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1

EVALUATING GENERALIZED TABULAR EXPRESSIONS IN SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION

This thesis presents a generalized model of tabular expressions used in software documentation, and describes how this model has been applied to build a tool that evaluates a broad class of expressions. Tabular notation is used in software documentation to improve the readability of complex mathematical relations [12]. By making expressions easier to parse and removing many of the common

RUTH ABRAHAM; B. ENG

1997-01-01

2

Users' guide for the tabular display report generator program (TABDIS)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tabular display report generator (TABDIS) program is described. The program functions as a document generation tool that provides tabular displays of data stored on a data file which has been generated by a user program. The main features of the program are outlined and all necessary inputs are detailed.

Braley, D. M.

1980-01-01

3

BayesDB : querying the probable implications of tabular data

BayesDB, a Bayesian database table, lets users query the probable implications of their tabular data as easily as an SQL database lets them query the data itself. Using the built-in Bayesian Query Language (BQL), users ...

Baxter, Jay

2014-01-01

4

A new model for tabular-type uranium deposits

Tabular-type uranium deposits occur as tabular, originally subhorizontal bodies entirely within reduced fluvial sandstones of Late Silurian age or younger. This paper proposes that belts of tabular-type uranium deposits formed in areas of mixed local and regional groundwater discharge shortly after deposition of the host sediments. The general characteristics of tabular-type uranium deposits indicate that their essential feature was the formation at a density-stratified ground-water interface in areas of local and regional ground-water discharge. Reconstruction of the paleohydrogeology is the key to understanding the formation of these deposits. Geologic ground-water controls that favor discharge, such as the pinch-out of major aquifers, are also favorable for uranium ore. The combination of topographic and geologic features that both cause discharge is most favorable for ore deposition. -from Author

Sanford, R.F.

1992-01-01

5

Network-Based Visual Analysis of Tabular Data

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tabular data is pervasive in the form of spreadsheets and relational databases. Although tables often describe multivariate data without explicit network semantics, it may be advantageous to explore the data modeled as a graph or network for analysis. Even when a given table design conveys some static network semantics, analysts may want to look…

Liu, Zhicheng

2012-01-01

6

Kilometer-sized, tabular dunite bodies are contained within harzburgite, lherzolite and plagioclase lherzolite host rocks in the Trinity peridotite, northern California. An igneous origin for the dunite by crystal fractionation of olivine from a melt is suggested by their tabular shapes, clots of poikilitic clinopyroxene grains, chromite pods, and by analogy to dunite bodies in the Samail and Vourinos ophiolites (Hopson

James E. Quick

1982-01-01

7

Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems Ian Joughin1,2

Calving of large tabular icebergs from ice shelf rift systems Ian Joughin1,2 and Douglas R. Mac large icebergs to calve from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Time series of rift geometries indicate geometry. Both the observations and model suggest that rift opening, and, thus, tabular-iceberg calving

Boyce, C. Kevin

8

ICESat profiles of tabular iceberg margins and iceberg breakup at low Ted Scambos,1

ICESat profiles of tabular iceberg margins and iceberg breakup at low latitudes Ted Scambos,1 Olga of tabular iceberg margins and the Ronne Ice Shelf edge reveal shapes indicative of two types of bending forces. Icebergs and shelf fronts in sea-ice-covered areas have broad ($1000 m wide), rounded, $0.6 m

Boyce, C. Kevin

9

Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg Peter Wadhams (1), Till J W Wagner(1) and Richard Bates(2) (1) Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK (2) Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland KY16 9AL We present observational results from an experiment carried out during July-August 2012 on a giant grounded tabular iceberg off Baffin Island. The iceberg studied was part of the Petermann Ice Island B1 (PIIB1) which calved off the Petermann Glacier in NW Greenland in 2010. Since 2011 it has been aground in 100 m of water on the Baffin Island shelf at 69 deg 06'N, 66 deg 06'W. As part of the project a set of high resolution GPS sensors and tiltmeters was placed on the ice island to record rigid body motion as well as flexural responses to wind, waves, current and tidal forces, while a Waverider buoy monitored incident waves and swell. On July 31, 2012 a major breakup event was recorded, with a piece of 25,000 sq m surface area calving off the iceberg. At the time of breakup, GPS sensors were collecting data both on the main berg as well as on the newly calved piece, while two of us (PW and TJWW) were standing on the broken-out portion which rose by 0.6 m to achieve a new isostatic equilibrium. Crucially, there was no significant swell at the time of breakup, which suggests a melt-driven decay process rather than wave-driven flexural break-up. The GPS sensors recorded two disturbances during the hour preceding the breakup, indicative of crack growth and propagation. Qualitative observation during the two weeks in which our research ship was moored to, or was close to, the ice island edge indicates that an important mechanism for summer ablation is successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wave cut, which creates a submerged ram fringing the berg. A model of buoyancy stresses induced by such rams indicates that they may have the capability through their moment arm of breaking off moderate-sized bergs, which may be the mechanism through which our smaller berg calved.

Wadhams, P.; Wagner, T. M.; Bates, R.

2012-12-01

10

Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state.

A valid fluid equation of state (EOS) must satisfy the thermodynamic conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Numerical simulations of compressible fluid flow for realistic materials require a tabular EOS, but typical software interfaces to such tables based on polynomial or rational interpolants may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives. The consistency condition is important for the computation of various dimensionless parameters of an EOS that may involve derivatives of up to second order which are important for the development of more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a table interface based on the tuned regression method, which is derived from a constrained local least-squares regression technique. It is applied to several SESAME EOS showing how the consistency and stability conditions can be satisfied to round-off while computing first and second derivatives with demonstrated second-order convergence. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the method is apparently two orders of magnitude slower, due to the fact that every evaluation requires solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. Application is made to the computation of the fundamental derivative. PMID:16907020

Dilts, Gary A

2006-06-01

11

Analyzing Tabular and State-Transition Requirements Specifications in PVS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe PVS's capabilities for representing tabular specifications of the kind advocated by Parnas and others, and show how PVS's Type Correctness Conditions (TCCs) are used to ensure certain well-formedness properties. We then show how these and other capabilities of PVS can be used to represent the AND/OR tables of Leveson and the Decision Tables of Sherry, and we demonstrate how PVS's TCCs can expose and help isolate errors in the latter. We extend this approach to represent the mode transition tables of the Software Cost Reduction (SCR) method in an attractive manner. We show how PVS can check these tables for well-formedness, and how PVS's model checking capabilities can be used to verify invariants and reachability properties of SCR requirements specifications, and inclusion relations between the behaviors of different specifications. These examples demonstrate how several capabilities of the PVS language and verification system can be used in combination to provide customized support for specific methodologies for documenting and analyzing requirements. Because they use only the standard capabilities of PVS, users can adapt and extend these customizations to suit their own needs. Those developing dedicated tools for individual methodologies may find these constructions in PVS helpful for prototyping purposes, or as a useful adjunct to a dedicated tool when the capabilities of a full theorem prover are required. The examples also illustrate the power and utility of an integrated general-purpose system such as PVS. For example, there was no need to adapt or extend the PVS model checker to make it work with SCR specifications described using the PVS TABLE construct: the model checker is applicable to any transition relation, independently of the PVS language constructs used in its definition.

Owre, Sam; Rushby, John; Shankar, Natarajan

1997-01-01

12

A quantitative model of ground-water flow during formation of tabular sandstone uranium deposits

Tabular sandstone uranium deposits constitute the largest uranium resource type in the United States. A major point of contention has been the nature and direction of the groundwater flow. This paper presents a quantitative simulation of regional ground-water flow during uranium deposition in the Westwater Canyon Member and Jackpile Sandstone Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San

Sanford

2009-01-01

13

Ontology patterns for tabular representations of biomedical knowledge on neglected tropical diseases

Motivation: Ontology-like domain knowledge is frequently published in a tabular format embedded in scientific publications. We explore the re-use of such tabular content in the process of building NTDO, an ontology of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), where the representation of the interdependencies between hosts, pathogens and vectors plays a crucial role. Results: As a proof of concept we analyzed a tabular compilation of knowledge about pathogens, vectors and geographic locations involved in the transmission of NTDs. After a thorough ontological analysis of the domain of interest, we formulated a comprehensive design pattern, rooted in the biomedical domain upper level ontology BioTop. This pattern was implemented in a VBA script which takes cell contents of an Excel spreadsheet and transforms them into OWL-DL. After minor manual post-processing, the correctness and completeness of the ontology was tested using pre-formulated competence questions as description logics (DL) queries. The expected results could be reproduced by the ontology. The proposed approach is recommended for optimizing the acquisition of ontological domain knowledge from tabular representations. Availability and implementation: Domain examples, source code and ontology are freely available on the web at http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~ntdo. Contact: fss3@cin.ufpe.br PMID:21685092

Santana, Filipe; Schober, Daniel; Medeiros, Zulma; Freitas, Fred; Schulz, Stefan

2011-01-01

14

Tabular iceberg collisions within the coastal regime Douglas R. MACAYEAL,1

Tabular iceberg collisions within the coastal regime Douglas R. MACAYEAL,1 Marianne H. OKAL,1Cone Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-4740, USA ABSTRACT. During 2000Â07, five giant icebergs (B15A, B15J, B-coastal environment. The measurements show that collision processes can strongly influence iceberg behavior and delay

Boyce, C. Kevin

15

Tracking large tabular icebergs using the SeaWinds Ku-band microwave scatterometer

Tracking large tabular icebergs using the SeaWinds Ku-band microwave scatterometer K.M. Stuart Ã?, D Resolution enhancement Icebergs Sea ice NSF Antarctic cruise a b s t r a c t Knowledge of iceberg locations icebergs scatter microwave energy more than sea ice and sea water, icebergs are detected as high

Long, David G.

16

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate spectral signature classification is key to the nonimaging detection and recognition of spaceborne objects. In classical hyperspectral recognition applications, signature classification accuracy depends on accurate spectral endmember determination [1]. However, in selected target recognition (ATR) applications, it is possible to circumvent the endmember detection problem by employing a Bayesian classifier. Previous approaches to Bayesian classification of spectral signatures have been rule- based, or predicated on a priori parameterized information obtained from offline training, as in the case of neural networks [1,2]. Unfortunately, class separation and classifier refinement results in these methods tends to be suboptimal, and the number of signatures that can be accurately classified often depends linearly on the number of inputs. This can lead to potentially significant classification errors in the presence of noise or densely interleaved signatures. In this paper, we present an emerging technology for nonimaging spectral signature classfication based on a highly accurate but computationally efficient search engine called Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding (TNE) [3]. Based on prior results, TNE can optimize its classifier performance to track input nonergodicities, as well as yield measures of confidence or caution for evaluation of classification results. Unlike neural networks, TNE does not have a hidden intermediate data structure (e.g., the neural net weight matrix). Instead, TNE generates and exploits a user-accessible data structure called the agreement map (AM), which can be manipulated by Boolean logic operations to effect accurate classifier refinement algorithms. This allows the TNE programmer or user to determine parameters for classification accuracy, and to mathematically analyze the signatures for which TNE did not obtain classification matches. This dual approach to analysis (i.e., correct vs. incorrect classification) has been shown to significantly strengthen analysis of classifier performance in support of classifier optimization. We show that AM-based classification can be modified to include dynamic tracking of input statistical changes, to achieve accurate signature classification in the presence of noise, closely spaced or interleaved signatures, and simulated optical distortions. In particular, we examine two critical cases: (1) classification of multiple closely spaced signatures that are difficult to separate using distance measures, and (2) classification of materials in simulated hyperspectral images of spaceborne satellites. In each case, test data are derived from a NASA database of space material signatures. Additional analysis pertains to computational complexity and noise sensitivity, which are superior to Bayesian techniques based on classical neural networks.

Schmalz, M.; Key, G.

17

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate spectral signature classification is a crucial step in the nonimaging detection and recognition of spaceborne objects. In classical hyperspectral recognition applications, especially where linear mixing models are employed, signature classification accuracy depends on accurate spectral endmember discrimination. In selected target recognition (ATR) applications, previous non-adaptive techniques for signature classification have yielded class separation and classifier refinement results that tend to be suboptimal. In practice, the number of signatures accurately classified often depends linearly on the number of inputs. This can lead to potentially severe classification errors in the presence of noise or densely interleaved signatures. In this paper, we present an enhancement of an emerging technology for nonimaging spectral signature classification based on a highly accurate, efficient search engine called Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding (TNE). Adaptive TNE can optimize its classifier performance to track input nonergodicities and yield measures of confidence or caution for evaluation of classification results. Unlike neural networks, TNE does not have a hidden intermediate data structure (e.g., a neural net weight matrix). Instead, TNE generates and exploits a user-accessible data structure called the agreement map (AM), which can be manipulated by Boolean logic operations to effect accurate classifier refinement through programmable algorithms. The open architecture and programmability of TNE's pattern-space (AM) processing allows a TNE developer to determine the qualitative and quantitative reasons for classification accuracy, as well as characterize in detail the signatures for which TNE does not obtain classification matches, and why such mis-matches occur. In this study AM-based classification has been modified to partially compensate for input statistical changes, in response to performance metrics such as probability of correct classification (Pd) and rate of false detections (Rfa). Adaptive TNE can thus achieve accurate signature classification in the presence of time-varying noise, closely spaced or interleaved signatures, and imaging system optical distortions. We analyze classification accuracy of closely spaced spectral signatures adapted from a NASA database of space material signatures. Additional analysis pertains to computational complexity and noise sensitivity, which are superior to non-adaptive TNE or Bayesian techniques based on classical neural networks.

Schmalz, M.; Key, G.

18

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains a tabular report of the competency identification of job task analysis component (Part Two) of the research project entitled "Agribusiness and Natural Resources Education in Michigan: Employment Demand, Competencies Required, and Recommended Delivery Systems." The data is a tabular supplement to Chapter III of the final…

Thuemmel, William L.; And Others

19

Automated recognition and extraction of tabular fields for the indexing of census records

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a system for indexing of census records in tabular documents with the goal of recognizing the content of each cell, including both headers and handwritten entries. Each document is automatically rectified, registered and scaled to a known template following which lines and fields are detected and delimited as cells in a tabular form. Whole-word or whole-phrase recognition of noisy machine-printed text is performed using a glyph library, providing greatly increased efficiency and accuracy (approaching 100%), while avoiding the problems inherent with traditional OCR approaches. Constrained handwriting recognition results for a single author reach as high as 98% and 94.5% for the Gender field and Birthplace respectively. Multi-author accuracy (currently 82%) can be improved through an increased training set. Active integration of user feedback in the system will accelerate the indexing of records while providing a tightly coupled learning mechanism for system improvement.

Clawson, Robert; Bauer, Kevin; Chidester, Glen; Pohontsch, Milan; Kennard, Douglas; Ryu, Jongha; Barrett, William

2013-01-01

20

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and computationally efficient spectral signature classification is a crucial step in the nonimaging detection and recognition of spaceborne objects. In classical hyperspectral recognition applications using linear mixing models, signature classification accuracy depends on accurate spectral endmember discrimination [1]. If the endmembers cannot be classified correctly, then the signatures cannot be classified correctly, and object recognition from hyperspectral data will be inaccurate. In practice, the number of endmembers accurately classified often depends linearly on the number of inputs. This can lead to potentially severe classification errors in the presence of noise or densely interleaved signatures. In this paper, we present an comparison of emerging technologies for nonimaging spectral signature classfication based on a highly accurate, efficient search engine called Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding (TNE) [3,4] and a neural network technology called Morphological Neural Networks (MNNs) [5]. Based on prior results, TNE can optimize its classifier performance to track input nonergodicities, as well as yield measures of confidence or caution for evaluation of classification results. Unlike neural networks, TNE does not have a hidden intermediate data structure (e.g., the neural net weight matrix). Instead, TNE generates and exploits a user-accessible data structure called the agreement map (AM), which can be manipulated by Boolean logic operations to effect accurate classifier refinement algorithms. The open architecture and programmability of TNE's agreement map processing allows a TNE programmer or user to determine classification accuracy, as well as characterize in detail the signatures for which TNE did not obtain classification matches, and why such mis-matches occurred. In this study, we will compare TNE and MNN based endmember classification, using performance metrics such as probability of correct classification (Pd) and rate of false detections (Rfa). As proof of principle, we analyze classification of multiple closely spaced signatures from a NASA database of space material signatures. Additional analysis pertains to computational complexity and noise sensitivity, which are superior to Bayesian techniques based on classical neural networks. [1] Winter, M.E. "Fast autonomous spectral end-member determination in hyperspectral data," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference On Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 337-44 (1999). [2] N. Keshava, "A survey of spectral unmixing algorithms," Lincoln Laboratory Journal 14:55-78 (2003). [3] Key, G., M.S. SCHMALZ, F.M. Caimi, and G.X. Ritter. "Performance analysis of tabular nearest neighbor encoding algorithm for joint compression and ATR", in Proceedings SPIE 3814:115-126 (1999). [4] Schmalz, M.S. and G. Key. "Algorithms for hyperspectral signature classification in unresolved object detection using tabular nearest neighbor encoding" in Proceedings of the 2007 AMOS Conference, Maui HI (2007). [5] Ritter, G.X., G. Urcid, and M.S. Schmalz. "Autonomous single-pass endmember approximation using lattice auto-associative memories", Neurocomputing (Elsevier), accepted (June 2008).

Schmalz, M.; Ritter, G.; Key, R.

21

Hydrogeologic modeling shows that tabular-type uranium deposits in the grants uranium region of the San Juan basin, New Mexico, formed in zones of ascending and discharging regional ground-water flow. The association of either lacustrine mudstone or actively subsiding structures and uranium deposits can best be explained by the occurrence of lakes at topographic depressions where ground water having different sources and compositions is likely to converge, mix, and discharge. Ascending and discharging flow also explains the association of uranium deposits with underlying evaporites and suggests a brine interface. The simulations contradict previous suggestions that ground water moved downward in the mudflat.

Sanford, R.F. (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-11-01

22

Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 {mu}m, some even more than 100 {mu}m, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)

Liu Suwen [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, 620 Parrignton Oval, Room 208, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Wehmschulte, Rudolf J. [Department of Chemistry, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)]. E-mail: rwehmsch@fit.edu; Lian Guoda [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, 620 Parrignton Oval, Room 208, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Burba, Christopher M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, 620 Parrignton Oval, Room 208, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

2006-03-15

23

Formation of tabular single-domain magnetite induced by Geobacter metallireducens GS-15

Distinct morphological characteristics of magnetite formed intracellularly by magnetic bacteria (magnetosome) are invoked as compelling evidence for biological activity on Earth and possibly on Mars. Crystals of magnetite produced extracellularly by a variety of bacteria including Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, thermophilic bacteria, and psychrotolerant bacteria are, however, traditionally not thought to have nearly as distinct morphologies. The size and shape of extracellular magnetite depend on the culture conditions and type of bacteria. Under typical CO2-rich culture conditions, GS-15 is known to produce superparamagnetic magnetite (crystal diameters of approximately <30 nm). In the current study, we were able to produce a unique form of tabular, single-domain magnetite under nontraditional (low-CO2) culture conditions. This magnetite has a distinct crystal habit and magnetic properties. This magnetite could be used as a biosignature to recognize ancient biological activities in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments and also may be a major carrier of the magnetization in natural sediments. PMID:15525704

Vali, Hojatollah; Weiss, Benjamin; Li, Yi-Liang; Sears, S. Kelly; Kim, Soon Sam; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

2004-01-01

24

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.

Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.

2002-01-01

25

CAP: A Computer Code for Generating Tabular Thermodynamic Functions from NASA Lewis Coefficients

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.

Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.

2001-01-01

26

A quantitative model of ground-water flow during formation of tabular sandstone uranium deposits

Presents a quantitative simulation of regional groundwater flow during uranium deposition in the Westwater Canyon Member and Jackpile Sandstone Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin. Topographic slope, shoreline position, and density contrasts in the lake and pore fluids controlled the directions of flow and recharge-discharge areas. The most important results for uranium ore deposit formation are that regional groundwater discharged throughout the basin, regional discharge was concentrated along the shore line or playa margin, flow was dominantly gravity driven, and compaction dewatering was negligible. A strong association is found between the tabular sandstone uranium deposits and major inferred zones of mixed local and regional groundwater discharge. -from Author

Sanford, R.F.

1994-01-01

27

Tabular water properties interface for Hydra-TH : CASL THM.CFD.P6.03 milestone report.

Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P6.03 provides a tabular material properties capability to the Hydra code. A tabular interpolation package used in Sandia codes was modified to support the needs of multi-phase solvers in Hydra. Use of the interface is described. The package was released to Hydra under a government use license. A dummy physics was created in Hydra to prototype use of the interpolation routines. Finally, a test using the dummy physics verifies the correct behavior of the interpolation for a test water table. 3

Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Noel

2013-04-01

28

We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visual- ization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focal areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most

Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card

1994-01-01

29

Effects of Rigid Body Collisions and Tide-Forced Drift on Large Tabular Icebergs of the Antarctic

1 Effects of Rigid Body Collisions and Tide-Forced Drift on Large Tabular Icebergs of the Antarctic ICEBERGS #12;2 Abstract. Following the calving of an iceberg from an ice shelf, many collisions between the new iceberg and the remaining shelf can occur as the iceberg responds to time-varying oceanic

Macayeal, Douglas R.

30

Tabular (massive) ground ice in periglacial areas of the Russian Arctic (Barents and Kara Sea coasts) is considered to be a remnant of past glacial epochs and is thus used as proof of the glacial extent. In this paper, we argue that the origin of these tabular ice bodies, which can be used as archives of specific climatic conditions and

M. O. Leibman; S. M. Arkhipov; D. D. Perednya; A. S. Savvichev; B. G. Vanshtein; H. W. Hubberten

2005-01-01

31

Calcium-doped ceria/titanate tabular functional nanocomposite by layer-by-layer coating method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ca-doped ceria (CDC)/tabular titanate (K 0.8Li 0.27Ti 1.73O 4, TT) UV-shielding functional nanocomposite with fairly uniform CDC coating layers was prepared through a polyelectrolyte-associated layer-by-layer (LbL) coating method. TT with lepidocrocite-like layered structure was used as the substrate, poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used as a coupling agent, CDC nanoparticles were used as the main UV-shielding component. CDC/TT nanocomposites with various coating layers of CDC were obtained through a multistep coating process. The phases were studied by X-ray diffraction. The morphology and coating quality were studied by scanning electron microscopy and element mapping of energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The oxidation catalytic activity, UV-shielding ability and using comfort were characterized by Rancimat test, UV-vis spectra and dynamic friction test, respectively. CDC/TT nanocomposites with low oxidation catalytic activity, high UV-shielding ability and good using comfort were finally obtained.

W. Liu, Xiang; Devaraju, M. K.; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

2010-07-01

32

Genesis of the tabular-type vanadium-uranium deposits of the Henry Basin, Utah

Tabular-type vanadium-uranium deposits occur in fluvial sandstones of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age The mineralized intervals and the weakly mineralized lateral extensions are bounded both above and below by zones rich in dolomite cement. Carbon isotope values of dolomite cements indicate that at least two sources of carbon existed. One source appears to be the same as that which formed the bedded carbonates in the evaporites in the Tidwell Member of the Morrison Formation stratigraphically below the mineralized interval. The second carbon source is typical of terrestrially deposited carbonates generally associated with meteoric water-dominated environments. Oxygen isotope values of these dolomites show the same trend of isotopically light values above the mineralized interval and isotopically heavier values in and below that interval; they indicate that two isotopically distinct fluids were involved in the mineralizing process. Some aspects of the origin of gangue and ore phases are explainable on the basis of processes which occurred solely within the saline fluid, but key aspects of ore genesis involved the interaction of the saline and meteoric waters. It is postulated that the solution interface migrated vertically within the stratigraphic section. -from Authors

Northrop, H.R.; Goldhaber, M.B.

1990-01-01

33

XML/VOTable and Simple ASCII Tabular Output from NED with Sample Applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) provides data and cross-identifications for over 8 million objects fused from thousands of survey catalogs and journal articles. The data cover all frequencies from radio through gamma rays and include positions, redshifts, photometry and spectral energy distributions (SEDs), sizes, and images. NED services have traditionally supplied data in HTML format for connections from Web browsers, and a custom ASCII data structure for connections by remote computer programs written in C. We demonstrate new services that provide responses from NED queries in XML documents compliant with the international virtual observatory VOTable protocol, as well as simple tab-separated or comma-separated values (CSV). The NED services that support the new tabular output include By Name, Near Name and Near Position (cone searches), All-Sky searches based on object parameters (survey names, cross-IDs, redshifts, flux densities), and queries for images, photometry/SEDs, redshifts, positions, and diameters. The VOTable services have been integrated into the NVO registry, and they are also available directly from NED's Web interface (http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu). This development greatly simplifies the integration of data from NED into visualization and analysis packages, scripts, and other applications. We illustrate an example of importing a NED SED into Excel, as well as plotting and comparing SEDs using the VOPlot Java applet. NED is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The XML/VOTable portion of this work was funded by the US National Virtual Observatory, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. We also acknowledge assistance from the NVO Technical Working Group.

Schmitz, M.; Pevunova, O.; Mazzarella, J.; Good, J.; Berriman, B.; Madore, B.; NED Team

2005-12-01

34

This document consists solely of data acquired during phase 2 of the integrated demonstration project concerning in situ bioremediation performed at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The data is presented in tabular form.

Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-09-01

35

Barometric effects on tabular iceberg drift in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inverse Barometer Effect (IBE) was observed in the nineteenth century by Sir James Clark Ross (Ross, 1854a), as deviations in sea-surface elevation in response to deviations in atmospheric pressure. This effect embodies the inverse relationship between sea-surface height (relative to long-term mean sea level) and atmospheric surface pressure. This thesis addresses the hypothesis that icebergs in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica are influenced by the same forces that create the IBE. This hypothesis is motivated by studies of icebergs in the Ross Sea, where drift data suggest that icebergs are drawn into temporary holding zones, or "Iceberg Parking Lots" situated where the surface pressure tends to display persistent, annual average low pressure. A physical explanation for the IBE's influence on icebergs is that they are often able to travel up the sea-surface slope induced by the IBE below atmospheric lows against the gravitational pull because of the pressure gradient force of the atmosphere acting on the iceberg's freeboard (the part of the iceberg that is above the waterline). Here, I evaluate the validity of the hypothesized IBE-iceberg relationship using a combined approach of data analysis and modeling. I have examined atmospheric surface pressure and wind records taken directly from the surfaces of four Ross Sea icebergs---B15A, B15K, C16, and B15J, and I have also built, and experimented with, models that predict iceberg drift response to atmospheric surface pressure and surface winds, using observed pressures and winds from B15A and B15J as model forcing. I additionally performed various experiments on a large, idealized tabular iceberg's physical sensitivity to the IBE using a model that treats atmospheric pressure and winds in an idealized, theoretical manner. I discovered that the IBE is indeed a significant influence on iceberg drift in and around Lewis Bay, just to the north of Ross Island, which will further our understanding of these icebergs' trajectories. While I do not believe that the IBE-iceberg relationship is universally so pronounced as it is in Lewis Bay, and may not necessarily be responsible for all other places where icebergs tend to collect for long periods, it should be considered in any iceberg drift models that deal with regions having strong and persistent pressure gradients. In the Ross Sea, the pressure gradient toward Ross Island can be the overwhelming force on icebergs drifting just to the north of it, until another force such as the ocean current is able to exert itself more strongly.

Turnbull, Ian D.

36

Tabular Iceberg Evolution and Break-up at Low Latitude: Imitating Ice Shelves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years, a series of large icebergs have calved from the Ronne Ice Shelf front and drifted northward, first along the Antarctic Peninsula east coast, and later across the Scotia Sea towards South Georgia Island. The bergs broke up or disintegrated within a year of reaching the island. Observations of the icebergs using MODIS, ICESat, and QuikScat have revealed details of their evolution and break-up patterns. ICESat elevation profiles of tabular iceberg margins and the Ronne Ice Shelf edge reveal shapes indicative of two types of bending forces. Icebergs and shelf fronts in sea-ice-covered areas have broad (~1000m wide), rounded, ~0.6m high `berms' and outer edges that slope down several meters toward the water. Bergs in warmer water have 2 to 5m `ramparts' with ~1500m wide edge-parallel `moats' inboard of the edge. This latter pattern was first revealed in images from International Space Station (ISS) showing edge-parallel melt ponds on one iceberg just prior to its disintegration. Model results indicate the patterns are caused by hydrostatic and lithostatic forces acting on the ice face. "Berm' profiles arise from differences between ice and water pressure along the face. `Rampart-moat' profiles result from waterline erosion, creating a submerged bench of ice that lifts the ice edge. In cold (sea-ice covered) water, icebergs evolve slowly, with infrequent calving of large blocks, usually along pre-existing fractures. In warmer water north of the ice edge, bergs show more frequent edge-parallel calvings ('edge-wasting') in which berg shape is little changed, but berg area gradually decreases. Scatterometry observations of the icebergs indicate the berg firn undergoes significant evolution during northward drift, due to melt and melt percolation. The pattern of winter backscatter change for icebergs (over time) is similar to the variations of ice shelf backscatter with melt frequency (over space, i.e. latitude). This supports the hypothesis that winter backscatter versus melt season length (or degree days) may be used as an indicator of ice shelf `pre-conditioning' for a Larsen A- or B- style disintegration. A field expedition to establish automated sensors for weather, ice thickness, melt, firn temperature, and a digital camera with uplink, is planned for February 2006.

Scambos, T.; Sergienko, O.; Sargent, A.; Macayeal, D.; Fastook, J.; Long, D.

2005-12-01

37

LIMAT: a computer program for least-squares inversion of magnetic anomalies over long tabular bodies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A popular method for the inversion of magnetic anomalies in total vertical or horizontal field over thin sheet thick dike and vertical fault is presented. The magnetic anomaly over thin sheet may be expressed as a polynomial of the form FX2+ C1FX+ C2F+ C3X3+ C4X2+ C5X+ C6 The initial parameters of the source are obtained from the coefficients C1,C2,…, C6 by inverting a 6×6 matrix. The thick dike and the vertical fault are an ensemble of thin sheets. So the same initial solution obtained for the thin sheet model can be used for the thick dike and the vertical fault. Besides, in this method the computer calculates the initial solution by using all the discrete magnetic anomaly values and the corresponding distances as an input. The initial solution thus obtained is modified in an iterative process using non-linear least-squares regression by employing Marquardt's algorithm. The regional value that is subjective in manual interpretation is also adjusted in this method to obtain a close fit. A computer program in FORTRAN 77 is presented and used to interpret synthetic and practical data and the efficacy of the results are discussed.

Raju, D. Ch. Venkata

2003-02-01

38

Martin et al., Iceberg Interactions at Cape Adare 1 Kinematic and Seismic Analysis of Giant Tabular Iceberg Breakup at Cape Adare, Antarctica Seelye Martin1 , Robert Drucker1 , Richard Aster2 , Fred Davey3 60637, USA Short Title: Iceberg Interactions at Cape Adare POST-REVIEW REVISION Thursday, 21 January

Boyce, C. Kevin

39

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Medical Matrix is a Web resource that offers a database of Internet clinical medicine resources. Medical Matrix categorizes resources by disease, specialty, and other interest areas. It is designed as a "home page" for a physician's or healthworker's computer. Medical Matrix is a project of the Internet Working Group of the American Medical Informatics Association.

40

Based on the results of ORIGEN2 and a newly developed code called ORMANG, graphical and summary tabular characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel assembly structural material (cladding) waste are presented for a generic pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The characteristics include radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity (water dilution volume). Given are graphs and summary tables containing characteristic totals and the principal nuclide contributors as well as graphs comparing the three reactors for a single material and the three materials for a single reactor.

Croff, A.G.; Liberman, M.S.; Morrison, G.W.

1982-01-01

41

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lewis Blake and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to experiment with matrix operations, espcially multiplication, inversion, and determinants, and to explore applications to solving systems of linear equations. In the process of studying these matrix operations, we will learn how to use a helper application to carry out matrix computations. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Blake, Lewis

42

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tabular Middle Atlas (TMA) is an important fractured karstic reservoir in northern Morocco constituted by Liassic limestones and dolomites with a nearly sub-horizontal attitude, overlying basalts, shales and evaporates of Triassic age, as well as Paleozoic anchi-metamorphic schists. The zone is characterised by relative abundant rainfall (700 mm/y) and the absence of a surface watershed, which lead to an important groundwater reservoir hosted in the karstic (k-) aquifer. TMA is bordered to the North by extensive graben-like, normal, northward, fault-systems, which burden the Karstic formations under Plio-quaternary sediments at the Sais Basin border. At this limit, several important springs of high water-quality occur at the northernmost outcropping Lias limestone, which is overlaid in some areas by quaternary travertines. Two of these springs in particular, Bittit and Ribaa springs, provide almost drinking water for the town of Meknes (0.7 Million inhabitants), for local population and agriculture. These springs experienced a significant drop in water flow-rate in the last decades. Although the main origin of this water is certainly the k-aquifer, the drop in water-table raises several questions regarding the modality of water transport (influence of fractured and karstic systems in particular) and the possible participations of other groundwater reservoirs, which may deteriorate the high water-quality. A recent study has been carried out to shed some light on these questions, by using geochemical methods (K, Mg, Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ba, Sr, As, Sb, Hg, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Cl, Br, delta18-O, deltaD, Rn, EC, O2, pH, Eh, Temp). Constraints on the groundwater flow-path have been obtained by using a radon- hydrochemical- isotopic characterisation of spring waters. Here we report the results of the first geochemical sample collection (November 09). Several springs in the TMA yield Mg-Ca HCO3 rich water equilibrated with limestone and dolomite, having a very similar Rn activity of 3000 Bq/m3, unrelated to spring altitude. Similar radon activity is also found in a deep well in the Lias-confined aquifer of the Sais Basin and is hence considered to be the steady state activity in k-aquifer. Other springs situated at lower altitude yield more mineralised water (EC = 1200 uS/cm), richer in Na, K, Cl and Rn (15000 Bq/m3). These waters partially interacted with a non-karstic aquifer, most probably the deeper underlying Paleozoic schists (p-aquifer), as suggested by hydro chemical similarity with a water sample collected from a well in these shists. Since such water springs-out of Liassic carbonates, the measured Rn activity probably differs from the equilibrium activity achieved in the underlying p-aquifer, depending on the transit time from p-aquifer and the radon half-life (3.8 days). Furthermore, three other springs have hydrochemical characteristics intermediate between p- and k-aquifers, suggesting that a binary mixing of these waters occurred, either in the k- or in the p- aquifer. In principle, if the groundwater mixing occurred in k-aquifer, unsupported Rn activity would be lower than the activity expected from the binary mixing because of the time elapsed since the mixing occurred. The data show on the contrary that the mixed water has Rn activity higher than the expected activity calculated from the mixing. This suggests that groundwater mixing occurred in the p-aquifer. The excess of radon relatively to the expected activity calculated after the mixing, is interpreted to result from Rn radioactive ingrowth during the residence time in the p-aquifer, followed by radon decay occurred during uplift from p-aquifer to the spring in the Liassic carbonates. With this simple model, the measured Rn excess constraints the total time elapsed since the beginning of interaction with the p-aquifer on a time scale of 2 weeks. Remote sensed imaging of the area evidences that these "mixed" springs lies on important tectonic alignments, which suggest that fractures system could play a role in the fast upwelling of groundwater.

Mayer, Adriano; Rouai, Mohammed; Saracco, Ginette; Dekayir, Abdelilak; Miche, Héléne

2010-05-01

43

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to experiment with matrix addition, subtraction, and (mostly) multiplication; to see that many familiar arithmetic properties of real numbers carry over to matrices.

Smith, David

2002-01-08

44

The most common cause of failure of retinal reattachment surgery is formation of fibrocellular contractile membranes on both surfaces of the neuroretina. This intraocular fibrosis, known as proliferative vitreoretinopathy, results in a blinding tractional retinal detachment because of the contractile nature of the membrane. Contractility is a cell-mediated event that is thought to be dependent on locomotion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix can be influenced by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and we investigated the role of MMPs in two in vitro models (two- and three-dimensional) of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell-mediated contraction. MMP activity was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and zymography techniques that revealed MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 positivity during the collagen matrix contraction assays. RPE-populated collagen matrix contraction (three-dimensional) was inhibited using a cocktail of anti-MMP antibodies and with Galardin (a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor). Galardin inhibition was dose-dependent, reversible, and dependent on cell number. MMP inhibitors had no effect on contraction when RPEs were seeded on two-dimensional collagen matrices or on cellular adhesion to collagen type I. Our results suggest that MMP activity may be required for three-dimensional but not two-dimensional RPE-collagen matrix contraction. PMID:11583981

Sheridan, Carl M.; Occleston, Nick L.; Hiscott, Paul; Kon, Chee H.; Khaw, Peng T.; Grierson, Ian

2001-01-01

45

This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

2006-01-01

46

This paper brings up to date with new results a matrix trigonometry which I originated about twenty-five years ago. In particular, a new view of the construction and nature of antieigenvectors implicit within a minmax theorem is presented, new results showing that both antieigenvectors and eigenvectors satisfy the nonlinear Euler equation are given, and new implications for a combinatorial higher

Karl Gustafson

1995-01-01

47

The NOAA Tide Predictions application provides predictions in both graphical and tabular formats. Station Types: The NOAA Tide Predictions application provides predictions from 2 distinct categories by combining the harmonic constituents into a single tide curve. Subordinate - The high and low height values

48

MatrixDB (http://matrixdb.ibcp.fr) is a freely available database focused on interactions established by extracellular proteins and polysaccharides. It is an active member of the International Molecular Exchange (IMEx) consortium and has adopted the PSI-MI standards for annotating and exchanging interaction data, either at the MIMIx or IMEx level. MatrixDB content has been updated by curation and by importing extracellular interaction data from other IMEx databases. Other major changes include the creation of a new website and the development of a novel graphical navigator, iNavigator, to build and expand interaction networks. Filters may be applied to build sub-networks based on a list of biomolecules, a specified interaction detection method and/or an expression level by tissue, developmental stage, and health state (UniGene data). Any molecule of the network may be selected and its partners added to the network at any time. Networks may be exported under Cytoscape and tabular formats and as images, and may be saved for subsequent re-use. PMID:25378329

Launay, G; Salza, R; Multedo, D; Thierry-Mieg, N; Ricard-Blum, S

2015-01-28

49

Tabular Privacyy Preserving Publishingg g

Sleepless John 25 610031 Government Back pain Jennifer 30 610025 Lawyer HIV Jennifer #12;How to protect data Disease A01 32 610500 Teacher Sleepless A02 25 610031 Government Back pain A03 30 610025 L HIVA03 30 610031 Government Back pain A03 30 610025 Lawyer HIV #12;PPDP EncryptionPPDP Encryption Name Age Zip Code

Zhang, Jun

50

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed zircon and apatite U-Pb dating and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of actinolite have been carried out on the Carmen-Sierra Aspera Kiruna type magnetite-apatite and iron oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) district in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile (˜26°S). They define a precise succession of magmatic and hydrothermal events associated with early Cretaceous Andean magmatism. Apatite and magnetite from a magnetite-apatite tabular body with intergrowth texture in the Carmen deposit yield a total Pb-U isochron age of 131.0 ± 1.0 Ma. This result is the first direct dating of magnetite-apatite mineralization in an early Andean deposit, and the age coincides with zircon ages of a quartz diorite stock that partially hosts mineralization (130.6 ± 0.3 Ma). Magnetite from the studied tabular body contains only small amounts of radiogenic Pb and serves to constrain the initial common Pb isotopic composition. The high degree of correlation suggests that both minerals closed for Pb diffusion at essentially the same time and at a relatively high temperature (close to that of zircon), making the apatite-magnetite pair a reliable geochronometer for igneous or hydrothermal crystallization. Zircon from the Sierra Aspera composite pluton yields ages between 131.3 ± 0.3 Ma and 127.4 ± 0.1 Ma, clearly resolving the timing of intrusion of discrete intrusive phases. Actinolite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages partially overlap the ages of plutonic phases of the Sierra Aspera pluton, but are younger than the magnetite-apatite tabular body. The initial Pb isotopic composition of the melts and/or fluids from which the magnetite-apatite tabular bodies crystallized is very similar to the primitive Pb isotopic composition of granitic magmas associated with early Cretaceous plutons measured in K-feldspar. The Pb isotopic correspondence, combined with the temporal and spatial association between magnetite-apatite mineralization and the dioritic-quartz dioritic magmatism, strongly suggests a genetic relationship between early Cretaceous continental arc magmatism, massive magnetite-apatite deposits, and IOCG mineralization.

Gelcich, Sergio; Davis, Donald W.; Spooner, Edward T. C.

2005-07-01

51

A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

1996-01-01

52

A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1996-12-03

53

Matrix differentiation formulas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact differentiation technique (without using indexes) is developed for scalar functions that depend on complex matrix arguments which are combined by operations of complex conjugation, transposition, addition, multiplication, matrix inversion and taking the direct product. The differentiation apparatus is developed in order to simplify the solution of extremum problems of scalar functions of matrix arguments.

Usikov, D. A.; Tkhabisimov, D. K.

1983-01-01

54

Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

Ahmad, Faiz

2011-01-01

55

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fire Model Matrix is an on-line resource that presents four fire community models in a matrix that facilitates the exploration of the characteristics of each model. As part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course, this matrix is meant to sensitize forecasters to the use of weather data in these fire models to forecast potential fire activity.

2014-09-14

56

The iterative method of Sinkhorn allows, starting from an arbitrary real matrix with non-negative entries, to find a so-called 'scaled matrix' which is doubly stochastic, i.e. a matrix with all entries in the interval (0, 1) and with all line sums equal to 1. We conjecture that a similar procedure exists, which allows, starting from an arbitrary unitary matrix, to find a scaled matrix which is unitary and has all line sums equal to 1. The existence of such algorithm guarantees a powerful decomposition of an arbitrary quantum circuit.

Alexis De Vos; Stijn De Baerdemacker

2015-02-06

57

Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

Parce, J. Wallace (Palo Alto, CA); Bernatis, Paul (Sunnyvale, CA); Dubrow, Robert (San Carlos, CA); Freeman, William P. (San Mateo, CA); Gamoras, Joel (Vallejo, CA); Kan, Shihai (San Jose, CA); Meisel, Andreas (Redwood City, CA); Qian, Baixin (Sunnyvale, CA); Whiteford, Jeffery A. (Belmont, CA); Ziebarth, Jonathan (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-01-12

58

This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

2013-01-01

59

This chapter describes data used in support of the assessment process. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the portable document format (.pdf) files of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

2007-01-01

60

Matrix metalloproteinases and atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a major cause of coronary heart disease, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in\\u000a atherosclerosis by degrading the extracellular matrix, which results in cardiovascular remodeling. Recent studies have identified\\u000a enhanced expression of MMPs in the atherosclerotic lesion and their contribution to weakening of the vascular wall by degrading\\u000a the extracellular matrix. The transcription, enzyme processing, and

Noboru Watanabe; Uichi Ikeda

2004-01-01

61

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Matrix Market website, provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, is "a visual repository of test data for use in comparative studies of algorithms for numerical linear algebra." The repository includes about 500 sparse matrices from a variety of applications, along with matrix generation tools and services. Visitors can scan the top ten or browse the repository by collection, matrix name, or generator name. Search categories include: by matrix properties, by application area, by contributor, and in bibliography. Tools for browsing through the collection are also included. The Welcome page provides additional information on the project, as well as a few reports and technical presentations.

62

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the Weak Mixing Matrix, ( *20c Uud & Uus & Uub Ucd & Ucs & Ucb Utd & Uts & Utb ) , is not equal to the product of rotations, and in particular, it is not equal to the KM, or the PDG Matrices. At most, we may find an approximating matrix for the Weak Mixing Matrix that is based on the rotation matrices. We show that one such approximating matrix for the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix is ( *20c ?C?C^3 & ?C?C^3 & ^3 ?C?C^2 - ?C?C^2 & ?C?C^2 & ^2 ?C - ?C^3 ?C & - ?C?C^3 ^2 ?C & ?C^2 ?C^3 ), where ?C is the Cabbibo angle. The approximating matrix depends on ?C alone, and predicts the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix to a high degree of accuracy. We establish, with a Chi-Squared Goodness-of- Fitness-Test, that our approximating matrix can be used with extremely high level of statistical confidence.

Dannon, Vic; Levine, Robert

2009-10-01

63

The Trigonometry of Matrix Statistics

A matrix trigonometry developed chiefly by this author during the past 40 years has interesting applications to certain situations in statistics. The key conceptual entity in this matrix trigonometry is the matrix (maximal) turning angle. Associated entities (originally so-named by this author) are the matrix antieigenvalues and corresponding antieigenvectors upon which the matrix obtains its critical turning angles. Because this

Karl Gustafson

2006-01-01

64

The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Plut, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

65

Mueller matrix differential decomposition.

We present a Mueller matrix decomposition based on the differential formulation of the Mueller calculus. The differential Mueller matrix is obtained from the macroscopic matrix through an eigenanalysis. It is subsequently resolved into the complete set of 16 differential matrices that correspond to the basic types of optical behavior for depolarizing anisotropic media. The method is successfully applied to the polarimetric analysis of several samples. The differential parameters enable one to perform an exhaustive characterization of anisotropy and depolarization. This decomposition is particularly appropriate for studying media in which several polarization effects take place simultaneously. PMID:21593943

Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Arce-Diego, José Luis

2011-05-15

66

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the course development purposes, we can order and describe classes of system interactions possible using a design matrix that identifies case examples that illustrate the relationships and interactions between ...

67

Matrix Multiplication with CUDA

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module teaches matrix multiplication in the context of enumerating paths in a graph and the basics of programming in CUDA. It emphasizes the power of using shared memory when programming on GPGPU architectures.

Hochberg, Rob

68

A new classical theory of gravitation within the framework of general relativity is presented. It is based on a matrix formulation of four-dimensional Riemann-spaces and uses no artificial fields or adjustable parameters. The geometrical stress-energy tensor is derived from a matrix-trace Lagrangian, which is not equivalent to the curvature scalar R. To enable a direct comparison with the Einstein-theory a tetrad formalism is utilized, which shows similarities to teleparallel gravitation theories, but uses complex tetrads. Matrix theory might solve a 27-year-old, fundamental problem of those theories (sec. 4.1). For the standard test cases (PPN scheme, Schwarzschild-solution) no differences to the Einstein-theory are found. However, the matrix theory exhibits novel, interesting vacuum solutions.

Wolfgang Koehler

2011-03-23

69

Learning with matrix factorizations

Matrices that can be factored into a product of two simpler matrices can serve as a useful and often natural model in the analysis of tabulated or high-dimensional data. Models based on matrix factorization (Factor Analysis, ...

Srebro, Nathan, 1974-

2004-01-01

70

Kidney Histo Kidney Histology Coding Rules – Matrix C649 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) Rule Pathology/Cytology Specimen Histology Behavior Notes and Examples Code SINGLE TUMOR H1 None or the pathology

71

The inverses of matrix factors lend themselves to parallel operations in the direct solution phase of sparse matrix solutions. These inverse factors, given suitable ordering of the equations, are themselves sparse, if less so than the original factors. Partitioning reduces the build-up of nonzero elements in the inverse factors. All of the multiplications required for repeat solutions may be performed in parallel using the inverse factors, with only as many serial steps as twice the number of factors.

Enns, M.K. (Electrocon International, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Tinney, W.F.; Alvarado, F.L. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

1990-05-01

72

Hybrid Matrix Geometric Algebra

\\u000a The structures of matrix algebra and geometric algebra are completely compatible and in many ways complimentary, each having\\u000a their own advantages and disadvantages. We present a detailed study of the hybrid 2 × 2 matrix geometric algebra M(2,IG) with elements in the 8 dimensional geometric algebra IG=IG\\u000a 3 of Euclidean space. The resulting hybrid structure, isomorphic to the geometric algebra

Garret Sobczyk; Gordon Erlebacher

2004-01-01

73

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module includes an interactive MCS Matrix of numerical simulations illustrating the physical processes controlling MCS evolution, as well as an archive of the entire Web module, Mesoscale Convective Systems: Squall Lines and Bow Echoes. Patterned after the CD Module A Convective Storm Matrix, the new MCS Matrix provides learners the opportunity for extensive exploration of the relationship between a MCSs environment and its structure. The matrix is composed of 21 four-dimensional numerical simulations based on the interactions of 10 different hodographs with a common thermodynamic profile. By comparing animated displays of these simulations learners are able to discern the influences of vertical wind shear and the Coriolis Force on MCS structure and evolution. A series of questions guides the exploration and helps to reveal key storm/environment relationships evident in the matrix. The subject matter expert for this module is Dr. Morris Weisman. Note: This module was originally published 5/28/99 as a CD-ROM (v1.0) as dual module along with a local copy of the Web module Mesoscale Convective Systems: Squall Lines and Bow Echoes (v3.0). The CD-ROM version of An MCS Matrix (1.0) works fairly well with Windows 98/ME/NT4/2000 but has reported to be problematic with Windows XP. Windows XP Users of version 1.0 should use the new, Web-based module.

Comet

2003-04-17

74

Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24045647

Koo, H.; Falsetta, M.L.; Klein, M.I.

2013-01-01

75

Matrix metalloproteinases: they're not just for matrix anymore!

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been viewed as bulldozers, destroying the extracellular matrix to permit normal remodeling and contribute to pathological tissue destruction and tumor cell invasion. More recently, the identification of specific matrix and non-matrix substrates for MMPs and the elucidation of the biological consequence of cleavage indicates that perhaps MMPs should be viewed more as pruning shears, playing

Lisa J McCawley; Lynn M Matrisian

2001-01-01

76

BALANCED BILINEAR FORMS ON MATRIX AND MATRIX-LIKE COALGEBRAS

BALANCED BILINEAR FORMS ON MATRIX AND MATRIX-LIKE COALGEBRAS M. BEATTIE AND R. ROSE Abstract. In this short note, we determine all balanced bilinear forms for a matrix coalgebra and for one type of matrix-like coalgebra. 1. Introduction and preliminaries In this note we determine all balanced bilinear forms

Beattie, Margaret

77

Summary Modern technologies are producing a wealth of data with complex structures. For instance, in two-dimensional digital imaging, flow cytometry and electroencephalography, matrix-type covariates frequently arise when measurements are obtained for each combination of two underlying variables. To address scientific questions arising from those data, new regression methods that take matrices as covariates are needed, and sparsity or other forms of regularization are crucial owing to the ultrahigh dimensionality and complex structure of the matrix data. The popular lasso and related regularization methods hinge on the sparsity of the true signal in terms of the number of its non-zero coefficients. However, for the matrix data, the true signal is often of, or can be well approximated by, a low rank structure. As such, the sparsity is frequently in the form of low rank of the matrix parameters, which may seriously violate the assumption of the classical lasso. We propose a class of regularized matrix regression methods based on spectral regularization. A highly efficient and scalable estimation algorithm is developed, and a degrees-of-freedom formula is derived to facilitate model selection along the regularization path. Superior performance of the method proposed is demonstrated on both synthetic and real examples. PMID:24648830

Zhou, Hua; Li, Lexin

2014-01-01

78

Matrixed business support comparison study.

The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

Parsons, Josh D.

2004-11-01

79

Cryogen thermal storage matrix

This patent describes a thermal storage matrix for the collection and storage of liquid and solid cryogens for use in conjunction with the cooling of detectors by liquid or solid cryogen. It comprises: multiple layers of at least one highly adsorbent material which effectively adsorbs liquid cryogens and at least one relatively porous material which exhibits high thermal conductivity at cryogenic conditions and transfers heat in and out of the matrix and allows a path for a gas, generated as a liquid cryogen evaporates, to escape, without blowing the liquid out from the at least one highly adsorbent material.

Longsworth, R.

1991-05-07

80

A Tabular Approach to Titration Calculations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Titrations are common laboratory exercises in high school and university chemistry courses, because they are easy, relatively inexpensive, and they illustrate a number of fundamental chemical principles. While students have little difficulty with calculations involving a single titration step, there is a significant leap in conceptual difficulty…

Lim, Kieran F.

2012-01-01

81

Matrix metalloproteinases and metastasis

Metastatic disease is responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths, either directly due to tumor involvement of critical organs or indirectly due to complications of therapy to control tumor growth and spread. An understanding of the mechanisms of tumor cell invasion and metastasis may be important for devising therapies aimed at preventing tumor cell spread. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a

David E. Kleiner; William G. Stetler-Stevenson

1999-01-01

82

We set up the formalism of holographic renormalization for the matter-coupled two-dimensional maximal supergravity that captures the low-lying fluctuations around the non-conformal D0-brane near-horizon geometry. As an application we compute holographically one- and two-point functions of the BFSS matrix quantum mechanics and its supersymmetric $SO(3)\\times SO(6)$ deformation.

Ortiz, Thomas; Tsimpis, Dimitrios

2014-01-01

83

Response matrix methods revisited

The physical basis for response matrix calculations is intuitively appealing. The problem domain is divided into a number of coarse mesh nodes or cells. The distributions of neutrons entering each node and of those exiting each node are approximated by a set of space angle basis functions defined along each interface. Many variants of response matrices have been applied, with

1989-01-01

84

Lung Histo Lung Histology Coding Rules – Matrix C340-C349 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) Rule Pathology/Cytology Specimen Histology Behavior Notes and Examples Code SINGLE TUMOR H1 No pathology/cytology

85

Unit I-5 Matrix representations 1 Matrix representation

Unit I-5 Matrix representations 1 Unit I-5 Matrix representation of linear maps Unit I-5 Matrix representations 2 Using bases to define linear maps Â· V, U vector spaces Â· a unique linear map T: V U in U Â· if v = a1v1 + ... + anvn then T(v) = a1T(v1) + ... + anT(vn) Unit I-5 Matrix representations 3

Birkett, Stephen

86

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the fall of 2000, a group of concerned educators came together to form The Reading Matrix, which was designed to create a place where both teachers and other interested persons could come together to find resources about reading and writing. Most of the resources are geared towards the language needs of ESL and international students, but given the cornucopia of materials here, there is really something for everyone. Scrolling down from the site’s homepage, visitors will come across areas that include a job database, the Reading Matrix Archives, interactive reading exercises, and a list of germane online journals. The Archives are a good place to start, as users will have the opportunity to look through subject-oriented resources for English-language learners that range from dictionaries, grammar quizzes, and speaking and listening practice.

87

Via compactification on a circle, the matrix mode] of M-theory proposed by Banks et a]. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N = 8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the

Robbert Dijkgraaf; Erik Verlinde; Herman L Verlinde

1997-01-01

88

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics offers the National Industry-Occupation Employment Matrix. This fascinating searchable and browsable database allows users to track the employment distribution of an occupation among industries. Users can search or browse by industry or occupation. Results can be sorted by employment or projected (percent or numeric) change in employment. Data are available for over 500 occupations within 240 industries.

1998-01-01

89

Hypercube matrix computation task

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).

Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.

1988-01-01

90

Matrix Theory of Small Oscillations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complete matrix formulation of the theory of small oscillations is presented. Simple analytic solutions involving matrix functions are found which clearly exhibit the transients, the damping factors, the Breit-Wigner form for resonances, etc. (BB)

Chavda, L. K.

1978-01-01

91

Distributive Property Matrix Multiplication (1)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java learning tool allows a teacher to demonstrate and explore the distributive property with expressions in the factored form (a + b) (c + d) using a matrix multiplication method with students. Sliders determine the number values from 20 to -20 with increments of one-tenth. Check boxes show or hide the factored form, starting matrix values, matrix, products in the matrix, and solution.

Peter Tierney-Fife

2009-02-20

92

Matrix multiplication via arithmetic progressions

We present a new method for accelerating matrix multiplication asymptotically. This work builds on recent ideas of Volker Strassen, by using a basic trilinear form which is not a matrix product. We make novel use of the Salem-Spencer Theorem, which gives a fairly dense set of integers with no three-term arithmetic progression. Our resulting matrix exponent is 2.376.

Don Coppersmith; Shmuel Winograd

1987-01-01

93

On the Matrix Exponential Function

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel and simple formula for computing the matrix exponential function is presented. Specifically, it can be used to derive explicit formulas for the matrix exponential of a general matrix A satisfying p(A) = 0 for a polynomial p(s). It is ready for use in a classroom and suitable for both hand as well as symbolic computation.

Hou, Shui-Hung; Hou, Edwin; Pang, Wan-Kai

2006-01-01

94

Matrix completion based ECG compression.

An innovative electrocardiogram compression algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed method is based on matrix completion, a new paradigm in signal processing that seeks to recover a low-rank matrix based on a small number of observations. The low-rank matrix is obtained via normalization of electrocardiogram records. Using matrix completion, the ECG data matrix is recovered from a few number of entries, thereby yielding high compression ratios comparable to those obtained by existing compression techniques. The proposed scheme offers a low-complexity encoder, good tolerance to quantization noise, and good quality reconstruction. PMID:22254667

Polania, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

2011-01-01

95

The cellulose resource matrix.

The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the feedstock and the performance in the end-application. The cellulose resource matrix should become a practical tool for stakeholders to make choices regarding raw materials, process or market. Although there is a vast amount of scientific and economic information available on cellulose and lignocellulosic resources, the accessibility for the interested layman or entrepreneur is very difficult and the relevance of the numerous details in the larger context is limited. Translation of science to practical accessible information with modern data management and data integration tools is a challenge. Therefore, a detailed matrix structure was composed in which the different elements or entries of the matrix were identified and a tentative rough set up was made. The inventory includes current commodities and new cellulose containing and raw materials as well as exotic sources and specialties. Important chemical and physical properties of the different raw materials were identified for the use in processes and products. When available, the market data such as price and availability were recorded. Established and innovative cellulose extraction and refining processes were reviewed. The demands on the raw material for suitable processing were collected. Processing parameters known to affect the cellulose properties were listed. Current and expected emerging markets were surveyed as well as their different demands on cellulose raw materials and processes. The setting up of the cellulose matrix as a practical tool requires two steps. Firstly, the reduction of the needed data by clustering of the characteristics of raw materials, processes and markets and secondly, the building of a database that can provide the answers to the questions from stakeholders with an indicative character. This paper describes the steps taken to achieve the defined clusters of most relevant and characteristic properties. These data can be expanded where required. More detailed specification can be obtained from the background literature and handbooks. Where gaps of information are ident

Keijsers, Edwin R P; Y?lmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

2013-03-01

96

We investigate the hypothesized existence of an S matrix for gravity and some of its expected general properties. We first discuss basic questions regarding the existence of such a matrix, including those of infrared divergences and description of asymptotic states. Distinct scattering behavior occurs in the Born, eikonal, and strong gravity regimes, and we describe aspects of both the partial wave and momentum space amplitudes, and their analytic properties, from these regimes. Classically the strong gravity region would be dominated by the formation of black holes, and we assume its unitary quantum dynamics is described by corresponding resonances. Masslessness limits some powerful methods and results that apply to massive theories, though a continuation path implying crossing symmetry plausibly still exists. Physical properties of gravity suggest nonpolynomial amplitudes, although crossing and causality constrain (with modest assumptions) this nonpolynomial behavior, particularly requiring a polynomial bound in complex s at fixed physical momentum transfer. We explore the hypothesis that such behavior corresponds to a nonlocality intrinsic to gravity, but consistent with unitarity, analyticity, crossing, and causality.

Giddings, Steven B.; Porto, Rafael A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) and PH-TH, CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

2010-01-15

97

Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

Hurwitz, Frances I.

1987-01-01

98

Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

2004-09-30

99

Fibrosis of any tissue is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix accumulation that ultimately destroys tissue architecture and eventually abolishes normal organ function. Although much research has focused on the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis, there are still no effective antifibrotic therapies that can reverse, stop or delay the formation of scar tissue in most fibrotic organs. As fibrosis can be described as an aberrant wound healing response, a recent hypothesis suggests that the cells involved in this process gain an altered heritable phenotype that promotes excessive fibrotic tissue accumulation. This article will review the most recent observations in a newly emerging field that links epigenetic modifications to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Specifically, the roles of DNA methylation and histone modifications in fibrotic disease will be discussed. PMID:22894907

Robinson, Claire M.; Watson, Chris J.; Baugh, John A.

2012-01-01

100

We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

101

Matrix membranes and integrability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in [Curtright, Fairlie, & Zachos 1997], and an explicit implementation of Euler's construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them [Fairlie 1997]. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm's equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

Zachos, Cosmas; Fairlie, David; Curtright, Thomas

102

Matrix Multiplication via Arithmetic Progressions

We present a new method for accelerating matrix multiplication asymptotically. This work builds on recent ideas of Volker Strassen,by using a basic trilinear form which is not a matrix product. We make novel use of the Salem-Spencer Theorem, which gives a fairly dense set of integers with no three-term arithmetic progression. Our resulting matrix exponent is 2.376.

Don Coppersmith; Shmuel Winograd

1990-01-01

103

We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

Andric, I.; Jonke, L.; Jurman, D.; Nielsen, H. B. [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen DK 2100 (Denmark)

2008-06-15

104

Matrix metalloproteinase degradation of extracellular matrix: biological consequences

Targeted mutagenesis has allowed investigators to perform controlled experiments in mammals and determine the contribution of individual proteins to physiologic and pathologic processes. Recent lessons learned from matrix metalloproteinase gene targeted mice and other in vivo observations have given new life to old concepts regarding the role of proteolytic fragments of extracellular matrix proteins in regulating a variety of critical

Steven D Shapiro

1998-01-01

105

Noncommutative geometry and Matrix theory

We study toroidal compactification of Matrix theory, using ideas and results of non-commutative geometry. We generalize this to compactification on the noncommutative torus, explain the classification of these backgrounds, and argue that they correspond in supergravity to tori with constant background three-form tensor field. The paper includes an introduction for mathematicians to the IKKT formulation of Matrix theory and its

Alain Connes; Michael R. Douglas; Albert Schwarz

1998-01-01

106

Matrix models for beta ensembles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper constructs tridiagonal random matrix models for general (?>0) ?-Hermite (Gaussian) and ?-Laguerre (Wishart) ensembles. These generalize the well-known Gaussian and Wishart models for ?=1,2,4. Furthermore, in the cases of the ?-Laguerre ensembles, we eliminate the exponent quantization present in the previously known models. We further discuss applications for the new matrix models, and present some open problems.

Dumitriu, Ioana; Edelman, Alan

2002-11-01

107

Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

2007-01-01

108

Matrix Treatment of Ray Optics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method to combine two learning experiences--optical physics and matrix mathematics--in a straightforward laboratory experiment that allows engineering/physics students to integrate a variety of learning insights and technical skills, including using lasers, studying refraction through thin lenses, applying concepts of matrix…

Quon, W. Steve

1996-01-01

109

Hypercube matrix computation task

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hypercube Matrix Computation (Year 1986-1987) task investigated the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Two existing electromagnetic scattering codes were selected for conversion to the Mark III Hypercube concurrent computing environment. They were selected so that the underlying numerical algorithms utilized would be different thereby providing a more thorough evaluation of the appropriateness of the parallel environment for these types of problems. The first code was a frequency domain method of moments solution, NEC-2, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second code was a time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations to solve for the scattered fields. Once the codes were implemented on the hypercube and verified to obtain correct solutions by comparing the results with those from sequential runs, several measures were used to evaluate the performance of the two codes. First, a comparison was provided of the problem size possible on the hypercube with 128 megabytes of memory for a 32-node configuration with that available in a typical sequential user environment of 4 to 8 megabytes. Then, the performance of the codes was anlyzed for the computational speedup attained by the parallel architecture.

Calalo, R.; Imbriale, W.; Liewer, P.; Lyons, J.; Manshadi, F.; Patterson, J.

1987-01-01

110

An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

111

CaO-SiO(2) base glass-matrix/Ti particle biocomposite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates have been prepared by means of Vacuum Plasma Spray. The base glass is considered bioactive, because, when soaked in a fluid that simulates the inorganic ion concentration of human plasma (SBF), it develops a bonelike apatite layer on its surface. The aim of this research activity was to toughen this brittle bioactive material and to broaden its biomedical applications. Pure titanium was chosen as toughening phase because of its well-known biocompatibility, and Ti6Al4V alloy as substrate because of both its biocompatibility and its mechanical reliability. At first the composites were prepared as bulk materials, by means of a simple sintering process. Then, by ball-milling the sintered composite, the as-obtained "composite powders" were sprayed by Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) on the substrate. By means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the characteristic temperatures of the base glasses were determined. The thermal properties of mixtures of glass powders and different vol% Ti particles were studied by means of DTA, DSC, hot-stage microscopy, and dilatometry, with the aim of optimizing the sintering conditions. Both the bulk and the coated samples have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compositional analysis (EDS), Vickers indentations, and leaching tests after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). PMID:10898882

Verné, E; Brovarone, C V; Milanese, D

2000-01-01

112

Matrix Representation of Special Relativity

I compare the matrix representation of the basic statements of Special Relativity with the conventional vector space representation. It is shown, that the matrix form reproduces all equations in a very concise and elegant form, namely: Maxwell equations, Lorentz-force, energy-momentum tensor, Dirac-equation and Lagrangians. The main thesis is, however, that both forms are nevertheless not equivalent, but matrix representation is superior and gives a deeper insight into physical reality, because it is based on much less assumptions. It allows a better understanding of Minkowski spacetime on the basis of matrix algebra. An escpecially remarkable result of the consequent usage of this alge- braic concept is the formulation of Diracs equation in a novel matrix form. This equation can be generalized to include a new variant of Yang-Mills gauge fields, which possibly express unified electro-weak interactions in a new way.

Wolfgang Koehler

2007-03-08

113

From a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix to a depolarizing Mueller matrix.

The depolarizing properties of a generic Mueller matrix are synthesized from a corresponding nondepolarizing reference Mueller matrix, which is appropriately factorized and transformed by sequentially adjusting the values of three indices of polarimetric purity (IPP) [Opt. Commun.284, 38 (2011)OPCOB80030-4018]. This procedure allows generating type-I and type-II arbitrary Mueller matrices from an adequate choice of the reference Mueller matrix and, by reducing, in a consistent way, the starting 1-valued IPP. This synthesis procedure also provides better understanding of the sources and structure of depolarization. PMID:25606763

Gil, José J

2014-12-01

114

New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.

1990-01-01

115

Some matrix models admit, on top of the usual 't Hooft expansion, an M-theory-like expansion, i.e. an expansion at large N but where the rest of the parameters are fixed, instead of scaling with N. These models, which we call M-theoretic matrix models, appear in the localization of Chern-Simons-matter theories, and also in two-dimensional statistical physics. Generically, their partition function receives non-perturbative corrections which are not captured by the 't Hooft expansion. In this paper, we discuss general aspects of these type of matrix integrals and we analyze in detail two different examples. The first one is the matrix model computing the partition function of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions with one adjoint hypermultiplet and N_f fundamentals, which has a conjectured M-theory dual, and which we call the N_f matrix model. The second one, which we call the polymer matrix model, computes form factors of the 2d Ising model and is related to the physics of 2d polymers. In both cases we determine their exact planar limit. In the N_f matrix model, the planar free energy reproduces the expected behavior of the M-theory dual. We also study their M-theory expansion by using Fermi gas techniques, and we find non-perturbative corrections to the 't Hooft expansion.

Alba Grassi; Marcos Marino

2014-11-30

116

Genotype imputation via matrix completion

Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546

Chi, Eric C.; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K.; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth

2013-01-01

117

High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

1985-01-01

118

Designing with Brittle Matrix Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a comparison of the material and manufacturing costs, corrosion resistance, durability, knowledge base, and design/data base among polymers, metals and ceramics. Ceramic matrix composites are focused on for their design applications and performance prediction.

Reifsnider, Kenneth L.

1996-01-01

119

Accurate fast Hankel matrix solver

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple matrix representation of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm for solving a Hankel system of linear equations, and we show how pivoting can be added to the algorithm to improve numerical accuracy of the method.

Bojanczyk, Adam W.; Lee, Tong J.; Luk, Franklin T.

1991-12-01

120

Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing

asphaltene deposition in the reservoir. Frequently, the cause of destabilization is the acid stimulation of the reservoir. Published work in the field of matrix acidizing has been limited to cores saturated with brine. Research in two phase systems has been...

Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

1996-01-01

121

Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

1985-01-01

122

Lung Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

Lung Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C340-C349 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * Prepare one abstract. Use the histology coding rules to assign the appropriate histology code. ** Prepare two or more abstracts.

123

Oriented matrix promotes directional tubulogenesis.

Detailed control over the structural organization of scaffolds and engineered tissue constructs is a critical need in the quest to engineer functional tissues using biomaterials. This work presents a new approach to spatially direct endothelial tubulogenesis. Micropatterned fibronectin substrates were used to control lung fibroblast adhesion and growth and the subsequent deposition of fibroblast-derived matrix during culture. The fibroblast-derived matrix produced on the micropatterned substrates was tightly oriented by these patterns, with an average variation of only 8.5°. Further, regions of this oriented extracellular matrix provided directional control of developing endothelial tubes to within 10° of the original micropatterned substrate design. Endothelial cells seeded directly onto the micropatterned substrate did not form tubes. A metric for matrix anisotropy showed a relationship between the fibroblast-derived matrix and the endothelial tubes that were subsequently developed on the same micropatterns with a resulting aspect ratio over 1.5 for endothelial tubulogenesis. Micropatterns in "L" and "Y" shapes were used to direct endothelial tubes to turn and branch with the same level of precision. These data demonstrate that anisotropic fibroblast-derived matrices instruct the alignment and shape of endothelial tube networks, thereby introducing an approach that could be adapted for future design of microvascular implants featuring organ-specific natural matrix that patterns microvascular growth. PMID:25219769

Soucy, Patricia A; Hoh, Maria; Heinz, Will; Hoh, Jan; Romer, Lewis

2015-01-01

124

Octonionic matrix representation and electromagnetism

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keeping in mind the important role of octonion algebra, we have obtained the electromagnetic field equations of dyons with an octonionic 8×8 matrix representation. In this paper, we consider the eight — dimensional octonionic space as a combination of two (external and internal) four-dimensional spaces for the existence of magnetic monopoles (dyons) in a higher-dimensional formalism. As such, we describe the octonion wave equations in terms of eight components from the 8 × 8 matrix representation. The octonion forms of the generalized potential, fields and current source of dyons in terms of 8 × 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. Thus, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons from an 8×8 matrix representation of the octonion wave equations in a compact and consistent manner. The generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, analogous to electric charges and currents. Accordingly, we have obtained the octonionic Dirac wave equations in an external field from the matrix representation of the octonion-valued potentials of dyons.

Chanyal, B. C.

2014-12-01

125

Propagation of Errors for Matrix Inversion

A formula is given for the propagation of errors during matrix inversion. An explicit calculation for a 2 by 2 matrix using both the formula and a Monte Carlo calculation are compared. A prescription is given to determine when a matrix with uncertain elements is sufficiently nonsingular for the calculation of the covariances of the inverted matrix elements to be reliable.

M. Lefebvre; R. K. Keeler; R. Sobie; J. White

1999-09-17

126

In vivo imaging of extracellular matrix

-integrin activity, which is necessary for fiber remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases. Our currentIn vivo imaging of extracellular matrix remodeling by tumor- associated fibroblasts Jean Y Perentes stromal cell-matrix interactions for several days in live mice. We show that the matrix-modifying hormone

Cai, Long

127

Some Unusual Matrix Eigenvalue Problems

. We survey some unusual eigenvalue problems arising in different applications. We show that all these problems can be cast as problems of estimating quadratic forms. Numerical algorithms based on the well-known Gauss-type quadrature rules and Lanczos process are reviewed for computing these quadratic forms. These algorithms reference the matrix in question only through a matrix-vector product operation. Hence it is well suited for large sparse problems. Some selected numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of such an approach. 1 Introduction Matrix eigenvalue problems play a significant role in many areas of computational science and engineering. It often happens that many eigenvalue problems arising in applications may not appear in a standard form that we usually learn from a textbook and find in software packages for solving eigenvalue problems. In this paper, we described some unusual eigenvalue problems we have encountered. Some of those problems have been ...

Zhaojun Bai And; Zhaojun Bai; Gene H. Golub

1999-01-01

128

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems related to the analysis, design, and fabrication of compact matrix-type heat exchangers are discussed. Particular attention is given to the general characteristics describing the intensity of heat transfer and the hydrodynamic resistance of the matrices, an analysis of the efficiency of perforated ribs, and an evaluation of the efficiency of the matrix heat exchange surfaces. The effect of longitudinal heat conduction on heat transfer in the heat exchanger is examined, and a method is proposed whereby this factor can be allowed for in the analysis.

Mikulin, E. I.; Shevich, Iu. A.

129

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multichannel sound systems are being studied as part of the Eureka 95 and Radio-communication Bureau TG10-1 investigations into high definition television. One emerging sound system has five channels; three at the front and two at the back. This raises some compatibility issues. The listener might have only, say, two loudspeakers or the material to be broadcast may have fewer than five channels. The problem is how best to produce a set of signals to be broadcast, which is suitable for all listeners, from those that are available. To investigate this area, a device has been designed and built which has six input channels and six output channels. Each output signal is a linear combination of the input signals. The inputs and outputs are in AES/EBU digital audio format using BBC-designed AESIC chips. The matrix operation, to produce the six outputs from the six inputs, is performed by a Motorola DSP56001. The user interface and 'housekeeping' is managed by a T222 transputer. The operator of the matrix uses a VDU to enter sets of coefficients and a rotary switch to select which set to use. A set of analog controls is also available and is used to control operations other than the simple compatibility matrixing. The matrix has been very useful for simple tasks: mixing a stereo signal into mono, creating a stereo signal from a mono signal, applying a fixed gain or attenuation to a signal, exchanging the A and B channels of an AES/EBU bitstream, and so on. These are readily achieved using simple sets of coefficients. Additions to the user interface software have led to several more sophisticated applications which still consist of a matrix operation. Different multichannel panning laws have been evaluated. The analog controls adjust the panning; the audio signals are processed digitally using a matrix operation. A digital SoundField microphone decoder has also been implemented.

Mason, A. J.

130

Responsbility Matrix Data, Communications, Security

Responsbility Matrix Data, Communications, Security New Construction only SYSTEM SUPPLY INSTALL, Communications, Security New Construction only SYSTEM SUPPLY INSTALL TERMINATE TEST Cost Est. Backbone (Copper above See data system above Network Video Recorder Dal CS Dal AC n/a n/a Dal CS&AC Cameras Elect Elect

Brownstone, Rob

131

The Enrollment Analysis Matrix Concept.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underlying assumptions and the structure of the enrollment analysis matrix (EAM) concept are discussed. EAM is a component of the Strategic Planning Project of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems. EAM relates changes in the population of potential students external to the institution to the impacts that might result…

Chisholm, Mark

132

On a quadratic matrix equation associated with an M-matrix

We study the quadratic matrix equation X, EX F = 0, where E is diagonal and F is an M-matrix. Quadratic matrix equations of this type arise in noisy Wiener{Hopf problems for Markov chains. The solution of practical interest is a particular M-matrix solution. The existence and uniqueness of M-matrix solutions and numerical methods for nding the desired M-matrix solution

Chun-hua Guo

2003-01-01

133

Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.

Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.

1994-01-01

134

Mueller matrix roots depolarization parameters.

The Mueller matrix roots decomposition recently proposed by Chipman in [1] and its three associated families of depolarization (amplitude depolarization, phase depolarization, and diagonal depolarization) are explored. Degree of polarization maps are used to differentiate among the three families and demonstrate the unity between phase and diagonal depolarization, while amplitude depolarization remains a distinct class. Three families of depolarization are generated via the averaging of different forms of two nondepolarizing Mueller matrices. The orientation of the resulting depolarization follows the cyclic permutations of the Pauli spin matrices. The depolarization forms of Mueller matrices from two scattering measurements are analyzed with the matrix roots decomposition-a sample of ground glass and a graphite and wood pencil tip. PMID:22358163

Noble, Hannah D; McClain, Stephen C; Chipman, Russell A

2012-02-20

135

Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

Cutaneous Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C440 – C449 (Excludes melanoma of any other site) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat e h is to lo

136

Matrix metalloproteinases and tumor metastasis

Functions of individual matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) differentially expressed by tumor cells and stromal cells, are finely\\u000a regulated by their spatial as well as temporal interactions with distinct cellular and extracellular components of the tumor\\u000a microenvironment and also distant pre-metastatic sites. Certain aspects of MMP involvement in tumor metastasis such as tumor-induced\\u000a angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and establishment of metastatic foci at

Elena I. Deryugina; James P. Quigley

2006-01-01

137

Kidney Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

Kidney Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C649 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat

138

Colon Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

Colon Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C180-C189 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p

139

Tough high performance composite matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.

Pater, Ruth H. (inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (inventor)

1994-01-01

140

Matrix models and graph colouring

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an edge-colouring problem on random planar graphs which is one of the simplest vertex models that may be analyzed by standard methods of large N matrix models. The main features of the saddle point solution and its critical behaviour are described. At the critical value of the coupling gcr the eigen value density u(?)M is found to vanish at the border of the support as ?-a2/3.

Cicuta, Giovanni M.; Molinari, Luca; Montaldi, Emilio

1993-06-01

141

Fast polar decomposition of an arbitrary matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polar decomposition of an m x n matrix A of full rank, where m is greater than or equal to n, can be computed using a quadratically convergent algorithm. The algorithm is based on a Newton iteration involving a matrix inverse. With the use of a preliminary complete orthogonal decomposition the algorithm can be extended to arbitrary A. How to use the algorithm to compute the positive semi-definite square root of a Hermitian positive semi-definite matrix is described. A hybrid algorithm which adaptively switches from the matrix inversion based iteration to a matrix multiplication based iteration due to Kovarik, and to Bjorck and Bowie is formulated. The decision when to switch is made using a condition estimator. This matrix multiplication rich algorithm is shown to be more efficient on machines for which matrix multiplication can be executed 1.5 times faster than matrix inversion.

Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

1988-01-01

142

Potentiometric biosensor in double matrix membrane technology

A throw-away urea sensor is described. A pH-sensitive disposable sensor constructed using double matrix membrane technology was used as a transducer. Double matrix membrane technology describes a process where an ion-sensitive polymer matrix membrane is formed in the presence of an additional inert matrix for to improve the reproducibility of sensor production. In this case one-side silver-coated filter paper was

C. Eggenstein; M. Borchardt; C. Dumschat; B. Gründig; K. Cammann; F. Spener; M. Knoll

1995-01-01

143

Snapshot Mueller matrix spectropolarimeter Nathan Hagen,1,

Snapshot Mueller matrix spectropolarimeter Nathan Hagen,1, * Kazuhiko Oka,2 and Eustace L. Dereniak present a new snapshot technique for performing spectrally resolved Mueller matrix polarimetry. The basic of America OCIS codes: 120.2130, 120.5410, 260.5430, 300.6190. Mueller matrix polarimeters measure

Dereniak, Eustace L.

144

Axially resolved complete Mueller matrix confocal microscopy

Axially resolved complete Mueller matrix confocal microscopy David Lara and Chris Dainty We system with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter. To calibrate the system, a double-pass method had effect on axially resolved Mueller matrix measurements. Â© 2006 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 110

Dainty, Chris

145

Matrix metalloproteinases: multifunctional contributors to tumor progression

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix degrading proteinases. Owing to their matrix-degrading abilities and high expression in advanced tumors, MMPs were originally implicated in5invasion and metastasis during cancer progression. However, recent work extends a role for MMPs during multiple stages of tumor progression to include other functions such as growth, angiogenesis and migration. Based on studies in

Lisa J McCawley; Lynn M Matrisian

2000-01-01

146

THE MATRIX CUBE PROBLEM: Approximations and Applications

THE MATRIX CUBE PROBLEM: Approximations and Applications Arkadi Nemirovski, Stieltjes Visiting with A. Ben-Tal 1. Matrix Cube Â· The problem: formulation and moti- vation Â· Main result Â· Back to applications Â· Sketch of the proof 2. From Matrix Cube to Computing Ma- trix Norms Â· The problem Â· Main result

Nemirovski, Arkadi

147

Matrix Formalism for Sequence-Specific Biopolymer

3 Matrix Formalism for Sequence-Specific Biopolymer Binding to Multicomponent Lipid Membranes-struct 9/18/2009 5:54 PM Page 30 #12;3 Matrix Formalism for Sequence-Specific Biopolymer Binding of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and entropic contri- butions. The transfer matrix formalism of statistical mechanics

Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

148

Metal-matrix composites: Status and prospects

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of metal matrix composites for air frames and jet engine components are discussed. The current state of the art in primary and secondary fabrication is presented. The present and projected costs were analyzed to determine the cost effectiveness of metal matrix composites. The various types of metal matrix composites and their characteristics are described.

1974-01-01

149

The effect of the matrix on film properties in matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

The effect of the matrix on film properties in matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation D. M. Bubba amu have been deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation MAPLE . The deposition was carried as a matrix. Time-of-flight analysis was performed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor evaporation

Vertes, Akos

150

The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

Dongpo Xu; Danilo P. Mandic

2014-10-01

151

Matrix management for aerospace 2000

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The martix management approach to program management is an organized effort for attaining program objectives by defining and structuring all elements so as to form a single system whose parts are united by interaction. The objective of the systems approach is uncompromisingly complete coverage of the program management endeavor. Starting with an analysis of the functions necessary to carry out a given program, a model must be defined; a matrix of responsibility assignment must be prepared; and each operational process must be examined to establish how it is to be carried out and how it relates to all other processes.

Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

1980-01-01

152

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the construction and theoretical implications of the USp(2k) matrix model in zero dimension introduced in Refs.~1) and 2). It is argued that the model provides a constructive approach to type I superstrings and is at the same time dynamical theory of spacetime points. Three subjects are discussed: semiclassical pictures and series of degenerate perturbative vacua associated with the worldvolume representation of the model, the formation of extended (D-) objects from the fermionic integrations via the (non-)abelian Berry phase, and the Schwinger-Dyson/loop equations which exhibit the joining-splitting interactions required.

Itoyama, H.; Tsuchiya, A.

153

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from New Scientist News discusses the possibility that Sony might be able to develop a real life matrix. That is, people may be able to watch movies and play computer games in which they can also get to smell, taste and perhaps even feel things. The prospect was raised by Sony's approval for a patent on a device for transmitting sensory data directly into the human brain. The author discusses how this device might work but notes that Sony declined New Scientist's request for an interview with the inventor. If the method described by Sony works, the author speculates on its uses in research and medicine.

154

Mueller matrix roots algorithm and computational considerations.

Recently, an order-independent Mueller matrix decomposition was proposed in an effort to elucidate the nine depolarization degrees of freedom [Handbook of Optics, Vol. 1 of Mueller Matrices (2009)]. This paper addresses the critical computational issues involved in applying this Mueller matrix roots decomposition, along with a review of the principal matrix root and common methods for its calculation. The calculation of the pth matrix root is optimized around p = 10(5) for a 53 digit binary double precision calculation. A matrix roots algorithm is provided which incorporates these computational results. It is applied to a statistically significant number of randomly generated physical Mueller matrices in order to gain insight on the typical ranges of the depolarizing Matrix roots parameters. Computational techniques are proposed which allow singular Mueller matrices and Mueller matrices with a half-wave of retardance to be evaluated with the matrix roots decomposition. PMID:22274325

Noble, H D; Chipman, R A

2012-01-01

155

Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

2001-01-01

156

Solid-matrix luminescence analysis

Several interactions with lumiphors adsorbed on filter paper were elucidated from experiments with moisture, modulus and heavy-atom salts. The data were interpreted using static and dynamic quenching models, heavy-atom theory, and a theory related to the modulus of paper. With cyclodextrin-salt matrices, it was shown that 10% [alpha]-cyclodextrin/NaCl was very effective for obtaining strong room-temperature fluorescence and moderate room-temperature phosphorescence from adsorbed stereoisomeric tetrols. Extensive photophysical information was obtained for the four tetrols on 10% [alpha]-cyclodextrin/NaCl. The photophysical information acquired was used to develop a method for characterizing two of the tetrols. Work with model compounds adsorbed on deuterated sodium acetate showed that C-H vibrations in the undeuterated sodium acetate were not responsible for the deactivation of the excited triplet state in the model phosphors investigated. A considerable amount of solution luminescence and solid-matrix luminescence data were compared. The most important finding was that in several cases the room-temperature solid-matrix luminescence quantum yields were greater than the solution low-temperature quantum yield values.

Hurtubise, R.J.

1993-01-15

157

Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.

1994-01-01

158

Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

1985-01-01

159

Evaluation of metal matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an evaluation of candidate metal-matrix composite materials for shuttle space radiators mounted to external structure are presented. The evaluation was specifically applicable to considerations of the manufacturing and properties of a potential space radiator. Two candidates, boron/aluminum and graphite/aluminum were obtained or made in various forms and tested in sufficient depth to allow selection of one of the two for future scale-up programs. The effort accomplished on this program verified that aluminum reinforced with boron was within the state-of-the-art in industry and possessed properties usable in the external skin areas available for shuttle radiators where re-entry temperatures will not exceed 800 F. It further demonstrated that graphite/aluminum has an apparently attractive future for space applications but requires extension development prior to scale-up.

Okelly, K. P.

1971-01-01

160

Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites

A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.

Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.; Schneibel, J.H.; Waters, S.B.; Menchhofer, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1995-07-01

161

Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.

Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25523040

Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong

2015-03-01

162

Matrix metalloproteinases and peripheral arterial disease

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix, are emerging as important modulators\\u000a of atherothrombosis. MMPs are produced by inflammatory cells; some of them are also released by activated platelets and play\\u000a a crucial role in the remodeling processes, leading to atherosclerotic plaque formation, plaque rupture, arterial aneurysm\\u000a development, and critical limb ischemia. Independent from their matrix

Chiara Busti; Emanuela Falcinelli; Stefania Momi; Paolo Gresele

2010-01-01

163

Rank-Sparsity Incoherence for Matrix Decomposition

Suppose we are given a matrix that is formed by adding an unknown sparse\\u000amatrix to an unknown low-rank matrix. Our goal is to decompose the given matrix\\u000ainto its sparse and low-rank components. Such a problem arises in a number of\\u000aapplications in model and system identification, and is NP-hard in general. In\\u000athis paper we consider a convex

Venkat Chandrasekaran; Sujay Sanghavi; Pablo A. Parrilo; Alan S. Willsky

2009-01-01

164

Matrix Bases for Star Products: a Review

We review the matrix bases for a family of noncommutative $\\star$ products based on a Weyl map. These products include the Moyal product, as well as the Wick-Voros products and other translation invariant ones. We also review the derivation of Lie algebra type star products, with adapted matrix bases. We discuss the uses of these matrix bases for field theory, fuzzy spaces and emergent gravity.

Fedele Lizzi; Patrizia Vitale

2014-08-15

165

Dirac oscillators and the relativistic R matrix

The Dirac oscillators are shown to be an excellent expansion basis for solutions of the Dirac equation by $R$-matrix techniques. The combination of the Dirac oscillator and the $R$-matrix approach provides a convenient formalism for reactions as well as bound state problems. The utility of the $R$-matrix approach is demonstrated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations where exchange terms can be calculated exactly, and scattering waves made orthogonal to bound state wave functions.

J. Grineviciute; Dean Halderson

2014-04-17

166

Integrated-optical approaches to matrix multiplication

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solution of matrix equations is essential to carrying out a large variety of control algorithms and to reducing certain types of data such as the output of a multispectral sensor array. Optical techniques and, in particular, integrated-optical circuits (IOC's) can provide compact, low-power devices for performing the mitrix multiplications necessary for the solution of these problems. A specific IOC for performing vector-matrix multiplication and several approaches to the design of IOC's for matrix-matrix multiplication will be discussed.

Verber, C. M.; Kenan, R. P.

1984-01-01

167

Matrix Metalloprotienases and its inhibitors: An insight.

Periodontal disease progression involves degradation of the collagenous matrix by a group of enzymes known as the matrix metalloprotienases. These matrix metalloprotienases are secreted by the polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, bone, epithelial and endothelial cells. These molecules have involvement in both physiological and pathological processes. It is shown that periodontal disease occurs when there is an imbalance between the activated metalloprotienases and their endogenous inhibitors. These can be modified by exogenous inhibitors like bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, etc. How to cite the article: Kumar P, Kumar L, Murthy S, Gurudath G. Matrix Metalloprotienases and its inhibitors: An insight. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):127-9. PMID:24653617

Kumar, Parimala; Kumar, Laxmish; Murthy, Srinivas; Gurudath, G

2014-02-01

168

The Geometry of Jordan Matrix Models

We elucidate the geometry of matrix models based on simple formally real Jordan algebras. Such Jordan algebras give rise to a nonassociative geometry that is a generalization of Lorentzian geometry. We emphasize constructions for the exceptional Jordan algebra and the exceptional Jordan C*-algebra and describe the projective spaces related to the exceptional cubic matrix model and the E_6 matrix model. The resulting projective spaces are shown to be exceptional versions of projective twistor space, thus revealing the existence of exceptional twistor string theories that are dual to octonionic matrix models.

Michael Rios

2005-03-08

169

Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix

Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.

Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

2005-08-11

170

Extracellular Matrix: Functions in the Nervous System

An astonishing number of extracellular matrix glycoproteins are expressed in dynamic patterns in the developing and adult nervous system. Neural stem cells, neurons, and glia express receptors that mediate interactions with specific extracellular matrix molecules. Functional studies in vitro and genetic studies in mice have provided evidence that the extracellular matrix affects virtually all aspects of nervous system development and function. Here we will summarize recent findings that have shed light on the specific functions of defined extracellular matrix molecules on such diverse processes as neural stem cell differentiation, neuronal migration, the formation of axonal tracts, and the maturation and function of synapses in the peripheral and central nervous system. PMID:21123393

Barros, Claudia S.; Franco, Santos J.; Müller, Ulrich

2011-01-01

171

Regulation of extracellular matrix biosynthesis by matrix components

The authors have previously shown that smooth muscle cells derived from healthy rabbit aortic media synthesize less collagen and fibronectin when grown on culture dishes coated with rabbit plasma fibronectin. In these cultures noncollagen protein synthesis was not affected, suggesting a specific regulatory mechanism. Their current studies expand this observation by examining the ability of proteolytically derived, specific domains of plasma fibronectin to effect decreases in collagen and fibronectin synthesis by cultured arterial smooth muscle. Rabbit plasma fibronectin was digested with bovine ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin by the method of Hahn and Yamada. The resultant proteolytic fragments were separated by their ability to bind to gelatin-agarose. Culture dishes were coated with either (1) cell binding fragment of fibronectin, (2) gelatin binding fragment, (3) intact fibronectin, (4) type I collagen derived from lathyritic rat skin or (5) bovine serum albumin. Preconfluent cultures were labeled with /sup 3/H-Pro for 24 hr. Fibronectin synthesis was determined by immunoprecipitation of /sup 3/H-fibronectin. Collagen synthesis was measured by monitoring /sup 3/H-Hyp formation. Decreased collagen and fibronectin synthesis was evident in cells grown on intact fibronectin, cell binding fragment of fibronectin and type I collagen. Cells plated on gelatin binding fragment synthesized both collagen and fibronectin at levels comparable to cells on albumin coated dishes. They conclude that the regulatory activity of fibronectin on matrix biosynthesis resides on the cell binding domain of the molecule and that type I collagen can exert a similar effect.

Holderbaum, D.; Ehrhart, L.A.

1986-03-01

172

A heuristic block coordinate descent approach for controlled tabular ...

a census), which results in sets of tables, usually with a large number of cells. NSAs are obliged by ...... English translation of the original paper ... Language for Optimal CTA, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5262, 1–12. [8] Chinneck, J.W.

2010-11-05

173

Challenges and Advances in Parallel Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication Aydin Buluc

Challenges and Advances in Parallel Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication Aydin BulucÂ¸ Department of Computer Science University of California, Santa Barbara aydin@cs.ucsb.edu John R. Gilbert Department

174

Optimum interface properties for metal matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch (CTE) between the fiber and the matrix, high residual sresses exist in metal matrix composite systems upon cool down from processing temperature to room temperature. An interface material can be placed between the fiber and the matrix to reduce the high tensile residual stresses in the matrix. A computer program was written to minimize the residual stress in the matrix subject to the interface material properties. The decision variables are the interface modulus, thickness and thermal expansion coefficient. The properties of the interface material are optimized such that the average distortion energy in the matrix and the interface is minimized. As a result, the only active variable is the thermal expansion coefficient. The optimum modulus of the interface is always the minimum allowable value and the interface thickness is always the maximum allowable value, independent of the fiber/matrix system. The optimum interface thermal expansion coefficient is always between the values of the fiber and the matrix. Using this analysis, a survey of materials was conducted for use as fiber coatings in some specific composite systems.

Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

1989-01-01

175

Learning the Kernel Matrix with Semidefinite Programming

Kernel-based learning algorithms work by embedding the data into a Euclidean space, and then searching for linear relations among the embedded data points. The embedding is performed implicitly, by specifying the inner products between each pair of points in the embedding space. This information is contained in the so-called kernel matrix, a symmetric and positive semidefinite matrix that encodes the

Gert R. G. Lanckriet; Nello Cristianini; Peter L. Bartlett; Laurent El Ghaoui; Michael I. Jordan

2004-01-01

176

Transfer Matrix for Partially Quenched QCD

We construct the transfer matrix for the ghost sector of partially quenched QCD. This transfer matrix is not hermitian, but we show that it is still bounded. We thus expect that all euclidean correlation functions will decay exponentially with distance (up to possible powers), and demonstrate that this is indeed the case for free ghost quarks.

Claude Bernard; Maarten Golterman

2010-10-31

177

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Autoimmune Diseases

Matrix metalloproteinases (also named matrixin or MMPs) are a major group of enzymes that regulate cell-matrix composition by using zinc for their proteolytic activities. They are essential for various normal biological processes such as embryonic development, morphogenesis, reproduction tissue resorption, and remodeling. Metalloproteinases also play a role in pathological processes including inflammation, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Herein

Maya Ram; Yaniv Sherer; Yehuda Shoenfeld

2006-01-01

178

Boolean Matrix Multiplication and Transitive Closure

Arithmetic operations on matrices are applied to the problem of finding the transitive closure of a Boolean matrix. The best transitive closure algorithm known, due to Munro, is based on the matrix multiplication method of Strassen. We show that his method requires at most O(n? ¿ P(n)) bitwise operations, where ? = log27 and P(n) bounds the number of bitwise

Michael J. Fischer; Albert R. Meyer

1971-01-01

179

Structural relaxation of amorphous PET matrix nanocomposites

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is the evaluation of the degree of dispersion and intercalation of monodimensional nanofillers in an amorphous thermoplastic matrix. Organically modified montmorillonites (omMMT) were used as monodimensional nanofillers, whereas amorphous PET copolymer (PETg) was used as matrix.

Greco, A.; Esposito Corcione, C.; Cavallo, A.; Maffezzoli, A.

2010-06-01

180

Unitary Triangularization of a Nonsymmetric Matrix

A method for the inversion of a nonsymmetric matrix, due to J. W. Givens, has been in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and has proved to be highly stable numerically but to require a rather large number of arithmetic operations, in- cluding a total of n(n -- 1)\\/2 square roots. Strictly, the method achieves the triangularization of the matrix,

Alston S. Householder

1958-01-01

181

OLED matrix displays: technology and fundamentals

For more than a decade, considerable effort has been put into the development of light emitting devices based on evaporated layers of organic semiconductors. To date, the properties of matrix displays consisting of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) basically meet automotive and consumer product requirements. OLED matrix displays offer high contrast, wide viewing angle and a broad temperature range at

Wolfgang Kowalsky; Eike Becker; Torsten Benstem; Thomas Dobbertin; Dirk Heithecker; Hans-Hermann Johannes; Dirk Metzdorf; Helge Neuner

2001-01-01

182

HYGROTHERMAL AGING OF POLYIMIDE MATRIX COMPOSITE LAMINATES

HYGROTHERMAL AGING OF POLYIMIDE MATRIX COMPOSITE LAMINATES John A. Nairn and Man-Hee Han Materials-0560, USA SUMMARY: Two polyimide-matrix systems were subjected to a series of hygrothermal aging experiments at various temperatures and relative humidities. For each aging condition, we measured the microcracking

Nairn, John A.

183

Phenomenological studies in the matrix models

Matrix models are a promising candidate for a nonperturbative formulation of the superstring theory. It is possible to study how the standard model and other phenomenological models appear from the matrix model, and estimate the probability distribution of their appearance. This article mainly addresses studies in toroidal compactifications with magnetic fluxes.

Hajime Aoki

2014-05-01

184

Semisupervised Kernel Matrix Learning by Kernel Propagation

The goal of semisupervised kernel matrix learning (SS-KML) is to learn a kernel matrix on all the given samples on which just a little supervised information, such as class label or pairwise constraint, is provided. Despite extensive research, the performance of SS-KML still leaves some space for improvement in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. For example, a recent pairwise constraints

Enliang Hu; Songcan Chen; Daoqiang Zhang; Xuesong Yin

2010-01-01

185

SOME CONSTRUCTIONS RELATED TO REES MATRIX RINGS

Simple rings with a one-sided minimal ideal may be represented as Rees matrix rings, and conversely. The latter are dened as I - matrices over a division ring with only a nite number of nonzero entries with certain addition and multiplication. For Rees matrix rings we construct here their isomorphisms, their translational hulls and isomorphisms of the translational hulls, all

M. PETRICH

2002-01-01

186

Fast matrix multiplies using graphics hardware

We present a technique for large matrix-matrix multiplies using low cost graphics hardware. The result is computed by literally visualizing the computations of a simple parallel processing algorithm. Current graphics hardware technology has limited precision and thus limits immediate applicability of our algorithm. We include results demonstrating proof of concept, correctness, speedup, and a simple application. This is therefore forward

E. Scott Larsen; David K. McAllister

2001-01-01

187

Non-relativistic matrix inflation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconsider a string theoretic inflationary model, where inflation is driven by n multiple coincident D3-branes in the finite n limit. We show that the finite n action can be continued to the limit of large n, where it converges to the action for a wrapped D5-brane with n units of U(1) flux. This provides an important consistency check of the scenario and allows for more control over certain back-reaction effects. We determine the most general form of the action for a specific sub-class of models and examine the non-relativistic limits of the theory where the branes move at speeds much less than the speed of light. The non-Abelian nature of the world-volume theory implies that the inflaton field is matrix valued and this results in modifications to the slow-roll parameters and Hubble-flow equations. A specific model of inflation is investigated where the branes move out of an AdS throat, and observational constraints are employed to place bounds on the background fluxes.

Berndsen, Aaron; Lidsey, James E.; Ward, John

2010-01-01

188

Adaptive wavelet methods - Matrix-vector multiplication

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of most adaptive wavelet methods for elliptic partial differential equations follows a general concept proposed by A. Cohen, W. Dahmen and R. DeVore in [3, 4]. The essential steps are: transformation of the variational formulation into the well-conditioned infinite-dimensional l2 problem, finding of the convergent iteration process for the l2 problem and finally derivation of its finite dimensional version which works with an inexact right hand side and approximate matrix-vector multiplications. In our contribution, we shortly review all these parts and wemainly pay attention to approximate matrix-vector multiplications. Effective approximation of matrix-vector multiplications is enabled by an off-diagonal decay of entries of the wavelet stiffness matrix. We propose here a new approach which better utilize actual decay of matrix entries.

?erná, Dana; Fin?k, Václav

2012-12-01

189

Robust alternative minimization for matrix completion.

Recently, much attention has been drawn to the problem of matrix completion, which arises in a number of fields, including computer vision, pattern recognition, sensor network, and recommendation systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm, named robust alternative minimization (RAM), which is based on the constraint of low rank to complete an unknown matrix. The proposed RAM algorithm can effectively reduce the relative reconstruction error of the recovered matrix. It is numerically easier to minimize the objective function and more stable for large-scale matrix completion compared with other existing methods. It is robust and efficient for low-rank matrix completion, and the convergence of the RAM algorithm is also established. Numerical results showed that both the recovery accuracy and running time of the RAM algorithm are competitive with other reported methods. Moreover, the applications of the RAM algorithm to low-rank image recovery demonstrated that it achieves satisfactory performance. PMID:22345545

Lu, Xiaoqiang; Gong, Tieliang; Yan, Pingkun; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong

2012-06-01

190

Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Human Colon Cancer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer.

Keesee, Susan K.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Szaro, Robert P.; Wu, Ying-Jye

1994-03-01

191

Refined matrix models from BPS counting

We construct a free fermion and matrix model representation of refined Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld generating functions of D2 and D0 branes bound to a single D6 brane, in a class of toric manifolds without compact four-cycles. In appropriate limit we obtain a matrix model representation of refined topological string amplitudes. We consider a few explicit examples which include a matrix model for the refined resolved conifold, or equivalently five-dimensional U(1) gauge theory, as well as a matrix representation of the refined MacMahon function. Matrix models which we construct have ordinary unitary measure, while their potentials are modified to incorporate the effect of the refinement.

Sulkowski, Piotr [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2011-04-15

192

Matrix oscillator and Laughlin Hall states

We propose a quantum matrix oscillator as a model that provides the construction of the quantum Hall states in a direct way. A connection of this model to the regularized matrix model introduced by Polychronakos is established . By transferring the consideration to the Bargmann representation with the help of a particular similarity transformation, we show that the quantum matrix oscillator describes the quantum mechanics of electrons in the lowest Landau level with the ground state described by the Laughlin-type wave function. The equivalence with the Calogero model in one dimension is emphasized. It is shown that the quantum matrix oscillator and the finite matrix Chern-Simons model have the same spectrum on the singlet state sector.

S. Meljanac; A. Samsarov

2005-11-07

193

We clarify different definitions of the density matrix by proposing the use of different names, the full density matrix for a single-closed quantum system, the compressed density matrix for the averaged single molecule state from an ensemble of molecules, and the reduced density matrix for a part of an entangled quantum system, respectively. We show that ensembles with the same compressed density matrix can be physically distinguished by observing fluctuations of various observables. This is in contrast to a general belief that ensembles with the same compressed density matrix are identical. Explicit expression for the fluctuation of an observable in a specified ensemble is given. We have discussed the nature of nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing. We show that the conclusion that there is no quantum entanglement in the current nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiment is based on the unjustified belief that ensembles having the same compressed density matrix are identical physically. Related issues in quantum communication are also discussed.

Gui Lu Long; Yi-Fan Zhou; Jia-Qi Jin; Yang Sun; Hai-Woong Lee

2006-04-20

194

MUELLER MATRIX PARAMETERS FOR RADIO TELESCOPES AND THEIR OBSERVATIONAL DETERMINATION

MUELLER MATRIX PARAMETERS FOR RADIO TELESCOPES AND THEIR OBSERVATIONAL DETERMINATION Carl Heiles system. The transfer function for any device can be expressed by its Mueller matrix. We express is most generally described by a 4 \\Theta 4 matrix. This matrix is known as the Mueller matrix (Tinbergen

Heiles, Carl

195

Nuclear matrix proteins and hereditary diseases.

The review summarizes literature data on alterations of structure or expression of different nuclear matrix proteins in hereditary syndromes. From the point of view of involvement of nuclear matrix proteins in etiology and pathogenesis of the disease hereditary pathologies can be classified in pathologies with pathogenesis associated with defects of nuclear matrix proteins and pathologies associated to changes of the nuclear matrix protein spectrum. The first group includes laminopathies, hereditary diseases with abnormal nuclear-matrix associated proteins and triplet extension diseases associated with accumulation of abnormal proteins in the nuclear matrix. Laminopathies are hereditary diseases coupled to structural defects of the nuclear lamina. These diseases include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with conduction system disease, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder type 2, CMT2), mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), Hutchison Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGS), Greenberg Skeletal Dysplasia, and Pelger-Huet anomaly (PHA). Most of them are due to mutations in the lamin A/C gene, one - to mutations in emerin gene, some are associated with mutations in Lamin B receptor gene. In Werner's, Bloom's, Cockayne's syndromes, Fanconi anemia, multiple carboxylase deficiency mutations in nuclear matrix protein or enzyme gene lead to deficient DNA repair, abnormal regulation of cell growth and differentiation or other specific metabolic functions. Proteins with a long polyglutamic tract synthesized in the cells of patients with dentato-rubral and pallido-luysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease interfere with transcription on the nuclear matrix. Down's syndrome is a representative of the group of diseases with altered nuclear matrix protein spectrum. PMID:15865282

Sjakste, N; Sjakste, T

2005-03-01

196

Learned fusion operators based on matrix completion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficient and timely management of imagery captured in the battlefield requires methods capable of searching the voluminous databases and extracting highly symbolic concepts. When processing images, a semantic and definition gap exists between machine representations and the user's language. Based on matrix completion techniques, we present a fusion operator that fuses imagery and expert knowledge provided by user inputs during post analysis. Specifically, an information matrix is formed from imagery and a class map as labeled by an expert. From this matrix an image operator is derived for the extraction/prediction of information from future imagery. We will present results using this technique on single mode data.

Risko, Kelly K. D.; Hester, Charles F.

2011-05-01

197

A transilient matrix for moist convection

A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

2011-08-15

198

A matrix model for plane partitions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a matrix model equivalent (exactly, not asymptotically) to the random plane partition model, with almost arbitrary boundary conditions. Equivalently, it is also a random matrix model for a TASEP-like process with arbitrary boundary conditions. Using the known solution of matrix models, this method allows us to find the large size asymptotic expansion of plane partitions, to all orders. It also allows us to describe several universal regimes. On the algebraic geometry point of view, this gives the Gromov-Witten invariants of \\mathbb {C}^3 with branes, i.e. the topological vertex, in terms of the symplectic invariants of the mirror's spectral curve.

Eynard, B.

2009-10-01

199

Active Matrix OLED Test Report

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits from the environmental testing results by understanding its performance limitations/shortcomings to improve subsequent generations of AMOLED technology. Note that the AMOLED used in this test was not deSigned for the space environment but rather for commercial/industrial terrestrial applications.

Salazar, George

2013-01-01

200

Destruction of the extracellular matrices is required for tumor invasion and metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 degrades type IV collagen and laminin, major components of the basement membrane. Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activates the latent form of matrix metalloproteinase-2. We studied changes in membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in relation to the tumor differentiation of hepatocellular carcinomas.

Riko Ogata; Takuji Torimura; Motoaki Kin; Takato Ueno; Yukio Tateishi; Ryoko Kuromatsu; Yoshihiro Shimauchi; Masaharu Sakamoto; Seisyu Tamaki; Michio Sata; Kyuichi Tanikawa

1999-01-01

201

Let be an unknown M by N matrix. In matrix recovery, one takes linear measurements of , where and each is an M by N matrix. A popular approach for matrix recovery is nuclear norm minimization (NNM): solving the convex optimization problem for all , where denotes the nuclear norm, namely, the sum of singular values. Empirical work reveals a phase transition curve, stated in terms of the undersampling fraction , rank fraction , and aspect ratio . Specifically when the measurement matrices Ai have independent standard Gaussian random entries, a curve exists such that, if , NNM typically succeeds for large M,N, whereas if , it typically fails. An apparently quite different problem is matrix denoising in Gaussian noise, in which an unknown M by N matrix is to be estimated based on direct noisy measurements , where the matrix Z has independent and identically distributed Gaussian entries. A popular matrix denoising scheme solves the unconstrained optimization problem . When optimally tuned, this scheme achieves the asymptotic minimax mean-squared error , where . We report extensive experiments showing that the phase transition in the first problem, matrix recovery from Gaussian measurements, coincides with the minimax risk curve in the second problem, matrix denoising in Gaussian noise: , for any rank fraction (at each common aspect ratio ?). Our experiments considered matrices belonging to two constraint classes: real M by N matrices, of various ranks and aspect ratios, and real symmetric positive-semidefinite N by N matrices, of various ranks. PMID:23650360

Donoho, David L.; Gavish, Matan; Montanari, Andrea

2013-01-01

202

Snapshot Mueller matrix spectropolarimetry Nathan Hagen and Eustace L. Dereniak

Snapshot Mueller matrix spectropolarimetry Nathan Hagen and Eustace L. Dereniak Optical Sciences spectrally-resolved Mueller matrix polarimetry, based on chan- neled spectropolarimetry. After discussing: spectrometry, polarimetry, spectropolarimetry, Mueller matrix 1. INTRODUCTION The technique of channeled

Dereniak, Eustace L.

203

Snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter by wavelength polarization coding

Snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter by wavelength polarization coding Matthieu Dubreuil, Sylvain of our knowledge, experimental configuration of Mueller matrix polarimeter based on wavelength. Anastasiadou, E. DelÃ©chelle, and A. De Martino, "Registration scheme suitable to Mueller matrix imaging

Boyer, Edmond

204

Density matrix form of Gross-Pitaevskii equation

We consider the generalized pure state density matrix which depends on di?erent time moments. The evolution equation for this density matrix is obtained in case where the density matrix corresponds to the solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

V. N. Chernega; O. V. Man'ko; V. I. Man'ko

2014-04-28

205

Axial grading of inert matrix fuels

Burning actinides in an inert matrix fuel to 750 MWd/kg IHM results in a significant reduction in transuranic isotopes. However, achieving this level of burnup in a standard light water reactor would require residence times that are twice that of uranium dioxide fuels. The reactivity of an inert matrix assembly at the end of life is less than 1/3 of its beginning of life reactivity leading to undesirable radial and axial power peaking in the reactor core. Here we show that axial grading of the inert matrix fuel rods can reduce peaking significantly. Monte Carlo simulations are used to model the assembly level power distributions in both ungraded and graded fuel rods. The results show that an axial grading of uranium dioxide and inert matrix fuels with erbium can reduces power peaking by more than 50% in the axial direction. The reduction in power peaking enables the core to operate at significantly higher power. (authors)

Recktenwald, G. D.; Deinert, M. R. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

2012-07-01

206

Plato's Fire and the Neutrino Mass Matrix

With the accumulation of many years of solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation data, the approximate form of the 3 X 3 neutrino mixing matrix is now known. The theoretical challenge is to understand where this mixing matrix comes from. Recently, a remarkable fact was discovered that for a specific pattern of the neutrino mass matrix at a high scale, any flavor-changing radiative correction will automatically lead to the desired mixing matrix. It was also discovered that the required specific pattern at the high scale can be maintained by the non-Abelian discrete symmetry A_4 which is also the symmetry group of the regular tetrahedron, one of five perfect geometric solids known to Plato who associated it with the element ``fire''. I discuss this recent development and add to it a new and very simple mechanism for the implementation of the flavor-changing radiative correction.

Ernest Ma

2002-11-25

207

ESS Matrix: Biggest Ideas of Science

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the course development purposes, we can order and describe classes of system interactions possible using a design matrix that identifies case examples that illustrate the relationships and interactions between ...

208

Breast Multiple Primary and Histology Rules Matrix

Breast Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C500 – C509 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * Prepare one abstract. Use the histology coding rules to assign the appropriate histology code. ** Prepare two or more abstracts.

209

Chemical Additive Selection in Matrix Acidizing

occurred in 1984. Currently though, the petroleum industry better understands formation damage; uses different and more chemical additives in matrix stimulation treatments; and understands how some additives interact with one another affecting well...

Weidner, Jason 1981-

2011-05-09

210

The Extracellular Matrix: Not Just Pretty Fibrils

The extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM proteins are important in phenomena as diverse as developmental patterning, stem cell niches, cancer, and genetic diseases. The ECM has many effects beyond providing structural support. ...

Hynes, Richard O.

211

Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix debonding, reasonably good qualitative and quantitative correlation is achieved between model and experiment.

Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

1997-01-01

212

Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

McKigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony Keiran (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooke, David Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Ott, Kevin Curtis (Los Alamos, NM); Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal (Los Alamos, NM); Del Sesto, Rico Emilio (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-03-16

213

Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

214

Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue

Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.

Guo, Zaoyang [Departments of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

2010-05-21

215

Semiclassical matrix elements from periodic orbits

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension of Gutzwiller's (1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1990) semiclassical theory for chaotic systems that allows a determination of matrix elements in terms of classical periodic orbits. Associated zeta functions are derived. The semiclassical predictions are found to be in good agreement with Fourier transforms of quantum spectra of hydrogen in a magnetic field. Expressions for off-diagonal matrix elements are derived that are extensions of the Bohr correspondence relations for integrable systems.

Eckhardt, B.; Fishman, S.; Mueller, K.; Wintgen, D.

1992-01-01

216

Topological String Correlators from Matrix Models

We discuss how to compute connected matrix model correlators for operators related to the gravitational descendants of the puncture operator, for the topological A model on P^1. The relevant correlators are determined by recursion relations that follow from a systematic 1/N expansion of well chosen Schwinger-Dyson equations. Our results provide further compelling evidence for Gopakumar's proposed "simplest gauge string duality" between the Gaussian matrix model and the topological A model on P^1.

Robert de Mello Koch; Lwazi Nkumane

2015-02-07

217

Application of Fuzzy Logic to Matrix FMECA

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology combining the benefits of Fuzzy Logic and Matrix FMEA is presented in this paper. The presented methodology extends the risk prioritization beyond the conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method. Fuzzy logic is used to calculate the criticality rank. Also the matrix approach is improved further to develop a pictorial representation retaining all relevant qualitative and quantitative information of several FMEA elements relationships. The methodology presented is demonstrated by application to an illustrative example.

Shankar, N. Ravi; Prabhu, B. S.

2001-04-01

218

Correlation matrix for quartet codon usage

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been argued that the sum of usage probabilities for codons, belonging to quartets, that have as third nucleotide C or A, is independent of the biological species for vertebrates. The comparison between the theoretical correlation matrix derived from these sum rules and the experimentally computed matrix for 26 species shows a satisfactory agreement. The Shannon entropy, weakly depending on the biological species, gives further support. Suppression of codons containing the dinucleotides CG or AU is put in evidence.

Frappat, L.; Sciarrino, A.; Sorba, P.

2005-06-01

219

Properties of melt extruded enteric matrix pellets

The objective of this study was to investigate the properties of enteric matrix pellets that were prepared by hot-melt extrusion in a one-step, continuous process.Five polymers (Eudragit® L100-55, L100 and S100, Aqoat® grades LF and HF) were investigated as possible matrix formers, and pellets prepared with Eudragit® S100 demonstrated superior gastric protection and acceptable processibility. Extruded pellets containing Eudragit® S100

Sandra U. Schilling; Navnit H. Shah; A. Waseem Malick; James W. McGinity

2010-01-01

220

Semisupervised kernel matrix learning by kernel propagation.

The goal of semisupervised kernel matrix learning (SS-KML) is to learn a kernel matrix on all the given samples on which just a little supervised information, such as class label or pairwise constraint, is provided. Despite extensive research, the performance of SS-KML still leaves some space for improvement in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. For example, a recent pairwise constraints propagation (PCP) algorithm has formulated SS-KML into a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem, but its computation is very expensive, which undoubtedly restricts PCPs scalability in practice. In this paper, a novel algorithm, called kernel propagation (KP), is proposed to improve the comprehensive performance in SS-KML. The main idea of KP is first to learn a small-sized sub-kernel matrix (named seed-kernel matrix) and then propagate it into a larger-sized full-kernel matrix. Specifically, the implementation of KP consists of three stages: 1) separate the supervised sample (sub)set X(l) from the full sample set X; 2) learn a seed-kernel matrix on X(l) through solving a small-scale SDP problem; and 3) propagate the learnt seed-kernel matrix into a full-kernel matrix on X . Furthermore, following the idea in KP, we naturally develop two conveniently realizable out-of-sample extensions for KML: one is batch-style extension, and the other is online-style extension. The experiments demonstrate that KP is encouraging in both effectiveness and efficiency compared with three state-of-the-art algorithms and its related out-of-sample extensions are promising too. PMID:20923733

Hu, Enliang; Chen, Songcan; Zhang, Daoqiang; Yin, Xuesong

2010-11-01

221

Numerical analysis of a quadratic matrix equation

The quadratic matrix equation AX2+BX +C = 0 in n \\\\Theta n matrices arises inapplications and is of intrinsic interest as one of the simplest nonlinear matrix equations.We give a complete characterization of solutions in terms of the generalizedSchur decomposition and describe and compare various numerical solution techniques.In particular, we give a thorough treatment of functional iteration methodsbased on Bernoulli's

NICHOLAS J. HIGHAM; HYUN-MIN KIM

1999-01-01

222

Topological String Correlators from Matrix Models

We discuss how to compute connected matrix model correlators for operators related to the gravitational descendants of the puncture operator, for the topological A model on P^1. The relevant correlators are determined by recursion relations that follow from a systematic 1/N expansion of well chosen Schwinger-Dyson equations. Our results provide further compelling evidence for Gopakumar's proposed "simplest gauge string duality" between the Gaussian matrix model and the topological A model on P^1.

Robert de Mello Koch; Lwazi Nkumane

2014-11-19

223

Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Pudick, Sheldon (Sayreville, NJ); Wang, Chiu L. (Edison, NJ)

1988-01-01

224

Complementary ansatz for the neutrino mass matrix

We propose a simple ansatz for the three generation neutrino mass matrix M{sub {nu}} which is motivated from an SO(10) grand unified theory. The ansatz can be combined with information from neutrino oscillation experiments and bounds on neutrinoless double beta decay to determine the neutrino masses themselves and to reconstruct, with some assumptions, the matrix M{sub {nu}}. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Black, Deirdre [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States); Fariborz, Amir H. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States); Nasri, Salah [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States); Schechter, Joseph [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130 (United States)

2000-10-01

225

Commodity/Vendor Purchasing Matrix Vendor Location

Commodity/Vendor Purchasing Matrix Commodity Vendor N am e and A ddress Vendor N am e in eVA Vendor sheets of paper and bring to business office for payment. Vendor Purchasing Matrix 090413 Page 1 of 4 #12;Commodity Vendor N am e and A ddress Vendor N am e in eVA Vendor Location in eVA PO C ategory eVA PO needed

Swaddle, John

226

Some Large Scale Matrix Computation Problems

The central mathematical problem of this report is to bound the quantity u T f(A)v, where A is a given n \\Theta n real matrix, u and v are given n-vectors, and f is a given smooth function. Estimating the entries and the trace of the inverse of a matrix and the determinant of a matrix can be classified as such problems. There are a number of interesting applications for such matrix computation problems. The applications in fractal and lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) are our new motivation for studying such problems. In these applications, the matrices involved are sparse and could be up to the order of millions. It is still a challenging problem to efficiently solve such large matrix computation problems on today's supercomputers. 1 Introduction The central problem studied in this chapter is to estimate a lower bound L and/or an upper bound U , such that L u T f(A)v U; (1) where A is an n \\Theta n given real matrix, u and v are given n-vectors, and f is a given smooth fun...

Zhaojun Bai; Mark Fahey; Gene Golub

227

Density matrix of black hole radiation

Hawking's model of black hole evaporation is not unitary and leads to a mixed density matrix for the emitted radiation, while the Page model describes a unitary evaporation process in which the density matrix evolves from an almost thermal state to a pure state. We compare a recently proposed model of semiclassical black hole evaporation to the two established models. In particular, we study the density matrix of the outgoing radiation and determine how the magnitude of the off-diagonal corrections differs for the three frameworks. For Hawking's model, we find power-law corrections to the two-point functions that induce exponentially suppressed corrections to the off-diagonal elements of the full density matrix. This verifies that the Hawking result is correct to all orders in perturbation theory and also allows one to express the full density matrix in terms of the single-particle density matrix. We then consider the semiclassical theory for which the corrections, being non-perturbative from an effective fie...

Alberte, Lasma; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Medved, A J M

2015-01-01

228

Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.

2004-01-01

229

Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA); Lyon, Richard E. (Absecon, NJ); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

2006-03-28

230

Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4 percent, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.

Liu, H. K.; Liang, Y.-Z.

1984-01-01

231

A carbon-matrix composite with continuous carbon-fibers was found to be an excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material with shielding effectiveness 124dB, low surface impedance and high reflectivity in the frequency range from 0.3MHz to 1.5GHz. The shielding effectiveness of polymer-matrix composites with continuous carbon-fibers was less and that of polymer-matrix composites with discontinuous fillers was even less. The addition of

Xiangcheng Luo; D. D. L Chung

1999-01-01

232

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

Johnson, W. S.

1988-01-01

233

Auger analysis of a fiber/matrix interface in a ceramic matrix composite

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was used to characterize the fiber/matrix interface of an SiC fiber, reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composite. Depth profiles of the as received double coated fiber revealed concentration oscillations which disappeared after annealing the fiber in the environment used to fabricate the composite. After the composite was fractured, the Auger depth profiles showed that failure occurred in neither the Beta-SiC fiber body nor in the Si3N4 matrix but, concurrently, at the fiber coating/matrix interface and within the fiber coating itself.

Honecy, Frank S.; Pepper, Stephen V.

1988-01-01

234

Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.

Yadav, Vineet

2011-12-01

235

Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks. PMID:23671568

Kandiah, Vivek; Shepelyansky, Dima L

2013-01-01

236

Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

1993-01-01

237

Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences

For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix G of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of G is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of ...

Kandiah, Vivek

2013-01-01

238

Thermal shock resistance of ceramic matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental and analytical investigation of the thermal shock phenomena in ceramic matrix composites is detailed. The composite systems examined were oxide-based, consisting of an aluminosilicate matrix with either polycrystalline aluminosilicate or single crystal alumina fiber reinforcement. The program was divided into three technical tasks; baseline mechanical properties, thermal shock modeling, and thermal shock testing. The analytical investigation focused on the development of simple expressions for transient thermal stresses induced during thermal shock. The effect of various material parameters, including thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and thermal expansion, were examined analytically for their effect on thermal shock performance. Using a simple maximum stress criteria for each constituent, it was observed that fiber fracture would occur only at the most extreme thermal shock conditions and that matrix fracture, splitting parallel to the reinforcing fiber, was to be expected for most practical cases. Thermal shock resistance for the two material systems was determined experimentally by subjecting plates to sudden changes in temperature on one surface while maintaining the opposite surface at a constant temperature. This temperature change was varied in severity (magnitude) and in number of shocks applied to a given sample. The results showed that for the most severe conditions examined that only surface matrix fracture was present with no observable fiber fracture. The impact of this damage on material performance was limited to the matrix dominated properties only. Specifically, compression strength was observed to decrease by as much as 50 percent from the measured baseline.

Carper, D. M.; Nied, H. F.

1993-01-01

239

In this study, we determined the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and matrix metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor-1 and -2 in brain tissues and blood plasma of patients undergoing surgery for cerebellar arteriovenous malformations or primary epilepsy (control group). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor-1 was significantly higher in patients with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations than in patients with primary epilepsy. The ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-9 to matrix metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor-1 was significantly higher in patients with hemorrhagic cerebellar arteriovenous malformations compared with those with non-hemorrhagic malformations. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor-2 levels were not significantly changed. These findings indicate that an imbalance of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor-1, resulting in a relative overabundance of matrix metalloproteinase-9, might be the underlying mechanism of hemorrhage of cerebellar arteriovenous malformations.

Di, Fei; Chen, Tongyan; Li, Hongli; Zhao, Jizong; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuanli; Zhang, Dong

2012-01-01

240

Rev: 04.2014 Page 1 of 2 Safety Training Matrix Safety Training Matrix

Safety Online Refresher (subsequent) Annual EHS 15 Shipping Biological Materials (SBM) - ONLINE+$95 FEE 2 Safety Cabinet (BSC) 3 Years EHS 23 Working in a Barrier Facility - ONLINE+WALKTHROUGH 3 Years DLAM 12Rev: 04.2014 Page 1 of 2 Safety Training Matrix Safety Training Matrix For Laboratory Personnel 501

Jalali. Bahram

241

Cache oblivious storage and access heuristics for blocked matrix-matrix multiplication

The authors investigate effects of ordering in blocked matrix-matrix multiplication. They find that submatrices do not have to be stored contiguously in memory in order to achieve near optimal performance. They also find a good choice of execution order of submatrix operations can lead to a speedup of up to four times for small block sizes.

Bock, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rubensson, Emanuel H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Niklasson, Anders M N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salek, Pawel [SWEDEN

2008-01-01

242

Quaternion from rotation matrix. [four-parameter representation of coordinate transformation matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quaternion is regarded as a four-parameter representation of a coordinate transformation matrix, where the four components of the quaternion are treated on an equal basis. This leads to a unified, compact, and singularity-free approach to determining the quaternion when the matrix is given.

Shepperd, S. W.

1978-01-01

243

Viewing Polynomial Roots With Matrix Eyes: Part 1: Irrational Roots via Matrix Dynamics

1 Viewing Polynomial Roots With Matrix Eyes: Part 1: Irrational Roots via Matrix Dynamics Part 2 that converges to 0 #12;8 Dynamical View Â· Consider the orbits under repeated application of A starting from entries Â· Orbits from lattice points all converge to the line L Â· Let v be any integer vector. Let vn = A

Kalman, Dan

244

Laplace approximation for Bessel functions of matrix argument

We derive Laplace approximations to three functions of matrix argument which arise in statistics and elsewhere: matrix Bessel A?; matrix Bessel B?; and the type II confluent hypergeometric function of matrix argument, ?. We examine the theoretical and numerical properties of the approximations. On the theoretical side, it is shown that the Laplace approximations to A?, B? and ? given

Ronald W. Butler; Andrew T. A. Wood

2003-01-01

245

Systematic errors specific to a Snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter

1 Systematic errors specific to a Snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter Matthieu Dubreuil1 with systematic errors specific to a snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter by wavelength polarization coding its polarimetric signature via the measurement of its Mueller matrix. Since long full Mueller matrix

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

246

Matrix metalloproteinases as modulators of inflammation and innate immunity

As their name implies, matrix metalloproteinases are thought to be responsible for the turnover and degradation of the extracellular matrix. However, matrix degradation is neither the sole nor the main function of these proteinases. Indeed, as we discuss here, recent findings indicate that matrix metalloproteinases act on pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other proteins to regulate varied aspects of inflammation and

Carole L. Wilson; Yolanda S. López-Boado; William C. Parks

2004-01-01

247

POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL MATRIX INTERPOLATION: SYSTEMS AND CONTROL APPLICATIONS

POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL MATRIX INTERPOLATION: SYSTEMS AND CONTROL APPLICATIONS Panos J. Antsaklis.ece.nd.edu Abstract: In this paper, a theory of polynomial and rational matrix interpolation is hintrodued and applied. Rational matrix interpolation is also discussed and it is used to solve rational matrix equations including

Antsaklis, Panos

248

On Matrix Geometry and Effective Actions

We provide an elementary systematic discussion of single-trace matrix actions and of the group of matrix reparameterization that acts on them. The action of this group yields a generalized notion of gauge invariance which encompasses ordinary diffeomorphism and gauge invariances. We apply the formalism to non-abelian D-brane actions in arbitrary supergravity backgrounds, providing in particular explicit checks of the consistency of Myers' formulas with supergravity gauge invariances. We also draw interesting consequences for emergent space models based on the study of matrix effective actions. For example, in the case of the AdS_5XS^5 background, we explain how the standard tensor transformation laws of the supergravity fields under ordinary diffeomorphisms emerge from the D-instanton effective action in this background.

Frank Ferrari

2013-01-16

249

Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

1983-01-01

250

Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.

Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

2011-08-01

251

Membrane sorting via the extracellular matrix.

We consider the coupling between a membrane and the extracellular matrix. Computer simulations demonstrate that the latter coupling is able to sort lipids. It is assumed that membranes are elastic manifolds, and that this manifold is disrupted by the extracellular matrix. For a solid-supported membrane with an actin network on top, regions of positive curvature are induced below the actin fibers. A similar mechanism is conceivable by assuming that the proteins which connect the cytoskeleton to the membrane induce local membrane curvature. The regions of non-zero curvature exist irrespective of any phase transition the lipids themselves may undergo. For lipids that prefer certain curvature, the extracellular matrix thus provides a spatial template for the resulting lateral domain structure of the membrane. PMID:25450353

Sadeghi, Sina; Vink, Richard L C

2015-02-01

252

Google matrix analysis of directed networks

In past ten years, modern societies developed enormous communication and social networks. Their classification and information retrieval processing become a formidable task for the society. Due to the rapid growth of World Wide Web, social and communication networks, new mathematical methods have been invented to characterize the properties of these networks on a more detailed and precise level. Various search engines are essentially using such methods. It is highly important to develop new tools to classify and rank enormous amount of network information in a way adapted to internal network structures and characteristics. This review describes the Google matrix analysis of directed complex networks demonstrating its efficiency on various examples including World Wide Web, Wikipedia, software architecture, world trade, social and citation networks, brain neural networks, DNA sequences and Ulam networks. The analytical and numerical matrix methods used in this analysis originate from the fields of Markov chains, quantum chaos and Random Matrix theory.

Leonardo Ermann; Klaus M. Frahm; Dima L. Shepelyansky

2014-09-01

253

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1999-02-09

254

t matrix of metallic wire structures

To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

Zhan, T. R., E-mail: phystrzhan@gmail.com; Chui, S. T., E-mail: chui@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2014-04-14

255

Statistical properties of random matrix product states

We study the set of random matrix product states (RMPS) introduced by Garnerone, de Oliveira, and Zanardi [S. Garnerone, T. R. de Oliveira, and P. Zanardi, Phys. Rev. A 81, 032336 (2010)] as a tool to explore foundational aspects of quantum statistical mechanics. In the present work, we provide an accurate numerical and analytical investigation of the properties of RMPS. We calculate the average state of the ensemble in the nonhomogeneous case, and numerically check the validity of this result. We also suggest using RMPS as a tool to approximate properties of general quantum random states. The numerical simulations presented here support the accuracy and efficiency of this approximation. These results suggest that any generalized canonical state can be approximated with high probability by the reduced density matrix of a RMPS, if the average matrix product states coincide with the associated microcanonical ensemble.

Garnerone, Silvano; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Haas, Stephan; Zanardi, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2010-11-15

256

Import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix

Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment in all nucleated cells. They fulfill diverse metabolic tasks in response to environmental changes and cellular demands. This adaptation is implemented by modulation of the enzyme content of the organelles, which is accomplished by dynamically operating peroxisomal protein transport machineries. Soluble import receptors recognize their newly synthesized cargo proteins in the cytosol and ferry them to the peroxisomal membrane. Subsequently, the cargo is translocated into the matrix, where the receptor is ubiquitinated and exported back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. This review discusses the recent progress in our understanding of the peroxisomal matrix protein import and its regulation by ubiquitination events as well as the current view on the translocation mechanism of folded proteins into peroxisomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Origin and spatiotemporal dynamics of the peroxisomal endomembrane system. PMID:24069002

Hasan, Sohel; Platta, Harald W.; Erdmann, Ralf

2013-01-01

257

Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

2003-01-01

258

Phosphorylated silk fibroin matrix for methotrexate release.

Silk-based matrix was produced for delivery of a model anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX). The calculation of net charge of silk fibroin and MTX was performed to better understand the electrostatic interactions during matrix formation upon casting. Silk fibroin films were cast at pH 7.2 and pH 3.5. Protein kinase A was used to prepare phosphorylated silk fibroin. The phosphorylation content of matrix was controlled by mixing at specific ratios the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated solutions. In vitro release profiling data suggest that the observed interactions are mainly structural and not electrostatical. The release of MTX is facilitated by use of proteolytic enzymes and higher pHs. The elevated ?-sheet content and crystallinity of the acidified-cast fibroin solution seem not to favor drug retention. All the acquired data underline the prevalence of structural interactions over electrostatical interactions between methotrexate and silk fibroin. PMID:25435334

Volkov, Vadim; Sárria, Marisa P; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

2015-01-01

259

Introducing Matrix Operations through Biological Applications

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the Blue Waters Undergraduate Petascale Education Program (NSF), we developed a computational science module, "Living Links: Applications of Matrix Operations to Population Studies," which introduces matrix operations using applications to population studies and provides accompanying programs in a variety of systems (C/MPI, MATLAB, Mathematica). The module provides a foundation for the use of matrix operations that are essential to modeling numerous computational science applications from population studies to social networks. This paper describes the module; details experiences using the material in two undergraduate courses (High Performance Computing and Linear Algebra) in 2010 and 2011 at Wofford College and two workshops for Ph.D. students at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011; and describes refinements to the module based on suggestions in student and instructor evaluations.

Shiflet, Angela B.; Shiflet, George W.

260

Molecular Architecture and Function of Matrix Adhesions

Cell adhesions mediate important bidirectional interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix. They provide an interactive interface between the extracellular chemical and physical environment and the cellular scaffolding and signaling machinery. This dynamic, reciprocal regulation of intracellular processes and the matrix is mediated by membrane receptors such as the integrins, as well as many other components that comprise the adhesome. Adhesome constituents assemble themselves into different types of cell adhesion structures that vary in molecular complexity and change over time. These cell adhesions play crucial roles in cell migration, proliferation, and determination of cell fate. PMID:21441590

Geiger, Benjamin; Yamada, Kenneth M.

2011-01-01

261

General Polarization Matrix of Electromagnetic Radiation

A general form of the polarization matrix valid for any type of electromagnetic radiation (plane waves, multipole radiation etc.) is defined in terms of a certain bilinear form in the field-strength tensor. The quantum counterpart is determined as an operator matrix with normal-ordered elements with respect to the creation and annihilation operators. The zero-point oscillations (ZPO) of polarization are defined via difference between the anti-normal and normal ordered operator polarization matrices. It is shown that ZPO of the multipole field are stronger than those described by the model of plane waves and are concentrated in a certain neighborhood of a local source.

Muhammet Ali Can; Alexander S. Shumovsky

2001-05-15

262

We report on a new noble-gas molecule HXeOBr prepared in a low-temperature xenon matrix from the HBr and N{sub 2}O precursors by UV photolysis and thermal annealing. This molecule is assigned with the help of deuteration experiments and ab initio calculations including anharmonic methods. The H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeOBr is observed at 1634 cm{sup -1}, which is larger by 56 cm{sup -1} than the frequency of HXeOH identified previously. The experiments show a higher thermal stability of HXeOBr molecules in a xenon matrix compared to HXeOH.

Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tapio, Salla; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Raesaenen, Markku [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 (Finland); Isokoski, Karoliina [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lundell, Jan [Department of Chemistry, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2011-03-28

263

Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechenism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhaced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laborary as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

Kekäläinen, Pekka

2014-10-01

264

Simple matrix models for random Bergman metrics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the authors have proposed a new approach to the theory of random metrics, making an explicit link between probability measures on the space of metrics on a Kähler manifold and random matrix models. We consider simple examples of such models and study the one- and two-point functions of the metric. These geometric correlation functions correspond to new interesting types of matrix model correlators. We provide in particular a detailed study of the Wishart model, where we determine the correlation functions explicitly. We find that the random measure in this model turns out to be concentrated on the background metric in the large N limit.

Ferrari, Frank; Klevtsov, Semyon; Zelditch, Steve

2012-04-01

265

Simple matrix models for random Bergman metrics

Recently, the authors have proposed a new approach to the theory of random metrics, making an explicit link between probability measures on the space of metrics on a Kahler manifold and random matrix models. We consider simple examples of such models and compute the one and two-point functions of the metric. These geometric correlation functions correspond to new interesting types of matrix model correlators. We study a large class of examples and provide in particular a detailed study of the Wishart model.

Frank Ferrari; Semyon Klevtsov; Steve Zelditch

2011-12-19

266

Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

1977-01-01

267

New components of the Golgi matrix

The eukaryotic Golgi apparatus is characterized by a stack of flattened cisternae that are surrounded by transport vesicles. The organization and function of the Golgi require Golgi matrix proteins, including GRASPs and golgins, which exist primarily as fiber-like bridges between Golgi cisternae or between cisternae and vesicles. In this review, we highlight recent findings on Golgi matrix proteins, including their roles in maintaining the Golgi structure, vesicle tethering, and novel, unexpected functions. These new discoveries further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that maintain the structure and the function of the Golgi, as well as its relationship with other cellular organelles such as the centrosome. PMID:21494806

Xiang, Yi; Wang, Yanzhuang

2012-01-01

268

Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

2014-04-22

269

Uniqueness of the differential Mueller matrix of uniform homogeneous media.

We show that the differential matrix of a uniform homogeneous medium containing birefringence may not be uniquely determined from its Mueller matrix, resulting in the potential existence of an infinite set of elementary polarization properties parameterized by an integer parameter. The uniqueness depends on the symmetry properties of a special differential matrix derived from the eigenvalue decomposition of the Mueller matrix. The conditions for the uniqueness of the differential matrix are identified, physically discussed, and illustrated in examples from the literature. PMID:24875999

Devlaminck, Vincent; Ossikovski, Razvigor

2014-06-01

270

Scattering matrix elements of fractal-like soot agglomerates

The possibility of measuring scattering-matrix (Mueller matrix) elements of soot agglomerates with laser diagnostic techniques is explored. To show this, we calculated the scattering-matrix elements of arbitrary-shaped soot agglomerates. The sensitivity of scattering-matrix elements to optical and morphological characteristics of fractal-like soot agglomerates is discussed. Finally, possible measurement techniques are suggested to identify soot structures from scattering-matrix elements. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

Manickavasagam, S.; Menguec, M.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

1997-02-01

271

The origin of chondrules: Constraints from matrix composition and matrix-chondrule complementarity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major unresolved problems in cosmochemistry is the origin of chondrules, once molten, spherical silicate droplets with diameters of 0.2 to 2 mm. Chondrules are an essential component of primitive meteorites and perhaps of all early solar system materials including the terrestrial planets. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for their origin. Many carbonaceous chondrites are composed of about equal amounts of chondrules and fine-grained matrix. Recent data confirm that matrix in carbonaceous chondrites has high Si/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios when compared to bulk carbonaceous chondrites with solar abundance ratios. Chondrules have the opposite signature, low Si/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios. In some carbonaceous chondrites chondrules have low Al/Ti ratios, matrix has the opposite signature and the bulk is chondritic. It is shown in detail that these complementary relationships cannot have evolved on the parent asteroid(s) of carbonaceous chondrites. They reflect preaccretionary processes. Both chondrules and matrix must have formed from a single, solar-like reservoir. Consequences of complementarity for chondrule formation models are discussed. An independent origin and/or random mixing of chondrules and matrix can be excluded. Hence, complementarity is a strong constraint for all astrophysical-cosmochemical models of chondrule formation. Although chondrules and matrix formed from a single reservoir, the chondrule-matrix system was open to the addition of oxygen and other gaseous components.

Palme, Herbert; Hezel, Dominik C.; Ebel, Denton S.

2015-02-01

272

The algebras of large N matrix mechanics

Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden!) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.

Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.

1999-09-16

273

Asymmetric Twin Representation: the Transfer Matrix Symmetry

The symmetry of the Hamiltonian describing the asymmetric twin model was partially studied in earlier works, and our aim here is to generalize these results for the open transfer matrix. In this spirit we first prove, that the so called boundary quantum algebra provides a symmetry for any generic -- independent of the choice of model -- open transfer matrix with a trivial left boundary. In addition it is shown that the boundary quantum algebra is the centralizer of the $B$ type Hecke algebra. We then focus on the asymmetric twin representation of the boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. More precisely, by exploiting exchange relations dictated by the reflection equation we show that the transfer matrix with trivial boundary conditions enjoys the recognized ${\\cal U}_{q}(sl_2) \\otimes {\\cal U}_{{\\mathrm i}}(sl_2)$ symmetry. When a non-diagonal boundary is implemented the symmetry as expected is reduced, however again certain familiar boundary non-local charges turn out to commute with the corresponding transfer matrix.

Anastasia Doikou

2007-01-10

274

Brain and CNS Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

Malignant Meninges, Brain, Spinal Cord, Cranial Nerves, Pi tuitary gland, Craniopharyngeal duct and Pineal gland Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C700, C701, C709, C710-C719, C720-C725, C728, C729, C751-C753 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia – M9590-9989

275

Symmetry in Matrix Models Pierre Flener

Symmetry in Matrix Models Pierre Flener , Alan Frisch Â¡ , Brahim Hnich Â¢ , Zeynep Kiziltan models, sym- metry is an important feature. We study and generalise symmetry-breaking techniques with symmetry in such models in a uniform way. We thereby reduce the burden on the user of eliminating symmetry

Walsh, Toby

276

Symmetry-Breaking Constraints for Matrix Models

Symmetry-Breaking Constraints for Matrix Models Zeynep Kiziltan1 and Barbara M. Smith2 1 Department their rows and/or columns. Eliminating all such symmetry can be very costly as there are in general exponentially many symme- tries. Cost-effective methods have been proposed to break much of the symmetry

Flener, Pierre

277

Sparse matrix wavefront reconstruction: simulations and experiments

Adaptive optics systems with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors require reconstruction of the atmospheric phase error from subaperture slope measurements, with every sensor in the array being used in the computation of each actuator command. This fully populated reconstruction matrix can result in a significant computational burden for adaptive optics systems with large numbers of actuators. A method for generating sparse wavefront

Fang Shi; Douglas G. MacMartin; Mitchell Troy; Gary L. Brack; Rick S. Burruss; Richard G. Dekany

2003-01-01

278

Measuring Sparticles with the Matrix Element

We apply the Matrix Element Method (MEM) to mass determination of squark pair production with direct decay to quarks and LSP at the LHC, showing that simultaneous mass determination of squarks and LSP is possible. We furthermore propose methods for inclusion of QCD radiation effects in the MEM.

Alwall, Johan [SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Freitas, Ayres [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Mattelaer, Olivier [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, and Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, 00146, Roma (Italy); Universite Catholique de Louvain, 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

2010-02-10

279

The Complexity of Boolean Matrix Root Computation

We show that ìnding roots of Boolean matrices is an NP- hard problem. This answers a twenty year old question from semigroup theory. Interpreting Boolean matrices as directed graphs, we further re- veal a connection between Boolean matrix roots and graph isomorphism, which leads to a proof that for a certain subclass of Boolean matrices related to subdivision digraphs, root

Martin Kutz

2003-01-01

280

Simulating Microfracture In Metal-Matrix Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational procedures developed for simulating microfracture in metal-matrix/fiber composite materials under mechanical and/or thermal loads at ambient and high temperatures. Procedures evaluate microfracture behavior of composites, establish hierarchies and sequences of fracture modes, and examine influences of compliant layers and partial debonding on properties of composites and on initiation of microfractures in them.

Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

1994-01-01

281

Landau's density matrix in quantum electrodynamics

This paper is devoted to Landau's concept of the problem of damping in quantum mechanics. It shows that Landau's density matrix formalism should survive in the context of modern quantum electrodynamics. The correct generalized master equation has been derived for the reduced dynamics of the charges. The recent relativistic theory of spontaneous emission becomes reproducible.

L. Diósi

1990-01-01

282

Matrix of Hard and Soft Skills

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was developed by Access Tech Careers to support successful course completion for students with learning disabilities. This matrix displays intersections between hard skills, including reading, writing, oral communication, and math, with soft skills, including critical thinking, teamwork, professionalism, and adaptability. It can help instructors integrate hard and soft skills in course planning.

283

Time-resolved Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry

We present a new method of time-resolved Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry for spatial and temporal characterization of the polarization effects in backscattering from turbid media. The technique allows measuring the time evolution of spatially varying polarization patterns of diffusely backscattered light with picosecond resolution. A series of time-resolved polarization patterns are obtained at various time delays, are analyzed in sequence,

Ihor Berezhnyy; Aristide Dogariu

2004-01-01

284

Interpreting Mueller matrix images of tissues

In recent years, several investigators have begun to explore polarized light imagery as a potential diagnostic tool. For example, polarimetric images have shown promise in identifying a variety of dermatological conditions. Because tissues tend to depolarize a large fraction (~85%) of incident light, the Mueller calculus lends itself well to these applications. A particular property of the Mueller matrix, the

Matthew H. Smith

2001-01-01

285

Decomposition algorithm of an experimental Mueller matrix

This study deals with the interpretation of experimental Mueller matrices. The understanding of such a matrix is not straightforward in the case, in particular, of a strongly depolarizing medium, which is therefore disturbed and where relevant pieces of information are often distributed among its various elements. As a result, information data need to be extracted by a decomposition of any

F. Boulvert; G. Le Brun; B. Le Jeune; J. Cariou; L. Martin

2009-01-01

286

Optimization of a snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter.

We report on the optimization of a snapshot Mueller matrix polarimeter performed by using singular-value decomposition. The snapshot technique relies on wavelength polarization coding by four wave plates. The statistical noise on Mueller components is minimized through adjustment of the thickness of each plate. The spectrometer response and its cutoff frequency were considered to find the optimal configurations described here. PMID:18197220

Lemaillet, Paul; Rivet, Sylvain; Le Jeune, Bernard

2008-01-15

287

Matrix metalloproteinases and diseases of the CNS

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are increasingly being implicated in the pathogenesis of several CNS diseases. In multiple sclerosis, MMPs could be responsible for the influx of inflammatory mononuclear cells into the CNS, contribute to myelin destruction and disrupt the integrity of the blood–brain barrier; in Alzheimer's disease, MMPs might mediate the deposition of amyloid ?-proteins; and MMPs are known to contribute

Voon Wee Yong; Peter A. Forsyth; Robert Bell; Craig A. Krekoski; Dylan R. Edwards

1998-01-01

288

Matrix metalloproteinases: structures, evolution, and diversification

A comprehensive sequence alignment of 64 members of the family of matrix metallopro- teinases (MMPs) for the entire sequences, and sub- sequently the catalytic and the hemopexin-like do- mains, have been performed. The 64 MMPs were selected from plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The analyses disclosed that as many as 23 distinct sub- families of these proteins are known to exist.

IRINA MASSOVA; LAKSHMI P. KOTRA; RAFAEL FRIDMAN; SHAHRIAR MOBASHERY

289

Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis

Extensive work on the mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastasis has identified matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as key players in the events that underlie tumor dissemination. Studies using natural and synthetic MMP inhibitors, as well as tumor cells transfected with cDNAs encoding the MMPs characterized thus far have provided compelling evidence that MMP activity can induce or enhance tumor survival, invasion

Ivan Stamenkovic

2000-01-01

290

A Random Matrix Model of Black Holes

A random matrix model of black holes is given based on analysis of Gaussian complex ensembles, based on the generalization of chRMT of QCD. Spacetime freedoms are incorporated in terms of eigenvalues of the ensemble. Classical observables of black holes can be computed using this model and it satisfies asymptotic freedom and holographic principle.

Da Xu

2008-06-23

291

S-matrix theory of nuclear forces

The use of the S-matrix theory for deriving the nucleon-nucleon interaction is reviewed. Fits to recent NN data are described. Applications to nuclear structure properties and nucleon-nucleus reactions are also discussed, and the results compared with data. 20 references.

Vinh Mau, R.

1984-09-01

292

Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, ?, and ?. The range of the value of M, ?, and ? is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

2014-01-01

293

Photostability of extended-release matrix formulations

The photostability of drugs has been widely studied while less attention is devoted to the possible modifications that UV light may induce on the excipients of a dosage form, in particular, on the functional polymers used to modulate drug delivery. In this work we have evaluated the effect of UV light on the release characteristics of extended-release matrix tablets containing

L. Maggi; E. Ochoa Machiste; E. Fasani; A. Albini; L. Segale; U. Conte

2003-01-01

294

IMPROVING SANDSTONE MATRIX STIMULATION OF OIL

IMPROVING SANDSTONE MATRIX STIMULATION OF OIL WELLS BY GAS PRECONDITIONING M. A. Aggour, M. Al, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT Experience has shown that for sandstone formations, oil wells respond wells. It is, therefore, expected that stimulation of oil wells in sandstone formations could

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

295

RANK-SPARSITY INCOHERENCE FOR MATRIX DECOMPOSITION ...

Jun 11, 2009 ... vectors [3, 11] and low-rank matrices [22, 4] given incomplete observations. .... can be represented by Hankel matrices, where the matrix represents ... sity at a point as a function of the input transmission via a quadratic form.

2009-06-11

296

A contribution to matrix quadratic equations

The well-known matrix algebraic equation of the optimal control and filtering theory is considered. A necessary and sufficient condition for its solution to yield an optimal as well as asymptotically stable closed-loop system is given. The condition involves the concepts of stabilizability and detectability.

V. Kucera

1972-01-01

297

Matrix-Free Interior Point Method

Oct 5, 2009 ... while [10] regularizes the Hessian matrix (what in our terms would correspond ...... path following algorithm in which the Newton search directions are com- ... element in DS is selected to be the next pivot to enter DL, then the ...

2009-10-07

298

Silicon carbide yarn reinforced glass matrix composites

Continuous silicon carbide fibre yarn has been used as a reinforcement for borosilicate and 96% silica glass matrices. The resultant composites exhibit excellent levels of strength and elastic modulus up to temperatures of 600‡ C and 1100‡ C, respectively. At higher temperatures excessive matrix softening causes a significant reduction in composite flexural strength.

K. M. Prewo; J. J. Brennan

1982-01-01

299

PARTICIPANTS ATTENDING MATRIX SYMPOSIUM Gatlinburg, Tennessee

PARTICIPANTS ATTENDING MATRIX SYMPOSIUM Gatlinburg, Tennessee April 13-18, 1964 Dr. Julius Albrecht Laboratory Mathematics Division P.O. Box X Oak Ridge, Tennessee Dr. Robert L. Causey Lockheed Missiles Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant P.O. Box P Ok Ridge, Tennessee Mr. John M. Gary National Center

Higham, Nicholas J.

300

Polymer matrix electroluminescent materials and devices

Photoluminescent and electroluminescent compositions are provided which comprise a matrix comprising aromatic repeat units covalently coordinated to a phosphorescent or luminescent metal ion or metal ion complexes. Methods for producing such compositions, and the electroluminescent devices formed therefrom, are also disclosed.

Marrocco, III, Matthew L. (Fontana, CA); Motamedi, Farshad J. (Claremont, CA); Abdelrazzaq, Feras Bashir (Covina, CA); Abdelrazzaq, legal representative, Bashir Twfiq (Aman, JO)

2012-06-26

301

Common mode model of matrix converter

This paper deals with the validation of an EMI model to predict electromagnetic interferences (EMI) produced by direct AC\\/AC matrix converters (MC). The method is based on obtaining a high frequency equivalent circuit, using a combined time and frequency domain approach based on: \\

Jordi Espina; Josep Balcells; Carlos Ortega; Antoni Arias; Liliana de Lillo; Lee Empringham

2011-01-01

302

The Bushido Matrix for Couple Communication

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of Japanese Bushido and its seven virtues were introduced by the authors in this article for the practice and application of couple communication. The Bushido Matrix Worksheet (BMW) was created for enhancing couple's awareness and understanding of each other's values and experiences. An activity and a case study to demonstrate the use…

Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Ginsburg, Phil; Eckstein, Daniel

2012-01-01

303

Nonnegative matrix factorization for polyphonic music transcription

We present a methodology for analyzing polyphonic musical passages comprised of notes that exhibit a harmonically fixed spectral profile (such as piano notes). Taking advantage of this unique note structure, we can model the audio content of the musical passage by a linear basis transform and use non-negative matrix decomposition methods to estimate the spectral profile and the temporal information

Paris Smaragdis; Judith C. Brown

2003-01-01

304

Constrained Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Hyperspectral Unmixing

Hyperspectral unmixing is a process to identify the constituent materials and estimate the corresponding fractions from the mixture. During the last few years, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), as a suitable candidate for the linear spectral mixture model, has been applied to unmix hyperspectral data. Unfortunately, the local minima caused by the nonconvexity of the objective function makes the solution nonunique,

Sen Jia; Yuntao Qian

2009-01-01

305

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2012-01-01

306

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2011-01-01

307

PT-Symmetric Matrix Quantum Mechanics

Recently developed methods for PT-symmetric models are applied to quantum-mechanical matrix models. We consider in detail the case of potentials of the form $V=-(g/N^{p/2-1})Tr(iM)^{p}$ and show how the calculation of all singlet wave functions can be reduced to solving a one-dimensional PT-symmetric model. The large-N limit of this class of models exists, and properties of the lowest-lying singlet state can be computed using WKB. For $p=3,4$, the energy of this state for small values of $N$ appears to show rapid convergence to the large-N limit. For the special case of $p=4$, we extend recent work on the $-gx^{4}$ potential to the matrix model: we show that the PT-symmetric matrix model is equivalent to a hermitian matrix model with a potential proportional to $+(4g/N)Tr\\Pi^{4}$. However, this hermitian equivalent model includes an anomaly term $\\hbar\\sqrt{2g/N}Tr\\Pi$. In the large-N limit, the anomaly term does not contribute at leading order to the properties of singlet states.

Peter N. Meisinger; Michael C. Ogilvie

2007-01-23

308

Root coverage with enamel matrix derivatives.

Different root coverage procedures have been used to treat cases of gingival recession defects involving single or multiple exposed root surfaces. A therapeutic advantage may be gained if periodontal regeneration is obtained in addition to coverage of the root with gingiva. This article describes the treatment of gingival recession by combining a surgical technique with an enamel matrix derivative. PMID:12365135

Chen, Leon; Cha, Jennifer; Guiha, Rami; Bouwsma, Otis J

2002-09-01

309

Light weight polymer matrix composite material

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

310

Inverter Matrix for the Clementine Mission

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inverter matrix test circuit was designed for the Clementine space mission and is built into the RRELAX (Radiation and Reliability Assurance Experiment). The objective is to develop a circuit that will allow the evaluation of the CMOS FETs using a lean data set in the noisy spacecraft environment.

Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Tardio, G.; Soli, G. A.

1994-01-01

311

Evaluation of the Matrix Project. Interchange 77.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Matrix Project is a program that has been established in central Scotland with the aim of reducing the risk of offending and anti-social behavior among vulnerable children. The project provides a range of services to children between eight and 11 years of age who are at risk in the local authority areas of Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and…

McIvor, Gill; Moodie, Kristina

312

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-"science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics" (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!

Siegel, Z.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

313

Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite

Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland); Poteri, Antti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1608, VTT, FI-02044 (Finland)

2007-07-01

314

Bacterial enzymes have long been considered solely accountable for the degradation of the dentin matrix during the carious process. However, the emerging literature suggests that host-derived enzymes, and in particular the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contained in dentin and saliva can play a major role in this process by their ability to degrade the dentin matrix from within. These findings are important since they open new therapeutic options for caries prevention and treatment. The possibility of using MMP inhibitors to interfere with dentin caries progression is discussed. Furthermore, the potential release of bioactive peptides by the enzymatic cleavage of dentin matrix proteins by MMPs during the carious process is discussed. These peptides, once identified, may constitute promising therapeutical tools for tooth and bone regeneration. PMID:24198787

Chaussain, Catherine; Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Khaddam, Mayssam; Tjaderhane, Leo; George, Anne; Menashi, Suzanne

2013-01-01

315

Functions Preserving Matrix Groups and Iterations for the Matrix Square Root

NICHOLAS J. HIGHAM, D. STEVEN MACKEY, NILOUFER MACKEY, AND FRANCÂ¸OISE TISSEUR SIAM J. MATRIX ANAL. APPL. c benefits to be gained by exploiting it. The benefits include faster and more accu- rate algorithms as well

Higham, Nicholas J.

316

Pendulum impact resistance of tungsten fiber/metal matrix composites.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact properties of copper, copper-10 nickel, and a superalloy matrix reinforced with tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases the following increased composite impact strength: increased fiber or matrix toughness, decreased fiber-matrix reaction, increased test temperature, hot working and heat treatment. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber or matrix toughness. The effect of fiber content depended on the relative toughness of the fibers and matrix. Above 530 K a 60 volume per cent superalloy matrix composite had a greater impact strength than a turbine blade superalloy, whereas below 530 K a hot worked 56 volume per cent composite had a greater impact strength than the superalloy.

Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

1972-01-01

317

Local field effects in titanium matrix composites subject to fiber-matrix debonding

This paper addresses fiber-matrix debonding in titanium matrix composites (TMCs) using a recently developed micromechanics model known as the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC). By employing a higher-order displacement field, this model supercedes its predecessor, the generalized method of cells (GMC), in terms of micro-scale field accuracy. The import of this micro-scale accuracy is amplified in the case of

Brett A. Bednarcyk; Steven M. Arnold; Jacob Aboudi; Marek-Jerzy Pindera

2004-01-01

318

Biologically relevant, three-dimensional extracellular matrix is an essential component of in vitro vasculogenesis models. WI-38 fibroblasts assemble a 3D matrix that induces endothelial tubulogenesis, but this model is challenged by fibroblast senescence and the inability to distinguish endothelial cell-derived matrix from matrix made by WI-38 fibroblasts. Matrices produced by hTERT-immortalized WI-38 recapitulated those produced by wild type fibroblasts. ECM fibrils were heavily populated by tenascin-C, fibronectin, and type VI collagen. Nearly half of the total type I collagen, but only a small fraction of the type IV collagen, were incorporated into ECM. Stable hTERT-WI-38 transfectants expressing TagRFP-fibronectin incorporated TagRFP into ~90% of the fibronectin in 3D matrices. TagRFP-fibronectin colocalized with tenascin-C and with type I collagen in a pattern that was similar to that seen in matrices from wild type WI-38. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) formed 3D adhesions and tubes on WI38-hTERT-TagRFP-FN-derived matrices, and the TagRFP-fibronectin component of this new 3D human fibroblast matrix model facilitated the demonstration of concentrated membrane type 1 metalloprotease and new HUVEC FN and collagen type IV fibrils during EC tubulogenesis. These findings indicate that WI-38-hTERT- and WI-38-hTERT-TagRFP-FN-derived matrices provide platforms for the definition of new matrix assembly and remodeling events during vasculogenesis. PMID:25063001

Chang, Fumin; Lemmon, Christopher A; Nilaratanakul, Voraphoj; Rotter, Varda; Romer, Lewis

2014-11-01

319

We examine how the universality of two-nucleon interactions evolved using similarity renormalization group (SRG) transformations correlates with T-matrix equivalence, with the ultimate goal of gaining insight into universality for three-nucleon forces. With sufficient running of the SRG flow equations, the low-energy matrix elements of different realistic potentials evolve to a universal form. Because these potentials are fit to low-energy data, they are (approximately) phase equivalent only up to a certain energy, and we find universality in evolved potentials up to the corresponding momentum. More generally we find universality in local energy regions, reflecting a local decoupling by the SRG. The further requirements for universality in evolved potential matrix elements are explored using two simple alternative potentials. We see evidence that in addition to predicting the same observables, common long-range potentials (i.e., explicit pion physics) is required for universality in the potential matrix elements after SRG flow. In agreement with observations made previously for Vlowk evolution, regions of universal potential matrix elements are restricted to where half-on-shell T-matrix equivalence holds.

B. Dainton; R. J. Furnstahl; R. J. Perry

2014-01-27

320

Luneburg lens and optical matrix algebra research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planar, as opposed to channelized, integrated optical circuits (IOCs) were stressed as the basis for computational devices. Both fully-parallel and systolic architectures are considered and the tradeoffs between the two device types are discussed. The Kalman filter approach is a most important computational method for many NASA problems. This approach to deriving a best-fit estimate for the state vector describing a large system leads to matrix sizes which are beyond the predicted capacities of planar IOCs. This problem is overcome by matrix partitioning, and several architectures for accomplishing this are described. The Luneburg lens work has involved development of lens design techniques, design of mask arrangements for producing lenses of desired shape, investigation of optical and chemical properties of arsenic trisulfide films, deposition of lenses both by thermal evaporation and by RF sputtering, optical testing of these lenses, modification of lens properties through ultraviolet irradiation, and comparison of measured lens properties with those expected from ray trace analyses.

Wood, V. E.; Busch, J. R.; Verber, C. M.; Caulfield, H. J.

1984-01-01

321

Retroviral matrix and lipids, the intimate interaction

Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that assemble on the inner leaflet of cellular membranes. Improving biophysical techniques has recently unveiled many molecular aspects of the interaction between the retroviral structural protein Gag and the cellular membrane lipids. This interaction is driven by the N-terminal matrix domain of the protein, which probably undergoes important structural modifications during this process, and could induce membrane lipid distribution changes as well. This review aims at describing the molecular events occurring during MA-membrane interaction, and pointing out their consequences in terms of viral assembly. The striking conservation of the matrix membrane binding mode among retroviruses indicates that this particular step is most probably a relevant target for antiviral research. PMID:21385335

2011-01-01

322

Primitive material surviving in chondrites - Matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A logical place to search for surviving pristine nebular material is in the fine-grained matrices of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic type 3. Unfortunately, many of these chondrites have experienced brecciation, thermal metamorphism, and aqueous alteration, so that interpreting individual features in terms of specific nebular conditions and/or processes is difficult. It follows that the origin and evolutionary history of such matrix phases are controversial, and a consensus is difficult to define. In this chapter, therefore, after summarizing the salient mineralogical, petrographic, chemical, and isotopic features of matrix in apparently primitive chondrites, an attempt is made to provide an overview both of areas of agreement and of topics that are currently in dispute.

Scott, E. R. D.; Barber, D. J.; Alexander, C. M.; Hutchinson, R.; Peck, J. A.

1988-01-01

323

Visualization of a stock market correlation matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel application of Neighbor-Net, a clustering algorithm developed for constructing a phylogenetic network in the field of evolutionary biology, to visualizing a correlation matrix. We apply Neighbor-Net as implemented in the SplitsTree software package to 48 stocks listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange. We show that by visualizing the correlation matrix using a Neighbor-Net splits graph and its associated circular ordering of the stocks that some of the problems associated with understanding the large number of correlations between the individual stocks can be overcome. We compare the visualization of Neighbor-Net with that provided by hierarchical clustering trees and minimum spanning trees. The use of Neighbor-Net networks, or splits graphs, yields greater insight into how closely individual stocks are related to each other in terms of their correlations and suggests new avenues of research into how to construct small diversified stock portfolios.

Rea, Alethea; Rea, William

2014-04-01

324

Matrix factorizations, minimal models and Massey products

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to compute the full non-linear deformations of matrix factorizations for ADE minimal models. This method is based on the calculation of higher products in the cohomology, called Massey products. The algorithm yields a polynomial ring whose vanishing relations encode the obstructions of the deformations of the D-branes characterized by these matrix factorizations. This coincides with the critical locus of the effective superpotential which can be computed by integrating these relations. Our results for the effective superpotential are in agreement with those obtained from solving the A-infinity relations. We point out a relation to the superpotentials of Kazama-Suzuki models. We will illustrate our findings by various examples, putting emphasis on the E_6 minimal model.

Knapp, Johanna; Omer, Harun

2006-05-01

325

Decomposition algorithm of an experimental Mueller matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the interpretation of experimental Mueller matrices. The understanding of such a matrix is not straightforward in the case, in particular, of a strongly depolarizing medium, which is therefore disturbed and where relevant pieces of information are often distributed among its various elements. As a result, information data need to be extracted by a decomposition of any Mueller matrix into simple elements to uncouple the existing polarimetric effects. This led us to develop an algorithm in order to characterize any depolarizing, or not, polarimetric system. In addition to differentiating the experimental noise from the intrinsic depolarization of the optical system under study, this algorithm proved to: (i) separate depolarization from birefringence and dichroism and (ii) characterize the isotropic or anisotropic nature of the depolarization. At last, this algorithm was validated through the study of several optical systems with different polarimetric properties.

Boulvert, F.; Le Brun, G.; Le Jeune, B.; Cariou, J.; Martin, L.

2009-03-01

326

Fermi matrix element with isospin breaking

Prompted by the level of accuracy now being achieved in tests of the unitarity of the CKM matrix, we consider the possible modification of the Fermi matrix element for the $\\beta$-decay of a neutron, including possible in-medium and isospin violating corrections. While the nuclear modifications lead to very small corrections once the Behrends-Sirlin-Ademollo-Gatto theorem is respected, the effect of the $u-d$ mass difference on the conclusion concerning $V_{ud}$ is no longer insignificant. Indeed, we suggest that the correction to the value of $|V_{ud}|^2 \\, + \\, |V_{us}|^2 \\, + \\, |V_{ub}|^2$ is at the level of $10^{-4}$.

P. A. M. Guichon; A. W. Thomas; K. Saito

2011-01-12

327

Matrix Product States for Gauge Field Theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matrix product state formalism is used to simulate Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories. To this end, we define matrix product state manifolds which are manifestly gauge invariant. As an application, we study (1+1)-dimensional one flavor quantum electrodynamics, also known as the massive Schwinger model, and are able to determine very accurately the ground-state properties and elementary one-particle excitations in the continuum limit. In particular, a novel particle excitation in the form of a heavy vector boson is uncovered, compatible with the strong coupling expansion in the continuum. We also study full quantum nonequilibrium dynamics by simulating the real-time evolution of the system induced by a quench in the form of a uniform background electric field.

Buyens, Boye; Haegeman, Jutho; Van Acoleyen, Karel; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank

2014-08-01

328

Parallel matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Matrix multiplication is a computation and communication intensive problem. Six parallel algorithms for matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine are presented and compared with respect to their performance and processor usage. For n by n matrices, the algorithms have theoretical running times of O(n to the 2nd power log n), O(n log n), O(n), and O(log n), and require n, n to the 2nd power, n to the 2nd power, and n to the 3rd power processors, respectively. With careful attention to communication patterns, the theoretically predicted runtimes can indeed be achieved in practice. The parallel algorithms illustrate the tradeoffs between performance, communication cost, and processor usage.

Tichy, Walter F.

1988-01-01

329

Construction of random perfect phylogeny matrix

Purpose Interest in developing methods appropriate for mapping increasing amounts of genome-wide molecular data are increasing rapidly. There is also an increasing need for methods that are able to efficiently simulate such data. Patients and methods In this article, we provide a graph-theory approach to find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a phylogeny matrix with k nonidentical haplotypes, n single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and a population size of m for which the minimum allele frequency of each SNP is between two specific numbers a and b. Results We introduce an O(max(n2, nm)) algorithm for the random construction of such a phylogeny matrix. The running time of any algorithm for solving this problem would be ? (nm). Conclusion We have developed software, RAPPER, based on this algorithm, which is available at http://bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/softwares/RAPPER. PMID:21918630

Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz; Ahmadian, Sara; Abadi, Sepideh Mah

2010-01-01

330

Primitive ultrafine matrix in ordinary chondrites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrafine matrix material has been concentrated by sieving and filtering disaggregated samples of six ordinary chondrites of different classes. This component(s), 'Holy Smoke' (HS), is enriched in both volatile, e.g. Na, K, Zn, Sb, and Pb, as well as refractory elements, e.g. W and REE; however, the element ratios vary greatly among the different chondrites. SEM studies show that HS contains fragile crystals, differing in composition, and apparently in gross disequilibrium not only among themselves but also with the major mineral phases and consequently thermodynamic equilibration did not occur. Thus HS must have originated from impacting bodies and/or was inherent in the 'primitive' regolith. Subsequent impact brecciation and reheating appears to have altered, to varying degrees, the original composition of this ultrafine matrix material. Recent 'cosmic dust' studies may indicate that HS still exists in the solar system. Survival of such delicate material must be considered in all theories for the origin of chondrites.

Rambaldi, E. R.; Fredriksson, B. J.; Fredriksson, K.

1981-01-01

331

METCAN: The metal matrix composite analyzer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are the subject of intensive study and are receiving serious consideration for critical structural applications in advanced aerospace systems. MMC structural analysis and design methodologies are studied. Predicting the mechanical and thermal behavior and the structural response of components fabricated from MMC requires the use of a variety of mathematical models. These models relate stresses to applied forces, stress intensities at the tips of cracks to nominal stresses, buckling resistance to applied force, or vibration response to excitation forces. The extensive research in computational mechanics methods for predicting the nonlinear behavior of MMC are described. This research has culminated in the development of the METCAN (METal Matrix Composite ANalyzer) computer code.

Hopkins, Dale A.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

1988-01-01

332

Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

Shamsuddin, S. [Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Jamaludin, S. B. [School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Hussain, Z.; Ahmad, Z. A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Prai Selatan, Pulau Pinang, Malaysi (Malaysia)

2010-03-11

333

CELLULAR CONTROL OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE MATRIX TENSION†

The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation. We propose that this response of fibroblasts plays a role in regulating extracellular fluid flow into the tissue, and protects against swelling when the matrix is stretched. This article reviews the evidence supporting possible mechanisms underlying this response including autocrine purinergic signaling. We also discuss fibroblast regulation of connective tissue tension with respect to lymphatic flow, immune function and cancer. PMID:23444198

Langevin, Helene M.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Howe, Alan

2013-01-01

334

Advanced ceramic matrix composites for TPS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology provide considerable opportunity for application to future aircraft thermal protection system (TPS), providing materials with higher temperature capability, lower weight, and higher strength and stiffness than traditional materials. The Thermal Protection Material Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has been making significant progress in the development, characterization, and entry simulation (arc-jet) testing of new CMC's. This protection gives a general overview of the Ames Thermal Protection Materials Branch research activities, followed by more detailed descriptions of recent advances in very-high temperature Zr and Hf based ceramics, high temperature, high strength SiC matrix composites, and some activities in polymer precursors and ceramic coating processing. The presentation closes with a brief comparison of maximum heat flux capabilities of advanced TPS materials.

Rasky, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

335

Delocalization transition for the Google matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the localization properties of eigenvectors of the Google matrix, generated both from the world wide web and from the Albert-Barabási model of networks. We establish the emergence of a delocalization phase for the PageRank vector when network parameters are changed. For networks with localized PageRank, eigenvalues of the matrix in the complex plane with a modulus above a certain threshold correspond to localized eigenfunctions while eigenvalues below this threshold are associated with delocalized relaxation modes. We argue that, for networks with delocalized PageRank, the efficiency of information retrieval by Google-type search is strongly affected since the PageRank values have no clear hierarchical structure in this case.

Giraud, Olivier; Georgeot, Bertrand; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

2009-08-01

336

Matrix product states for gauge field theories.

The matrix product state formalism is used to simulate Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories. To this end, we define matrix product state manifolds which are manifestly gauge invariant. As an application, we study (1+1)-dimensional one flavor quantum electrodynamics, also known as the massive Schwinger model, and are able to determine very accurately the ground-state properties and elementary one-particle excitations in the continuum limit. In particular, a novel particle excitation in the form of a heavy vector boson is uncovered, compatible with the strong coupling expansion in the continuum. We also study full quantum nonequilibrium dynamics by simulating the real-time evolution of the system induced by a quench in the form of a uniform background electric field. PMID:25215973

Buyens, Boye; Haegeman, Jutho; Van Acoleyen, Karel; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank

2014-08-29

337

Response matrix transport calculations on parallel computers

The response matrix method offers an excellent vehicle for adapting three-dimensional neutron transport methods to parallel computers. Our current thrust is in utilizing the three-dimensional Variational nodal code VARIANT as a point of departure for performing three- dimensional parallel computations on the IBM SPx at Argonne National Laboratory. The code employs a planar red-black iteration with a secondary red-black or four-color iteration within each plane. Speed- up and efficiency results have been obtained with a two-stage parallel implementation. First, the response matrix coefficients are calculated in parallel for each unique node type. Second, parallel iterations are performed with one red-black pair of planes assigned to each processor. A hierarchical structure may be employed to obtain finer parallel granularity by assigning multiple processors to the planer red-black or four-color iterations.

Hanebutte, U.R.; Palmiotti, G.; Khalil, H.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.; Tatsumi, M. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Lewis, E.E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31

338

Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

2014-01-01

339

A tough high performance composite matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a semi-interpenetrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. An improved high temperature matrix resin is provided which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance and moisture and solvent resistances.

Pater, Ruth H. (inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (inventor)

1992-01-01

340

Toughening mechanisms in weak matrix ceramic composites

Tough behavior of ceramic matrix composites is closely related to the weak interface between fiber and matrix. The weak interfaces in composites were produced by reducing the chemical bonding and the residual thermal stresses between constituents. A new way to introduce the weak interface by induced porosity or damaged zones, porosity toughening or damage toughening respectively, was proposed to provide the rationale for guiding the development of oxide/oxide composites. The existence of porosity toughening was examined by qualitative theoretical consideration and experiments. Porous oxide/oxide composites were fabricated using alumino-silcate fibers (Nextel 440) and magnesium alumino-silicate matrix (1:1 mixture of kaolinite and talc), and sintered at 1100 and 1200 C. Both types of composites failed non-catastrophically in bending and tensile tests. The porous matrix composites showed the low ultimate strength of 12.7 +/- 3.4 MPa, but showed high work of fracture of 630 +/- 206 J/sq m for the specimens fired at 1100 C when tested in tension. Damaged zones or porous phases were introduced into the interface region of model composites and effects were determined using a single fiber pullout specimen or a single rod pullout specimen. Single fiber pullout specimens with a damaged zone (by the oxidation of SiC fiber in situ) produced higher frictional stress than debonding strength. Frictional stresses increased up to 6.4 +/- 3.4 MPa as pullout of the damaged fiber proceeded. The porous phase was produced by coating alumina rods with zirconia or alumino-silicates fired at various temperatures. Distinct changes in pullout behavior were observed in data for the specimens with an alumino-silicate coating fired at 1450 C. Magnitudes of frictional stress and debonding strength of the interface were both less than 2 MPa. Both coatings produced a gradual change of the pullout load during the pullout tests.

Ha, Jowoong.

1991-01-01

341

Transferring elements of a density matrix

We study restrictions imposed by quantum mechanics on the process of matrix-element transfer. This problem is at the core of quantum measurements and state transfer. Given two systems A and B with initial density matrices lambda and r, respectively, we consider interactions that lead to transferring certain matrix elements of unknown lambda into those of the final state r-tilde of B. We find that this process eliminates the memory on the transferred (or certain other) matrix elements from the final state of A. If one diagonal matrix element is transferred, r(tilde sign){sub aa}=lambda{sub aa}, the memory on each nondiagonal element lambda{sub an}ot ={sub b} is completely eliminated from the final density operator of A. Consider the following three quantities, Relambda{sub an}ot ={sub b}, Imlambda{sub an}ot ={sub b}, and lambda{sub aa}-lambda{sub bb} (the real and imaginary part of a nondiagonal element and the corresponding difference between diagonal elements). Transferring one of them, e.g., Rer(tilde sign){sub an}ot ={sub b}=Relambda{sub an}ot ={sub b}, erases the memory on two others from the final state of A. Generalization of these setups to a finite-accuracy transfer brings in a trade-off between the accuracy and the amount of preserved memory. This trade-off is expressed via system-independent uncertainty relations that account for local aspects of the accuracy-disturbance trade-off in quantum measurements. Thus, the general aspect of state disturbance in quantum measurements is elimination of memory on non-diagonal elements, rather than diagonalization.

Allahverdyan, Armen E. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Brothers Street 2, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Hovhannisyan, Karen V. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Brothers Street 2, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Yerevan State University, A. Manoogian Street 1, Yerevan (Armenia)

2010-01-15

342

Sparse Matrix Wavefront Reconstruction: Simulations and Experiments

ABSTRACT Adaptive optics systems with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors require reconstruction of the atmospheric,phase error from slope measurements, with every sensor in the array being used in the computation of each actuator command. This fully populated reconstruction matrix can result in a significant computational burden for adaptive optics systems with large numbers,of actuators. A method,for generating sparse wavefront,reconstruction matrices for adaptive

Fang Shi; Douglas G. Macmartinb; Mitchell Troy; Gary L. Brack; Rick S. Burrussc; Richard G. Dekanyb

343

Quasiperiodic solutions for matrix nonlinear Schrödinger equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adler-Kostant-Symes theorem yields isospectral Hamiltonian flows on the dual ?erm>˜g+* of a Lie subalgebra ?erm>˜g+ of a loop algebra ?erm>˜g. A general approach relating the method of integration of Krichever, Novikov, and Dubrovin to such flows is used to obtain finite-gap solutions of matrix nonlinear Schrödinger equations in terms of quotients of ? functions.

Wisse, M. A.

1992-11-01

344

Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by green tea catechins

We have investigated the effects of different biologically active components from natural products, including green tea polyphenols (GTP), resveratrol, genistein and organosulfur compounds from garlic, on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and MMP-12 activities. GTP caused the strongest inhibition of the three enzymes, as measured by fluorescence assays using gelatin or elastin as substrates. The inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 caused

Michel Demeule; Mathieu Brossard; Martine Pagé; Denis Gingras; Richard Béliveau

2000-01-01

345

Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); Mckigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-11-16

346

Axially resolved complete Mueller matrix confocal microscopy

We introduce a technique that is capable of obtaining complete polarization-sensitive three-dimensional images that could reveal unknown anatomical conditions of living tissue that possess polarization- dependent signatures. Previously, the 16 Mueller coefficients were measured independently only by use of two-dimensional imaging techniques. We also present the experimental combination of a depth-resolved confocal imaging system with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter.

David Lara; Chris Dainty

2006-01-01

347

Mueller matrix decomposition for biological tissue analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the polarimetric characterization of biological tissues based on the Stokes-Mueller formalism. The optimal experimental conditions to study irradiated pig skin samples are analyzed. Two Mueller matrix decomposition techniques, the one developed by Lu and Chipman and the other by Ossikovski, are used. These decompositions allow identification of useful factors such as retardance, diattenuation and depolarization for differentiating between various levels of irradiation and for better interpreting the behavior of the skin with respect to irradiation.

Martin, L.; Le Brun, G.; Le Jeune, B.

2013-04-01

348

Mueller matrix analysis of light depolarization

In this paper an attempt is made to investigate how incident light propagating through a linear non-image-forming optical device, or scattered by a linear medium is depolarized using the Mueller matrix formalism. There are multiple definitions of depolarization in the literature which led to a difficulty, i.e. a non-depolarizing optical medium may decrease the degree of polarization of an incident

Christian Brosseau

1995-01-01

349

Mueller-matrix characterization of biological tissues

\\u000a Various kinds of abnormalities and pathologies result in changes of the structural properties of collagen and other fibrous\\u000a biological tissues, thereby leading to significant alterations of their morphological and anisotropic properties. The Mueller\\u000a matrix contains all the optical information that one can obtain from light scattered by a medium and, therefore, shows great\\u000a promise for the efficient use of polarization

Sergey N. Savenkov

350

Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

Morgan, W.C.

1981-06-01

351

Constructing gauge theory geometries from matrix models

We use the matrix model - gauge theory correspondence of Dijkgraaf and Vafa in order to construct the geometry encoding the exact gaugino condensate superpotential for the Script N = 1 U(N) gauge theory with adjoint and symmetric or anti-symmetric matter, broken by a tree level superpotential to a product subgroup involving U(Ni) and SO(Ni) or Sp({Ni}\\/2) factors. The relevant

Albrecht Klemm; Karl Landsteiner; Calin Iuliu Lazaroiu; Ingo Runkel

2003-01-01

352

Boost matrix converters in clean energy systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes an investigation of novel power electronic converters, based on the ultra-sparse matrix topology and characterized by the minimum number of semiconductor switches. The Z-source, Quasi Z-source, Series Z-source and Switched-inductor Z-source networks were originally proposed for boosting the output voltage of power electronic inverters. These ideas were extended here on three-phase to three-phase and three-phase to single-phase indirect matrix converters. For the three-phase to three-phase matrix converters, the Z-source networks are placed between the three-switch input rectifier stage and the output six-switch inverter stage. A brief shoot-through state produces the voltage boost. An optimal pulse width modulation technique was developed to achieve high boosting capability and minimum switching losses in the converter. For the three-phase to single-phase matrix converters, those networks are placed similarly. For control purposes, a new modulation technique has been developed. As an example application, the proposed converters constitute a viable alternative to the existing solutions in residential wind-energy systems, where a low-voltage variable-speed generator feeds power to the higher-voltage fixed-frequency grid. Comprehensive analytical derivations and simulation results were carried out to investigate the operation of the proposed converters. Performance of the proposed converters was then compared between each other as well as with conventional converters. The operation of the converters was experimentally validated using a laboratory prototype.

Karaman, Ekrem

353

Perturbative determination of nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements

Equations for the first- and second-derivative coupling matrix elements between the adiabatic electronic wave functions of a canonical Van Vleck approach are derived for the case of a single nuclear coordinate. Expressions for their order-by-order evaluation, analogous to the multidimensional perturbative expansion of the effective Hamiltonian (given elsewhere) are presented. Diagrammatic notations useful for enumerating certain components of the derivatives are introduced, and the diagrams required through first order are shown.

Redmon, L.T.

1982-05-01

354

Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

1973-01-01

355

Spin Forming of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory effort between NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and SpinCraft, Inc., to experimentally spin form cylinders and concentric parts from small and thin sheets of aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (MMC), successfully yielded good microstructure data and forming parameters. MSFC and SpinCraft will collaborate on the recent technical findings and develop strategy to implement this technology for NASA's advanced propulsion and airframe applications such as pressure bulkheads, combustion liner assemblies, propellant tank domes, and nose cone assemblies.

Lee, Jonathan A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

356

Plastic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

Most plastic resins are not suitable for structural applications. Although many resins are extremely tough, most lack strength, stiffness, and deform under load with time. By mixing strong, stiff, fibrous materials into the plastic matrix, a variety of structural composite materials can be formed. The properties of these composites can be tailored by fiber selection, orientation, and other factors to suit specific applications. The advantages and disadvantages of fiberglass, carbon-graphite, aramid (Kevlar 49), and boron fibers are summarized.

NONE

1991-09-19

357

Polynomial Matrix Decompositions: Algorithms and Applications

and with different delays Polynomial mixing matrix required, where each element is an FIR filter More realistic multichannel all-pass filter): Az=Az Hz H z= Hz H z=I A z = A Â¿ T 1/z det[ Az]=constant #12;7 http://www the decompositions Motivation: the QR decomposition in narrowband signal processing a11 a21 a22 a12 x1 x2 y1 y2 [y1 y

Davies, Christopher

358

Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Progar, Donald J. (inventor)

1990-01-01

359

Metal matrix composite structural panel construction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight capped honeycomb stiffeners for use in fabricating metal or metal/matrix exterior structural panels on aerospace type vehicles and the process for fabricating same are disclosed. The stiffener stringers are formed in sheets, cut to the desired width and length and brazed in spaced relationship to a skin with the honeycomb material serving directly as the required lightweight stiffeners and not requiring separate metal encasement for the exposed honeycomb cells.

Mcwithey, R. R.; Royster, D. M. (inventors); Bales, T. T.

1983-01-01

360

Twisted mass QCD for weak matrix elements

I report on the application of tmQCD techniques to the computation of hadronic matrix elements of four-fermion operators. Emphasis is put on the computation of $B_K$ in quenched QCD performed by the ALPHA Collaboration. The extension of tmQCD strategies to the study of neutral $B$-meson mixing is briefly discussed. Finally, some remarks are made concerning proposals to apply tmQCD to the computation of $K\\to\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes.

Carlos Pena

2006-10-19

361

Low-power SXGA active matrix OLED

This paper presents the design and first evaluation of a full-color 1280×3×1024 pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) microdisplay that operates at a low power of 200mW under typical operating conditions of 35fL, and offers a precision 30-bit RGB digital interface in a compact size (0.78-inch diagonal active area). The new system architecture developed by eMagin for the

Ihor Wacyk; Olivier Prache; Amal Ghosh

2009-01-01

362

Let X(0) be an unknown M by N matrix. In matrix recovery, one takes n < MN linear measurements y(1),…,y(n) of X(0), where y(i) = Tr(A(T)iX(0)) and each A(i) is an M by N matrix. A popular approach for matrix recovery is nuclear norm minimization (NNM): solving the convex optimization problem min ||X||*subject to y(i) =Tr(A(T)(i)X) for all 1 ? i ? n, where || · ||* denotes the nuclear norm, namely, the sum of singular values. Empirical work reveals a phase transition curve, stated in terms of the undersampling fraction ?(n,M,N) = n/(MN), rank fraction ?=rank(X0)/min {M,N}, and aspect ratio ?=M/N. Specifically when the measurement matrices Ai have independent standard Gaussian random entries, a curve ?*(?) = ?*(?;?) exists such that, if ? > ?*(?), NNM typically succeeds for large M,N, whereas if ? < ?*(?), it typically fails. An apparently quite different problem is matrix denoising in Gaussian noise, in which an unknown M by N matrix X(0) is to be estimated based on direct noisy measurements Y =X(0) + Z, where the matrix Z has independent and identically distributed Gaussian entries. A popular matrix denoising scheme solves the unconstrained optimization problem min|| Y-X||(2)(F)/2+?||X||*. When optimally tuned, this scheme achieves the asymptotic minimax mean-squared error M(?;?) = lim(M,N ? ?)inf(?)sup(rank(X) ? ? · M)MSE(X,X(?)), where M/N ? . We report extensive experiments showing that the phase transition ?*(?) in the first problem, matrix recovery from Gaussian measurements, coincides with the minimax risk curve M(?)=M(?;?) in the second problem, matrix denoising in Gaussian noise: ?*(?)=M(?), for any rank fraction 0 < ? < 1 (at each common aspect ratio ?). Our experiments considered matrices belonging to two constraint classes: real M by N matrices, of various ranks and aspect ratios, and real symmetric positive-semidefinite N by N matrices, of various ranks. PMID:23650360

Donoho, David L; Gavish, Matan; Montanari, Andrea

2013-05-21

363

Mueller matrix characterization using spectral reflectometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast evolution of microelectronics fabrication technology demands a concurrent development in metrology capabilities. In recent years, Mueller Matrix (MM) scatterometry has been asserted as a useful tool in characterizing critical dimensions (CD) in periodical arrays of nanometer-size structures. Specifically, some symmetry properties of the measured structure can be readily extracted from the MM, allowing effective isolation of abnormal features. One example is measuring deviations of grating structures from perfect mirror symmetry, characteristic of faults in the fabrication process. The most general form of the Muller matrix requires 16 independent measurements, and requires spectral ellipsometry. However, using some very general assumptions on the reflection properties of the measured sample, one can reduce this number considerably. Such realistic assumptions are time independence of the reflection properties, and homogeneity of the sample (i.e., constant reflectivity throughout the measurement spot), as is the common case in optical CD metrology targets. We show that under these assumptions the Mueller matrix can be completely measured using spectral reflectometry. The goal of characterizing asymmetry is then further analyzed, and a new approach for such measurement, based on spectral reflectometry, is presented. Specifically, using spectral differences metrology (SDM), this approach is shown to provide a simpler means to measure the same asymmetry-dependent quantity as targeted today using MM metrology, but requires only two distinct measurements leading to improved throughput.

Shafir, Dror; Barak, Gilad; Yachini, Michal H.; Sendelbach, Matthew; Bozdog, Cornel; Wolfling, Shay

2013-05-01

364

Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesion of stem cells - like most cells - is not just a membrane phenomenon. Most tissue cells need to adhere to a ``solid'' for viability, and over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that the physical ``elasticity'' of that solid is literally ``felt'' by cells. Here we show that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to the elasticity typical of tissues [1]. In serum only media, soft matrices that mimic brain appear neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II activity blocks all elasticity directed lineage specification, which indicates that the cytoskeleton pulls on matrix through adhesive attachments. Results have significant implications for `therapeutic' stem cells and have motivated development of a proteomic-scale method to identify mechano-responsive protein structures [2] as well as deeper physical studies of matrix physics [3] and growth factor pathways [4]. [4pt] [1] A. Engler, et al. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell (2006).[0pt] [2] C.P. Johnson, et al. Forced unfolding of proteins within cells. Science (2007).[0pt] [3] A.E.X. Brown, et al. Multiscale mechanics of fibrin polymer: Gel stretching with protein unfolding and loss of water. Science (2009).[0pt] [4] D.E. Discher, et al. Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science (2009).

Discher, Dennis

2010-03-01

365

Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix.

Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

2012-01-01

366

Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix

Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology. PMID:22792042

Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine

2012-01-01

367

Proton decay matrix elements on the lattice

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hadronic matrix elements of proton decays are essential ingredients for bridging the grand unification theory to low-energy observables like the proton lifetime. In this paper we nonperturbatively calculate the matrix elements, relevant for the process of a nucleon decaying into a pseudoscalar meson and an antilepton through generic baryon-number-violating four-fermi operators. Lattice QCD with 2+1 flavor dynamical domain-wall fermions with the direct method—which is the direct measurement of the matrix elements from the three-point function without using chiral perturbation theory—is used for this study in order to have good control over the errors due to lattice discretization effects, operator renormalization, and chiral extrapolation. The relevant form factors for possible transition processes from an initial proton or neutron to a final pion or kaon induced by all types of three-quark operators are obtained through three-point functions of the (nucleon)-(three-quark operator)-(meson) with physical kinematics. In this study all the relevant systematic uncertainties of the form factors are taken into account for the first time, and the total error is found to be in the range 30%-40% for the ? and 20%-40% for the K final states.

Aoki, Y.; Shintani, E.; Soni, A.; (Rbc; Ukqcd Collaborations)

2014-01-01

368

Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

1980-01-01

369

Constructing acoustic timefronts using random matrix theory.

In a recent letter [Hegewisch and Tomsovic, Europhys. Lett. 97, 34002 (2012)], random matrix theory is introduced for long-range acoustic propagation in the ocean. The theory is expressed in terms of unitary propagation matrices that represent the scattering between acoustic modes due to sound speed fluctuations induced by the ocean's internal waves. The scattering exhibits a power-law decay as a function of the differences in mode numbers thereby generating a power-law, banded, random unitary matrix ensemble. This work gives a more complete account of that approach and extends the methods to the construction of an ensemble of acoustic timefronts. The result is a very efficient method for studying the statistical properties of timefronts at various propagation ranges that agrees well with propagation based on the parabolic equation. It helps identify which information about the ocean environment can be deduced from the timefronts and how to connect features of the data to that environmental information. It also makes direct connections to methods used in other disordered waveguide contexts where the use of random matrix theory has a multi-decade history. PMID:24116514

Hegewisch, Katherine C; Tomsovic, Steven

2013-10-01

370

Gas chromatography/matrix-isolation apparatus

A gas-sample collection device provides matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for the spectroscopic analysis of the individual sample bands. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carousel having at least one reflecting surface for holding a sample deposited thereon. A gas inlet is provided for depositing a mixture of sample and matrix material on the reflecting surface which is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. A first parabolic mirror directs an incident beam of electromagnetic radiation, such as in the infrared (IR) spectrum, from a source onto the sample/matrix mixture while a second parabolic mirror directs a second beam of electromagnetic radiation reflected by the specular surface to an IR spectrometer for determining the absorption spectra of the sample material deposited on the reflecting surface. The pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors having a common focal point are positioned outside of the vacuum chamber and may be displaced in combination for improved beam positioning and alignment. The carousel is provided with an aperture for each reflecting surface to facilitate accurate positioning of the incident beam relative to the gas-samples under analysis. Improved gas-sample deposition is insured by the use of a long focal length stereomicroscope positioned outside of the vacuum chamber for monitoring sample formation through a window, while the sample collector is positioned outside of the zone bounded by the incident and reflected electromagnetic beams for improved sample access and monitoring.

Reedy, Gerald T. (411 Francis St., Bourbonnais, IL 60914)

1986-01-01

371

Typicality in random matrix product states

Recent results suggest that the use of ensembles in statistical mechanics may not be necessary for isolated systems, since typically the states of the Hilbert space would have properties similar to those of the ensemble. Nevertheless, it is often argued that most of the states of the Hilbert space are nonphysical and not good descriptions of realistic systems. Therefore, to better understand the actual power of typicality it is important to ask if it is also a property of a set of physically relevant states. Here we address this issue, studying if and how typicality emerges in the set of matrix product states. We show analytically that typicality occurs for the expectation value of subsystems' observables when the rank of the matrix product state scales polynomially with the size of the system with a power greater than 2. We illustrate this result numerically and present some indications that typicality may appear already for a linear scaling of the rank of the matrix product state.

Garnerone, Silvano; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Zanardi, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2010-03-15

372

Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Delivery for Liver Fibrosis

The resolution of advanced liver fibrosis has been recently recognized to be possible, if the causative stimuli are successfully removed. However, whether complete resolution from cirrhosis, the end stage of liver fibrosis, can be achieved is still questionable. Delivery of interstitial collagenases, such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, in the liver could be an attractive strategy to treat advanced hepatic fibrosis from the view point that the imbalance between too few interstitial collagenases and too many of their inhibitors is the main obstacle to the resolution from fibrosis. Remodeling of hepatic extracellular matrix by delivered interstitial collagenases also facilitates the disappearance of activated hepatic stellate cells, the main matrix-producing cells in the liver, and promotes the proliferation of hepatocytes. This review will focus on the impact of the gene delivery of MMPs for the treatment of advanced liver fibrosis while discussing other current therapeutic strategies for liver fibrosis, and on the need for the development of a safe and effective delivery system of MMPs. PMID:17577645

Brenner, David A.

2007-01-01

373

Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

2012-01-01

374

Tuberculosis, Pulmonary Cavitation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases

Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease of global importance, is facing the emergence of drug-resistant strains with few new drugs to treat the infection. Pulmonary cavitation, the hallmark of established disease, is associated with very high bacillary burden. Cavitation may lead to delayed sputum culture conversion, emergence of drug resistance, and transmission of the infection. The host immunological reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is implicated in driving the development of TB cavities. TB is characterized by a matrix-degrading phenotype in which the activity of proteolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is relatively unopposed by the specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Proteases, in particular MMPs, secreted from monocyte-derived cells, neutrophils, and stromal cells, are involved in both cell recruitment and tissue damage and may cause cavitation. MMP activity is augmented by proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, is tightly regulated by complex signaling paths, and causes matrix destruction. MMP concentrations are elevated in human TB and are closely associated with clinical and radiological markers of lung tissue destruction. Immunomodulatory therapies targeting MMPs in preclinical and clinical trials are potential adjuncts to TB treatment. Strategies targeting patients with cavitary TB have the potential to improve cure rates and reduce disease transmission. PMID:24713029

Ong, Catherine W. M.; Elkington, Paul T.

2014-01-01

375

Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix

We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

2012-04-03

376

Isolation of the pericellular matrix of human fibroblast cultures

The pericellular matrix of human fibroblast cultures was isolated, using sequential extraction with sodium deoxycholate and hypotonic buffer in the presence of protease inhibitor. The matrix attached to the growth substratum had a \\

KLAUS HEDMAN; MARKKU KURKINEN; KARI ALITALO; I VAHERI; STAFFAN JOHANSSON; MAGNUS HOOK

1979-01-01

377

New fractional matrix with its applications in image encryption

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, new fractional matrix generation by using different the periodic matrix sequences are considered. For a periodic matrix with period P, its integer forms and fractional forms can constitute different periodic matrix sequences. The series of the periodic matrix sequence can be used to compute and construct different fractional matrices, which is depended on the relationship between the period and the size of the periodic matrix sequence. The proposed fractional matrix generation method is general and can be used to any periodic matrices. Then, we extend the new fractional matrices to multi-order forms, which can be used in image encryption. Simulation results and the application example in image encryption using the obtained new fractional matrix are also presented.

Zhang, Feng; Hu, Yang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

2014-12-01

378

Induction of Macrophage Matrix Metalloproteinase Biosynthesis by Surfactant Protein D*

Induction of Macrophage Matrix Metalloproteinase Biosynthesis by Surfactant Protein D* Received matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are synthesized in increased amounts in response to various proinflamma of only the neck and carbohydrate recognition domain did not augment metalloproteinase production

Trask, Barbara Crippes

379

Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

1995-06-01

380

Transference matrix method for non slanted holographic reflection gratings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present an analysis of non-slanted holographic reflection gratings by using a matrix method. A transfer matrix which relates the values of the electric field and its derivatives is obtained for a permittivity which varies cosenoidally for one period. The coefficients of this matrix can be calculated in terms of Mathieu's functions and their derivatives. Then the matrix of the entire medium is obtained as the Nth power of the matrix for one period. Since the reflectance and transmittance coefficients are related to the coefficients of the medium matrix, it is possible to calculate the efficiencies of orders -1 (reflected) and 0 (transmitted) by using this method. The results obtained by using the Trensference Matrix Method are compared to those obtained using Kogelnik's expressions for the transmission and diffraction efficiency. As will be seen there is good agreement between the results obtained by the Transference Matrix Method and those of the Coupled Wave Theory.

Neipp, Cristian; Francés, Jorge; Pérez-Molina, Manuel; Bleda, Sergio; Beléndez, Augusto

2010-05-01

381

String coupling and interactions in type IIB matrix model

We investigate the interactions of closed strings in a IIB matrix model. The basic interaction of the closed superstring is realized by the recombination of two intersecting strings. Such interaction is investigated in a IIB matrix model via two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the IR limit. By estimating the probability of the recombination, we identify the string coupling g{sub s} in the IIB matrix model. We confirm that our identification is consistent with matrix string theory.

Kitazawa, Yoshihisa [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nagaoka, Satoshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2009-05-15

382

Quantum Algorithms for Matrix Products over Semirings

In this paper we construct quantum algorithms for matrix products over several algebraic structures called semirings, including the (max,min)-matrix product, the distance matrix product and the Boolean matrix product. In particular, we obtain the following results. We construct a quantum algorithm computing the product of two n x n matrices over the (max,min) semiring with time complexity O(n^{2.473}). In comparison, the best known classical algorithm for the same problem, by Duan and Pettie, has complexity O(n^{2.687}). As an application, we obtain a O(n^{2.473})-time quantum algorithm for computing the all-pairs bottleneck paths of a graph with n vertices, while classically the best upper bound for this task is O(n^{2.687}), again by Duan and Pettie. We construct a quantum algorithm computing the L most significant bits of each entry of the distance product of two n x n matrices in time O(2^{0.64L} n^{2.46}). In comparison, prior to the present work, the best known classical algorithm for the same problem, by Vassilevska and Williams and Yuster, had complexity O(2^{L}n^{2.69}). Our techniques lead to further improvements for classical algorithms as well, reducing the classical complexity to O(2^{0.96L}n^{2.69}), which gives a sublinear dependency on 2^L. The above two algorithms are the first quantum algorithms that perform better than the $\\tilde O(n^{5/2})$-time straightforward quantum algorithm based on quantum search for matrix multiplication over these semirings. We also consider the Boolean semiring, and construct a quantum algorithm computing the product of two n x n Boolean matrices that outperforms the best known classical algorithms for sparse matrices. For instance, if the input matrices have O(n^{1.686...}) non-zero entries, then our algorithm has time complexity O(n^{2.277}), while the best classical algorithm has complexity O(n^{2.373}).

François Le Gall; Harumichi Nishimura

2013-10-15

383

Sparse Matrix Libraries in C++ for High Performance Architectures

We describe an object oriented sparse matrix library in C++ designed for portability and performance across a wide class of machine architectures. Besides simplifying the subroutine interface, the object oriented design allows the same driving code to be used for various sparse matrix formats, thus addressing many of the difficulties encountered with the typical approach to sparse matrix libraries. We

Jack Dongarra; Andrew Lumsdaine; Xinhui Niu; Roldan Pozo; Karin Remington

1994-01-01

384

Matrix Training of Preliteracy Skills with Preschoolers with Autism

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Matrix training is a generative approach to instruction in which words are arranged in a matrix so that some multiword phrases are taught and others emerge without direct teaching. We taught 4 preschoolers with autism to follow instructions to perform action-picture combinations (e.g., circle the pepper, underline the deer). Each matrix contained…

Axe, Judah B.; Sainato, Diane M.

2010-01-01

385

Another elementary proof of the Jordan form of a matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we establish the Jordan Form for a matrix using the elementary concepts of vector differentiation and partial fractions. The idea comes from the resolvent of the operator. For the matrix, the Laurent series is finite and easy to compute through rational representation. We also give a proof of some famous theorems in matrix analysis as consequences from the result.

Budhi, Wono Setya

2012-05-01

386

Silk matrix for tissue engineered anterior cruciate ligaments

A silk-fiber matrix was studied as a suitable material for tissue engineering anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). The matrix was successfully designed to match the complex and demanding mechanical requirements of a native human ACL, including adequate fatigue performance. This protein matrix supported the attachment, expansion and differentiation of adult human progenitor bone marrow stromal cells based on scanning electron microscopy,

Gregory H Altman; Rebecca L Horan; Helen H Lu; Jodie Moreau; Ivan Martin; John C Richmond; David L Kaplan

2002-01-01

387

Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings

Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings Michael W. Kudenov,1 (Doc. ID 160054); published April 12, 2012 A snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SIMMP. These fringes modulate the Mueller matrix (MM) components of the sample, which are subsequently isolated

Dereniak, Eustace L.

388

Determining the Mueller Matrix of an Arbitrary Optical Array Element

Determining the Mueller Matrix of an Arbitrary Optical Array Element Ryan Waldman1 and Tim Gay2 1 complex experiment [1]. A mathematical tool for characterizing these elements is the Mueller matrix, which. In order to measure Mueller matrices, a Mueller matrix polarimeter, based on a design from [2], was built

Gay, Timothy J.

389

Double-pass axially resolved confocal Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry

Double-pass axially resolved confocal Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry David Lara and Chris is to the best of our knowledge the first combination of a confocal imaging system with a complete Mueller matrix, may ac- quire incorrect retardance measurements of a depo- larizing sample. A Mueller matrix is a 4

Dainty, Chris

390

Mueller matrix polarimetry for improved liver fibrosis diagnosis

Mueller matrix polarimetry for improved liver fibrosis diagnosis Matthieu Dubreuil1,* , Philippe, XXXX An experimental Mueller matrix polarimeter is used to quantify human liver fibrosis by measuring. Mueller matrix (MM) polarimetry is used to obtain the full polarimetric response of samples

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

391

Conversion of a Rhotrix to a "Coupled Matrix"

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note, a method of converting a rhotrix to a special form of matrix termed a "coupled matrix" is proposed. The special matrix can be used to solve various problems involving n x n and (n - 1) x (n - 1) matrices simultaneously.

Sani, B.

2008-01-01

392

A matrix product coprocessor for FPGA embedded soft processors

This paper present a matrix coprocessor specialized for computing matrix product. The proposed circuit allows a significant reduction in the computational time required by a general-purpose processor for the sequential execution of the matrix product. The coprocessor has been integrated with a RISC processor and a field programmable system on chip has been realized. The new circuit uses p processor

Pasquale Corsonello; Stefania Perri; Paolo Zicari

2005-01-01

393

Improved perturbation bounds for general quadratic matrix equations

Perturbation analysis of general algebraic quadratic matrix equations is presented, which include as particular cases the standard and descriptor algebraic matrix Riccati equations, arising in the optimal control and filtering of continuous, time-invariant, linear systems. The perturbation bounds derived are superior to the bounds, already available in the literature. They are applicable to the error analysis of general quadratic matrix

M. M. Konstantinov; P. Hr. Petkov; D. W. Gu

1999-01-01

394

[Cross-linking mechanism of the matrix of hydrogel patch].

In this study, we prepared various matrices of hydrogel patches and studied their cross-linking mechanism by observing their rheological properties, which could provide theoretical basis and deep technical support for further industrial development of hydrogel patch. Rheology method was used to do the amplitude scanning and single-frequency scanning for various hydrogel matrix, under the condition of oscillation mode of the rheometer. Then the linear viscoelastic region, composite modulus value, as well as changes in slope with time of the composite modulus and phase angle of various hydrogel matrix were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the stability of matrix was mainly determined by hydrogel frame; only in acidic environment, the cross-linking reaction between cross-linker and hydrogel frame can occur; elasticity of matrix can be decreased by organic acid and the effect level was related to the ratio of the number of carboxyl and hydroxyl (-COO(-)/-OH) in adjusters: if the ratio was not equal, the higher -COO(-)/-OH in adjusters would be the less elasticity of matrix decreased; the cross-linking speed of matrix was determined by adjuster, the cross-linking speed of matrix contain different adjusters was ranged in following order: matrix containing tartaric acid > matrix containing lactic acid > matrix containing malic acid > matrix containing citric acid; the cross-linking speed of matrix was not uniform in the whole cross-linking process. PMID:22919728

Hou, Xue-Mei; Ding, Bao-Yue; Cai, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Jing; Ding, Xue-Ying; Li, Wei-Hua; Gao, Shen

2012-06-01

395

Solving constrained matrix equations and Cramer rule q

Solving constrained matrix equations and Cramer rule q Guorong Wang a,*, Sanzheng Qiao b an explicit expression for the elements of the solution matrix using Cramer rule. Ã? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Constrained matrix equations; Generalized inverses; Cramer rule 1

Qiao, Sanzheng

396

Banded Matrix Fraction Representation of Triangular Input Normal Pairs

of the semi-in#12;nite impulse response matrix, The state transition matrix A is represented as a matrix pairs generate an orthonormal basis for the impulse response. Every input pair may be transformed. This band fraction structure allows for fast updates of state space systems and fast system identi#12;cation

397

Condition and Error Estimates in Numerical Matrix Computations

This tutorial paper deals with sensitivity and error estimates in matrix computational processes. The main factors determining the accuracy of the result computed in floating--point machine arithmetics are considered. Special attention is paid to the perturbation analysis of matrix algebraic equations and unitary matrix decompositions.

Konstantinov, M. M. [University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, 1046 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petkov, P. H. [Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2008-10-30

398

MATRIX RATIONAL INTERPOLATION WITH POLES AS INTERPOLATION POINTS

MATRIX RATIONAL INTERPOLATION WITH POLES AS INTERPOLATION POINTS M. VAN BAREL Department, we show the equivalence between matrix rational interpolation problems with poles as interpolation points and no-pole problems. This equivalence provides an effective method for computing matrix rational

Labahn, George

399

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

1998-01-01

400

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by profound extracellular matrix changes referred to as bronchial remodelling. In this study, we evaluated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) mRNA expression in bronchial secretions of asthmatics and correlated MMPs modulations with the lung function as a reflection of the bronchial extracellular matrix remodelling. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on

Didier D Cataldo; Maud Gueders; Carine Munaut; Natacha Rocks; Pierre Bartsch; Jean-Michel Foidart; Agnes Noël; Renaud Louis

2004-01-01

401

Background and Purpose—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix and are implicated in numerous pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, inflammation, and tumor growth and metastasis. In the brain, the endothelial cell wall, strengthened by tight junctions, defines the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The extracellular matrix molecules constitute the basement membrane underlying the vasculature and play

Anne M. Romanic; Raymond F. White; Anthony J. Arleth; Eliot H. Ohlstein; Frank C. Barone

402

Beyond polarization microscopy: Mueller matrix microscopy with frequency demodulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mueller matrix microscopy is the natural generalization of polarization microscopy. It provides images of the Mueller matrix of a sample with micrometric resolution. In this work we describe a Mueller matrix microscope that uses the dual rotating compensator technique to simultaneously determine all the elements of its transmission or reflection Mueller matrix. The instrument uses two compensators that rotate at different frequencies and every Mueller matrix element is determined by using a digital frequency demodulation technique that does the frequency-analysis of the time dependent intensity captured at every pixel of the CCD detector. Transmission and reflection measurements are illustrated with experimental examples.

Arteaga, Oriol; Kuntman, Ertan

2014-05-01

403

Systems and methods for deactivating a matrix converter

Systems and methods are provided for deactivating a matrix conversion module. An electrical system comprises an alternating current (AC) interface, a matrix conversion module coupled to the AC interface, an inductive element coupled between the AC interface and the matrix conversion module, and a control module. The control module is coupled to the matrix conversion module, and in response to a shutdown condition, the control module is configured to operate the matrix conversion module to deactivate the first conversion module when a magnitude of a current through the inductive element is less than a threshold value.

Ransom, Ray M.

2013-04-02

404

Development, implementation, and test results on integrated optics switching matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small integrated optics switching matrix, which was developed, implemented, and tested, indicates high performance. The matrix serves as a model for the design of larger switching matrices. The larger integrated optics switching matrix should form the integral part of a switching center with high data rate throughput of up to 300 megabits per second. The switching matrix technique can accomplish the design goals of low crosstalk and low distortion. About 50 illustrations help explain and depict the many phases of the integrated optics switching matrix. Many equations used to explain and calculate the experimental data are also included.

Rutz, E.

1982-01-01

405

Matrix interference, which can lead to false positive/negative results, contamination of injector or separation column, incompatibility between sample solution and the selected analytical instrument, and response inhibition or even quenching, is commonly suffered for the analysis of trace level toxic impurities in drug substance. In this study, a simple matrix precipitation strategy is proposed to eliminate or minimize the above stated matrix interference problems. Generally, a sample of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is dissolved in an appropriate solvent to achieve the desired high concentration and then an anti-solvent is added to precipitate the matrix substance. As a result, the target analyte is extracted into the mixed solution with very less residual of APIs. This strategy has the characteristics of simple manipulation, high recovery and excellent anti-interference capability. It was found that the precipitation ratio (R, representing the ability to remove matrix substance) and the proportion of solvent (the one used to dissolve APIs) in final solution (P, affecting R and also affecting the method sensitivity) are two important factors of the precipitation process. The correlation between R and P was investigated by performing precipitation with various APIs in different solvent/anti-solvent systems. After a detailed mathematical reasoning process, P=20% was proved to be an effective and robust condition to perform the precipitation strategy. The precipitation method with P=20% can be used as a general strategy for toxic impurity analysis in APIs. Finally, several typical examples are described in this article, where the challenging matrix interference issues have been resolved successfully. PMID:25576043

Yang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Xuewu; Cao, Ji; Luan, Baolei; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Guozhu; Zhang, Lei

2015-01-30

406

Curing of epoxy matrix composite in stratosphere

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large structures for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories are needed for next stage of space exploitation. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the polymerization technology of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment. The polymerisation process is proposed for the material exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, space plasma, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The stratospheric flight experiments are directed to an investigation of the curing polymer matrix under the stratospheric conditions on. The unique combination of low atmospheric pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short wavelength UV and diurnal temperature variations associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. The first flight experiment with uncured composites was a part of the NASA scientific balloon flight program realised at the NASA stratospheric balloon station in Alice Springs, Australia. A flight cassette installed on payload was lifted with a “zero-pressure” stratospheric balloon filled with Helium. Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provided the launch, flight telemetry and landing of the balloon and payload. A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed 3 days in the stratosphere (40 km altitude). The second flight experiment was realised in South Australia in 2012, when the cassette was exposed in 27 km altitude. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the space irradiations are responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The first prepreg in the world was cured successfully in stratosphere. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela

407

Determination of insoluble avian eggshell matrix proteins.

The organic components of bones and other mineralized tissues have a high impact on the organization and deposition of calcium, and consequently influence the mechanical properties of those tissues. The extractable proteins of avian eggshells have been studied extensively and many of them have been identified; insoluble (non-extractable) proteins have been sparsely studied, however. In the work discussed in this paper we studied EDTA-insoluble proteins by gradual decalcification of eggshell with EDTA. The insoluble proteinaceous films were chemically treated with cyanogen bromide and the mixtures of large fragments obtained were gradually precipitated with salt. The separated fractions were digested with trypsin and analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS (ion trap mass spectrometer). Analysis of the entire eggshell matrix (without precipitation steps) only enabled 6 proteins to be determined (ovocalyxins 32 and 36, ovocleidin 17 and 116, clusterin, and ovalbumin). Pretreatment of the individual eggshell layers and gradual precipitation with salt markedly increased the number of proteins identified - 28 proteins were determined. We identified for the first time collagens I (two chains) and III in the eggshell matrix, and Kunitz-like protease inhibitor as a major shell matrix protein. Besides the above mentioned proteins we can also mention EDIL3, fibronectin, sulfhydryl oxidase, tubulin alpha 1, lysozyme, Dickkopf-related protein 3, keratins, and ovotransferrin. The relative abundances of proteins in all eggshell layers were determined using the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI). In the cuticle layer seven proteins were identified, whereas 16 proteins were described in the palisade layer and 23 in the mammillary layer. PMID:19998026

Miksík, Ivan; Sedláková, Pavla; Lacinová, Katerina; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam

2010-05-01

408

Bone matrix quality after sclerostin antibody treatment.

Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a novel bone-forming agent that is currently undergoing preclinical and clinical testing. Scl-Ab treatment is known to dramatically increase bone mass, but little is known about the quality of the bone formed during treatment. In the current study, global mineralization of bone matrix in rats and nonhuman primates treated with vehicle or Scl-Ab was assayed by backscattered scanning electron microscopy (bSEM) to quantify the bone mineral density distribution (BMDD). Additionally, fluorochrome labeling allowed tissue age-specific measurements to be made in the primate model with Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy to determine the kinetics of mineralization, carbonate substitution, crystallinity, and collagen cross-linking. Despite up to 54% increases in the bone volume after Scl-Ab treatment, the mean global mineralization of trabecular and cortical bone was unaffected in both animal models investigated. However, there were two subtle changes in the BMDD after Scl-Ab treatment in the primate trabecular bone, including an increase in the number of pixels with a low mineralization value (Z5) and a decrease in the standard deviation of the distribution. Tissue age-specific measurements in the primate model showed that Scl-Ab treatment did not affect the mineral-to-matrix ratio, crystallinity, or collagen cross-linking in the endocortical, intracortical, or trabecular compartments. Scl-Ab treatment was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward accelerated mineralization intracortically and a nearly 10% increase in carbonate substitution for tissue older than 2 weeks in the trabecular compartment (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that Scl-Ab treatment does not negatively impact bone matrix quality. PMID:24470143

Ross, Ryan D; Edwards, Lindsey H; Acerbo, Alvin S; Ominsky, Michael S; Virdi, Amarjit S; Sena, Kotaro; Miller, Lisa M; Sumner, D Rick

2014-07-01

409

Gas chromatography/matrix-isolation apparatus

A gas-sample collection device provides matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for the spectroscopic analysis of the individual sample bands. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carousel having at least one reflecting surface for holding a sample deposited thereon. A gas inlet is provided for depositing a mixture of sample and matrix material on the reflecting surface which is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. A first parabolic mirror directs an incident beam of electromagnetic radiation, such as in the infrared (IR) spectrum, from a source onto the sample/matrix mixture while a second parabolic mirror directs a second beam of electromagnetic radiation reflected by the specular surface to an IR spectrometer for determining the absorption spectra of the sample material deposited on the reflecting surface. The pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors having a common focal point are positioned outside of the vacuum chamber and may be displaced in combination for improved beam positioning and alignment. The carousel is provided with an aperture for each reflecting surface to facilitate accurate positioning of the incident beam relative to the gas-samples under analysis. Improved gas-sample deposition is insured by the use of a long focal length stereomicroscope positioned outside of the vacuum chamber for monitoring sample formation through a window, while the sample collector is positioned outside of the zone bounded by the incident and reflected electromagnetic beams for improved sample access and monitoring. 10 figs.

Reedy, G.T.

1986-06-10

410

Mueller matrix of a dicot leaf

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of the information contained in the spectral, polarized bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of leaves may lead to improved techniques for identifying plant species in remotely sensed imagery as well as better estimates of plant moisture and nutritional status. Here we report an investigation of the optical polarizing properties of several leaves of one species, Cannabis sativa, represented by a 3x3 Mueller matrix measured over the wavelength region 400-2,400 nm. Our results support the hypothesis that the leaf surface alters the polarization of incident light - polarizing off nadir, unpolarized incident light, for example - while the leaf volume tends to depolarized incident polarized light.

Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

2012-06-01

411

Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

1981-01-01

412

Parallel partitioned-inverse sparse matrix solutions

The partitioned inverse method has been demonstrated to be quite effective for parallel sparse matrix solutions on massively parallel machines. Though experiments on CM-2 have illustrated the advantage of using partitions, Intel iPSC/860 multiprocessor only favors fewer and denser partitions, particularly in the case of extremely sparse matrices. Different decomposition and communication algorithms are investigated here on the iPSC/860 to improve the performance. The decomposition is done in an interleave fashion in two different directions (row-wise and column-wise). The need for synchronization due to the interchange of intermediate solution vectors makes load balancing an important factor in obtaining an optimum performance.

Dag, H.; Yasar, O.; Alvarado, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1993-12-31

413

A Random Matrix Approach to Credit Risk

We estimate generic statistical properties of a structural credit risk model by considering an ensemble of correlation matrices. This ensemble is set up by Random Matrix Theory. We demonstrate analytically that the presence of correlations severely limits the effect of diversification in a credit portfolio if the correlations are not identically zero. The existence of correlations alters the tails of the loss distribution considerably, even if their average is zero. Under the assumption of randomly fluctuating correlations, a lower bound for the estimation of the loss distribution is provided. PMID:24853864

Guhr, Thomas

2014-01-01

414

Sparse Covariance Matrix Estimation With Eigenvalue Constraints

We propose a new approach for estimating high-dimensional, positive-definite covariance matrices. Our method extends the generalized thresholding operator by adding an explicit eigenvalue constraint. The estimated covariance matrix simultaneously achieves sparsity and positive definiteness. The estimator is rate optimal in the minimax sense and we develop an efficient iterative soft-thresholding and projection algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers. Empirically, we conduct thorough numerical experiments on simulated datasets as well as real data examples to illustrate the usefulness of our method. Supplementary materials for the article are available online.

LIU, Han; WANG, Lie; ZHAO, Tuo

2014-01-01

415

Experimental validation of Mueller matrix differential decomposition.

Mueller matrix differential decomposition is a novel method for retrieving the polarimetric properties of general depolarizing anisotropic media [N. Ortega-Quijano and J. L. Arce-Diego, Opt. Lett. 36, 1942 (2011), R. Ossikovski, Opt. Lett. 36, 2330 (2011)]. The method has been verified for Mueller matrices available in the literature. We experimentally validate the decomposition for five different experimental setups with different commutation properties and controlled optical parameters, comparing the differential decomposition with the forward and reverse polar decompositions. The results enable to verify the method and to highlight its advantages for certain experimental applications of high interest. PMID:22274460

Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Haj-Ibrahim, Bicher; García-Caurel, Enric; Arce-Diego, José Luis; Ossikovski, Razvigor

2012-01-16

416

Wave propagation analysis using the variance matrix.

The propagation of a coherent laser wave-field through a pseudo-random phase plate is studied using the variance matrix estimated from Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor data. The uncertainty principle is used as a tool in discriminating the data obtained from the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Quantities of physical interest such as the twist parameter, and the symplectic eigenvalues, are estimated from the wavefront sensor measurements. A distance measure between two variance matrices is introduced and used to estimate the spatial asymmetry of a wave-field in the experiment. The estimated quantities are then used to compare a distorted wave-field with its undistorted counterpart. PMID:25401243

Sharma, Richa; Ivan, J Solomon; Narayanamurthy, C S

2014-10-01

417

High-reinforcement-content metal matrix composites

This article describes how aluminum-based composites with high volume percentages of nonmetallic reinforcement materials can challenge applications traditionally met by ferrous materials. Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) have a wide range of potential automotive applications. These extend from structural uses, including wear-resistant components such as disc-brake rotors, through high-specific-stiffness components such as robot arms and disc-brake calipers, to high-specific-strength components such as connecting rods. In addition, composites with silicon carbide (SiC) filler have low density, high thermal conductivity, and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that makes them useful for controlling temperatures in electronic devices.

NONE

1995-06-01

418

Effective dynamics of the matrix big bang

We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced matrix big bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that is attractive near the big bang. Surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form of our one-loop potential seems to violate these constraints in a manner that suggests a connection between the cosmological singularity and long wavelength, late time physics.

Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rajaraman, Arvind [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2006-05-15

419

Matrix factorization on a hypercube multiprocessor

This paper is concerned with parallel algorithms for matrix factorization on distributed-memory, message-passing multiprocessors, with special emphasis on the hypercube. Both Cholesky factorization of symmetric positive definite matrices and LU factorization of nonsymmetric matrices using partial pivoting are considered. The use of the resulting triangular factors to solve systems of linear equations by forward and back substitutions is also considered. Efficiencies of various parallel computational approaches are compared in terms of empirical results obtained on an Intel iPSC hypercube. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Geist, G.A.; Heath, M.T.

1985-08-01

420

Open quantum systems and random matrix theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with random matrix theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper the effect on the level statistics of opening the system is seen. In particular the ?3(L ) statistic, the width distribution and the level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The emergence of a super-radiant transition is observed. The level spacing and ?3(L ) statistics exhibit the signatures of missed levels or intruder levels as the super-radiant state is formed.

Mulhall, Declan

2015-01-01

421

Density matrix method for orbital localization

A method is presented for localizing molecular orbitals, based on diagonalizing subunits of the density matrix. First, nonbonding orbitals are found by diagonalizing the monatomic subunits; then, diatomic ? or ? bonding and antibonding orbitals are obtained from the diatomic subunits for all bonded pairs of atoms; finally, the delocalized ?-orbitals for particular chromophores are found by projecting the first set out of the self-consistent field (SCF) Hamiltonian. The results show good general agreement with other localization methods, with advantages in the ability to display group orbitals in complex molecules which most closely resemble the SCF orbitals for simple prototypes. PMID:16592668

Caldwell, Dennis; Redington, Patrick; Eyring, Henry

1979-01-01

422

Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA®. On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28, lymphatic endothelial cells had organized themselves, engineering the pseudocylindrical structure better disposed in the ADM group than in the control group, and the lymphatic cells were detectable inside the vessels’ lumen in this group. Conclusion: This study has made it possible to demonstrate the absolute importance of an ADM in proper wound healing and has shown better definition of both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of lymphangiogenesis compared to the second intention healing. A major grade of organization of the extracellular matrix and a minor grade of fibrosclerosis in ADM allowed a well-structured morphologic and functional development of the endothelial and lymphatic vascular structures. This study hopes to represent a clinical basis for a wider use of ADM in lesions where lymphatic complications are common.

Cherubino, Mario; Pellegatta, Igor; Tamborini, Federico; Cerati, Michele; Sessa, Fausto; Valdatta, Luigi

2014-01-01

423

Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

424

Diagonal multisoliton matrix elements in finite volume

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider diagonal matrix elements of local operators between multisoliton states in finite volume in the sine-Gordon model and formulate a conjecture regarding their finite size dependence which is valid up to corrections exponential in the volume. This conjecture extends the results of Pozsgay and Takács which were only valid for diagonal scattering. In order to test the conjecture, we implement a numerical renormalization group improved truncated conformal space approach. The numerical comparisons confirm the conjecture, which is expected to be valid for general integrable field theories. The conjectured formula can be used to evaluate finite temperature one-point and two-point functions using recently developed methods.

Pálmai, T.; Takács, G.

2013-02-01

425

Low-power SXGA active matrix OLED

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design and first evaluation of a full-color 1280×3×1024 pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) microdisplay that operates at a low power of 200mW under typical operating conditions of 35fL, and offers a precision 30-bit RGB digital interface in a compact size (0.78-inch diagonal active area). The new system architecture developed by eMagin for the SXGA microdisplay, based on a separate FPGA driver and AMOLED display chip, offers several benefits, including better power efficiency, cost-effectiveness, more features for improved performance, and increased system flexibility.

Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

2009-05-01

426

Dynamics, Structure, and Function are Coupled in the Mitochondrial Matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupling between molecular diffusion and the structure and function of the rat liver mitochondrial matrix was explored using fluorescence anisotropy techniques and electron microscopy. The results confirm that matrix ultrastructure and the concentration of matrix protein are influenced by the respiratory state of mitochondria and the osmolarity of the external medium. At physiological osmolarity, a fluorescent metabolite-sized probe was found to diffuse slowly in the mitochondrial matrix but not to be completely immobile. In addition, significant differences in diffusion rates were found to exist between different mitochondrial respiratory states, with the slowest diffusion occurring in states with the highest matrix protein concentration. These data support the concept of a matrix structure in which diffusion is considerably hindered due to limited probe-accessible water and further suggest that volume-dependent regulation of matrix protein packing may modulate metabolite diffusion and, in turn, mitochondrial metabolism.

Scalettar, Bethe A.; Abney, James R.; Hackenbrock, Charles R.

1991-09-01

427

Detecting Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90 deg fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

Smith, Craig E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

2011-01-01

428

Extracellular Matrix and Cytokines: A Functional Unit

The extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as soluble mediators like cytokines can influence the behavior of cells in very distinct as well as cooperative ways. One group of ECM molecules which shows an especially broad cooperativety with cytokines and growth factors are the proteoglycans. Proteoglycans can interact with their core proteins as well as their glycosaminoglycan chains with cytokines. These interactions can modify the binding of cytokines to their cell surface receptors or they can lead to the storage of the soluble factors in the matrix. Proteoglycans themselves may even have cytokine activity. In this review we describe different proteoglycans and their interactions and relationships with cytokines and we discuss in more detail the extracellular regulation of the activity of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) by proteoglycans and other ECM molecules. In the third part the interaction of heparan sulfate chains with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2, basic FGF) as a prototype example for the interaction of heparin-binding cytokines with heparan sulfate proteoglycans is presented to illustrate the different levels of mutual dependence of the cytokine network and the ECM. PMID:11097204

Hausser, Heinz-JüRgen

2000-01-01

429

Extracellular Matrix Dynamics and Fetal Membrane Rupture

The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in determining cell and organ function: (1) it is an organizing substrate that provides tissue tensile strength; (2) it anchors cells and influences cell morphology and function via interaction with cell surface receptors; and (3) it is a reservoir for growth factors. Alterations in the content and the composition of the ECM determine its physical and biological properties, including strength and susceptibility to degradation. The ECM components themselves also harbor cryptic matrikines, which when exposed by conformational change or proteolysis have potent effects on cell function, including stimulating the production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collectively, these properties of the ECM reflect a dynamic tissue component that influences both tissue form and function. This review illustrates how defects in ECM synthesis and metabolism and the physiological process of ECM turnover contribute to changes in the fetal membranes that precede normal parturition and contribute to the pathological events leading to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). PMID:22267536

Strauss,, Jerome F.

2013-01-01

430

The extracellular matrix and ciliary signaling.

The primary cilium protrudes like an antenna from the cell surface, sensing mechanical and chemical cues provided in the cellular environment. In some tissue types, ciliary orientation to lumens allows response to fluid flow; in others, such as bone, ciliary protrusion into the extracellular matrix allows response to compression forces. The ciliary membrane contains receptors for Hedgehog, Wnt, Notch, and other potent growth factors, and in some instances also harbors integrin and cadherin family members, allowing receipt of a robust range of signals. A growing list of ciliopathies, arising from deficient formation or function of cilia, includes both developmental defects and chronic, progressive disorders such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD); changes in ciliary function have been proposed to support cancer progression. Recent findings have revealed extensive signaling dialog between cilia and extracellular matrix (ECM), with defects in cilia associated with fibrosis in multiple contexts. Further, a growing number of proteins have been determined to possess multiple roles in control of cilia and focal adhesion interactions with the ECM, further coordinating functionality. We summarize and discuss these recent findings. PMID:22819513

Seeger-Nukpezah, Tamina; Golemis, Erica A

2012-10-01

431

Discriminant Projective Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

Projective non-negative matrix factorization (PNMF) projects high-dimensional non-negative examples X onto a lower-dimensional subspace spanned by a non-negative basis W and considers WT X as their coefficients, i.e., X?WWT X. Since PNMF learns the natural parts-based representation Wof X, it has been widely used in many fields such as pattern recognition and computer vision. However, PNMF does not perform well in classification tasks because it completely ignores the label information of the dataset. This paper proposes a Discriminant PNMF method (DPNMF) to overcome this deficiency. In particular, DPNMF exploits Fisher's criterion to PNMF for utilizing the label information. Similar to PNMF, DPNMF learns a single non-negative basis matrix and needs less computational burden than NMF. In contrast to PNMF, DPNMF maximizes the distance between centers of any two classes of examples meanwhile minimizes the distance between any two examples of the same class in the lower-dimensional subspace and thus has more discriminant power. We develop a multiplicative update rule to solve DPNMF and prove its convergence. Experimental results on four popular face image datasets confirm its effectiveness comparing with the representative NMF and PNMF algorithms. PMID:24376680

Guan, Naiyang; Zhang, Xiang; Luo, Zhigang; Tao, Dacheng; Yang, Xuejun

2013-01-01

432

Oriented nanofibers embedded in a polymer matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of forming a composite of embedded nanofibers in a polymer matrix is disclosed. The method includes incorporating nanofibers in a plastic matrix forming agglomerates, and uniformly distributing the nanofibers by exposing the agglomerates to hydrodynamic stresses. The hydrodynamic said stresses force the agglomerates to break apart. In combination or additionally elongational flow is used to achieve small diameters and alignment. A nanofiber reinforced polymer composite system is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of nanofibers that are embedded in polymer matrices in micron size fibers. A method for producing nanotube continuous fibers is disclosed. Nanofibers are fibrils with diameters of 100 nm, multiwall nanotubes, single wall nanotubes and their various functionalized and derivatized forms. The method includes mixing a nanofiber in a polymer; and inducing an orientation of the nanofibers that enables the nanofibers to be used to enhance mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Orientation is induced by high shear mixing and elongational flow, singly or in combination. The polymer may be removed from said nanofibers, leaving micron size fibers of aligned nanofibers.

Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Rodriguez-Macias, Fernando J. (Inventor); Lozano, Karen (Inventor); Chibante, Luis Paulo Felipe (Inventor); Stewart, David Harris (Inventor)

2011-01-01

433

Novel measurement of Mueller matrix for cells

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a method to measure the Mueller matrix of biological tissues rapidly. Firstly, the effect of biological tissues on the incident light can be represented as absorption, phase retardance and depolarization. This paper defines four parameters as absorption coefficient, phase retardance coefficient, depolarization proportion and azimuth of incident light, respectively. Secondly, we decompose the incident light into two parts: one is totally depolarized, the other is absorbed and its phase is retarded. The two processes are characterized by two corresponding Mueller submatrixes. Then two Mueller submatrixes are derived based on the relation between the Stokes vectors of incident light and output light. Moreover, on the basis of a linear combination of the two Mueller submatrixes, we obtain the Mueller matrix of biological tissues, which contains the unknown parameters. Lastly, we employ the pellicle cell of magnolia for the sample and acquisition of it's polarization images. Then this paper applies the method to construct calculation model from the image data. And just 6 intensity measurements are needed to calculate the four parameters.

Li, Yubo; Jia, Wenjian; Chen, Ruoyu; Wang, Hao; Wang, Minghua; Yang, Jianyi

2008-12-01

434

A caged substrate peptide for matrix metalloproteinases.

Based on the widely applied fluorogenic peptide FS-6 (Mca-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2; Mca = methoxycoumarin-4-acetyl; Dpa = N-3-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)l-?,?-diaminopropionyl) a caged substrate peptide Ac-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Lys*-Lys-Ala-Arg-NH2 (*, position of the cage group) for matrix metalloproteinases was synthesized and characterized. The synthesis implies the modification of a carbamidated lysine side-chain amine with a photocleavable 2-nitrobenzyl group. Mass spectrometry upon UV irradiation demonstrated the complete photolytic cleavage of the protecting group. Time-resolved laser-flash photolysis at 355 nm in combination with transient absorption spectroscopy determined the biphasic decomposition with ?a = 171 ± 3 ms (79%) and ?b = 2.9 ± 0.2 ms (21%) at pH 6.0 of the photo induced release of the 2-nitrobenzyl group. The recombinantly expressed catalytic domain of human membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) was used to determine the hydrolysis efficiency of the caged peptide before and after photolysis. It turned out that the cage group sufficiently shields the peptide from peptidase activity, which can be thus controlled by UV light. PMID:25418033

Decaneto, Elena; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Heise, Inge; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Viappiani, Cristiano; Knipp, Markus

2015-02-01

435

Sensory mechanotransduction at membrane-matrix interfaces.

Sensory cells specialized to detect extremely small mechanical changes are common to the auditory and somatosensory systems. It is widely accepted that mechanosensitive channels form the core of the mechanoelectrical transduction in hair cells as well as the somatic sensory neurons that underlie the sense of touch and mechanical pain. Here, we will review how the activation of such channels can be measured in a meaningful physiological context. In particular, we will discuss the idea that mechanosensitive channels normally occur in transmembrane complexes that are anchored to extracellular matrix components (ECM) both in vitro and in vivo. One component of such complexes in sensory neurons is the integral membrane scaffold protein STOML3 which is a robust physiological regulator of native mechanosensitive currents. In order to better characterize such channels in transmembrane complexes, we developed a new electrophysiological method that enables the quantification of mechanosensitive current amplitude and kinetics when activated by a defined matrix movement in cultured cells. The results of such studies strongly support the idea that ion channels in transmembrane complexes are highly tuned to detect movement of the cell membrane in relation to the ECM. PMID:24981693

Poole, Kate; Moroni, Mirko; Lewin, Gary R

2015-01-01

436

Molecular evolution of matrix metalloproteinase 20.

Dental enamel is a hypermineralized tissue, containing only trace amounts of organic components. During enamel formation, matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) processes proteins comprising enamel matrix and facilitates hypermineralization. In the human genome, 24 distinct MMP genes have been identified. Among these genes, MMP20 is clustered with eight other genes, including MMP13, and all these clustered genes show phylogenetically close relationships. In this study, we investigated MMP20 and closely related MMP genes in various tetrapods and in a teleost fish, fugu. In the genome of the chicken, a toothless tetrapod, we identified degraded exons of MMP20, which supports the previous proposition that MMP20 is important specifically for enamel formation. Nevertheless, for unknown reasons, we failed to identify MMP20 in the platypus genome. In the opossum, lizard, and frog genomes, MMP20 was found clustered with MMP13. Furthermore, in the fugu genome, we identified an MMP20-like gene located adjacent to MMP13, suggesting that MMP20 arose before the divergence of ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish. The teleost tooth surface is covered with enameloid, a hypermineralized tissue different from enamel. Thus, we hypothesize that MMP20 could have been used in an ancient hypermineralized tissue, which evolved into enameloid in teleosts and into enamel in tetrapods. PMID:22243253

Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Tohru

2011-12-01

437

Shock wave profiles in polymer matrix composite

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The promise of lightweight armor which is also structurally robust is of particular importance to the Army for future combat vehicles. Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites such as Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) are being considered for this purpose due to their lower density and promising dynamic response. The work discussed here extends the prior work of Boteler who studied the delamination strength of PMC and Dandekar and Beaulieu who investigated the compressive and tensile strengths of PMC. In a series of shock wave experiments, the wave profile was examined as a function of propagation distance in PMC. Uniaxial strain was achieved by symmetric plate impact in the ARL 102 mm bore single-stage light gas gun. Embedded polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) stress-rate gauges provided a stress history at three unique locations in the PMC and particle velocity history was recorded with VISAR. All stress data was compared to a Lagrangian hydrocode (EPIC) employing a model to describe the viscoelastic response of the composite material in one-dimension. The experimental stress histories displayed attenuation and loading properties in good agreement with model predictions. However, the unloading was observed to be markedly different than the hydrocode simulations. These results are discussed.

Boteler, J. Michael; Rajendran, A. M.; Grove, David

2000-04-01

438

Biodegradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite metal matrix composites.

Recent studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with adjustable corrosion rates and suitable mechanical properties. An approach to this challenge might be the application of metal matrix composite (MMC) based on magnesium alloys. In this study, a MMC made of magnesium alloy AZ91D as a matrix and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles as reinforcements have been investigated in vitro for mechanical, corrosive and cytocompatible properties. The mechanical properties of the MMC-HA were adjustable by the choice of HA particle size and distribution. Corrosion tests revealed that HA particles stabilised the corrosion rate and exhibited more uniform corrosion attack in artificial sea water and cell solutions. The phase identification showed that all samples contained hcp-Mg, Mg(17)Al(12), and HA before and after immersion. After immersion in artificial sea water CaCO3 was found on MMC-HA surfaces, while no formation of CaCO3 was found after immersion in cell solutions with and without proteins. Co-cultivation of MMC-HA with human bone derived cells (HBDC), cells of an osteoblasts lineage (MG-63) and cells of a macrophage lineage (RAW264.7) revealed that RAW264.7, MG-63 and HBDC adhere, proliferate and survive on the corroding surfaces of MMC-HA. In summary, biodegradable MMC-HA are cytocompatible biomaterials with adjustable mechanical and corrosive properties. PMID:17276507

Witte, Frank; Feyerabend, Frank; Maier, Petra; Fischer, Jens; Störmer, Michael; Blawert, Carsten; Dietzel, Wolfgang; Hort, Norbert

2007-04-01

439

Analytical techniques for instrument design -- Matrix methods

The authors take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalization to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, they discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6-dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix. They show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. They will argue that a generalized program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. They also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.

Robinson, R.A.

1997-12-31

440

Molecular Adhesion between Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules

In this study, we investigated the molecular adhesion between the major constituents of cartilage extracellular matrix, namely, the highly negatively charged proteoglycan aggrecan and the type II/IX/XI fibrillar collagen network, in simulated physiological conditions. Colloidal force spectroscopy was applied to measure the maximum adhesion force and total adhesion energy between aggrecan end-attached spherical tips (end radius R ? 2.5 ?m) and trypsin-treated cartilage disks with undamaged collagen networks. Studies were carried out in various aqueous solutions to reveal the physical factors that govern aggrecan–collagen adhesion. Increasing both ionic strength and [Ca2+] significantly increased adhesion, highlighting the importance of electrostatic repulsion and Ca2+-mediated ion bridging effects. In addition, we probed how partial enzymatic degradation of the collagen network, which simulates osteoarthritic conditions, affects the aggrecan–collagen interactions. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in aggrecan–collagen adhesion even when there were no detectable changes at the macro- or microscales. It is hypothesized that the aggrecan–collagen adhesion, together with aggrecan–aggrecan self-adhesion, works synergistically to determine the local molecular deformability and energy dissipation of the cartilage matrix, in turn, affecting its macroscopic tissue properties. PMID:24491174

2015-01-01

441

"Soft" confinement of graphene in hydrogel matrixes.

Graphene plays as protagonist among the newly discovered carbon nanomaterials on the laboratory bench. Confinement of graphene, combined with enhanced exchange properties within aqueous environment, is key for the development of biosensors, biomedicine devices, and water remediation applications. Such confinement is possible using hydrogels as soft matrixes. Many entrapment methods focused on the modification of the graphene structure. In this paper, however, we address a confinement method that leaves unchanged the graphene structure, although intimately participating in the buildup of a network of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) chains. PVA is a polymer known as biomaterial for its hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and chemical versatility. A robust hybrid PVA - graphene construct was obtained starting from a surfactant-assisted sonication of an aqueous dispersion of graphite. Stable graphene sheets suspension was photopolymerized in a methacryloyl-grafted PVA, using the vinyl moiety present on the surfactant scaffold. This method can allow the incorporation in the polymer network of oligomers of N-(isopropylacrylammide), p(NiPAAm). These chains display in aqueous solution a low critical solution temperature, LCST, around 33 °C and trigger a volume phase transition when incorporated in a hydrophilic network around the physiological temperature. Raman analysis was used to characterize the state of hydrogel embedded graphene single sheets. Evidence for an intimate interaction of graphene sheets and polymer matrix was collected. Release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin showed the active role of the graphene/PVA/p(NiPAAm) construct in the drug delivery. PMID:25574863

Toumia, Yosra; Orlanducci, Silvia; Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia; Paradossi, Gaio

2015-02-01

442

Google matrix of business process management

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of efficient business process models and determination of their characteristic properties are subject of intense interdisciplinary research. Here, we consider a business process model as a directed graph. Its nodes correspond to the units identified by the modeler and the link direction indicates the causal dependencies between units. It is of primary interest to obtain the stationary flow on such a directed graph, which corresponds to the steady-state of a firm during the business process. Following the ideas developed recently for the World Wide Web, we construct the Google matrix for our business process model and analyze its spectral properties. The importance of nodes is characterized by PageRank and recently proposed CheiRank and 2DRank, respectively. The results show that this two-dimensional ranking gives a significant information about the influence and communication properties of business model units. We argue that the Google matrix method, described here, provides a new efficient tool helping companies to make their decisions on how to evolve in the exceedingly dynamic global market.

Abel, M. W.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2011-12-01

443

HOW MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES REGULATE CELL BEHAVIOR

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 25 secreted and cell surface enzymes that process or degrade numerous pericellular substrates. Their targets include other proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, clotting factors, chemotactic molecules, latent growth factors, growth factor–binding proteins, cell surface receptors, cell-cell adhesion molecules, and virtually all structural extracellular matrix proteins. Thus MMPs are able to regulate many biologic processes and are closely regulated themselves. We review recent advances that help to explain how MMPs work, how they are controlled, and how they influence biologic behavior. These advances shed light on how the structure and function of the MMPs are related and on how their transcription, secretion, activation, inhibition, localization, and clearance are controlled. MMPs participate in numerous normal and abnormal processes, and there are new insights into the key substrates and mechanisms responsible for regulating some of these processes in vivo. Our knowledge in the field of MMP biology is rapidly expanding, yet we still do not fully understand how these enzymes regulate most processes of development, homeostasis, and disease. PMID:11687497

Sternlicht, Mark D.; Werb, Zena

2009-01-01

444

Lattice QCD for Precision Nucleon Matrix Elements

Precision measurements on nucleons provide constraints on the Standard Model and can also discern the signatures predicted for particles beyond the Standard Model. Knowing the Standard Model inputs to nucleon matrix elements will be necessary to constrain the couplings of dark matter candidates such as the neutralino, to relate the neutron electric dipole moment to the CP-violating theta parameter, or to search for new TeV-scale particles though non-$V-A$ interactions in neutron beta decay. However, these matrix elements derive from the properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, where the coupling is strong and thus perturbative treatments fail. Using lattice gauge theory, we can nonperturbatively calculate the QCD path integral on a supercomputer. In this proceeding, I will review a few representative areas in which lattice QCD can contribute to understanding the structure inside nucleon and how they can contribute to the search for beyond-the-Standard Model physics, with discussions of the difficulties and prospects for future development.

Huey-Wen Lin

2011-12-12

445

Endothelial cell derived microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles associated with various vascular pathologies. Here we investigated the role of MPs in matrix remodeling by analyzing their interactions with the extracellular matrix. MPs were shown to bind preferentially to surfaces coated with matrix molecules, and MPs bound fibronectin via integrin ?V. MPs isolated from endothelial cell-conditioned medium (Sup) were significantly enriched for matrix-altering proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MPs lacked the MMP-inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 found in the Sup and, while Sup strongly inhibited MMP activities, MPs did not. In fact, MPs were shown to bind and activate both endogenous and exogenous proMMP-2. Taken together, these results indicate that MPs interact with extracellular matrices, where they localize and activate MMP-2 to modify the surrounding matrix molecules. These findings provide insights into the cellular mechanisms of vascular matrix remodeling and identify new targets of vascular pathologies. PMID:21437907

Lozito, Thomas P.; Tuan, Rocky S.

2011-01-01

446

Characterization and control of the fiber-matrix interface in ceramic matrix composites

Fiber-reinforced SiC composites fabricated by thermal-gradient forced-flow chemical-vapor infiltration (FCVI) have exhibited both composite (toughened) and brittle behavior during mechanical property evaluation. Detailed analysis of the fiber-matrix interface revealed that a silica layer on the surface of Nicalon Si-C-O fibers tightly bonds the fiber to the matrix. The strongly bonded fiber and matrix, combined with the reduction in the strength of the fibers that occurs during processing, resulted in the observed brittle behavior. The mechanical behavior of Nicalon/SiC composites has been improved by applying thin coatings (silicon carbide, boron, boron nitride, molybdenum, carbon) to the fibers, prior to densification, to control the interfacial bond. Varying degrees of bonding have been achieved with different coating materials and film thicknesses. Fiber-matrix bond strengths have been quantitatively evaluated using an indentation method and a simple tensile test. The effects of bonding and friction on the mechanical behavior of this composite system have been investigated. 167 refs., 59 figs., 18 tabs.

Lowden, R.A.

1989-03-01

447

FUNCTIONS PRESERVING MATRIX GROUPS AND ITERATIONS FOR THE MATRIX SQUARE ROOT

. STEVEN MACKEY, NILOUFER MACKEY, AND FRANCÂ¸OISE TISSEUR SIAM J. MATRIX ANAL. APPL. c 2005 Society of the many applications that generate structure and the potential benefits to be gained by exploiting it. The benefits include faster and more accu- rate algorithms as well as more physically meaningful solutions

Higham, Nicholas J.

448

Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are persistent chemicals that have been found widely in the environment. Their accurate determination in environmental matrixes, particularly soil, sediment, and sludge, at low levels presents significant analytical challenges. The commercialization of electrospray interfaces for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis facilitated analysis of PFCAs at low levels, but issues with quantitative analysis due to matrix suppression or enhancement still persist. The methods described in this study utilize simple and rapid sample purification procedures to remove matrix components sufficiently so that errors due to coeluting matrix peaks are negligible and recoveries of PFCAs are consistently and reproducibly quantitative. Extracts from solid samples (soil and sediment) and liquid bacterial sludge are purified using dispersive solid-phase extraction. Recovery values generally are in the 70-120% range, with limits of quantitation of 1 ppb. The method utilizes an extraction solvent previously shown to release and recover aged residues of PFCAs. A confirmatory method using two precursor to product ions is also provided and demonstrated. PMID:16194099

Powley, Charles R; George, Stephen W; Ryan, Timothy W; Buck, Robert C

2005-10-01

449

Modulation and control of matrix converter for aerospace application

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of modern aircraft systems, a major challenge is power conversion to supply the aircraft's electrical instruments. These instruments are energized through a fixed-frequency internal power grid. In an aircraft, the available sources of energy are a set of variable-speed generators which provide variable-frequency ac voltages. Therefore, to energize the internal power grid of an aircraft, the variable-frequency ac voltages should be converted to a fixed-frequency ac voltage. As a result, an ac to ac power conversion is required within an aircraft's power system. This thesis develops a Matrix Converter to energize the aircraft's internal power grid. The Matrix Converter provides a direct ac to ac power conversion. A major challenge of designing Matrix Converters for aerospace applications is to minimize the volume and weight of the converter. These parameters are minimized by increasing the switching frequency of the converter. To design a Matrix Converter operating at a high switching frequency, this thesis (i) develops a scheme to integrate fast semiconductor switches within the current available Matrix Converter topologies, i.e., MOSFET-based Matrix Converter, and (ii) develops a new modulation strategy for the Matrix Converter. This Matrix Converter and the new modulation strategy enables the operation of the converter at a switching-frequency of 40kHz. To provide a reliable source of energy, this thesis also develops a new methodology for robust control of Matrix Converter. To verify the performance of the proposed MOSFET-based Matrix Converter, modulation strategy, and control design methodology, various simulation and experimental results are presented. The experimental results are obtained under operating condition present in an aircraft. The experimental results verify the proposed Matrix Converter provides a reliable power conversion in an aircraft under extreme operating conditions. The results prove the superiority of the proposed Matrix Converter technology for ac to ac power conversion regarding the existing technologies of Matrix Converters.

Kobravi, Keyhan

450

arXiv:astroph/0107352 MUELLER MATRIX PARAMETERS FOR RADIO TELESCOPES AND

arXiv:astroÂph/0107352 v1 18 Jul 2001 MUELLER MATRIX PARAMETERS FOR RADIO TELESCOPES by its Mueller matrix. We express the matrix elements in terms of fundamental system parameters described by a 4 #2; 4 matrix. This matrix is known as the Mueller matrix (Tinbergen 1996). Along with every

O'Neil, Karen

451

From germinal matrix to cerebellar haemorrhage.

Abstract For many years cerebellar development after preterm birth has been poorly investigated and has been studied without taking germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage into account. Advanced neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the use of various acoustic windows (mastoid fontanelle, occipital foramen) have allowed for in vivo diagnosis of acquired focal haemorrhagic lesions in the cerebellum of very preterm babies. The vulnerability of the cerebellum also seems to be related to specific gestational ages, i.e., between 23 and 27 weeks, when rapid growth in cerebellar volume occurs and at a much faster rate than mean brain volume increase. In this paper, the contribution of the cerebellum in long-term motor cognitive, learning and behavioural functions, including psychiatric ones, is discussed. PMID:23968333

Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Mosca, Fabio; Sannia, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca A

2013-08-23

452

Why regenerative medicine needs an extracellular matrix.

Regenerative medicine is now coming of age. Many attempts at cell therapy have failed to show significant efficacy, and the umbrella term 'stem cell therapy' is perceived in some quarters as hype or just expensive and unnecessary medical tourism. Here we present a short editorial in three parts. First, we examine the importance of using a semisynthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) mimetic, or sECM, to deliver and retain therapeutic cells at the site of administration. Second, we describe one approach in which biophysical and biochemical properties are tailored to each tissue type, which we call "design for optimal functionality." Third, we describe an alternative approach to sECM design and implementation, called "design for simplicity," in which a deconstructed, minimalist sECM is employed and biology is allowed to perform the customization in situ. We opine that an sECM, whether minimal or instructive, is an essential contributor to improve the outcomes of cell-based therapies. PMID:25482878

Prestwich, Glenn D; Healy, Kevin E

2015-01-01

453

Sparse matrix wavefront reconstruction: simulations and experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics systems with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors require reconstruction of the atmospheric phase error from subaperture slope measurements, with every sensor in the array being used in the computation of each actuator command. This fully populated reconstruction matrix can result in a significant computational burden for adaptive optics systems with large numbers of actuators. A method for generating sparse wavefront reconstruction matrices for adaptive optics is proposed. The method exploits the relevance of nearby subaperture slope measurements for control of an individual actuator, and relies upon the limited extent of the influence function for a zonal deformable mirror. Relying only on nearby sensor information can significantly reduce the calculation time for wavefront reconstruction. In addition, a hierarchic controller is proposed to recover some of the global wavefront information. The performance of these sparse wavefront reconstruction matrices was evaluated in simulation, and tested on the Palomar Adaptive Optics System. This paper presents some initial results from the simulations and experiments.

Shi, Fang; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Troy, Mitchell; Brack, Gary L.; Burruss, Rick S.; Dekany, Richard G.

2003-02-01

454

Eigensolver for a Sparse, Large Hermitian Matrix

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parallel-processing computer program finds a few eigenvalues in a sparse Hermitian matrix that contains as many as 100 million diagonal elements. This program finds the eigenvalues faster, using less memory, than do other, comparable eigensolver programs. This program implements a Lanczos algorithm in the American National Standards Institute/ International Organization for Standardization (ANSI/ISO) C computing language, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard to complement an eigensolver in PARPACK. [PARPACK (Parallel Arnoldi Package) is an extension, to parallel-processing computer architectures, of ARPACK (Arnoldi Package), which is a collection of Fortran 77 subroutines that solve large-scale eigenvalue problems.] The eigensolver runs on Beowulf clusters of computers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

Tisdale, E. Robert; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Brown, R. Chris

2003-01-01

455

High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

456

High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

2000-01-01

457

Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

1989-01-01

458

Polymer matrix and graphite fiber interface study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hercules AS4 graphite fiber, unsized, or with EPON 828, PVA, or polysulfone sizing, was combined with three different polymer matrices. These included Hercules 3501-6 epoxy, Hercules 4001 bismaleimide, and Hexcel F155 rubber toughened epoxy. Unidirectional composites in all twelve combinations were fabricated and tested in transverse tension and axial compression. Quasi-isotropic laminates were tested in axial tension and compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, and tensile impact. All tests were conducted at both room temperature, dry and elevated temperature, and wet conditions. Single fiber pullout testing was also performed. Extensive scanning electron microphotographs of fracture surfaces are included, along with photographs of single fiber pullout failures. Analytical/experimental correlations are presented, based on the results of a finite element micromechanics analysis. Correlations between matrix type, fiber sizing, hygrothermal environment, and loading mode are presented. Results indicate that the various composite properties were only moderately influenced by the fiber sizings utilized.

Adams, D. F.; Zimmerman, R. S.; Odom, E. M.

1985-01-01

459

Filler/ Polycarbosilane Systems as CMC Matrix Precursors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pyrolytic conversion of polymeric precursors to ceramics is accompanied by loss of volatiles and large volume changes. Infiltration of a low viscosity polymer into a fiber preform will fill small spaces within fiber tows by capillary forces, but create large matrix cracks within large, intertow areas. One approach to minimizing shrinkage and reducing the number of required infiltration cycles is to use particulate fillers. In this study, Starfire allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS) was blended with a silicon carbide powder, with and without dispersant, using shear mixing. The polymer and polymer/particle interactions were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and rheometry. Polymer/particulate slurries and suspensions were used to infiltrate a figidized preform of an eight ply five harness satin CG Nicalon fiber having a dual layer BN/SiC interface coating, and the resulting composites characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

Hurwitz, Frances I.

1998-01-01

460

Quantum Magnets and Matrix Lorenz Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for the evolution of the magnetization, in presence of an external torque, can be cast in the form of the Lorenz equations and, thus, can describe chaotic fluctuations. To study quantum effects, we describe the magnetization by matrices, that take values in a Lie algebra. The finite dimensionality of the representation encodes the quantum fluctuations, while the non-linear nature of the equations can describe chaotic fluctuations. We identify a criterion, for the appearance of such non-linear terms. This depends on whether an invariant, symmetric tensor of the algebra can vanish or not. This proposal is studied in detail for the fundamental representation of u(2) = u(1) × su(2). We find a knotted structure for the attractor, a bimodal distribution for the largest Lyapunov exponent and that the dynamics takes place within the Cartan subalgebra, that does not contain only the identity matrix, thereby can describe the quantum fluctuations.

Tranchida, J.; Thibaudeau, P.; Nicolis, S.

2015-01-01

461

Predicting structure in nonsymmetric sparse matrix factorizations

Many computations on sparse matrices have a phase that predicts the nonzero structure of the output, followed by a phase that actually performs the numerical computation. We study structure prediction for computations that involve nonsymmetric row and column permutations and nonsymmetric or non-square matrices. Our tools are bipartite graphs, matchings, and alternating paths. Our main new result concerns LU factorization with partial pivoting. We show that if a square matrix A has the strong Hall property (i.e., is fully indecomposable) then an upper bound due to George and Ng on the nonzero structure of L + U is as tight as possible. To show this, we prove a crucial result about alternating paths in strong Hall graphs. The alternating-paths theorem seems to be of independent interest: it can also be used to prove related results about structure prediction for QR factorization that are due to Coleman, Edenbrandt, Gilbert, Hare, Johnson, Olesky, Pothen, and van den Driessche.

Gilbert, J.R. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States)); Ng, E.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-10-01

462

Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo

In a Monte Carlo criticality calculation, before the tallying of quantities can begin, a converged fission source (the fundamental eigenvector of the fission kernel) is required. Tallies of interest may include powers, absorption rates, leakage rates, or the multiplication factor (the fundamental eigenvalue of the fission kernel, k{sub eff}). Just as in the power iteration method of linear algebra, if the dominance ratio (the ratio of the first and zeroth eigenvalues) is high, many iterations of neutron history simulations are required to isolate the fundamental mode of the problem. Optically large systems have large dominance ratios, and systems containing poor neutron communication between regions are also slow to converge. The fission matrix method, implemented into MCNP[1], addresses these problems. When Monte Carlo random walk from a source is executed, the fission kernel is stochastically applied to the source. Random numbers are used for: distances to collision, reaction types, scattering physics, fission reactions, etc. This method is used because the fission kernel is a complex, 7-dimensional operator that is not explicitly known. Deterministic methods use approximations/discretization in energy, space, and direction to the kernel. Consequently, they are faster. Monte Carlo directly simulates the physics, which necessitates the use of random sampling. Because of this statistical noise, common convergence acceleration methods used in deterministic methods do not work. In the fission matrix method, we are using the random walk information not only to build the next-iteration fission source, but also a spatially-averaged fission kernel. Just like in deterministic methods, this involves approximation and discretization. The approximation is the tallying of the spatially-discretized fission kernel with an incorrect fission source. We address this by making the spatial mesh fine enough that this error is negligible. As a consequence of discretization we get a spatially low-order kernel, the fundamental eigenvector of which should converge faster than that of continuous kernel. We can then redistribute the fission bank to match the fundamental fission matrix eigenvector, effectively eliminating all higher modes. For all computations here biasing is not used, with the intention of comparing the unaltered, conventional Monte Carlo process with the fission matrix results. The source convergence of standard Monte Carlo criticality calculations are, to some extent, always subject to the characteristics of the problem. This method seeks to partially eliminate this problem-dependence by directly calculating the spatial coupling. The primary cost of this, which has prevented widespread use since its inception [2,3,4], is the extra storage required. To account for the coupling of all N spatial regions to every other region requires storing N{sup 2} values. For realistic problems, where a fine resolution is required for the suppression of discretization error, the storage becomes inordinate. Two factors lead to a renewed interest here: the larger memory available on modern computers and the development of a better storage scheme based on physical intuition. When the distance between source and fission events is short compared with the size of the entire system, saving memory by accounting for only local coupling introduces little extra error. We can gain other information from directly tallying the fission kernel: higher eigenmodes and eigenvalues. Conventional Monte Carlo cannot calculate this data - here we have a way to get new information for multiplying systems. In Ref. [5], higher mode eigenfunctions are analyzed for a three-region 1-dimensional problem and 2-dimensional homogenous problem. We analyze higher modes for more realistic problems. There is also the question of practical use of this information; here we examine a way of using eigenmode information to address the negative confidence interval bias due to inter-cycle correlation. We apply this method mainly to four problems: 2D pressurized water reactor (PWR) [6],

Carney, Sean E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-05

463

Electrodialytic matrix isolation for metal cations.

Electrodialytic ion transfer was studied as a matrix isolation tool for heavy metal determinations. An ion transfer device (ITD) was used for the transfer of heavy metal cations. Under optimized flow rates applied voltage and receptor composition, heavy metal ions were quantitatively transferred at concentrations spanning µg L(-1) to mg L(-1). As long as the sample pH was acidic, there was no significant sample pH effect on the transfer efficiencies. Significant salt concentrations (>1 mM NaCl), however, decreased the transfer efficiency. This could be ameliorated (up to 5 mM NaCl) by transient instead of continuous sample introduction. The device was applied to the determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in equine and bovine serum; the reproducibility was better than conventional digestion method. PMID:25476302

Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Hiroyama, Yuri; Nakamura, Koretaka; Koda, Takumi; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

2015-01-01

464

Robust Global Motion Estimation with Matrix Completion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the problem of estimating the attitudes and positions of a set of cameras in an external coordinate system. Starting from a conventional global structure-from-motion pipeline, we present some substantial advances. In order to detect outlier relative rotations extracted from pairs of views, we improve a state-of-the-art algorithm based on cycle consistency, by introducing cycle bases. We estimate the angular attitudes of the cameras by proposing a novel gradient descent algorithm based on low-rank matrix completion, that naturally copes with the case of missing data. As for position recovery, we analyze an existing technique from a theoretical point of view, providing some insights on the conditions that guarantee solvability. We provide experimental results on both synthetic and real image sequences for which ground truth calibration is provided.

Arrigoni, F.; Rossi, B.; Malapelle, F.; Fragneto, P.; Fusiello, A.

2014-06-01

465

Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials. PMID:24955633

Wise, Steven G.; Waterhouse, Anna; Michael, Praveesuda; Ng, Martin K.C.

2012-01-01

466

Multi-matrix models and emergent geometry

Encouraged by the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study emergent local geometry in large N multi-matrix models from the perspective of a strong coupling expansion. By considering various solvable interacting models we show how the emergence or non-emergence of local geometry at strong coupling is captured by observables that effectively measure the mass of off-diagonal excitations about a semiclassical eigenvalue background. We find emergent geometry at strong coupling in models where a mass term regulates an infrared divergence. We also show that our notion of emergent geometry can be usefully applied to fuzzy spheres. Although most of our results are analytic, we have found numerical input valuable in guiding and checking our results.

David E. Berenstein; Masanori Hanada; Sean A. Hartnoll

2008-11-20

467

Noncommutative Fermion Mass Matrix and Gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part is an introductory description of a small cross-section of the literature on algebraic methods in nonperturbative quantum gravity with a specific focus on viewing algebra as a laboratory in which to deepen understanding of the nature of geometry. This helps to set the context for the second part, in which we describe a new algebraic characterization of the Dirac operator in noncommutative geometry and then use it in a calculation on the form of the fermion mass matrix. Assimilating and building on the various ideas described in the first part, the final part consists of an outline of a speculative perspective on (noncommutative) quantum spectral gravity. This is the second of a pair of papers so far on this project.

Martins, Rachel A. D.

2013-09-01

468

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

Riley, B.

1988-04-22

469

Data-Driven Learning of Q-Matrix

The recent surge of interests in cognitive assessment has led to developments of novel statistical models for diagnostic classification. Central to many such models is the well-known Q-matrix, which specifies the item–attribute relationships. This article proposes a data-driven approach to identification of the Q-matrix and estimation of related model parameters. A key ingredient is a flexible T-matrix that relates the Q-matrix to response patterns. The flexibility of the T-matrix allows the construction of a natural criterion function as well as a computationally amenable algorithm. Simulations results are presented to demonstrate usefulness and applicability of the proposed method. Extension to handling of the Q-matrix with partial information is presented. The proposed method also provides a platform on which important statistical issues, such as hypothesis testing and model selection, may be formally addressed. PMID:23926363

Liu, Jingchen; Xu, Gongjun; Ying, Zhiliang

2013-01-01

470

Laplace approximation for Bessel functions of matrix argument

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive Laplace approximations to three functions of matrix argument which arise in statistics and elsewhere: matrix Bessel A[nu]; matrix Bessel B[nu]; and the type II confluent hypergeometric function of matrix argument, [Psi]. We examine the theoretical and numerical properties of the approximations. On the theoretical side, it is shown that the Laplace approximations to A[nu], B[nu] and [Psi] given here, together with the Laplace approximations to the matrix argument functions 1F1 and 2F1 presented in Butler and Wood (Laplace approximations to hyper-geometric functions with matrix argument, Ann. Statist. (2002)), satisfy all the important confluence relations and symmetry relations enjoyed by the original functions.

Butler, Ronald W.; Wood, Andrew T. A.

2003-06-01

471

Fabrication and preliminary evaluation of metal matrix microencapsulated fuels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for light water reactors (LWRs), consisting of coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix, is introduced. Fabrication of M3 fuels by hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, or extrusion methodologies has been demonstrated over the temperature range 800-1050 °C. Various types of coated fuel particles with outermost layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, ZrC, and TiN have been incorporated into the zirconium metal matrix. Mechanical particle-particle and chemical particle-matrix interactions have been observed during the preliminary characterization of as-fabricated M3 specimens. Irradiation of three M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles was carried out at mean rod temperature of 400 °C to 4.6 dpa in the zirconium metal matrix. Due to absence of texture in the metal matrix no irradiation growth strain (<0.09%) was detected during the post-irradiation examination.

Terrani, Kurt A.; Kiggans, Jim O.; Snead, Lance L.

2012-08-01

472

Crystal-matrix interrelations in brushite and uric acid calculi.

Brushite and uric acid calculi were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy with the partial dissolution method and transmission electron microscopy. Brushite calculi consist of radially oriented columnar crystals which have sheet-like substructure. The organic matrix is identified chiefly at the outside of the crystals but partly included between the substructure. The concentric matrix bands are often dislocated between the neighbouring crystals. Uric acid calculi also consist of radially oriented columnar crystals, and a fine meshwork of the organic matrix is incorporated within the crystals. The concentric matrix layers of different density are angled according to the crystal lattice. These findings indicate that the organic matrix arose from a mucinous surface coat, at least in the radially striated calculi. The crystals continued to grow in this gel-state milieu, either thrusting the matrix aside or incorporating it within the crystals. PMID:3944880

Iwata, H; Abe, Y; Nishio, S; Wakatsuki, A; Ochi, K; Takeuchi, M

1986-02-01

473

Residual thermal strains and stresses in nickel aluminide matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally induced residual strains and stresses developed during postfabrication cooling in Saphikon/NiAl and tungsten/NiAl high-temperature composites are investigated through three-dimensional elastoplastic finite-element analyses. Average axial and transverse strains in the matrix are found to be tensile and compressive, respectively, and similar for both Saphikon and W-fiber-reinforced NiAl composites. It is suggested that the residual matrix stresses and strains are controlled more by the low-matrix yield stress than by the fiber/matrix expansion mismatch. Residual thermal strains in the matrix of these composites are measured by using a neutron-diffraction technique; the measured axial and transverse strains in the matrix are found to be in agreement with the computed values.

Saigal, A.; Kupperman, D. S.

1991-01-01

474

Fission matrix capability for MCNP, Part II - Applications

This paper describes the initial experience and results from implementing a fission matrix capability into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The fission matrix is obtained at essentially no cost during the normal simulation for criticality calculations. It can be used to provide estimates of the fundamental mode power distribution, the reactor dominance ratio, the eigenvalue spectrum, and higher mode spatial eigenfunctions. It can also be used to accelerate the convergence of the power method iterations. Past difficulties and limitations of the fission matrix approach are overcome with a new sparse representation of the matrix, permitting much larger and more accurate fission matrix representations. Numerous examples are presented. A companion paper (Part I - Theory) describes the theoretical basis for the fission matrix method. (authors)

Carney, S. E. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

475

Understanding the Evolution and Stability of the G-Matrix

The G-matrix summarizes the inheritance of multiple, phenotypic traits. The stability and evolution of this matrix are important issues because they affect our ability to predict how the phenotypic traits evolve by selection and drift. Despite the centrality of these issues, comparative, experimental, and analytical approaches to understanding the stability and evolution of the G-matrix have met with limited success. Nevertheless, empirical studies often find that certain structural features of the matrix are remarkably constant, suggesting that persistent selection regimes or other factors promote stability. On the theoretical side, no one has been able to derive equations that would relate stability of the G-matrix to selection regimes, population size, migration, or to the details of genetic architecture. Recent simulation studies of evolving G-matrices offer solutions to some of these problems, as well as a deeper, synthetic understanding of both the G-matrix and adaptive radiations. PMID:18973631

Arnold, Stevan J.; Bürger, Reinhard; Hohenlohe, Paul A.; Ajie, Beverley C.; Jones, Adam G.

2011-01-01

476

Exposure matrix development for the Libby cohort.

The Libby, MT, cohort includes current and former residents with potential historical exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. This cohort includes individuals with a broad range of exposure experiences and work histories. While both occupational and nonoccupational exposure pathways were found to be relevant in recent investigations of health effects among this cohort, there has not been a comprehensive approach to characterizing these varied exposure pathways. Any approach toward assessing historical exposures among this population must account for three general categories: (1) occupational exposures, (2) residential exposures, and (3) exposures related to a variety of nonoccupational activities thought to be associated with vermiculite/asbestos exposure in this community. First, a job exposure matrix is commonly used in occupational epidemiology to assess historical worker exposures, allowing for the incorporation of numerous occupational categories and weighting factors applied to specific jobs for different time periods. Second, residential exposures can best be quantified by integrating individuals' residential histories with data on environmental asbestos contamination in the community. Previous soil or sediment sampling as well as air modeling could inform estimates of time- and spatial-dependent exposure concentrations for a residential exposure matrix. Finally, exposure opportunities due to nonoccupational activities could be weighted by factors such as time, geography, environmental sampling, and an assessment of the relative importance for each pathway. These three matrices for occupational, residential, and activity exposure pathways could be combined or used separately to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative, or semiquantitative, assessment of individual exposure in future epidemiological studies of this cohort. PMID:16920669

Noonan, C W

2006-11-01

477

Research on Graphite Reinforced Glass Matrix Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains the results obtained in the first twelve months of research under NASA Langley Contract NAS1-14346 for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites. Included in the report is a summary of the research by other investigators in this area. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a C.G.W. 7740 (Pyrex) glass matrix. The graphite fibers used included Hercules HMS, Hercules HTS, Thornel 300S, and Celanese DG-102 and, of these, the Hercules HMS and Celanese DG-102 graphite fibers in C.G.W. 7740 gave the most interesting but widely different results. Hercules HMS fiber in C.G.W. 7740 glass (Pyrex) showed an average four-point flexural strength of 848 MPa or 127,300 psi. As the test temperature was raised from room temperature to 560 C in argon or vacuum, the strength was higher by 50 percent. However, in air, similar tests at 560 C gave a severe loss in strength. These composites also have good thermal cycle properties in argon or vacuum, greatly increased toughness compared to glass, and no loss in strength in a 100 cycle fatigue test. Celanese DG-102 fiber in C.G.W. 7740 glass (Pyrex) had a much lower flexural strength but did not suffer any loss in this strength when samples were heated to 560 C in air for 4 hrs.

Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

1977-01-01

478

Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c. 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

2009-03-10

479

Protein constituents of the eggshell: eggshell-specific matrix proteins

In this article, we review the results of recent proteomic and genomic analyses of eggshell matrix proteins and draw attention\\u000a to the impact of these data on current understanding of eggshell formation and function. Eggshell-specific matrix proteins\\u000a from avian (ovocleidins and ovocalyxins) and non-avian (paleovaterin) shells are discussed. Two possible roles for eggshell-specific\\u000a matrix proteins have been proposed; both reflect

Megan L. H. Rose; Maxwell T. Hincke

2009-01-01

480

A Knowledge Discovery Method Based on Error Matrix Equation

This paper begins by defining error matrix to model system's interacting objects whose microscopic state includes not only spatio-temporal variables but also error functions. The error matrix model allows us to define six transformations that have been proposed by error-eliminating theory's preliminary researches. The main result of this paper is a set of error matrix equations such as T(u) =

Xilin Min; Kaizhong Guo

2009-01-01

481

Optimisation of inert matrix fuel concepts for americium transmutation

Concepts of inert-matrix fuels for americium transmutation are discussed. It is demonstrated that a `hybrid' fuel design, consisting in a dispersion of an americium-bearing phase in an inert matrix, is desirable. More than a solid-solution is preferred in order to localise within a small volume the damage in the matrix due to fission fragments. Such a dispersion is composed of

N. Chauvin; R. J. M Konings; Hj Matzke

1999-01-01

482

Distribution of eigenvalues of detrended cross-correlation matrix

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter is devoted to the cross-correlation analysis of non-stationary multivariate data, in which the detrended cross-correlation matrix based on the detrended cross-correlation coefficient is studied. The relationship between Pearson's cross-correlation coefficient and the detrended cross-correlation coefficient is analyzed. As a special case of random matrix theory, the distribution of the eigenvalues of the detrended cross-correlation matrix for purely random variables is derived.

Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

2014-08-01

483

STUDIES ON GROOVING OF DISPERSION STRENGTHENED METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

Machinability studies of silicon carbide reinforced aluminum alloy (Al\\/SiC) composites have attracted widespread scientific and public attention. The metal matrix composites (MMCs) are difficult to machine, since the matrix and reinforcement possess widely different properties and the cutting tool alternately encounters matrix and reinforcement, demanding higher wear resistance coupled with fracture toughness, owing to the hard SiC reinforcement embedded in

B. Anand Ronald; L. Vijayaraghavan; R. Krishnamurthy

484

Prediction of matrix-initiated transverse failure in polymer composites

A study has been conducted of failure in unidirectionally-reinforced fiber composites loaded in tension normal to the fibers. The case considered is when this failure is governed by failure of the matrix rather than fiber\\/matrix debonding. Both yielding and cavitation-induced brittle failure of the matrix are considered. The latter mode of failure was suggested previously as the likely mode to

L. E. Asp; L. A. Berglund; R. Talreja

1996-01-01

485

The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

NONE

1996-12-31

486

Novel Three-Phase AC–AC Sparse Matrix Converters

A novel three-phase ac-ac sparse matrix converter having no energy storage elements and employing only 15 IGBTs, as opposed to 18 IGBTs of a functionally equivalent conventional ac-ac matrix converter, is proposed. It is shown that the realization effort could be further reduced to only nine IGBTs in an ultra sparse matrix converter (USMC) in the case where only unidirectional

Johann W. Kolar; Frank Schafmeister; Simon D. Round; Hans Ertl

2007-01-01

487

Modifying Matrix Materials to Increase Wetting and Adhesion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an alternative approach to increasing the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fiber and matrix components of organic-fiber/polymer matrix composite materials, the matrix resins are modified. Heretofore, it has been common practice to modify the fibers rather than the matrices: The fibers are modified by chemical and/or physical surface treatments prior to combining the fibers with matrix resins - an approach that entails considerable expense and usually results in degradation (typically, weakening) of fibers. The alternative approach of modifying the matrix resins does not entail degradation of fibers, and affords opportunities for improving the mechanical properties of the fiber composites. The alternative approach is more cost-effective, not only because it eliminates expensive fiber-surface treatments but also because it does not entail changes in procedures for manufacturing conventional composite-material structures. The alternative approach is best described by citing an example of its application to a composite of ultra-high-molecular- weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers in an epoxy matrix. The epoxy matrix was modified to a chemically reactive, polarized epoxy nano-matrix to increase the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fibers and the matrix. The modification was effected by incorporating a small proportion (0.3 weight percent) of reactive graphitic nanofibers produced from functionalized nanofibers into the epoxy matrix resin prior to combining the resin with the UHMWPE fibers. The resulting increase in fiber/matrix adhesion manifested itself in several test results, notably including an increase of 25 percent in the maximum fiber pullout force and an increase of 60-65 percent in fiber pullout energy. In addition, it was conjectured that the functionalized nanofibers became involved in the cross linking reaction of the epoxy resin, with resultant enhancement of the mechanical properties and lower viscosity of the matrix.

Zhong, Katie

2011-01-01

488

Matrix effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect

The present understanding of nonperturbative ground states in the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on effective theories of the Jain 'composite fermion' excitations. We review the approach based on matrix variables, i.e. D0 branes, originally introduced by Susskind and Polychronakos. We show that the Maxwell-Chern-Simons matrix gauge theory provides a matrix generalization of the quantum Hall effect, where the

Andrea Cappelli; Ivan D. Rodriguez

2009-01-01

489

A Review of the Magnitudes of the CKM Matrix Elements

Flavour mixing is described within the Standard Model by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements. With the increasingly higher statistics collected by many experiments, the matrix elements are measured with improved precision, allowing for more stringent tests of the Standard Model. In this paper, a review of the current status of the absolute values of the CKM matrix elements is presented, with particular attention to the latest measurements.

Francesca Di Lodovico

2008-11-21

490

48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix...

2010-10-01

491

Gene evolution and functions of extracellular matrix proteins in teeth

The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides physical support for tissues, but it is also critical for tissue development, homeostasis and disease. Over 300 ECM molecules have been defined as comprising the “core matrisome” in mammals through the analysis of whole genome sequences. During tooth development, the structure and functions of the ECM dynamically change. In the early stages, basement membranes (BMs) separate two cell layers of the dental epithelium and the mesenchyme. Later in the differentiation stages, the BM layer is replaced with the enamel matrix and the dentin matrix, which are secreted by ameloblasts and odontoblasts, respectively. The enamel matrix genes and the dentin matrix genes are each clustered in two closed regions located on human chromosome 4 (mouse chromosome 5), except for the gene coded for amelogenin, the major enamel matrix protein, which is located on the sex chromosomes. These genes for enamel and dentin matrix proteins are derived from a common ancestral gene, but as a result of evolution, they diverged in terms of their specific functions. These matrix proteins play important roles in cell adhesion, polarity, and differentiation and mineralization of enamel and dentin matrices. Mutations of these genes cause diseases such as odontogenesis imperfect (OI) and amelogenesis imperfect (AI). In this review, we discuss the recently defined terms matrisome and matrixome for ECMs, as well as foc