles. Indeed, analyses of size, morphology and lipid and protein content indicate that matrix vesicles and exosomes are homologous structures. Such a possibility impacts our understanding of the biogenesis, processing and function of matrix vesicles (exosomes) in vertebrate hard tissues and explains in part how cells control the earliest stages of mineral deposition. Moreover, since exosomes influence a spectrum of functions, including cell-cell communication, it is suggested that this type of microparticle may provide a mechanism for the transfer of signaling molecules between cells within the growth plate and thereby regulate endochondral bone development and formation. PMID:25980744

  15. Simulating Microfracture In Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1994-01-01

    Computational procedures developed for simulating microfracture in metal-matrix/fiber composite materials under mechanical and/or thermal loads at ambient and high temperatures. Procedures evaluate microfracture behavior of composites, establish hierarchies and sequences of fracture modes, and examine influences of compliant layers and partial debonding on properties of composites and on initiation of microfractures in them.

  16. Matrix compliance and the regulation of cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Sambandamoorthy, Savitha; Mathew-Steiner, Shomita; Varney, Scott; Zuidema, Jonathan M.; Gilbert, Ryan J.; Van De Water, Livingston; LaFlamme, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM regulates many physiological processes in part by controlling cell proliferation. It is well established that many normal cells require integrin-mediated adhesion to enter S phase of the cell cycle. Recent evidence indicates that integrins also regulate cytokinesis. Mechanical properties of the ECM can dictate entry into S phase; however, it is not known whether they also can affect the successful completion of cell division. To address this issue, we modulated substrate compliance using fibronectin-coated acrylamide-based hydrogels. Soft and hard substrates were generated with approximate elastic moduli of 1600 and 34,000 Pascals (Pa) respectively. Our results indicate that dermal fibroblasts successfully complete cytokinesis on hard substrates, whereas on soft substrates, a significant number fail and become binucleated. Cytokinesis failure occurs at a step following the formation of the intercellular bridge connecting presumptive daughter cells, suggesting a defect in abscission. Like dermal fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells require cell-matrix adhesion for successful cytokinesis. However, in contrast to dermal fibroblasts, they are able to complete cytokinesis on both hard and soft substrates. These results indicate that matrix stiffness regulates the successful completion of cytokinesis, and does so in a cell-type specific manner. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate that matrix stiffness can affect cytokinesis. Understanding the cell-type specific contribution of matrix compliance to the regulation of cytokinesis will provide new insights important for development, as well as tissue homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:26002930

  17. On solving for the density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.

    1985-11-01

    A “generating matrix” formalism is presented which is useful in the solution of a class of time-dependent quantum density matrix problems. Three examples of its use are sketched, giving a unified approach to the solution of the problem of the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation from a single atom in various environments.

  18. ["Archaic matrix of the oedipus complex"].

    PubMed

    Vogt, R

    1990-10-01

    The clinical implication of Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel's concept of the "archaic matrix of the Oedipus complex" is examined, the resulting deeper understanding of the Oedipus myth is considered. A discussion follows of Chasseguet-Smirgel's way of using this concept in her historical evaluation of German Romantism with regard to the Nazi times and nowadays politics of the Westgerman Green Party. PMID:2251392

  19. Symmetrical parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Rodejohann, W.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2011-10-01

    Advantages of the original symmetrical form of the parametrization of the lepton mixing matrix are discussed. It provides a conceptually more transparent description of neutrino oscillations and lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay, clarifying the significance of Dirac and Majorana phases. It is also ideal for parametrizing scenarios with light sterile neutrinos.

  20. The Bushido Matrix for Couple Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Ginsburg, Phil; Eckstein, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Japanese Bushido and its seven virtues were introduced by the authors in this article for the practice and application of couple communication. The Bushido Matrix Worksheet (BMW) was created for enhancing couple's awareness and understanding of each other's values and experiences. An activity and a case study to demonstrate the use

  1. Enhanced Resource Descriptions Help Learning Matrix Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roempler, Kimberly S.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Learning Matrix digital library which focuses on improving the preparation of math and science teachers by supporting faculty who teach introductory math and science courses in two- and four-year colleges. Suggests it is a valuable resource for school library media specialists to support new science and math teachers. (LRW)

  2. Diverse functions of matrix metalloproteinases during fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Matthew; Parks, William C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fibrosis – a debilitating condition that can occur in most organs – is characterized by excess deposition of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM). At first sight, the activities of proteinases that can degrade matrix, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), might be expected to be under-expressed in fibrosis or, if present, could function to resolve the excess matrix. However, as we review here, some MMPs are indeed anti-fibrotic, whereas others can have pro-fibrotic functions. MMPs modulate a range of biological processes, especially processes related to immunity and tissue repair and/or remodeling. Although we do not yet know precisely how MMPs function during fibrosis – that is, the protein substrate or substrates that an individual MMP acts on to effect a specific process – experiments in mouse models demonstrate that MMP-dependent functions during fibrosis are not limited to effects on ECM turnover. Rather, data from diverse models indicate that these proteinases influence cellular activities as varied as proliferation and survival, gene expression, and multiple aspects of inflammation that, in turn, impact outcomes related to fibrosis. PMID:24713275

  3. Evaluation of the Matrix Project. Interchange 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIvor, Gill; Moodie, Kristina

    The Matrix Project is a program that has been established in central Scotland with the aim of reducing the risk of offending and anti-social behavior among vulnerable children. The project provides a range of services to children between eight and 11 years of age who are at risk in the local authority areas of Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and

  4. Hypercontractivity in finite-dimensional matrix algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Junge, Marius; Palazuelos, Carlos

    2015-02-15

    We obtain hypercontractivity estimates for a large class of semigroups defined on finite-dimensional matrix algebras M{sub n}. These semigroups arise from Poisson-like length functions ψ on ℤ{sub n} × ℤ{sub n} and provide new hypercontractive families of quantum channels when ψ is conditionally negative. We also study the optimality of our estimates.

  5. Proteases decode the extracellular matrix cryptome.

    PubMed

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Vallet, Sylvain D

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix is comprised of 1100 core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins and of glycosaminoglycans. This structural scaffold contributes to the organization and mechanical properties of tissues and modulates cell behavior. The extracellular matrix is dynamic and undergoes constant remodeling, which leads to diseases if uncontrolled. Bioactive fragments, called matricryptins, are released from the extracellular proteins by limited proteolysis and have biological activities on their own. They regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, cancer, diabetes, wound healing, fibrosis and infectious diseases and either improve or worsen the course of diseases depending on the matricryptins and on the molecular and biological contexts. Several protease families release matricryptins from core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins both in vitro and in vivo. The major proteases, which decrypt the extracellular matrix, are zinc metalloproteinases of the metzincin superfamily (matrixins, adamalysins and astacins), cysteine proteinases and serine proteases. Some matricryptins act as enzyme inhibitors, further connecting protease and matricryptin fates and providing intricate regulation of major physiopathological processes such as angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. They strengthen the role of the extracellular matrix as a key player in tissue failure and core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins as important therapeutic targets. PMID:26382969

  6. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  7. Evaluation of the Matrix Project. Interchange 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIvor, Gill; Moodie, Kristina

    The Matrix Project is a program that has been established in central Scotland with the aim of reducing the risk of offending and anti-social behavior among vulnerable children. The project provides a range of services to children between eight and 11 years of age who are at risk in the local authority areas of Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and…

  8. Learning with LOGO: Matrix Manipulations, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lough, Tom; Tipps, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Discusses several ways in which the Logo programming language can be used to experiment with and learn about matrices. Describes procedures for developing a Logo tool to establish a matrix representation, as well as others for adding, subtracting, and transposing. (TW)

  9. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental techniques and associated data analysis methods used to measure the resistance to interlaminar fracture, or 'fracture toughness', of polymer matrix composite materials are described. A review in the use of energy techniques to characterize fracture behavior in elastic solids is given. An overview is presented of the types of approaches employed in the design of delamination-resistant composite materials.

  10. Derive Workshop Matrix Algebra and Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley Kulich, Lisa; Victor, Barbara

    This document presents the course content for a workshop that integrates the use of the computer algebra system Derive with topics in matrix and linear algebra. The first section is a guide to using Derive that provides information on how to write algebraic expressions, make graphs, save files, edit, define functions, differentiate expressions,…

  11. Matrix product states for quantum metrology.

    PubMed

    Jarzyna, Marcin; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał

    2013-06-14

    We demonstrate that the optimal states in lossy quantum interferometry may be efficiently simulated using low rank matrix product states. We argue that this should be expected in all realistic quantum metrological protocols with uncorrelated noise and is related to the elusive nature of the Heisenberg precision scaling in the asymptotic limit of a large number of probes. PMID:25165900

  12. Emerging Educational Institutional Decision-Making Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford-Rowe, Kevin H.; Holt, Marnie

    2011-01-01

    The "emerging educational institutional decision-making matrix" is developed to allow educational institutions to adopt a rigorous and consistent methodology of determining which of the myriad of emerging educational technologies will be the most compelling for the institution, particularly ensuring that it is the educational or pedagogical but…

  13. Polymer matrix electroluminescent materials and devices

    DOEpatents

    Marrocco, III, Matthew L.; Motamedi, Farshad J.; Abdelrazzaq, Feras Bashir; Abdelrazzaq, legal representative, Bashir Twfiq

    2012-06-26

    Photoluminescent and electroluminescent compositions are provided which comprise a matrix comprising aromatic repeat units covalently coordinated to a phosphorescent or luminescent metal ion or metal ion complexes. Methods for producing such compositions, and the electroluminescent devices formed therefrom, are also disclosed.

  14. Improving the precision matrix for precision cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Dante J.; Snchez, Ariel G.

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of cosmological constraints from observations of the large-scale structure of the Universe, such as the power spectrum or the correlation function, requires the knowledge of the inverse of the associated covariance matrix, namely the precision matrix, ? . In most analyses, ? is estimated from a limited set of mock catalogues. Depending on how many mocks are used, this estimation has an associated error which must be propagated into the final cosmological constraints. For future surveys such as Euclid and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the control of this additional uncertainty requires a prohibitively large number of mock catalogues. In this work, we test a novel technique for the estimation of the precision matrix, the covariance tapering method, in the context of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Even though this technique was originally devised as a way to speed up maximum likelihood estimations, our results show that it also reduces the impact of noisy precision matrix estimates on the derived confidence intervals, without introducing biases on the target parameters. The application of this technique can help future surveys to reach their true constraining power using a significantly smaller number of mock catalogues.

  15. Science Unlimited: Grades K-6 Competency Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Div. of Arts and Sciences.

    This competency matrix matches the primary and intermediate Science Unlimited lessons with the established competencies which appear in the Science Unlimited competency continuum. Primary lessons deal with: investigating dripping faucets; classification/sorting; smell; eyes; color; air; weather; observation and description; mystery boxes; change;…

  16. The Bushido Matrix for Couple Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Ginsburg, Phil; Eckstein, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Japanese Bushido and its seven virtues were introduced by the authors in this article for the practice and application of couple communication. The Bushido Matrix Worksheet (BMW) was created for enhancing couple's awareness and understanding of each other's values and experiences. An activity and a case study to demonstrate the use…

  17. Sparse matrix algorithms on distributed memory multiprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Pothen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress was made in creating algorithms and software for large-scale sparse matrix computations on advanced distributed-memory parallel machines during the past year. This report is divided into: large-scale linear systems; highly parallel triangular solution; spectral nested dissection orderings; parallel multifrontal factorization; structure of orthogonal factors; and sparse bases for the range space and the null space.

  18. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  19. Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Ashwin R.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties associated with the primitive random variables such as manufacturing process (processing temperature, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio), constituent properties (fiber, matrix and interface), and geometric parameters (ply thickness, interphase thickness) have been simulated to quantify the scatter in the first matrix cracking strength (FMCS) and the ultimate tensile strength of SCS-6/RBSN (SiC fiber (SCS-6) reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composite) ceramic matrix composite laminate at room temperature. Cumulative probability distribution function for the FMCS and ultimate tensile strength at room temperature (RT) of (0)(sub 8), (0(sub 2)/90(sub 2), and (+/-45(sub 2))(sub S) laminates have been simulated and the sensitivity of primitive variables to the respective strengths have been quantified. Computationally predicted scatter of the strengths for a uniaxial laminate have been compared with those from limited experimental data. Also the experimental procedure used in the tests has been described briefly. Results show a very good agreement between the computational simulation and the experimental data. Dominating failure modes in (0)(sub 8), (0/90)(sub s) and (+/-45)(sub S) laminates have been identified. Results indicate that the first matrix cracking strength for the (0)(sub S), and (0/90)(sub S) laminates is sensitive to the thermal properties, modulus and strengths of both the fiber and matrix whereas the ultimate tensile strength is sensitive to the fiber strength and the fiber volume ratio. In the case of a (+/-45)(sub S), laminate, both the FMCS and the ultimate tensile strengths have a small scatter range and are sensitive to the fiber tensile strength as well as the fiber volume ratio.

  20. Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite

    SciTech Connect

    Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina; Poteri, Antti

    2007-07-01

    Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

  1. Damped vibration of engine valve train by recent transfer matrix and matrix procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadag, Vedat

    1991-05-01

    Damped vibrations of engine valve systems have been investigated by multiple degree of freedom models and the recent transfer matrix techniques and complex eigenvalue analysis procedures. The numerical results obtained were compared with the other available procedures including an exact continuous model solution. The multiple degree of freedom models were found to be superior, especially, in predicting forces acting on the engine valve train. The present application of the transfer matrix method with recent developments, gives accurate estimation of the vibration characteristics and harmonic response of engine valve trains. Complex matrix method analysis also supports the obtained results.

  2. Dentin matrix degradation by host matrix metalloproteinases: inhibition and clinical perspectives toward regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chaussain, Catherine; Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Khaddam, Mayssam; Tjaderhane, Leo; George, Anne; Menashi, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial enzymes have long been considered solely accountable for the degradation of the dentin matrix during the carious process. However, the emerging literature suggests that host-derived enzymes, and in particular the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contained in dentin and saliva can play a major role in this process by their ability to degrade the dentin matrix from within. These findings are important since they open new therapeutic options for caries prevention and treatment. The possibility of using MMP inhibitors to interfere with dentin caries progression is discussed. Furthermore, the potential release of bioactive peptides by the enzymatic cleavage of dentin matrix proteins by MMPs during the carious process is discussed. These peptides, once identified, may constitute promising therapeutical tools for tooth and bone regeneration. PMID:24198787

  3. Machining metal matrix composites of aluminium matrix. Methodological proposal for the parametrical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repeto, D.; Sánchez-Carrilero, M.; Álvarez, M.; González, J. M.; Marcos, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) are composed by a metal alloy which is called matrix, this matrix receives an element, the reinforcement that empowers their mechanical properties at least [1]. This work is an approach to the State of the Art intended to find out the behavior in front of the machining, drilling and turning mostly. The biggest obstacle faced by the MMC's is the difficulty of process [2]. Tools are suffering a severe wear because of the added reinforcements and it is considered a very unproductive process [3]. Here we offer an approach to the current situation of the MMC's machining with special emphasis in case of those of Aluminum matrix. We arrived to this situation from different paths • Properties Of Materials • Machining Parameters • Materials of The Tool • Variables Output (Force, Roughness, Etc)

  4. Bäcklund transformation of matrix equations and a discrete matrix first Painlevé equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordoa, P. R.; Pickering, A.; Zhu, Z. N.

    2013-08-01

    We show that the known auto-Bäcklund transformation for the matrix second Painlevé equation can be generalized to a much wider class of equations. This auto-Bäcklund transformation is an involution and so cannot be used on its own to generate an infinite sequence of different solutions, although for particular equations a second auto-Bäcklund transformation allows this to be done. We also give a Bäcklund transformation for this general class of matrix equations. For the matrix second Painlevé equation we also give a coalescence limit, and a construction of special integrals and of a discrete matrix first Painlevé equation.

  5. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  6. Hepatocyte Culture in Autologous Decellularized Spleen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Wu, Wanquan; Xiang, Junxi; Lv, Yi; Zheng, Xinglong; Chen, Qian; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Bo; Liu, Zhengwen; Ma, Feng

    2015-01-01

    abstract Background and Aims: Using decellularized scaffold to reengineer liver tissue is a promising alternative therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Though the decellularized human liver matrix is the ideal scaffold for reconstruction of the liver theoretically, the shortage of liver donors is still an obstacle for potential clinical application. Therefore, an appropriate alternative scaffold is needed. In the present study, we used a tissue engineering approach to prepare a rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) and evaluate the effectiveness of this DSM for primary rat hepatocytes culture. Methods: Rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) was prepared by perfusion of a series of detergents through spleen vasculature. DSM was characterized by residual DNA and specific extracellular matrix distribution. Thereafter, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in the DSM in a 3-dimensional dynamic culture system, and liver cell survival and biological functions were evaluated by comparison with 3-dimensional sandwich culture and also with cultured in decellularized liver matrix (DLM). Results: Our research found that DSM did not exhibit any cellular components, but preserved the main extracellular matrix and the intact vasculature evaluated by DNA detection, histology, immunohistochemical staining, vessel corrosion cast and upright metallurgical microscope. Moreover, the method of DSM preparation procedure was relatively simple with high success rate (100%). After seeding primary hepatocytes in DSM, the cultured hepatocytes survived inside DSM with albumin synthesis and urea secretion within 10 d. Additionally, hepatocytes in dynamic culture medium had better biological functions at day 10 than that in sandwich culture. Albumin synthesis was 85.67 ± 6.34 μg/107cell/24h in dynamic culture in DSM compared to 62.43 ± 4.59 μg/107cell/24h in sandwich culture (P < 0.01) and to 87.54 ± 5.25 μg/107cell/24h in DLM culture (P > 0.05); urea release was 32.14 ± 8.62 μg/107cell/24h in dynamic culture in DSM compared to 20.47 ± 4.98 μg/107 cell/24h in sandwich culture (P < 0.05) and to 37.38 ± 7.29 μg/107cell/24h cultured in DLM (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that DSM can be prepared successfully using a tissue engineering approach. The DSM is an appropriate scaffold for primary hepatocytes culture. PMID:25664568

  7. Transverse yielding, creep and matrix flow past the fibers in metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.Z.; McMeeking, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) reinforced by continuous fibers are used for engineering applications at both low and high temperature environments. Many structural components such as turbine rings or elements with joints may be subjected to nonuniform transverse stress states, such as in a circumferential ring subjected to radial turbine blade loads and centrifugal inertial loads. These components are circumiferentially reinforced and transverse stress gradients will develop in them. This will cause the matrix to yield, creep and perhaps to flow past the fibers. The fibers will be constrained by elastic straining and therefore, unless they break, they will be anchored in place relative to a matrix which can flow past. To maintain structural integrity, metal matrix composites must have reasonable transverse strength and transverse stiffness as well as good longitudinal properties. It is therefore essential to understand the overall mechanical behavior and to develop a set of mechanical constitutive equations -that adequately describe the material response of metal matrix composites in the transverse direction. In the present work, cell models are used to analyze the effect of stress gradients on the transverse behavior of the metal matrix composites. Systematic results are given for the influence of the fiber volume fraction, fiber arrangement and stress gradients. The yield surface in terms of mean stress and stress gradient is calculated from this analysis. It is found that the transverse limit strengths are sensitive to the transverse stress gradient across the cell. In addition, a constitutive relationship accounting for matrix plastic training, creep and matrix flow past the fibers is developed.

  8. Optimizing Tpetra%3CU%2B2019%3Es sparse matrix-matrix multiplication routine.

    SciTech Connect

    Nusbaum, Kurtis Lee

    2011-08-01

    Over the course of the last year, a sparse matrix-matrix multiplication routine has been developed for the Tpetra package. This routine is based on the same algorithm that is used in EpetraExt with heavy modifications. Since it achieved a working state, several major optimizations have been made in an effort to speed up the routine. This report will discuss the optimizations made to the routine, its current state, and where future work needs to be done.

  9. Small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (CorMatrix®) in cardiovascular surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mosala Nezhad, Zahra; Poncelet, Alain; de Kerchove, Laurent; Gianello, Pierre; Fervaille, Caroline; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is widely used in clinical applications as a scaffold for tissue repair. Recently, CorMatrix® porcine SIS-ECM (CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc., Roswell, GA, USA) has gained popularity for 'next-generation' cardiovascular tissue engineering due to its ease of use, remodelling properties, lack of immunogenicity, absorbability and potential to promote native tissue growth. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of porcine SIS-ECM and systematically review the preclinical and clinical literature on its use in cardiovascular surgery. CorMatrix® has been used in a variety of cardiovascular surgical applications, and since it is the most widely used SIS-ECM, this material is the focus of this review. Since CorMatrix® is a relatively new product for cardiovascular surgery, some clinical and preclinical studies published lack systematic reporting of functional and pathological findings in sufficient numbers of subjects. There are also emerging reports to suggest that, contrary to expectations, an undesirable inflammatory response may occur in CorMatrix® implants in humans and longer-term outcomes at particular sites, such as the heart valves, may be suboptimal. Large-scale clinical studies are needed driven by robust protocols that aim to quantify the pathological process of tissue repair. PMID:26912574

  10. Endothelial matrix assembly during capillary morphogenesis: insights from chimeric TagRFP-fibronectin matrix.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fumin; Lemmon, Christopher A; Nilaratanakul, Voraphoj; Rotter, Varda; Romer, Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Biologically relevant, three-dimensional extracellular matrix is an essential component of in vitro vasculogenesis models. WI-38 fibroblasts assemble a 3D matrix that induces endothelial tubulogenesis, but this model is challenged by fibroblast senescence and the inability to distinguish endothelial cell-derived matrix from matrix made by WI-38 fibroblasts. Matrices produced by hTERT-immortalized WI-38 recapitulated those produced by wild type fibroblasts. ECM fibrils were heavily populated by tenascin-C, fibronectin, and type VI collagen. Nearly half of the total type I collagen, but only a small fraction of the type IV collagen, were incorporated into ECM. Stable hTERT-WI-38 transfectants expressing TagRFP-fibronectin incorporated TagRFP into ~90% of the fibronectin in 3D matrices. TagRFP-fibronectin colocalized with tenascin-C and with type I collagen in a pattern that was similar to that seen in matrices from wild type WI-38. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) formed 3D adhesions and tubes on WI38-hTERT-TagRFP-FN-derived matrices, and the TagRFP-fibronectin component of this new 3D human fibroblast matrix model facilitated the demonstration of concentrated membrane type 1 metalloprotease and new HUVEC FN and collagen type IV fibrils during EC tubulogenesis. These findings indicate that WI-38-hTERT- and WI-38-hTERT-TagRFP-FN-derived matrices provide platforms for the definition of new matrix assembly and remodeling events during vasculogenesis. PMID:25063001

  11. Prediction of thermal cycling induced matrix cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Hugh L.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal fatigue has been observed to cause matrix cracking in laminated composite materials. A method is presented to predict transverse matrix cracks in composite laminates subjected to cyclic thermal load. Shear lag stress approximations and a simple energy-based fracture criteria are used to predict crack densities as a function of temperature. Prediction of crack densities as a function of thermal cycling is accomplished by assuming that fatigue degrades the material's inherent resistance to cracking. The method is implemented as a computer program. A simple experiment provides data on progressive cracking of a laminate with decreasing temperature. Existing data on thermal fatigue is also used. Correlations of the analytical predictions to the data are very good. A parametric study using the analytical method is presented which provides insight into material behavior under cyclical thermal loads.

  12. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M S

    2015-09-01

    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean. PMID:26465449

  13. Ceramic fiber ceramic matrix filter development

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a novel type of candle filter based on a ceramic fiber-ceramic matrix composite material, and to extend the development to full-size, 60-mm OD by 1-meter-long candle filters. The goal is to develop a ceramic filter suitable for use in a variety of fossil energy system environments such as integrated coal gasification combined cycles (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and other advanced coal combustion environments. Further, the ceramic fiber ceramic matrix composite filter, hereinafter referred to as the ceramic composite filter, was to be inherently crack resistant, a property not found in conventional monolithic ceramic candle filters, such as those fabricated from clay-bonded silicon carbide. Finally, the adequacy of the filters in the fossil energy system environments is to be proven through simulated and in-plant tests.

  14. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  15. Matrix product states for gauge field theories.

    PubMed

    Buyens, Boye; Haegeman, Jutho; Van Acoleyen, Karel; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank

    2014-08-29

    The matrix product state formalism is used to simulate Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories. To this end, we define matrix product state manifolds which are manifestly gauge invariant. As an application, we study (1+1)-dimensional one flavor quantum electrodynamics, also known as the massive Schwinger model, and are able to determine very accurately the ground-state properties and elementary one-particle excitations in the continuum limit. In particular, a novel particle excitation in the form of a heavy vector boson is uncovered, compatible with the strong coupling expansion in the continuum. We also study full quantum nonequilibrium dynamics by simulating the real-time evolution of the system induced by a quench in the form of a uniform background electric field. PMID:25215973

  16. Extracellular matrix as target for antitumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Harisi, Revekka; Jeney, Andras

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to survey the accumulated knowledge on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumors referring to its putative utility as therapeutic target. Following the traditional observation on the extensive morphological alteration in the tumor-affected tissue, the well-documented aberrant cellular regulation indicated that ECM components have an active role in tumor progression. However, due to the diverse functions and variable expression of proteoglycans, matrix proteins, and integrins, it is rather difficult to identify a comprehensive therapeutic target among ECM components. At present, the elevated level of heparanase and the prominent expression of αvβ5 integrin are considered as promising therapeutic targets. The inhibition of glycosaminoglycan offers another promising approach in the treatment of those tumors which are stimulated by proteoglycans. It can be ascertained that a selective ECM inhibitor would be a great asset to control metastasis driven by ECM-mediated signaling. PMID:26089687

  17. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, S.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Hussain, Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.

    2010-03-11

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  18. Advanced ceramic matrix composites for TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology provide considerable opportunity for application to future aircraft thermal protection system (TPS), providing materials with higher temperature capability, lower weight, and higher strength and stiffness than traditional materials. The Thermal Protection Material Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has been making significant progress in the development, characterization, and entry simulation (arc-jet) testing of new CMC's. This protection gives a general overview of the Ames Thermal Protection Materials Branch research activities, followed by more detailed descriptions of recent advances in very-high temperature Zr and Hf based ceramics, high temperature, high strength SiC matrix composites, and some activities in polymer precursors and ceramic coating processing. The presentation closes with a brief comparison of maximum heat flux capabilities of advanced TPS materials.

  19. METCAN: The metal matrix composite analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1988-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are the subject of intensive study and are receiving serious consideration for critical structural applications in advanced aerospace systems. MMC structural analysis and design methodologies are studied. Predicting the mechanical and thermal behavior and the structural response of components fabricated from MMC requires the use of a variety of mathematical models. These models relate stresses to applied forces, stress intensities at the tips of cracks to nominal stresses, buckling resistance to applied force, or vibration response to excitation forces. The extensive research in computational mechanics methods for predicting the nonlinear behavior of MMC are described. This research has culminated in the development of the METCAN (METal Matrix Composite ANalyzer) computer code.

  20. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, S.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Hussain, Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100° C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  1. Electrophilic properties of common MALDI matrix molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippa, T. P.; Eustis, S. N.; Wang, D.; Bowen, K. H.

    2007-11-01

    The negative ion photoelectron spectra of the following MALDI matrix molecules have been measured: 3-carboxypyridine (nicotinic acid), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapinic acid), 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (ferulic acid), 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (3HPA), and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid). Adiabatic electron affinities and vertical detachment energies were extracted from these spectra and reported. In addition, electron affinities were calculated for DHAP, ferulic acid, dipicolinic acid and sinapinic acid. Photoelectron spectra were also measured for the dimer anions of DHB and nicotinic acid and for the fragment anion in which alpha-cyano-cinnamic acid had lost a CO2 unit. Together, these results augment the database of presently available electrophilic data on common matrix molecules along with some of their dimers and fragments.

  2. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  3. Construction of random perfect phylogeny matrix

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz; Ahmadian, Sara; Abadi, Sepideh Mah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Interest in developing methods appropriate for mapping increasing amounts of genome-wide molecular data are increasing rapidly. There is also an increasing need for methods that are able to efficiently simulate such data. Patients and methods In this article, we provide a graph-theory approach to find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a phylogeny matrix with k nonidentical haplotypes, n single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and a population size of m for which the minimum allele frequency of each SNP is between two specific numbers a and b. Results We introduce an O(max(n2, nm)) algorithm for the random construction of such a phylogeny matrix. The running time of any algorithm for solving this problem would be ? (nm). Conclusion We have developed software, RAPPER, based on this algorithm, which is available at http://bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/softwares/RAPPER. PMID:21918630

  4. NLO matrix elements and truncated showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank; Schönherr, Marek; Siegert, Frank

    2011-08-01

    In this publication, an algorithm is presented that combines the ME+PS approach to merge sequences of tree-level matrix elements into inclusive event samples [1] with the P owheg method, which combines exact next-to-leading order matrix element results with the parton shower [2, 3]. It was developed in parallel to the ME nloPS technique discussed in [4] and has been implemented in the event generator S herpa [5, 6]. The benefits of this approach are exemplified by some first predictions for a number of processes, namely the production of jets in e + e --annihilation, in deep-inelastic ep scattering, in association with single W, Z or Higgs bosons, and with vector boson pairs at hadron colliders.

  5. Matrix representation of the time operator

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna

    2012-06-15

    In quantum mechanics the time operator {Theta} satisfies the commutation relation [{Theta}, H]=i, and thus it may be thought of as being formally canonically conjugate to the Hamiltonian H. The time operator associated with a given Hamiltonian H is not unique because one can replace {Theta} by {Theta}+{Theta}{sub hom}, where {Theta}{sub hom} satisfies the homogeneous condition [{Theta}{sub hom}, H]= 0. To study this nonuniqueness the matrix elements of {Theta} for the harmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian are calculated in the eigenstate basis. This calculation requires the summation of divergent series, and the summation is accomplished by using zeta-summation techniques. It is shown that by including appropriate homogeneous contributions, the matrix elements of {Theta} simplify dramatically. However, it is still not clear whether there is an optimally simple representation of the time operator.

  6. Delocalization transition for the Google matrix.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Olivier; Georgeot, Bertrand; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2009-08-01

    We study the localization properties of eigenvectors of the Google matrix, generated both from the world wide web and from the Albert-Barabási model of networks. We establish the emergence of a delocalization phase for the PageRank vector when network parameters are changed. For networks with localized PageRank, eigenvalues of the matrix in the complex plane with a modulus above a certain threshold correspond to localized eigenfunctions while eigenvalues below this threshold are associated with delocalized relaxation modes. We argue that, for networks with delocalized PageRank, the efficiency of information retrieval by Google-type search is strongly affected since the PageRank values have no clear hierarchical structure in this case. PMID:19792200

  7. Visualization of a stock market correlation matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Alethea; Rea, William

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Neighbor-Net, a clustering algorithm developed for constructing a phylogenetic network in the field of evolutionary biology, to visualizing a correlation matrix. We apply Neighbor-Net as implemented in the SplitsTree software package to 48 stocks listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange. We show that by visualizing the correlation matrix using a Neighbor-Net splits graph and its associated circular ordering of the stocks that some of the problems associated with understanding the large number of correlations between the individual stocks can be overcome. We compare the visualization of Neighbor-Net with that provided by hierarchical clustering trees and minimum spanning trees. The use of Neighbor-Net networks, or splits graphs, yields greater insight into how closely individual stocks are related to each other in terms of their correlations and suggests new avenues of research into how to construct small diversified stock portfolios.

  8. Quantitative matrix assisted plasma desorption mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclas, Hartmut; Schmidt, Lothar; Köhl, Peter; Fritsch, Hans-Walter

    1993-07-01

    The development of optimized sample preparation methods accompanied the history of successful applications of 252Cf-PDMS. Studying the pharmacokinetics of the antineoplastic agent etoposide serum samples from cancer patients were labelled with the homologeous compounds teniposide as internal standard for the quantitative PDMS analysis. Sample purification by chloroform extraction and by thin layer chromatography turned out to be insufficient to guarantee a satisfying final PDMS result. Embedding the purified sample into a matrix of suitable substances on the target reduced the negative influence of impurities, raised the signal-to-noise ratio of molecular ions and improved the reproducibility of calibration. This preparation method was again successfully employed for the quantitative analysis of the cytostatic drug doxorubicin. The application of a different matrix optimized for the preparation of this anthracycline and its homologeous compound daunorubicin, improved the sensitivity, linearity and detection limit.

  9. On matrix representation of some finite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Adnan, Noor Asma'Adny; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Mohd Ali, Nor Muhainiah; Yahya, Zainab; Zakaria, Mardhiah

    2013-04-01

    A homomorphism T:g→T(g) of G into GL(M) is a representation of G with representation space M. Two representations T and T' with space M and M' are said to be equivalent if there exists a K-isomorphism S of M and M'. The notation (M:K) is the dimension of M over K where M is a vector space and K is a field while G is a finite group. A matrix representation of G of degree n is a homomorphism T:g→T(g) of G into GL(n, K), where GL(n, K) stands for the group of invertible n × n matrices over K. In this paper, the matrix representations for dihedral groups of order 12 and order 16 and an alternating group of order 12 are presented.

  10. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.

  11. Cellular control of connective tissue matrix tension.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Helene M; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan K

    2013-08-01

    The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation. We propose that this response of fibroblasts plays a role in regulating extracellular fluid flow into the tissue, and protects against swelling when the matrix is stretched. This article reviews the evidence supporting possible mechanisms underlying this response including autocrine purinergic signaling. We also discuss fibroblast regulation of connective tissue tension with respect to lymphatic flow, immune function, and cancer. PMID:23444198

  12. Luneburg lens and optical matrix algebra research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, V. E.; Busch, J. R.; Verber, C. M.; Caulfield, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Planar, as opposed to channelized, integrated optical circuits (IOCs) were stressed as the basis for computational devices. Both fully-parallel and systolic architectures are considered and the tradeoffs between the two device types are discussed. The Kalman filter approach is a most important computational method for many NASA problems. This approach to deriving a best-fit estimate for the state vector describing a large system leads to matrix sizes which are beyond the predicted capacities of planar IOCs. This problem is overcome by matrix partitioning, and several architectures for accomplishing this are described. The Luneburg lens work has involved development of lens design techniques, design of mask arrangements for producing lenses of desired shape, investigation of optical and chemical properties of arsenic trisulfide films, deposition of lenses both by thermal evaporation and by RF sputtering, optical testing of these lenses, modification of lens properties through ultraviolet irradiation, and comparison of measured lens properties with those expected from ray trace analyses.

  13. Phase dilemma in density matrix functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernal, Katarzyna; Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2004-04-01

    For closed-shell systems, a particular parametrization of coefficients in a configuration interaction (CI) expansion provides a convenient formulation for the search over electronic wave functions constrained by a set of natural orbitals (NOs) and the corresponding occupation numbers that are invoked in every variational construction of the density matrix functional (DMF) Vee(?) for the electron-electron repulsion energy. It produces an explicit expression for Vee in terms of the Coulomb and exchange integrals over NOs, and an idempotent matrix ?, diagonal elements of which equal the occupation numbers. At the same time, it reveals a very serious bottleneck affecting any rigorous approach to the DMF theory, namely the phase dilemma that stems from the necessity to carry out minimization over a large number of possible combinations of CI coefficient signs. While underscoring its lack of variational nature, a simple approximation for the phase factor products provides a strict derivation for the recently proposed Kollmar-Hess functional.

  14. Parallel matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tichy, Walter F.

    1988-01-01

    Matrix multiplication is a computation and communication intensive problem. Six parallel algorithms for matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine are presented and compared with respect to their performance and processor usage. For n by n matrices, the algorithms have theoretical running times of O(n to the 2nd power log n), O(n log n), O(n), and O(log n), and require n, n to the 2nd power, n to the 2nd power, and n to the 3rd power processors, respectively. With careful attention to communication patterns, the theoretically predicted runtimes can indeed be achieved in practice. The parallel algorithms illustrate the tradeoffs between performance, communication cost, and processor usage.

  15. Proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix and vesicles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhen; Blonder, Josip; Zhou, Ming; Veenstra, Timothy D

    2009-02-15

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the connective tissue component generated and secreted by cells to provide structural and functional support, while extracellular vesicles are distinct membrane-enclosed structures present outside of eucaryotic cells that carry out distinct biological functions. Different cell types release distinct populations of vesicles that fulfill various functions. Exosomes are vesicles commonly secreted by a variety of cells, whereas matrix vesicles (MVs) are specifically produced and secreted by bone cells to facilitate the formation of the ECM. This article focuses on the characteristics of the ECM and extracellular vesicles, and reviews the latest progress in applying proteomic technologies to analyze these features. The findings and implications in developmental biology, tumor biology, immunology, biomarker discovery, and vaccine research are also discussed. PMID:19068243

  16. Thermomechanical fatigue of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, L.H.; Koudela, K.L.; Karasek, M.L.; Amateau, M.F.; Runt, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mechanical constraint on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. Analytical and experimental techniques were used to characterize the response of carbon-fiber-reinforced cyanate ester and bismaleimide composites. Cross-ply laminates were subjected to thermal cycles from 24 to 177 C in the unconstrained, fully constrained, and overconstrained conditions. Laminate response, damage mechanisms, and residual compressive properties were characterized for each material and degree of constraint. The results of this research indicate that the level of constraint can have a significant effect on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. However, longer-term testing is required to determine if the observed changes in response will ultimately affect the final failure mode and fatigue endurance of the materials.

  17. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  18. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  19. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  20. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  1. The super period matrix with Ramond punctures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, Edward

    2015-06-01

    We generalize the super period matrix of a super Riemann surface to the case that Ramond punctures are present. For a super Riemann surface of genus g with 2 r Ramond punctures, we define, modulo certain choices that generalize those in the classical theory (and assuming a certain generic condition is satisfied), a g | r × g | r period matrix that is symmetric in the Z2-graded sense. As an application, we analyze the genus 2 vacuum amplitude in string theory compactifications to four dimensions that are supersymmetric at tree level. We find an explanation for a result that has been found in orbifold examples in explicit computations by D'Hoker and Phong: with their integration procedure, the genus 2 vacuum amplitude always vanishes "pointwise" after summing over spin structures, and hence is given entirely by a boundary contribution.

  2. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell integral matrix tape and bubble barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1983-10-25

    A molten carbonate fuel cell matrix material is described made up of a matrix tape portion and a bubble barrier portion. The matrix tape portion comprises particles inert to molten carbonate electrolyte, ceramic particles and a polymeric binder, the matrix tape being flexible, pliable and having rubber-like compliance at room temperature. The bubble barrier is a solid material having fine porosity preferably being bonded to the matrix tape. In operation in a fuel cell, the polymer binder burns off leaving the matrix and bubble barrier providing superior sealing, stability and performance properties to the fuel cell stack.

  4. Pendulum impact resistance of tungsten fiber/metal matrix composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The impact properties of copper, copper-10 nickel, and a superalloy matrix reinforced with tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases the following increased composite impact strength: increased fiber or matrix toughness, decreased fiber-matrix reaction, increased test temperature, hot working and heat treatment. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber or matrix toughness. The effect of fiber content depended on the relative toughness of the fibers and matrix. Above 530 K a 60 volume per cent superalloy matrix composite had a greater impact strength than a turbine blade superalloy, whereas below 530 K a hot worked 56 volume per cent composite had a greater impact strength than the superalloy.

  5. Emerging interactions between matrix components during biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Payne, David E; Boles, Blaise R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial cells are most often found in the form of multicellular aggregates commonly referred to as biofilms. Biofilms offer their member cells several benefits, such as resistance to killing by antimicrobials and predation. During biofilm formation there is a production of extracellular substances that, upon assembly, constitute an extracellular matrix. The ability to generate a matrix encasing the microbial cells is a common feature of biofilms, but there is diversity in matrix composition and in interaction between matrix components. The different components of bacterial biofilm extracellular matrixes, known as matrix interactions, and resulting implications are discussed in this review. PMID:26515441

  6. Ceramic Matrix Composites for Rotorcraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being developed for turbine engine applications. Compared to metallic components, the CMC components offer benefits of higher temperature capability and less cooling requirements which correlates to improved efficiency and reduced emissions. This presentation discusses a technology develop effort for overcoming challenges in fabricating a CMC vane for the high pressure turbine. The areas of technology development include small component fabrication, ceramic joining and integration, material and component testing and characterization, and design and analysis of concept components.

  7. Extracellular matrix assembly: a multiscale deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mouw, Janna K.; Ou, Guanqing; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) dictate tissue-specific cell behaviour. The molecules that are associated with the ECM of each tissue, including collagens, proteoglycans, laminins and fibronectin, and the manner in which they are assembled determine the structure and the organization of the resultant ECM. The product is a specific ECM signature that is comprised of unique compositional and topographical features that both reflect and facilitate the functional requirements of the tissue. PMID:25370693

  8. Mueller matrix decomposition for biological tissue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L.; Le Brun, G.; Le Jeune, B.

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the polarimetric characterization of biological tissues based on the Stokes-Mueller formalism. The optimal experimental conditions to study irradiated pig skin samples are analyzed. Two Mueller matrix decomposition techniques, the one developed by Lu and Chipman and the other by Ossikovski, are used. These decompositions allow identification of useful factors such as retardance, diattenuation and depolarization for differentiating between various levels of irradiation and for better interpreting the behavior of the skin with respect to irradiation.

  9. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  10. Metal matrix composites - Their time to shine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Basic types of metal matrix composite (MMC) systems (namely, the particulates-, the whisker/flakes-, and the continuous-fiber-reinforced) are discussed together with the advantages and the disadvantages of each system. Special consideration is given to the new MMC systems under development that meet the needs of aerospace applications and to the properties of stiffness and thermal expansion of these systems. As a family of structural materials, MMCs have great potential for missile airframe applications.

  11. Plastic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-19

    Most plastic resins are not suitable for structural applications. Although many resins are extremely tough, most lack strength, stiffness, and deform under load with time. By mixing strong, stiff, fibrous materials into the plastic matrix, a variety of structural composite materials can be formed. The properties of these composites can be tailored by fiber selection, orientation, and other factors to suit specific applications. The advantages and disadvantages of fiberglass, carbon-graphite, aramid (Kevlar 49), and boron fibers are summarized.

  12. Boost matrix converters in clean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Ekrem

    This dissertation describes an investigation of novel power electronic converters, based on the ultra-sparse matrix topology and characterized by the minimum number of semiconductor switches. The Z-source, Quasi Z-source, Series Z-source and Switched-inductor Z-source networks were originally proposed for boosting the output voltage of power electronic inverters. These ideas were extended here on three-phase to three-phase and three-phase to single-phase indirect matrix converters. For the three-phase to three-phase matrix converters, the Z-source networks are placed between the three-switch input rectifier stage and the output six-switch inverter stage. A brief shoot-through state produces the voltage boost. An optimal pulse width modulation technique was developed to achieve high boosting capability and minimum switching losses in the converter. For the three-phase to single-phase matrix converters, those networks are placed similarly. For control purposes, a new modulation technique has been developed. As an example application, the proposed converters constitute a viable alternative to the existing solutions in residential wind-energy systems, where a low-voltage variable-speed generator feeds power to the higher-voltage fixed-frequency grid. Comprehensive analytical derivations and simulation results were carried out to investigate the operation of the proposed converters. Performance of the proposed converters was then compared between each other as well as with conventional converters. The operation of the converters was experimentally validated using a laboratory prototype.

  13. Ceramic Matrix Composite Vane Subelement Burst Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, David N.; Verrilli, Michael; Calomino, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Burst tests were performed on Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) vane specimens, manufactured by two vendors, under the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) project. Burst specimens were machined from the ends of 76mm long vane sub-elements blanks and from High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) tested specimens. The results of burst tests will be used to compare virgin specimens with specimens that have had an Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) applied, both HPBR tested and untested, as well as a comparison between vendors.

  14. Airspace Operations Demo Functional Requirements Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Flight IPT assessed the reasonableness of demonstrating each of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements. The functional requirements listed in this matrix are from the September 2005 release of the Access 5 Functional Requirements Document. The demonstration mission considered was a notional Western US mission (WUS). The conclusion of the assessment is that 90% of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be demonstrated using the notional Western US mission.

  15. Proton decay matrix elements from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Shintani, Eigo; Collaboration: RBC Collaboration; UKQCD Collaboration

    2012-07-27

    We report on the calculation of the matrix elements of nucleon to pseudoscalar decay through a three quark operator, a part of the low-energy, four-fermion, baryon-number-violating operator originating from grand unified theories. The direct calculation of the form factors using domain-wall fermions on the lattice, incorporating the u, d and s sea-quarks effects yields the results with all the relevant systematic uncertainties controlled for the first time.

  16. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  17. Metal matrix composite structural panel construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwithey, R. R.; Royster, D. M. (Inventor); Bales, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    Lightweight capped honeycomb stiffeners for use in fabricating metal or metal/matrix exterior structural panels on aerospace type vehicles and the process for fabricating same are disclosed. The stiffener stringers are formed in sheets, cut to the desired width and length and brazed in spaced relationship to a skin with the honeycomb material serving directly as the required lightweight stiffeners and not requiring separate metal encasement for the exposed honeycomb cells.

  18. Spin Forming of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory effort between NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and SpinCraft, Inc., to experimentally spin form cylinders and concentric parts from small and thin sheets of aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (MMC), successfully yielded good microstructure data and forming parameters. MSFC and SpinCraft will collaborate on the recent technical findings and develop strategy to implement this technology for NASA's advanced propulsion and airframe applications such as pressure bulkheads, combustion liner assemblies, propellant tank domes, and nose cone assemblies.

  19. Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

  20. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  1. Diagonalizing sensing matrix of broadband RSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kokeyama, Keiko; Kawazoe, Fumiko; Somiya, Kentaro; Kawamura, Seiji

    2006-03-01

    For a broadband-operated RSE interferometer, a simple and smart length sensing and control scheme was newly proposed. The sensing matrix could be diagonal, owing to a simple allocation of two RF modulations and to a macroscopic displacement of cavity mirrors, which cause a detuning of the RF modulation sidebands. In this article, the idea of the sensing scheme and an optimization of the relevant parameters will be described.

  2. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

  3. Decellularized kidney matrix for perfused bone engineering.

    PubMed

    Burgkart, Rainer; Tron, Alexandru; Prodinger, Peter; Culmes, Mihaela; Tuebel, Jutta; van Griensven, Martijn; Saldamli, Belma; Schmitt, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The vascularization of tissue-engineered constructs is yet an unsolved problem. Here, recent work on the decellularization of whole organs has opened new perspectives on tissue engineering. However, existing decellularization protocols last several days and derived biomatrices have only been reseeded with cells from the same tissue origin or stem cells differentiating into these types of tissue. Within the present work, we demonstrate a novel standardized, time-efficient, and reproducible protocol for the decellularization of solid tissues to derive a ready to use biomatrix within only 5 h. Furthermore, we prove that biomatrices are usable as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering of vascularized tissues, even beyond tissue and maybe even species barriers. To prove this, we seeded human primary osteoblasts into a rat kidney bioscaffold. Here, seeded cells spread homogeneously within the matrix and proliferate under dynamic culture conditions. The cells do not only maintain their original phenotype within the matrix, they also show a strong metabolic activity and remodel the biomatrix toward a bone-like extracellular matrix. Thus, the decellularization technique has the ability to become a platform technology for tissue engineering. It potentially offers a universally applicable and easily producible scaffold that addresses the yet unsolved problem of vascularization. PMID:24164381

  4. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Adhesion of stem cells - like most cells - is not just a membrane phenomenon. Most tissue cells need to adhere to a ``solid'' for viability, and over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that the physical ``elasticity'' of that solid is literally ``felt'' by cells. Here we show that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to the elasticity typical of tissues [1]. In serum only media, soft matrices that mimic brain appear neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II activity blocks all elasticity directed lineage specification, which indicates that the cytoskeleton pulls on matrix through adhesive attachments. Results have significant implications for `therapeutic' stem cells and have motivated development of a proteomic-scale method to identify mechano-responsive protein structures [2] as well as deeper physical studies of matrix physics [3] and growth factor pathways [4]. [4pt] [1] A. Engler, et al. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell (2006).[0pt] [2] C.P. Johnson, et al. Forced unfolding of proteins within cells. Science (2007).[0pt] [3] A.E.X. Brown, et al. Multiscale mechanics of fibrin polymer: Gel stretching with protein unfolding and loss of water. Science (2009).[0pt] [4] D.E. Discher, et al. Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science (2009).

  5. Random-matrix theory of quantum transport

    SciTech Connect

    Beenakker, C.W.

    1997-07-01

    This is a review of the statistical properties of the scattering matrix of a mesoscopic system. Two geometries are contrasted: A quantum dot and a disordered wire. The quantum dot is a confined region with a chaotic classical dynamics, which is coupled to two electron reservoirs via point contacts. The disordered wire also connects two reservoirs, either directly or via a point contact or tunnel barrier. One of the two reservoirs may be in the superconducting state, in which case conduction involves Andreev reflection at the interface with the superconductor. In the case of the quantum dot, the distribution of the scattering matrix is given by either Dyson{close_quote}s circular ensemble for ballistic point contacts or the Poisson kernel for point contacts containing a tunnel barrier. In the case of the disordered wire, the distribution of the scattering matrix is obtained from the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar equation, which is a one-dimensional scaling equation. The equivalence is discussed with the nonlinear {sigma} model, which is a supersymmetric field theory of localization. The distribution of scattering matrices is applied to a variety of physical phenomena, including universal conductance fluctuations, weak localization, Coulomb blockade, sub-Poissonian shot noise, reflectionless tunneling into a superconductor, and giant conductance oscillations in a Josephson junction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Polymer Matrix Composite Lines and Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, a task was undertaken to assess the feasibility of making cryogenic feedlines with integral flanges from polymer matrix composite materials. An additional level of complexity was added by having the feedlines be elbow shaped. Four materials, each with a unique manufacturing method, were chosen for this program. Feedlines were to be made by hand layup (HLU) with standard autoclave cure, HLU with electron beam cure, solvent-assisted resin transfer molding (SARTM), and thermoplastic tape laying (TTL). A test matrix of fill and drain cycles with both liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, along with a heat up to 250 F, was planned for each of the feedlines. A pressurization to failure was performed on any feedlines that passed the cryogenic cycling testing. A damage tolerance subtask was also undertaken in this study. The effects of foreign object impact to the materials used was assessed by cross-sectional examination and by permeability after impact testing. At the end of the program, the manufacture of the electron beam-cured feedlines never came to fruition. All of the TTL feedlines leaked heavily before any cryogenic testing, all of the SARTM feedlines leaked heavily after one cryogenic cycle. Thus, only the HLU with autoclave cure feedlines underwent the complete test matrix. They passed the cyclic testing and were pressurized to failure.

  7. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary Cavitation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Catherine W. M.; Elkington, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease of global importance, is facing the emergence of drug-resistant strains with few new drugs to treat the infection. Pulmonary cavitation, the hallmark of established disease, is associated with very high bacillary burden. Cavitation may lead to delayed sputum culture conversion, emergence of drug resistance, and transmission of the infection. The host immunological reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is implicated in driving the development of TB cavities. TB is characterized by a matrix-degrading phenotype in which the activity of proteolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is relatively unopposed by the specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Proteases, in particular MMPs, secreted from monocyte-derived cells, neutrophils, and stromal cells, are involved in both cell recruitment and tissue damage and may cause cavitation. MMP activity is augmented by proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, is tightly regulated by complex signaling paths, and causes matrix destruction. MMP concentrations are elevated in human TB and are closely associated with clinical and radiological markers of lung tissue destruction. Immunomodulatory therapies targeting MMPs in preclinical and clinical trials are potential adjuncts to TB treatment. Strategies targeting patients with cavitary TB have the potential to improve cure rates and reduce disease transmission. PMID:24713029

  8. Demineralized bone matrix for alveolar cleft management.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Jose Rolando Prada; Gomez, Viviana; Mendoza, Bibiana

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the results of the use of demineralized bone matrix putty in alveolar cleft of patients with cleft lip and palate. We performed a prospective, descriptive case series study, in which we evaluated the results of the management of alveolar clefts with demineralized bone matrix. Surgery was performed in 10 patients aged between 7 and 26 years (mean 13 years), involving a total of 13 clefts in the 10 patients. A preoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was taken to the patients in whom the width of the cleft was measured from each edge of the cleft reporting values between 5.76 and 16.93 mm (average, 11.18 mm). The densities of the clefts were measured with a CBCT, 6 months postoperative to assess bone formation. The results showed a register of gray values of 1,148 to 1,396 (mean, 1,270). The follow-up was conducted for 15 to 33 months (mean, 28.2 months). The results did not show satisfactory bone formation in the cleft of patients with the use of demineralized bone matrix. PMID:25383144

  9. Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology. PMID:22792042

  10. Gas chromatography/matrix-isolation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device provides matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for the spectroscopic analysis of the individual sample bands. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carousel having at least one reflecting surface for holding a sample deposited thereon. A gas inlet is provided for depositing a mixture of sample and matrix material on the reflecting surface which is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. A first parabolic mirror directs an incident beam of electromagnetic radiation, such as in the infrared (IR) spectrum, from a source onto the sample/matrix mixture while a second parabolic mirror directs a second beam of electromagnetic radiation reflected by the specular surface to an IR spectrometer for determining the absorption spectra of the sample material deposited on the reflecting surface. The pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors having a common focal point are positioned outside of the vacuum chamber and may be displaced in combination for improved beam positioning and alignment. The carousel is provided with an aperture for each reflecting surface to facilitate accurate positioning of the incident beam relative to the gas-samples under analysis. Improved gas-sample deposition is insured by the use of a long focal length stereomicroscope positioned outside of the vacuum chamber for monitoring sample formation through a window, while the sample collector is positioned outside of the zone bounded by the incident and reflected electromagnetic beams for improved sample access and monitoring.

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Delivery for Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The resolution of advanced liver fibrosis has been recently recognized to be possible, if the causative stimuli are successfully removed. However, whether complete resolution from cirrhosis, the end stage of liver fibrosis, can be achieved is still questionable. Delivery of interstitial collagenases, such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in the liver could be an attractive strategy to treat advanced hepatic fibrosis from the view point that the imbalance between too few interstitial collagenases and too many of their inhibitors is the main obstacle to the resolution from fibrosis. Remodeling of hepatic extracellular matrix by delivered interstitial collagenases also facilitates the disappearance of activated hepatic stellate cells, the main matrix-producing cells in the liver, and promotes the proliferation of hepatocytes. This review will focus on the impact of the gene delivery of MMPs for the treatment of advanced liver fibrosis while discussing other current therapeutic strategies for liver fibrosis, and on the need for the development of a safe and effective delivery system of MMPs. PMID:17577645

  12. Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  13. Google matrix, dynamical attractors, and Ulam networks.

    PubMed

    Shepelyansky, D L; Zhirov, O V

    2010-03-01

    We study the properties of the Google matrix generated by a coarse-grained Perron-Frobenius operator of the Chirikov typical map with dissipation. The finite-size matrix approximant of this operator is constructed by the Ulam method. This method applied to the simple dynamical model generates directed Ulam networks with approximate scale-free scaling and characteristics being in certain features similar to those of the world wide web with approximate scale-free degree distributions as well as two characteristics similar to the web: a power-law decay in PageRank that mirrors the decay of PageRank on the world wide web and a sensitivity to the value alpha in PageRank. The simple dynamical attractors play here the role of popular websites with a strong concentration of PageRank. A variation in the Google parameter alpha or other parameters of the dynamical map can drive the PageRank of the Google matrix to a delocalized phase with a strange attractor where the Google search becomes inefficient. PMID:20365838

  14. Google matrix, dynamical attractors, and Ulam networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelyansky, D. L.; Zhirov, O. V.

    2010-03-01

    We study the properties of the Google matrix generated by a coarse-grained Perron-Frobenius operator of the Chirikov typical map with dissipation. The finite-size matrix approximant of this operator is constructed by the Ulam method. This method applied to the simple dynamical model generates directed Ulam networks with approximate scale-free scaling and characteristics being in certain features similar to those of the world wide web with approximate scale-free degree distributions as well as two characteristics similar to the web: a power-law decay in PageRank that mirrors the decay of PageRank on the world wide web and a sensitivity to the value α in PageRank. The simple dynamical attractors play here the role of popular websites with a strong concentration of PageRank. A variation in the Google parameter α or other parameters of the dynamical map can drive the PageRank of the Google matrix to a delocalized phase with a strange attractor where the Google search becomes inefficient.

  15. Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.

  16. Airway and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bidan, Cécile M.; Veldsink, Annemiek C.; Meurs, Herman; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases worldwide, and is characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible with treatment. Even though airflow obstruction is caused by airway smooth muscle contraction, the extent of airway narrowing depends on a range of other structural and functional determinants that impact on active and passive tissue mechanics. Cells and extracellular matrix in the airway and parenchymal compartments respond both passively and actively to the mechanical stimulation induced by smooth muscle contraction. In this review, we summarize the factors that regulate airway narrowing and provide insight into the relative contributions of different constituents of the extracellular matrix and their biomechanical impact on airway obstruction. We then review the changes in extracellular matrix composition in the airway and parenchymal compartments at different stages of COPD, and finally discuss how these changes impact airway narrowing and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Finally, we position these data in the context of therapeutic research focused on defective tissue repair. As a conclusion, we propose that future works should primarily target mild or early COPD, prior to the widespread structural changes in the alveolar compartment that are more characteristic of severe COPD. PMID:26696894

  17. Polymer matrix effects on acid generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Goodman, Russell B.; Roberts, Jeanette

    2008-03-01

    We have measured the acid generation efficiency with EUV exposure of a PAG in different polymer matrixes representing the main classes of resist polymers as well as some previously described fluoropolymers for lithographic applications. The polymer matrix was found to have a significant effect on the acid generation efficiency of the PAG studied. A linear relationship exists between the absorbance of the resist and the acid generation efficiency. A second inverse relationship exists between Dill C and aromatic content of the resist polymer. It was shown that polymer sensitization is important for acid generation with EUV exposure and the Dill C parameter can be increased by up to five times with highly absorbing non-aromatic polymers, such as non-aromatic fluoropolymers, over an ESCAP polymer. The increase in the Dill C value will lead to an up to five fold increase in resist sensitivity. It is our expectation that these insights into the nature of polymer matrix effects on acid generation could lead to increased sensitivity for EUV resists.

  18. Full CKM matrix with lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Masataka; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The authors show that it is now possible to fully determine the CKM matrix, for the first time, using lattice QCD. |V{sub cd}|, |V{sub cs}|, |V{sub ub}|, |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub us}| are, respectively, directly determined with the lattice results for form factors of semileptonic D {yields} {pi}lv, D {yields} Klv, B {yields} {pi}lv, B {yields} Dlv and K {yields} {pi}lv decays. The error from the quenched approximation is removed by using the MILC unquenced lattice gauge configurations, where the effect of u, d and s quarks is included. The error from the ''chiral'' extrapolation (m{sub l} {yields} m{sub ud}) is greatly reduced by using improved staggered quarks. The accuracy is comparable to that of the Particle Data Group averages. In addition, |V{sub ud}|, |V{sub ts}|, |V{sub ts}| and |V{sub td}| are determined by using unitarity of the CKM matrix and the experimental result for sin (2{beta}). In this way, they obtain all 9 CKM matrix elements, where the only theoretical input is lattice QCD. They also obtain all the Wolfenstein parameters, for the first time, using lattice QCD.

  19. Demineralized Bone Matrix for Alveolar Cleft Management

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Jose Rolando Prada; Gomez, Viviana; Mendoza, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the results of the use of demineralized bone matrix putty in alveolar cleft of patients with cleft lip and palate. We performed a prospective, descriptive case series study, in which we evaluated the results of the management of alveolar clefts with demineralized bone matrix. Surgery was performed in 10 patients aged between 7 and 26 years (mean 13 years), involving a total of 13 clefts in the 10 patients. A preoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was taken to the patients in whom the width of the cleft was measured from each edge of the cleft reporting values between 5.76 and 16.93 mm (average, 11.18 mm). The densities of the clefts were measured with a CBCT, 6 months postoperative to assess bone formation. The results showed a register of gray values of 1,148 to 1,396 (mean, 1,270). The follow-up was conducted for 15 to 33 months (mean, 28.2 months). The results did not show satisfactory bone formation in the cleft of patients with the use of demineralized bone matrix. PMID:25383144

  20. Discovery of Conservation Laws via Matrix Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Oliver; Drew, Mark S.

    One of the main goals of Discovery Science is the development and analysis of methods for automatic knowledge discovery in the natural sciences. A central area of natural science research concerns reactions: how entities in a scientific domain interact to generate new entities. Classic AI research due to Valdés-Pérez, Żytkow, Langley and Simon has shown that many scientific discovery tasks that concern reaction models can be formalized as a matrix search. In this paper we present a method for finding conservation laws, based on two criteria for selecting a conservation law matrix: (1) maximal strictness: rule out as many unobserved reactions as possible, and (2) parsimony: minimize the L1-norm of the matrix. We provide an efficient and scalable minimization method for the joint optimization of criteria (1) and (2). For empirical evaluation, we applied the algorithm to known particle accelerator data of the type that are produced by the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva. It matches the important Standard Model of particles that physicists have constructed through decades of research: the program rediscovers Standard Model conservation laws and the corresponding particle families of baryon, muon, electron and tau number. The algorithm also discovers the correct molecular structure of a set of chemical substances.

  1. Mueller matrix characterization using spectral reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafir, Dror; Barak, Gilad; Yachini, Michal H.; Sendelbach, Matthew; Bozdog, Cornel; Wolfling, Shay

    2013-05-01

    The fast evolution of microelectronics fabrication technology demands a concurrent development in metrology capabilities. In recent years, Mueller Matrix (MM) scatterometry has been asserted as a useful tool in characterizing critical dimensions (CD) in periodical arrays of nanometer-size structures. Specifically, some symmetry properties of the measured structure can be readily extracted from the MM, allowing effective isolation of abnormal features. One example is measuring deviations of grating structures from perfect mirror symmetry, characteristic of faults in the fabrication process. The most general form of the Muller matrix requires 16 independent measurements, and requires spectral ellipsometry. However, using some very general assumptions on the reflection properties of the measured sample, one can reduce this number considerably. Such realistic assumptions are time independence of the reflection properties, and homogeneity of the sample (i.e., constant reflectivity throughout the measurement spot), as is the common case in optical CD metrology targets. We show that under these assumptions the Mueller matrix can be completely measured using spectral reflectometry. The goal of characterizing asymmetry is then further analyzed, and a new approach for such measurement, based on spectral reflectometry, is presented. Specifically, using spectral differences metrology (SDM), this approach is shown to provide a simpler means to measure the same asymmetry-dependent quantity as targeted today using MM metrology, but requires only two distinct measurements leading to improved throughput.

  2. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  3. Using SEM Programs To Perform Matrix Manipulations and Data Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Boyd, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Illustrates how commonly available structural equation modeling programs can be used to conduct some basic matrix manipulations and generate multivariate normal data with given means and positive definite covariance matrix. Demonstrates the outlined procedure. (SLD)

  4. Fatigue damage accumulation in various metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some of the latest understanding of the fatigue behavior of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. The emphasis is on the development of an understanding of different fatigue damage mechanisms and why and how they occur. The fatigue failure modes in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites are controlled by the three constituents of the system: fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interface. The relative strains to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix will determine the failure mode. Several examples of matrix, fiber, and self-similar damage growth dominated fatigue damage are given for several metal matrix composite systems. Composite analysis, failure modes, and damage modeling are discussed. Boron/aluminum, silicon-carbide/aluminum, FP/aluminum, and borsic/titanium metal matrix composites are discussed.

  5. Matrix heat exchanger including a liquid, thermal couplant

    DOEpatents

    Fewell, Thomas E.; Ward, Charles T.

    1976-01-01

    A tube-to-tube heat exchanger is disclosed with a thermally conductive matrix between and around the tubes to define annuli between the tubes and matrix. The annuli are filled to a level with a molten metal or alloy to provide a conductive heat transfer path from one tube through the matrix to the second tube. A matrix heat exchanger of this type is particularly useful for heat transfer between fluids which would react should one leak into the second.

  6. Large N Matrix Models and Noncommutative Fisher Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, A.; Akant, L.; Krishnaswami, G. S.; Rajeev, S. G.

    2002-12-01

    We interpret the action for 0+1-dimensional large N matrix models in the context of noncommutative probability theory. The actions of both 0-dimensional and 0+1-dimensional matrix models contain universal terms, free entropy and free Fisher information respectively. Their minimization properties are essential for the solution of matrix models. We also give a geometric interpretation of the action principle of 0+1-dimensional matrix models.

  7. Association between proteoglycans and matrix vesicles in the extracellular matrix of growth plate cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wu, L N; Genge, B R; Wuthier, R E

    1991-01-15

    Matrix vesicles (MV) are microstructures localized to the extracellular matrix of developing hard tissues that induce mineral formation. MV proteins are not well characterized, and little is known of how they interact with the surrounding matrix. However, recent electron microscopic studies indicate that MV interact with matrix proteins in growth plate cartilage. In the studies now reported, procedures developed for dissecting various components from isolated MV led to the discovery that two major vesicle proteins (38 and 46 kDa) are readily released from MV by low ionic strength solutions. These low ionic strength-soluble proteins (LISSP) were shown to be major fragments of the link protein (LP) and hyaluronic acid-binding region (HABR) of matrix proteoglycans: they react immunologically with highly specific monoclonal antibodies to LP and HABR, and the NH2-terminal sequence of the 38-kDa LISSP is essentially identical to residues 40-78 of chicken cartilage LP and that the 46-kDa LISSP represents HABR. Release of both LISSP is enhanced by hyaluronidase treatment, indicating anchorage by a hyaluronate-mediated mechanism. Both LP and HABR are firmly attached to MV in either isotonic or hypertonic solutions. In contrast, our other studies show that dissociation of type II collagen from MV occurs only with hypertonic salts which do not release the LISSP. Thus, strong interactions occur under physiological conditions between MV and both the proteoglycans and collagens, but these take place by different mechanisms. PMID:1985942

  8. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  9. Truncating an exact matrix product state for the XY model: Transfer matrix and its renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rams, Marek M.; Zauner, Valentin; Bal, Matthias; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2015-12-01

    We discuss how to analytically obtain an essentially infinite matrix product state (MPS) representation of the ground state of the XY model. On one hand this allows us to illustrate how the Ornstein-Zernike form of the correlation function emerges in the exact case using standard MPS language. On the other hand we study the consequences of truncating the bond dimension of the exact MPS, which is also part of many tensor network algorithms, and analyze how the truncated MPS transfer matrix is representing the dominant part of the exact quantum transfer matrix. In the gapped phase we observe that the correlation length obtained from a truncated MPS approaches the exact value following a power law in effective bond dimension. In the gapless phase we find a good match between a state obtained numerically from standard MPS techniques with finite bond dimension and a state obtained by effective finite imaginary time evolution in our framework. This provides a direct hint for a geometric interpretation of finite entanglement scaling at the critical point in this case. Finally, by analyzing the spectra of transfer matrices, we support the interpretation put forward by V. Zauner et al. [New J. Phys. 17, 053002 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/5/053002] that the MPS transfer matrix emerges from the quantum transfer matrix though the application of Wilson's numerical renormalization group along the imaginary-time direction.

  10. Matrix Training of Preliteracy Skills with Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axe, Judah B.; Sainato, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix training is a generative approach to instruction in which words are arranged in a matrix so that some multiword phrases are taught and others emerge without direct teaching. We taught 4 preschoolers with autism to follow instructions to perform action-picture combinations (e.g., circle the pepper, underline the deer). Each matrix contained…

  11. Another elementary proof of the Jordan form of a matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhi, Wono Setya

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we establish the Jordan Form for a matrix using the elementary concepts of vector differentiation and partial fractions. The idea comes from the resolvent of the operator. For the matrix, the Laurent series is finite and easy to compute through rational representation. We also give a proof of some famous theorems in matrix analysis as consequences from the result.

  12. Condition and Error Estimates in Numerical Matrix Computations

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, M. M.; Petkov, P. H.

    2008-10-30

    This tutorial paper deals with sensitivity and error estimates in matrix computational processes. The main factors determining the accuracy of the result computed in floating--point machine arithmetics are considered. Special attention is paid to the perturbation analysis of matrix algebraic equations and unitary matrix decompositions.

  13. Spin-adapted matrix product states and operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Sebastian; Reiher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Matrix product states (MPSs) and matrix product operators (MPOs) allow an alternative formulation of the density matrix renormalization group algorithm introduced by White. Here, we describe how non-abelian spin symmetry can be exploited in MPSs and MPOs by virtue of the Wigner-Eckart theorem at the example of the spin-adapted quantum chemical Hamiltonian operator.

  14. Teaching Improvement Model Designed with DEA Method and Management Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoneri, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This study uses student evaluation of teachers to design a teaching improvement matrix based on teaching efficiency and performance by combining management matrix and data envelopment analysis. This matrix is designed to formulate suggestions to improve teaching. The research sample consists of 42 classes of freshmen following a course of English…

  15. Conversion of a Rhotrix to a "Coupled Matrix"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this note, a method of converting a rhotrix to a special form of matrix termed a "coupled matrix" is proposed. The special matrix can be used to solve various problems involving n x n and (n - 1) x (n - 1) matrices simultaneously.

  16. [Remodelling extracellular matrix in pineal gland at aging].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 has been verified in pineal gland, where MMP take part in remodelling extracellular matrix. Descrease of number MMP2 and 9 has been verified in pineal gland of old age and long liver people in comparison with middle age people. Pinealocytes and/or immune cells of pineal gland can synthesize matrix metalloproteinases. PMID:22184970

  17. Dot Matrix Impact Printers: An Overview and Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, William H.; Warden, Bette M.

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of dot matrix impact printers details price, matrix density, speed, print sizes, feed width, interface connectors, and true descender characteristics. Dot matrix versus preformed characters, maintenance and repair, installing printers at microcomputer workstations, value comparisons, and descriptions of specific printers are…

  18. SALTSTONE MATRIX CHARACTERIZATION AND STADIUM SIMULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.

    2009-07-30

    SIMCO Technologies, Inc. was contracted to evaluate the durability of the saltstone matrix material and to measure saltstone transport properties. This information will be used to: (1) Parameterize the STADIUM{reg_sign} service life code, (2) Predict the leach rate (degradation rate) for the saltstone matrix over 10,000 years using the STADIUM{reg_sign} concrete service life code, and (3) Validate the modeled results by conducting leaching (water immersion) tests. Saltstone durability for this evaluation is limited to changes in the matrix itself and does not include changes in the chemical speciation of the contaminants in the saltstone. This report summarized results obtained to date which include: characterization data for saltstone cured up to 365 days and characterization of saltstone cured for 137 days and immersed in water for 31 days. Chemicals for preparing simulated non-radioactive salt solution were obtained from chemical suppliers. The saltstone slurry was mixed according to directions provided by SRNL. However SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel made a mistake in the premix proportions. The formulation SIMCO personnel used to prepare saltstone premix was not the reference mix proportions: 45 wt% slag, 45 wt% fly ash, and 10 wt% cement. SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel used the following proportions: 21 wt% slag, 65 wt% fly ash, and 14 wt% cement. The mistake was acknowledged and new mixes have been prepared and are curing. The results presented in this report are assumed to be conservative since the excessive fly ash was used in the SIMCO saltstone. The SIMCO mixes are low in slag which is very reactive in the caustic salt solution. The impact is that the results presented in this report are expected to be conservative since the samples prepared were deficient in slag and contained excess fly ash. The hydraulic reactivity of slag is about four times that of fly ash so the amount of hydrated binder formed per unit volume in the SIMCO saltstone samples is less than that expected for saltstone containing the reference amount of slag (45 wt.% of the total cementitious mixture versus 21 wt.% used in the SIMCO samples). Consequently the SIMCO saltstone samples are expected to have lower strengths, and tortuosity and higher porosity, water diffusivity, and intrinsic permeability compared to the reference case MCU saltstone. MCU reference saltstone contains nonradioactive salt solution with a composition designed to simulate the product of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Unit [Harbour, 2009]. The SIMCO saltstone samples were cast in molds and cured for three days under plastic with a source of water to prevent drying. Details of the sample preparation process are presented in Attachment 2. The molds were then removed and the samples were cured at a constant temperature (76 F, 24 C) and 100 percent relative humidity for up to one year. Selected samples were periodically removed and characterized the evolution of the matrix as a function of age. In order to preserve the age dependent microstructure at the specified curing times it is necessary to stop hydration. This was accomplished by immersing the samples in isopropanol for 5 days to replace water with alcohol. The microstructure of the matrix material was also characterized as a function of aging. This information was used as a base line for comparison with leached microstructures. After curing for 137 days, specimens were cut into 20 mm disks and exposed to deionized water with a pH maintained at 10.5. Microstructure and calcium sulfur leaching results for samples leached for 31 days are presented in this report. Insufficient leached material was generated during the testing to date to obtain physical and mineralogical properties for leached saltstone. Longer term experiments are required because the matrix alteration rate due to immersion in deionized water is slow.

  19. Modeling the Effect of Multiple Matrix Cracking Modes on Cyclic Hysteresis Loops of 2D Woven Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of multiple matrix cracking modes on cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated. The interface slip between fibers and the matrix existed in matrix cracking mode 3 and mode 5, in which matrix cracking and interface debonding occurred in longitudinal yarns, are considered as the major reason for hysteresis loops of 2D woven CMCs. The effects of fiber volume content, peak stress, matrix crack spacing, interface properties, matrix cracking mode proportion and interface wear on interface slip and hysteresis loops have been analyzed. The cyclic loading/unloading hysteresis loops of 2D woven SiC/SiC composite corresponding to different peak stresses have been predicted using the present analysis. It was found that the damage parameter, i.e., the proportion of matrix cracking mode 3 in the entire cracking modes of the composite, increases with increasing peak stress.

  20. Gas chromatography/matrix-isolation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, G.T.

    1986-06-10

    A gas-sample collection device provides matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for the spectroscopic analysis of the individual sample bands. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carousel having at least one reflecting surface for holding a sample deposited thereon. A gas inlet is provided for depositing a mixture of sample and matrix material on the reflecting surface which is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. A first parabolic mirror directs an incident beam of electromagnetic radiation, such as in the infrared (IR) spectrum, from a source onto the sample/matrix mixture while a second parabolic mirror directs a second beam of electromagnetic radiation reflected by the specular surface to an IR spectrometer for determining the absorption spectra of the sample material deposited on the reflecting surface. The pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors having a common focal point are positioned outside of the vacuum chamber and may be displaced in combination for improved beam positioning and alignment. The carousel is provided with an aperture for each reflecting surface to facilitate accurate positioning of the incident beam relative to the gas-samples under analysis. Improved gas-sample deposition is insured by the use of a long focal length stereomicroscope positioned outside of the vacuum chamber for monitoring sample formation through a window, while the sample collector is positioned outside of the zone bounded by the incident and reflected electromagnetic beams for improved sample access and monitoring. 10 figs.

  1. Curing of epoxy matrix composite in stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela

    Large structures for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories are needed for next stage of space exploitation. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the polymerization technology of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment. The polymerisation process is proposed for the material exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, space plasma, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The stratospheric flight experiments are directed to an investigation of the curing polymer matrix under the stratospheric conditions on. The unique combination of low atmospheric pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short wavelength UV and diurnal temperature variations associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. The first flight experiment with uncured composites was a part of the NASA scientific balloon flight program realised at the NASA stratospheric balloon station in Alice Springs, Australia. A flight cassette installed on payload was lifted with a “zero-pressure” stratospheric balloon filled with Helium. Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provided the launch, flight telemetry and landing of the balloon and payload. A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed 3 days in the stratosphere (40 km altitude). The second flight experiment was realised in South Australia in 2012, when the cassette was exposed in 27 km altitude. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the space irradiations are responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The first prepreg in the world was cured successfully in stratosphere. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

  2. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  3. Effects of sterilization on an extracellular matrix scaffold: part I. Composition and matrix architecture.

    PubMed

    Hodde, Jason; Janis, Abram; Ernst, David; Zopf, David; Sherman, Debra; Johnson, Chad

    2007-04-01

    The impact of peracetic acid (PAA), lyophilization, and ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization on the composition and three dimensional matrix structure of small intestinal submucosa (SIS), a biologic scaffold used to stimulate the repair of damaged tissues and organs, was examined. Fibronectin and glycosaminoglycans are retained in SIS following oxidation by peracetic acid and alkylation using ethylene oxide gas. Significant amounts of FGF-2 are also retained, but VEGF is susceptible to the effects of PAA and is dramatically reduced following processing. Further, matrix oxidation, lyophilization, and sterilization with EO can be performed without irreversibly collapsing the three dimensional structure of the native SIS. These structural features and growth promoting extracellular matrix constituents are likely to be important variables underlying cellular attachment, infiltration and eventual incorporation of SIS into healing host tissues. PMID:17546412

  4. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

  5. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cherubino, Mario; Pellegatta, Igor; Tamborini, Federico; Cerati, Michele; Sessa, Fausto; Valdatta, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA®. On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28, lymphatic endothelial cells had organized themselves, engineering the pseudocylindrical structure better disposed in the ADM group than in the control group, and the lymphatic cells were detectable inside the vessels’ lumen in this group. Conclusion: This study has made it possible to demonstrate the absolute importance of an ADM in proper wound healing and has shown better definition of both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of lymphangiogenesis compared to the second intention healing. A major grade of organization of the extracellular matrix and a minor grade of fibrosclerosis in ADM allowed a well-structured morphologic and functional development of the endothelial and lymphatic vascular structures. This study hopes to represent a clinical basis for a wider use of ADM in lesions where lymphatic complications are common. PMID:25593415

  6. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Benoît; Nechita, Ion

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.

  7. Quantum hyperparallel algorithm for matrix multiplication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Ding; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperentangled states, entangled states with more than one degree of freedom, are considered as promising resource in quantum computation. Here we present a hyperparallel quantum algorithm for matrix multiplication with time complexity O(N(2)), which is better than the best known classical algorithm. In our scheme, an N dimensional vector is mapped to the state of a single source, which is separated to N paths. With the assistance of hyperentangled states, the inner product of two vectors can be calculated with a time complexity independent of dimension N. Our algorithm shows that hyperparallel quantum computation may provide a useful tool in quantum machine learning and "big data" analysis. PMID:27125586

  8. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  9. Mueller matrix microscopy on a Morpho butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, Oriol; Kuntman, Ertan; Antó, Joan; Pascual, Esther; Canillas, Adolf; Bertran, Enric

    2015-04-01

    The brilliant iridescent colouring in male Morpho butterflies is due to the microstrutures and nanostructures present in the wing scales, rather than pigments. In this work Mueller matrix microscopy is used to investigate the polarization properties of butterfly wing scales in reflection and transmission. It is found that the top layer of more transparent scales (cover scales) have very different polarimetric properties from the ground iridescent scales. Images with high spatial resolution showing the retarding and diattenuating optical properties for both types of scales are provided.

  10. Low-power SXGA active matrix OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the design and first evaluation of a full-color 1280×3×1024 pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) microdisplay that operates at a low power of 200mW under typical operating conditions of 35fL, and offers a precision 30-bit RGB digital interface in a compact size (0.78-inch diagonal active area). The new system architecture developed by eMagin for the SXGA microdisplay, based on a separate FPGA driver and AMOLED display chip, offers several benefits, including better power efficiency, cost-effectiveness, more features for improved performance, and increased system flexibility.

  11. High-reinforcement-content metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how aluminum-based composites with high volume percentages of nonmetallic reinforcement materials can challenge applications traditionally met by ferrous materials. Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) have a wide range of potential automotive applications. These extend from structural uses, including wear-resistant components such as disc-brake rotors, through high-specific-stiffness components such as robot arms and disc-brake calipers, to high-specific-strength components such as connecting rods. In addition, composites with silicon carbide (SiC) filler have low density, high thermal conductivity, and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that makes them useful for controlling temperatures in electronic devices.

  12. Metal-matrix composites in ground transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, N.; Chawla, K. K.

    2006-11-01

    Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) are used in a variety of automotive and other ground transp ortation applications. This article provides a brief overview of the major applications of MMCs in ground transportation. The main attractive features of MMCs are: high strength-to-weight ratio, enhanced mechanical and thermal properties over conventional materials, improved fatigue and creep characteristics, better wear resistance, and general tailorability of properties. Because the transportation industry is extremely cost-sensitive, reducing the manufacturing costs of MMC components will aid in the use of MMCs.

  13. A Random Matrix Approach to Credit Risk

    PubMed Central

    Guhr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We estimate generic statistical properties of a structural credit risk model by considering an ensemble of correlation matrices. This ensemble is set up by Random Matrix Theory. We demonstrate analytically that the presence of correlations severely limits the effect of diversification in a credit portfolio if the correlations are not identically zero. The existence of correlations alters the tails of the loss distribution considerably, even if their average is zero. Under the assumption of randomly fluctuating correlations, a lower bound for the estimation of the loss distribution is provided. PMID:24853864

  14. METal matrix composite ANalyzer (METCAN): Theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript is intended to be a companion volume to the 'METCAN User's Manual' and the 'METAN Demonstration Manual.' The primary purpose of the manual is to give details pertaining to micromechanics and macromechanics equations of high temperature metal matrix composites that are programmed in the METCAN computer code. The subroutines which contain the programmed equations are also mentioned in order to facilitate any future changes or modifications that the user may intend to incorporate in the code. Assumptions and derivations leading to the micromechanics equations are briefly mentioned.

  15. Cosmology and the S-matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2005-01-25

    We study conditions for the existence of asymptotic observables in cosmology. With the exception of de Sitter space, the thermal properties of accelerating universes permit arbitrarily long observations, and guarantee the production of accessible states of arbitrarily large entropy. This suggests that some asymptotic observables may exist, despite the presence of an event horizon. Comparison with decelerating universes shows surprising similarities: Neither type suffers from the limitations encountered in de Sitter space, such as thermalization and boundedness of entropy. However, we argue that no realistic cosmology permits the global observations associated with an S-matrix.

  16. Effective dynamics of the matrix big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Craps, Ben; Rajaraman, Arvind; Sethi, Savdeep

    2006-05-15

    We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced matrix big bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that is attractive near the big bang. Surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form of our one-loop potential seems to violate these constraints in a manner that suggests a connection between the cosmological singularity and long wavelength, late time physics.

  17. Mueller matrix of a dicot leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2012-06-01

    A better understanding of the information contained in the spectral, polarized bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of leaves may lead to improved techniques for identifying plant species in remotely sensed imagery as well as better estimates of plant moisture and nutritional status. Here we report an investigation of the optical polarizing properties of several leaves of one species, Cannabis sativa, represented by a 3x3 Mueller matrix measured over the wavelength region 400-2,400 nm. Our results support the hypothesis that the leaf surface alters the polarization of incident light - polarizing off nadir, unpolarized incident light, for example - while the leaf volume tends to depolarized incident polarized light.

  18. Matrix factorization on a hypercube multiprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A.; Heath, M.T.

    1985-08-01

    This paper is concerned with parallel algorithms for matrix factorization on distributed-memory, message-passing multiprocessors, with special emphasis on the hypercube. Both Cholesky factorization of symmetric positive definite matrices and LU factorization of nonsymmetric matrices using partial pivoting are considered. The use of the resulting triangular factors to solve systems of linear equations by forward and back substitutions is also considered. Efficiencies of various parallel computational approaches are compared in terms of empirical results obtained on an Intel iPSC hypercube. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A random matrix approach to credit risk.

    PubMed

    Münnix, Michael C; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We estimate generic statistical properties of a structural credit risk model by considering an ensemble of correlation matrices. This ensemble is set up by Random Matrix Theory. We demonstrate analytically that the presence of correlations severely limits the effect of diversification in a credit portfolio if the correlations are not identically zero. The existence of correlations alters the tails of the loss distribution considerably, even if their average is zero. Under the assumption of randomly fluctuating correlations, a lower bound for the estimation of the loss distribution is provided. PMID:24853864

  20. Zero minors of the neutrino mass matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lashin, E. I.; Chamoun, N.

    2008-10-01

    We examine the possibility that a certain class of neutrino mass matrices, namely, those with two independent vanishing minors in the flavor basis, regardless of being invertible or not, is sufficient to describe current data. We compute generic formulas for the ratios of the neutrino masses and for the Majorana phases. We find that seven textures with two vanishing minors can accommodate the experimental data. We present an estimate of the mass matrix for these patterns. All of the possible textures can be dynamically generated through the seesaw mechanism augmented with a discrete Abelian symmetry.