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1

Novel Mutation Identified in the PAH Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of a DNA-amplified fragment of a phenylketonuria (PKU) patient by sequencing reveals a novel mutation in the PAH gene. This mutation represents the deletion of a single base (guanine) localized at the intron 11\\/exon 12 junction. This newly described mutation may be a frameshift or a splicing mutation. The identified mutation expresses phenotypically as the severe form of

E. V. Charikova

1996-01-01

2

Using passenger mutations to estimate the timing of driver mutations and identify mutator alterations  

PubMed Central

Background Recent developments in high-throughput genomic technologies make it possible to have a comprehensive view of genomic alterations in tumors on a whole genome scale. Only a small number of somatic alterations detected in tumor genomes are driver alterations which drive tumorigenesis. Most of the somatic alterations are passengers that are neutral to tumor cell selection. Although most research efforts are focused on analyzing driver alterations, the passenger alterations also provide valuable information about the history of tumor development. Results In this paper, we develop a method for estimating the age of the tumor lineage and the timing of the driver alterations based on the number of passenger alterations. This method also identifies mutator genes which increase genomic instability when they are altered and provides estimates of the increased rate of alterations caused by each mutator gene. We applied this method to copy number data and DNA sequencing data for ovarian and lung tumors. We identified well known mutators such as TP53, PRKDC, BRCA1/2 as well as new mutator candidates PPP2R2A and the chromosomal region 22q13.33. We found that most mutator genes alter early during tumorigenesis and were able to estimate the age of individual tumor lineage in cell generations. Conclusions This is the first computational method to identify mutator genes and to take into account the increase of the alteration rate by mutator genes, providing more accurate estimates of the tumor age and the timing of driver alterations.

2013-01-01

3

Scientists Using TCGA Data Identify 21 Mutational Signatures in Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Many mutations have been implicated in human cancer, but the biological mechanisms that produce them remain largely unknown. In a study published online in Nature on August 14, 2013, researchers identified 21 signatures of mutational processes underlying 30 types of cancer. Characterizing mutational signatures may provide a greater understanding of the mechanistic basis of cancer and potentially lead to better treatments that target its root causes.

4

Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide and has no effective treatment, yet the molecular basis of hepatocarcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we report findings from a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) study of 88 matched HCC tumor/normal pairs, 81 of which are Hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive, seeking to identify genetically altered genes and pathways implicated in HBV-associated HCC. We find beta-catenin to be the most frequently mutated oncogene (15.9%) and TP53 the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor (35.2%). The Wnt/beta-catenin and JAK/STAT pathways, altered in 62.5% and 45.5% of cases, respectively, are likely to act as two major oncogenic drivers in HCC. This study also identifies several prevalent and potentially actionable mutations, including activating mutations of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), in 9.1% of patients and provides a path toward therapeutic intervention of the disease.

Kan, Zhengyan; Zheng, Hancheng; Liu, Xiao; Li, Shuyu; Barber, Thomas D.; Gong, Zhuolin; Gao, Huan; Hao, Ke; Willard, Melinda D.; Xu, Jiangchun; Hauptschein, Robert; Rejto, Paul A.; Fernandez, Julio; Wang, Guan; Zhang, Qinghui; Wang, Bo; Chen, Ronghua; Wang, Jian; Lee, Nikki P.; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Zhao; Peng, Zhiyu; Yi, Kang; Chen, Shengpei; Li, Lin; Fan, Xiaomei; Yang, Jie; Ye, Rui; Ju, Jia; Wang, Kai; Estrella, Heather; Deng, Shibing; Wei, Ping; Qiu, Ming; Wulur, Isabella H.; Liu, Jiangang; Ehsani, Mariam E.; Zhang, Chunsheng; Loboda, Andrey; Sung, Wing Kin; Aggarwal, Amit; Poon, Ronnie T.; Fan, Sheung Tat; Wang, Jun; Hardwick, James; Reinhard, Christoph; Dai, Hongyue; Li, Yingrui; Luk, John M.; Mao, Mao

2013-01-01

5

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma  

PubMed Central

We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1P29S) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1P29S showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M; Brash, Douglas E; Stern, David F; Materin, Miguel A; Lo, Roger S; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K; Hayward, Nicholas K; Lifton, Richard P; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J; Halaban, Ruth

2012-01-01

6

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma  

SciTech Connect

We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

2012-10-11

7

Multigene mutational profiling of cholangiocarcinomas identifies actionable molecular subgroups  

PubMed Central

One-hundred-fifty-three biliary cancers, including 70 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), 57 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECC) and 26 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were assessed for mutations in 56 genes using multigene next-generation sequencing. Expression of EGFR and mTOR pathway genes was investigated by immunohistochemistry. At least one mutated gene was observed in 118/153 (77%) cancers. The genes most frequently involved were KRAS (28%), TP53 (18%), ARID1A (12%), IDH1/2 (9%), PBRM1 (9%), BAP1 (7%), and PIK3CA (7%). IDH1/2 (p=0.0005) and BAP1 (p=0.0097) mutations were characteristic of ICC, while KRAS (p=0.0019) and TP53 (p=0.0019) were more frequent in ECC and GBC. Multivariate analysis identified tumour stage and TP53 mutations as independent predictors of survival. Alterations in chromatin remodeling genes (ARID1A, BAP1, PBRM1, SMARCB1) were seen in 31% of cases. Potentially actionable mutations were seen in 104/153 (68%) cancers: i) KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations were found in 34% of cancers; ii) mTOR pathway activation was documented by immunohistochemistry in 51% of cases and by mutations in mTOR pathway genes in 19% of cancers; iii) TGF-ß/Smad signaling was altered in 10.5% cancers; iv) mutations in tyrosine kinase receptors were found in 9% cases. Our study identified molecular subgroups of cholangiocarcinomas that can be explored for specific drug targeting in clinical trials.

Mafficini, Andrea; Wood, Laura D.; Corbo, Vincenzo; Melisi, Davide; Malleo, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Caterina; Malpeli, Giorgio; Antonello, Davide; Sperandio, Nicola; Capelli, Paola; Tomezzoli, Anna; Iacono, Calogero; Lawlor, Rita T.; Bassi, Claudio; Hruban, Ralph H.; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo

2014-01-01

8

Exome capture sequencing identifies a novel mutation in BBS4  

PubMed Central

Purpose Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is one of the most severe eye dystrophies characterized by severe vision loss at an early stage and accounts for approximately 5% of all retinal dystrophies. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel LCA disease allele or gene and to develop an approach combining genetic mapping with whole exome sequencing. Methods Three patients from King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH205) underwent whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, and a single candidate region was identified. Taking advantage of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, whole exome capture sequencing was performed on patient KKESH205#7. Sanger direct sequencing was used during the validation step. The zebrafish model was used to examine the function of the mutant allele. Results A novel missense mutation in Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4 protein (BBS4) was identified in a consanguineous family from Saudi Arabia. This missense mutation in the fifth exon (c.253G>C;p.E85Q) of BBS4 is likely a disease-causing mutation as it segregates with the disease. The mutation is not found in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database, the 1000 Genomes Project, or matching normal controls. Functional analysis of this mutation in zebrafish indicates that the G253C allele is pathogenic. Coinjection of the G253C allele cannot rescue the mislocalization of rhodopsin in the retina when BBS4 is knocked down by morpholino injection. Immunofluorescence analysis in cell culture shows that this missense mutation in BBS4 does not cause obvious defects in protein expression or pericentriolar localization. Conclusions This mutation likely mainly reduces or abolishes BBS4 function in the retina. Further studies of this allele will provide important insights concerning the pleiotropic nature of BBS4 function.

Wang, Hui; Chen, Xianfeng; Dudinsky, Lynn; Patenia, Claire; Chen, Yiyun; Li, Yumei; Wei, Yue; Abboud, Emad B.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.; Lewis, Richard Alan; Lupski, James R.; Mardon, Graeme; Gibbs, Richard A.; Perkins, Brian D.

2011-01-01

9

International team identifies critical genes mutated in stomach cancer  

Cancer.gov

An international team of scientists, led by researchers from the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School in Singapore and National Cancer Centre of Singapore, has identified hundreds of novel genes that are mutated in stomach cancer, the second-most lethal cancer worldwide.

10

RhoA Mutations Identified in Diffuse Gastric Cancer.  

PubMed

The diffuse-type histologic variant of gastric cancer is characterized by highly invasive growth patterns and lack of cellular cohesion. Two recent studies have identified highly recurrent mutations of the gene encoding the small GTPase RhoA and suggest that RhoA activity may have a tumor suppressive role in this disease. PMID:25026207

Zhou, Jin; Hayakawa, Yoku; Wang, Timothy C; Bass, Adam J

2014-07-14

11

Exome sequencing identifies PDE4D mutations in acrodysostosis.  

PubMed

Acrodysostosis is a dominantly-inherited, multisystem disorder characterized by skeletal, endocrine, and neurological abnormalities. To identify the molecular basis of acrodysostosis, we performed exome sequencing on five genetically independent cases. Three different missense mutations in PDE4D, which encodes cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 4D, were found to be heterozygous in three of the cases. Two of the mutations were demonstrated to have occurred de novo, providing strong genetic evidence of causation. Two additional cases were heterozygous for de novo missense mutations in PRKAR1A, which encodes the cAMP-dependent regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and which has been recently reported to be the cause of a form of acrodysostosis resistant to multiple hormones. These findings demonstrate that acrodysostosis is genetically heterogeneous and underscore the exquisite sensitivity of many tissues to alterations in cAMP homeostasis. PMID:22464252

Lee, Hane; Graham, John M; Rimoin, David L; Lachman, Ralph S; Krejci, Pavel; Tompson, Stuart W; Nelson, Stanley F; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H

2012-04-01

12

MuSiC: Identifying mutational significance in cancer genomes  

PubMed Central

Massively parallel sequencing technology and the associated rapidly decreasing sequencing costs have enabled systemic analyses of somatic mutations in large cohorts of cancer cases. Here we introduce a comprehensive mutational analysis pipeline that uses standardized sequence-based inputs along with multiple types of clinical data to establish correlations among mutation sites, affected genes and pathways, and to ultimately separate the commonly abundant passenger mutations from the truly significant events. In other words, we aim to determine the Mutational Significance in Cancer (MuSiC) for these large data sets. The integration of analytical operations in the MuSiC framework is widely applicable to a broad set of tumor types and offers the benefits of automation as well as standardization. Herein, we describe the computational structure and statistical underpinnings of the MuSiC pipeline and demonstrate its performance using 316 ovarian cancer samples from the TCGA ovarian cancer project. MuSiC correctly confirms many expected results, and identifies several potentially novel avenues for discovery.

Dees, Nathan D.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Kandoth, Cyriac; Wendl, Michael C.; Schierding, William; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Mooney, Thomas B.; Callaway, Matthew B.; Dooling, David; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ding, Li

2012-01-01

13

Two novel mutations identified in familial cases with Donohue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Donohue syndrome (DS) is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the insulin receptor (INSR) gene, manifesting marked insulin resistance, severe growth retardation, hypertrichosis, and characteristic dysmorphic features. We report the clinical, molecular, and biochemical characterization of three new patients with DS, and address genotype–phenotype issues playing a role in the pathophysiology of DS. A female infant born to first-degree cousins Muslim Arab parents and two brothers born to first-degree cousins Druze parents presented classical features of DS with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and died in infancy. Each patient was found homozygous for one missense mutation within the extracellular domain of the INSR gene. Western blot analysis identified the proreceptor of INSR, but not its mature subunits alpha and beta. Of 95 healthy Muslims, no heterozygous was found and of 52 healthy Druze from the same village, one was heterozygous. This study presents two novel familial mutations in the alpha subunit of the INSR which appear to impair post-translational processing of the INSR, resulting loss of its function. Both mutations cause DS with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and early death. Identification of the causative mutation enables prevention of this devastating disease.

Falik Zaccai, Tzipora C; Kalfon, Limor; Klar, Aharon; Elisha, Mordechai Ben; Hurvitz, Haggit; Weingarten, Galina; Chechik, Emelia; Fleisher Sheffer, Vered; Haj Yahya, Raid; Meidan, Gal; Gross-Kieselstein, Eva; Bauman, Dvora; Hershkovitz, Sylvia; Yaron, Yuval; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Wertheimer, Efrat

2014-01-01

14

Human-specific nonsense mutations identified by genome sequence comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative study of the human and chimpanzee genomes may shed light on the genetic ingredients for the evolution of the\\u000a unique traits of humans. Here, we present a simple procedure to identify human-specific nonsense mutations that might have\\u000a arisen since the human–chimpanzee divergence. The procedure involves collecting orthologous sequences in which a stop codon\\u000a of the human sequence is

Yoonsoo Hahn; Byungkook Lee

2006-01-01

15

DCEG Scientists Identify New Gene Mutation Related to Familial Melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have identified a rare inherited mutation in a gene that can increase the risk of familial melanoma, according to a study that appeared online in Nature Genetics on March 30, 2014. Although the finding does not offer immediate benefit to patients, variation in the Protection of Telomeres-1 (POT1) gene provides additional clues as to the origins of melanoma and may open new avenues in prevention and treatment research. Read the full NCI Benchmarks blog post about this study.

16

New ZNF644 mutations identified in patients with high myopia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Myopia, or near-sightedness, is one of the most common human visual impairments worldwide, and high myopia is one of the leading causes of blindness. In this study, we investigated the mutation spectrum of ZNF644, a causative gene for autosomal dominant high myopia, in a high-myopia cohort from a Chinese population. Methods DNA was isolated with the standard proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform method from a case cohort of 186 subjects diagnosed with high myopia (spherical refractive error equal or less than ?6.00 diopters). Sanger sequencing was performed to find potential mutations in all coding exons, flanking splicing sites, and untranslated regions (UTRs) of ZNF644 (NM_201269). Identified novel variants were further screened in 526 ethnically matched normal controls. Functional prediction and conservation analysis were performed using ANNOVAR. Results Five novel variants were identified. Three are missense (c.1201A>G:p.T401A, c.2867C>G:p.T956S, c.3833A>G:p.E1278G), one is synonymous (c.2565A>G:p.T855T), and one (c.-219C>A) is located in the 5? UTR. Functional prediction indicates that c.3833A>G:p.E1278G was predicted to be damaging by SIFT and Polyphen2. Conservation analysis using PhyloP and GERP++ indicate all of the missense variants are highly conserved. None of these novel mutations was identified in 526 normal controls. Conclusions ZNF644 is associated with high myopia in a cohort from a Chinese population. ZNF644 mutations have a minor contribution to the genetic etiology of high myopia.

Xiang, Xinying; Wang, Tianyun; Tong, Ping; Li, Yunping; Guo, Hui; Wan, Anran; Xia, Lu; Liu, Yanling; Li, Ying; Tian, Qi; Shen, Lu; Cai, Xinzhang; Tian, Lei; Jin, Xuemin; Hu, Zhengmao

2014-01-01

17

Exome sequencing identified new mutations in a Marfan syndrome family  

PubMed Central

Marfan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant hereditary connective tissue disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome currently. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is efficient to identify genetic lesions at the exome level. Here we carried out exome sequencing of two Marfan syndrome patients. Further Sanger sequencing validation in other five members from the same family was also implemented to confirm new variants which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Two new variants, including one nonsense SNP in the Marfan syndrome gene FBN1 and one missense mutation in exon 15 of LRP1, which may be related to the phenotype of the patients were identified. The exome sequencing analysis provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1229110069114125.

2014-01-01

18

LineUp: Identifying Deleterious Mutations Using Protein Domain Alignment - Brady Bernard, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos LineUp: Identifying Deleterious Mutations Using Protein Domain Alignment - Brady Bernard LineUp: Identifying Deleterious Mutations Using Protein Domain Alignment - Brady Bernard, TCGA Scientific Symposium

19

Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

2008-01-01

20

Cancer Risk Estimates for BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identified in a Risk Evaluation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing numbers of BRCA1 mutation car- riers are being identified in cancer risk evaluation programs. However, no estimates of cancer risk specific to a clinic- based population of mutation carriers are available. These data are clinically relevant, because estimates based on fami- lies ascertained for linkage studies may overestimate cancer risk in mutation carriers, and population-based series may underestimate

Marcia S. Brose; Timothy R. Rebbeck; Kathleen A. Calzone; Jill E. Stopfer; Katherine L. Nathanson; Barbara L. Weber

21

Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies New Causative Mutations in Tunisian Families with Non-Syndromic Deafness  

PubMed Central

Identification of the causative mutations in patients affected by autosomal recessive non syndromic deafness (DFNB forms), is demanding due to genetic heterogeneity. After the exclusion of GJB2 mutations and other mutations previously reported in Tunisian deaf patients, we performed whole exome sequencing in patients affected with severe to profound deafness, from four unrelated consanguineous Tunisian families. Four biallelic non previously reported mutations were identified in three different genes: a nonsense mutation, c.208C>T (p.R70X), in LRTOMT, a missense mutation, c.5417T>C (p.L1806P), in MYO15A and two splice site mutations, c.7395+3G>A, and c.2260+2T>A, in MYO15A and TMC1 respectively. We thereby provide evidence that whole exome sequencing is a powerful, cost-effective screening tool to identify mutations causing recessive deafness in consanguineous families.

Zainine, Rim; Louha, Malek; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Laroussi, Nadia; Chargui, Mariem; Kefi, Rym; Jonard, Laurence; Dorboz, Imen; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Salah, Sihem Belhaj; Levilliers, Jacqueline; Weil, Dominique; McElreavey, Kenneth; Boespflug, Odile Tanguy; Besbes, Ghazi; Abdelhak, Sonia; Petit, Christine

2014-01-01

22

Identifying DNA mutations in purified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

In recent years, it has become apparent that genomic instability is tightly related to many developmental disorders, cancers, and aging. Given that stem cells are responsible for ensuring tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the stem cell population is critical for preserving genomic integrity of tissues. Therefore, significant interest has arisen in assessing the impact of endogenous and environmental factors on genomic integrity in stem cells and their progeny, aiming to understand the etiology of stem-cell based diseases. LacI transgenic mice carry a recoverable ? phage vector encoding the LacI reporter system, in which the LacI gene serves as the mutation reporter. The result of a mutated LacI gene is the production of ?-galactosidase that cleaves a chromogenic substrate, turning it blue. The LacI reporter system is carried in all cells, including stem/progenitor cells and can easily be recovered and used to subsequently infect E. coli. After incubating infected E. coli on agarose that contains the correct substrate, plaques can be scored; blue plaques indicate a mutant LacI gene, while clear plaques harbor wild-type. The frequency of blue (among clear) plaques indicates the mutant frequency in the original cell population the DNA was extracted from. Sequencing the mutant LacI gene will show the location of the mutations in the gene and the type of mutation. The LacI transgenic mouse model is well-established as an in vivo mutagenesis assay. Moreover, the mice and the reagents for the assay are commercially available. Here we describe in detail how this model can be adapted to measure the frequency of spontaneously occurring DNA mutants in stem cell-enriched Lin(-)IL7R(-)Sca-1(+)cKit(++)(LSK) cells and other subpopulations of the hematopoietic system. PMID:24637843

Cheng, Ziming; Zhou, Ting; Merchant, Azhar; Prihoda, Thomas J; Wickes, Brian L; Xu, Guogang; Walter, Christi A; Rebel, Vivienne I

2014-01-01

23

Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes: computational approaches to enable precision medicine  

PubMed Central

High-throughput DNA sequencing is revolutionizing the study of cancer and enabling the measurement of the somatic mutations that drive cancer development. However, the resulting sequencing datasets are large and complex, obscuring the clinically important mutations in a background of errors, noise, and random mutations. Here, we review computational approaches to identify somatic mutations in cancer genome sequences and to distinguish the driver mutations that are responsible for cancer from random, passenger mutations. First, we describe approaches to detect somatic mutations from high-throughput DNA sequencing data, particularly for tumor samples that comprise heterogeneous populations of cells. Next, we review computational approaches that aim to predict driver mutations according to their frequency of occurrence in a cohort of samples, or according to their predicted functional impact on protein sequence or structure. Finally, we review techniques to identify recurrent combinations of somatic mutations, including approaches that examine mutations in known pathways or protein-interaction networks, as well as de novo approaches that identify combinations of mutations according to statistical patterns of mutual exclusivity. These techniques, coupled with advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing, are enabling precision medicine approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

2014-01-01

24

A graph theoretic approach to utilizing protein structure to identify non-random somatic mutations  

PubMed Central

Background It is well known that the development of cancer is caused by the accumulation of somatic mutations within the genome. For oncogenes specifically, current research suggests that there is a small set of "driver" mutations that are primarily responsible for tumorigenesis. Further, due to recent pharmacological successes in treating these driver mutations and their resulting tumors, a variety of approaches have been developed to identify potential driver mutations using methods such as machine learning and mutational clustering. We propose a novel methodology that increases our power to identify mutational clusters by taking into account protein tertiary structure via a graph theoretical approach. Results We have designed and implemented GraphPAC (Graph Protein Amino acid Clustering) to identify mutational clustering while considering protein spatial structure. Using GraphPAC, we are able to detect novel clusters in proteins that are known to exhibit mutation clustering as well as identify clusters in proteins without evidence of prior clustering based on current methods. Specifically, by utilizing the spatial information available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) along with the mutational data in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), GraphPAC identifies new mutational clusters in well known oncogenes such as EGFR and KRAS. Further, by utilizing graph theory to account for the tertiary structure, GraphPAC discovers clusters in DPP4, NRP1 and other proteins not identified by existing methods. The R package is available at: http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GraphPAC.html. Conclusion GraphPAC provides an alternative to iPAC and an extension to current methodology when identifying potential activating driver mutations by utilizing a graph theoretic approach when considering protein tertiary structure.

2014-01-01

25

High Throughput Genotyping in Osteosarcoma Identifies Multiple Mutations in PIK3CA and other Oncogenes  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of new genes that are mutated in osteosarcomas is critical to developing a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and discovering new targets for therapeutic development. Methods We identified somatic non-synonymous coding mutations in oncogenes associated with human cancers and hotspot mutations from tumor suppressor genes that were either well-described in literature or seen multiple times in human cancer sequencing efforts. We then systematically characterized 961 mutations in 89 genes across 98 osteosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. All identified mutations were replicated on an independent platform using homogeneous mass extend MALDI-TOF (Sequenom hME Genotyping). Results We identified 14 mutations in at least one osteosarcoma tumor sample or cell line. Some of the genetic changes identified were in tumor suppressor genes previously known to be altered in osteosarcoma: p53 (R273H, R273C, and Y163C) and RB1 (E137*). Notably, we identified multiple mutations in PIK3CA (H1047R, E545K, and H701P) which have never previously been observed in osteosarcoma. Additionally, we observed mutations in KRAS (G12S), CUBN (I3189V, seen in two separate tumor samples), CDH1 (A617T, seen in two separate tumor samples), CTNNB1 (N287S), and FSCB (S775L). Conclusion We performed the largest mutational profiling of osteosarcoma to date and identified for the first time several mutations involving the PI3 kinase pathway – adding osteosarcoma on to the growing list of malignancies with PI3 kinase mutations. Additionally, we initiated a mutational map detailing DNA sequence changes across a variety of osteosarcoma subtypes and offered new candidates for therapeutic targeting.

Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis; MacConaill, Laura; Harmon, David; Tariq, Zeeshan; Garraway, Levi; Duan, Zhenfeng

2011-01-01

26

Exome Sequencing Identifies Mutations in CCDC114 as a Cause of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal-recessive disorder, characterized by oto-sino-pulmonary disease and situs abnormalities. PCD-causing mutations have been identified in 14 genes, but they collectively account for only ?60% of all PCD. To identify mutations that cause PCD, we performed exome sequencing on six unrelated probands with ciliary outer dynein arm (ODA) defects. Mutations in CCDC114, an ortholog of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii motility gene DCC2, were identified in a family with two affected siblings. Sanger sequencing of 67 additional individuals with PCD with ODA defects from 58 families revealed CCDC114 mutations in 4 individuals in 3 families. All 6 individuals with CCDC114 mutations had characteristic oto-sino-pulmonary disease, but none had situs abnormalities. In the remaining 5 individuals with PCD who underwent exome sequencing, we identified mutations in two genes (DNAI2, DNAH5) known to cause PCD, including an Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation in DNAI2. These results revealed that mutations in CCDC114 are a cause of ciliary dysmotility and PCD and further demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing to identify genetic causes in heterogeneous recessive disorders.

Knowles, Michael R.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Huang, Lu; Carson, Johnny L.; Hazucha, Milan J.; Yin, Weining; Berg, Jonathan S.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Dell, Sharon D.; Ferkol, Thomas W.; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Sagel, Scott D.; Milla, Carlos E.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Turner, Emily H.; Lewis, Alexandra P.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Shendure, Jay; Zariwala, Maimoona A.

2013-01-01

27

Functional characterization of novel melanocortin-3 receptor mutations identified from obese subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is controversial whether mutation in the melancortin-3 receptor (MC3R) gene is a cause for monogenic obesity in humans. Three novel mutations in the MC3R, A293T, I335S, and X361S, were identified from morbidly obese subjects. We investigated whether these mutations caused loss-of-function and the molecular defects if any. Ligand binding, signaling, and cell surface expression of the mutant MC3Rs were

Ya-Xiong Tao

2007-01-01

28

Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel EMD mutation in a Chinese family with dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Variants in the emerin gene (EMD) were implicated in X-linked recessive Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), characterized by early-onset contractures of tendons, progressive muscular weakness and cardiomyopathy. To date, 223 mutations have been reported in EMD gene and the majority of them caused a predominant skeletal muscular phenotype. In this study, we identified a novel deletion mutation in EMD exon 1, which results in almost a complete loss of emerin protein in a large Chinese family. However, the patients suffered severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) but very mild skeletal muscle disorder. Case presentation Whole exome sequencing (WES) and linkage analysis were performed to identify the underlying mutation in a Chinese DCM family spanning five generations. A missense variation in the GPR50 gene was found co-segregated with the disease phenotype, whereas no functional alteration was detected in the variant GPR50 protein. When analyzing the failure sequences in the exome sequencing data, a novel deletion mutation (c.26_39delATACCGAGCTGACC) in EMD exon 1, was identified in this family. Different from the typical clinical features caused by most reported EMD mutations, patients in our study presented very mild skeletal muscle degeneration that had not been diagnosed until the mutation was found. Conclusion We described a family with rare clinical presentations caused by a novel EMD deletion mutation. Our findings broaden the heterogeneous spectrum of phenotypes attributed to EMD mutations and provide new insight to explain the genotype-phenotype correlations between EMD mutations and EDMD symptoms.

2014-01-01

29

Identifying mutated proteins secreted by colon cancer cell lines using mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Secreted proteins encoded by mutated genes (mutant proteins) are a particularly rich source of biomarkers being not only components of the cancer secretome but also actually implicated in tumorigenesis. One of the challenges of proteomics-driven biomarker discovery research is that the bulk of secreted mutant proteins cannot be identified directly and quantified by mass spectrometry due to the lack of mutated peptide information in extant proteomics databases. Here we identify, using an integrated genomics and proteomics strategy (referred to iMASp - identification of Mutated And Secreted proteins), 112 putative mutated tryptic peptides (corresponding to 57 proteins) in the collective secretomes derived from a panel of 18 human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Central to this iMASp was the creation of Human Protein Mutant Database (HPMD), against which experimentally-derived secretome peptide spectra were searched. Eight of the identified mutated tryptic peptides were confirmed by RT-PCR and cDNA sequencing of RNA extracted from those CRC cells from which the mutation was identified by mass spectrometry. The iMASp technology promises to improve the link between proteomics and genomic mutation data thereby providing an effective tool for targeting tryptic peptides with mutated amino acids as potential cancer biomarker candidates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. PMID:22796352

Mathivanan, Suresh; Ji, Hong; Tauro, Bow J; Chen, Yuan-Shou; Simpson, Richard J

2012-12-01

30

Yale team identifies successful combination drug therapies for melanoma mutations  

Cancer.gov

Yale Cancer Center researchers have identified several effective combinations of therapies that inhibit melanomas driven by two of the most formidable cancer genes. Some combinations include cholesterol-lowering statin drugs. The study appears in the journal Cancer Discovery. The Yale scientists were seeking to overcome the problems of resistance and partial response to single-drug cancer therapy in patients with melanoma.

31

Simulated Annealing Based Algorithm for Identifying Mutated Driver Pathways in Cancer  

PubMed Central

With the development of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, large-scale cancer genomics projects can be implemented to help researchers to identify driver genes, driver mutations, and driver pathways, which promote cancer proliferation in large numbers of cancer patients. Hence, one of the remaining challenges is to distinguish functional mutations vital for cancer development, and filter out the unfunctional and random “passenger mutations.” In this study, we introduce a modified method to solve the so-called maximum weight submatrix problem which is used to identify mutated driver pathways in cancer. The problem is based on two combinatorial properties, that is, coverage and exclusivity. Particularly, we enhance an integrative model which combines gene mutation and expression data. The experimental results on simulated data show that, compared with the other methods, our method is more efficient. Finally, we apply the proposed method on two real biological datasets. The results show that our proposed method is also applicable in real practice.

Li, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Yu-Lang; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Wang, Hong-Qiang

2014-01-01

32

Molecular testing of 163 patients with Morquio A (Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) identifies 39 novel GALNS mutations.  

PubMed

Morquio A (Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA; MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by partial or total deficiency of the enzyme galactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS; also known as N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase) encoded by the GALNS gene. Patients who inherit two mutated GALNS gene alleles have a decreased ability to degrade the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate, thereby causing GAG accumulation within lysosomes and consequently pleiotropic disease. GALNS mutations occur throughout the gene and many mutations are identified only in single patients or families, causing difficulties both in mutation detection and interpretation. In this study, molecular analysis of 163 patients with Morquio A identified 99 unique mutations in the GALNS gene believed to negatively impact GALNS protein function, of which 39 are previously unpublished, together with 26 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Recommendations for the molecular testing of patients, clear reporting of sequence findings, and interpretation of sequencing data are provided. PMID:24726177

Morrone, A; Tylee, K L; Al-Sayed, M; Brusius-Facchin, A C; Caciotti, A; Church, H J; Coll, M J; Davidson, K; Fietz, M J; Gort, L; Hegde, M; Kubaski, F; Lacerda, L; Laranjeira, F; Leistner-Segal, S; Mooney, S; Pajares, S; Pollard, L; Ribeiro, I; Wang, R Y; Miller, N

2014-06-01

33

Simulated annealing based algorithm for identifying mutated driver pathways in cancer.  

PubMed

With the development of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, large-scale cancer genomics projects can be implemented to help researchers to identify driver genes, driver mutations, and driver pathways, which promote cancer proliferation in large numbers of cancer patients. Hence, one of the remaining challenges is to distinguish functional mutations vital for cancer development, and filter out the unfunctional and random "passenger mutations." In this study, we introduce a modified method to solve the so-called maximum weight submatrix problem which is used to identify mutated driver pathways in cancer. The problem is based on two combinatorial properties, that is, coverage and exclusivity. Particularly, we enhance an integrative model which combines gene mutation and expression data. The experimental results on simulated data show that, compared with the other methods, our method is more efficient. Finally, we apply the proposed method on two real biological datasets. The results show that our proposed method is also applicable in real practice. PMID:24982873

Li, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Yu-Lang; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Wang, Hong-Qiang

2014-01-01

34

RBPJ Mutations Identified in Two Families Affected by Adams-Oliver Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Through exome resequencing, we identified two unique mutations in recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J (RBPJ) in two independent families affected by Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS), a rare multiple-malformation disorder consisting primarily of aplasia cutis congenita of the vertex scalp and transverse terminal limb defects. These identified mutations link RBPJ, the primary transcriptional regulator for the Notch pathway, with AOS, a human genetic disorder. Functional assays confirmed impaired DNA binding of mutated RBPJ, placing it among other notch-pathway proteins altered in human genetic syndromes.

Hassed, Susan J.; Wiley, Graham B.; Wang, Shaofeng; Lee, Ji-Yun; Li, Shibo; Xu, Weihong; Zhao, Zhizhuang J.; Mulvihill, John J.; Robertson, James; Warner, James; Gaffney, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

35

Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies Novel Recurrently Mutated Genes in Patients with Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) remains largely unknown. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations in key pathways, most notably NOTCH2 mutations in >25% of patients. These studies are based on small, heterogeneous discovery cohorts, and therefore only captured a fraction of the lesions present in the SMZL genome. To identify further novel pathogenic mutations within related biochemical pathways, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number (CN) analysis to a biologically and clinically homogeneous cohort of seven SMZL patients with 7q abnormalities and IGHV1-2*04 gene usage. We identified 173 somatic non-silent variants, affecting 160 distinct genes. In additional to providing independent validation of the presence of mutation in several previously reported genes (NOTCH2, TNFAIP3, MAP3K14, MLL2 and SPEN), our study defined eight additional recurrently mutated genes in SMZL; these genes are CREBBP, CBFA2T3, AMOTL1, FAT4, FBXO11, PLA2G4D, TRRAP and USH2A. By integrating our WES and CN data we identified three mutated putative candidate genes targeted by 7q deletions (CUL1, EZH2 and FLNC), with FLNC positioned within the well-characterized 7q minimally deleted region. Taken together, this work expands the reported directory of recurrently mutated cancer genes in this disease, thereby expanding our understanding of SMZL pathogenesis. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a stratified approach to care including the possibility of targeted therapy.

Ennis, Sarah; Walewska, Renata; Forster, Jade; Parker, Helen; Davis, Zadie; Gardiner, Anne; Collins, Andrew; Oscier, David G.; Strefford, Jonathan C.

2013-01-01

36

Four novel C20orf54 mutations identified in Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS) is a very rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by pontobulbar palsy and sensorineural hearing loss. Its mode of inheritance in affected families has usually been autosomal recessive, although autosomal dominant inheritance and incomplete penetrance have also been reported. Recently, C20orf54 was identified as a causative gene for BVVLS. Twelve different mutations have so far been identified in 10 patients affected with BVVLS or the related disorder Fazio Londe syndrome. Here, results of screening of C20orf54 in three unrelated BVVLS patients are reported. Four novel mutations that affect amino acid changes, p.Asn21Ser, p.Pro220His, p.Ala312Val and p.Gly375Asp, were identified in the patients. The causative nucleotide variations were not observed in 200 control individuals. One of the patients harbored compound heterozygous mutations, but only one mutated allele was observed in each of the two remaining patients. PMID:22718020

Dezfouli, Mitra Ansari; Yadegari, Samira; Nafissi, Shahriar; Elahi, Elahe

2012-09-01

37

GNAq mutations are not identified in papillary thyroid carcinomas and hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

Activating mutations of GNAq protein in a hotspot at codon 209 have been recently described in uveal melanomas. Since these neoplasms share with thyroid carcinomas a high frequency of MAP kinase pathway-activating mutations, we hypothesized whether GNAq mutations could also play a role in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Additionally, activating mutations of another subtype of G protein (GNAS1) are frequently found in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, making it plausible that GNAq-activating mutations could also be found in some of these nodules. To investigate thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules for GNAq mutations in exon 5, codon 209, a total of 32 RET/PTC, BRAF, and RAS negative thyroid papillary carcinomas and 13 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were evaluated. No mutations were identified. Although plausible, GNAq mutations seem not to play an important role in the development of thyroid follicular neoplasms, either benign hyperfunctioning nodules or malignant papillary carcinomas. Our results are in accordance with the literature, in which no GNAq hotspot mutations were found in thyroid papillary carcinomas, as well as in an extensive panel of other tumors. The molecular basis for MAP-kinase pathway activation in RET-PTC/BRAF/RAS negative thyroid carcinomas remains to be determined. PMID:20714830

Cassol, Clarissa A; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

2010-12-01

38

Whole exome sequencing identifies ATRX mutation as a key molecular determinant in lower-grade glioma  

PubMed Central

The molecular foundations of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs)—astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma—remain less well characterized than those of their fully malignant counterpart, glioblastoma. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) likely represent initiating pathogenic events. However, while IDH mutations appear to dramatically alter cellular epigenomic landscapes, definitive downstream transformative mechanisms have not been characterized. It remains likely, therefore, that additional genomic abnormalities collaborate with IDH mutation to drive oncogenesis in LGG. We performed whole exome sequencing in 4 LGGs, followed by focused resequencing in an additional 28, and found a high incidence of mutations in the ATRX gene (? thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked). ATRX forms a core component of a chromatin remodeling complex active in telomere biology. Mutations in ATRX have been identified in multiple tumor types and appear to cause alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a presumed precursor to genomic instability. In our samples, ATRX mutation was entirely restricted to IDH-mutant tumors, closely correlated with TP53 mutation and astrocytic differentiation, and mutually exclusive with 1p/19q codeletion, the molecular hallmark of oligodendroglioma. Moreover, ATRX mutation was highly enriched in tumors of so-called early progenitor-like transcriptional subclass (~85%), which our prior work has linked to specific cells of origin in the forebrain subventricular zone. Finally, ATRX mutation correlated with ALT, providing a mechanistic link to genomic instability. In summary, our findings both identify ATRX mutation as a defining molecular determinant for a large subset of IDH-mutant gliomas and have direct implications on pathogenic mechanisms across the wide spectrum of LGGs.

Kannan, Kasthuri; Inagaki, Akiko; Silber, Joachim; Gorovets, Daniel; Zhang, Jianan; Kastenhuber, Edward R.; Heguy, Adriana; Petrini, John H.; Chan, Timothy A.; Huse, Jason T.

2012-01-01

39

Exome Sequencing Identifies SLCO2A1 Mutations as a Cause of Primary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy  

PubMed Central

By using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous guanine-to-adenine transition at the invariant ?1 position of the acceptor site of intron 1 (c.97?1G>A) in solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1), which encodes a prostaglandin transporter protein, as the causative mutation in a single individual with primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) from a consanguineous family. In two other affected individuals with PHO from two unrelated nonconsanguineous families, we identified two different compound heterozygous mutations by using Sanger sequencing. These findings confirm that SLCO2A1 mutations inactivate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) transport, and they indicate that mutations in SLCO2A1 are the pathogenic cause of PHO. Moreover, this study might also help to explain the cause of secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

Zhang, Zhenlin; Xia, Weibo; He, Jinwei; Zhang, Zeng; Ke, Yaohua; Yue, Hua; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Hao; Gu, Jiemei; Hu, Weiwei; Fu, Wenzhen; Hu, Yunqiu; Li, Miao; Liu, Yujuan

2012-01-01

40

Whole-genome sequencing identifies a recurrent functional synonymous mutation in melanoma.  

PubMed

Synonymous mutations, which do not alter the protein sequence, have been shown to affect protein function [Sauna ZE, Kimchi-Sarfaty C (2011) Nat Rev Genet 12(10):683-691]. However, synonymous mutations are rarely investigated in the cancer genomics field. We used whole-genome and -exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in 29 melanoma samples. Validation of one synonymous somatic mutation in BCL2L12 in 285 samples identified 12 cases that harbored the recurrent F17F mutation. This mutation led to increased BCL2L12 mRNA and protein levels because of differential targeting of WT and mutant BCL2L12 by hsa-miR-671-5p. Protein made from mutant BCL2L12 transcript bound p53, inhibited UV-induced apoptosis more efficiently than WT BCL2L12, and reduced endogenous p53 target gene transcription. This report shows selection of a recurrent somatic synonymous mutation in cancer. Our data indicate that silent alterations have a role to play in human cancer, emphasizing the importance of their investigation in future cancer genome studies. PMID:23901115

Gartner, Jared J; Parker, Stephen C J; Prickett, Todd D; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Stitzel, Michael L; Lin, Jimmy C; Davis, Sean; Simhadri, Vijaya L; Jha, Sujata; Katagiri, Nobuko; Gotea, Valer; Teer, Jamie K; Wei, Xiaomu; Morken, Mario A; Bhanot, Umesh K; Chen, Guo; Elnitski, Laura L; Davies, Michael A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Carter, Hannah; Karchin, Rachel; Robinson, William; Robinson, Steven; Rosenberg, Steven A; Collins, Francis S; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Komar, Anton A; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Hayward, Nicholas K; Margulies, Elliott H; Samuels, Yardena

2013-08-13

41

Whole-genome sequencing identifies a recurrent functional synonymous mutation in melanoma  

PubMed Central

Synonymous mutations, which do not alter the protein sequence, have been shown to affect protein function [Sauna ZE, Kimchi-Sarfaty C (2011) Nat Rev Genet 12(10):683–691]. However, synonymous mutations are rarely investigated in the cancer genomics field. We used whole-genome and -exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in 29 melanoma samples. Validation of one synonymous somatic mutation in BCL2L12 in 285 samples identified 12 cases that harbored the recurrent F17F mutation. This mutation led to increased BCL2L12 mRNA and protein levels because of differential targeting of WT and mutant BCL2L12 by hsa-miR-671–5p. Protein made from mutant BCL2L12 transcript bound p53, inhibited UV-induced apoptosis more efficiently than WT BCL2L12, and reduced endogenous p53 target gene transcription. This report shows selection of a recurrent somatic synonymous mutation in cancer. Our data indicate that silent alterations have a role to play in human cancer, emphasizing the importance of their investigation in future cancer genome studies.

Gartner, Jared J.; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Prickett, Todd D.; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Stitzel, Michael L.; Lin, Jimmy C.; Davis, Sean; Simhadri, Vijaya L.; Jha, Sujata; Katagiri, Nobuko; Gotea, Valer; Teer, Jamie K.; Morken, Mario A.; Bhanot, Umesh K.; Chen, Guo; Elnitski, Laura L.; Davies, Michael A.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Hannah; Karchin, Rachel; Robinson, William; Robinson, Steven; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Collins, Francis S.; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Komar, Anton A.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Margulies, Elliott H.; Samuels, Yardena

2013-01-01

42

Point Mutations within and outside the Homeodomain Identify Sequences Required for Proboscipedia Homeotic Function in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila homeotic gene proboscipedia (pb) encodes a homeodomain protein homologous to vertebrate HoxA2/B2 required for adult mouthparts formation. A transgenic Hsp70-pb (HSPB) element that rescues pb mutations also induces the dominant transformation of antennae to maxillary palps. To identify sequences essential to PB protein function, we screened for EMS-induced HSPB mutations leading to phenotypic reversion of the HSPB transformation. Ten revertants harbor identified point mutations in HSPB coding sequences. The point mutations that remove all detectable phenotypes in vivo reside either within the homeodomain or, more unexpectedly, in evolutionarily nonconserved regions outside the homeodomain. Two independent homeodomain mutations that change the highly conserved Arginine-5 in the N-terminal hinge show effects on adult eye development, suggesting a previously unsuspected role for Arg5 in functional specificity. Three additional revertant mutations outside the homeodomain reduce but do not abolish PB(+) activity, identifying protein elements that contribute quantitatively to pb function. This in vivo analysis shows that apart from the conserved motifs of PB, other elements throughout the protein make important contributions to homeotic function.

Benassayag, C.; Boube, M.; Seroude, L.; Cribbs, D. L.

1997-01-01

43

Novel MEK1 Mutation Identified by Mutational Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Genetic lesions affecting a number of kinases and other elements within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed mutational profiling of a large cohort of lung adenocarcinomas to uncover other potential somatic mutations in genes of this pathway that could contribute to lung tumorigenesis. We have identified in 2 of 207 primary lung tumors a somatic activating mutation in exon 2 of MEK1 (i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 or MAP2K1) that substitutes asparagine for lysine at amino acid 57 (K57N) in the nonkinase portion of the kinase. Neither of these two tumors harbored known mutations in other genes encoding components of the EGFR signaling pathway (i.e., EGFR, HER2, KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF). Expression of mutant, but not wild-type, MEK1 leads to constitutive activity of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 in human 293T cells and to growth factor–independent proliferation of murine Ba/F3 cells. A selective MEK inhibitor, AZD6244, inhibits mutant-induced ERK activity in 293T cells and growth of mutant-bearing Ba/F3 cells. We also screened 85 NSCLC cell lines for MEK1 exon 2 mutations; one line (NCI-H1437) harbors a Q56P substitution, a known transformation-competent allele of MEK1 originally identified in rat fibroblasts, and is sensitive to treatment with AZD6244. MEK1 mutants have not previously been reported in lung cancer and may provide a target for effective therapy in a small subset of patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Marks, Jenifer L.; Gong, Yixuan; Chitale, Dhananjay; Golas, Ben; McLellan, Michael D.; Kasai, Yumi; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Solit, David; Levine, Ross; Michel, Kathrin; Thomas, Roman K.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Ladanyi, Marc; Pao, William

2008-01-01

44

Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel DFNA9 mutation, C162Y.  

PubMed

We report the genetic analysis of a Chinese family with autosomal dominant non-syndromic progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Taking advantage of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technology, we combined whole exome capture sequencing with Sanger direct sequencing. A novel missense mutation in the coagulation factor C homolog (COCH) gene was identified in a consanguineous Chinese family. This missense mutation in the seventh exon (c.889G>A; p.C162Y) of COCH is most probably a disease-causing mutation and it segregates with the disease. The mutation is not found in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database, the yhSNP database, the 1000 genomes SNP database or in matching normal controls. It is the first reported autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness 9 (DFNA9) mutation outside the limulus factor C, cochlin and late gestation lung protein and von Willebrand factor 2 domain, i.e. the first reported DFNA9 mutation in the intervening domain of cochlin, encoded by the COCH gene. In the future, we will focus on functional studies of this mutation. PMID:22931125

Gao, J; Xue, J; Chen, Li; Ke, X; Qi, Y; Liu, Y

2013-05-01

45

Complementary genomic screens identify SERCA as a therapeutic target in NOTCH1 mutated cancer.  

PubMed

Notch1 is a rational therapeutic target in several human cancers, but as a transcriptional regulator, it poses a drug discovery challenge. To identify Notch1 modulators, we performed two cell-based, high-throughput screens for small-molecule inhibitors and cDNA enhancers of a NOTCH1 allele bearing a leukemia-associated mutation. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) channels emerged at the intersection of these complementary screens. SERCA inhibition preferentially impairs the maturation and activity of mutated Notch1 receptors and induces a G0/G1 arrest in NOTCH1-mutated human leukemia cells. A small-molecule SERCA inhibitor has on-target activity in two mouse models of human leukemia and interferes with Notch signaling in Drosophila. These studies "credential" SERCA as a therapeutic target in cancers associated with NOTCH1 mutations. PMID:23434461

Roti, Giovanni; Carlton, Anne; Ross, Kenneth N; Markstein, Michele; Pajcini, Kostandin; Su, Angela H; Perrimon, Norbert; Pear, Warren S; Kung, Andrew L; Blacklow, Stephen C; Aster, Jon C; Stegmaier, Kimberly

2013-03-18

46

New VMD2 gene mutations identified in patients affected by Best vitelliform macular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The mutations responsible for Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) are found in a gene called VMD2. The VMD2 gene encodes a transmembrane protein named bestrophin?1 (hBest1) which is a Ca2+?sensitive chloride channel. This study was performed to identify disease?specific mutations in 27 patients with BVMD. Because this disease is characterised by an alteration in Cl? channel function, patch clamp analysis was used to test the hypothesis that one of the VMD2 mutated variants causes the disease. Methods Direct sequencing analysis of the 11 VMD2 exons was performed to detect new abnormal sequences. The mutant of hBest1 was expressed in HEK?293 cells and the associated Cl? current was examined using whole?cell patch clamp analysis. Results Six new VMD2 mutations were identified, located exclusively in exons four, six and eight. One of these mutations (Q293H) was particularly severe. Patch clamp analysis of human embryonic kidney cells expressing the Q293H mutant showed that this mutant channel is non?functional. Furthermore, the Q293H mutant inhibited the function of wild?type bestrophin?1 channels in a dominant negative manner. Conclusions This study provides further support for the idea that mutations in VMD2 are a necessary factor for Best disease. However, because variable expressivity of VMD2 was observed in a family with the Q293H mutation, it is also clear that a disease?linked mutation in VMD2 is not sufficient to produce BVMD. The finding that the Q293H mutant does not form functional channels in the membrane could be explained either by disruption of channel conductance or gating mechanisms or by improper trafficking of the protein to the plasma membrane.

Marchant, D; Yu, K; Bigot, K; Roche, O; Germain, A; Bonneau, D; Drouin-Garraud, V; Schorderet, D F; Munier, F; Schmidt, D; Neindre, P Le; Marsac, C; Menasche, M; Dufier, J L; Fischmeister, R; Hartzell, C; Abitbol, M

2007-01-01

47

A P-element insertion screen identified mutations in 455 novel essential genes in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

With the completion of the nucleotide sequences of several complex eukaryotic genomes, tens of thousands of genes have been predicted. However, this information has to be correlated with the functions of those genes to enhance our understanding of biology and to improve human health care. The Drosophila transposon P-element-induced mutations are very useful for directly connecting gene products to their biological function. We designed an efficient transposon P-element-mediated gene disruption procedure and performed genetic screening for single P-element insertion mutations, enabling us to recover 2500 lethal mutations. Among these, 2355 are second chromosome mutations. Sequences flanking >2300 insertions that identify 850 different genes or ESTs (783 genes on the second chromosome and 67 genes on the third chromosome) have been determined. Among these, 455 correspond to genes for which no lethal mutation has yet been reported. The Drosophila genome is thought to contain approximately 3600 vital genes; 1400 are localized on the second chromosome. Our mutation collection represents approximately 56% of the second chromosome vital genes and approximately 24% of the total vital Drosophila genes.

Oh, Su-Wan; Kingsley, Tracy; Shin, Hyun-hee; Zheng, Zhiyu; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chen, Xiu; Wang, Hong; Ruan, Peizheng; Moody, Michelle; Hou, Steven X

2003-01-01

48

Two Novel Mutations Identified in an African-American Child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C > T (p.Q1208X) and c.11002G > T (p.E3668X). Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS.

Morrone, Kerry; Wang, Yanhua; Huizing, Marjan; Sutton, Elie; White, James G.; Gahl, William A.; Moody, Karen

2010-01-01

49

A novel mitochondrial tRNAVal T1658C mutation identified in a CPEO family  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) gene mutations in a 19-year-old female patient, who presented with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), together with her mother and younger sister. Methods The diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy was made based on clinical and biologic analysis. Histochemical methods were used to detect ragged-red fibers (RRFs) and ragged-blue fibers (RBFs) on a muscle biopsy of the patient. All mitochondrial gene DNA fragments of the patient, her mother, and younger sister were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The products were sequenced and compared with reference databases. Results A novel T1658C mutation and a known A10006G mutation were identified in the mitochondrial tRNAVal gene and the tRNAGly gene, respectively, in the patient, her mother, and younger sister. The T1658C mutation changes the T loop structure of mitochondrial tRNAVal and the A10006G mutation disturbs the D loop of mitochondrial tRNAGly. Conclusions The T1658C and A10006G mutations of mtDNA may be responsible for the pathogenesis of the patient with CPEO.

Yan, Naihong; Cai, Shuping; Guo, Bo; Mou, Yi; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ronghua

2010-01-01

50

Functional effects of DAX-1 mutations identified in patients with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita.  

PubMed

X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency is a rare disorder caused by mutations of DAX-1. In this study, we investigated the functional defects of DAX-1 caused by mutations identified in 3 unrelated Korean patients with adrenal hypoplasia congenita. The DAX-1 gene was directly sequenced using genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. The functional defects of DAX-1 caused by mutations were evaluated using an in vitro promoter assay. After mutagenesis of DAX-1 complementary DNA in the pcDNA3.1 vector, steroidogenic factor 1 and the promoter region of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) genes in pGL4.10[luc2] were transiently cotransfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells, followed by luminometry measurements of the luciferase activity of StAR. Mutation analysis of 3 patients revealed p.L386delfsX2, p.W105X, and p.Q252X mutations of the DAX-1 gene. The mutant DAX-1 proteins showed lower repressive activity on the StAR gene promoter when compared with normal DAX-1. Nonsense and frameshift mutations of the DAX-1 gene partially eliminated the ability of DAX-1 to repress the transcription of StAR in an in vitro assay. PMID:21632081

Choi, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Young; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Jin, Hye Young; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Jae Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won; Yoo, Han-Wook

2011-11-01

51

Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy.  

PubMed

Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, clinically characterized by grayish corneal deposits of amyloid and by severely impaired visual acuity. Most patients require corneal transplantation. We identified the gene responsible for GDLD, tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), by positional cloning and detected 4 disease-causing mutations in Japanese patients with GDLD. During the positional cloning process, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between GDLD and some markers in the critical region. More than 90% of GDLD patients possessed the same haplotype with a Q118X mutation in TACSTD2. This may be the result of a founder effect and reflects that most GDLD patients are Japanese. TACSTD2 deleterious mutations resulted in destabilized tight junction proteins, including claudins, ZO-1, and occludin. These findings may explain why the corneal epithelium barrier function is impaired in GDLD patients. PMID:23038033

Tsujikawa, Motokazu

2012-11-01

52

A Mononucleotide Markers Panel to Identify hMLH1/hMSH2 Germline Mutations  

PubMed Central

Hereditary NonPolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by germline mutations in a class of genes deputed to maintain genomic integrity during cell replication, mutations result in a generalized genomic instability, particularly evident at microsatellite loci (Microsatellite Instability, MSI). MSI is present in 85–90% of colorectal cancers that occur in Lynch Syndrome. To standardize the molecular diagnosis of MSI, a panel of 5 microsatellite markers was proposed (known as the “Bethesda panel”). Aim of our study is to evaluate if MSI testing with two mononucleotide markers, such as BAT25 and BAT26, was sufficient to identify patients with hMLH1/hMSH2 germline mutations. We tested 105 tumours for MSI using both the Bethesda markers and the two mononucleotide markers BAT25 and BAT26. Moreover, immunohistochemical evaluation of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins was executed on the tumours with at least one unstable microsatellite, whereas germline hMLH1/hMSH2 mutations were searched for all cases showing two or more unstable microsatellites. The Bethesda panel detected more MSI(+) tumors than the mononucleotide panel (49.5% and 28.6%, respectively). However, the mononucleotide panel was more efficient to detect MSI(+) tumours with lack of expression of Mismatch Repair proteins (93% vs 54%). Germline mutations were detected in almost all patients whose tumours showed MSI and no expression of MLH1/MSH2 proteins. No germline mutations were found in patients with MSI(+) tumour defined only through dinucleotide markers. In conclusion, the proposed mononucleotide markers panel seems to have a higher predictive value to identify hMLH1 and hMSH2 mutation-positive patients with Lynch syndrome. Moreover, this panel showed increased specificity, thus improving the cost/effectiveness ratio of the biomolecular analyses.

Pedroni, M.; Roncari, B.; Maffei, S.; Losi, L.; Scarselli, A.; Di Gregorio, C.; Marino, M.; Roncucci, L.; Benatti, P.; Ponti, G.; Rossi, G.; Menigatti, M.; Viel, A.; Genuardi, M.; de Leon, M. Ponz

2007-01-01

53

A mononucleotide markers panel to identify hMLH1/hMSH2 germline mutations.  

PubMed

Hereditary NonPolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by germline mutations in a class of genes deputed to maintain genomic integrity during cell replication, mutations result in a generalized genomic instability, particularly evident at microsatellite loci (Microsatellite Instability, MSI). MSI is present in 85-90% of colorectal cancers that occur in Lynch Syndrome. To standardize the molecular diagnosis of MSI, a panel of 5 microsatellite markers was proposed (known as the "Bethesda panel"). Aim of our study is to evaluate if MSI testing with two mononucleotide markers, such as BAT25 and BAT26, was sufficient to identify patients with hMLH1/hMSH2 germline mutations. We tested 105 tumours for MSI using both the Bethesda markers and the two mononucleotide markers BAT25 and BAT26. Moreover, immunohistochemical evaluation of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins was executed on the tumours with at least one unstable microsatellite, whereas germline hMLH1/hMSH2 mutations were searched for all cases showing two or more unstable microsatellites. The Bethesda panel detected more MSI(+) tumors than the mononucleotide panel (49.5% and 28.6%, respectively). However, the mononucleotide panel was more efficient to detect MSI(+) tumours with lack of expression of Mismatch Repair proteins (93% vs 54%). Germline mutations were detected in almost all patients whose tumours showed MSI and no expression of MLH1/MSH2 proteins. No germline mutations were found in patients with MSI(+) tumour defined only through dinucleotide markers. In conclusion, the proposed mononucleotide markers panel seems to have a higher predictive value to identify hMLH1 and hMSH2 mutation-positive patients with Lynch syndrome. Moreover, this panel showed increased specificity, thus improving the cost/effectiveness ratio of the biomolecular analyses. PMID:17473388

Pedroni, M; Roncari, B; Maffei, S; Losi, L; Scarselli, A; Di Gregorio, C; Marino, M; Roncucci, L; Benatti, P; Ponti, G; Rossi, G; Menigatti, M; Viel, A; Genuardi, M; de Leon, M Ponz

2007-01-01

54

Exome sequencing identifies PDE4D mutations as another cause of acrodysostosis.  

PubMed

Acrodysostosis is a rare autosomal-dominant condition characterized by facial dysostosis, severe brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses, and short stature. Moderate intellectual disability and resistance to multiple hormones might also be present. Recently, a recurrent mutation (c.1102C>T [p.Arg368*]) in PRKAR1A has been identified in three individuals with acrodysostosis and resistance to multiple hormones. After studying ten unrelated acrodysostosis cases, we report here de novo PRKAR1A mutations in five out of the ten individuals (we found c.1102C>T [p.Arg368(?)] in four of the ten and c.1117T>C [p.Tyr373His] in one of the ten). We performed exome sequencing in two of the five remaining individuals and selected phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as a candidate gene. PDE4D encodes a class IV cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase that regulates cAMP concentration. Exome analysis detected heterozygous PDE4D mutations (c.673C>A [p.Pro225Thr] and c.677T>C [p.Phe226Ser]) in these two individuals. Screening of PDE4D identified heterozygous mutations (c.568T>G [p.Ser190Ala] and c.1759A>C [p.Thr587Pro]) in two additional acrodysostosis cases. These mutations occurred de novo in all four cases. The four individuals with PDE4D mutations shared common clinical features, namely characteristic midface and nasal hypoplasia and moderate intellectual disability. Metabolic screening was normal in three of these four individuals. However, resistance to parathyroid hormone and thyrotropin was consistently observed in the five cases with PRKAR1A mutations. Finally, our study further supports the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in skeletogenesis. PMID:22464250

Michot, Caroline; Le Goff, Carine; Goldenberg, Alice; Abhyankar, Avinash; Klein, Céline; Kinning, Esther; Guerrot, Anne-Marie; Flahaut, Philippe; Duncombe, Alice; Baujat, Genevieve; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Thalassinos, Caroline; Nitschke, Patrick; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

2012-04-01

55

Exome Sequencing Identifies PDE4D Mutations as Another Cause of Acrodysostosis  

PubMed Central

Acrodysostosis is a rare autosomal-dominant condition characterized by facial dysostosis, severe brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses, and short stature. Moderate intellectual disability and resistance to multiple hormones might also be present. Recently, a recurrent mutation (c.1102C>T [p.Arg368?]) in PRKAR1A has been identified in three individuals with acrodysostosis and resistance to multiple hormones. After studying ten unrelated acrodysostosis cases, we report here de novo PRKAR1A mutations in five out of the ten individuals (we found c.1102C>T [p.Arg368?] in four of the ten and c.1117T>C [p.Tyr373His] in one of the ten). We performed exome sequencing in two of the five remaining individuals and selected phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as a candidate gene. PDE4D encodes a class IV cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase that regulates cAMP concentration. Exome analysis detected heterozygous PDE4D mutations (c.673C>A [p.Pro225Thr] and c.677T>C [p.Phe226Ser]) in these two individuals. Screening of PDE4D identified heterozygous mutations (c.568T>G [p.Ser190Ala] and c.1759A>C [p.Thr587Pro]) in two additional acrodysostosis cases. These mutations occurred de novo in all four cases. The four individuals with PDE4D mutations shared common clinical features, namely characteristic midface and nasal hypoplasia and moderate intellectual disability. Metabolic screening was normal in three of these four individuals. However, resistance to parathyroid hormone and thyrotropin was consistently observed in the five cases with PRKAR1A mutations. Finally, our study further supports the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in skeletogenesis.

Michot, Caroline; Le Goff, Carine; Goldenberg, Alice; Abhyankar, Avinash; Klein, Celine; Kinning, Esther; Guerrot, Anne-Marie; Flahaut, Philippe; Duncombe, Alice; Baujat, Genevieve; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Thalassinos, Caroline; Nitschke, Patrick; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valerie

2012-01-01

56

Screening of 38 genes identifies mutations in 62% of families with nonsyndromic deafness in Turkey.  

PubMed

More than 60% of prelingual deafness is genetic in origin, and of these up to 95% are monogenic autosomal recessive traits. Causal mutations have been identified in 1 of 38 different genes in a subset of patients with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive deafness. In this study, we screened 49 unrelated Turkish families with at least three affected children born to consanguineous parents. Probands from all families were negative for mutations in the GJB2 gene, two large deletions in the GJB6 gene, and the 1555A>G substitution in the mitochondrial DNA MTRNR1 gene. Each family was subsequently screened via autozygosity mapping with genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. If the phenotype cosegregated with a haplotype flanking one of the 38 genes, mutation analysis of the gene was performed. We identified 22 different autozygous mutations in 11 genes, other than GJB2, in 26 of 49 families, which overall explains deafness in 62% of families. Relative frequencies of genes following GJB2 were MYO15A (9.9%), TMIE (6.6%), TMC1 (6.6%), OTOF (5.0%), CDH23 (3.3%), MYO7A (3.3%), SLC26A4 (1.7%), PCDH15 (1.7%), LRTOMT (1.7%), SERPINB6 (1.7%), and TMPRSS3 (1.7%). Nineteen of 22 mutations are reported for the first time in this study. Unknown rare genes for deafness appear to be present in the remaining 23 families. PMID:21117948

Duman, Duygu; Sirmaci, Asli; Cengiz, F Basak; Ozdag, Hilal; Tekin, Mustafa

2011-01-01

57

Exome sequencing identifies MAX mutations as a cause of hereditary pheochromocytoma.  

PubMed

Hereditary pheochromocytoma (PCC) is often caused by germline mutations in one of nine susceptibility genes described to date, but there are familial cases without mutations in these known genes. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with hereditary PCC (cases) and identified mutations in MAX, the MYC associated factor X gene. Absence of MAX protein in the tumors and loss of heterozygosity caused by uniparental disomy supported the involvement of MAX alterations in the disease. A follow-up study of a selected series of 59 cases with PCC identified five additional MAX mutations and suggested an association with malignant outcome and preferential paternal transmission of MAX mutations. The involvement of the MYC-MAX-MXD1 network in the development and progression of neural crest cell tumors is further supported by the lack of functional MAX in rat PCC (PC12) cells and by the amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma and suggests that loss of MAX function is correlated with metastatic potential. PMID:21685915

Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Gracia-Aznárez, Francisco J; Schiavi, Francesca; Landa, Iñigo; Leandro-García, Luis J; Letón, Rocío; Honrado, Emiliano; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Caronia, Daniela; Pita, Guillermo; Gómez-Graña, Alvaro; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Taschin, Elisa; Bobisse, Sara; Pica, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Hernández-Lavado, Rafael; Díaz, José A; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; González-Neira, Anna; Roncador, Giovanna; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Benítez, Javier; Mannelli, Massimo; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

2011-07-01

58

Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular profiling identify new driver mutations in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse molecular and histological subtypes. We performed whole-genome sequencing in 100 tumor-normal pairs, along with DNA copy number, gene expression and methylation profiling, for integrative genomic analysis. We found subtype-specific genetic and epigenetic perturbations and unique mutational signatures. We identified previously known (TP53, ARID1A and CDH1) and new (MUC6, CTNNA2, GLI3, RNF43 and others) significantly mutated driver genes. Specifically, we found RHOA mutations in 14.3% of diffuse-type tumors but not in intestinal-type tumors (P < 0.001). The mutations clustered in recurrent hotspots affecting functional domains and caused defective RHOA signaling, promoting escape from anoikis in organoid cultures. The top perturbed pathways in gastric cancer included adherens junction and focal adhesion, in which RHOA and other mutated genes we identified participate as key players. These findings illustrate a multidimensional and comprehensive genomic landscape that highlights the molecular complexity of gastric cancer and provides a road map to facilitate genome-guided personalized therapy. PMID:24816253

Wang, Kai; Yuen, Siu Tsan; Xu, Jiangchun; Lee, Siu Po; Yan, Helen H N; Shi, Stephanie T; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Deng, Shibing; Chu, Kent Man; Law, Simon; Chan, Kok Hoe; Chan, Annie S Y; Tsui, Wai Yin; Ho, Siu Lun; Chan, Anthony K W; Man, Jonathan L K; Foglizzo, Valentina; Ng, Man Kin; Chan, April S; Ching, Yick Pang; Cheng, Grace H W; Xie, Tao; Fernandez, Julio; Li, Vivian S W; Clevers, Hans; Rejto, Paul A; Mao, Mao; Leung, Suet Yi

2014-06-01

59

Exome sequencing identified a missense mutation of EPS8L3 in Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis  

PubMed Central

Background Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis (MUHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by coarse, wiry, twisted hair developed in early childhood and subsequent progressive hair loss. MUHH is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. No gene in 1p21.1–1q21.3 region responsible for MUHH has been identified. Methods Exome sequencing was performed on two affected subjects, who had normal vertex hair and modest alopecia, and one unaffected individual from a four-generation MUHH family of which our previous linkage study mapped the MUHH locus on chromosome 1p21.1–1q21.3. Results We identified a missense mutation in EPS8L3 (NM_024526.3: exon2: c.22G->A:p.Ala8Thr) within 1p21.1–1q21.3. Sanger sequencing confirmed the cosegregation of this mutation with the disease phenotype in the family by demonstrating the presence of the heterozygous mutation in all the eight affected and absence in all the seven unaffected individuals. This mutation was found to be absent in 676 unrelated healthy controls and 781 patients of other disease from another unpublished project of our group. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that EPS8L3 is a causative gene for MUHH, which was helpful for advancing us on understanding of the pathogenesis of MUHH. Our study also has further demonstrated the effectiveness of combining exome sequencing with linkage information for identifying Mendelian disease genes.

Zhang, Xin; Guo, Bi-Rong; Cai, Li-Qiong; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Liang-Dan; Cui, Yong; Hu, Jing-Chu; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Gang; Tang, Xian-Fa; Sun, Guang-Qing; Tang, Hua-Yang; Liu, Yuan; Li, Min; Li, Qi-Bin; Cheng, Hui; Gao, Min; Li, Ping; Yang, Xu; Zuo, Xian-Bo; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Pei-Guang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jian-Jun; Yang, Sen; Li, Ying-Rui; Zhang, Xue-Jun

2012-01-01

60

Exome sequencing circumvents missing clinical data and identifies a BSCL2 mutation in congenital lipodystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Exome sequencing has become more and more affordable and the technique has emerged as an important diagnostic tool for monogenic disorders at early stages of investigations, in particular when clinical information is limited or unspecific as well as in cases of genetic heterogeneity. Methods We identified a consanguineous Pakistani family segregating an autosomal recessive phenotype characterized by muscular hypertrophy, mild mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities. The available clinical information was incomplete and we applied whole exome sequencing in an affected family member for the identification of candidate gene variants. Results Exome sequencing identified a previously unreported homozygous mutation in the acceptor splice site of intron 5 in the BSCL2 gene (c.574-2A?>?G). Expression analysis revealed that the mutation was associated with skipping of exon 6. BSCL2 mutations are associated with Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy and a clinical re-evaluation of affected individuals confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions Exome sequencing is a powerful technique for the identification of candidate gene variants in Mendelian traits. We applied this technique on a single individual affected by a likely autosomal recessive disorder without access to complete clinical details. A homozygous and truncating mutation was identified in the BSCL2 gene suggesting congenital generalized lipodystrophy. Incomplete phenotypic delineations are frequent limiting factors in search for a diagnosis and may lead to inappropriate care and follow-up. Our study exemplifies exome sequencing as a powerful diagnostic tool in Mendelian disorders that may complement missing clinical information and accelerate clinical diagnosis.

2014-01-01

61

An approach to identifying drug resistance associated mutations in bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Background Drug resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing problem, which stimulates research. However, our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms remains incomplete. Fortunately, the fast-growing number of fully sequenced bacterial strains now enables us to develop new methods to identify mutations associated with drug resistance. Results We present a new comparative approach to identify genes and mutations that are likely to be associated with drug resistance mechanisms. In order to test the approach, we collected genotype and phenotype data of 100 fully sequenced strains of S. aureus and 10 commonly used drugs. Then, applying the method, we re-discovered the most common genetic determinants of drug resistance and identified some novel putative associations. Conclusions Firstly, the collected data may help other researchers to develop and verify similar techniques. Secondly, the proposed method is successful in identifying drug resistance determinants. Thirdly, the in-silico identified genetic mutations, which are putatively involved in drug resistance mechanisms, may increase our understanding of the drug resistance mechanisms.

2012-01-01

62

Exome sequencing to identify de novo mutations in sporadic ALS trios  

PubMed Central

ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease whose causes are still poorly understood. To identify additional genetic risk factors, here we assess the role of de novo mutations in ALS by sequencing the exomes of 47 ALS patients and both of their unaffected parents (n=141 exomes). We found that amino acid-altering de novo mutations are enriched in genes encoding chromatin regulators, including the neuronal chromatin remodeling complex component SS18L1/CREST. CREST mutations inhibit activity-dependent neurite outgrowth in primary neurons, and CREST associates with the ALS protein FUS. These findings expand our understanding of the ALS genetic landscape and provide a resource for future studies into the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to sporadic ALS.

Chesi, Alessandra; Staahl, Brett T.; Jovicic, Ana; Couthouis, Julien; Fasolino, Maria; Raphael, Alya R.; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Elias, Laura; Polak, Meraida; Kelly, Crystal; Williams, Kelly L.; Fifita, Jennifer A.; Maragakis, Nicholas J.; Nicholson, Garth A.; King, Oliver D.; Reed, Robin; Crabtree, Gerald R.; Blair, Ian P.; Glass, Jonathan D.; Gitler, Aaron D.

2013-01-01

63

Exome sequencing to identify de novo mutations in sporadic ALS trios.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease whose causes are still poorly understood. To identify additional genetic risk factors, we assessed the role of de novo mutations in ALS by sequencing the exomes of 47 ALS patients and both of their unaffected parents (n = 141 exomes). We found that amino acid-altering de novo mutations were enriched in genes encoding chromatin regulators, including the neuronal chromatin remodeling complex (nBAF) component SS18L1 (also known as CREST). CREST mutations inhibited activity-dependent neurite outgrowth in primary neurons, and CREST associated with the ALS protein FUS. These findings expand our understanding of the ALS genetic landscape and provide a resource for future studies into the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to sporadic ALS. PMID:23708140

Chesi, Alessandra; Staahl, Brett T; Jovi?i?, Ana; Couthouis, Julien; Fasolino, Maria; Raphael, Alya R; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Elias, Laura; Polak, Meraida; Kelly, Crystal; Williams, Kelly L; Fifita, Jennifer A; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Nicholson, Garth A; King, Oliver D; Reed, Robin; Crabtree, Gerald R; Blair, Ian P; Glass, Jonathan D; Gitler, Aaron D

2013-07-01

64

Whole exome sequencing identifies mutation of EDNRA involved in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

ACTH independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a rare disorder characterized by bilateral macronodular hyperplasia of the adrenal glands and increased cortisol production with subclinical or overt Cushing's syndrome. Although the family clustering of AIMAH is infrequent, we have tried our best to find such a familial affected pedigree with complete clinical information and successfully collect adrenalectomy tissue samples from two members of this family. Using whole exome sequencing and several variant prioritization strategies based on disease network analysis, we identified Endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) Ser420Thr mutation as a causative mutation of AIMAH. EDNRA is a member of G protein coupled receptor family and is involved in cardiovascular or polycystic kidney disease. Our findings indicate that the mutation of EDNRA at S420T site should be regard as a potential AIMAH causative variation in familial and sporadic affected patients. PMID:23754170

Zhu, Jie; Cui, Liang; Wang, Wei; Hang, Xing-Yi; Xu, A-Xiang; Yang, Su-Xia; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jiang-Ping

2013-12-01

65

Mutations in TLR/MYD88 pathway identify a subset of young chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with favorable outcome.  

PubMed

Mutations in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes have been found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at low frequency. We analyzed the incidence, clinicobiological characteristics, and outcome of patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations in 587 CLL patients. Twenty-three patients (3.9%) had mutations, 19 in MYD88 (one with concurrent IRAK1 mutation), 2 TLR2 (one with concomitant TLR6 mutation), 1 IRAK1, and 1 TLR5. No mutations were found in IRAK2 and IRAK4. TLR/MYD88-mutated CLL overexpressed genes of the nuclear factor ?B pathway. Patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations were significantly younger (83% age ?50 years) than those with no mutations. TLR/MYD88 mutations were the most frequent in young patients. Patients with mutated TLR/MYD88 CLL had a higher frequency of mutated IGHV and low expression of CD38 and ZAP-70. Overall survival (OS) was better in TLR/MYD88-mutated than unmutated patients in the whole series (10-year OS, 100% vs 62%; P = .002), and in the subset of patients age ?50 years (100% vs 70%; P = .02). In addition, relative OS of TLR/MYD88-mutated patients was similar to that in the age- and gender-matched population. In summary, TLR/MYD88 mutations identify a population of young CLL patients with favorable outcome. PMID:24782504

Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Pinyol, Magda; Navarro, Alba; Aymerich, Marta; Jares, Pedro; Juan, Manel; Rozman, María; Colomer, Dolors; Delgado, Julio; Giné, Eva; González-Díaz, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; Colado, Enrique; Rayón, Consolación; Payer, Angel R; Terol, Maria José; Navarro, Blanca; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xosé S; Rozman, Ciril; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Villamor, Neus

2014-06-12

66

Whole exome sequencing reveals uncommon mutations in the recently identified Fanconi anemia gene SLX4/FANCP.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and susceptibility to malignancies. FA is caused by biallelic or hemizygous mutations in one of 15 known FA genes, whose products are involved in the FA/BRCA DNA damage response pathway. Here, we report on a patient with previously unknown mutations of the most recently identified FA gene, SLX4/FANCP. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed a nonsense mutation and an unusual splice site mutation resulting in the partial replacement of exonic with intronic bases, thereby removing a nuclear localization signal. Immunoblotting detected no residual SLX4 protein, which was consistent with abrogated interactions with XPF/ERCC1 and MUS81/EME1. This cellular finding did not result in a more severe clinical phenotype than that of previously reported FA-P patients. Our study additionally exemplifies the versatility of WES for the detection of mutations in heterogenic disorders such as FA. PMID:23033263

Schuster, Beatrice; Knies, Kerstin; Stoepker, Chantal; Velleuer, Eunike; Friedl, Richard; Gottwald-Mühlhauser, Birgit; de Winter, Johan P; Schindler, Detlev

2013-01-01

67

Mutation Analysis of hCDC4 in AML Cells Identifies a New Intronic Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

hCDC4 (FBW7, FBXW7) is a new potential tumor suppressor gene which provides substrate specificity for SCF (Skp–Cullin–F-box) ubiquitin ligases and thereby regulates the degradation of potent oncogenes such as cyclin E, Myc, c-Jun and Notch. Mutations in the hCDC4 gene have been found in several solid tumors such as pancreas, colorectal or endometrial cancer. We carried out a mutation analysis of the hCDC4 gene in 35 samples of patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) to elucidate a possible role of hCDC4 mutations in this disease. By direct DNA sequencing and digestion with Surveyor nuclease one heterozygous mutation in the 5' untranslated region of exon 1, transcript variant 3 was detected. Additionally, we could identify a new intronic SNP downstream of exon 10. The new variation was present in 20% of AML samples and was furthermore confirmed in a panel of 51 healthy individuals where it displayed a frequency of 14%. In conclusion we provide first data that in contrast to several solid tumors, mutations in the hCDC4 gene may not play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AML. Furthermore, we describe a new intronic polymorphism with high frequency in the intron sequence of the hCDC4 gene.

Nowak, Daniel; Mossner, Maximilian; Baldus, Claudia D.; Hopfer, Olaf; Thiel, Eckhard; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten

2006-01-01

68

Exome sequencing identifies a novel SMCHD1 mutation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 2.  

PubMed

FSHD2 is a rare form of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) characterized by the absence of a contraction in the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat region on chromosome 4q35 that is the hallmark of FSHD1. However, hypomethylation of this region is common to both subtypes. Recently, mutations in SMCHD1 combined with a permissive 4q35 allele were reported to cause FSHD2. We identified a novel p.Lys275del SMCHD1 mutation in a family affected with FSHD2 using whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis. This mutation alters a highly conserved amino acid in the ATPase domain of SMCHD1. Subject III-11 is a male who developed asymmetrical muscle weakness characteristic of FSHD at 13 years. Physical examination revealed marked bilateral atrophy at biceps brachii, bilateral scapular winging, some asymmetrical weakness at tibialis anterior and peroneal muscles, and mild lower facial weakness. Biopsy of biceps brachii in subject II-5, the father of III-11, demonstrated lobulated fibers and dystrophic changes. Endomysial and perivascular inflammation was found, which has been reported in FSHD1 but not FSHD2. Given the previous report of SMCHD1 mutations in FSHD2 and the clinical presentations consistent with the FSHD phenotype, we conclude that the SMCHD1 mutation is the likely cause of the disease in this family. PMID:24128691

Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Boyden, Steven E; Estrella, Elicia A; Jones, Takako I; Rahimov, Fedik; Yu, Timothy W; Darras, Basil T; Amato, Anthony A; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Jones, Peter L; Kunkel, Louis M; Kang, Peter B

2013-12-01

69

Mutations in Multidomain Protein MEGF8 Identify a Carpenter Syndrome Subtype Associated with Defective Lateralization  

PubMed Central

Carpenter syndrome is an autosomal-recessive multiple-congenital-malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet; many other clinical features occur, and the most frequent include obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease. Mutations of RAB23, encoding a small GTPase that regulates vesicular transport, are present in the majority of cases. Here, we describe a disorder caused by mutations in multiple epidermal-growth-factor-like-domains 8 (MEGF8), which exhibits substantial clinical overlap with Carpenter syndrome but is frequently associated with abnormal left-right patterning. We describe five affected individuals with similar dysmorphic facies, and three of them had either complete situs inversus, dextrocardia, or transposition of the great arteries; similar cardiac abnormalities were previously identified in a mouse mutant for the orthologous Megf8. The mutant alleles comprise one nonsense, three missense, and two splice-site mutations; we demonstrate in zebrafish that, in contrast to the wild-type protein, the proteins containing all three missense alterations provide only weak rescue of an early gastrulation phenotype induced by Megf8 knockdown. We conclude that mutations in MEGF8 cause a Carpenter syndrome subtype frequently associated with defective left-right patterning, probably through perturbation of signaling by hedgehog and nodal family members. We did not observe any subject with biallelic loss-of function mutations, suggesting that some residual MEGF8 function might be necessary for survival and might influence the phenotypes observed.

Twigg, Stephen R.F.; Lloyd, Deborah; Jenkins, Dagan; Elcioglu, Nursel E.; Cooper, Christopher D.O.; Al-Sannaa, Nouriya; Annagur, Ali; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Huning, Irina; Knight, Samantha J.L.; Goodship, Judith A.; Keavney, Bernard D.; Beales, Philip L.; Gileadi, Opher; McGowan, Simon J.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.

2012-01-01

70

Identifying highly mutated IGHD genes in the junctions of rearranged human immunoglobulin heavy chain genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliable identification of IGHD genes within human immunoglobulin heavy chains is challenging with up to one third of rearrangements having no identifiable IGHD gene. The short, mutated IGHD genes are generally assumed to be indistinguishable from the N-REGIONS of non-template encoded nucleotides that surround them. In this study we have characterised N-REGIONS, demonstrating the importance of nucleotide composition biases

Katherine J. L. Jackson; Bruno A. Gaëta; Andrew M. Collins

2007-01-01

71

MGH Cancer Center team identifies potential treatment target for KRAS-mutated colon cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center have identified a new potential strategy for treating colon tumors driven by mutations in the KRAS gene, which usually resist both conventional and targeted treatments. In a paper appearing in the Feb. 17 issue of Cell, the team reports that targeting a later step in the pathway leading from KRAS activation to tumor growth may be able to halt the process.

72

Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel LEPR mutations in individuals with severe early onset obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Obesity is a major public health problem that increases risk for a broad spectrum of co-morbid conditions. Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to susceptibility to obesity, previous efforts to discover the relevant genes using positional cloning have failed to account for most of the apparent genetic risk variance. Design and Methods Deploying a strategy combining analysis of exome sequencing data in extremely obese members of four consanguineous families with segregation analysis, we screened for causal genetic variants. Filter-based analysis and homozygosity mapping were used to identify and prioritize putative functional variants. Results We identified two novel frameshift mutations in the Leptin Receptor (LEPR) in two of the families. Conclusions These results provide proof-of-principle that whole-exome sequencing of families segregating for extreme obesity can identify causal pathogenic mutations. The methods described here can be extended to additional families segregating for extreme obesity and should enable the identification of mutations in novel genes that predispose to obesity.

Gill, Richard; Cheung, Yee Him; Shen, Yufeng; Lanzano, Patricia; Mirza, Nazrat M.; Ten, Svetlana; Maclaren, Noel K.; Motaghedi, Roja; Han, Joan C.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

73

Activity-enhancing mutations in an E3 ubiquitin ligase identified by high-throughput mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Although ubiquitination plays a critical role in virtually all cellular processes, mechanistic details of ubiquitin (Ub) transfer are still being defined. To identify the molecular determinants within E3 ligases that modulate activity, we scored each member of a library of nearly 100,000 protein variants of the murine ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) U-box domain for auto-ubiquitination activity in the presence of the E2 UbcH5c. This assay identified mutations that enhance activity both in vitro and in cellular p53 degradation assays. The activity-enhancing mutations fall into two distinct mechanistic classes: One increases the U-box:E2-binding affinity, and the other allosterically stimulates the formation of catalytically active conformations of the E2?Ub conjugate. The same mutations enhance E3 activity in the presence of another E2, Ube2w, implying a common allosteric mechanism, and therefore the general applicability of our observations to other E3s. A comparison of the E3 activity with the two different E2s identified an additional variant that exhibits E3:E2 specificity. Our results highlight the general utility of high-throughput mutagenesis in delineating the molecular basis of enzyme activity.

Starita, Lea M.; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Lo, Russell S.; Fowler, Douglas M.; Kim, Helen J.; Hiatt, Joseph B.; Shendure, Jay; Brzovic, Peter S.; Fields, Stanley; Klevit, Rachel E.

2013-01-01

74

Activity-enhancing mutations in an E3 ubiquitin ligase identified by high-throughput mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Although ubiquitination plays a critical role in virtually all cellular processes, mechanistic details of ubiquitin (Ub) transfer are still being defined. To identify the molecular determinants within E3 ligases that modulate activity, we scored each member of a library of nearly 100,000 protein variants of the murine ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) U-box domain for auto-ubiquitination activity in the presence of the E2 UbcH5c. This assay identified mutations that enhance activity both in vitro and in cellular p53 degradation assays. The activity-enhancing mutations fall into two distinct mechanistic classes: One increases the U-box:E2-binding affinity, and the other allosterically stimulates the formation of catalytically active conformations of the E2?Ub conjugate. The same mutations enhance E3 activity in the presence of another E2, Ube2w, implying a common allosteric mechanism, and therefore the general applicability of our observations to other E3s. A comparison of the E3 activity with the two different E2s identified an additional variant that exhibits E3:E2 specificity. Our results highlight the general utility of high-throughput mutagenesis in delineating the molecular basis of enzyme activity. PMID:23509263

Starita, Lea M; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Lo, Russell S; Fowler, Douglas M; Kim, Helen J; Hiatt, Joseph B; Shendure, Jay; Brzovic, Peter S; Fields, Stanley; Klevit, Rachel E

2013-04-01

75

A novel homozygous mutation in SUCLA2 gene identified by exome sequencing  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial disorders with multiple mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) enzyme deficiency and depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are autosomal recessive conditions due to mutations in several nuclear genes necessary for proper mtDNA maintenance. In this report, we describe two Italian siblings presenting with encephalomyopathy and mtDNA depletion in muscle. By whole exome-sequencing and prioritization of candidate genes, we identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in the SUCLA2 gene in a highly conserved aminoacid residue. Although a recurrent mutation in the SUCLA2 gene is relatively frequent in the Faroe Islands, mutations in other populations are extremely rare. In contrast with what has been reported in other patients, methyl-malonic aciduria, a biomarker for this genetic defect, was absent in our proband and very mildly elevated in her affected sister. This report demonstrates that next-generation technologies, particularly exome-sequencing, are user friendly, powerful means for the identification of disease genes in genetically and clinically heterogeneous inherited conditions, such as mitochondrial disorders.

Lamperti, Costanza; Fang, Mingyan; Invernizzi, Federica; Liu, Xuanzhu; Wang, Hairong; Zhang, Qing; Carrara, Franco; Moroni, Isabella; Zeviani, Massimo; Zhang, Jianguo; Ghezzi, Daniele

2012-01-01

76

Two point mutations identified in emmer wheat generate null Wx-A1 alleles.  

PubMed

In this report, the Wx-A1 mutations carried by a Triticum dicoccoides line from Israel and a Triticum dicoccum line from Yugoslavia are characterized. A single nucleotide insertion in the T. dicoccoides null allele and a single nucleotide deletion in the T. dicoccum null allele each cause frameshift mutations that induce premature termination codons more than 55 nucleotides upstream of the last exon-exon junction. In both mutants, Wx-A1 transcripts were detectable in 10 day post-anthesis endosperm by relative RT-PCR. However, transcript levels of the T. dicoccoides and T. dicoccum null alleles were reduced to approximately 6.5 and 1.5% of wild-type, respectively. Therefore, the lack of Wx-A1 protein in the mutants appears to be largely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The two mutations described here arose independently, and are not related to either of the Wx-A1 mutations identified in common wheat. PMID:15592661

Saito, M; Nakamura, T

2005-01-01

77

Correlation of Somatic Mutation and Expression Identifies Genes Important in Human Glioblastoma Progression and Survival  

PubMed Central

Cooperative dysregulation of gene sequence and expression may contribute to cancer formation and progression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network recently cataloged gene sequence and expression data for a collection of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. We developed an automated, model-free method to rapidly and exhaustively examine the correlation among somatic mutation and gene expression and interrogated 149 GBM tumor samples from the TCGA. The method identified 41 genes whose mutation status is highly correlated with drastic changes in the expression (z-score ±2.0), across tumor samples, of other genes. Some of the 41 genes have been previously implicated in GBM pathogenesis (e.g., NF1, TP53, RB1 and IDH1) and others, while implicated in cancer, had not previously been highlighted in studies using TCGA data (e.g., SYNE1, KLF6, FGFR4, and EPHB4). The method also predicted that known oncogenes and tumor suppressors participate in GBM via drastic over-and under-expression, respectively. Additionally, the method identified a known synthetic lethal interaction between TP53 and PLK1, other potential synthetic lethal interactions with TP53, and correlations between IDH1 mutation status and the overexpression of known GBM survival genes.

Masica, David L.; Karchin, Rachel

2011-01-01

78

Genomic sequencing of meningiomas identifies oncogenic SMO and AKT1 mutations  

PubMed Central

Meningiomas are the most common primary nervous system tumor. The tumor suppressor NF2 is disrupted in approximately half of meningiomas1 but the complete spectrum of genetic changes remains undefined. We performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 17 meningiomas and focused sequencing on an additional 48 tumors to identify and validate somatic genetic alterations. Most meningiomas exhibited simple genomes, with fewer mutations, rearrangements, and copy-number alterations than reported in other adult tumors. However, several meningiomas harbored more complex patterns of copy-number changes and rearrangements including one tumor with chromothripsis. We confirmed focal NF2 inactivation in 43% of tumors and found alterations in epigenetic modifiers among an additional 8% of tumors. A subset of meningiomas lacking NF2 alterations harbored recurrent oncogenic mutations in AKT1 (E17K) and SMO (W535L) and exhibited immunohistochemical evidence of activation of their pathways. These mutations were present in therapeutically challenging tumors of the skull base and higher grade. These results begin to define the spectrum of genetic alterations in meningiomas and identify potential therapeutic targets.

Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Santagata, Sandro; Jones, Robert T.; McKenna, Aaron; Getz, Gad; Ligon, Keith L.; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Van Hummelen, Paul; Ducar, Matthew D.; Raza, Alina; Sunkavalli, Ashwini; MacConaill, Laura E.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Louis, David N.; Hahn, William C.; Dunn, Ian F.; Beroukhim, Rameen

2013-01-01

79

Exome Sequencing Identifies Truncating Mutations in Human SERPINF1 in Autosomal-Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta  

PubMed Central

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures after minimal trauma. After mutations in all known OI genes had been excluded by Sanger sequencing, we applied next-generation sequencing to analyze the exome of a single individual who has a severe form of the disease and whose parents are second cousins. A total of 26,922 variations from the human reference genome sequence were subjected to several filtering steps. In addition, we extracted the genotypes of all dbSNP130-annotated SNPs from the exome sequencing data and used these 299,494 genotypes as markers for the genome-wide identification of homozygous regions. A single homozygous truncating mutation, affecting SERPINF1 on chromosome 17p13.3, that was embedded into a homozygous stretch of 2.99 Mb remained. The mutation was also homozygous in the affected brother of the index patient. Subsequently, we identified homozygosity for two different truncating SERPINF1 mutations in two unrelated patients with OI and parental consanguinity. All four individuals with SERPINF1 mutations have severe OI. Fractures of long bones and severe vertebral compression fractures with resulting deformities were observed as early as the first year of life in these individuals. Collagen analyses with cultured dermal fibroblasts displayed no evidence for impaired collagen folding, posttranslational modification, or secretion. SERPINF1 encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted glycoprotein of the serpin superfamily. PEDF is a multifunctional protein and one of the strongest inhibitors of angiogenesis currently known in humans. Our data provide genetic evidence for PEDF involvement in human bone homeostasis.

Becker, Jutta; Semler, Oliver; Gilissen, Christian; Li, Yun; Bolz, Hanno Jorn; Giunta, Cecilia; Bergmann, Carsten; Rohrbach, Marianne; Koerber, Friederike; Zimmermann, Katharina; de Vries, Petra; Wirth, Brunhilde; Schoenau, Eckhard; Wollnik, Bernd; Veltman, Joris A.; Hoischen, Alexander; Netzer, Christian

2011-01-01

80

Genome Screen to Identify Susceptibility Genes for Parkinson Disease in a Sample without parkin Mutations  

PubMed Central

Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity, and postural instability, as well as by a clinically significant response to treatment with levodopa. Mutations in the ?-synuclein gene have been found to result in autosomal dominant PD, and mutations in the parkin gene produce autosomal recessive juvenile-onset PD. We have studied 203 sibling pairs with PD who were evaluated by a rigorous neurological assessment based on (a) inclusion criteria consisting of clinical features highly associated with autopsy-confirmed PD and (b) exclusion criteria highly associated with other, non-PD pathological diagnoses. Families with positive LOD scores for a marker in an intron of the parkin gene were prioritized for parkin-gene testing, and mutations in the parkin gene were identified in 22 families. To reduce genetic heterogeneity, these families were not included in subsequent genome-screen analysis. Thus, a total of 160 multiplex families without evidence of a parkin mutation were used in multipoint nonparametric linkage analysis to identify PD-susceptibility genes. Two models of PD affection status were considered: model I included only those individuals with a more stringent diagnosis of verified PD (96 sibling pairs from 90 families), whereas model II included all examined individuals as affected, regardless of their final diagnostic classification (170 sibling pairs from 160 families). Under model I, the highest LOD scores were observed on chromosome X (LOD score 2.1) and on chromosome 2 (LOD score 1.9). Analyses performed with all available sibling pairs (model II) found even greater evidence of linkage to chromosome X (LOD score 2.7) and to chromosome 2 (LOD score 2.5). Evidence of linkage was also found to chromosomes 4, 5, and 13 (LOD scores >1.5). Our findings are consistent with those of other linkage studies that have reported linkage to chromosomes 5 and X.

Pankratz, Nathan; Nichols, William C.; Uniacke, Sean K.; Halter, Cheryl; Rudolph, Alice; Shults, Cliff; Conneally, P. Michael; Foroud, Tatiana

2002-01-01

81

Extragenic Suppressors of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Prp4 Mutations Identify a Negative Regulator of Prp Genes  

PubMed Central

The PRP4 gene encodes a protein that is a component of the U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle and is necessary for both spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. To identify genes whose products interact with the PRP4 gene or gene product, we isolated second-site suppressors of temperature-sensitive prp4 mutations. We limited ourselves to suppressors with a distinct phenotype, cold sensitivity, to facilitate analysis of mutants. Ten independent recessive suppressors were obtained that identified four complementation groups, spp41, spp42, spp43 and spp44 (suppressor of prp4, numbers 1-4). spp41-spp44 suppress the pre-mRNA splicing defect as well as the temperature-sensitive phenotype of prp4 strains. Each of these spp mutations also suppresses prp3; spp41 and spp42 suppress prp11 as well. Neither spp41 nor spp42 suppresses null alleles of prp3 or prp4, indicating that the suppression does not occur via a bypass mechanism. The spp41 and spp42 mutations are neither allele- nor gene-specific in their pattern of suppression and do not result in a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. Thus the SPP41 and SPP42 gene products are unlikely to participate directly in mRNA splicing or interact directly with Prp3p or Prp4p. Expression of PRP3-lacZ and PRP4-lacZ gene fusions is increased in spp41 strains, suggesting that wild-type Spp41p represses expression of PRP3 and PRP4. SPP41 was cloned and sequenced and found to be essential. spp43 is allelic to the previously identified suppressor srn1, which encodes a negative regulator of gene expression.

Maddock, J. R.; Weidenhammer, E. M.; Adams, C. C.; Lunz, R. L.; Woolford-Jr., J. L.

1994-01-01

82

The human T-cell cloning assay: identifying genotypes susceptible to drug toxicity and somatic mutation.  

PubMed

Humans exhibit marked genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism that contribute to high incidence of adverse effects in susceptible individuals due to altered balance between metabolic activation and detoxification. The T-cell cloning assay, which detects mutations in the gene for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), is the most well-developed reporter system for studying specific locus mutation in human somatic cells. The assay is based on a mitogen- and growth factor-dependent clonal expansion of peripheral T-lymphocytes in which the 6-thioguanine-resistant HPRT mutants can be selected, enumerated, and collected for molecular analysis of the mutational nature. The assay provides a unique tool for studying in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis, for investigating the functional impact of common polymorphism in metabolism and repair genes, and for identifying risk genotypes for drug-induced toxicity and mutagenicity. This chapter presents a simple and reliable method for the enumeration of HPRT mutant frequency induced in vitro without using any source of recombinant interleukin-2. The other main feature is that only truly induced and unique mutants are collected for further analysis. PMID:24623236

Hou, Sai-Mei

2014-01-01

83

An Italian cohort study identifies four new pathologic mutations in the ARSA gene.  

PubMed

Metachromatic leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder of the myelin metabolism due to the impaired function of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A. Three major clinical variants of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) have been described: late infantile, juvenile, and late onset. The infantile form, whose clinical onset is usually before the age of 2 years, is the most frequent. The juvenile form manifests itself between 3 and 16 years and the late-onset form manifests at any time after puberty. As of today, more than 150 mutations causing MLD have been identified in the ARSA gene that encodes arylsulfatase A. In this paper, we report our experience with the diagnosis of MLD in seven Italian patients from unrelated families. We found 11 different mutations, four of which have not been previously described: c.1215_1223del9 (p.406_408del), c.601 T>C (p.Tyr201His), c.655 T>A (p.Phe219Ile), and c.87C>A (p.Asp29Glu). Our data show once more that there are still several mutations to be discovered in the ARSA gene and there are rarely repeating ones found in the population. The predictive value of the enzyme activity tests in regard to clinical manifestations is extremely limited. PMID:23559313

Galla, Daniela; de Gemmis, Paola; Anesi, Laura; Berto, Silvia; Dolcetta, Diego; Hladnik, Uroš

2013-06-01

84

Targeted exome sequencing identified novel USH2A mutations in Usher syndrome families.  

PubMed

Usher syndrome (USH) is a leading cause of deaf-blindness in autosomal recessive trait. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities in USH make molecular diagnosis much difficult. This is a pilot study aiming to develop an approach based on next-generation sequencing to determine the genetic defects in patients with USH or allied diseases precisely and effectively. Eight affected patients and twelve unaffected relatives from five unrelated Chinese USH families, including 2 pseudo-dominant ones, were recruited. A total of 144 known genes of inherited retinal diseases were selected for deep exome resequencing. Through systematic data analysis using established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, a number of genetic variants were released. Eleven mutations, eight of them were novel, in the USH2A gene were identified. Biparental mutations in USH2A were revealed in 2 families with pseudo-dominant inheritance. A proband was found to have triple mutations, two of them were supposed to locate in the same chromosome. In conclusion, this study revealed the genetic defects in the USH2A gene and demonstrated the robustness of targeted exome sequencing to precisely and rapidly determine genetic defects. The methodology provides a reliable strategy for routine gene diagnosis of USH. PMID:23737954

Huang, Xiu-Feng; Xiang, Ping; Chen, Jie; Xing, Dong-Jun; Huang, Na; Min, Qingjie; Gu, Feng; Tong, Yi; Pang, Chi-Pui; Qu, Jia; Jin, Zi-Bing

2013-01-01

85

Perturbation of the mutated EGFR interactome identifies vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that elucidating the interactome of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) forms that are mutated in lung cancer, via global analysis of protein–protein interactions, phosphorylation, and systematically perturbing the ensuing network nodes, should offer a new, more systems-level perspective of the molecular etiology. Here, we describe an EGFR interactome of 263 proteins and offer a 14-protein core network critical to the viability of multiple EGFR-mutated lung cancer cells. Cells with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) had differential dependence of the core network proteins based on the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance. Of the 14 proteins, 9 are shown to be specifically associated with survival of EGFR-mutated lung cancer cell lines. This included EGFR, GRB2, MK12, SHC1, ARAF, CD11B, ARHG5, GLU2B, and CD11A. With the use of a drug network associated with the core network proteins, we identified two compounds, midostaurin and lestaurtinib, that could overcome drug resistance through direct EGFR inhibition when combined with erlotinib. Our results, enabled by interactome mapping, suggest new targets and combination therapies that could circumvent EGFR TKI resistance.

Li, Jiannong; Bennett, Keiryn; Stukalov, Alexey; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Guolin; Yoshida, Takeshi; Okamoto, Isamu; Kim, Jae-Young; Song, Lanxi; Bai, Yun; Qian, Xiaoning; Rawal, Bhupendra; Schell, Michael; Grebien, Florian; Winter, Georg; Rix, Uwe; Eschrich, Steven; Colinge, Jacques; Koomen, John; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Haura, Eric B

2013-01-01

86

Two Transforming CRAF Germ-Line Mutations Identified in Patients with Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations leading to activation of the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK pathwayare keyevents in the pathogenesis of human malignancies. In a screen of 82 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples, 45 (55%) showed activated ERK and thus were further analyzed for mutations in B-RAF and C-RAF .T wo C-RAF germ-line mutations, S427G and I448V, were identified in patients with

Armin Zebisch; Philipp B. Staber; Ali Delavar; Claudia Bodner; Karin Hiden; Katja Fischereder; Manickam Janakiraman; Werner Linkesch; Holger W. Auner; Werner Emberger; Christian Windpassinger; Michael G. Schimek; Gerald Hoefler; Jakob Troppmair; Heinz Sill

2006-01-01

87

Sequencing ASMT Identifies Rare Mutations in Chinese Han Patients with Autism  

PubMed Central

Melatonin is involved in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms and immune function. Prior research reported low melatonin levels in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASMT located in pseudo-autosomal region 1 encodes the last enzyme of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway. A previous study reported an association between ASD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4446909 and rs5989681 located in the promoter of ASMT. Furthermore, rare deleterious mutations were identified in a subset of patients. To investigate the association between ASMT and autism, we sequenced all ASMT exons and its neighboring region in 398 Chinese Han individuals with autism and 437 healthy controls. Although our study did not detect significant differences of genotypic distribution and allele frequencies of the common SNPs in ASMT between patients with autism and healthy controls, we identified new rare coding mutations of ASMT. Among these rare variants, 4 were exclusively detected in patients with autism including a stop mutation (p.R115W, p.V166I, p.V179G, and p.W257X). These four coding variants were observed in 6 of 398 (1.51%) patients with autism and none in 437 controls (Chi-Square test, Continuity Correction p?=?0.032, two-sided). Functional prediction of impact of amino acid showed that p.R115W might affect protein function. These results indicate that ASMT might be a susceptibility gene for autism. Further studies in larger samples are needed to better understand the degree of variation in this gene as well as to understand the biochemical and clinical impacts of ASMT/melatonin deficiency.

Wang, Lifang; Li, Jun; Ruan, Yanyan; Lu, Tianlan; Liu, Chenxing; Jia, Meixiang; Yue, Weihua; Liu, Jing; Bourgeron, Thomas; Zhang, Dai

2013-01-01

88

Novel mutations in RPE65 identified in consanguineous Pakistani families with retinal dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify pathogenic mutations responsible for retinal dystrophy in three consanguineous Pakistani families. Methods A thorough ophthalmic examination including fundus examination and electroretinography was performed, and blood samples were collected from all participating members. Genomic DNA was extracted, and genome-wide linkage and/or exclusion analyses were completed with fluorescently labeled short tandem repeat microsatellite markers. Two-point Lod scores were calculated, and coding exons along with exon-intron boundaries of RPE65 gene were sequenced, bidirectionally. Results Ophthalmic examinations of the patients affected in all three families suggested retinal dystrophy with an early, most probably congenital, onset. Genome-wide linkage and/or exclusion analyses localized the critical interval in all three families to chromosome 1p31 harboring RPE65. Bidirectional sequencing of RPE65 identified a splice acceptor site variation in intron 2: c.95–1G>A, a single base substitution in exon 3: c.179T>C, and a single base deletion in exon 5: c.361delT in the three families, respectively. All three variations segregated with the disease phenotype in their respective families and were absent from ethnically matched control chromosomes. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that causal mutations in RPE65 are responsible for retinal dystrophy in the affected individuals of these consanguineous Pakistani families.

Kabir, Firoz; Naz, Shagufta; Riazuddin, S. Amer; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Shaheen N.; Husnain, Tayyab; Akram, Javed; Sieving, Paul A.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

2013-01-01

89

Exome sequencing identifies CTSK mutations in patients originally diagnosed as intermediate osteopetrosis.  

PubMed

Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone density due to lack of resorption by the osteoclasts. Genetic studies have widely unraveled the molecular basis of the most severe forms, while cases of intermediate severity are more difficult to characterize, probably because of a large heterogeneity. Here, we describe the use of exome sequencing in the molecular diagnosis of 2 siblings initially thought to be affected by "intermediate osteopetrosis", which identified a homozygous mutation in the CTSK gene. Prompted by this finding, we tested by Sanger sequencing 25 additional patients addressed to us for recessive osteopetrosis and found CTSK mutations in 4 of them. In retrospect, their clinical and radiographic features were found to be compatible with, but not typical for, Pycnodysostosis. We sought to identify modifier genes that might have played a role in the clinical manifestation of the disease in these patients, but our results were not informative. In conclusion, we underline the difficulties of differential diagnosis in some patients whose clinical appearance does not fit the classical malignant or benign picture and recommend that CTSK gene be included in the molecular diagnosis of high bone density conditions. PMID:24269275

Pangrazio, Alessandra; Puddu, Alessandro; Oppo, Manuela; Valentini, Maria; Zammataro, Luca; Vellodi, Ashok; Gener, Blanca; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Raza, Jamal; Atta, Irum; Vezzoni, Paolo; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Villa, Anna; Sobacchi, Cristina

2014-02-01

90

Exome sequencing identifies CTSK mutations in patients originally diagnosed as intermediate osteopetrosis?  

PubMed Central

Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone density due to lack of resorption by the osteoclasts. Genetic studies have widely unraveled the molecular basis of the most severe forms, while cases of intermediate severity are more difficult to characterize, probably because of a large heterogeneity. Here, we describe the use of exome sequencing in the molecular diagnosis of 2 siblings initially thought to be affected by “intermediate osteopetrosis”, which identified a homozygous mutation in the CTSK gene. Prompted by this finding, we tested by Sanger sequencing 25 additional patients addressed to us for recessive osteopetrosis and found CTSK mutations in 4 of them. In retrospect, their clinical and radiographic features were found to be compatible with, but not typical for, Pycnodysostosis. We sought to identify modifier genes that might have played a role in the clinical manifestation of the disease in these patients, but our results were not informative. In conclusion, we underline the difficulties of differential diagnosis in some patients whose clinical appearance does not fit the classical malignant or benign picture and recommend that CTSK gene be included in the molecular diagnosis of high bone density conditions.

Pangrazio, Alessandra; Puddu, Alessandro; Oppo, Manuela; Valentini, Maria; Zammataro, Luca; Vellodi, Ashok; Gener, Blanca; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Raza, Jamal; Atta, Irum; Vezzoni, Paolo; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Villa, Anna; Sobacchi, Cristina

2014-01-01

91

Increased frequency of CFTR gene mutations identified in Indian infertile men with non-CBAVD obstructive azoospermia and spermatogenic failure.  

PubMed

High incidence of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is associated with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and is considered as the genital form of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CFTR gene may also be involved in the etiology of male infertility in cases other than CBAVD. The present study was conducted to identify the spectrum and frequency of CFTR gene mutations in infertile Indian males with non-CBAVD obstructive azoospermia (n=60) and spermatogenic failure (n=150). Conspicuously higher frequency of heterozygote F508del mutation was detected in infertile males with non-CBAVD obstructive azoospermia (11.6%) and spermatogenic failure (7.3%). Homozygous IVS(8)-5T allele frequency was also significantly higher in both groups in comparison to those in normal healthy individuals. Two mutations in exon 25 viz., R1358I and K1351R were identified as novel mutations in patients with non-CBAVD obstructive azoospermia. Mutation R1358I was predicted as probably damaging CFTR mutation. This is the first report from the Indian population, emphasizing increased frequency of CFTR gene mutations in male infertility other than CBAVD. Thus, it is suggested that screening of CFTR gene mutations may be required in infertile Indian males with other forms of infertility apart from CBAVD and willing for assisted reproduction technology. PMID:25010724

Sharma, Himanshu; Mavuduru, Ravimohan S; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

2014-09-10

92

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers identify genetic mutation responsible for most cases of a rare lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified a gene mutation that underlies the vast majority of cases of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, a rare form of lymphoma that has eluded all previous efforts to find a genetic cause.

93

Characteristics of Women with Ovarian Carcinoma who have BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations not Identified by Clinical Testing  

PubMed Central

Goals Few studies have comprehensively tested all ovarian cancer patients for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations. We sought to determine if clinically identified mutation carriers differed in clinical characteristics and outcomes from mutation carriers not identified during routine clinical care. Methods We included women with ovarian, tubal or peritoneal carcinoma. BROCA, an assay using targeted capture and massively parallel sequencing was used to identify mutations in BRCA1/2 and 19 other tumor suppressor genes. We identified subjects with BRCA1/2 mutations using BROCA that had not previously received standard genetic testing (BROCA, n = 37) and compared them to subjects with BRCA1/2 mutations identified during routine clinical care (known, n = 70), and to those wildtype for 21 genes using BROCA (wildtype, n = 291). Results BROCA mutation carriers were older than known carriers, median age of 58 (range 41 - 77), vs. 51 (range 33-76, p=0.003, Mann-Whitney). 58/70 (82.9%) of known carriers had a strong family history, compared with 15/37 (40.5%) of BROCA carriers, p<0.0001, (Fisher's Exact). Median overall survival was significantly worse for BROCA mutation carriers compared to known mutation carriers, (45 vs. 93 months, p < 0.0001, HR 3.47 (1.79 – 6.72), Log-rank test). The improved survival for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (known and BROCA) compared with wildtype cases (69 vs. 44 months, p=0.0001, HR 0.58 (0.43 – 0.77), Log-rank test) was driven by known mutation carriers. Conclusions Older age, absence of a strong family history, and poor survival are all associated with decreased clinical identification of inherited BRCA1/2 mutations in women with ovarian cancer. Using age and family history to direct genetic testing will miss a significant percentage of mutation carriers. Testing should be initiated at the time of diagnosis to maximize identification of mutations and minimize survival bias.

Norquist, Barbara M.; Pennington, Kathryn P.; Agnew, Kathy J.; Harrell, Maria I.; Pennil, Christopher C.; Lee, Ming K.; Casadei, Silvia; Thornton, Anne M.; Garcia, Rochelle L.; Walsh, Tom; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

94

Novel and de novo PKD1 mutations identified by multiple restriction fragment-single strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP)  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously developed a long RT-PCR method for selective amplification of full-length PKD1 transcripts (13.6 kb) and a long-range PCR for amplification in the reiterated region (18 kb) covering exons 14 and 34 of the PKD1 gene. These have provided us with an opportunity to study PKD1 mutations especially in its reiterated region which is difficult to examine. In this report, we have further developed the method of multiple restriction fragment-single strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP) for analysis of PKD1 mutations in the patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Novel and de novo PKD1 mutations are identified and reported. Methods Full-length PKD1 cDNA isolated from the patients with ADPKD was fractionated into nine overlapping segments by nested-PCR. Each segment was digested with sets of combined restriction endonucleases before the SSCP analysis. The fragments with aberrant migration were mapped, isolated, and sequenced. The presence of mutation was confirmed by the long-range genomic DNA amplification in the PKD1 region, sequencing, direct mutation detection, and segregation analysis in the affected family. Results Five PKD1 mutations identified are two frameshift mutations caused by two di-nucleotide (c. 5225_5226delAG and c.9451_9452delAT) deletions, a nonsense (Q1828X, c.5693C>T) mutation, a splicing defect attributable to 31 nucleotide deletion (g.33184_33214del31), and an in-frame deletion (L3287del, c.10070_10072delCTC). All mutations occurred within the reiterated region of the gene involving exons 15, 26, 15, 19 and 29, respectively. Three mutations (one frameshift, splicing defect, and in-frame deletion) are novel and two (one frameshift and nonsense) known. In addition, two mutations (nonsense and splicing defect) are possibly de novo. Conclusion The MRF-SSCP method has been developed to analyze PCR products generated by the long RT-PCR and nested-PCR technique for screening PKD1 mutations in the full-length cDNA. Five mutations identified were all in the reiterated region of this gene, three of which were novel. The presence of de novo PKD1 mutations indicates that this gene is prone to mutations.

Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Limwongse, Chanin; Vareesangthip, Kriengsak; Sirinavin, Chintana; Bunditworapoom, Duangkamon; Rungroj, Nanyawan; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

2004-01-01

95

Activated Janus Kinase 3 expression not by activating mutations identified in Natural Killer/T-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells, that plays an essential role in hematopoiesis during T cell development. JAK3 somatic-activating mutations were identified in extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphomas (ENKTL) in recent cases in Singapore. We hypothesized these mutations might play an important role in the pathogenesis of T and NK cell neoplasms in other areas of the world. We performed JAK3 exon13 sequencing for different types of T and NK cell neoplasms including ENKTL (59 cases total). We identified four mutations in three (5.0%) cases. All of the mutations were from ENKTL cases (15.8%). Among the four newly found mutations, three are silent mutations and one introduces a stop codon, which was not an activating mutation as in the cases in Singapore. We detected four (30.8%) cases positive for phosphorylated JAK3 expression among 13 NKTCL cases when we performed JAK3 (phospho Y785) immunostaining on sections of ENKTL samples. It seems that phosphorylated JAK3 expression does not necessarily harbor exon 13 mutations. The mechanism responsible for activating expression of the gene will be a topic for further research. PMID:24965108

Guo, Ying; Arakawa, Fumiko; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Niino, Daisuke; Kawano, Riko; Ohshima, Koichi

2014-06-01

96

A Computational-Experimental Approach Identifies Mutations That Enhance Surface Expression of an Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Neuraminidase  

PubMed Central

The His274Tyr (H274Y) oseltamivir (Tamiflu) resistance mutation causes a substantial decrease in the total levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in early isolates of human seasonal H1N1 influenza, and in the swine-origin pandemic H1N1. In seasonal H1N1, H274Y only became widespread after the occurrence of secondary mutations that counteracted this decrease. H274Y is currently rare in pandemic H1N1, and it remains unclear whether secondary mutations exist that might similarly counteract the decreased neuraminidase surface expression associated with this resistance mutation in pandemic H1N1. Here we investigate the possibility of predicting such secondary mutations. We first test the ability of several computational approaches to retrospectively identify the secondary mutations that enhanced levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in seasonal H1N1 shortly before the emergence of oseltamivir resistance. We then use the most successful computational approach to predict a set of candidate secondary mutations to the pandemic H1N1 neuraminidase. We experimentally screen these mutations, and find that several of them do indeed partially counteract the decrease in neuraminidase surface expression caused by H274Y. Two of the secondary mutations together restore surface-expressed neuraminidase activity to wildtype levels, and also eliminate the very slight decrease in viral growth in tissue-culture caused by H274Y. Our work therefore demonstrates a combined computational-experimental approach for identifying mutations that enhance neuraminidase surface expression, and describes several specific mutations with the potential to be of relevance to the spread of oseltamivir resistance in pandemic H1N1.

Bloom, Jesse D.; Nayak, Jagannath S.; Baltimore, David

2011-01-01

97

Two transforming C-RAF germ-line mutations identified in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Mutations leading to activation of the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK pathway are key events in the pathogenesis of human malignancies. In a screen of 82 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples, 45 (55%) showed activated ERK and thus were further analyzed for mutations in B-RAF and C-RAF. Two C-RAF germ-line mutations, S427G and I448V, were identified in patients with therapy-related AML in the absence of alterations in RAS and FLT3. Both exchanges were located within the kinase domain of C-RAF. In vitro and in vivo kinase assays revealed significantly increased activity for (S427G)C-RAF but not for (I448V)C-RAF. The involvement of the S427G C-RAF mutation in constitutive activation of ERK was further confirmed through demonstration of activating phosphorylations on C-RAF, MEK, and ERK in neoplastic cells, but not in nonneoplastic cells. Transformation and survival assays showed oncogenic and antiapoptotic properties for both mutations. Screening healthy individuals revealed a <1/400 frequency of these mutations and, in the case of I448V, inheritance was observed over three generations with another mutation carrier suffering from cancer. Taken together, these data are the first to relate C-RAF mutations to human malignancies. As both mutations are of germ-line origin, they might constitute a novel tumor-predisposing factor. PMID:16585161

Zebisch, Armin; Staber, Philipp B; Delavar, Ali; Bodner, Claudia; Hiden, Karin; Fischereder, Katja; Janakiraman, Manickam; Linkesch, Werner; Auner, Holger W; Emberger, Werner; Windpassinger, Christian; Schimek, Michael G; Hoefler, Gerald; Troppmair, Jakob; Sill, Heinz

2006-04-01

98

Integrated Analysis of Mutation Data from Various Sources Identifies Key Genes and Signaling Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, a number of studies have performed genome or exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified hundreds or even thousands of mutations in protein-coding genes. However, these studies have only focused on a limited number of candidate genes, and many important mutation resources remain to be explored. Principal Findings In this study, we integrated mutation data obtained from various sources and performed pathway and network analysis. We identified 113 pathways that were significantly mutated in HCC samples and found that the mutated genes included in these pathways contained high percentages of known cancer genes, and damaging genes and also demonstrated high conservation scores, indicating their important roles in liver tumorigenesis. Five classes of pathways that were mutated most frequently included (a) proliferation and apoptosis related pathways, (b) tumor microenvironment related pathways, (c) neural signaling related pathways, (d) metabolic related pathways, and (e) circadian related pathways. Network analysis further revealed that the mutated genes with the highest betweenness coefficients, such as the well-known cancer genes TP53, CTNNB1 and recently identified novel mutated genes GNAL and the ADCY family, may play key roles in these significantly mutated pathways. Finally, we highlight several key genes (e.g., RPS6KA3 and PCLO) and pathways (e.g., axon guidance) in which the mutations were associated with clinical features. Conclusions Our workflow illustrates the increased statistical power of integrating multiple studies of the same subject, which can provide biological insights that would otherwise be masked under individual sample sets. This type of bioinformatics approach is consistent with the necessity of making the best use of the ever increasing data provided in valuable databases, such as TCGA, to enhance the speed of deciphering human cancers.

Wei, Lin; Tang, Ruqi; Lian, Baofeng; Zhao, Yingjun; He, Xianghuo; Xie, Lu

2014-01-01

99

Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutated c12orf57 in recessive corpus callosum hypoplasia.  

PubMed

The corpus callosum is the principal cerebral commissure connecting the right and left hemispheres. The development of the corpus callosum is under tight genetic control, as demonstrated by abnormalities in its development in more than 1,000 genetic syndromes. We recruited more than 25 families in which members affected with corpus callosum hypoplasia (CCH) lacked syndromic features and had consanguineous parents, suggesting recessive causes. Exome sequence analysis identified C12orf57 mutations at the initiator methionine codon in four different families. C12orf57 is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a poorly annotated 126 amino acid protein of unknown function. This protein is without significant paralogs but has been tightly conserved across evolution. Our data suggest that this conserved gene is required for development of the human corpus callosum. PMID:23453666

Akizu, Naiara; Shembesh, Nuri M; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Bastaki, Laila; Al-Tawari, Asma; Zaki, Maha S; Koul, Roshan; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; da Gente, Gilberto; Li, Jiang; Deardorff, Matthew A; Conlin, Laura K; Horton, Margaret A; Zackai, Elaine H; Sherr, Elliott H; Gleeson, Joseph G

2013-03-01

100

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Mutated C12orf57 in Recessive Corpus Callosum Hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

The corpus callosum is the principal cerebral commissure connecting the right and left hemispheres. The development of the corpus callosum is under tight genetic control, as demonstrated by abnormalities in its development in more than 1,000 genetic syndromes. We recruited more than 25 families in which members affected with corpus callosum hypoplasia (CCH) lacked syndromic features and had consanguineous parents, suggesting recessive causes. Exome sequence analysis identified C12orf57 mutations at the initiator methionine codon in four different families. C12orf57 is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a poorly annotated 126 amino acid protein of unknown function. This protein is without significant paralogs but has been tightly conserved across evolution. Our data suggest that this conserved gene is required for development of the human corpus callosum.

Akizu, Naiara; Shembesh, Nuri M.; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Bastaki, Laila; Al-Tawari, Asma; Zaki, Maha S.; Koul, Roshan; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; da Gente, Gilberto; Li, Jiang; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Conlin, Laura K.; Horton, Margaret A.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

2013-01-01

101

New mutations and protein variants of NBS1 are identified in cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Alterations of the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), which is characterized by chromosomal instability, radiosensitivity, and cancer predisposition. NBS1 protein (Nibrin) is part of a molecular complex (NBS1- MRE11A-RAD50) that is functionally involved in DNA double-strand-break repair. Defects in recombination or in repair mechanisms at the level of DNA breakage can lead to chromosomal aberrations, genetic instability, as well as cancer predisposition syndromes (i.e., NBS, ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome). In this study, we examined 20 cancer cell lines to evaluate the potential involvement of NBS1 in tumoral pathogenesis. Three different mutations, generating truncated or aberrant NBS1 transcripts, were identified at the level of NBS1 mRNA. In addition, two shorter NBS1 protein variants were detected in two cell lines. These data suggest a possible involvement of NBS1 in tumor development. PMID:12508248

Tessitore, Alessandra; Biordi, Leda; Flati, Vincenzo; Toniato, Elena; Marchetti, Paolo; Ricevuto, Enrico; Ficorella, Corrado; Scotto, Luigi; Giannini, Giuseppe; Frati, Luigi; Masciocchi, Carlo; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Gulino, Alberto; Martinotti, Stefano

2003-02-01

102

A genomic strategy for the functional validation of colorectal cancer genes identifies potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Summary/Abstract Genes that are highly overexpressed in tumor cells can be required for tumor cell survival, and have the potential to be selective therapeutic targets. In an attempt to identify such targets, we combined a functional genomics and a systems biology approach to assess the consequences of RNAi-mediated silencing of overexpressed genes that were selected from 140 gene expression profiles from colorectal cancers (CRC) and matched normal mucosa. In order to identify credible models for in-depth functional analysis, we first confirmed the overexpression of these genes in 25 different CRC cell lines. We then identified five candidate genes that profoundly reduced the viability of CRC cell lines when silenced with either siRNAs or shRNAs, i.e., HMGA1, TACSTD2, RRM2, RPS2, and NOL5A. These genes were further studied by systematic analysis of comprehensive gene expression profiles generated following siRNA-mediated silencing. Exploration of these RNAi-specific gene expression signatures allowed the identification of the functional space in which the five genes operate, and showed enrichment for cancer specific signaling pathways, some known to be involved in CRC. By comparing the expression of the RNAi signature genes with their respective expression levels in an independent set of primary rectal carcinomas we could recapitulate these defined RNAi signatures, therefore establishing the biologically relevance of our observations. This strategy identified the signaling pathways that are affected by the prominent oncogenes HMGA1 and TACSTD2, established a yet unknown link between RRM2 and PLK1, and identified RPS2 and NOL5A as promising potential therapeutic targets in CRC.

Grade, Marian; Hummon, Amanda B.; Camps, Jordi; Emons, Georg; Spitzner, Melanie; Gaedcke, Jochen; Hoermann, Patrick; Ebner, Reinhard; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Caplen, Natasha J.; Ried, Thomas

2010-01-01

103

Whole exome sequencing identifies a mutation for a novel form of corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis is an extremely rare condition. The classical form, affecting Native American Haliwa-Saponi tribe members, is called hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis (HBID). Herein, we present a new form of corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis for which we identified the causative gene by using deep sequencing technology. Methods and results A seven member Caucasian French family with two corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis affected individuals (6-year-old proband and his mother) was ascertained. The proband presented with bilateral complete corneal opacification and dyskeratosis. Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and laryngeal dyskeratosis were associated with the phenotype. Histopathology studies of cornea and vocal cord biopsies showed dyskeratotic keratinisation. Quantitative PCR ruled out 4q35 duplication, classically described in HBID cases. Next generation sequencing with mean coverage of 50× using the Illumina Hi Seq and whole exome capture processing was performed. Sequence reads were aligned, and screened for single nucleotide variants and insertion/deletion calls. In-house pipeline filtering analyses and comparisons with available databases were performed. A novel missense mutation M77T was discovered for the gene NLRP1 which maps to chromosome 17p13.2. This was a de novo mutation in the proband’s mother, following segregation in the family, and not found in 738 control DNA samples. NLRP1 expression was determined in adult corneal epithelium. The amino acid change was found to destabilise significantly the protein structure. Conclusions We describe a new corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis and how we identified its causative gene. The NLRP1 gene product is implicated in inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and caspase mediated apoptosis. NLRP1 polymorphisms are associated with various diseases.

Soler, Vincent Jose; Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Galiacy, Stephane D; Limviphuvadh, Vachiranee; Klemm, Thomas Patrick; St Germain, Elizabeth; Fournie, Pierre R; Guillaud, Celine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Hawthorne, Felicia; Suarez, Cyrielle; Kantelip, Bernadette; Afshari, Natalie A; Creveaux, Isabelle; Luo, Xiaoyan; Meng, Weihua; Calvas, Patrick; Cassagne, Myriam; Arne, Jean-Louis; Rozen, Steven G; Malecaze, Francois; Young, Terri L

2014-01-01

104

Exome Sequencing and Functional Analysis Identifies a Novel Mutation in EXT1 Gene That Causes Multiple Osteochondromas  

PubMed Central

Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an inherited skeletal disorder, and the molecular mechanism of MO remains elusive. Exome sequencing has high chromosomal coverage and accuracy, and has recently been successfully used to identify pathogenic gene mutations. In this study, exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing validation was first used to screen gene mutations in two representative MO patients from a Chinese family. After filtering the data from the 1000 Genome Project and the dbSNP database (build 132), the detected candidate gene mutations were further validated via Sanger sequencing of four other members of the same MO family and 200 unrelated healthy subjects. Immunohistochemisty and multiple sequence alignment were performed to evaluate the importance of the identified causal mutation. A novel frameshift mutation, c.1457insG at codon 486 of exon 6 of EXT1 gene, was identified, which truncated the glycosyltransferase domain of EXT1 gene. Multiple sequence alignment showed that codon 486 of EXT1 gene was highly conserved across various vertebrates. Immunohistochemisty demonstrated that the chondrocytes with functional EXT1 in MO were less than those in extragenetic solitary chondromas. The novel c.1457insG deleterious mutation of EXT1 gene reported in this study expands the causal mutation spectrum of MO, and may be helpful for prenatal genetic screening and early diagnosis of MO.

Guo, Xiong; Zhang, Yingang; Wen, Yan; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Zengtie; Ma, Weijuan; Dai, Lanlan; Liu, Xuanzhu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jun

2013-01-01

105

Mutation analysis of congenital cataract in a Chinese family identified a novel missense mutation in the connexin 46 gene (GJA3)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the genetic defects in a three-generation Chinese family with congenital nuclear cataract. Methods Four patients and three healthy members from the family underwent complete physical and ophthalmic examinations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of the family members as well as from 100 healthy normal controls. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequencing of all coding exons of candidate genes were performed. The functional consequences of the mutation were analyzed with biology softwares. Results A novel mutation (c.130G>A) was identified in the connexin 46 gene (GJA3), which resulted in the substitution of valine by methionine at the highly conserved codon 44 of connexin 46. This mutation co-segregated among the affected members of the family and was not observed in either unaffected members or the 100 normal controls. Conclusions This is a novel missense mutation identified in the first extracellular loop of connexin 46; this expands the mutation spectrum of GJA3 in association with congenital cataract.

Zhou, Zhou; Hu, Shanshan; Wang, Binbin; Zhou, Nan; Zhou, Shiyi; Ma, Xu

2010-01-01

106

Exome Sequencing and Functional Validation in Zebrafish Identify GTDC2 Mutations as a Cause of Walker-Warburg Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Whole-exome sequencing (WES), which analyzes the coding sequence of most annotated genes in the human genome, is an ideal approach to studying fully penetrant autosomal-recessive diseases, and it has been very powerful in identifying disease-causing mutations even when enrollment of affected individuals is limited by reduced survival. In this study, we combined WES with homozygosity analysis of consanguineous pedigrees, which are informative even when a single affected individual is available, to identify genetic mutations responsible for Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), a genetically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive disorder that severely affects the development of the brain, eyes, and muscle. Mutations in seven genes are known to cause WWS and explain 50%–60% of cases, but multiple additional genes are expected to be mutated because unexplained cases show suggestive linkage to diverse loci. Using WES in consanguineous WWS-affected families, we found multiple deleterious mutations in GTDC2 (also known as AGO61). GTDC2’s predicted role as an uncharacterized glycosyltransferase is consistent with the function of other genes that are known to be mutated in WWS and that are involved in the glycosylation of the transmembrane receptor dystroglycan. Therefore, to explore the role of GTDC2 loss of function during development, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of its zebrafish ortholog, gtdc2. We found that gtdc2 knockdown in zebrafish replicates all WWS features (hydrocephalus, ocular defects, and muscular dystrophy), strongly suggesting that GTDC2 mutations cause WWS.

Manzini, M. Chiara; Tambunan, Dimira E.; Hill, R. Sean; Yu, Tim W.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Heinzen, Erin L.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Stevens, Christine R.; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Barry, Brenda J.; Rodriguez, Jacqueline; Gupta, Vandana A.; Al-Qudah, Abdel-Karim; Eyaid, Wafaa M.; Friedman, Jan M.; Salih, Mustafa A.; Clark, Robin; Moroni, Isabella; Mora, Marina; Beggs, Alan H.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Walsh, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

107

Exome sequencing identifies frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Through exomic sequencing of 32 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, we discovered frequent inactivating mutations in multiple chromatin-remodeling genes (including BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1), and mutation in one of these genes occurred in almost half of the carcinomas sequenced. We also identified frequent mutations at previously reported hotspots in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding metabolic enzymes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. In contrast, TP53 was the most frequently altered gene in a series of nine gallbladder carcinomas. These discoveries highlight the key role of dysregulated chromatin remodeling in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.

Selaru, Florin M; Streppel, Mirte M; Lucas, Donald J; Niknafs, Noushin; Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Maitra, Anirban; Argani, Pedram; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin T; Dima, Simona; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Mafficini, Andrea; Capelli, Paola; Lawlor, Rita T; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo; Jarnagin, William; Klimstra, David; Karchin, Rachel; Velculescu, Victor E; Hruban, Ralph H; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Wood, Laura D

2014-01-01

108

Identity-by-descent filtering of exome sequence data identifies PIGV mutations in hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphatasia mental retardation (HPMR) syndrome is an autosomal recessive form of mental retardation with distinct facial features and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. We performed whole-exome sequencing in three siblings of a nonconsanguineous union with HPMR and performed computational inference of regions identical by descent in all siblings to establish PIGV, encoding a member of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway, as the gene mutated in HPMR. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in PIGV in three additional families. PMID:20802478

Krawitz, Peter M; Schweiger, Michal R; Rödelsperger, Christian; Marcelis, Carlo; Kölsch, Uwe; Meisel, Christian; Stephani, Friederike; Kinoshita, Taroh; Murakami, Yoshiko; Bauer, Sebastian; Isau, Melanie; Fischer, Axel; Dahl, Andreas; Kerick, Martin; Hecht, Jochen; Köhler, Sebastian; Jäger, Marten; Grünhagen, Johannes; de Condor, Birgit Jonske; Doelken, Sandra; Brunner, Han G; Meinecke, Peter; Passarge, Eberhard; Thompson, Miles D; Cole, David E; Horn, Denise; Roscioli, Tony; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N

2010-10-01

109

Mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene identified in 95 patients with phenylketonuria using novel systems of mutation scanning and specific genotyping based upon thermal melt profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylketonuria (PKU, MIM 261600; EC 1.14.16.1) results from mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Newborn metabolic disease screening uses blood dried on filter paper (DBS) to prospectively identify candidate newborns affected with PKU via an elevated concentration of phenylalanine. However, it is then important to confirm the specific category of PKU since classical PKU requires a stringent diet while

Steven F. Dobrowolski; Clinton Ellingson; Thomas Coyne; Jesse Grey; Ranae Martin; Edwin W. Naylor; Richard Koch; Harvey L. Levy

2007-01-01

110

Functional examination of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 intronic mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 predispose to the development of colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). These mutations include disease-causing frame-shift, nonsense, and splicing mutations as well as large genomic rearrangements. However, a large number of mutations, including missense, silent, and intronic variants, are classified as variants of unknown clinical significance. Methods Intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 variants were investigated using in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assay to asses the effect on splicing. Results We describe in silico and in vitro characterization of nine intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients, of which four mutations are novel. The analysis revealed aberrant splicing of five mutations (MLH1 c.588?+?5G?>?A, MLH1 c.677?+?3A?>?T, MLH1 c.1732-2A?>?T, MSH2 c.1276?+?1G?>?T, and MSH2 c.1662-2A?>?C), while four mutations had no effect on splicing compared to wild type (MLH1 c.117-34A?>?T, MLH1 c.1039-8 T?>?A, MSH2 c.2459-18delT, and MSH6 c.3439-16C?>?T). Conclusions In conclusion, we classify five MLH1/MSH2 mutations as pathogenic, whereas four MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 mutations are classified as neutral. This study supports the notion that in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assays are important for the classification of intronic variants, and thereby crucial for the genetic counseling of patients and their family members.

2013-01-01

111

Extragenic suppressors of paralyzed flagellar mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii identify loci that alter the inner dynein arms.  

PubMed

We have analyzed extragenic suppressors of paralyzed flagella mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in an effort to identify new dynein mutations. A temperature-sensitive allele of the PF16 locus was mutagenized and then screened for revertants that could swim at the restrictive temperature (Dutcher et al. 1984. J. Cell Biol. 98:229-236). In backcrosses of one of the revertant strains to wild-type, we recovered both the original pf16 mutation and a second, unlinked suppressor mutation with its own flagellar phenotype. This mutation has been identified by both recombination and complementation tests as a new allele of the previously uncharacterized PF9 locus on linkage group XII/XIII. SDS-PAGE analysis of isolated flagellar axonemes and dynein extracts has demonstrated that the pf9 strains are missing four polypeptides that form the I1 inner arm dynein subunit. The primary effect of the loss of the I1 subunit is a decrease in the forward swimming velocity due to a change in the flagellar waveform. Both the flagellar beat frequency and the axonemal ATPase activity are nearly wild-type. Examination of axonemes by thin section electron microscopy and image averaging methods reveals that a specific domain of the inner arm complex is missing in the pf9 mutant strains (see accompanying paper by Mastronarde et al.). When combined with other flagellar defects, the loss of the I1 subunit has synergistic effects on both flagellar assembly and flagellar motility. These synthetic phenotypes provide a screen for new suppressor mutations in other loci. Using this approach, we have identified the first interactive suppressors of a dynein arm mutation and an unusual bypass suppressor mutation. PMID:1387404

Porter, M E; Power, J; Dutcher, S K

1992-09-01

112

Extragenic suppressors of paralyzed flagellar mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii identify loci that alter the inner dynein arms  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed extragenic suppressors of paralyzed flagella mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in an effort to identify new dynein mutations. A temperature-sensitive allele of the PF16 locus was mutagenized and then screened for revertants that could swim at the restrictive temperature (Dutcher et al. 1984. J. Cell Biol. 98:229- 236). In backcrosses of one of the revertant strains to wild-type, we recovered both the original pf16 mutation and a second, unlinked suppressor mutation with its own flagellar phenotype. This mutation has been identified by both recombination and complementation tests as a new allele of the previously uncharacterized PF9 locus on linkage group XII/XIII. SDS-PAGE analysis of isolated flagellar axonemes and dynein extracts has demonstrated that the pf9 strains are missing four polypeptides that form the I1 inner arm dynein subunit. The primary effect of the loss of the I1 subunit is a decrease in the forward swimming velocity due to a change in the flagellar waveform. Both the flagellar beat frequency and the axonemal ATPase activity are nearly wild-type. Examination of axonemes by thin section electron microscopy and image averaging methods reveals that a specific domain of the inner arm complex is missing in the pf9 mutant strains (see accompanying paper by Mastronarde et al.). When combined with other flagellar defects, the loss of the I1 subunit has synergistic effects on both flagellar assembly and flagellar motility. These synthetic phenotypes provide a screen for new suppressor mutations in other loci. Using this approach, we have identified the first interactive suppressors of a dynein arm mutation and an unusual bypass suppressor mutation.

1992-01-01

113

A new scoring system for the chances of identifying a BRCA1/2 mutation outperforms existing models including BRCAPRO  

PubMed Central

Methods: DNA samples from affected subjects from 422 non-Jewish families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were screened for BRCA1 mutations and a subset of 318 was screened for BRCA2 by whole gene screening techniques. Using a combination of results from screening and the family history of mutation negative and positive kindreds, a simple scoring system (Manchester scoring system) was devised to predict pathogenic mutations and particularly to discriminate at the 10% likelihood level. A second separate dataset of 192 samples was subsequently used to test the model's predictive value. This was further validated on a third set of 258 samples and compared against existing models. Results: The scoring system includes a cut-off at 10 points for each gene. This equates to >10% probability of a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 individually. The Manchester scoring system had the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity at 10% prediction for the presence of mutations as shown by its highest C-statistic and was far superior to BRCAPRO. Conclusion: The scoring system is useful in identifying mutations particularly in BRCA2. The algorithm may need modifying to include pathological data when calculating whether to screen for BRCA1 mutations. It is considerably less time-consuming for clinicians than using computer models and if implemented routinely in clinical practice will aid in selecting families most suitable for DNA sampling for diagnostic testing.

Evans, D; Eccles, D; Rahman, N; Young, K; Bulman, M; Amir, E; Shenton, A; Howell, A; Lalloo, F

2004-01-01

114

A novel insertion mutation identified in exon 10 of the MEFV gene associated with Familial Mediterranean Fever  

PubMed Central

Background Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), characterized by recurrent fever and inflammation of serous membranes, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene. Around 296 mutations have been reported to date. Methods Two two-generation Turkish families with a total of four members diagnosed with FMF clinically were screened with DNA sequencing performed on exon 2 and exon 10 of the MEFV genes. Then, complete exome sequencing analysis of MEFV gene was done for four patients in whom novel mutation was detected. Results A novel single base Guanine (G) insertion mutation in the coding region of MEFV gene, named c.2330dupG (p.Gln778Serfs*4 or Q778SfsX4) resulting in a mutated Pyrin/Marenostrin protein was identified. Conclusions This is the first report of a new mutation in exon 10 of the MEFV gene in two Turkish families. This novel pattern of insertion mutation may provide important information for further studies on FMF pathogenesis.

2014-01-01

115

Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies a Troponin T Mutation Hot Spot in Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) commonly causes heart failure and shows extensive genetic heterogeneity that may be amenable to newly developed next-generation DNA sequencing of the exome. In this study we report the successful use of exome sequencing to identify a pathogenic variant in the TNNT2 gene using segregation analysis in a large DCM family. Exome sequencing was performed on three distant relatives from a large family with a clear DCM phenotype. Missense, nonsense, and splice variants were analyzed for segregation among the three affected family members and confirmed in other relatives by direct sequencing. A c.517T C>T, Arg173Trp TNNT2 variant segregated with all affected family members and was also detected in one additional DCM family in our registry. The inclusion of segregation analysis using distant family members markedly improved the bioinformatics filtering process by removing from consideration variants that were not shared by all affected subjects. Haplotype analysis confirmed that the variant found in both DCM families was located on two distinct haplotypes, supporting the notion of independent mutational events in each family. In conclusion, an exome sequencing strategy that includes segregation analysis using distant affected relatives within a family represents a viable diagnostic strategy in a genetically heterogeneous disease like DCM.

Campbell, Nzali; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Jones, Kenneth L.; Slavov, Dobromir; Gowan, Katherine; Merlo, Marco; Carniel, Elisa; Fain, Pamela R.; Aragona, Pierluigi; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Mestroni, Luisa; Taylor, Matthew R. G.

2013-01-01

116

STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model  

PubMed Central

STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but in no other B-cell lymphoma patients (0 of 104) or patients with myeloid malignancies (0 of 96). Functional in vitro assays indicated that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to a constitutive phosphorylation of the protein. STA21, a STAT3 small molecule inhibitor, inhibited the proliferation of two distinct STAT3 mutated cell lines. Using a mouse bone marrow transplantation assay, we observed that STAT3Y640F expression leads to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms with expansion of either myeloid cells or megakaryocytes. Together, these data indicate that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to constitutive activation of STAT3, induces malignant hematopoiesis in vivo, and may represent a novel therapeutic target in some lymphoid malignancies.

Couronne, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Veronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Helene; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Fontenay, Michaela; Tilly, Herve; Bastard, Christian; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bernard, Olivier A.; Mercher, Thomas

2013-01-01

117

Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ~50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database) and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs) of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met) was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin.

2011-01-01

118

Two point mutations identified in emmer wheat generate null Wx - A1 alleles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the Wx- A1 mutations carried by a Triticum dicoccoides line from Israel and a Triticum dicoccum line from Yugoslavia are characterized. A single nucleotide insertion in the T. dicoccoides null allele and a single nucleotide deletion in the T. dicoccum null allele each cause frameshift mutations that induce premature termination codons more than 55 nucleotides upstream of

M. Saito; T. Nakamura

2005-01-01

119

Frameshift mutation hotspot identified in Smith-Magenis syndrome: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex syndrome involving intellectual disabilities, sleep disturbance, behavioural problems, and a variety of craniofacial, skeletal, and visceral anomalies. While the majority of SMS cases harbor an ~3.5 Mb common deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses the retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) gene, some patients carry small intragenic deletions or point mutations in RAI1. We present data on two cases of Smith-Magenis syndrome with mutation of RAI1. Both cases are phenotypically consistent with SMS and RAI1 mutation but also have other anomalies not previously reported in SMS, including spontaneous pneumothoraces. These cases also illustrate variability in the SMS phenotype not previously shown for RAI1 mutation cases, including hearing loss, absence of self-abusive behaviours, and mild global delays. Sequencing of RAI1 revealed mutation of the same heptameric C-tract (CCCCCCC) in exon 3 in both cases (c.3103delC one case and and c.3103insC in the other), resulting in frameshift mutations. Of the seven reported frameshift mutations occurring in poly C-tracts in RAI1, four cases (~57%) occur at this heptameric C-tract. Collectively, these results indicate that this heptameric C-tract is a preferential hotspot for single nucleotide insertion/deletions (SNindels) and therefore, should be considered a primary target for analysis in patients suspected for mutations in RAI1. We expect that as more patients are sequenced for mutations in RAI1, the incidence of frameshift mutations in this hotspot will become more evident. PMID:20932317

Truong, Hoa T; Dudding, Tracy; Blanchard, Christopher L; Elsea, Sarah H

2010-01-01

120

Frequent mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 in cholangiocarcinoma identified through broad-based tumor genotyping.  

PubMed

Cancers of origin in the gallbladder and bile ducts are rarely curable with current modalities of cancer treatment. Our clinical application of broad-based mutational profiling for patients diagnosed with a gastrointestinal malignancy has led to the novel discovery of mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in tumors from a subset of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. A total of 287 tumors from gastrointestinal cancer patients (biliary tract, colorectal, gastroesophageal, liver, pancreatic, and small intestine carcinoma) were tested during routine clinical evaluation for 130 site-specific mutations within 15 cancer genes. Mutations were identified within a number of genes, including KRAS (35%), TP53 (22%), PIK3CA (10%), BRAF (7%), APC (6%), NRAS (3%), AKT1 (1%), CTNNB1 (1%), and PTEN (1%). Although mutations in the metabolic enzyme IDH1 were rare in the other common gastrointestinal malignancies in this series (2%), they were found in three tumors (25%) of an initial series of 12 biliary tract carcinomas. To better define IDH1 and IDH2 mutational status, an additional 75 gallbladder and bile duct cancers were examined. Combining these cohorts of biliary cancers, mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 were found only in cholangiocarcinomas of intrahepatic origin (nine of 40, 23%) and in none of the 22 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and none of the 25 gallbladder carcinomas. In an analysis of frozen tissue specimens, IDH1 mutation was associated with highly elevated tissue levels of the enzymatic product 2-hydroxyglutarate. Thus, IDH1 mutation is a molecular feature of cholangiocarcinomas of intrahepatic origin. These findings define a specific metabolic abnormality in this largely incurable type of gastrointestinal cancer and present a potentially new target for therapy. PMID:22180306

Borger, Darrell R; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Fan, Kenneth C; Lopez, Hector U; Fantin, Valeria R; Straley, Kimberly S; Schenkein, David P; Hezel, Aram F; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Liebman, Hannah M; Kwak, Eunice L; Clark, Jeffrey W; Ryan, David P; Deshpande, Vikram; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Ellisen, Leif W; Zhu, Andrew X; Iafrate, A John

2012-01-01

121

Frequent Mutation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 in Cholangiocarcinoma Identified Through Broad-Based Tumor Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Cancers of origin in the gallbladder and bile ducts are rarely curable with current modalities of cancer treatment. Our clinical application of broad-based mutational profiling for patients diagnosed with a gastrointestinal malignancy has led to the novel discovery of mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in tumors from a subset of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. A total of 287 tumors from gastrointestinal cancer patients (biliary tract, colorectal, gastroesophageal, liver, pancreatic, and small intestine carcinoma) were tested during routine clinical evaluation for 130 site-specific mutations within 15 cancer genes. Mutations were identified within a number of genes, including KRAS (35%), TP53 (22%), PIK3CA (10%), BRAF (7%), APC (6%), NRAS (3%), AKT1 (1%), CTNNB1 (1%), and PTEN (1%). Although mutations in the metabolic enzyme IDH1 were rare in the other common gastrointestinal malignancies in this series (2%), they were found in three tumors (25%) of an initial series of 12 biliary tract carcinomas. To better define IDH1 and IDH2 mutational status, an additional 75 gallbladder and bile duct cancers were examined. Combining these cohorts of biliary cancers, mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 were found only in cholangiocarcinomas of intrahepatic origin (nine of 40, 23%) and in none of the 22 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and none of the 25 gallbladder carcinomas. In an analysis of frozen tissue specimens, IDH1 mutation was associated with highly elevated tissue levels of the enzymatic product 2-hydroxyglutarate. Thus, IDH1 mutation is a molecular feature of cholangiocarcinomas of intrahepatic origin. These findings define a specific metabolic abnormality in this largely incurable type of gastrointestinal cancer and present a potentially new target for therapy.

Borger, Darrell R.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Fan, Kenneth C.; Lopez, Hector U.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Schenkein, David P.; Hezel, Aram F.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Liebman, Hannah M.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Ryan, David P.; Deshpande, Vikram; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Ellisen, Leif W.; Zhu, Andrew X.

2012-01-01

122

Exome sequencing identifies somatic gain-of-function PPM1D mutations in brainstem gliomas.  

PubMed

Gliomas arising in the brainstem and thalamus are devastating tumors that are difficult to surgically resect. To determine the genetic and epigenetic landscape of these tumors, we performed exomic sequencing of 14 brainstem gliomas (BSGs) and 12 thalamic gliomas. We also performed targeted mutational analysis of an additional 24 such tumors and genome-wide methylation profiling of 45 gliomas. This study led to the discovery of tumor-specific mutations in PPM1D, encoding wild-type p53-induced protein phosphatase 1D (WIP1), in 37.5% of the BSGs that harbored hallmark H3F3A mutations encoding p.Lys27Met substitutions. PPM1D mutations were mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations in BSG and attenuated p53 activation in vitro. PPM1D mutations were truncating alterations in exon 6 that enhanced the ability of PPM1D to suppress the activation of the DNA damage response checkpoint protein CHK2. These results define PPM1D as a frequent target of somatic mutation and as a potential therapeutic target in brainstem gliomas. PMID:24880341

Zhang, Liwei; Chen, Lee H; Wan, Hong; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zhaohui; Feng, Jie; Yang, Shaohua; Jones, Siân; Wang, Sizhen; Zhou, Weixin; Zhu, Huishan; Killela, Patrick J; Zhang, Junting; Wu, Zhen; Li, Guilin; Hao, Shuyu; Wang, Yu; Webb, Joseph B; Friedman, Henry S; Friedman, Allan H; McLendon, Roger E; He, Yiping; Reitman, Zachary J; Bigner, Darell D; Yan, Hai

2014-07-01

123

Exome sequencing of serous endometrial tumors identifies recurrent somatic mutations in chromatin-remodeling and ubiquitin ligase complex genes  

PubMed Central

Endometrial cancer is the 6th most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide, causing ~74,000 deaths annually 1. Serous endometrial cancers are a clinically aggressive subtype with a poorly defined genetic etiology 2-4. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to comprehensively search for somatic mutations within ~22,000 protein-encoding genes among 13 primary serous endometrial tumors. We subsequently resequenced 18 genes that were mutated in more than one tumor, and/or were genes that formed an enriched functional grouping, from 40 additional serous tumors. We identified high frequencies of somatic mutations in CHD4 (17%), EP300 (8%), ARID1A (6%), TSPYL2 (6%), FBXW7 (29%), SPOP (8%), MAP3K4 (6%) and ABCC9 (6%). Overall, 36.5% of serous tumors had mutated a chromatin-remodeling gene and 35% had mutated a ubiquitin ligase complex gene, implicating the frequent mutational disruption of these processes in the molecular pathogenesis of one of the deadliest forms of endometrial cancer.

Le Gallo, Matthieu; O'Hara, Andrea J.; Rudd, Meghan L.; Urick, Mary Ellen; Hansen, Nancy F.; O'Neil, Nigel J.; Price, Jessica C.; Zhang, Suiyuan; England, Bryant M.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Sgroi, Dennis C.; Hieter, Philip; Mullikin, James C.; Merino, Maria J.; Bell, Daphne W.

2012-01-01

124

Exome sequencing identifies distinct mutational patterns in liver fluke-related and non-infection-related bile duct cancers.  

PubMed

The impact of different carcinogenic exposures on the specific patterns of somatic mutation in human tumors remains unclear. To address this issue, we profiled 209 cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) from Asia and Europe, including 108 cases caused by infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and 101 cases caused by non-O. viverrini-related etiologies. Whole-exome sequencing (n = 15) and prevalence screening (n = 194) identified recurrent somatic mutations in BAP1 and ARID1A, neither of which, to our knowledge, has previously been reported to be mutated in CCA. Comparisons between intrahepatic O. viverrini-related and non-O. viverrini-related CCAs demonstrated statistically significant differences in mutation patterns: BAP1, IDH1 and IDH2 were more frequently mutated in non-O. viverrini CCAs, whereas TP53 mutations showed the reciprocal pattern. Functional studies demonstrated tumor suppressive functions for BAP1 and ARID1A, establishing the role of chromatin modulators in CCA pathogenesis. These findings indicate that different causative etiologies may induce distinct somatic alterations, even within the same tumor type. PMID:24185513

Chan-On, Waraporn; Nairismägi, Maarja-Liisa; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Dima, Simona; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Lim, Kiat Hon; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Heng, Hong Lee; Ooi, London; Chung, Alexander; Chow, Pierce; Cheow, Peng Chung; Lee, Ser Yee; Choo, Su Pin; Tan, Iain Bee Huat; Duda, Dan; Nastase, Anca; Myint, Swe Swe; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Gan, Anna; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Jusakul, Apinya; Zhang, Shenli; Vohra, Priya; Yu, Willie; Huang, DaChuan; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Sopit; Khuntikeo, Narong; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajaraphongsa; Popescu, Irinel; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

2013-12-01

125

Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Identified in Patients with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 cause the inherited liver disease progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Several of these mutations are located in conserved regions of the transmembrane domain associated with substrate binding and transport. Assays for P4-ATPase-mediated transport in living yeast cells were developed and used to characterize the specificity and kinetic parameters of this transport. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis mutations were introduced into the yeast plasma membrane P4-ATPase Dnf2p, and the effect of these mutations on its catalysis of phospholipid transport were determined. The results of these measurements have implications for the basis of the disease and for the mechanism of phospholipid transit through the enzyme during the reaction cycle.

Stone, Alex; Chau, Christopher; Eaton, Christian; Foran, Emily; Kapur, Mridu; Prevatt, Edward; Belkin, Nathan; Kerr, David; Kohlin, Torvald; Williamson, Patrick

2012-01-01

126

Chemical chaperones protect from effects of apoptosis-inducing mutation in carbonic anhydrase IV identified in retinitis pigmentosa 17  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV is a glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchored enzyme highly expressed on the plasma face of microcapillaries and especially strongly expressed in the choriocapillaris of the human eye. In collaboration with scientists at the University of Cape Town (Rondebosch, South Africa), we recently showed that the R14W mutation in the signal sequence of CA IV, which they identified in patients with

Giuseppe Bonapace; Abdul Waheed; Gul N. Shah; William S. Sly

2004-01-01

127

A new point mutation in the ND1 mitochondrial gene identified in a type II diabetic patient  

SciTech Connect

A novel mutation in a mitochondrial gene was identified in a patient with type II diabetes mellitus. G-to-A transition was localized at the nt3316 position of gene ND1 and resulted in alanine threonine replacement at position 4 of mitochondrial NAD-H-dehydrogenase. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Kalinin, V.N. [Research Center of Medical Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmidt, W.; Olek, K. [Institut fuer Molekularbiologische Diagnostik, Bonn (Germany)] [and others

1995-08-01

128

Two-round COLD-PCR-based Sanger sequencing identifies a novel spectrum of low-level mutations in lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Reliable identification of cancer-related mutations in TP53 is often problematic as these mutations can be randomly distributed throughout numerous codons and their relative abundance in clinical samples can fall below the sensitivity limits of conventional sequencing. To ensure the highest sensitivity in mutation detection, we adapted the recently described COLD-PCR method to employ two consecutive rounds of COLD-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Using this highly sensitive approach we screened 48 non-microdissected lung-adenocarcinoma samples for TP53 mutations. Twenty-four missense/frameshift TP53 mutations throughout exons 5–8 were identified in 23 of 48 (48%) lung-adenocarcinoma samples examined, including 8 low-level mutations at an abundance of ~1–17%, most of which would have been missed using conventional methodologies. The identified alterations include two rare lung-adenocarcinoma mutations, one of which is a ‘disruptive’ mutation currently undocumented in the lung cancer mutation-databases. A sample harboring a low-level mutation (~2% abundance) concurrently with a clonal mutation (80%-abundance) revealed intra-tumoral TP53 mutation heterogeneity. The ability to identify and sequence low-level mutations in the absence of elaborate micro-dissection, via COLD-PCR-based Sanger-sequencing, provides a platform for accurate mutation profiling in clinical specimens and the use of TP53 as a prognostic/predictive biomarker, evaluation of cancer risk, recurrence, and further understanding of cancer biology.

Li, Jin; Milbury, Coren A.; Li, Cheng; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

2009-01-01

129

Five new mutations in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene identified in families with cutaneous porphyria.  

PubMed

We describe five new mutations in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) gene. All mutations were observed in conjunction with decreased erythrocyte UROD and clinical familial porphyria cutanea tarda (fPCT), (four families) or hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP), (one family). The fPCT mutations included three point mutations that resulted in amino acid substitutions: a lysine to glutamine at amino acid position 253 (exon 7); a glycine to arginine at position 318 (exon 10); an isoleucine to threonine at position 334 (exon 10). The lysine to glutamine at amino acid position 253 was found in conjunction with a single C nucleotide deletion in exon 8 on the same allele of the UROD gene in the same family. This deletion resulted in a shift in the reading frame and the introduction of a premature stop codon 8 amino acids downstream. In the fourth family, a 31-bp deletion (nucleotides 828-858: exon 8) of the coding region, resulted in a frameshift and the introduction of a stop codon 19 amino acids downstream. A point mutation was observed in an individual diagnosed with HEP, resulting in an alanine to glycine change at amino acid position 80 and was present on both alleles. All mutations were confirmed in at least one other family member. The impact of these mutations on the function of the UROD protein was examined using in vitro protein expression and with activity assessed using pentacarboxylic acid porphyrinogen I as a substrate for UROD. Although three mutations reduced UROD activity to < 15% of normal, one resulted in a UROD protein with 50% functional activity and the other had near normal activity. These results indicate that many different genetic lesions of the UROD gene are associated with fPCT. PMID:8896428

McManus, J F; Begley, C G; Sassa, S; Ratnaike, S

1996-11-01

130

Two novel missense mutations in the myostatin gene identified in Japanese patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Truncating mutations in the myostatin gene have been reported to result in gross muscle hypertrophy. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common lethal muscle wasting disease, is a result of an absence of muscle dystrophin. Although this disorder causes a rather uniform pattern of muscle wasting, afflicted patients display phenotypic variability. We hypothesized that genetic variation in myostatin is a modifier of the DMD phenotype. Methods We analyzed 102 Japanese DMD patients for mutations in the myostatin gene. Results Two polymorphisms that are commonly observed in Western countries, p.55A>T and p.153K>R, were not observed in these Japanese patients. An uncommon polymorphism of p.164E>K was uncovered in four cases; each patient was found to be heterozygous for this polymorphism, which had the highest frequency of the polymorphism observed in the Japanese patients. Remarkably, two patients were found to be heterozygous for one of two novel missense mutations (p.95D>H and p.156L>I). One DMD patient carrying a novel missense mutation of p.95D>H was not phenotypically different from the non-carriers. The other DMD patient was found to carry both a novel mutation (p.156L>I) and a known polymorphism (p.164E>K) in one allele, although his phenotype was not significantly modified. Any nucleotide change creating a target site for micro RNAs was not disclosed in the 3' untranslated region. Conclusion Our results indicate that heterozygous missense mutations including two novel mutations did not produce an apparent increase in muscle strength in Japanese DMD cases, even in a patient carrying two missense mutations.

Nishiyama, Atsushi; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Saiki, Kayoko; Narukage, Akiko; Oyazato, Yoshinobu; Yagi, Mariko; Matsuo, Masafumi

2007-01-01

131

VWF mutations and new sequence variations identified in healthy controls are more frequent in the African-American population  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis and classification of VWD is aided by molecular analysis of the VWF gene. Because VWF polymorphisms have not been fully characterized, we performed VWF laboratory testing and gene sequencing of 184 healthy controls with a negative bleeding history. The controls included 66 (35.9%) African Americans (AAs). We identified 21 new sequence variations, 13 (62%) of which occurred exclusively in AAs and 2 (G967D, T2666M) that were found in 10%-15% of the AA samples, suggesting they are polymorphisms. We identified 14 sequence variations reported previously as VWF mutations, the majority of which were type 1 mutations. These controls had VWF Ag levels within the normal range, suggesting that these sequence variations might not always reduce plasma VWF levels. Eleven mutations were found in AAs, and the frequency of M740I, H817Q, and R2185Q was 15%-18%. Ten AA controls had the 2N mutation H817Q; 1 was homozygous. The average factor VIII level in this group was 99 IU/dL, suggesting that this variation may confer little or no clinical symptoms. This study emphasizes the importance of sequencing healthy controls to understand ethnic-specific sequence variations so that asymptomatic sequence variations are not misidentified as mutations in other ethnic or racial groups.

Christopherson, Pamela A.; Flood, Veronica H.; Gill, Joan Cox; Friedman, Kenneth D.; Haberichter, Sandra L.; Shapiro, Amy D.; Abshire, Thomas C.; Leissinger, Cindy; Hoots, W. Keith; Lusher, Jeanne M.; Ragni, Margaret V.; Montgomery, Robert R.

2012-01-01

132

Whole exome sequencing identifies three recessive FIG4 mutations in an apparently dominant pedigree with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.  

PubMed

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is genetically heterogeneous and classification based on motor nerve conduction velocity and inheritance is used to direct genetic testing. With the less common genetic forms of CMT, identifying the causative genetic mutation by Sanger sequencing of individual genes can be time-consuming and costly. Next-generation sequencing technologies show promise for clinical testing in diseases where a similar phenotype is caused by different genes. We report the unusual occurrence of CMT4J, caused by mutations in FIG4, in a apparently dominant pedigree. The affected proband and her mother exhibit different disease severities associated with different combinations of compound heterozygous FIG4 mutations, identified by whole exome sequencing. The proband was also shown to carry a de novo nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene, which may contribute to her more severe phenotype. This study is a cautionary reminder that in families with two generations affected, explanations other than dominant inheritance are possible, such as recessive inheritance due to three mutations segregating in the family. It also emphasises the advantages of next-generation sequencing approaches that screen multiple CMT genes at once for patients in whom the common genes have been excluded. PMID:24878229

Menezes, Manoj P; Waddell, Leigh; Lenk, Guy M; Kaur, Simranpreet; MacArthur, Daniel G; Meisler, Miriam H; Clarke, Nigel F

2014-08-01

133

Functional Characterization of a CRH Missense Mutation Identified in an ADNFLE Family  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy has been historically considered a channelopathy caused by mutations in subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor or in a recently reported potassium channel. However, these mutations account for only a minority of patients, and the existence of at least a new locus for the disease has been demonstrated. In 2005, we detected two nucleotide variations in the promoter of the CRH gene coding for the corticotropin releasing hormone in 7 patients. These variations cosegregated with the disease and were demonstrated to alter the cellular levels of this hormone. Here, we report the identification in an Italian affected family of a novel missense mutation (hpreproCRH p.Pro30Arg) located in the region of the CRH coding for the protein pro-sequence. The mutation was detected in heterozygosity in the two affected individuals. In vitro assays demonstrated that this mutation results in reduced levels of protein secretion in the short time thus suggesting that mutated people could present an altered capability to respond immediately to stress agents.

Sansoni, Veronica; Forcella, Matilde; Mozzi, Alessandra; Fusi, Paola; Ambrosini, Roberto; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Combi, Romina

2013-01-01

134

Functional characterization of a CRH missense mutation identified in an ADNFLE family.  

PubMed

Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy has been historically considered a channelopathy caused by mutations in subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor or in a recently reported potassium channel. However, these mutations account for only a minority of patients, and the existence of at least a new locus for the disease has been demonstrated. In 2005, we detected two nucleotide variations in the promoter of the CRH gene coding for the corticotropin releasing hormone in 7 patients. These variations cosegregated with the disease and were demonstrated to alter the cellular levels of this hormone. Here, we report the identification in an Italian affected family of a novel missense mutation (hpreproCRH p.Pro30Arg) located in the region of the CRH coding for the protein pro-sequence. The mutation was detected in heterozygosity in the two affected individuals. In vitro assays demonstrated that this mutation results in reduced levels of protein secretion in the short time thus suggesting that mutated people could present an altered capability to respond immediately to stress agents. PMID:23593457

Sansoni, Veronica; Forcella, Matilde; Mozzi, Alessandra; Fusi, Paola; Ambrosini, Roberto; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Combi, Romina

2013-01-01

135

TP53 mutation-correlated genes predict the risk of tumor relapse and identify MPS1 as a potential therapeutic kinase in TP53-mutated breast cancers.  

PubMed

Breast cancers (BC) carry a complex set of gene mutations that can influence their gene expression and clinical behavior. We aimed to identify genes driven by the TP53 mutation status and assess their clinical relevance in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative BC, and their potential as targets for patients with TP53 mutated tumors. Separate ROC analyses of each gene expression according to TP53 mutation status were performed. The prognostic value of genes with the highest AUC were assessed in a large dataset of untreated, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy treated patients. The mitotic checkpoint gene MPS1 was the most significant gene correlated with TP53 status, and the most significant prognostic marker in all ER-positive BC datasets. MPS1 retained its prognostic value independently from the type of treatment administered. The biological functions of MPS1 were investigated in different BC cell lines. We also assessed the effects of a potent small molecule inhibitor of MPS1, SP600125, alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Consistent with the gene expression profiling and siRNA assays, the inhibition of MPS1 by SP600125 led to a reduction in cell viability and a significant increase in cell death, selectively in TP53-mutated BC cells. Furthermore, the chemical inhibition of MPS1 sensitized BC cells to conventional chemotherapy, particularly taxanes. Our results collectively demonstrate that TP53-correlated kinase MPS1, is a potential therapeutic target in BC patients with TP53 mutated tumors, and that SP600125 warrant further development in future clinical trials. PMID:24462521

Gy?rffy, Balázs; Bottai, Giulia; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Kéri, György; Orfi, László; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Desmedt, Christine; Bianchini, Giampaolo; Turner, Nicholas C; de Thè, Hugues; André, Fabrice; Sotiriou, Christos; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Di Leo, Angelo; Pusztai, Lajos; Santarpia, Libero

2014-05-01

136

Androgen receptor mutations identified in prostate cancer and androgen insensitivity syndrome display aberrant ART-27 coactivator function.  

PubMed

The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is modulated by interactions with coregulatory molecules. It has been proposed that aberrant interactions between AR and its coregulators may contribute to diseases related to AR activity, such as prostate cancer and androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS); however, evidence linking abnormal receptor-cofactor interactions to disease is scant. ART-27 is a recently identified AR N-terminal coactivator that is associated with AR-mediated growth inhibition. Here we analyze a number of naturally occurring AR mutations identified in prostate cancer and AIS for their ability to affect AR response to ART-27. Although the vast majority of AR mutations appeared capable of increased activation in response to ART-27, an AR mutation identified in prostate cancer (AR P340L) and AIS (AR E2K) show reduced transcriptional responses to ART-27, whereas their response to the p160 class of coactivators was not diminished. Relative to the wild-type receptor, less ART-27 protein associated with the AR E2K substitution, consistent with reduced transcriptional response. Surprisingly, more ART-27 associated with AR P340L, despite the fact that the mutation decreased transcriptional activation in response to ART-27. Our findings suggest that aberrant AR-coactivator association interferes with normal ART-27 coactivator function, resulting in suppression of AR activity, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases related to alterations in AR activity, such as prostate cancer and AIS. PMID:15919721

Li, Wenhui; Cavasotto, Claudio N; Cardozo, Timothy; Ha, Susan; Dang, Thoa; Taneja, Samir S; Logan, Susan K; Garabedian, Michael J

2005-09-01

137

Can a Place of Origin of the Main Cystic Fibrosis Mutations Be Identified?  

PubMed Central

The genetic background of the mutations that most often cause cystic fibrosis (CF) is different from that of non-CF chromosomes in populations of European origin. It is not known whether these haplotype backgrounds could be found at high frequencies in populations in which CF is, at present, not common; such populations would be candidates for the place of origin of CF mutations. An analysis of haplotypes of CF transmembrane conductance regulator, together with their variation in specific CF chromosomes, in a worldwide survey of normal chromosomes shows (1) a very low frequency or absence of the most common CF haplotypes in all populations analyzed and (2) a strong genetic variability and divergence, among various populations, of the chromosomes that carry disease-causing mutations. The depth of the gene genealogy associated with disease-causing mutations may be greater than that of the evolutionary process that gave rise to present-day human populations. The concept of “population of origin” lacks either spatial or temporal meaning for mutations that are likely to have been present in Europeans before the ethnogenesis of present populations; subsequent population processes may have erased the traces of their geographic origin.

Mateu, Eva; Calafell, Francesc; Ramos, Maria Dolors; Casals, Teresa; Bertranpetit, Jaume

2002-01-01

138

Integrated mutational and cytogenetic analysis identifies new prognostic subgroups in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The identification of new genetic lesions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prompts a comprehensive and dynamic prognostic algorithm including gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities and their changes during clonal evolution. By integrating mutational and cytogenetic analysis in 1274 CLL samples and using both a training-validation and a time-dependent design, 4 CLL subgroups were hierarchically classified: (1) high-risk, harboring TP53 and/or BIRC3 abnormalities (10-year survival: 29%); (2) intermediate-risk, harboring NOTCH1 and/or SF3B1 mutations and/or del11q22-q23 (10-year survival: 37%); (3) low-risk, harboring +12 or a normal genetics (10-year survival: 57%); and (4) very low-risk, harboring del13q14 only, whose 10-year survival (69.3%) did not significantly differ from a matched general population. This integrated mutational and cytogenetic model independently predicted survival, improved CLL prognostication accuracy compared with FISH karyotype (P < .0001), and was externally validated in an independent CLL cohort. Clonal evolution from lower to higher risk implicated the emergence of NOTCH1, SF3B1, and BIRC3 abnormalities in addition to TP53 and 11q22-q23 lesions. By taking into account clonal evolution through time-dependent analysis, the genetic model maintained its prognostic relevance at any time from diagnosis. These findings may have relevant implications for the design of clinical trials aimed at assessing the use of mutational profiling to inform therapeutic decisions. PMID:23243274

Rossi, Davide; Rasi, Silvia; Spina, Valeria; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Monti, Sara; Ciardullo, Carmela; Deambrogi, Clara; Khiabanian, Hossein; Serra, Roberto; Bertoni, Francesco; Forconi, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca; Marasca, Roberto; Dal-Bo, Michele; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Bulian, Pietro; Nomdedeu, Josep; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Gattei, Valter; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul; Foà, Robin; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Gaidano, Gianluca

2013-02-21

139

Somatic mutations in stilbene estrogen-induced Syrian hamster kidney tumors identified by DNA fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol)-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR) fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors). The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor) surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate, in a single step, DNA sequences representing genetic alterations in stilbene estrogen-induced cancer cells, including losses of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion and insertion mutations. RAPD-PCR provides an alternative molecular approach for studying cancer cytogenetics in stilbene estrogen-induced tumors in humans and experimental models. Although the exact functional importance of mutated loci is unknown, this study indicates that these altered loci may participate during tumor progression in the kidney.

Singh, Kamaleshwar P; Roy, Deodutta

2004-01-01

140

Frequent somatic MAP3K5 and MAP3K9 mutations in metastatic melanoma identified by exome sequencing  

PubMed Central

We sequenced 8 melanoma exomes to identify novel somatic mutations in metastatic melanoma. Focusing on the MAP3K family, we found that 24% of melanoma cell lines have mutations in the protein-coding regions of either MAP3K5 or MAP3K9. Structural modelling predicts that mutations in the kinase domain may affect the activity and regulation of MAP3K5/9 protein kinases. The position of the mutations and loss of heterozygosity of MAP3K5 and MAP3K9 in 85% and 67% of melanoma samples, respectively, together suggest that the mutations are likely inactivating. In vitro kinase assay shows reduction in kinase activity in MAP3K5 I780F and MAP3K9 W333X mutants. Overexpression of MAP3K5 or MAP3K9 mutant in HEK293T cells reduces phosphorylation of downstream MAP kinases. Attenuation of MAP3K9 function in melanoma cells using siRNA leads to increased cell viability after temozolomide treatment, suggesting that decreased MAP3K pathway activity can lead to chemoresistance in melanoma.

Stark, Mitchell S; Woods, Susan L; Gartside, Michael G; Bonazzi, Vanessa F; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Aoude, Lauren G; Chow, Donald; Sereduk, Chris; Niemi, Natalie M; Tang, Nanyun; Ellis, Jonathan J; Reid, Jeffrey; Zismann, Victoria; Tyagi, Sonika; Muzny, Donna; Newsham, Irene; Wu, YuanQing; Palmer, Jane M; Pollak, Thomas; Youngkin, David; Brooks, Bradford R; Lanagan, Catherine; Schmidt, Christopher W; Kobe, Bostjan; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P; Yin, Hongwei; Brown, Kevin M; Gibbs, Richard; Trent, Jeffrey; Hayward, Nicholas K

2011-01-01

141

Genetic mapping and exome sequencing identify 2 mutations associated with stroke protection in pediatric patients with sickle cell anemia  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA), occurring in 11% of patients before age 20 years. Previous studies of sibling pairs have demonstrated a genetic component to the development of cerebrovascular disease in SCA, but few candidate genetic modifiers have been validated as having a substantial effect on stroke risk. We performed an unbiased whole-genome search for genetic modifiers of stroke risk in SCA. Genome-wide association studies were performed using genotype data from single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, whereas a pooled DNA approach was used to perform whole-exome sequencing. In combination, 22 nonsynonymous variants were identified and represent key candidates for further in-depth study. To validate the association of these mutations with the risk for stroke, the 22 candidate variants were genotyped in an independent cohort of control patients (n = 231) and patients with stroke (n = 57) with SCA. One mutation in GOLGB1 (Y1212C) and another mutation in ENPP1 (K173Q) were confirmed as having significant associations with a decreased risk for stroke. These mutations were discovered and validated by an unbiased whole-genome approach, and future studies will focus on how these functional mutations may lead to protection from stroke in the context of SCA.

Sheehan, Vivien; Linder, Heidi; Howard, Thad A.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Hoppe, Carolyn C.; Aygun, Banu; Adams, Robert J.; Neale, Geoffrey A.; Ware, Russell E.

2013-01-01

142

A Novel Nonsense Mutation of the GPR143 Gene Identified in a Chinese Pedigree with Ocular Albinism  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular basis of ocular albinism type I in a Chinese pedigree. Methodology/Principal Findings Complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed on 4 patients, 7 carriers and 17 unaffected individuals in this five-generation family. All coding exons of four-point-one (4.1), ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain-containing 7 (FRMD7) and G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and compared with a reference database. Ocular albinism and nystagmus were found in all patients of this family. Macular hypoplasia was present in the patients including the proband. A novel nonsense hemizygous mutation c.807T>A in the GPR143 gene was identified in four patients and the heterozygous mutation was found in seven asymptomatic individuals. This mutation is a substitution of tyrosine for adenine which leads to a premature stop codon at position 269 (p.Y269X) of GPR143. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report that p.Y269X mutation of GPR143 gene is responsible for the pathogenesis of familial ocular albinism. These results expand the mutation spectrum of GPR143, and demonstrate the clinical characteristics of ocular albinism type I in Chinese population.

Lan, Changjun; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Xiaomin; Yin, Yan; Yu, Wenhan; Liu, Xuyang

2012-01-01

143

Cadmium-induced DNA damage and mutations in Arabidopsis plantlet shoots identified by DNA fingerprinting.  

PubMed

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) test is a feasible method to evaluate the toxicity of environmental pollutants on vegetal organisms. Herein, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plantlets following Cadmium (Cd) treatment for 26 d were screened for DNA genetic alterations by DNA fingerprinting. Four primers amplified 20-23 mutated RAPD fragments in 0.125-3.0 mg L(-1) Cd-treated Arabidopsis plantlets, respectively. Cloning and sequencing analysis of eight randomly selected mutated fragments revealed 99-100% homology with the genes of VARICOSE-Related, SLEEPY1 F-box, 40S ribosomal protein S3, phosphoglucomutase, and noncoding regions in Arabidopsis genome correspondingly. The results show the ability of RAPD analysis to detect significant genetic alterations in Cd-exposed seedlings. Although the exact functional importance of the other mutated bands is unknown, the presence of mutated loci in Cd-treated seedlings, prior to the onset of significant physiological effects, suggests that these altered loci are the early events in Cd-treated Arabidopsis seedlings and would greatly improve environmental risk assessment. PMID:22717160

Liu, Wan; Sun, Lizong; Zhong, Ming; Zhou, Qixing; Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Tai, Peidong; Li, Xiaojun

2012-11-01

144

Exome sequencing and functional analysis identifies BANF1 mutation as the cause of a hereditary progeroid syndrome.  

PubMed

Accelerated aging syndromes represent a valuable source of information about the molecular mechanisms involved in normal aging. Here, we describe a progeroid syndrome that partially phenocopies Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) but also exhibits distinctive features, including the absence of cardiovascular deficiencies characteristic of HGPS, the lack of mutations in LMNA and ZMPSTE24, and a relatively long lifespan of affected individuals. Exome sequencing and molecular analysis in two unrelated families allowed us to identify a homozygous mutation in BANF1 (c.34G>A [p.Ala12Thr]), encoding barrier-to-autointegration factor 1 (BAF), as the molecular abnormality responsible for this Mendelian disorder. Functional analysis showed that fibroblasts from both patients have a dramatic reduction in BAF protein levels, indicating that the p.Ala12Thr mutation impairs protein stability. Furthermore, progeroid fibroblasts display profound abnormalities in the nuclear lamina, including blebs and abnormal distribution of emerin, an interaction partner of BAF. These nuclear abnormalities are rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type BANF1, providing evidence for the causal role of this mutation. These data demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing for identifying the cause of rare Mendelian disorders and underscore the importance of nuclear envelope alterations in human aging. PMID:21549337

Puente, Xose S; Quesada, Victor; Osorio, Fernando G; Cabanillas, Rubén; Cadiñanos, Juan; Fraile, Julia M; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Puente, Diana A; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Fanjul-Fernández, Miriam; Lévy, Nicolas; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

2011-05-13

145

Exome Sequencing and Functional Analysis Identifies BANF1 Mutation as the Cause of a Hereditary Progeroid Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Accelerated aging syndromes represent a valuable source of information about the molecular mechanisms involved in normal aging. Here, we describe a progeroid syndrome that partially phenocopies Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) but also exhibits distinctive features, including the absence of cardiovascular deficiencies characteristic of HGPS, the lack of mutations in LMNA and ZMPSTE24, and a relatively long lifespan of affected individuals. Exome sequencing and molecular analysis in two unrelated families allowed us to identify a homozygous mutation in BANF1 (c.34G>A [p.Ala12Thr]), encoding barrier-to-autointegration factor 1 (BAF), as the molecular abnormality responsible for this Mendelian disorder. Functional analysis showed that fibroblasts from both patients have a dramatic reduction in BAF protein levels, indicating that the p.Ala12Thr mutation impairs protein stability. Furthermore, progeroid fibroblasts display profound abnormalities in the nuclear lamina, including blebs and abnormal distribution of emerin, an interaction partner of BAF. These nuclear abnormalities are rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type BANF1, providing evidence for the causal role of this mutation. These data demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing for identifying the cause of rare Mendelian disorders and underscore the importance of nuclear envelope alterations in human aging.

Puente, Xose S.; Quesada, Victor; Osorio, Fernando G.; Cabanillas, Ruben; Cadinanos, Juan; Fraile, Julia M.; Ordonez, Gonzalo R.; Puente, Diana A.; Gutierrez-Fernandez, Ana; Fanjul-Fernandez, Miriam; Levy, Nicolas; Freije, Jose M.P.; Lopez-Otin, Carlos

2011-01-01

146

Mutations in NMNAT1 cause Leber congenital amaurosis and identify a new disease pathway for retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a blinding retinal disease that presents within the first year after birth. Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthase gene NMNAT1 encoding nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 in eight families with LCA, including the family in which LCA was originally linked to the LCA9 locus. Notably, all individuals with NMNAT1 mutations also have macular colobomas, which are severe degenerative entities of the central retina (fovea) devoid of tissue and photoreceptors. Functional assays of the proteins encoded by the mutant alleles identified in our study showed that the mutations reduce the enzymatic activity of NMNAT1 in NAD biosynthesis and affect protein folding. Of note, recent characterization of the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) mouse model, in which prolonged axonal survival after injury is observed, identified NMNAT1 as a neuroprotective protein when ectopically expressed. Our findings identify a new disease mechanism underlying LCA and provide the first link between endogenous NMNAT1 dysfunction and a human nervous system disorder.

Koenekoop, Robert K.; Wang, Hui; Majewski, Jacek; Wang, Xia; Lopez, Irma; Ren, Huanan; Chen, Yiyun; Li, Yumei; Fishman, Gerald A.; Genead, Mohammed; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Solanki, Naimesh; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Cheng, Jingliang; Logan, Clare V.; McKibbin, Martin; Hayward, Bruce E.; Parry, David A.; Johnson, Colin A.; Nageeb, Mohammed; Poulter, James A.; Mohamed, Moin D.; Jafri, Hussain; Rashid, Yasmin; Taylor, Graham R.; Keser, Vafa; Mardon, Graeme; Xu, Huidan; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Fu, Qing; Toomes, Carmel; Chen, Rui

2013-01-01

147

RNA-based mutation analysis identifies an unusual MSH6 splicing defect and circumvents PMS2 pseudogene interference.  

PubMed

Heterozygous germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome, a dominantly inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Recent reports provide evidence for a novel recessively inherited cancer syndrome with constitutive MMR deficiency due to biallelic germline mutations in one of the MMR genes. MMR-deficiency (MMR-D) syndrome is characterized by childhood brain tumors, hematological and/or gastrointestinal malignancies, and signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We established an RNA-based mutation detection assay for the four MMR genes, since 1) a number of splicing defects may escape detection by the analysis of genomic DNA, and 2) DNA-based mutation detection in the PMS2 gene is severely hampered by the presence of multiple highly similar pseudogenes, including PMS2CL. Using this assay, which is based on direct cDNA sequencing of RT-PCR products, we investigated two families with children suspected to suffer from MMR-D syndrome. We identified a homozygous complex MSH6 splicing alteration in the index patients of the first family and a novel homozygous PMS2 mutation (c.182delA) in the index patient of the second family. Furthermore, we demonstrate, by the analysis of a PMS2/PMS2CL "hybrid" allele carrier, that RNA-based PMS2 testing effectively avoids the caveats of genomic DNA amplification approaches; i.e., pseudogene coamplification as well as allelic dropout, and will, thus, allow more sensitive mutation analysis in MMR deficiency and in HNPCC patients with PMS2 defects. PMID:18030674

Etzler, J; Peyrl, A; Zatkova, A; Schildhaus, H-U; Ficek, A; Merkelbach-Bruse, S; Kratz, C P; Attarbaschi, A; Hainfellner, J A; Yao, S; Messiaen, L; Slavc, I; Wimmer, K

2008-02-01

148

Absence of IDH mutation identifies a novel radiologic and molecular subtype of WHO grade II gliomas with dismal prognosis.  

PubMed

The phenotypic heterogeneity of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is still inconsistently explained by known molecular abnormalities in patients treated according to the present standards of care. IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 sequencing was performed in a series of 47 LGGs and correlated with clinical presentation, MR imaging characteristics, genomic profile and outcome. A total of 38 IDH1 mutations at codon 132 and 2 IDH2 mutations at codon 172 were found, including 35 R132H (87.5%), 2 R132C (5.0%), 1 R132S (2.5%) and 2 R172 M (5%). The IDH mutations were significantly associated with 1p19q deleted genotype (P = 0.031) and p53 expression (P = 0.014). The presence (vs. absence) of IDH mutations was associated with a better outcome (5-year survival rate, 93% vs. 51%, respectively, P = 0.000001). After adjustment for age, tumor location and size, radiologic infiltration pattern and extent of surgery, multivariate analysis confirmed that IDH mutations was an independent favorable prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 40.9; 95% CI, 2.89-578.49, P = 0.006). Furthermore, we showed that patients with IDH-nonmutated tumors were significantly older (P = 0.020) and that these tumors involved significantly more frequently the insula (P = 0.004), were larger in size (>6 cm, P = 0.047), displayed an infiltrative pattern on MRI (P = 0.007) and were all p53 negative with no 1p19q deletion (P < 10??). The absence of IDH mutations in LGGs identifies a novel entity of LGGs with distinctive location, infiltrative behavior, specific molecular alterations, and dismal outcome. These findings could significantly modify the LGG classification and may represent a new tool to guide patient-tailored therapy. PMID:21080178

Metellus, Philippe; Coulibaly, Bema; Colin, Carole; de Paula, Andre Maues; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Taieb, David; Barlier, Anne; Boisselier, Blandine; Mokhtari, Karima; Wang, Xiao Wei; Loundou, Anderson; Chapon, Frederique; Pineau, Sandrine; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Chinot, Olivier; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

2010-12-01

149

Candidate exome capture identifies mutation of SDCCAG8 as the cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are recessive disorders that feature dysplasia or degeneration occurring preferentially in the kidney, retina and cerebellum. Here we combined homozygosity mapping with candidate gene analysis by performing 'ciliopathy candidate exome capture' followed by massively parallel sequencing. We identified 12 different truncating mutations of SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8, also known as CCCAP) in 10 families

Edgar A Otto; Toby W Hurd; Rannar Airik; Moumita Chaki; Weibin Zhou; Corinne Stoetzel; Suresh B Patil; Shawn Levy; Amiya K Ghosh; Carlos A Murga-Zamalloa; Jeroen van Reeuwijk; Stef J F Letteboer; Liyun Sang; Rachel H Giles; Qin Liu; Karlien L M Coene; Alejandro Estrada-Cuzcano; Rob W J Collin; Heather M McLaughlin; Susanne Held; Jennifer M Kasanuki; Gokul Ramaswami; Jinny Conte; Irma Lopez; Joseph Washburn; James MacDonald; Jinghua Hu; Yukiko Yamashita; Eamonn R Maher; Lisa M Guay-Woodford; Hartmut P H Neumann; Nicholas Obermüller; Robert K Koenekoop; Carsten Bergmann; Xiaoshu Bei; Richard A Lewis; Nicholas Katsanis; Vanda Lopes; David S Williams; Robert H Lyons; Chi V Dang; Daniela A Brito; Mónica Bettencourt Dias; Xinmin Zhang; James D Cavalcoli; Gudrun Nürnberg; Peter Nürnberg; Eric A Pierce; Peter K Jackson; Corinne Antignac; Sophie Saunier; Ronald Roepman; Helene Dollfus; Hemant Khanna; Friedhelm Hildebrandt

2010-01-01

150

Exome sequencing identifies a novel and a recurrent BBS1 mutation in Pakistani families with Bardet-Biedl syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the genetic cause of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) in two consanguineous Pakistani families. Methods Clinical characterization of the affected individuals in both families was performed with ophthalmic examination, electroretinography, electrocardiography, and liver and renal profiling. Seventeen genes are known to be associated with BBS, so exome sequencing was preferred over candidate gene sequencing. One affected individual from both families was selected for exome sequencing. Segregation of the identified variants was confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Results Retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, and learning difficulties were present in the affected individuals in both families. In family A, a sixth finger (polydactyly) of the proband’s sister was removed by a surgical operation leaving a scar on the little finger. Polydactyly was also present in both affected individuals from family B. All diagnostic symptoms were characteristic of BBS in both families. In both affected individuals from family A, exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.47+1G>T) in BBS1 that inactivates the splice donor site at the end of exon 1. In family B, a previously reported mutation, c.442G>A; p.(Asp148Asn), was detected. Conclusions Exome sequencing is an efficient and cost-effective technique for identifying mutations in genetically heterogeneous diseases. In addition, intrafamilial phenotypic variability in family A argues for the modifying effect of other still unknown modifier alleles.

Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Neveling, Kornelia; Tayyab, Ali; Jaffar, Sulman; Sadeque, Ahmed; Ayub, Humaira; Abbasi, Nasir Mahmood; Riaz, Moeen; Micheal, Shazia; Gilissen, Christian; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Azam, Maleeha; Collin, Rob W. J.; Cremers, Frans P. M.

2013-01-01

151

Mutation Detection of PKD1 Identifies a Novel Mutation Common to Three Families with Aneurysms and/or Very-Early-Onset Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary It is known that several of the most severe complications of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, such as intracranial aneurysms, cluster in families. There have been no studies reported to date, however, that have attempted to correlate severely affected pedigrees with a particular genotype. Until recently, in fact, mutation detection for most of the PKD1 gene was virtually impossible because of the presence of several highly homologous loci also located on chromosome 16. In this report we describe a cluster of 4 bp in exon 15 that are unique to PKD1. Forward and reverse PKD1-specific primers were designed in this location to amplify regions of the gene from exons 11–21 by use of long-range PCR. The two templates described were used to analyze 35 pedigrees selected for study because they included individuals with either intracranial aneurysms and/or very-early-onset disease. We identified eight novel truncating mutations, two missense mutations not found in a panel of controls, and several informative polymorphisms. Many of the polymorphisms were also present in the homologous loci, supporting the idea that they may serve as a reservoir for genetic variability in the PKD1 gene. Surprisingly, we found that three independently ascertained pedigrees had an identical 2-bp deletion in exon 15. This raises the possibility that particular genotypes may be associated with more-severe disease.

Watnick, Terry; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong; Johnson, Ann; Gandolph, Michael; Wang, Mei; Briefel, Gary; Klinger, Katherine W.; Kimberling, William; Gabow, Patricia; Germino, Gregory G.

1999-01-01

152

Massively Parallel DNA Sequencing Successfully Identifies New Causative Mutations in Deafness Genes in Patients with Cochlear Implantation and EAS  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors, the most common etiology in severe to profound hearing loss, are one of the key determinants of Cochlear Implantation (CI) and Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) outcomes. Satisfactory auditory performance after receiving a CI/EAS in patients with certain deafness gene mutations indicates that genetic testing would be helpful in predicting CI/EAS outcomes and deciding treatment choices. However, because of the extreme genetic heterogeneity of deafness, clinical application of genetic information still entails difficulties. Target exon sequencing using massively parallel DNA sequencing is a new powerful strategy to discover rare causative genes in Mendelian disorders such as deafness. We used massive sequencing of the exons of 58 target candidate genes to analyze 8 (4 early-onset, 4 late-onset) Japanese CI/EAS patients, who did not have mutations in commonly found genes including GJB2, SLC26A4, or mitochondrial 1555A>G or 3243A>G mutations. We successfully identified four rare causative mutations in the MYO15A, TECTA, TMPRSS3, and ACTG1 genes in four patients who showed relatively good auditory performance with CI including EAS, suggesting that genetic testing may be able to predict the performance after implantation.

Miyagawa, Maiko; Nishio, Shin-ya; Ikeda, Takuo; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Usami, Shin-ichi

2013-01-01

153

Use of the promoter fusion transposon Tn5 lac to identify mutations in Bordetella pertussis vir-regulated genes.  

PubMed

Mutants of Bordetella pertussis deficient in virulence-associated factors were identified by using the transposon Tn5 lac. Tn5 lac is a derivative of Tn5 which generates promoter fusions for beta-galactosidase. Tn5 lac insertions in the vir-regulated genes of B. pertussis were identified by selecting for kanamycin-resistant mutants that expressed beta-galactosidase when the vir-regulated genes were expressed but not when the vir-regulated genes were turned off. Fourteen different mutations in vir-regulated genes were identified. Two mutants were deficient in the production of the filamentous hemagglutinin, two mutants were deficient in the production of adenylate cyclase toxin and hemolysin, and one mutant was deficient in the production of dermonecrotic toxin. One insertion mapped adjacent to the pertussis toxin gene, but the mutant produced pertussis toxin. The phenotypes of the remaining eight mutants were not determined, but the mutants did not appear to be deficient in the production of the 69,000-dalton outer membrane protein (agglutinogen 3) or the capsule. Screening for mutations in either of the fimbrial genes proved to be problematic since the parental strain was found to switch from a fimbriated to a nonfimbriated state at a high frequency, which was suggestive of the metastable expression of pili in other bacteria. We used Southern blot analysis with a 30-mer specific for the fimbrial sequences. No bands with the predicted increase in size due to the 12 kilobases from Tn5 lac were observed, which suggests that none of these genes were mutated. Southern blot analysis also revealed that seven of the eight unidentified mutations mapped to different restriction fragments, which suggests that they could be deficient in as many as seven different genes. PMID:2569447

Weiss, A A; Melton, A R; Walker, K E; Andraos-Selim, C; Meidl, J J

1989-09-01

154

Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Two Novel BMP15 Mutations Responsible for an Atypical Hyperprolificacy Phenotype in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. Highly prolific ewes (cases) and normal prolific ewes (controls) from each breed were genotyped using the Illumina OvineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip. In both populations, an X chromosome region, close to the BMP15 gene, harbored clusters of markers with suggestive evidence of association at significance levels between 1E?05 and 1E?07. The BMP15 candidate gene was then sequenced, and two novel non-conservative mutations called FecXGr and FecXO were identified in the Grivette and Olkuska breeds, respectively. The two mutations were associated with the highly prolific phenotype (pFecXGr?=?5.98E?06 and pFecXO?=?2.55E?08). Homozygous ewes for the mutated allele showed a significantly increased prolificacy (FecXGr/FecXGr, LS?=?2.50±0.65 versus FecX+/FecXGr, LS?=?1.93±0.42, p<1E?03 and FecXO/FecXO, OR?=?3.28±0.85 versus FecX+/FecXO, OR?=?2.02±0.47, p<1E?03). Both mutations are located in very well conserved motifs of the protein and altered the BMP15 signaling activity in vitro using a BMP-responsive luciferase test in COV434 granulosa cells. Thus, we have identified two novel mutations in the BMP15 gene associated with increased LS and OR. Notably, homozygous FecXGr/FecXGr Grivette and homozygous FecXO/FecXO Olkuska ewes are hyperprolific in striking contrast with the sterility exhibited by all other known homozygous BMP15 mutations. Our results bring new insights into the key role played by the BMP15 protein in ovarian function and could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of women?s fertility disorders.

Demars, Julie; Fabre, Stephane; Sarry, Julien; Rossetti, Raffaella; Gilbert, Helene; Persani, Luca; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Mulsant, Philippe; Nowak, Zuzanna; Drobik, Wioleta; Martyniuk, Elzbieta; Bodin, Loys

2013-01-01

155

Integrated genomic analysis identifies recurrent mutations and evolution patterns driving the initiation and progression of follicular lymphoma.  

PubMed

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable malignancy, with transformation to an aggressive subtype representing a critical event during disease progression. Here we performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 10 follicular lymphoma-transformed follicular lymphoma pairs followed by deep sequencing of 28 genes in an extension cohort, and we report the key events and evolutionary processes governing tumor initiation and transformation. Tumor evolution occurred through either a 'rich' or 'sparse' ancestral common progenitor clone (CPC). We identified recurrent mutations in linker histone, JAK-STAT signaling, NF-?B signaling and B cell developmental genes. Longitudinal analyses identified early driver mutations in chromatin regulator genes (CREBBP, EZH2 and KMT2D (MLL2)), whereas mutations in EBF1 and regulators of NF-?B signaling (MYD88 and TNFAIP3) were gained at transformation. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the genetic basis of follicular lymphoma and the clonal dynamics of transformation and suggests that personalizing therapies to target key genetic alterations in the CPC represents an attractive therapeutic strategy. PMID:24362818

Okosun, Jessica; Bödör, Csaba; Wang, Jun; Araf, Shamzah; Yang, Cheng-Yuan; Pan, Chenyi; Boller, Sören; Cittaro, Davide; Bozek, Monika; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Wrench, David; Marzec, Jacek; Tawana, Kiran; Popov, Nikolay; O'Riain, Ciaran; O'Shea, Derville; Carlotti, Emanuela; Davies, Andrew; Lawrie, Charles H; Matolcsy, András; Calaminici, Maria; Norton, Andrew; Byers, Richard J; Mein, Charles; Stupka, Elia; Lister, T Andrew; Lenz, Georg; Montoto, Silvia; Gribben, John G; Fan, Yuhong; Grosschedl, Rudolf; Chelala, Claude; Fitzgibbon, Jude

2014-02-01

156

Mutations in PRDM5 in brittle cornea syndrome identify a pathway regulating extracellular matrix development and maintenance.  

PubMed

Extreme corneal fragility and thinning, which have a high risk of catastrophic spontaneous rupture, are the cardinal features of brittle cornea syndrome (BCS), an autosomal-recessive generalized connective tissue disorder. Enucleation is frequently the only management option for this condition, resulting in blindness and psychosocial distress. Even when the cornea remains grossly intact, visual function could also be impaired by a high degree of myopia and keratoconus. Deafness is another common feature and results in combined sensory deprivation. Using autozygosity mapping, we identified mutations in PRDM5 in families with BCS. We demonstrate that regulation of expression of extracellular matrix components, particularly fibrillar collagens, by PRDM5 is a key molecular mechanism that underlies corneal fragility in BCS and controls normal corneal development and maintenance. ZNF469, encoding a zinc finger protein of hitherto undefined function, has been identified as a quantitative trait locus for central corneal thickness, and mutations in this gene have been demonstrated in Tunisian Jewish and Palestinian kindreds with BCS. We show that ZNF469 and PRDM5, two genes that when mutated cause BCS, participate in the same regulatory pathway. PMID:21664999

Burkitt Wright, Emma M M; Spencer, Helen L; Daly, Sarah B; Manson, Forbes D C; Zeef, Leo A H; Urquhart, Jill; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Bonshek, Richard; Tosounidis, Ioannis; Mohan, Meyyammai; Madden, Colm; Dodds, Annabel; Chandler, Kate E; Banka, Siddharth; Au, Leon; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Khan, Naz; Biesecker, Leslie G; Wilson, Meredith; Rohrbach, Marianne; Colombi, Marina; Giunta, Cecilia; Black, Graeme C M

2011-06-10

157

Exome Sequencing Identifies Compound Heterozygous Mutations in CYP4V2 in a Pedigree with Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of progressive retinal degenerations characterized by pigmentation and atrophy in the mid-periphery of the retina. Twenty two subjects from a four-generation Chinese family with RP and thin cornea, congenital cataract and high myopia is reported in this study. All family members underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Patients of the family presented with bone spicule-shaped pigment deposits in retina, retinal vascular attenuation, retinal and choroidal dystrophy, as well as punctate opacity of the lens, reduced cornea thickness and high myopia. Peripheral venous blood was obtained from all patients and their family members for genetic analysis. After mutation analysis in a few known RP candidate genes, exome sequencing was used to analyze the exomes of 3 patients III2, III4, III6 and the unaffected mother II2. A total of 34,693 variations shared by 3 patients were subjected to several filtering steps against existing variation databases. Identified variations were verified in the rest family members by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Compound heterozygous c.802-8_810del17insGC and c.1091-2A>G mutations of the CYP4V2 gene, known as genetic defects for Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy, were identified as causative mutations for RP of this family.

Yang, Qiaona; Yu, Wenhan; Yan, Naihong; Zhou, Xiaomin; Fu, Jin; Guo, Xinwu; Han, Pengfei; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xuyang

2012-01-01

158

Erythrocyte Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation identified in multiple breeds of domestic cats  

PubMed Central

Background Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK deficiency) is an inherited hemolytic anemia that has been documented in the Abyssinian and Somali breeds as well as random bred domestic shorthair cats. The disease results from mutations in PKLR, the gene encoding the regulatory glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK). Multiple isozymes are produced by tissue-specific differential processing of PKLR mRNA. Perturbation of PK decreases erythrocyte longevity resulting in anemia. Additional signs include: severe lethargy, weakness, weight loss, jaundice, and abdominal enlargement. In domestic cats, PK deficiency has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance with high variability in onset and severity of clinical symptoms. Results Sequence analysis of PKLR revealed an intron 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 304 concordant with the disease phenotype in Abyssinian and Somali cats. Located 53 nucleotides upstream of the exon 6 splice site, cats with this SNP produce liver and blood processed mRNA with a 13 bp deletion at the 3’ end of exon 5. The frame-shift mutation creates a stop codon at amino acid position 248 in exon 6. The frequency of the intronic SNP in 14,179 American and European cats representing 38 breeds, 76 western random bred cats and 111 cats of unknown breed is 6.31% and 9.35% when restricted to the 15 groups carrying the concordant SNP. Conclusions PK testing is recommended for Bengals, Egyptian Maus, La Perms, Maine Coon cats, Norwegian Forest cats, Savannahs, Siberians, and Singapuras, in addition to Abyssinians and Somalis as well an any new breeds using the afore mentioned breeds in out crossing or development programs.

2012-01-01

159

Assessment of canine BEST1 variations identifies new mutations and establishes an independent bestrophinopathy model (cmr3)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Mutations in bestrophin 1 (BEST1) are associated with a group of retinal disorders known as bestrophinopathies in man and canine multifocal retinopathies (cmr) in the dog. To date, the dog is the only large animal model suitable for the complex characterization and in-depth studies of Best-related disorders. In the first report of cmr, the disease was described in a group of mastiff-related breeds (cmr1) and the Coton de Tulear (cmr2). Additional breeds, e.g., the Lapponian herder (LH) and others, subsequently were recognized with similar phenotypes, but linked loci are unknown. Analysis of the BEST1 gene aimed to identify mutations in these additional populations and extend our understanding of genotype–phenotype associations. Methods Animals were subjected to routine eye exams, phenotypically characterized, and samples were collected for molecular studies. Known BEST1 mutations were assessed, and the canine BEST1 coding exons were amplified and sequenced in selected individuals that exhibited a cmr compatible phenotype but that did not carry known mutations. Resulting sequence changes were genotyped in several different breeds and evaluated in the context of the phenotype. Results Seven novel coding variants were identified in exon 10 of cBEST1. Two linked mutations were associated with cmr exclusive to the LH breed (cmr3). Two individuals of Jämthund and Norfolk terrier breeds were heterozygous for two conservative changes, but these were unlikely to have disease-causing potential. Another three substitutions were found in the Bernese mountain dog that were predicted to have a deleterious effect on protein function. Previously reported mutations were excluded from segregation in these populations, but cmr1 was confirmed in another mastiff-related breed, the Italian cane corso. Conclusions A third independent canine model for human bestrophinopathies has been established in the LH breed. While exhibiting a phenotype comparable to cmr1 and cmr2, the novel cmr3 mutation is predicted to be based on a distinctly different molecular mechanism. So far cmr2 and cmr3 are exclusive to a single dog breed each. In contrast, cmr1 is found in multiple related breeds. Additional sequence alterations identified in exon 10 of cBEST1 in other breeds exhibit potential disease-causing features. The inherent genetic and phenotypic variation observed with retinal disorders in canines is complicated further by cmr3 being one of four distinct genetic retinal traits found to segregate in LH. Thus, a combination of phenotypic, molecular, and population analysis is required to establish a strong phenotype–genotype association. These results indicate that cmr has a larger impact on the general dog population than was initially suspected. The complexity of these models further confirms the similarity to human bestrophinopathies. Moreover, analyses of multiple canine models will provide additional insight into the molecular basis underlying diseases caused by mutations in BEST1.

Wickstrom, Kaisa; Slavik, Julianna; Lindauer, Sarah J.; Ahonen, Saija; Schelling, Claude; Lohi, Hannes; Guziewicz, Karina E.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

2010-01-01

160

Analysis of 30 putative BRCA1 splicing mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families identifies exonic splice site mutations that escape in silico prediction.  

PubMed

Screening for pathogenic mutations in breast and ovarian cancer genes such as BRCA1/2, CHEK2 and RAD51C is common practice for individuals from high-risk families. However, test results may be ambiguous due to the presence of unclassified variants (UCV) in the concurrent absence of clearly cancer-predisposing mutations. Especially the presence of intronic or exonic variants within these genes that possibly affect proper pre-mRNA processing poses a challenge as their functional implications are not immediately apparent. Therefore, it appears necessary to characterize potential splicing UCV and to develop appropriate classification tools. We investigated 30 distinct BRCA1 variants, both intronic and exonic, regarding their spliceogenic potential by commonly used in silico prediction algorithms (HSF, MaxEntScan) along with in vitro transcript analyses. A total of 25 variants were identified spliceogenic, either causing/enhancing exon skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites, or both. Except from a single intronic variant causing minor effects on BRCA1 pre-mRNA processing in our analyses, 23 out of 24 intronic variants were correctly predicted by MaxEntScan, while HSF was less accurate in this cohort. Among the 6 exonic variants analyzed, 4 severely impair correct pre-mRNA processing, while the remaining two have partial effects. In contrast to the intronic alterations investigated, only half of the spliceogenic exonic variants were correctly predicted by HSF and/or MaxEntScan. These data support the idea that exonic splicing mutations are commonly disease-causing and concurrently prone to escape in silico prediction, hence necessitating experimental in vitro splicing analysis. PMID:23239986

Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Becker, Alexandra A; Hauke, Jan; Weber, Ute; Engert, Stefanie; Köhler, Juliane; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Rhiem, Kerstin; Hahnen, Eric; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K

2012-01-01

161

Analysis of 30 Putative BRCA1 Splicing Mutations in Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Families Identifies Exonic Splice Site Mutations That Escape In Silico Prediction  

PubMed Central

Screening for pathogenic mutations in breast and ovarian cancer genes such as BRCA1/2, CHEK2 and RAD51C is common practice for individuals from high-risk families. However, test results may be ambiguous due to the presence of unclassified variants (UCV) in the concurrent absence of clearly cancer-predisposing mutations. Especially the presence of intronic or exonic variants within these genes that possibly affect proper pre-mRNA processing poses a challenge as their functional implications are not immediately apparent. Therefore, it appears necessary to characterize potential splicing UCV and to develop appropriate classification tools. We investigated 30 distinct BRCA1 variants, both intronic and exonic, regarding their spliceogenic potential by commonly used in silico prediction algorithms (HSF, MaxEntScan) along with in vitro transcript analyses. A total of 25 variants were identified spliceogenic, either causing/enhancing exon skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites, or both. Except from a single intronic variant causing minor effects on BRCA1 pre-mRNA processing in our analyses, 23 out of 24 intronic variants were correctly predicted by MaxEntScan, while HSF was less accurate in this cohort. Among the 6 exonic variants analyzed, 4 severely impair correct pre-mRNA processing, while the remaining two have partial effects. In contrast to the intronic alterations investigated, only half of the spliceogenic exonic variants were correctly predicted by HSF and/or MaxEntScan. These data support the idea that exonic splicing mutations are commonly disease-causing and concurrently prone to escape in silico prediction, hence necessitating experimental in vitro splicing analysis.

Hauke, Jan; Weber, Ute; Engert, Stefanie; Kohler, Juliane; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Rhiem, Kerstin; Hahnen, Eric; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.

2012-01-01

162

Whole-Exome Capture and Sequencing Identifies HEATR2 Mutation as a Cause of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

Motile cilia are essential components of the mucociliary escalator and are central to respiratory-tract host defenses. Abnormalities in these evolutionarily conserved organelles cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Despite recent strides characterizing the ciliome and sensory ciliopathies through exploration of the phenotype-genotype associations in model organisms, the genetic bases of most cases of PCD remain elusive. We identified nine related subjects with PCD from geographically dispersed Amish communities and performed exome sequencing of two affected individuals and their unaffected parents. A single autosomal-recessive nonsynonymous missense mutation was identified in HEATR2, an uncharacterized gene that belongs to a family not previously associated with ciliary assembly or function. Airway epithelial cells isolated from PCD-affected individuals had markedly reduced HEATR2 levels, absent dynein arms, and loss of ciliary beating. MicroRNA-mediated silencing of the orthologous gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resulted in absent outer dynein arms, reduced flagellar beat frequency, and decreased cell velocity. These findings were recapitulated by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of HEATR2 in airway epithelial cells from unaffected donors. Moreover, immunohistochemistry studies in human airway epithelial cells showed that HEATR2 was localized to the cytoplasm and not in cilia, which suggests a role in either dynein arm transport or assembly. The identification of HEATR2 contributes to the growing number of genes associated with PCD identified in both individuals and model organisms and shows that exome sequencing in family studies facilitates the discovery of novel disease-causing gene mutations.

Horani, Amjad; Druley, Todd E.; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Patel, Anand C.; Levinson, Benjamin T.; Van Arendonk, Laura G.; Thornton, Katherine C.; Giacalone, Joe C.; Albee, Alison J.; Wilson, Kate S.; Turner, Emily H.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Shendure, Jay; Bayly, Philip V.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Knowles, Michael R.; Brody, Steven L.; Dutcher, Susan K.; Ferkol, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

163

Whole-exome capture and sequencing identifies HEATR2 mutation as a cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia.  

PubMed

Motile cilia are essential components of the mucociliary escalator and are central to respiratory-tract host defenses. Abnormalities in these evolutionarily conserved organelles cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Despite recent strides characterizing the ciliome and sensory ciliopathies through exploration of the phenotype-genotype associations in model organisms, the genetic bases of most cases of PCD remain elusive. We identified nine related subjects with PCD from geographically dispersed Amish communities and performed exome sequencing of two affected individuals and their unaffected parents. A single autosomal-recessive nonsynonymous missense mutation was identified in HEATR2, an uncharacterized gene that belongs to a family not previously associated with ciliary assembly or function. Airway epithelial cells isolated from PCD-affected individuals had markedly reduced HEATR2 levels, absent dynein arms, and loss of ciliary beating. MicroRNA-mediated silencing of the orthologous gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resulted in absent outer dynein arms, reduced flagellar beat frequency, and decreased cell velocity. These findings were recapitulated by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of HEATR2 in airway epithelial cells from unaffected donors. Moreover, immunohistochemistry studies in human airway epithelial cells showed that HEATR2 was localized to the cytoplasm and not in cilia, which suggests a role in either dynein arm transport or assembly. The identification of HEATR2 contributes to the growing number of genes associated with PCD identified in both individuals and model organisms and shows that exome sequencing in family studies facilitates the discovery of novel disease-causing gene mutations. PMID:23040496

Horani, Amjad; Druley, Todd E; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Patel, Anand C; Levinson, Benjamin T; Van Arendonk, Laura G; Thornton, Katherine C; Giacalone, Joe C; Albee, Alison J; Wilson, Kate S; Turner, Emily H; Nickerson, Deborah A; Shendure, Jay; Bayly, Philip V; Leigh, Margaret W; Knowles, Michael R; Brody, Steven L; Dutcher, Susan K; Ferkol, Thomas W

2012-10-01

164

Splicing analysis of unclassified variants in COL2A1 and COL11A1 identifies deep intronic pathogenic mutations  

PubMed Central

UK NHS diagnostic service sequence analysis of genes generally examines and reports on variations within a designated region 5? and 3? of each exon, typically 30?bp up and downstream. However, because of the degenerate nature of the splice sites, intronic variants outside the AG and GT dinucleotides of the acceptor and donor splice sites (ASS and DSS) are most often classified as being of unknown clinical significance, unless there is some functional evidence of their pathogenicity. It is now becoming clear that mutations deep within introns can also interfere with normal processing of pre-mRNA and result in pathogenic effects on the mature transcript. In diagnostic laboratories, these deep intronic variants most often fall outside of the regions analysed and so are rarely reported. With the likelihood that next generation sequencing will identify more of these unclassified variants, it will become important to perform additional studies to determine the pathogenicity of such sequence anomalies. Here, we analyse variants detected in either COL2A1 or COL11A1 in patients with Stickler syndrome. These have been analysed both in silico and functionally using either RNA isolated from the patient's cells or, more commonly, minigenes as splicing reporters. We show that deep intronic mutations are not a rare occurrence, including one variant that results in multiple transcripts, where both de novo donor and ASS are created by the mutation. Another variant produces transcripts that result in either haploinsufficiency or a dominant negative effect, potentially modifying the disease phenotype.

Richards, Allan J; McNinch, Annie; Whittaker, Joanne; Treacy, Becky; Oakhill, Kim; Poulson, Arabella; Snead, Martin P

2012-01-01

165

Recurrent mutation of the ID3 gene in Burkitt lymphoma identified by integrated genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing.  

PubMed

Burkitt lymphoma is a mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells. Its cytogenetic hallmark is the Burkitt translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants, which juxtapose the MYC oncogene with one of the three immunoglobulin loci. Consequently, MYC is deregulated, resulting in massive perturbation of gene expression. Nevertheless, MYC deregulation alone seems not to be sufficient to drive Burkitt lymphomagenesis. By whole-genome, whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of four prototypical Burkitt lymphomas with immunoglobulin gene (IG)-MYC translocation, we identified seven recurrently mutated genes. One of these genes, ID3, mapped to a region of focal homozygous loss in Burkitt lymphoma. In an extended cohort, 36 of 53 molecularly defined Burkitt lymphomas (68%) carried potentially damaging mutations of ID3. These were strongly enriched at somatic hypermutation motifs. Only 6 of 47 other B-cell lymphomas with the IG-MYC translocation (13%) carried ID3 mutations. These findings suggest that cooperation between ID3 inactivation and IG-MYC translocation is a hallmark of Burkitt lymphomagenesis. PMID:23143595

Richter, Julia; Schlesner, Matthias; Hoffmann, Steve; Kreuz, Markus; Leich, Ellen; Burkhardt, Birgit; Rosolowski, Maciej; Ammerpohl, Ole; Wagener, Rabea; Bernhart, Stephan H; Lenze, Dido; Szczepanowski, Monika; Paulsen, Maren; Lipinski, Simone; Russell, Robert B; Adam-Klages, Sabine; Apic, Gordana; Claviez, Alexander; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hovestadt, Volker; Hornig, Nadine; Korbel, Jan O; Kube, Dieter; Langenberger, David; Lawerenz, Chris; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Meyer, Katharina; Picelli, Simone; Pischimarov, Jordan; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Rausch, Tobias; Rohde, Marius; Schilhabel, Markus; Scholtysik, René; Spang, Rainer; Trautmann, Heiko; Zenz, Thorsten; Borkhardt, Arndt; Drexler, Hans G; Möller, Peter; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Pott, Christiane; Schreiber, Stefan; Trümper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Stadler, Peter F; Lichter, Peter; Eils, Roland; Küppers, Ralf; Hummel, Michael; Klapper, Wolfram; Rosenstiel, Philip; Rosenwald, Andreas; Brors, Benedikt; Siebert, Reiner

2012-12-01

166

Characterization of SH2D1A missense mutations identified in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease patients.  

PubMed

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by extreme susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. The XLP disease gene product SH2D1A (SAP) interacts via its SH2 domain with a motif (TIYXXV) present in the cytoplasmic tail of the cell-surface receptors CD150/SLAM, CD84, CD229/Ly-9, and CD244/2B4. Characteristically, the SH2D1A three-pronged interaction with Tyr(281) of CD150 can occur in absence of phosphorylation. Here we analyze the effect of SH2D1A protein missense mutations identified in 10 XLP families. Two sets of mutants were found: (i) mutants with a marked decreased protein half-life (e.g. Y7C, S28R, Q99P, P101L, V102G, and X129R) and (ii) mutants with structural changes that differently affect the interaction with the four receptors. In the second group, mutations that disrupt the interaction between the SH2D1A hydrophobic cleft and Val +3 of its binding motif (e.g. T68I) and mutations that interfere with the SH2D1A phosphotyrosine-binding pocket (e.g. C42W) abrogated SH2D1A binding to all four receptors. Surprisingly, a mutation in SH2D1A able to interfere with Thr -2 of the CD150 binding motif (mutant T53I) severely impaired non-phosphotyrosine interactions while preserving unaffected the binding of SH2D1A to phosphorylated CD150. Mutant T53I, however, did not bind to CD229 and CD224, suggesting that SH2D1A controls several critical signaling pathways in T and natural killer cells. Because no correlation is present between identified types of mutations and XLP patient clinical presentation, additional unidentified genetic or environmental factors must play a strong role in XLP disease manifestations. PMID:11477068

Morra, M; Simarro-Grande, M; Martin, M; Chen, A S; Lanyi, A; Silander, O; Calpe, S; Davis, J; Pawson, T; Eck, M J; Sumegi, J; Engel, P; Li, S C; Terhorst, C

2001-09-28

167

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies LRIT3 Mutations as a Cause of Autosomal-Recessive Complete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness  

PubMed Central

Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder. Two forms can be distinguished clinically: complete CSNB (cCSNB) and incomplete CSNB. Individuals with cCSNB have visual impairment under low-light conditions and show a characteristic electroretinogram (ERG). The b-wave amplitude is severely reduced in the dark-adapted state of the ERG, representing abnormal function of ON bipolar cells. Furthermore, individuals with cCSNB can show other ocular features such as nystagmus, myopia, and strabismus and can have reduced visual acuity and abnormalities of the cone ERG waveform. The mode of inheritance of this form can be X-linked or autosomal recessive, and the dysfunction of four genes (NYX, GRM6, TRPM1, and GPR179) has been described so far. Whole-exome sequencing in one simplex cCSNB case lacking mutations in the known genes led to the identification of a missense mutation (c.983G>A [p.Cys328Tyr]) and a nonsense mutation (c.1318C>T [p.Arg440?]) in LRIT3, encoding leucine-rich-repeat (LRR), immunoglobulin-like, and transmembrane-domain 3 (LRIT3). Subsequent Sanger sequencing of 89 individuals with CSNB identified another cCSNB case harboring a nonsense mutation (c.1151C>G [p.Ser384?]) and a deletion predicted to lead to a premature stop codon (c.1538_1539del [p.Ser513Cysfs?59]) in the same gene. Human LRIT3 antibody staining revealed in the outer plexiform layer of the human retina a punctate-labeling pattern resembling the dendritic tips of bipolar cells; similar patterns have been observed for other proteins implicated in cCSNB. The exact role of this LRR protein in cCSNB remains to be elucidated.

Zeitz, Christina; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Hamel, Christian P.; Bujakowska, Kinga; Neuille, Marion; Orhan, Elise; Zanlonghi, Xavier; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Michiels, Christelle; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Bocquet, Beatrice; Antonio, Aline; Audier, Claire; Letexier, Melanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Luu, Tien D.; Sennlaub, Florian; Nguyen, Hoan; Poch, Olivier; Dollfus, Helene; Lecompte, Odile; Kohl, Susanne; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Audo, Isabelle

2013-01-01

168

Jejunal Cancer with WRN Mutation Identified from Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Study and Minireview  

PubMed Central

Small bowel cancer is a rare, gastrointestinal cancer originating from the small intestines. Carcinogenesis in the jejunum, the middle segment of the small intestines, occurs less commonly than in the duodenum and ileum. Despite the increasing incidences globally, the cancer is still poorly understood, which includes lack of pathological understanding and etiological reasoning, as it seems to exhibit both similarities and differences with other types of cancers. A 76-year-old Asian man was presented with abdominal pain, which was later attributed to an adenocarcinoma in the jejunum. Initial immunoreactive staining results found no connections to colorectal cancer. The microsatellite instability test was further examined by immunohistochemistry which revealed them to be wild-type. From our exome-capture sequencing results, mutations of WRN may be important as they represent the only genetic defect in this jejunal cancer. The patient has since undergone surgical resection of his cancer and is currently being treated with chemotherapy. The pathology, genomic markers, and treatments are described along with literature review.

Chang, Christopher; Shiah, Her-Shyong; Hsu, Nan-Yung; Huang, Hsiu-Ying; Chu, Jan-Show; Yen, Yun

2014-01-01

169

The Barley Mutant emr1 was Identified in a Mutational Screen for Resistance Against Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Barley plants can be colonized by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a pathogen initially known from rice plant cultivation. A mutational screen was performed in the barley mlo-genetic background which is, in comparison to wild-type MLO-genotypes, hypersusceptible against this fungus. This led to the identification of a mutant, referred to as emr1 (enhanced Magnaporthe resistance), that showed partially restored resistance. Disease symptoms on leaves of emr1 were significantly less severe than on mlo5-genotypes but still more than on wt MLO-barley plants. Segregation analysis showed that emr1 was inherited as a single recessive trait. Insight into the mode of action of emr1-dependent resistance against M. oryzae was gained by microscopic analysis. The results of these experiments revealed that mutant emr1 blocked penetration by M. oryzae by the formation of effective papillae in approximately half of all incidences. At about 30% of the interaction sites fungal growth was arrested effectively by an HR in the epidermal cell. Only a low frequency of fungal infection sites proceed into the mesophyll where fungal invasion resulted in the onset of a hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. Here, we report further evidence that barley shows a mesophyll HR in response to colonisation by M. oryzae. The possibility that the fungus turns this ostensible defence reaction to its own advantage and profits from the dead host tissue by switching to a necrotrophic lifestyle is discussed.

Jansen, Marcus

2007-01-01

170

Identifying disease mutations in genomic medicine settings: current challenges and how to accelerate progress  

PubMed Central

The pace of exome and genome sequencing is accelerating, with the identification of many new disease-causing mutations in research settings, and it is likely that whole exome or genome sequencing could have a major impact in the clinical arena in the relatively near future. However, the human genomics community is currently facing several challenges, including phenotyping, sample collection, sequencing strategies, bioinformatics analysis, biological validation of variant function, clinical interpretation and validity of variant data, and delivery of genomic information to various constituents. Here we review these challenges and summarize the bottlenecks for the clinical application of exome and genome sequencing, and we discuss ways for moving the field forward. In particular, we urge the need for clinical-grade sample collection, high-quality sequencing data acquisition, digitalized phenotyping, rigorous generation of variant calls, and comprehensive functional annotation of variants. Additionally, we suggest that a 'networking of science' model that encourages much more collaboration and online sharing of medical history, genomic data and biological knowledge, including among research participants and consumers/patients, will help establish causation and penetrance for disease causal variants and genes. As we enter this new era of genomic medicine, we envision that consumer-driven and consumer-oriented efforts will take center stage, thus allowing insights from the human genome project to translate directly back into individualized medicine.

2012-01-01

171

Analysis of hyperekplexia mutations identifies transmembrane domain rearrangements that mediate glycine receptor activation.  

PubMed

Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate numerous physiological processes and are therapeutic targets for a wide range of clinical indications. Elucidating the structural differences between their closed and open states may help in designing improved drugs that bias receptors toward the desired conformational state. We recently showed that two new hyperekplexia mutations, Q226E and V280M, induced spontaneous activity in ?1 glycine receptors. Gln-226, located near the top of transmembrane (TM) 1, is closely apposed to Arg-271 at the top of TM2 in the neighboring subunit. Using mutant cycle analysis, we inferred that Q226E induces activation via an enhanced electrostatic attraction to Arg-271. This would tilt the top of TM2 toward TM1 and hence away from the pore axis to open the channel. We also concluded that the increased side chain volume of V280M, in the TM2-TM3 loop, exerts a steric repulsion against Ile-225 at the top of TM1 in the neighboring subunit. We infer that this steric repulsion would tilt the top of TM3 radially outwards against the stationary TM1 and thus provide space for TM2 to relax away from the pore axis to create an open channel. Because the transmembrane domain movements inferred from this functional analysis are consistent with the structural differences evident in the x-ray atomic structures of closed and open state bacterial pLGICs, we propyose that the model of pLGIC activation as outlined here may be broadly applicable across the eukaryotic pLGIC receptor family. PMID:24097980

Bode, Anna; Lynch, Joseph W

2013-11-22

172

Integrated analysis of somatic mutations and focal copy-number changes identifies key genes and pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. High-resolution copy number analysis of 125 tumors of which 24 were subjected to whole-exome sequencing identified 135 homozygous deletions and 994 somatic gene mutations with predicted functional consequences. We identified new recurrent alterations in 6 genes (ARID1A, RPS6KA3, NFE2L2, IRF2, CDH8 and PROKR2) not previously described in HCC. Functional analyses demonstrated tumor suppressor properties for IRF2 whose inactivation, exclusively found in hepatitis B virus related tumors, leads to impaired TP53 function. Alternatively, inactivation of proteins involved in chromatin remodeling was frequent and predominant in alcohol related tumors. Moreover, activation of the oxidative stress metabolism and inactivation of RPS6KA3 were new pathways associated with WNT/?-catenin activation, thereby suggesting a cooperative effect in tumorigenesis. This study shows the dramatic somatic genetic diversity in HCC, it reveals interactions between oncogene and tumor suppressor gene mutations markedly related to specific risk factors.

Guichard, Cecile; Amaddeo, Giuliana; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Ladeiro, Yannick; Pelletier, Laura; Maad, Ichrafe Ben; Calderaro, Julien; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Letexier, Melanie; Degos, Francoise; Clement, Bruno; Balabaud, Charles; Chevet, Eric; Laurent, Alexis; Couchy, Gabrielle; Letouze, Eric; Calvo, Fabien; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

2012-01-01

173

Multiphasic analysis of whole exome sequencing data identifies a novel mutation of ACTG1 in a nonsyndromic hearing loss family  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic heterogeneity of sensorineural hearing loss is a major hurdle to the efficient discovery of disease-causing genes. We designed a multiphasic analysis of copy number variation (CNV), linkage, and single nucleotide variation (SNV) of whole exome sequencing (WES) data for the efficient discovery of mutations causing nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). Results From WES data, we identified five distinct CNV loci from a NSHL family, but they were not co-segregated among patients. Linkage analysis based on SNVs identified six candidate loci (logarithm of odds [LOD] >1.5). We selected 15 SNVs that co-segregated with NSHL in the family, which were located in six linkage candidate loci. Finally, the novel variant p.M305T in ACTG1 (DFNA20/26) was selected as a disease-causing variant. Conclusions Here, we present a multiphasic CNV, linkage, and SNV analysis of WES data for the identification of a candidate mutation causing NSHL. Our stepwise, multiphasic approach enabled us to expedite the discovery of disease-causing variants from a large number of patient variants.

2013-01-01

174

Mutation in KERA Identified by Linkage Analysis and Targeted Resequencing in a Pedigree with Premature Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Aims Genetic factors explain a proportion of the inter-individual variation in the risk for atherosclerotic events, but the genetic basis of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis in families with Mendelian forms of premature atherosclerosis is incompletely understood. We set out to unravel the molecular pathology in a large kindred with an autosomal dominant inherited form of premature atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Parametric linkage analysis was performed in a pedigree comprising 4 generations, of which a total of 11 members suffered from premature vascular events. A parametric LOD-score of 3.31 was observed for a 4.4 Mb interval on chromosome 12. Upon sequencing, a non-synonymous variant in KERA (c.920C>G; p.Ser307Cys) was identified. The variant was absent from nearly 28,000 individuals, including 2,571 patients with premature atherosclerosis. KERA, a proteoglycan protein, was expressed in lipid-rich areas of human atherosclerotic lesions, but not in healthy arterial specimens. Moreover, KERA expression in plaques was significantly associated with plaque size in a carotid-collar Apoe?/? mice (r2?=?0.69; p<0.0001). Conclusion A rare variant in KERA was identified in a large kindred with premature atherosclerosis. The identification of KERA in atherosclerotic plaque specimen in humans and mice lends support to its potential role in atherosclerosis.

van Capelleveen, Julian C.; Bot, Ilze; de Jager, Saskia C.; van Eck, Miranda; Jolley, Jennifer; Kuiper, Johan; Stephens, Jonathon; Albers, Cornelius A.; Vosmeer, C. Ruben; Kruize, Heleen; Geerke, Daan P.; van der Wal, Allard C.; van der Loos, Chris M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Trip, Mieke D.

2014-01-01

175

Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency: a catalogue of LPL gene mutations identified in 20 patients from the UK, Sweden, and Italy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify mutations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in 20 unrelated patients with familial lipoprotein deficiency (FLLD) and to investigate the genotype/phenotype relationship. The previously reported G188E mutation (Monsalve et al., J Clin Invest 86:728-734, 1990) was screened for and found to be present in seven individuals (12/40 alleles). In addition, three patients were heterozygous for the 2.0 kb insertion (Langlois et al., Proc Nalt Acad Sci US 86:948-952, 1989). Two approaches were taken for new mutation detection; single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing to identify micro-mutations in the proximal promoter and exons 1-9 of the LPL gene and Southern blotting to identify gross mutations. Ten different point mutations were found (W86G, A158T, H183Q, G188E, S193R, P207L, L252X, N291S, M301T, L303P). Additionally, a two nucleotide deletion in exon 6 (delta1006-1007), a six nucleotide deletion in exon 8 (delta1441-1447), and a silent substitution in the wobble position of codon E118 were identified. In vitro mutagenesis and expression in COS-B cells suggested that the A158T and S193R substitutions virtually abolished enzyme activity. In analysing the genotype/phenotype relationship, there was no strong association between age at diagnosis, severity of symptoms, lipid levels, and the nature/position of the mutation. Triglyceride levels, however, were higher in compound heterozygotes compared to true homozygotes, possibly reflecting increased instability of heterodimers. Overall, 29 of 40 (72.5%) mutant alleles were identified. Failure to identify the mutation in 11 alleles might reflect the inadequacy of the method or the possibility that mutations lie within regions of the gene not screened in the study because of lack of availability of sequence. PMID:9401010

Mailly, F; Palmen, J; Muller, D P; Gibbs, T; Lloyd, J; Brunzell, J; Durrington, P; Mitropoulos, K; Betteridge, J; Watts, G; Lithell, H; Angelico, F; Humphries, S E; Talmud, P J

1997-01-01

176

Transcriptional Profile Analysis of RPGRORF15 Frameshift Mutation Identifies Novel Genes Associated with Retinal Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To identify genes and molecular mechanisms associated with photoreceptor degeneration in a canine model of XLRP caused by an RPGR exon ORF15 microdeletion. Methods. Expression profiles of mutant and normal retinas were compared by using canine retinal custom cDNA microarrays. qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were applied to selected genes, to confirm and expand the microarray results. Results. At 7 and 16 weeks, respectively, 56 and 18 transcripts were downregulated in the mutant retinas, but none were differentially expressed (DE) at both ages, suggesting the involvement of temporally distinct pathways. Downregulated genes included the known retina-relevant genes PAX6, CHML, and RDH11 at 7 weeks and CRX and SAG at 16 weeks. Genes directly or indirectly active in apoptotic processes were altered at 7 weeks (CAMK2G, NTRK2, PRKCB, RALA, RBBP6, RNF41, SMYD3, SPP1, and TUBB2C) and 16 weeks (SLC25A5 and NKAP). Furthermore, the DE genes at 7 weeks (ELOVL6, GLOD4, NDUFS4, and REEP1) and 16 weeks (SLC25A5 and TARS2) are related to mitochondrial functions. qRT-PCR of 18 genes confirmed the microarray results and showed DE of additional genes not on the array. Only GFAP was DE at 3 weeks of age. Western blot and IHC analyses also confirmed the high reliability of the transcriptomic data. Conclusions. Several DE genes were identified in mutant retinas. At 7 weeks, a combination of nonclassic anti- and proapoptosis genes appear to be involved in photoreceptor degeneration, whereas at both 7 and 16 weeks, the expression of mitochondria-related genes indicates that they may play a relevant role in the disease process.

Genini, Sem; Zangerl, Barbara; Slavik, Julianna; Acland, Gregory M.; Beltran, William A.

2010-01-01

177

Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations of KIF22 in spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, leptodactylic type.  

PubMed

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity (SEMDJL), leptodactylic (lepto-SEMDJL) or Hall type, is an autosomal-dominant skeletal dysplasia manifesting with short stature, joint laxity with dislocation(s), limb malalignment, and spinal deformity. Its causative gene mutation has not yet been discovered. We captured and sequenced the exomes of eight affected individuals in six unrelated kindreds (three individuals in a family and five simplex individuals). Five novel sequence variants in KIF22, which encodes a member of the kinesin-like protein family, were identified in seven individuals. Sanger sequencing of KIF22 confirmed that c.443C>T (p.Pro148Ser) cosegregated with the phenotype in the affected individuals in the family; c.442C>T (p.Pro148Leu) or c.446G>A (p.Arg149Gln) was present in four of five simplex individuals, but was absent in unaffected individuals in their family and 505 normal cohorts. KIF22 mRNA was detected in human bone, cartilage, joint capsule, ligament, skin, and primary cultured chondrocytes. In silico analysis of KIF22 protein structure indicates that Pro148 and Arg149 are important in maintaining hydrogen bonds in the ATP binding and motor domains of KIF22. We conclude that these mutations in KIF22 cause lepto-SEMDJL. PMID:22152677

Min, Byung-Joo; Kim, Namshin; Chung, Taesu; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Nishimura, Gen; Chung, Chin Youb; Song, Hae Ryong; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Jiwoong; Kang, Tae-Hoon; Seo, Myung-Eui; Yang, San-Deok; Kim, Do-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Dongsup; Park, Woong-Yang; Cho, Tae-Joon

2011-12-01

178

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Mutations of KIF22 in Spondyloepimetaphyseal Dysplasia with Joint Laxity, Leptodactylic Type  

PubMed Central

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity (SEMDJL), leptodactylic (lepto-SEMDJL) or Hall type, is an autosomal-dominant skeletal dysplasia manifesting with short stature, joint laxity with dislocation(s), limb malalignment, and spinal deformity. Its causative gene mutation has not yet been discovered. We captured and sequenced the exomes of eight affected individuals in six unrelated kindreds (three individuals in a family and five simplex individuals). Five novel sequence variants in KIF22, which encodes a member of the kinesin-like protein family, were identified in seven individuals. Sanger sequencing of KIF22 confirmed that c.443C>T (p.Pro148Ser) cosegregated with the phenotype in the affected individuals in the family; c.442C>T (p.Pro148Leu) or c.446G>A (p.Arg149Gln) was present in four of five simplex individuals, but was absent in unaffected individuals in their family and 505 normal cohorts. KIF22 mRNA was detected in human bone, cartilage, joint capsule, ligament, skin, and primary cultured chondrocytes. In silico analysis of KIF22 protein structure indicates that Pro148 and Arg149 are important in maintaining hydrogen bonds in the ATP binding and motor domains of KIF22. We conclude that these mutations in KIF22 cause lepto-SEMDJL.

Min, Byung-Joo; Kim, Namshin; Chung, Taesu; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Nishimura, Gen; Chung, Chin Youb; Song, Hae Ryong; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Jiwoong; Kang, Tae-Hoon; Seo, Myung-Eui; Yang, San-Deok; Kim, Do-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Dongsup; Park, Woong-Yang; Cho, Tae-Joon

2011-01-01

179

TM4SF10 gene sequencing in XLMR patients identifies common polymorphisms but no disease-associated mutation  

PubMed Central

Background The TM4SF10 gene encodes a putative four-transmembrane domains protein of unknown function termed Brain Cell Membrane Protein 1 (BCMP1), and is abundantly expressed in the brain. This gene is located on the short arm of human chromosome X at p21.1. The hypothesis that mutations in the TM4SF10 gene are associated with impaired brain function was investigated by sequencing the gene in individuals with hereditary X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Methods The coding region (543 bp) of TM4SF10, including intronic junctions, and the long 3' untranslated region (3 233 bp), that has been conserved during evolution, were sequenced in 16 male XLMR patients from 14 unrelated families with definite, or suggestive, linkage to the TM4SF10 gene locus, and in 5 normal males. Results Five sequence changes were identified but none was found to be associated with the disease. Two of these changes correspond to previously known SNPs, while three other were novel SNPs in the TM4SF10 gene. Conclusion We have investigated the majority of the known MRX families linked to the TM4SF10 gene region. In the absence of mutations detected, our study indicates that alterations of TM4SF10 are not a frequent cause of XLMR.

Christophe-Hobertus, Christiane; Kooy, Frank; Gecz, Jozef; Abramowicz, Marc J; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Schwartz, Charles; Christophe, Daniel

2004-01-01

180

Wild barley eibi1 mutation identifies a gene essential for leaf water conservation.  

PubMed

Drought is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and crop productivity. A spontaneous wilty mutant (eibi1) hypersensitive to drought was identified from wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum Koch). eibi1 showed the highest relative water loss rate among the known wilty mutants, which indicates that eibi1 is one of the most drought-sensitive mutants. eibi1 had the same abscisic acid (ABA) level, the same ability to accumulate stress-induced ABA, and the same stomatal movement in response to light, dark, drought, and exogenous ABA as the wild type, revealing that eibi1 was neither an ABA-deficient nor an ABA-insensitive mutant. The eibi1 leaves had a larger chlorophyll efflux rate in 80% ethanol than the wild-type leaves; and the transpiration rate of eibi1 was more closely related to chlorophyll efflux rate than to stomatal density, demonstrating that the cuticle of eibi1 was defective. eibi1 will be a promising candidate to study the actual barrier layer in the cuticle that limits water loss of the plant. Exogenous ABA reduced leaf length growth in eibi1 more than in the wild type, implying an interaction on plant growth of ABA signal transduction and the eibi1 product. One may infer that the eibi1 product may reverse the growth inhibition induced by ABA. PMID:15197591

Chen, Guoxiong; Sagi, Moshe; Weining, Song; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Nevo, Eviatar

2004-08-01

181

Candidate exome capture identifies mutation of SDCCAG8 as the cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy  

PubMed Central

Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are recessive disorders featuring dysplasia or degeneration preferentially in kidney, retina, and cerebellum. Here we combine homozygosity mapping with candidate gene analysis by performing “ciliopathy candidate exome capture” followed by massively-parallel sequencing. We detect 12 different truncating mutations of SDCCAG8 in 10 NPHP-RC families. We demonstrate that SDCCAG8 is localized at both centrioles and directly interacts with NPHP-RC-associated OFD1. Depletion of sdccag8 causes kidney cysts and a body axis defect in zebrafish and induces cell polarity defects in 3D renal cell cultures. This work identifies SDCCAG8 loss of function as a novel cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy and validates exome capture analysis for broadly heterogeneous single-gene disorders.

Otto, Edgar A.; Hurd, Toby W.; Airik, Rannar; Chaki, Moumita; Zhou, Weibin; Stoetzel, Corinne; Patil, Suresh B.; Levy, Shawn; Ghosh, Amiya K.; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos A.; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Letteboer, Stef J.F.; Sang, Liyun; Giles, Rachel H.; Liu, Qin; Coene, Karlien L. M.; Estrada-Cuzcano, Alejandro; Collin, Rob W. J.; McLaughlin, Heather M.; Held, Susanne; Kasanuki, Jennifer M.; Ramaswami, Gokul; Conte, Jinny; Lopez, Irma; Washburn, Joseph; MacDonald, James; Hu, Jinghua; Yamashita, Yukiko; Maher, Eamonn R.; Guay-Woodford, Lisa; Neumann, Hartmut P.H.; Obermuller, Nicholas; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Bergmann, Carsten; Bei, Xiaoshu; Lewis, Richard A.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lopes, Vanda; Williams, David S.; Lyons, Robert H.; Dang, Chi V.; Brito, Daniela A.; Dias, Monica Bettencourt; Zhang, Xinmin; Nurnberg, Gudrun; Nurnberg, Peter; Pierce, Eric; Jackson, Peter; Antignac, Corinne; Saunier, Sophie; Roepman, Ronald; Dollfus, Helene; Khanna, Hemant; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2010-01-01

182

New mutation of the desmin gene identified in an extended Indian pedigree presenting with distal myopathy and cardiac disease.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a new mutation located in the coiled 1B domain of desmin and associated with a predominant cardiac involvement and a high degree of cardiac sudden death in a large Indian pedigree with 12 affected members. The index cases was 38-year-old man who presented with progressive difficulty in gripping footwear of 5 years duration with the onset in the left lower limb followed by right lower limb in 6 months. 3 years from onset, he developed lower limb proximal and truncal muscle weakness. There was mild atrophy of the shoulder girdle muscles with grade 3 weakness, moderate wasting of thigh and anterior leg muscles with proximal muscle weakness and foot drop. At 40 years, he had a pacemaker implanted. The 9 exons and intronic boundaries of the desmin gene were sequenced and a heterozygous nucleotide change c. 734A > G in exon 3 was identified. PMID:24441330

Nalini, Atchayaram; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Richard, Pascale; Cobo, Ana-Maria; Urtizberea, J Andoni

2013-01-01

183

Exome Sequencing Identifies SMAD3 Mutations as a Cause of Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection with Intracranial and Other Arterial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Rationale Thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (TAAD) can be inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. As part of the spectrum of clinical heterogeneity of familial TAAD, we recently described families with multiple members that had TAAD and intracranial aneurysms or TAAD and intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Objective To identify the causative mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD with intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms by performing exome sequencing of two distantly related individuals with TAAD and identifying shared rare variants. Methods and Results A novel frame shift mutation, p. N218fs (c.652delA), was identified in the SMAD3 gene and segregated with the vascular diseases in this family with a LOD score of 2.52. Sequencing of 181 probands with familial TAAD identified three additional SMAD3 mutations in 4 families, p.R279K (c.836G>A), p.E239K (c.715G>A), and p.A112V (c.235C>T) resulting in a combined LOD score of 5.21. These four mutations were notably absent in 2300 control exomes. SMAD3 mutations were recently described in patients with Aneurysms Osteoarthritis Syndrome and some of the features of this syndrome were identified in individuals in our cohort, but these features were notably absent in many SMAD3 mutation carriers. Conclusions SMAD3 mutations are responsible for 2% of familial TAAD. Mutations are found in families with TAAD alone, along with families with TAAD, intracranial aneurysms, aortic and bilateral iliac aneurysms segregating in an autosomal dominant manner.

Regalado, Ellen S.; Guo, Dong-chuan; Villamizar, Carlos; Avidan, Nili; Gilchrist, Dawna; McGillivray, Barbara; Clarke, Lorne; Bernier, Francois; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Bertoli-Avella, Aida M.; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J.; Nickerson, Deborah A; Milewicz, Dianna M.

2014-01-01

184

Spectrum and frequencies of mutations in MSH2 and MLH1 identified in 1,721 German families suspected of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Mutations in DNA MMR genes, mainly MSH2 and MLH1, account for the majority of HNPCC, an autosomal dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer and other malignancies. The evaluation of many questions regarding HNPCC requires clinically and genetically well-characterized HNPCC patient cohorts of reasonable size. One main focus of this multicenter study is the evaluation of the mutation spectrum and mutation frequencies in a large HNPCC cohort in Germany; 1,721 unrelated patients, mainly of German descent, who met the Bethesda criteria were included in the study. In tumor samples of 1,377 patients, microsatellite analysis was successfully performed and the results were applied to select patients eligible for mutation analysis. In the patients meeting the strict Amsterdam criteria (AC) for HNPCC, 72% of the tumors exhibited high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) while only 37% of the tumors from patients fulfilling the less stringent criteria showed MSI-H; 454 index patients (406 MSI-H and 48 meeting the AC of whom no tumor samples were available) were screened for small mutations. In 134 index patients, a pathogenic MSH2 mutation, and in 118 patients, a pathogenic MLH1 mutation was identified (overall detection rate for pathogenic mutations 56%). One hundred sixty distinct mutations were detected, of which 86 are novel mutations. Noteworthy is that 2 mutations were over-represented in our patient series: MSH2,c.942+3A>T and MLH1,c.1489_1490insC, which account for 11% and 18% of the MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, respectively. A subset of 238 patients was screened for large genomic deletions. In 24 (10%) patients, a deletion was found. In 72 patients, only unspecified variants were found. Our findings demonstrate that preselection by microsatellite analysis substantially raises mutation detection rates in patients not meeting the AC. As a mutation detection strategy for German HNPCC patients, we recommend to start with screening for large genomic deletions and to continue by screening for common mutations in exon 5 of MSH2 and exon 13 of MLH1 before searching for small mutations in the remaining exons. PMID:15849733

Mangold, Elisabeth; Pagenstecher, Constanze; Friedl, Waltraut; Mathiak, Micaela; Buettner, Reinhard; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Müller-Koch, Yvonne; Keller, Gisela; Schackert, Hans K; Krüger, Stefan; Goecke, Timm; Moeslein, Gabriela; Kloor, Matthias; Gebert, Johannes; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Schulmann, Karsten; Rüschoff, Josef; Propping, Peter

2005-09-20

185

Driver mutations among never smoking female lung cancer tissues in China identify unique EGFR and KRAS mutation pattern associated with household coal burning.  

PubMed

Lung cancer in never smokers, which has been partially attributed to household solid fuel use (i.e., coal), is etiologically and clinically different from lung cancer attributed to tobacco smoking. To explore the spectrum of driver mutations among lung cancer tissues from never smokers, specifically in a population where high lung cancer rates have been attributed to indoor air pollution from domestic coal use, multiplexed assays were used to detect >40 point mutations, insertions, and deletions (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, AKT1, and PTEN) among the lung tumors of confirmed never smoking females from Xuanwei, China [32 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 7 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 1 adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSC)]. EGFR mutations were detected in 35% of tumors. 46% of these involved EGFR exon 18 G719X, while 14% were exon 21 L858R mutations. KRAS mutations, all of which were G12C_34G>T, were observed in 15% of tumors. EGFR and KRAS mutations were mutually exclusive, and no mutations were observed in the other tested genes. Most point mutations were transversions and were also found in tumors from patients who used coal in their homes. Our high mutation frequencies in EGFR exon 18 and KRAS and low mutation frequency in EGFR exon 21 are strikingly divergent from those in other smoking and never smoking populations from Asia. Given that our subjects live in a region where coal is typically burned indoors, our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of lung cancer among never smoking females exposed to indoor air pollution from coal. PMID:24055406

Hosgood, H Dean; Pao, William; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hu, Wei; Pan, Yumei Helen; Kuchinsky, Kyle; Jones, Kirk D; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; Simko, Jeff; Lan, Qing

2013-11-01

186

Coding sequence mutations identified in MYH7, TNNT2, SCN5A, CSRP3, LBD3, and TCAP from 313 patients with familial or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background More than 20 genes have been reported to cause idiopathic and familial dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC/FDC), but the frequency of genetic causation remains poorly understood. Methods and Results Blood samples were collected and DNA prepared from 313 patients, 183 with FDC and 130 with IDC. Genomic DNA underwent bidirectional sequencing of six genes, and mutation carriers were followed up by evaluation of additional family members. We identified in 36 probands, 31 unique protein-altering variants (11.5% overall) that were not identified in 253 control subjects (506 chromosomes). These included 13 probands (4.2%) with 12 ?-myosin heavy chain (MYH7) mutations, nine probands (2.9%) with six different cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) mutations, eight probands (2.6%) carrying seven different cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) mutations, three probands (1.0%) with three titin-cap or telethonin (TCAP) mutations, three probands (1.0%) with two LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3) mutations, and one proband (0.3%) with a muscle LIM protein (CSRP3) mutation. Four nucleotide changes did not segregate with phentoype and/or did not alter a conserved amino acid and were therefore considered unlikely to be disease-causing. Mutations in 11 probands were assessed as likely disease-causing, and in 21 probands were considered possibly disease-causing. These 32 probands included 14 of the 130 with IDC (10.8%) and 18 of 183 with FDC (9.8%) Conclusions Mutations of these six genes each account for a small fraction of the genetic cause of FDC/IDC. The frequency of possible or likely disease-causing mutations in these genes is similar for IDC and FDC.

Hershberger, Ray E.; Parks, Sharie B.; Kushner, Jessica D.; Li, Duanxiang; Ludwigsen, Susan; Jakobs, Petra; Nauman, Deirdre; Burgess, Donna; Partain, Julie; Litt, Michael

2009-01-01

187

ASXL1 mutations identify a high-risk subgroup of older patients with primary cytogenetically normal AML within the ELN Favorable genetic category  

PubMed Central

The associations of mutations in the enhancer of trithorax and polycomb family gene ASXL1 with pretreatment patient characteristics, outcomes, and gene-/microRNA-expression profiles in primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) are unknown. We analyzed 423 adult patients for ASXL1 mutations, other prognostic gene mutations, and gene-/microRNA-expression profiles. ASXL1 mutations were 5 times more common in older (? 60 years) patients (16.2%) than those younger than 60 years (3.2%; P < .001). Among older patients, ASXL1 mutations associated with wild-type NPM1 (P < .001), absence of FLT3-internal tandem duplications (P = .002), mutated CEBPA (P = .01), and with inferior complete remission (CR) rate (P = .04), disease-free survival (DFS; P = .03), overall survival (OS; P = .006), and event-free survival (EFS; P = .002). Within the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) genetic categories of older CN-AML, ASXL1 mutations associated with inferior CR rate (P = .02), OS (P < .001), and EFS (P < .001) among ELN Favorable, but not among ELN Intermediate-I patients. Multivariable analyses confirmed associations of ASXL1 mutations with unfavorable CR rate (P = .03), DFS (P < .001), OS (P < .001), and EFS (P < .001) among ELN Favorable patients. We identified an ASXL1 mutation-associated gene-expression signature, but no microRNA-expression signature. This first study of ASXL1 mutations in primary CN-AML demonstrates that ASXL1mutated older patients, particularly within the ELN Favorable group, have unfavorable outcomes and may be candidates for experimental treatment approaches.

Metzeler, Klaus H.; Becker, Heiko; Maharry, Kati; Radmacher, Michael D.; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mrozek, Krzysztof; Nicolet, Deedra; Whitman, Susan P.; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Schwind, Sebastian; Powell, Bayard L.; Carter, Thomas H.; Wetzler, Meir; Moore, Joseph O.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Baer, Maria R.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Larson, Richard A.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Marcucci, Guido

2011-01-01

188

Exome sequencing identifies a de novo SCN2A mutation in a patient with intractable seizures, severe intellectual disability, optic atrophy, muscular hypotonia, and brain abnormalities.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a phenotypically and genetically highly heterogeneous disorder with >200 genes linked to inherited forms of the disease. To identify the underlying genetic cause in a patient with intractable seizures, optic atrophy, severe intellectual disability (ID), brain abnormalities, and muscular hypotonia, we performed exome sequencing in a 5-year-old girl and her unaffected parents. In the patient, we detected a novel, de novo missense mutation in the SCN2A (c.5645G>T; p.R1882L) gene encoding the ?II -subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.2. A literature review revealed 33 different SCN2A mutations in 14 families with benign forms of epilepsy and in 21 cases with severe phenotypes. Although almost all benign mutations were inherited, the majority of severe mutations occurred de novo. Of interest, de novo SCN2A mutations have also been reported in five patients without seizures but with ID (n = 3) and/or autism (n = 3). In the present study, we successfully used exome sequencing to detect a de novo mutation in a genetically heterogeneous disorder with epilepsy and ID. Using this approach, we expand the phenotypic spectrum of SCN2A mutations. Our own and literature data indicate that SCN2A-linked severe phenotypes are more likely to be caused by de novo mutations. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. PMID:24579881

Baasch, Anna-Lena; Hüning, Irina; Gilissen, Christian; Klepper, Joerg; Veltman, Joris A; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hoischen, Alexander; Lohmann, Katja

2014-04-01

189

Whole-exome sequencing identifies a de novo TUBA1A mutation in a patient with sporadic malformations of cortical development: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to the number of genetic mutations that contribute to malformations of cortical development, identification of causative mutations in candidate genes is challenging. To overcome these challenges, we performed whole-exome sequencing in this study. Case presentation A Japanese patient presented with microcephaly and severe developmental delay. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of colpocephaly associated with lateral ventricle dilatation and the presence of a simplified gyral pattern. Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis were also noted. Because Sanger sequencing is expensive, laborious, and time-consuming, whole-exome sequencing was performed and a de novo missense mutation in TUBA1A (E27Q) was identified. Conclusion The novel mutation identified in this study was located in the genetic region that encodes the N-terminal domain of TUBA1A, a region of TUBA1A with few reported mutations. Retrospective assessment of the clinical and radiological features of this patient?i.e., microcephaly, lissencephaly (pachygyria) with cerebellar hypoplasia, and corpus callosum hypoplasia?indicated that the TUBA1A mutation did not lead to any contradictions. Because rapid and comprehensive mutation analysis by whole-exome sequencing is time- and cost-effective, it might be useful for genetic counseling of patients with sporadic malformations of cortical development.

2014-01-01

190

Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel splice-site mutation in ADAMTS17 in an Indian family with Weill-Marchesani syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a rare connective tissue disorder, characterized by short stature, microspherophakic lens, and stubby hands and feet (brachydactyly). WMS is caused by mutations in the FBN1, ADAMTS10, and LTBP2 genes. Mutations in the LTBP2 and ADAMTS17 genes cause a WMS-like syndrome, in which the affected individuals show major features of WMS but do not display brachydactyly and joint stiffness. The main purpose of our study was to determine the genetic cause of WMS in an Indian family. Methods Whole exome sequencing (WES) was used to identify the genetic cause of WMS in the family. The cosegregation of the mutation was determined with Sanger sequencing. Reverse transcription (RT)–PCR analysis was used to assess the effect of a splice-site mutation on splicing of the ADAMTS17 transcript. Results The WES analysis identified a homozygous novel splice-site mutation c.873+1G>T in a known WMS-like syndrome gene, ADAMTS17, in the family. RT–PCR analysis in the patient showed that exon 5 was skipped, which resulted in the deletion of 28 amino acids in the ADAMTS17 protein. Conclusions The mutation in the WMS-like syndrome gene ADAMTS17 also causes WMS in an Indian family. The present study will be helpful in genetic diagnosis of this family and increases the number of mutations of this gene to six.

Shah, Mohd Hussain; Bhat, Vishwanath; Shetty, Jyoti S.

2014-01-01

191

20 ans après: a second mutation in MAOA identified by targeted high-throughput sequencing in a family with altered behavior and cognition.  

PubMed

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by an extraordinary genetic heterogeneity, with >250 genes that have been implicated in monogenic forms of ID. Because this complexity precluded systematic testing for mutations and because clinical features are often non-specific, for some of these genes only few cases or families have been unambiguously documented. It is the case of the X-linked gene encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), for which only one nonsense mutation has been identified in Brunner syndrome, characterized in a single family by mild non-dysmorphic ID and impulsive, violent and aggressive behaviors. We have performed targeted high-throughput sequencing of 220 genes, including MAOA, in patients with undiagnosed ID. We identified a c.797_798delinsTT (p.C266F) missense mutation in MAOA in a boy with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit and autoaggressive behavior. Two maternal uncles carry the mutation and have severe ID, with a history of maltreatment in early childhood. This novel missense mutation decreases MAOA enzymatic activity, leading to abnormal levels of urinary monoamines. The identification of this new point mutation confirms, for the first time since 1993, the monogenic implication of the MAOA gene in ID of various degrees, autism and behavioral disturbances. The variable expressivity of the mutation observed in male patients of this family may involve gene-environment interactions, and the identification of a perturbation in monoamine metabolism should be taken into account when prescribing psychoactive drugs in such patients. PMID:24169519

Piton, Amélie; Poquet, Hélène; Redin, Claire; Masurel, Alice; Lauer, Julia; Muller, Jean; Thevenon, Julien; Herenger, Yvan; Chancenotte, Sophie; Bonnet, Marlène; Pinoit, Jean-Michel; Huet, Frédéric; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Jaeger, Anne-Sophie; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Jost, Bernard; Gérard, Bénédicte; Peoc'h, Katell; Launay, Jean-Marie; Faivre, Laurence; Mandel, Jean-Louis

2014-06-01

192

Use of high-density tiling microarrays to identify mutations globally and elucidate mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of genetic changes that confer drug resistance or other phenotypic changes in pathogens can help optimize treatment strategies, support the development of new therapeutic agents, and provide information about the likely function of genes. Elucidating mechanisms of phenotypic drug resistance can also assist in identifying the mode of action of uncharacterized but potent antimalarial compounds identified in high-throughput chemical screening campaigns against Plasmodium falciparum. Results Here we show that tiling microarrays can detect de novo a large proportion of the genetic changes that differentiate one genome from another. We show that we detect most single nucleotide polymorphisms or small insertion deletion events and all known copy number variations that distinguish three laboratory isolates using readily accessible methods. We used the approach to discover mutations that occur during the selection process after transfection. We also elucidated a mechanism by which parasites acquire resistance to the antimalarial fosmidomycin, which targets the parasite isoprenoid synthesis pathway. Our microarray-based approach allowed us to attribute in vitro derived fosmidomycin resistance to a copy number variation event in the pfdxr gene, which enables the parasite to overcome fosmidomycin-mediated inhibition of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions We show that newly emerged single nucleotide polymorphisms can readily be detected and that malaria parasites can rapidly acquire gene amplifications in response to in vitro drug pressure. The ability to define comprehensively genetic variability in P. falciparum with a single overnight hybridization creates new opportunities to study parasite evolution and improve the treatment and control of malaria.

Dharia, Neekesh V; Sidhu, Amar Bir Singh; Cassera, Maria Belen; Westenberger, Scott J; Bopp, Selina ER; Eastman, Rich T; Plouffe, David; Batalov, Serge; Park, Daniel J; Volkman, Sarah K; Wirth, Dyann F; Zhou, Yingyao; Fidock, David A; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

2009-01-01

193

Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death  

PubMed Central

Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behavior has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na+ channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction, or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis, and the degradation of ion channel a-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking. The aim of this review is to inventory, through the description of few representative examples, the role of these different biogenic mechanisms in arrhythmogenesis, HF and SCD in order to help the researcher to identify all the processes that could lead to arrhythmias. Identification of novel targets for drug intervention should result from further understanding of these fundamental mechanisms.

Jagu, Benoit; Charpentier, Flavien; Toumaniantz, Gilles

2013-01-01

194

Functional Characterization of Melanocortin-3 Receptor Variants Identify a Loss-of-Function Mutation Involving an Amino Acid Critical for G Protein-Coupled Receptor Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are the cause of the most common monogenic form of obesity, the involvement of the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) in the pathogenesis of obesity is unknown. Earlier studies failed to identify any mu- tations in obese patients except for the identification of two variants (K6T and I81V) that likely represent polymorphisms. However, a potential mutation (I183N) was

YA-XIONG TAO; DEBORAH L. SEGALOFF

195

Whole-exome sequencing identifies MYO15A mutations as a cause of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss in Korean families  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic heterogeneity of hearing loss makes genetic diagnosis expensive and time consuming using available methods. Whole-exome sequencing has recently been introduced as an alternative approach to identifying causative mutations in Mendelian disorders. Methods To identify the hidden mutations that cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), we performed whole-exome sequencing of 13 unrelated Korean small families with ARNSHL who were negative for GJB2 or SLC26A4 mutations. Results We found two novel compound heterozygous mutations, IVS11?+?1 and p.R2146Q, of MYO15A in one (SR903 family) of the 13 families with ARNSHL. In addition to these causative mutations, 13 nonsynonymous variants, including variants with uncertain pathogenicity (SR285 family), were identified in the coding exons of MYO15A from Korean exomes. Conclusion This is the first report of MYO15A mutations in an East Asian population. We suggest that close attention should be paid to this gene when performing genetic testing of patients with hearing loss in East Asia. The present results also indicate that whole-exome sequencing is a valuable method for comprehensive medical diagnosis of a genetically heterogeneous recessive disease, especially in small-sized families.

2013-01-01

196

DFNA8/12 Caused by TECTA Mutations is the Most Identified Subtype of Non-syndromic Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of DFNA8/DFNA12 (DFNA8/12), a type of autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), is unknown as comprehensive population-based genetic screening has not been conducted. We therefore completed unbiased screening for TECTA mutations in a Spanish cohort of 372 probands from ADNSHL families. Three additional families (Spanish, Belgian and English) known to be linked to DFNA8/12 were also included in the screening. In an additional cohort of 835 American ADNSHL families, we preselected 73 probands for TECTA screening based on audiometric data. In aggregate, we identified 23 TECTA mutations in this process. Remarkably 20 of these mutations are novel, more than doubling the number of reported TECTA ADNSHL mutations from 13 to 33. Mutations lie in all domains of the ?-tectorin protein, including those for the first time identified in the entactin domain, the vWFD1, vWFD2 and vWFD3 repeats, and the D1-D2 and TIL2 connectors. While the majority are private mutations, four of them – p.Cys1036Tyr, p.Cys1837Gly, p.Thr1866Met and p.Arg1890Cys – were observed in more than one unrelated family. For two of these mutations founder effects were also confirmed. Our data validate previously observed genotype-phenotype correlations in DFNA8/12 and introduce new correlations. Specifically, mutations in the N-terminal region of ?-tectorin (entactin domain, vWFD1 and vWFD2) lead to mid frequency NSHL, a phenotype previously associated only with mutations in the ZP domain. Collectively, our results indicate that DFNA8/12 hearing loss is a frequent type of ADNSHL.

Hildebrand, Michael S.; Morin, Matias; Meyer, Nicole C.; Mayo, Fernando; Modamio-Hoybjor, Silvia; Mencia, Angeles; Olavarrieta, Leticia; Morales-Angulo, Carmelo; Nishimura, Carla J.; Workman, Heather; DeLuca, Adam P.; del Castillo, Ignacio; Taylor, Kyle R.; Tompkins, Bruce; Goodman, Corey W.; Schrauwen, Isabelle; Van Wesemael, Maarten; Lachlan, K.; Shearer, A. Eliot; Braun, Terry A.; Huygen, Patrick L.M.; Kremer, Hannie; Van Camp, Guy; Moreno, Felipe; Casavant, Thomas L.; Smith, Richard J.H.; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

197

High-Throughput Mutation Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Endometrial Cancers Identifies KRAS, FGFR2 and PIK3CA to Be Frequently Mutated  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being the most common pelvic gynecologic malignancy in industrialized countries, no targeted therapies are available for patients with metastatic endometrial carcinoma. In order to improve treatment, underlying molecular characteristics of primary and metastatic disease must be explored. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized the mass spectrometric-based mutation detection technology OncoMap to define the types and frequency of point somatic mutations in endometrial cancer. 67 primary tumors, 15 metastases corresponding to 7 of the included primary tumors and 11 endometrial cancer cell lines were screened for point mutations in 28 known oncogenes. We found that 27 (40.3%) of 67 primary tumors harbored one or more mutations with no increase in metastatic lesions. FGFR2, KRAS and PIK3CA were consistently the most frequently mutated genes in primary tumors, metastatic lesions and cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Our results emphasize the potential for targeting FGFR2, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in endometrial cancer for development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Seidel, Danila; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Petersen, Kjell; Mj?s, Siv; Hoivik, Erling A.; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari Kylles?; ?yan, Anne M.; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Werner, Henrica Maria Johanna; Trovik, Jone; Salvesen, Helga

2012-01-01

198

Mutation scanning by meltMADGE: Validations using BRCA1 and LDLR, and demonstration of the potential to identify severe, moderate, silent, rare, and paucimorphic mutations in the general population  

PubMed Central

We have developed a mutation-scanning approach suitable for whole population screening for unknown mutations. The method, meltMADGE, combines thermal ramp electrophoresis with MADGE to achieve suitable cost efficiency and throughput. The sensitivity was tested in blind trials using 54 amplicons representing the BRCA1 coding region and a panel of 94 unrelated family breast cancer risk consultands previously screened in a clinical diagnostic laboratory. All 10 common polymorphisms, 15/15 previously identified disease-causing mutations, and three previously untested single base changes were identified. Assays of LDLR exons 3 and 8 were validated in 460 familial hypercholesteremics and detected 8/9 known variants. We then applied the exon 3 assay in several DNA banks representing ?8000 subjects with known cholesterol values and applied both assays in one DNA bank (n = 3600). In exon 3 we identified one previously reported moderate mutation, P84S (n = 1), also associated with moderate hypercholesteremia in this subject; an unreported silent variant, N76N (n = 1); and known severe hypercholesteremia splice mutation 313+1G?A (n = 2). Around exon 8 we identified a paucimorphism (n = 35) at the splice site 1061–8T?C (known to be in complete linkage disequilibrium with T705I) and unreported sequence variants 1186+11G?A (n = 1) and D335N G?A (n = 1). The cholesterol value for D335N was on the 96.2 percentile and for T705I, 2/35 carriers were above the 99th percentile. Thus, variants with predicted severe, moderate, and no effect were identified at the population level. In contrast with case collections, CpG mutations predominated. MeltMADGE will enable definition of the full population spectrum of rare, paucimorphic, severe, moderate (forme fruste), and silent mutations and effects.

Alharbi, Khalid K.; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A.; Spanakis, Emmanuel; Haddad, Lema; Whittall, Roslyn A.; Chen, Xiao-he; Rassoulian, Hamid; Smith, Matt J.; Sillibourne, Julie; Ball, Nicola J.; Graham, Nikki J.; Briggs, Patricia J.; Simpson, Iain A.; Phillips, David I.W.; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Ye, Shu; Humphries, Stephen E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Eccles, Diana M.; Day, Ian N.M.

2005-01-01

199

Intrinsic Susceptibility MRI Identifies Tumors with ALKF1174L Mutation in Genetically-Engineered Murine Models of High-Risk Neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

The early identification of children presenting ALKF1174L-mutated neuroblastoma, which are associated with resistance to the promising ALK inhibitor crizotinib and a marked poorer prognosis, has become a clinical priority. In comparing the radiology of the novel Th-ALKF1174L/Th-MYCN and the well-established Th-MYCN genetically-engineered murine models of neuroblastoma using MRI, we have identified a marked ALKF1174L-driven vascular phenotype. We demonstrate that quantitation of the transverse relaxation rate R2* (s?1) using intrinsic susceptibility-MRI under baseline conditions and during hyperoxia, can robustly discriminate this differential vascular phenotype, and identify MYCN-driven tumors harboring the ALKF1174L mutation with high specificity and selectivity. Intrinsic susceptibility-MRI could thus potentially provide a non-invasive and clinically-exploitable method to help identifying children with MYCN-driven neuroblastoma harboring the ALKF1174L mutation at the time of diagnosis.

Jamin, Yann; Glass, Laura; Hallsworth, Albert; George, Rani; Koh, Dow-Mu; Pearson, Andrew D. J.; Chesler, Louis; Robinson, Simon P.

2014-01-01

200

Whole-exome sequencing and functional studies identify RPS29 as a novel gene mutated in multicase Diamond-Blackfan anemia families.  

PubMed

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a cancer-prone inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. Approximately half of DBA patients have a germ-line mutation in a ribosomal protein gene. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify disease-causing genes in 2 large DBA families. After filtering, 1 nonsynonymous mutation (p.I31F) in the ribosomal protein S29 (RPS29[AUQ1]) gene was present in all 5 DBA-affected individuals and the obligate carrier, and absent from the unaffected noncarrier parent in 1 DBA family. A second DBA family was found to have a different nonsynonymous mutation (p.I50T) in RPS29. Both mutations are amino acid substitutions in exon 2 predicted to be deleterious and resulted in haploinsufficiency of RPS29 expression compared with wild-type RPS29 expression from an unaffected control. The DBA proband with the p.I31F RPS29 mutation had a pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing defect compared with the healthy control. We demonstrated that both RPS29 mutations failed to rescue the defective erythropoiesis in the rps29(-/-) mutant zebra fish DBA model. RPS29 is a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit and essential for rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. We uncovered a novel DBA causative gene, RPS29, and showed that germ-line mutations in RPS29 can cause a defective erythropoiesis phenotype using a zebra fish model. PMID:24829207

Mirabello, Lisa; Macari, Elizabeth R; Jessop, Lea; Ellis, Steven R; Myers, Timothy; Giri, Neelam; Taylor, Alison M; McGrath, Katherine E; Humphries, Jessica M; Ballew, Bari J; Yeager, Meredith; Boland, Joseph F; He, Ji; Hicks, Belynda D; Burdett, Laurie; Alter, Blanche P; Zon, Leonard; Savage, Sharon A

2014-07-01

201

Dominant Mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 Identify the Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease Active Site and an Exonuclease 1-Independent Mismatch Repair Pathway  

PubMed Central

Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1? mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway.

Smith, Catherine E.; Mendillo, Marc L.; Bowen, Nikki; Hombauer, Hans; Campbell, Christopher S.; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

2013-01-01

202

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects.  

PubMed

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the 'empty' CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the 'head' structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M K; Emes, Richard D; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M

2014-07-01

203

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the ‘empty’ CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the ‘head’ structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering.

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A.; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L.; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Emes, Richard D.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

204

Recessive Mutation Identifies Auxin-Repressed Protein ARP1, Which Regulates Growth and Disease Resistance in Tobacco.  

PubMed

To study the molecular mechanism that underpins crosstalk between plant growth and disease resistance, we performed a mutant screening on tobacco and created a recessive mutation that caused the phenotype of growth enhancement and resistance impairment (geri1). In the geri1 mutant, growth enhancement accompanies promoted expression of growth-promoting genes, whereas repressed expression of defense response genes is consistent with impaired resistance to diseases caused by viral, bacterial, and oomycete pathogens. The geri1 allele identifies a single genetic locus hypothetically containing the tagged GERI1 gene. The isolated GERI1 gene was predicted to encode auxin-repressed protein ARP1, which was determined to be 13.5 kDa in size. The ARP1/GERI1 gene was further characterized as a repressor of plant growth and an activator of disease resistance based on genetic complementation, gene silencing, and overexpression analyses. ARP1/GERI1 resembles pathogen-associated molecular patterns and is required for them to repress plant growth and activate plant immunity responses. ARP1/GERI1 represses growth by inhibiting the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR gene ARF8, and ARP1/GERI1 recruits the NPR1 gene, which is essential for the salicylic-acid-mediated defense, to coregulate disease resistance. In conclusion, ARP1/GERI1 is an integral regulator for crosstalk between growth and disease resistance in the plant. PMID:24875793

Zhao, Yanying; Li, Cheng; Ge, Jun; Xu, Manyu; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Tingquan; Guo, An; Xie, Junyi; Dong, Hansong

2014-07-01

205

Personalized synthetic lethality induced by targeting RAD52 in leukemias identified by gene mutation and expression profile.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination repair (HRR) protects cells from the lethal effect of spontaneous and therapy-induced DNA double-stand breaks. HRR usually depends on BRCA1/2-RAD51, and RAD52-RAD51 serves as back-up. To target HRR in tumor cells, a phenomenon called "synthetic lethality" was applied, which relies on the addiction of cancer cells to a single DNA repair pathway, whereas normal cells operate 2 or more mechanisms. Using mutagenesis and a peptide aptamer approach, we pinpointed phenylalanine 79 in RAD52 DNA binding domain I (RAD52-phenylalanine 79 [F79]) as a valid target to induce synthetic lethality in BRCA1- and/or BRCA2-deficient leukemias and carcinomas without affecting normal cells and tissues. Targeting RAD52-F79 disrupts the RAD52-DNA interaction, resulting in the accumulation of toxic DNA double-stand breaks in malignant cells, but not in normal counterparts. In addition, abrogation of RAD52-DNA interaction enhanced the antileukemia effect of already-approved drugs. BRCA-deficient status predisposing to RAD52-dependent synthetic lethality could be predicted by genetic abnormalities such as oncogenes BCR-ABL1 and PML-RAR, mutations in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes, and gene expression profiles identifying leukemias displaying low levels of BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. We believe this work may initiate a personalized therapeutic approach in numerous patients with tumors displaying encoded and functional BRCA deficiency. PMID:23836560

Cramer-Morales, Kimberly; Nieborowska-Skorska, Margaret; Scheibner, Kara; Padget, Michelle; Irvine, David A; Sliwinski, Tomasz; Haas, Kimberly; Lee, Jaewoong; Geng, Huimin; Roy, Darshan; Slupianek, Artur; Rassool, Feyruz V; Wasik, Mariusz A; Childers, Wayne; Copland, Mhairi; Müschen, Markus; Civin, Curt I; Skorski, Tomasz

2013-08-15

206

X-Linked Megalocornea Caused by Mutations in CHRDL1 Identifies an Essential Role for Ventroptin in Anterior Segment Development  

PubMed Central

X-linked megalocornea (MGC1) is an ocular anterior segment disorder characterized by an increased cornea diameter and deep anterior chamber evident at birth and later onset of mosaic corneal degeneration (shagreen), arcus juvenilis, and presenile cataracts. We identified copy-number variation, frameshift, missense, splice-site and nonsense mutations in the Chordin-like 1 gene (CHRDL1) on Xq23 as the cause of the condition in seven MGC1 families. CHRDL1 encodes ventroptin, a bone morphogenic protein antagonist with a proposed role in specification of topographic retinotectal projections. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed mild generalized cone system dysfunction and, in one patient, an interhemispheric asymmetry in visual evoked potentials. We show that CHRDL1 is expressed in the developing human cornea and anterior segment in addition to the retina. We explored the impact of loss of ventroptin function on brain function and morphology in vivo. CHRDL1 is differentially expressed in the human fetal brain, and there is high expression in cerebellum and neocortex. We show that MGC1 patients have a superior cognitive ability despite a striking focal loss of myelination of white matter. Our findings reveal an unexpected requirement for ventroptin during anterior segment development and the consequences of a lack of function in the retina and brain.

Webb, Tom R.; Matarin, Mar; Gardner, Jessica C.; Kelberman, Dan; Hassan, Hala; Ang, Wei; Michaelides, Michel; Ruddle, Jonathan B.; Pennell, Craig E.; Yazar, Seyhan; Khor, Chiea C.; Aung, Tin; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Moore, Anthony T.; Sowden, Jane C.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Mackey, David A.; Tuft, Stephen J.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

2012-01-01

207

Suppressors of the arabidopsis lsd5 cell death mutation identify genes involved in regulating disease resistance responses.  

PubMed Central

Cell death is associated with the development of the plant disease resistance hypersensitive reaction (HR). Arabidopsis lsd mutants that spontaneously exhibit cell death reminiscent of the HR were identified previously. To study further the regulatory context in which cell death acts during disease resistance, one of these mutants, lsd5, was used to isolate new mutations that suppress its cell death phenotype. Using a simple lethal screen, nine lsd5 cell death suppressors, designated phx (for the mythological bird Phoenix that rises from its ashes), were isolated. These mutants were characterized with respect to their response to a bacterial pathogen and oomycete parasite. The strongest suppressors-phx2, 3, 6, and 11-1-showed complex, differential patterns of disease resistance modifications. These suppressors attenuated disease resistance to avirulent isolates of the biotrophic Peronospora parasitica pathogen, but only phx2 and phx3 altered disease resistance to avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. Therefore, some of these phx mutants define common regulators of cell death and disease resistance. In addition, phx2 and phx3 exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility to different virulent pathogens, confirming probable links between the disease resistance and susceptibility pathways.

Morel, J B; Dangl, J L

1999-01-01

208

Genetic analysis of wild-isolated Neurospora crassa strains identified as dominant suppressors of repeat-induced point mutation.  

PubMed Central

Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) in Neurospora results in inactivation of duplicated DNA sequences. RIP is thought to provide protection against foreign elements such as retrotransposons, only one of which has been found in N. crassa. To examine the role of RIP in nature, we have examined seven N. crassa strains, identified among 446 wild isolates scored for dominant suppression of RIP. The test system involved a small duplication that targets RIP to the easily scorable gene erg-3. We previously showed that RIP in a small duplication is suppressed if another, larger duplication is present in the cross, as expected if the large duplication competes for the RIP machinery. In two of the strains, RIP suppression was associated with a barren phenotype--a characteristic of Neurospora duplications that is thought to result in part from a gene-silencing process called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). A suppressor of MSUD (Sad-1) was shown not to prevent known large duplications from impairing RIP. Single-gene duplications also can be barren but are too short to suppress RIP. RIP suppression in strains that were not barren showed inheritance that was either simple Mendelian or complex. Adding copies of the LINE-like retrotransposon Tad did not affect RIP efficiency.

Bhat, Ashwin; Noubissi, Felicite K; Vyas, Meenal; Kasbekar, Durgadas P

2003-01-01

209

Functional analysis of non-hotspot AKT1 mutants found in human breast cancers identifies novel driver mutations: implications for personalized medicine.  

PubMed

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-Akt-mTOR pathway is mutated at high frequency in human breast cancer, and this pathway is the focus of active drug discovery and clinical investigation. Trials of personalized cancer therapy seek to leverage knowledge of cancer gene mutations by using mutations to guide the choice of targeted therapies. At the same time, cancer genome sequencing studies are identifying low frequency variants of unknown significance in known cancer genes, as well as genes of unknown function. We have performed functional analysis of six non-hotspot AKT1 pleckstrin homology domain mutants identified in recent large-scale breast cancer sequencing studies. Three of these mutants cause constitutive activation of Akt1 in the absence of growth factors, leading to phosphorylation of downstream target proteins. Like the hotspot E17K mutation, these mutants confer constitutive membrane localization of Akt1. Finally, the same three mutants showed oncogenic activity in a cellular transformation assay. The other three mutants were inactive in all assays. These findings validate novel driver mutations in AKT1, and extend the number and type of mutations that activate the PI3-kinase pathway in human breast cancers. PMID:23237847

Yi, Kyung H; Axtmayer, Jossette; Gustin, John P; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Lauring, Josh

2013-01-01

210

Functional analysis of non-hotspot AKT1 mutants found in human breast cancers identifies novel driver mutations: implications for personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-Akt-mTOR pathway is mutated at high frequency in human breast cancer, and this pathway is the focus of active drug discovery and clinical investigation. Trials of personalized cancer therapy seek to leverage knowledge of cancer gene mutations by using mutations to guide the choice of targeted therapies. At the same time, cancer genome sequencing studies are identifying low frequency variants of unknown significance in known cancer genes, as well as genes of unknown function. We have performed functional analysis of six non-hotspot AKT1 pleckstrin homology domain mutants identified in recent large-scale breast cancer sequencing studies. Three of these mutants cause constitutive activation of Akt1 in the absence of growth factors, leading to phosphorylation of downstream target proteins. Like the hotspot E17K mutation, these mutants confer constitutive membrane localization of Akt1. Finally, the same three mutants showed oncogenic activity in a cellular transformation assay. The other three mutants were inactive in all assays. These findings validate novel driver mutations in AKT1, and extend the number and type of mutations that activate the PI3-kinase pathway in human breast cancers.

Yi, Kyung H.; Axtmayer, Jossette; Gustin, John P.; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Lauring, Josh

2013-01-01

211

Whole genome re-sequencing identifies a mutation in an ABC transporter (mdr2) in a Plasmodium chabaudi clone with altered susceptibility to antifolate drugs?  

PubMed Central

In malaria parasites, mutations in two genes of folate biosynthesis encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) modify responses to antifolate therapies which target these enzymes. However, the involvement of other genes which modify the availability of exogenous folate, for example, has been proposed. Here, we used short-read whole-genome re-sequencing to determine the mutations in a clone of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, which has altered susceptibility to both sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. This clone bears a previously identified S106N mutation in dhfr and no mutation in dhps. Instead, three additional point mutations in genes on chromosomes 2, 13 and 14 were identified. The mutated gene on chromosome 13 (mdr2 K392Q) encodes an ABC transporter. Because Quantitative Trait Locus analysis previously indicated an association of genetic markers on chromosome 13 with responses to individual and combined antifolates, MDR2 is proposed to modulate antifolate responses, possibly mediated by the transport of folate intermediates.

Martinelli, Axel; Henriques, Gisela; Cravo, Pedro; Hunt, Paul

2011-01-01

212

Whole genome re-sequencing identifies a mutation in an ABC transporter (mdr2) in a Plasmodium chabaudi clone with altered susceptibility to antifolate drugs.  

PubMed

In malaria parasites, mutations in two genes of folate biosynthesis encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) modify responses to antifolate therapies which target these enzymes. However, the involvement of other genes which modify the availability of exogenous folate, for example, has been proposed. Here, we used short-read whole-genome re-sequencing to determine the mutations in a clone of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, which has altered susceptibility to both sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. This clone bears a previously identified S106N mutation in dhfr and no mutation in dhps. Instead, three additional point mutations in genes on chromosomes 2, 13 and 14 were identified. The mutated gene on chromosome 13 (mdr2 K392Q) encodes an ABC transporter. Because Quantitative Trait Locus analysis previously indicated an association of genetic markers on chromosome 13 with responses to individual and combined antifolates, MDR2 is proposed to modulate antifolate responses, possibly mediated by the transport of folate intermediates. PMID:20858498

Martinelli, Axel; Henriques, Gisela; Cravo, Pedro; Hunt, Paul

2011-02-01

213

Exome Sequencing and cis-Regulatory Mapping Identify Mutations in MAK, a Gene Encoding a Regulator of Ciliary Length, as a Cause of Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

A fundamental challenge in analyzing exome-sequence data is distinguishing pathogenic mutations from background polymorphisms. To address this problem in the context of a genetically heterogeneous disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), we devised a candidate-gene prioritization strategy called cis-regulatory mapping that utilizes ChIP-seq data for the photoreceptor transcription factor CRX to rank candidate genes. Exome sequencing combined with this approach identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in male germ cell-associated kinase (MAK) in the single affected member of a consanguineous Turkish family with RP. MAK encodes a cilium-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase whose function is conserved from the ciliated alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to humans. Mutations in MAK orthologs in mice and other model organisms result in abnormally long cilia and, in mice, rapid photoreceptor degeneration. Subsequent sequence analyses of additional individuals with RP identified five probands with missense mutations in MAK. Two of these mutations alter amino acids that are conserved in all known kinases, and an in vitro kinase assay indicates that these mutations result in a loss of kinase activity. Thus, kinase activity appears to be critical for MAK function in humans. This study highlights a previously underappreciated role for CRX as a direct transcriptional regulator of ciliary genes in photoreceptors. In addition, it demonstrates the effectiveness of CRX-based cis-regulatory mapping in prioritizing candidate genes from exome data and suggests that this strategy should be generally applicable to a range of retinal diseases.

Ozgul, R?za Koksal; Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; Yucel, Didem; Myers, Connie A.; Collin, Rob W.J.; Zonneveld, Marijke N.; Beryozkin, Avigail; Banin, Eyal; Hoyng, Carel B.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Bose, Ron; Shen, Wei; Sharon, Dror; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Klevering, B. Jeroen; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Corbo, Joseph C.

2011-01-01

214

Audioprofile-directed screening identifies novel mutations in KCNQ4 causing hearing loss at the DFNA2 locus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gene identification in small families segregating autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss presents a significant challenge. To address this challenge, we have developed a machine learning based software tool, AudioGene v2.0, to prioritize candidate genes for mutation screening based on audioprofiling. Methods We analyzed audiometric data from a cohort of American families with high frequency autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss. Those families predicted to have a DFNA2 audioprofile by AudioGene v2.0 were screened for mutations in the KCNQ4 gene. Results Two novel missense mutations and a stop mutation were detected in three American families predicted to have DFNA2-related deafness for a positive predictive value of 6.3%. The false negative rate was 0%. The missense mutations were located in the channel pore region and the stop mutation was in transmembrane domain S5. The latter is the first DFNA2-causing stop mutation reported in KCNQ4. Conclusions Our data suggest: (1) that the N-terminal end of the P-loop is crucial in maintaining the integrity of the KCNQ4 channel pore; and, (2) that AudioGene audioprofile analysis can effectively prioritize genes for mutation screening in small families segregating high frequency autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss. AudioGene software will be made freely available to clinicians and researchers once it has been fullly validated.

Hildebrand, Michael S.; Tack, Dylan; McMordie, Sarah J.; DeLuca, Adam; Hur, In Ae; Nishimura, Carla; Huygen, Patrick; Casavant, Thomas L.; Smith, Richard J.H.

2012-01-01

215

Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 Are Identified in Individuals with Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism  

PubMed Central

Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) and its anosmia-associated form (Kallmann syndrome [KS]) are genetically heterogeneous. Among the >15 genes implicated in these conditions, mutations in FGF8 and FGFR1 account for ?12% of cases; notably, KAL1 and HS6ST1 are also involved in FGFR1 signaling and can be mutated in CHH. We therefore hypothesized that mutations in genes encoding a broader range of modulators of the FGFR1 pathway might contribute to the genetics of CHH as causal or modifier mutations. Thus, we aimed to (1) investigate whether CHH individuals harbor mutations in members of the so-called “FGF8 synexpression” group and (2) validate the ability of a bioinformatics algorithm on the basis of protein-protein interactome data (interactome-based affiliation scoring [IBAS]) to identify high-quality candidate genes. On the basis of sequence homology, expression, and structural and functional data, seven genes were selected and sequenced in 386 unrelated CHH individuals and 155 controls. Except for FGF18 and SPRY2, all other genes were found to be mutated in CHH individuals: FGF17 (n = 3 individuals), IL17RD (n = 8), DUSP6 (n = 5), SPRY4 (n = 14), and FLRT3 (n = 3). Independently, IBAS predicted FGF17 and IL17RD as the two top candidates in the entire proteome on the basis of a statistical test of their protein-protein interaction patterns to proteins known to be altered in CHH. Most of the FGF17 and IL17RD mutations altered protein function in vitro. IL17RD mutations were found only in KS individuals and were strongly linked to hearing loss (6/8 individuals). Mutations in genes encoding components of the FGF pathway are associated with complex modes of CHH inheritance and act primarily as contributors to an oligogenic genetic architecture underlying CHH.

Miraoui, Hichem; Dwyer, Andrew A.; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Plummer, Lacey; Chung, Wilson; Feng, Bihua; Beenken, Andrew; Clarke, Jeff; Pers, Tune H.; Dworzynski, Piotr; Keefe, Kimberley; Niedziela, Marek; Raivio, Taneli; Crowley, William F.; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Quinton, Richard; Hughes, Virginia A.; Kumanov, Philip; Young, Jacques; Yialamas, Maria A.; Hall, Janet E.; Van Vliet, Guy; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Rubenstein, John; Mohammadi, Moosa; Tsai, Pei-San; Sidis, Yisrael; Lage, Kasper; Pitteloud, Nelly

2013-01-01

216

Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 are identified in individuals with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.  

PubMed

Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) and its anosmia-associated form (Kallmann syndrome [KS]) are genetically heterogeneous. Among the >15 genes implicated in these conditions, mutations in FGF8 and FGFR1 account for ~12% of cases; notably, KAL1 and HS6ST1 are also involved in FGFR1 signaling and can be mutated in CHH. We therefore hypothesized that mutations in genes encoding a broader range of modulators of the FGFR1 pathway might contribute to the genetics of CHH as causal or modifier mutations. Thus, we aimed to (1) investigate whether CHH individuals harbor mutations in members of the so-called "FGF8 synexpression" group and (2) validate the ability of a bioinformatics algorithm on the basis of protein-protein interactome data (interactome-based affiliation scoring [IBAS]) to identify high-quality candidate genes. On the basis of sequence homology, expression, and structural and functional data, seven genes were selected and sequenced in 386 unrelated CHH individuals and 155 controls. Except for FGF18 and SPRY2, all other genes were found to be mutated in CHH individuals: FGF17 (n = 3 individuals), IL17RD (n = 8), DUSP6 (n = 5), SPRY4 (n = 14), and FLRT3 (n = 3). Independently, IBAS predicted FGF17 and IL17RD as the two top candidates in the entire proteome on the basis of a statistical test of their protein-protein interaction patterns to proteins known to be altered in CHH. Most of the FGF17 and IL17RD mutations altered protein function in vitro. IL17RD mutations were found only in KS individuals and were strongly linked to hearing loss (6/8 individuals). Mutations in genes encoding components of the FGF pathway are associated with complex modes of CHH inheritance and act primarily as contributors to an oligogenic genetic architecture underlying CHH. PMID:23643382

Miraoui, Hichem; Dwyer, Andrew A; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Plummer, Lacey; Chung, Wilson; Feng, Bihua; Beenken, Andrew; Clarke, Jeff; Pers, Tune H; Dworzynski, Piotr; Keefe, Kimberley; Niedziela, Marek; Raivio, Taneli; Crowley, William F; Seminara, Stephanie B; Quinton, Richard; Hughes, Virginia A; Kumanov, Philip; Young, Jacques; Yialamas, Maria A; Hall, Janet E; Van Vliet, Guy; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Rubenstein, John; Mohammadi, Moosa; Tsai, Pei-San; Sidis, Yisrael; Lage, Kasper; Pitteloud, Nelly

2013-05-01

217

Whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing of gallbladder carcinoma identifies recurrent mutations in the ErbB pathway.  

PubMed

Individuals with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), the most aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract, have a poor prognosis. Here we report the identification of somatic mutations for GBC in 57 tumor-normal pairs through a combination of exome sequencing and ultra-deep sequencing of cancer-related genes. The mutation pattern is defined by a dominant prevalence of C>T mutations at TCN sites. Genes with a significant frequency (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05) of non-silent mutations include TP53 (47.1%), KRAS (7.8%) and ERBB3 (11.8%). Moreover, ErbB signaling (including EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4 and their downstream genes) is the most extensively mutated pathway, affecting 36.8% (21/57) of the GBC samples. Multivariate analyses further show that cases with ErbB pathway mutations have a worse outcome (P = 0.001). These findings provide insight into the somatic mutational landscape in GBC and highlight the key role of the ErbB signaling pathway in GBC pathogenesis. PMID:24997986

Li, Maolan; Zhang, Zhou; Li, Xiaoguang; Ye, Junyi; Wu, Xiangsong; Tan, Zhujun; Liu, Chang; Shen, Baiyong; Wang, Xu-An; Wu, Wenguang; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Ting; Liu, Bingya; Qu, Kai; Ding, Qichen; Weng, Hao; Ding, Qian; Mu, Jiasheng; Shu, Yijun; Bao, Runfa; Cao, Yang; Chen, Peizhan; Liu, Tianyu; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Yunping; Dong, Ping; Gu, Jun; Lu, Wei; Shi, Weibin; Lu, Jianhua; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xuefeng; Chin, Y Eugene; Weng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; He, Lin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Yingbin

2014-08-01

218

Screening of a large cohort of leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa patients identifies novel LCA5 mutations and new genotype-phenotype correlations.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of sequence variants in LCA5 in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), early-onset retinal dystrophy (EORD), and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP); to delineate the ocular phenotypes; and to provide an overview of all published LCA5 variants in an online database. Patients underwent standard ophthalmic evaluations after providing informed consent. In selected patients, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus autofluorescence imaging were possible. DNA samples from 797 unrelated patients with LCA and 211 with the various types of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were screened by Sanger sequence analysis of all LCA5 exons and intron/exon junctions. Some LCA patients were prescreened by APEX technology or selected based on homozygosity mapping. In silico analyses were performed to assess the pathogenicity of the variants. Segregation analysis was performed where possible. Published and novel LCA5 variants were collected, amended for their correct nomenclature, and listed in a Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD). Sequence analysis identified 18 new probands with 19 different LCA5 variants. Seventeen of the 19 LCA5 variants were novel. Except for two missense variants and one splice site variant, all variants were protein-truncating mutations. Most patients expressed a severe phenotype, typical of LCA. However, some LCA subjects had better vision and intact inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions on OCT imaging. In two families with LCA5 variants, the phenotype was more compatible with EORD with affected individuals displaying preserved islands of retinal pigment epithelium. One of the families with a milder phenotype harbored a homozygous splice site mutation; a second family was found to have a combination of a stop mutation and a missense mutation. This is the largest LCA5 study to date. We sequenced 1,008 patients (797 with LCA, 211 with arRP) and identified 18 probands with LCA5 mutations. Mutations in LCA5 are a rare cause of childhood retinal dystrophy accounting for ?2% of disease in this cohort, and the majority of LCA5 mutations are likely null. The LCA5 protein truncating mutations are predominantly associated with LCA. However, in two families with the milder EORD, the LCA5 gene analysis revealed a homozygous splice site mutation in one and a stop mutation in combination with a missense mutation in a second family, suggesting that this milder phenotype is due to residual function of lebercilin and expanding the currently known phenotypic spectrum to include the milder early onset RP. Some patients have remaining foveal cone structures (intact IS/OS junctions on OCT imaging) and remaining visual acuities, which may bode well for upcoming treatment trials. PMID:23946133

Mackay, Donna S; Borman, Arundhati Dev; Sui, Ruifang; van den Born, L Ingeborgh; Berson, Eliot L; Ocaka, Louise A; Davidson, Alice E; Heckenlively, John R; Branham, Kari; Ren, Huanan; Lopez, Irma; Maria, Maleeha; Azam, Maleeha; Henkes, Arjen; Blokland, Ellen; Andreasson, Sten; de Baere, Elfride; Bennett, Jean; Chader, Gerald J; Berger, Wolfgang; Golovleva, Irina; Greenberg, Jacquie; den Hollander, Anneke I; Klaver, Caroline C W; Klevering, B Jeroen; Lorenz, Birgit; Preising, Markus N; Ramsear, Raj; Roberts, Lisa; Roepman, Ronald; Rohrschneider, Klaus; Wissinger, Bernd; Qamar, Raheel; Webster, Andrew R; Cremers, Frans P M; Moore, Anthony T; Koenekoop, Robert K

2013-11-01

219

The Evolutionary History of Amino Acid Variations Mediating Increased Resistance of S. aureus Identifies Reversion Mutations in Metabolic Regulators  

PubMed Central

The evolution of resistance in Staphylococcus aureus occurs rapidly, and in response to all known antimicrobial treatments. Numerous studies of model species describe compensatory roles of mutations in mediating competitive fitness, and there is growing evidence that these mutation types also drive adaptation of S. aureus strains. However, few studies have tracked amino acid changes during the complete evolutionary trajectory of antibiotic adaptation or been able to predict their functional relevance. Here, we have assessed the efficacy of computational methods to predict biological resistance of a collection of clinically known Resistance Associated Mutations (RAMs). We have found that >90% of known RAMs are incorrectly predicted to be functionally neutral by at least one of the prediction methods used. By tracing the evolutionary histories of all of the false negative RAMs, we have discovered that a significant number are reversion mutations to ancestral alleles also carried in the MSSA476 methicillin-sensitive isolate. These genetic reversions are most prevalent in strains following daptomycin treatment and show a tendency to accumulate in biological pathway reactions that are distinct from those accumulating non-reversion mutations. Our studies therefore show that in addition to non-reversion mutations, reversion mutations arise in isolates exposed to new antibiotic treatments. It is possible that acquisition of reversion mutations in the genome may prevent substantial fitness costs during the progression of resistance. Our findings pose an interesting question to be addressed by further clinical studies regarding whether or not these reversion mutations lead to a renewed vulnerability of a vancomycin or daptomycin resistant strain to antibiotics administered at an earlier stage of infection.

Champion, Mia D.; Kumar, Sudhir

2013-01-01

220

Genotyping Cancer-Associated Genes in Chordoma Identifies Mutations in Oncogenes and Areas of Chromosomal Loss Involving CDKN2A, PTEN, and SMARCB1  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms underlying chordoma pathogenesis are unknown. We therefore sought to identify novel mutations to better understand chordoma biology and to potentially identify therapeutic targets. Given the relatively high costs of whole genome sequencing, we performed a focused genetic analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer (Sequenom iPLEX genotyping). We tested 865 hotspot mutations in 111 oncogenes and selected tumor suppressor genes (OncoMap v. 3.0) of 45 human chordoma tumor samples. Of the analyzed samples, seven were identified with at least one mutation. Six of these were from fresh frozen samples, and one was from a paraffin embedded sample. These observations were validated using an independent platform using homogeneous mass extend MALDI-TOF (Sequenom hME Genotyping). These genetic alterations include: ALK (A877S), CTNNB1 (T41A), NRAS (Q61R), PIK3CA (E545K), PTEN (R130), CDKN2A (R58*), and SMARCB1 (R40*). This study reports on the largest comprehensive mutational analysis of chordomas performed to date. To focus on mutations that have the greatest chance of clinical relevance, we tested only oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been previously implicated in the tumorigenesis of more common malignancies. We identified rare genetic changes that may have functional significance to the underlying biology and potential therapeutics for chordomas. Mutations in CDKN2A and PTEN occurred in areas of chromosomal copy loss. When this data is paired with the studies showing 18 of 21 chordoma samples displaying copy loss at the locus for CDKN2A, 17 of 21 chordoma samples displaying copy loss at PTEN, and 3 of 4 chordoma samples displaying deletion at the SMARCB1 locus, we can infer that a loss of heterozygosity at these three loci may play a significant role in chordoma pathogenesis.

Choy, Edwin; MacConaill, Laura E.; Cote, Gregory M.; Le, Long P.; Shen, Jacson K.; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P.; Iafrate, Anthony J.; Garraway, Levi A.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Duan, Zhenfeng

2014-01-01

221

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies ALMS1, IQCB1, CNGA3, and MYO7A Mutations in Patients with Leber Congenital Amaurosis  

PubMed Central

It has been well documented that mutations in the same retinal disease gene can result in different clinical phenotypes due to difference in the mutant allele and/or genetic background. To evaluate this, a set of consanguineous patient families with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) that do not carry mutations in known LCA disease genes was characterized through homozygosity mapping followed by targeted exon/whole-exome sequencing to identify genetic variations. Among these families, a total of five putative disease-causing mutations, including four novel alleles, were found for six families. These five mutations are located in four genes, ALMS1, IQCB1, CNGA3, and MYO7A. Therefore, in our LCA collection from Saudi Arabia, three of the 37 unassigned families carry mutations in retinal disease genes ALMS1, CNGA3, and MYO7A, which have not been previously associated with LCA, and 3 of the 37 carry novel mutations in IQCB1, which has been recently associated with LCA. Together with other reports, our results emphasize that the molecular heterogeneity underlying LCA, and likely other retinal diseases, may be highly complex. Thus, to obtain accurate diagnosis and gain a complete picture of the disease, it is essential to sequence a larger set of retinal disease genes and combine the clinical phenotype with molecular diagnosis.

Wang, Xia; Wang, Hui; Cao, Ming; Li, Zhe; Chen, Xianfeng; Patenia, Claire; Gore, Athurva; Abboud, Emad B.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.; Lewis, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Mardon, Graeme; Zhang, Kun; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chen, Rui

2014-01-01

222

A sodium channel mutation identified in Aedes aegypti selectively reduces cockroach sodium channel sensitivity to type I, but not type II pyrethroids  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. Numerous point mutations in sodium channel genes have been identified in pyrethroid-resistant insect species, and many have been confirmed to reduce or abolish sensitivity of channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to pyrethroids. Recently, several novel mutations were reported in sodium channel genes of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes mosquito populations. One of the mutations is a phenylalanine (F) to cysteine (C) change in segment 6 of domain III (IIIS6) of the Aedes mosquito sodium channel. Curiously, a previous study showed that alanine substitution of this F did not alter the action of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid, on a cockroach sodium channel. In this study, we changed this F to C in a pyrethroid-sensitive cockroach sodium channel and examined mutant channel sensitivity to permethrin as well as five other type I or type II pyrethroids in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, the F to C mutation drastically reduced channel sensitivity to three type I pyrethroids, permethrin, NRDC 157 (a deltamethrin analogue lacking the ?-cyano group) and bioresemthrin, but not to three type II pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin. These results confirm the involvement of the F to C mutation in permethrin resistance, and raise the possibility that rotation of type I and type II pyrethroids might be considered in the control of insect pest populations where this particular mutation is present.

Hu, Zhaonong; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

2010-01-01

223

Mutations in 12 genes for inherited ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma identified by massively parallel sequencing.  

PubMed

Inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and other tumor suppressor genes predispose to ovarian carcinomas, but the overall burden of disease due to inherited mutations is not known. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we screened for germ-line mutations in 21 tumor suppressor genes in genomic DNA from women with primary ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. Subjects were consecutively enrolled at diagnosis and not selected for age or family history. All classes of mutations, including point mutations and large genomic deletions and insertions, were detected. Of 360 subjects, 24% carried germ-line loss-of-function mutations: 18% in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and 6% in BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MSH6, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, or TP53. Six of these genes were not previously implicated in inherited ovarian carcinoma. Primary carcinomas were generally characterized by genomic loss of normal alleles of the mutant genes. Of women with inherited mutations, >30% had no family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma, and >35% were 60 y or older at diagnosis. More patients with ovarian carcinoma carry cancer-predisposing mutations and in more genes than previously appreciated. Comprehensive genetic testing for inherited carcinoma is warranted for all women with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, regardless of age or family history. Clinical genetic testing is currently done gene by gene, with each test costing thousands of dollars. In contrast, massively parallel sequencing allows such testing for many genes simultaneously at low cost. PMID:22006311

Walsh, Tom; Casadei, Silvia; Lee, Ming K; Pennil, Christopher C; Nord, Alex S; Thornton, Anne M; Roeb, Wendy; Agnew, Kathy J; Stray, Sunday M; Wickramanayake, Anneka; Norquist, Barbara; Pennington, Kathryn P; Garcia, Rochelle L; King, Mary-Claire; Swisher, Elizabeth M

2011-11-01

224

Mutations in 12 genes for inherited ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma identified by massively parallel sequencing  

PubMed Central

Inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and other tumor suppressor genes predispose to ovarian carcinomas, but the overall burden of disease due to inherited mutations is not known. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we screened for germ-line mutations in 21 tumor suppressor genes in genomic DNA from women with primary ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. Subjects were consecutively enrolled at diagnosis and not selected for age or family history. All classes of mutations, including point mutations and large genomic deletions and insertions, were detected. Of 360 subjects, 24% carried germ-line loss-of-function mutations: 18% in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and 6% in BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MSH6, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, or TP53. Six of these genes were not previously implicated in inherited ovarian carcinoma. Primary carcinomas were generally characterized by genomic loss of normal alleles of the mutant genes. Of women with inherited mutations, >30% had no family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma, and >35% were 60 y or older at diagnosis. More patients with ovarian carcinoma carry cancer-predisposing mutations and in more genes than previously appreciated. Comprehensive genetic testing for inherited carcinoma is warranted for all women with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, regardless of age or family history. Clinical genetic testing is currently done gene by gene, with each test costing thousands of dollars. In contrast, massively parallel sequencing allows such testing for many genes simultaneously at low cost.

Walsh, Tom; Casadei, Silvia; Lee, Ming K.; Pennil, Christopher C.; Nord, Alex S.; Thornton, Anne M.; Roeb, Wendy; Agnew, Kathy J.; Stray, Sunday M.; Wickramanayake, Anneka; Norquist, Barbara; Pennington, Kathryn P.; Garcia, Rochelle L.; King, Mary-Claire; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

2011-01-01

225

A Pseudo-Full Mutation Identified in Fragile X Assay Reveals a Novel Base Change Abolishing an EcoRI Restriction Site  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic testing for the fragile X syndrome is designed to detect the most common mutation, a CGG expansion in the 5?-untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation (FMRI) gene. PCR can determine the number of CGG repeats less than 100, whereas Southern analysis can detect large premutations, full mutations, and their methylation status. Bands larger than 5.8 kb observed via Southern analysis are usually considered a methylated full mutation, causing fragile X syndrome in males and varied clinical presentations in females. We observed a 10.9-kb band on a Southern blot assay from an autistic girl with language delay. Further investigation identified a novel G-to-A transition at an EcoRI cleavage site, upstream of the CGG repeat region of the FMRI gene. This base change abolished the EcoRI restriction site, resulting in a 10.9-kb pseudo-full mutation. This G-to-A base change has not been previously reported and was not identified in a subsequent analysis of 105 male and 30 female patient samples. The clear 10.9-kb band detected on a Southern blot assay for fragile X syndrome mimics a large, methylated full mutation, which could result in a misdiagnosis without the benefit of family studies and further testing.

Liang, Shujian; Bass, Harold N.; Gao, Hanlin; Astbury, Caroline; Jamehdor, Mehdi R.; Qu, Yong

2008-01-01

226

A pseudo-full mutation identified in fragile X assay reveals a novel base change abolishing an EcoRI restriction site.  

PubMed

Diagnostic testing for the fragile X syndrome is designed to detect the most common mutation, a CGG expansion in the 5'-untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation (FMRI) gene. PCR can determine the number of CGG repeats less than 100, whereas Southern analysis can detect large premutations, full mutations, and their methylation status. Bands larger than 5.8 kb observed via Southern analysis are usually considered a methylated full mutation, causing fragile X syndrome in males and varied clinical presentations in females. We observed a 10.9-kb band on a Southern blot assay from an autistic girl with language delay. Further investigation identified a novel G-to-A transition at an EcoRI cleavage site, upstream of the CGG repeat region of the FMRI gene. This base change abolished the EcoRI restriction site, resulting in a 10.9-kb pseudo-full mutation. This G-to-A base change has not been previously reported and was not identified in a subsequent analysis of 105 male and 30 female patient samples. The clear 10.9-kb band detected on a Southern blot assay for fragile X syndrome mimics a large, methylated full mutation, which could result in a misdiagnosis without the benefit of family studies and further testing. PMID:18687789

Liang, Shujian; Bass, Harold N; Gao, Hanlin; Astbury, Caroline; Jamehdor, Mehdi R; Qu, Yong

2008-09-01

227

A mutation unique in serine protease inhibitors (serpins) identified in a family with type II hereditary angioneurotic edema.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) is an autosomal dominant disease due to genetic alterations at the C1 inhibitor gene. Mutations within the C1 inhibitor gene are responsible for the molecular defect in type II HANE. Most of the dysfunctional proteins result from mutations involving the Arg-444 (the P-1 site of the reactive center) or amino acids NH2-terminal to the reactive center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have studied a Spanish family with type II HANE by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the exon eight of the C1 inhibitor gene. The purified 338-bp PCR product was subcloned and transformed into competent cells. After overnight cultures, we extracted the cloning vector from the positive colonies and sequenced both strands of the PCR product from each patient and healthy members of the family. RESULTS: We show that affected individuals in this family have a missense mutation, changing an adenine to cytosine in the codon 445. This substitution changes threonine at the P-1' site of the reactive center to a proline. This mutation generates a new restriction site, recognized by Bsi YI. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first molecular defect characterized in a Spanish family with type II HANE, and to date, this is the first reported mutation at the P-1' site of the reactive center in individuals with type II HANE. This new mutation located at the reactive center emphasizes once more time the enormous heterogeneity of this gene. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3

Ocejo-Vinyals, J. G.; Leyva-CobiA?n, F.; FernA?ndez-Luna, J. L.

1995-01-01

228

A dominant mutation in RPE65 identified by whole-exome sequencing causes retinitis pigmentosa with choroidal involvement.  

PubMed

Linkage testing using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP Arrays mapped the disease locus in TCD-G, an Irish family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), to an 8.8 Mb region on 1p31. Of 50 known genes in the region, 11 candidates, including RPE65 and PDE4B, were sequenced using di-deoxy capillary electrophoresis. Simultaneously, a subset of family members was analyzed using Agilent SureSelect All Exome capture, followed by sequencing on an Illumina GAIIx platform. Candidate gene and exome sequencing resulted in the identification of an Asp477Gly mutation in exon 13 of the RPE65 gene tracking with the disease in TCD-G. All coding exons of genes not sequenced to sufficient depth by next generation sequencing were sequenced by di-deoxy sequencing. No other potential disease-causing variants were found to segregate with disease in TCD-G. The Asp477Gly mutation was not present in Irish controls, but was found in a second Irish family provisionally diagnosed with choroideremia, bringing the combined maximum two-point LOD score to 5.3. Mutations in RPE65 are a known cause of recessive Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and recessive RP, but no dominant mutations have been reported. Protein modeling suggests that the Asp477Gly mutation may destabilize protein folding, and mutant RPE65 protein migrates marginally faster on SDS-PAGE, compared with wild type. Gene therapy for LCA patients with RPE65 mutations has shown great promise, raising the possibility of related therapies for dominant-acting mutations in this gene. PMID:21654732

Bowne, Sara J; Humphries, Marian M; Sullivan, Lori S; Kenna, Paul F; Tam, Lawrence C S; Kiang, Anna S; Campbell, Matthew; Weinstock, George M; Koboldt, Daniel C; Ding, Li; Fulton, Robert S; Sodergren, Erica J; Allman, Denis; Millington-Ward, Sophia; Palfi, Arpad; McKee, Alex; Blanton, Susan H; Slifer, Susan; Konidari, Ioanna; Farrar, G Jane; Daiger, Stephen P; Humphries, Peter

2011-10-01

229

A dominant mutation in RPE65 identified by whole-exome sequencing causes retinitis pigmentosa with choroidal involvement  

PubMed Central

Linkage testing using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP Arrays mapped the disease locus in TCD-G, an Irish family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), to an 8.8?Mb region on 1p31. Of 50 known genes in the region, 11 candidates, including RPE65 and PDE4B, were sequenced using di-deoxy capillary electrophoresis. Simultaneously, a subset of family members was analyzed using Agilent SureSelect All Exome capture, followed by sequencing on an Illumina GAIIx platform. Candidate gene and exome sequencing resulted in the identification of an Asp477Gly mutation in exon 13 of the RPE65 gene tracking with the disease in TCD-G. All coding exons of genes not sequenced to sufficient depth by next generation sequencing were sequenced by di-deoxy sequencing. No other potential disease-causing variants were found to segregate with disease in TCD-G. The Asp477Gly mutation was not present in Irish controls, but was found in a second Irish family provisionally diagnosed with choroideremia, bringing the combined maximum two-point LOD score to 5.3. Mutations in RPE65 are a known cause of recessive Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and recessive RP, but no dominant mutations have been reported. Protein modeling suggests that the Asp477Gly mutation may destabilize protein folding, and mutant RPE65 protein migrates marginally faster on SDS-PAGE, compared with wild type. Gene therapy for LCA patients with RPE65 mutations has shown great promise, raising the possibility of related therapies for dominant-acting mutations in this gene.

Bowne, Sara J; Humphries, Marian M; Sullivan, Lori S; Kenna, Paul F; Tam, Lawrence C S; Kiang, Anna S; Campbell, Matthew; Weinstock, George M; Koboldt, Daniel C; Ding, Li; Fulton, Robert S; Sodergren, Erica J; Allman, Denis; Millington-Ward, Sophia; Palfi, Arpad; McKee, Alex; Blanton, Susan H; Slifer, Susan; Konidari, Ioanna; Farrar, G Jane; Daiger, Stephen P; Humphries, Peter

2011-01-01

230

A computational approach to identify point mutations associated with occult hepatitis B: significant mutations affect coding regions but not regulative elements of HBV  

PubMed Central

Background Occult Hepatitis B Infection (OBI) is characterized by absence of serum HBsAg and persistence of HBV-DNA in liver tissue, with low to undetectable serum HBV-DNA. The mechanisms underlying OBI remain to be clarified. To evaluate if specific point mutations of HBV genome may be associated with OBI, we applied an approach based on bioinformatics analysis of complete genome HBV sequences. In addition, the feasibility of bioinformatics prediction models to classify HBV infections into OBI and non-OBI by molecular data was evaluated. Methods 41 OBI and 162 non-OBI complete genome sequences were retrieved from GenBank, aligned and subjected to univariable analysis including statistical evaluation. Their S coding region was analyzed for Stop codon mutations too, while S amino acid variability could be evaluated for genotype D only, due to the too small number of available complete genome OBI sequences from other genotypes. Prediction models were derived by multivariable analysis using Logistic Regression, Rule Induction and Random Forest approaches, with extra-sample error estimation by Multiple ten-fold Cross-Validation (MCV). Models were compared by t-test on the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) distributions obtained from the MCV runs for each model against the best-performing model. Results Variations in seven nucleotide positions were significantly associated with OBI, and occurred in 11 out of 41 OBI sequences (26.8%): likely, other mutations did not reach statistical significance due to the small size of OBI dataset. All variations affected at least one HBV coding region, but none of them mapped to regulative elements. All viral proteins, with the only exception of the X, were affected. Stop codons in the S, that might account for absence of serum HBsAg, were not significantly enriched in OBI sequences. In genotype D, amino acid variability in the S was higher in OBI than non-OBI, particularly in the immunodominant region. A Random Forest prediction model showed the best performance, but all models were not satisfactory in terms of specificity, due to the small sample size of OBIs; however results are promising in the perspective of a broader dataset of complete genome OBI sequences. Conclusions Data suggest that point mutations rarely occur in regulative elements of HBV, if ever, and contribute to OBI by affecting different viral proteins, suggesting heterogeneous mechanisms may be responsible for OBI, including, at least in genotype D, an escape mutation mechanism due to imperfect immune control. It appears possible to derive prediction models based on molecular data when a larger set of complete genome OBI sequences will become available.

2011-01-01

231

Lampe1: An ENU-Germline Mutation Causing Spontaneous Hepatosteatosis Identified through Targeted Exon-Enrichment and Next-Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Using a small scale ENU mutagenesis approach we identified a recessive germline mutant, designated Lampe1 that exhibited growth retardation and spontaneous hepatosteatosis. Low resolution mapping based on 20 intercrossed Lampe1 mice revealed linkage to a ?14 Mb interval on the distal site of chromosome 11 containing a total of 285 genes. Exons and 50 bp flanking sequences within the critical region were enriched with sequence capture microarrays and subsequently analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Using this approach 98.1 percent of the targeted DNA was covered with a depth of 10 or more reads per nucleotide and 3 homozygote mutations were identified. Two mutations represented intronic nucleotide changes whereas one mutation affected a splice donor site in intron 11–12 of Palmitoyl Acetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase-1 (Acox1), causing skipping of exon 12. Phenotyping of Acox1Lampe1 mutants revealed a progression from hepatosteatosis to steatohepatitis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. The current approach provides a highly efficient and affordable method to identify causative mutations induced by ENU mutagenesis and animal models relevant to human pathology.

Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Putnam, Patrick; Keddache, Mehdi; Divanovic, Senad; Bezerra, Jorge; Hoebe, Kasper

2011-01-01

232

Exon capture analysis of G protein-coupled receptors identifies activating mutations in GRM3 in melanoma  

PubMed Central

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest human gene family, are important regulators of signaling pathways. However, knowledge of their genetic alterations is limited. In this study, we used exon capture and massively parallel sequencing methods to analyze the mutational status of 734 GPCRs in melanoma. This investigation revealed that one family member, GRM3, was frequently mutated and that one of its mutations clustered within one position. Biochemical analysis of GRM3 alterations revealed that mutant GRM3 selectively regulated the phosphorylation of MEK, leading to increased anchorage-independent growth and migration. Melanoma cells expressing mutant GRM3 had reduced cell growth and cellular migration after short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown of GRM3 or treatment with a selective MEK inhibitor, AZD-6244, which is currently being used in phase 2 clinical trials. Our study yields the most comprehensive map of genetic alterations in the GPCR gene family.

Prickett, Todd D; Wei, Xiaomu; Cardenas-Navia, Isabel; Teer, Jamie K; Lin, Jimmy C; Walia, Vijay; Gartner, Jared; Jiang, Jiji; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Molinolo, Alfredo; Davies, Michael A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Rosenberg, Steven A; Margulies, Elliott H; Samuels, Yardena

2012-01-01

233

GLYCOSYLATION OF THE OCTN2 CARNITINE TRANSPORTER: STUDY OF NATURAL MUTATIONS IDENTIFIED IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY CARNITINE DEFICIENCY  

PubMed Central

Primary carnitine deficiency is caused by impaired activity of the Na+-dependent OCTN2 carnitine/organic cation transporter. Carnitine is essential for entry of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria and its deficiency impairs fatty acid oxidation. Most missense mutations identified in patients with primary carnitine deficiency affect putative transmembrane or intracellular domains of the transporter. Exceptions are the substitutions P46S and R83L located in an extracellular loop close to putative glycosylation sites (N57, N64, and N91) of OCTN2. P46S and R83L impaired glycosylation and maturation of OCTN2 transporters to the plasma membrane. We tested whether glycosylation was essential for the maturation of OCTN2 transporters to the plasma membrane. Substitution of each of the 3 asparagine (N) glycosylation sites with glutamine (Q) decreased carnitine transport. Substitution of two sites at a time caused a further decline in carnitine transport that was fully abolished when all three glycosylation sites were substituted by glutamine (N57Q/N64Q/N91Q). Kinetic analysis of carnitine and sodium-stimulated carnitine transport indicated that all substitutions decreased the Vmax for carnitine transport, but N64Q/N91Q also significantly increased the Km toward carnitine, indicating that these two substitutions affected regions of the transporter important for substrate recognition. Western blot analysis confirmed increased mobility of OCTN2 transporters with progressive substitutions of asparagines 57, 64 and/or 91 with glutamine. Confocal microscopy indicated that glutamine substitutions caused progressive retention of OCTN2 transporters in the cytoplasm, up to full retention (such as that observed with R83L) when all 3 glycosylation sites were substituted. Tunicamycin prevented OCTN2 glycosylation, but it did not impair maturation to the plasma membrane. These results indicate that OCTN2 is physiologically glycosylated and that the P46S and R83L substitutions impair this process. Glycosylation does not affect maturation of OCTN2 transporters to the plasma membrane, but the 3 asparagines that are normally glycosylated are located in a region important for substrate recognition and turnover rate.

di San Filippo, Cristina Amat; Ardon, Orly; Longo, Nicola

2010-01-01

234

Immunohistochemistry for BRAF(V600E) antibody VE1 performed in core needle biopsy samples identifies mutated papillary thyroid cancers.  

PubMed

BRAF(V600E) is the most frequent genetic mutation in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and has been reported as an independent predictor of poor prognosis of these patients. Current guidelines do not recommend the use of BRAF(V600E) mutational analysis on cytologic specimens from fine needle aspiration due to several reasons. Recently, immunohistochemistry using VE1, a mouse anti-human BRAF(V600E) antibody, has been reported as a highly reliable technique in detecting BRAF-mutated thyroid and nonthyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of VE1 immunohistochemistry on microhistologic samples from core needle biopsy (CNB) in identifying BRAF-mutated PTC. A series of 30 nodules (size ranging from 7 to 22?mm) from 30 patients who underwent surgery following CNB were included in the study. All these lesions had had inconclusive cytology. In all cases, both VE1 and BRAF(V600E) genotypes were evaluated. After surgery, final histology demonstrated 21 cancers and 9 benign lesions. CNB correctly diagnosed 20/20 PTC and 5/5 adenomatous nodules. One follicular thyroid cancer and 4 benign lesions were assessed at CNB as uncertain follicular neoplasm. VE1 immunohistochemistry revealed 8 mutated PTC and 22 negative cases. A 100% agreement was found when positive and negative VE1 results were compared with BRAF mutational status. These data are the first demonstration that VE1 immunohistochemistry performed on thyroid CNB samples perfectly matches with genetic analysis of BRAF status. Thus, VE1 antibody can be used on thyroid microhistologic specimens to detect BRAF(V600E)-mutated PTC before surgery. PMID:24570209

Crescenzi, A; Guidobaldi, L; Nasrollah, N; Taccogna, S; Cicciarella Modica, D D; Turrini, L; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Valabrega, S; Giovanella, L; Onetti Muda, A; Trimboli, P

2014-05-01

235

Secondary Variants in Individuals Undergoing Exome Sequencing: Screening of 572 Individuals Identifies High-Penetrance Mutations in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes  

PubMed Central

Genome- and exome-sequencing costs are continuing to fall, and many individuals are undergoing these assessments as research participants and patients. The issue of secondary (so-called incidental) findings in exome analysis is controversial, and data are needed on methods of detection and their frequency. We piloted secondary variant detection by analyzing exomes for mutations in cancer-susceptibility syndromes in subjects ascertained for atherosclerosis phenotypes. We performed exome sequencing on 572 ClinSeq participants, and in 37 genes, we interpreted variants that cause high-penetrance cancer syndromes by using an algorithm that filtered results on the basis of mutation type, quality, and frequency and that filtered mutation-database entries on the basis of defined categories of causation. We identified 454 sequence variants that differed from the human reference. Exclusions were made on the basis of sequence quality (26 variants) and high frequency in the cohort (77 variants) or dbSNP (17 variants), leaving 334 variants of potential clinical importance. These were further filtered on the basis of curation of literature reports. Seven participants, four of whom were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and three of whom did not meet family-history-based referral criteria, had deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. One participant had a deleterious SDHC mutation, which causes paragangliomas. Exome sequencing, coupled with multidisciplinary interpretation, detected clinically important mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes; four of such mutations were in individuals without a significant family history of disease. We conclude that secondary variants of high clinical importance will be detected at an appreciable frequency in exomes, and we suggest that priority be given to the development of more efficient modes of interpretation with trials in larger patient groups.

Johnston, Jennifer J.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Facio, Flavia M.; Ng, David; Singh, Larry N.; Teer, Jamie K.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

2012-01-01

236

Sloan-Kettering study finds testing for mutations identified in squamous cell lung cancer tumors helps personalize treatment  

Cancer.gov

Screening lung cancer tumor samples for cancer-causing, or “driver,” genetic mutations can help physicians tailor patients’ treatments to target those specific mutations... Now, researchers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center have begun testing for three new genetic targets and found that together they occur in approximately 50 percent of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, which affects 40,000 Americans each year. Initial findings of the research will be presented on June 4 at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting.

237

Computational methods for identifying a layered allosteric regulatory mechanism for ALS-causing mutations of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1.  

PubMed

The most prominent form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS, Lou Gehrig's Disease) is caused by mutations of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). SOD1 maintains antioxidant activity under fALS causing mutations, suggesting that the mutations introduce a new, toxic, function. There are 100+ such known mutations that are chemically diverse and spatially distributed across the structure. The common phenotype leads us to propose an allosteric regulatory mechanism hypothesis: SOD1 mutants alter the correlated dynamics of the structure and differentially signal across an inherent allosteric network, thereby driving the disease mechanism at varying rates of efficiency. Two recently developed computational methods for identifying allosteric control sites are applied to the wild type crystal structure, 4 fALS mutant crystal structures, 20 computationally generated fALS mutants and 1 computationally generated non-fALS mutant. The ensemble of mutant structures is used to generate an ensemble of dynamics, from which two allosteric control networks are identified. One network is connected to the catalytic site and thus may be involved in the natural antioxidant function. The second allosteric control network has a locus bordering the dimer interface and thus may serve as a mechanism to modulate dimer stability. Though the toxic function of mutated SOD1 is unknown and likely due to several contributing factors, this study explains how diverse mutations give rise to a common function. This new paradigm for allostery controlled function has broad implications across allosteric systems and may lead to the identification of the key chemical activity of SOD1-linked ALS. PMID:21104697

Schuyler, Adam D; Carlson, Heather A; Feldman, Eva L

2011-02-01

238

Candidate gene analysis of tooth agenesis identifies novel mutations in six genes and suggests significant role for WNT and EDA signaling and allele combinations.  

PubMed

Failure to develop complete dentition, tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly manifested most often as isolated but also as associated with many developmental syndromes. It typically affects third molars or one or few other permanent teeth but severe agenesis is also relatively prevalent. Here we report mutational analyses of seven candidate genes in a cohort of 127 probands with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. 82 lacked more than five permanent teeth excluding third molars, called as oligodontia. We identified 28 mutations, 17 of which were novel. Together with our previous reports, we have identified two mutations in MSX1, AXIN2 and EDARADD, five in PAX9, four in EDA and EDAR, and nine in WNT10A. They were observed in 58 probands (44%), with a mean number of missing teeth of 11.7 (range 4 to 34). Almost all of these probands had severe agenesis. Only few of the probands but several relatives with heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A or EDAR conformed to the common type of non-syndromic tooth agenesis, incisor-premolar hypodontia. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 affected predominantly posterior teeth, whereas both deciduous and permanent incisors were especially sensitive to mutations in EDA and EDAR. Many mutations in EDAR, EDARADD and WNT10A were present in several families. Biallelic or heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A were observed in 32 and hemizygous or heterozygous genotypes of EDA, EDAR or EDARADD in 22 probands. An EDARADD variant were in seven probands present together with variants in EDAR or WNT10A, suggesting combined phenotypic effects of alleles in distinct genes. PMID:23991204

Arte, Sirpa; Parmanen, Satu; Pirinen, Sinikka; Alaluusua, Satu; Nieminen, Pekka

2013-01-01

239

Identifying N60D mutation in ? subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase by bottom-up proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is a multi-subunit enzyme containing ?(2)??'??, which transcribes DNA template to intermediate RNA product in a sequence specific manner. Although most of the subunits are essential for its function, the smallest subunit ? (average molecular mass ? 10,105 Da) can be deleted without affecting bacterial growth. Creating a mutant of the ? subunit can aid in improving the understanding of its role. Sequencing of rpoZ gene that codes for ? subunit from a mutant variant suggested a substitution mutation at position 60 of the protein: asparagine (N) ? aspartic acid (D). This mutation was verified at the protein level by following a typical mass spectrometry (MS) based bottom-up proteomic approach. Characterization of in-gel trypsin digested samples by reverse phase liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) enabled in ascertaining this mutation. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of triply charged [(M + 3H)(3+)] tryptic peptides (residues [53-67]), EIEEGLINNQILDVR from wild-type and EIEEGLIDNQILDVR from mutant, facilitated in unambiguously determining the site of mutation at residue 60. PMID:20730136

Sabareesh, Varatharajan; Sarkar, Paramita; Sardesai, Abhijit A; Chatterji, Dipankar

2010-10-01

240

A genetic screen for modifiers of drosophila Src42A identifies mutations in Egfr, rolled and a novel signaling gene.  

PubMed Central

Drosophila Src42A, a close relative of the vertebrate c-Src, has been implicated in the Ras-Mapk signaling cascade. An allele of Src42A, Su(Raf)1, dominantly suppresses the lethality of partial loss-of-function Raf mutations. To isolate genes involved in the same pathway where Src42A functions, we carried out genetic screens for dominant suppressor mutations that prevented Su(Raf)1 from suppressing Raf. Thirty-six mutations representing at least five genetic loci were recovered from the second chromosome. These are Drosophila EGF Receptor (Egfr), rolled, Src42A, and two other new loci, one of which was named semang (sag). During embryogenesis, sag affects the development of the head, tail, and tracheal branches, suggesting that it participates in the pathways of Torso and DFGF-R1 receptor tyrosine kinases. sag also disrupts the embryonic peripheral nervous system. During the development of imaginal discs, sag affects two processes known to require Egfr signaling: the recruitment of photoreceptor cells and wing vein formation. Thus sag functions in several receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated processes. In addition, sag dominantly enhances the phenotypes associated with loss-of-function Raf and rl, but suppresses those of activated Ras1(V12) mutation. This work provides the first genetic evidence that both Src42A and sag are modulators of RTK signaling.

Zhang, Q; Zheng, Q; Lu, X

1999-01-01

241

TCGA researchers identify potential drug targets, markers for leukemia risk; New study reveals relatively few mutations in AML genomes  

Cancer.gov

Investigators for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have detailed and broadly classified the genomic alterations that frequently underlie the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a deadly cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Their work paints a picture of a cancer marked by relatively few mutations compared to other types of cancer occurring in adults.

242

Whole-exome sequencing identifies a novel ALMS1 mutation (p.Q2051X) in two Japanese brothers with Alstr?m syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose No mutations associated with Alström syndrome (AS), a rare autosomal recessive disease, have been reported in the Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of two brothers with AS in a consanguineous Japanese family. Methods Whole-exome sequencing analysis was performed on two brothers with AS and their unaffected parents. We performed a complete ophthalmic examination, including decimal best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp and funduscopic examination, visual-field and color-vision testing, full-field electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography. Fasting blood tests and systemic examinations were also performed. Results A novel mutation (c.6151C>T in exon 8) in the Alström syndrome 1 (ALMS1) gene that causes a premature termination codon at amino acid 2051 (p.Q2051X), was identified in the homozygous state in the affected brothers and in the heterozygous state in the parents. The ophthalmologic findings for both brothers revealed infantile-onset severe retinal degeneration and visual impairment, marked macular thinning, and severe cataracts. Systemic findings showed hepatic dysfunction, hyperlipidemia, hypogonadism, short stature, and wide feet in both brothers, whereas hearing loss, renal failure, abnormal digits, history of developmental delay, scoliosis, hypertension, and alopecia were not observed in either brother. The older brother exhibited type 2 diabetic mellitus and obesity, whereas the younger brother had hyperinsulinemia and subclinical hypothyroidism. Conclusions A novel ALMS1 mutation was identified by using whole-exome sequencing analysis, which is useful not only to identify a disease causing mutation but also to exclude other gene mutations. Although characteristic ophthalmologic findings and most systemic findings were similar between the brothers, the brothers differed slightly in terms of glucose tolerance and thyroid function.

Katagiri, Satoshi; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Akahori, Masakazu; Furuno, Masaaki; Nishino, Jo; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takeshi

2013-01-01

243

Exome Capture and Massively Parallel Sequencing Identifies a Novel HPSE2 Mutation in a Saudi Arabian Child with Ochoa (Urofacial) Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We describe a child of Middle Eastern descent by first-cousin mating with idiopathic neurogenic bladder and high grade vesicoureteral reflux at 1 year of age, whose characteristic facial grimace led to the diagnosis of Ochoa (Urofacial) syndrome at age 5 years. We used homozygosity mapping, exome capture and paired end sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in the proband. We reviewed the literature with respect to the urologic manifestations of Ochoa syndrome. A large region of marker homozygosity was observed at 10q24, consistent with known autosomal recessive inheritance, family consanguinity and previous genetic mapping in other families with Ochoa syndrome. A homozygous mutation was identified in the proband in HPSE2: c.1374_1378delTGTGC, a deletion of 5 nucleotides in exon 10 that is predicted to lead to a frameshift followed by replacement of 132 C-terminal amino acids with 153 novel amino acids (p.Ala458Alafsdel132ins153). This mutation is novel relative to very recently published mutations in HPSE2 in other families. Early intervention and recognition of Ochoa syndrome with control of risk factors and close surveillance will decrease complications and renal failure.

Al Badr, Wisam; Al Bader, Suha; Otto, Edgar; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Ackley, Todd; Peng, Weiping; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun; Owens, Kailey M.; Bloom, David; Innis, Jeffrey W.

2011-01-01

244

Next-generation sequencing to dissect hereditary nephrotic syndrome in mice identifies a hypomorphic mutation in Lamb2 and models Pierson's syndrome.  

PubMed

The study of mutations causing the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children has greatly advanced our understanding of the kidney filtration barrier. In particular, these genetic variants have illuminated the roles of the podocyte, glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cell in glomerular filtration. However, in a significant number of familial and early onset cases, an underlying mutation cannot be identified, indicating that there are likely to be multiple unknown genes with roles in glomerular permeability. We now show how the combination of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing could be used to identify the range of mutations affecting these pathways. Using this approach, we isolated a novel mouse strain with a viable nephrotic phenotype and used whole-genome sequencing to isolate a causative hypomorphic mutation in Lamb2. This discovery generated a model for one part of the spectrum of human Pierson's syndrome and provides a powerful proof of principle for accelerating gene discovery and improving our understanding of inherited forms of renal disease. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24293254

Bull, Katherine R; Mason, Thomas; Rimmer, Andrew J; Crockford, Tanya L; Silver, Karlee L; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Hough, Tertius A; Chaudhry, Shirine; Roberts, Ian Sd; Goodnow, Christopher C; Cornall, Richard J

2014-05-01

245

Genomic strategy identifies a missense mutation in WD-repeat domain 65 (WDR65) in an individual with Van der Woude syndrome.  

PubMed

Genetic variation in the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) causes and contributes risk for oral clefting disorders. We hypothesized that genes regulated by IRF6 are also involved in oral clefting disorders. We used five criteria to identify potential IRF6 target genes; differential gene expression in skin taken from wild-type and Irf6-deficient murine embryos, localization to the Van der Woude syndrome 2 (VWS2) locus at 1p36-1p32, overlapping expression with Irf6, presence of a conserved predicted-binding site in the promoter region, and a mutant murine phenotype that was similar to the Irf6 mutant mouse. Previously, we observed altered expression for 573 genes; 13 were located in the murine region syntenic to the VWS2 locus. Two of these genes, Wdr65 and Stratifin, met 4 of 5 criteria. Wdr65 was a novel gene that encoded a predicted protein of 1,250 amino acids with two WD domains. As potential targets for Irf6 regulation, we hypothesized that disease-causing mutations will be found in WDR65 and Stratifin in individuals with VWS or VWS-like syndromes. We identified a potentially etiologic missense mutation in WDR65 in a person with VWS who does not have an exonic mutation in IRF6. The expression and mutation data were consistent with the hypothesis that WDR65 was a novel gene involved in oral clefting. PMID:21574244

Rorick, Nicholas K; Kinoshita, Akira; Weirather, Jason L; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; de Lima, Renata L L Ferreira; Dunnwald, Martine; Shanske, Alan L; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Koillinen, Hannele; Kere, Juha; Mansilla, Maria A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Goudy, Steve L; Schutte, Brian C

2011-06-01

246

T1 Measurements Identify Extracellular Volume Expansion in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Sarcomere Mutation Carriers With and Without Left Ventricular Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and a potential substrate for arrhythmias and heart failure. Sarcomere mutations appear to induce profibrotic changes before left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) develops. To further evaluate these processes, we used cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with T1 measurements on a genotyped HCM population to quantify myocardial extracellular volume (ECV). Methods and Results Sarcomere mutation carriers with LVH (G+/LVH+, n = 37) and without LVH (G+/LVH?, n = 29); HCM patients without mutations (sarcomere-negative HCM, n = 11); and healthy controls (n = 11) underwent contrast CMR, measuring T1 times pre- and post-gadolinium infusion. Concurrent echocardiography and serum biomarkers of collagen synthesis, hemodynamic stress, and myocardial injury were also available in a subset. Compared to controls, ECV was increased in patients with overt HCM, as well as G+/LVH? mutation carriers (ECV= 0.36±0.01, 0.33±0.01, 0.27±0.01 in G+/LVH+, G+/LVH?, controls, respectively, P?0.001 for all comparisons). ECV correlated with NT-proBNP levels (r = 0.58, P<0.001) and global E’ velocity (r = ?0.48, P<0.001). Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in >60% of overt HCM patients but absent from G+/LVH? subjects. Both ECV and LGE were more extensive in sarcomeric HCM than sarcomere-negative HCM. Conclusions Myocardial ECV is increased in HCM sarcomere mutation carriers even in the absence of LVH. These data provide additional support that fibrotic remodeling is triggered early in disease pathogenesis. Quantifying ECV may help characterize the development myocardial fibrosis in HCM and ultimately assist in developing novel disease-modifying therapy, targeting interstitial fibrosis.

Ho, Carolyn Y.; Abbasi, Siddique A.; Neilan, Tomas G.; Shah, Ravi V.; Chen, Yucheng; Heydari, Bobak; Cirino, Allison L.; Lakdawala, Neal K.; Orav, E. John; Gonzalez, Arantxa; Lopez, Begona; Diez, Javier; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y.

2013-01-01

247

Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel compound heterozygous mutations in USH2A in Spanish patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy characterized by extreme genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Thus, the diagnosis is not always easily performed due to phenotypic and genetic overlap. Current clinical practices have focused on the systematic evaluation of a set of known genes for each phenotype, but this approach may fail in patients with inaccurate diagnosis or infrequent genetic cause. In the present study, we investigated the genetic cause of autosomal recessive RP (arRP) in a Spanish family in which the causal mutation has not yet been identified with primer extension technology and resequencing. Methods We designed a whole-exome sequencing (WES)-based approach using NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome V3 sample preparation kit and the SOLiD 5500×l next-generation sequencing platform. We sequenced the exomes of both unaffected parents and two affected siblings. Exome analysis resulted in the identification of 43,204 variants in the index patient. All variants passing filter criteria were validated with Sanger sequencing to confirm familial segregation and absence in the control population. In silico prediction tools were used to determine mutational impact on protein function and the structure of the identified variants. Results Novel Usher syndrome type 2A (USH2A) compound heterozygous mutations, c.4325T>C (p.F1442S) and c.15188T>G (p.L5063R), located in exons 20 and 70, respectively, were identified as probable causative mutations for RP in this family. Family segregation of the variants showed the presence of both mutations in all affected members and in two siblings who were apparently asymptomatic at the time of family ascertainment. Clinical reassessment confirmed the diagnosis of RP in these patients. Conclusions Using WES, we identified two heterozygous novel mutations in USH2A as the most likely disease-causing variants in a Spanish family diagnosed with arRP in which the cause of the disease had not yet been identified with commonly used techniques. Our data reinforce the clinical role of WES in the molecular diagnosis of highly heterogeneous genetic diseases where conventional genetic approaches have previously failed in achieving a proper diagnosis.

Mendez-Vidal, Cristina; Gonzalez-del Pozo, Maria; Vela-Boza, Alicia; Santoyo-Lopez, Javier; Lopez-Domingo, Francisco J.; Vazquez-Marouschek, Carmen; Dopazo, Joaquin; Borrego, Salud

2013-01-01

248

Two novel exonic point mutations in HEXA identified in a juvenile Tay-Sachs patient: role of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.  

PubMed

We have identified three mutations in the beta-hexoseaminidase A (HEXA) gene in a juvenile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) patient, which exhibited a reduced level of HEXA mRNA. Two mutations are novel, c.814G>A (p.Gly272Arg) and c.1305C>T (p.=), located in exon 8 and in exon 11, respectively. The third mutation, c.1195A>G (p.Asn399Asp) in exon 11, has been previously characterized as a common polymorphism in African-Americans. Hex A activity measured in TSD Glial cells, transfected with HEXA cDNA constructs bearing these mutations, was unaltered from the activity level measured in normal HEXA cDNA. Analysis of RT-PCR products revealed three aberrant transcripts in the patient, one where exon 8 was absent, one where exon 11 was absent and a third lacking both exons 10 and 11. All three novel transcripts contain frameshifts resulting in premature termination codons (PTCs). Transfection of mini-gene constructs carrying the c.814G>A and c.1305C>T mutations proved that the two mutations result in exon skipping. mRNAs that harbor a PTC are detected and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway to prevent synthesis of abnormal proteins. However, although NMD is functional in the patient's fibroblasts, aberrant transcripts are still present. We suggest that the level of correctly spliced transcripts as well as the efficiency in which NMD degrade the PTC-containing transcripts, apparently plays an important role in the phenotype severity of the unique patient and thus should be considered as a potential target for drug therapy. PMID:20363167

Levit, A; Nutman, D; Osher, E; Kamhi, E; Navon, R

2010-06-01

249

Factor XII Shizuoka, a novel mutation (Ala392Thr) identified and characterized in a patient with congenital coagulation factor XII deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified a novel mutation (Ala392Thr) in the factor XII (FXII) gene of a patient with congenital FXII deficiency, designated Factor XII Shizuoka. The proband was an asymptomatic 63-year-old Japanese male with an abnormal coagulation test, discovered by chance during preoperative testing. The FXII activity was under 3% and antigen level was under 10%. Sequence analysis of the proband's FXII

Shuji Oguchi; Keiko Ishii; Takanori Moriki; Eiko Takeshita; Mitsuru Murata; Yasuo Ikeda; Kiyoaki Watanabe

2005-01-01

250

APOA5 Q97X Mutation Identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family  

PubMed Central

Background Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis) were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. Methods We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel). Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. Results A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter) found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. Conclusion The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family.

2012-01-01

251

Homozygosity mapping approach identifies a missense mutation in equine cyclophilin B ( PPIB) associated with HERDA in the American Quarter Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), a degenerative skin disease that affects the Quarter Horse breed, was localized to ECA1 by homozygosity mapping. Comparative genomics allowed the development of equine gene-specific markers which were used with a set of affected horses to detect a homozygous, identical-by-descent block spanning ?2.5 Mb, suggesting a recent origin for the HERDA mutation. We report a

Robert C. Tryon; Stephen D. White; Danika L. Bannasch

2007-01-01

252

Audioprofile-directed screening identifies novel mutations in KCNQ4 causing hearing loss at the DFNA2 locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Gene identification in small families segregating autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss presents a significant challenge. To address this challenge, we have developed a machine learning-based software tool, AudioGene v2.0, to prioritize candidate genes for mutation screening based on audioprofiling. METHODS: We analyzed audiometric data from a cohort of American families with high-frequency autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss. Those families

Michael S. Hildebrand; Dylan Tack; Sarah J. McMordie; Adam DeLuca; In Ae Hur; Carla Nishimura; Patrick Huygen; Thomas L. Casavant; Richard J. H. Smith

2008-01-01

253

Exome Sequencing and Systems Biology Converge to Identify Novel Mutations in the L-Type Calcium Channel, CACNA1C, Linked to Autosomal Dominant Long QT Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is the most common cardiac channelopathy with 15 elucidated LQTS-susceptibility genes. Approximately 20% of LQTS cases remain genetically elusive. Methods and Results We combined whole exome sequencing (WES) and bioinformatic/systems biology to identify the pathogenic substrate responsible for non-syndromic, genotype-negative, autosomal dominant LQTS in a multigenerational pedigree and established the spectrum and prevalence of variants in the elucidated gene among a cohort of 102 unrelated patients with “genotype-negative/phenotype-positive” LQTS. WES was utilized on three members within a genotype-negative/phenotype-positive family. Genomic triangulation combined with bioinformatic tools and ranking algorithms led to the identification of a CACNA1C mutation. This mutation, Pro857Arg-CACNA1C, co-segregated with the disease within the pedigree, was ranked by three disease-network algorithms as the most probable LQTS-susceptibility gene, and involves a conserved residue localizing to the PEST domain in the II–III linker. Functional studies reveal that Pro857Arg-CACNA1C leads to a gain-of-function with increased ICa,L and increased surface membrane expression of the channel compared to wildtype. Subsequent mutational analysis identified 3 additional variants within CACNA1C in our cohort of 102 unrelated cases of genotype-negative/phenotype-positive LQTS. Two of these variants also involve conserved residues within Cav1.2’s PEST domain. Conclusions This study provides evidence that coupling WES and bioinformatic/systems biology is an effective strategy for the identification of potential disease causing genes/mutations. The identification of a functional CACNA1C mutation co-segregating with disease in a single pedigree suggests that CACNA1C perturbations may underlie autosomal dominant LQTS in the absence of Timothy syndrome.

Boczek, Nicole J.; Best, Jabe M.; Tester, David J.; Giudicessi, John R.; Middha, Sumit; Evans, Jared M.; Kamp, Timothy J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

2013-01-01

254

Diagnostic exome sequencing identifies two novel IQSEC2 mutations associated with X-linked intellectual disability with seizures: implications for genetic counseling and clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

Intellectual disability is a heterogeneous disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Over 1,700 OMIM genes have been associated with this condition, many of which reside on the X-chromosome. The IQSEC2 gene is located on chromosome Xp11.22 and is known to play a significant role in the maintenance and homeostasis of the brain. Mutations in IQSEC2 have been historically associated with nonsyndromic X-linked intellectual disability. Case reports of affected probands show phenotypic overlap with conditions associated with pathogenic MECP2, FOXG1, CDKL5, and MEF2C gene mutations. Affected individuals, however, have also been identified as presenting with additional clinical features including seizures, autistic-behavior, psychiatric problems, and delayed language skills. To our knowledge, only 5 deleterious mutations and 2 intragenic duplications have been previously reported in IQSEC2. Here we report two novel IQSEC2 de novo truncating mutations identified through diagnostic exome sequencing in two severely affected unrelated male probands manifesting developmental delay, seizures, hypotonia, plagiocephaly, and abnormal MRI findings. Overall, diagnostic exome sequencing established a molecular diagnosis for two patients in whom traditional testing methods were uninformative while expanding on the mutational and phenotypic spectrum. In addition, our data suggests that IQSEC2 may be more common than previously appreciated, accounting for approximately 9 % (2/22) of positive findings among patients with seizures referred for diagnostic exome sequencing. Further, these data supports recently published data suggesting that IQSEC2 plays a more significant role in the development of X-linked intellectual disability with seizures than previously anticipated. PMID:24306141

Gandomi, Stephanie K; Farwell Gonzalez, K D; Parra, M; Shahmirzadi, L; Mancuso, J; Pichurin, P; Temme, R; Dugan, S; Zeng, W; Tang, Sha

2014-06-01

255

Exome sequencing identifies a novel EP300 frame shift mutation in a patient with features that overlap Cornelia de Lange syndrome.  

PubMed

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) and Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are genetically heterogeneous multiple anomalies syndromes, each having a distinctive facial gestalt. Two genes (CREBBP and EP300) are known to cause RTS, and five (NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and HDAC8) have been associated with CdLS. A diagnosis of RTS or CdLS is molecularly confirmed in only 65% of clinically identified cases, suggesting that additional causative genes exist for both conditions. In addition, although EP300 and CREBBP encode homologous proteins and perform similar functions, only eight EP300 positive RTS patients have been reported, suggesting that patients with EP300 mutations might be escaping clinical recognition. We report on a child with multiple congenital abnormalities and intellectual disability whose facial features and complex phenotype resemble CdLS. However, no mutations in CdLS-related genes were identified. Rather, a novel EP300 mutation was found on whole exome sequencing. Possible links between EP300 and genes causing CdLS are evident in the literature. Both EP300 and HDAC8 are involved in the regulation of TP53 transcriptional activity. In addition, p300 and other chromatin associated proteins, including NIPBL, SMCA1, and SMC3, have been found at enhancer regions in different cell types. It is therefore possible that EP300 and CdLS-related genes are involved in additional shared pathways, producing overlapping phenotypes. As whole exome sequencing becomes more widely utilized, the diverse phenotypes associated with EP300 mutations should be better understood. In the meantime, testing for EP300 mutations in those with features of CdLS may be warranted. PMID:24352918

Woods, Susan A; Robinson, Haynes B; Kohler, Lisa J; Agamanolis, Dimitris; Sterbenz, George; Khalifa, Mohamed

2014-01-01

256

Exome sequencing identifies a novel mutation in PIK3R1 as the cause of SHORT syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance. Case presentation In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing approaches in two patients with clinical features of SHORT syndrome. We report the finding of a novel mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8), as well as a recurrent mutation c.1945C > T (p.Arg649Trp) in this gene. Conclusions We found a novel frameshift mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8) which consists of a deletion right before the site of substrate recognition. As a consequence, the protein lacks the position that interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue of the substrate, resulting in the development of SHORT syndrome.

2014-01-01

257

Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland)

2010-10-08

258

The Ketel(D) dominant-negative mutations identify maternal function of the Drosophila importin-beta gene required for cleavage nuclei formation.  

PubMed Central

The Ketel(D) dominant female-sterile mutations and their ketel(r) revertant alleles identify the Ketel gene, which encodes the importin-beta (karyopherin-beta) homologue of Drosophila melanogaster. Embryogenesis does not commence in the Ketel(D) eggs deposited by the Ketel(D)/+ females due to failure of cleavage nuclei formation. When injected into wild-type cleavage embryos, cytoplasm of the Ketel(D) eggs does not inhibit nuclear protein import but prevents cleavage nuclei formation following mitosis. The Ketel(+) transgenes slightly reduce effects of the Ketel(D) mutations. The paternally derived Ketel(D) alleles act as recessive zygotic lethal mutations: the Ketel(D)/- hemizygotes, like the ketel(r)/ketel(r) and the ketel(r)/- zygotes, perish during second larval instar. The Ketel maternal dowry supports their short life. The Ketel(D)-related defects originate most likely following association of the Ketel(D)-encoded mutant molecules with a maternally provided partner. As in the Ketel(D) eggs, embryogenesis does not commence in eggs of germline chimeras with ketel(r)/- germline cells and normal soma, underlining the dominant-negative nature of the Ketel(D) mutations. The ketel(r) homozygous clones are fully viable in the follicle epithelium in wings and tergites. The Ketel gene is not expressed in most larval tissues, as revealed by the expression pattern of a Ketel promoter-lacZ reporter gene.

Tirian, L; Puro, J; Erdelyi, M; Boros, I; Papp, B; Lippai, M; Szabad, J

2000-01-01

259

A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome due to anti-factor H antibody in a patient presenting with a factor XII deficiency identified two novel mutations.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old boy with pallor and macrohematuria showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. There was no history of diarrhea and the stool culture was negative. A diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was confirmed; however, the cause of the prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was unknown. Plasma exchange and hemodialysis were performed because of progressive hemolytic anemia and renal dysfunction. Fresh frozen plasma was administered frequently to correct the prolonged APTT after hemolysis was controlled and C3 levels had recovered. Factor H (FH) and factor I (IF) levels were normal and we did not detect mutations of FH, IF and membrane cofactor protein. Further investigation revealed the presence of anti-FH antibody in the patient's plasma and a deficiency of coagulation factor XII. Analysis of the patient's coagulation system displayed <3% functional activity of factor XII, whereas levels of other coagulation factors were within the normal range. Two novel mutations (W222G and R447S) were identified upon analysis of the factor XII gene in this patient. Moreover, further investigation revealed that compound heterozygous mutations were present in two of the patient's three siblings, while the third sibling only had a mutation at W222G. The patient was treated for atypical HUS; however, no treatment was required for factor XII deficiency as he did not display a hemorrhagic tendency. We report here a rare case of atypical HUS due to anti-FH antibody presenting with a coagulation factor XII deficiency. PMID:21271273

Matsukuma, Eiji; Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Kuroyanagi, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Takuji; Iwasa, Mitsuji; Yamakawa, Satoshi; Nagai, Takuhito; Takagi, Nobuaki; Mae, Hiromu; Iijima, Kenji; Bresin, Elena

2011-04-01

260

Proteomic Profile Identifies Dysregulated Pathways in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Cells With Distinct Mutations in SMC1A and SMC3 Genes  

PubMed Central

Mutations in cohesin genes have been identified in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms are still poorly understood. To define biochemical pathways that are affected in CdLS we analyzed the proteomic profile of CdLS cell lines carrying mutations in the core cohesin genes, SMC1A and SMC3. Dysregulated protein expression was found in CdLS probands compared to controls. The proteomics analysis was able to discriminate between probands harboring mutations in the different domains of the SMC proteins. In particular, proteins involved in the response to oxidative stress were specifically down-regulated in hinge mutated probands. In addition, the finding that CdLS cell lines show an increase in global oxidative stress argues that it could contribute to some CdLS phenotypic features such as premature physiological aging and genome instability. Finally, the c-MYC gene represents a convergent hub lying at the center of dysregulated pathways, and is down-regulated in CdLS. This study allowed us to highlight, for the first time, specific biochemical pathways that are affected in CdLS, providing plausible causal evidence for some of the phenotypic features seen in CdLS.

Gimigliano, Anna; Mannini, Linda; Bianchi, Laura; Puglia, Michele; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Menga, Stefania; Krantz, Ian D; Musio, Antonio; Bini, Luca

2012-01-01

261

Proteomic profile identifies dysregulated pathways in Cornelia de Lange syndrome cells with distinct mutations in SMC1A and SMC3 genes.  

PubMed

Mutations in cohesin genes have been identified in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms are still poorly understood. To define biochemical pathways that are affected in CdLS, we analyzed the proteomic profile of CdLS cell lines carrying mutations in the core cohesin genes, SMC1A and SMC3. Dysregulated protein expression was found in CdLS probands compared to controls. The proteomics analysis was able to discriminate between probands harboring mutations in the different domains of the SMC proteins. In particular, proteins involved in the response to oxidative stress were specifically down-regulated in hinge mutated probands. In addition, the finding that CdLS cell lines show an increase in global oxidative stress argues that it could contribute to some CdLS phenotypic features such as premature physiological aging and genome instability. Finally, the c-MYC gene represents a convergent hub lying at the center of dysregulated pathways, and is down-regulated in CdLS. This study allowed us to highlight, for the first time, specific biochemical pathways that are affected in CdLS, providing plausible causal evidence for some of the phenotypic features seen in CdLS. PMID:23106691

Gimigliano, Anna; Mannini, Linda; Bianchi, Laura; Puglia, Michele; Deardorff, Matthew A; Menga, Stefania; Krantz, Ian D; Musio, Antonio; Bini, Luca

2012-12-01

262

Deep intronic mutation in OFD1, identified by targeted genomic next-generation sequencing, causes a severe form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP23)  

PubMed Central

X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is genetically heterogeneous with two causative genes identified, RPGR and RP2. We previously mapped a locus for a severe form of XLRP, RP23, to a 10.71 Mb interval on Xp22.31-22.13 containing 62 genes. Candidate gene screening failed to identify a causative mutation, so we adopted targeted genomic next-generation sequencing of the disease interval to determine the molecular cause of RP23. No coding variants or variants within or near splice sites were identified. In contrast, a variant deep within intron 9 of OFD1 increased the splice site prediction score 4 bp upstream of the variant. Mutations in OFD1 cause the syndromic ciliopathies orofaciodigital syndrome-1, which is male lethal, Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome type 2 and Joubert syndrome. We tested the effect of the IVS9+706A>G variant on OFD1 splicing in vivo. In RP23 patient-derived RNA, we detected an OFD1 transcript with the insertion of a cryptic exon spliced between exons 9 and 10 causing a frameshift, p.N313fs.X330. Correctly spliced OFD1 was also detected in patient-derived RNA, although at reduced levels (39%), hence the mutation is not male lethal. Our data suggest that photoreceptors are uniquely susceptible to reduced expression of OFD1 and that an alternative disease mechanism can cause XLRP. This disease mechanism of reduced expression for a syndromic ciliopathy gene causing isolated retinal degeneration is reminiscent of CEP290 intronic mutations that cause Leber congenital amaurosis, and we speculate that reduced dosage of correctly spliced ciliopathy genes may be a common disease mechanism in retinal degenerations.

Webb, Tom R.; Parfitt, David A.; Gardner, Jessica C.; Martinez, Ariadna; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Davidson, Alice E.; Zito, Ilaria; Thiselton, Dawn L.; Ressa, Jacob H.C.; Apergi, Marina; Schwarz, Nele; Kanuga, Naheed; Michaelides, Michel; Cheetham, Michael E.; Gorin, Michael B.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

2012-01-01

263

Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO15A gene in autosomal recessive hearing loss identified by whole-exome sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Inherited genetic defects play an important role in congenital hearing loss, contributing to about 60% of deafness occurring in infants. Hereditary nonsyndromic hearing loss is highly heterogeneous, and most patients with a presumed genetic etiology lack a specific molecular diagnosis. Methods By whole exome sequencing, we identified responsible gene of family 4794 with autosomal recessively nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). We also used DNA from 56 Chinese familial patients with ARNSHL (autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss) and 108 ethnicity-matched negative samples to perform extended variants analysis. Results We identified MYO15A c.IVS25?+?3G?>?A and c.8375 T?>?C (p.V2792A) as the disease-causing mutations. Both mutations co-segregated with hearing loss in family 4794, but were absent in the 56 index patients and 108 ethnicity-matched controls. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the hearing loss of family 4794 was caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO15A.

2013-01-01

264

Whole-exome sequencing, without prior linkage, identifies a mutation in LAMB3 as a cause of dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta  

PubMed Central

The conventional approach to identifying the defective gene in a family with an inherited disease is to find the disease locus through family studies. However, the rapid development and decreasing cost of next generation sequencing facilitates a more direct approach. Here, we report the identification of a frameshift mutation in LAMB3 as a cause of dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Whole-exome sequencing of three affected family members and subsequent filtering of shared variants, without prior genetic linkage, sufficed to identify the pathogenic variant. Simultaneous analysis of multiple family members confirms segregation, enhancing the power to filter the genetic variation found and leading to rapid identification of the pathogenic variant. LAMB3 encodes a subunit of Laminin-5, one of a family of basement membrane proteins with essential functions in cell growth, movement and adhesion. Homozygous LAMB3 mutations cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and enamel defects are seen in JEB cases. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of dominant AI due to a LAMB3 mutation in the absence of JEB.

Poulter, James A; El-Sayed, Walid; Shore, Roger C; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J

2014-01-01

265

Whole-exome sequencing, without prior linkage, identifies a mutation in LAMB3 as a cause of dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta.  

PubMed

The conventional approach to identifying the defective gene in a family with an inherited disease is to find the disease locus through family studies. However, the rapid development and decreasing cost of next generation sequencing facilitates a more direct approach. Here, we report the identification of a frameshift mutation in LAMB3 as a cause of dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Whole-exome sequencing of three affected family members and subsequent filtering of shared variants, without prior genetic linkage, sufficed to identify the pathogenic variant. Simultaneous analysis of multiple family members confirms segregation, enhancing the power to filter the genetic variation found and leading to rapid identification of the pathogenic variant. LAMB3 encodes a subunit of Laminin-5, one of a family of basement membrane proteins with essential functions in cell growth, movement and adhesion. Homozygous LAMB3 mutations cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and enamel defects are seen in JEB cases. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of dominant AI due to a LAMB3 mutation in the absence of JEB. PMID:23632796

Poulter, James A; El-Sayed, Walid; Shore, Roger C; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J

2014-01-01

266

A quantitative signaling screen identifies CARD11 mutations in the CARD and LATCH domains that induce Bcl10 ubiquitination and human lymphoma cell survival.  

PubMed

Antigen receptor signaling to NF-?B, essential for normal lymphocyte activation, is dysregulated in several types of lymphoma. During normal signaling, the multidomain adapter CARD11 transitions from a closed, inactive state to an open, active scaffold that assembles a multiprotein complex, leading to NF-?B activation. The regulation of CARD11 scaffold function is bypassed by lymphoma-associated oncogenic CARD11 mutations that induce spontaneous signaling. We report an unbiased high-throughput quantitative signaling screen that identifies new CARD11 hyperactive variants and defines a LATCH domain that functions with the CARD to promote CARD11 autoinhibition. Gain-of-function mutations in the LATCH or CARD disrupt inhibitory domain binding, promote Bcl10 association, and induce Bcl10 ubiquitination, NF-?B activation, and human lymphoma cell survival. Our results identify CARD11 mutations with oncogenic potential, provide a mechanistic explanation for their signaling potency, and offer a straightforward method for the discovery of variants that promote the tumorigenesis of NF-?B-dependent lymphomas. PMID:23149938

Chan, Waipan; Schaffer, Thomas B; Pomerantz, Joel L

2013-01-01

267

A Quantitative Signaling Screen Identifies CARD11 Mutations in the CARD and LATCH Domains That Induce Bcl10 Ubiquitination and Human Lymphoma Cell Survival  

PubMed Central

Antigen receptor signaling to NF-?B, essential for normal lymphocyte activation, is dysregulated in several types of lymphoma. During normal signaling, the multidomain adapter CARD11 transitions from a closed, inactive state to an open, active scaffold that assembles a multiprotein complex, leading to NF-?B activation. The regulation of CARD11 scaffold function is bypassed by lymphoma-associated oncogenic CARD11 mutations that induce spontaneous signaling. We report an unbiased high-throughput quantitative signaling screen that identifies new CARD11 hyperactive variants and defines a LATCH domain that functions with the CARD to promote CARD11 autoinhibition. Gain-of-function mutations in the LATCH or CARD disrupt inhibitory domain binding, promote Bcl10 association, and induce Bcl10 ubiquitination, NF-?B activation, and human lymphoma cell survival. Our results identify CARD11 mutations with oncogenic potential, provide a mechanistic explanation for their signaling potency, and offer a straightforward method for the discovery of variants that promote the tumorigenesis of NF-?B-dependent lymphomas.

Chan, Waipan; Schaffer, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

268

A Screen for X-Linked Mutations Affecting Drosophila Photoreceptor Differentiation Identifies Casein Kinase 1? as an Essential Negative Regulator of Wingless Signaling  

PubMed Central

The Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways are essential for normal development and are misregulated in cancer. The casein kinase family of serine/threonine kinases regulates both pathways at multiple levels. However, it has been difficult to determine whether individual members of this family have distinct functions in vivo, due to their overlapping substrate specificities. In Drosophila melanogaster, photoreceptor differentiation is induced by Hedgehog and inhibited by Wingless, providing a sensitive system in which to identify regulators of each pathway. We used a mosaic genetic screen in the Drosophila eye to identify mutations in genes on the X chromosome required for signal transduction. We recovered mutations affecting the transcriptional regulator CREB binding protein, the small GTPase dynamin, the cytoskeletal regulator Actin-related protein 2, and the protein kinase Casein kinase 1?. Consistent with its reported function in the ?-Catenin degradation complex, Casein Kinase 1? mutant cells accumulate ?-Catenin and ectopically induce Wingless target genes. In contrast to previous studies based on RNA interference, we could not detect any effect of the same Casein Kinase 1? mutation on Hedgehog signaling. We thus propose that Casein kinase 1? is essential to allow ?-Catenin degradation and prevent inappropriate Wingless signaling, but its effects on the Hedgehog pathway are redundant with other Casein kinase 1 family members.

Legent, Kevin; Steinhauer, Josefa; Richard, Magali; Treisman, Jessica E.

2012-01-01

269

Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations.  

PubMed

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal brain cancer that arises in the brainstem of children, with no effective treatment and near 100% fatality. The failure of most therapies can be attributed to the delicate location of these tumors and to the selection of therapies on the basis of assumptions that DIPGs are molecularly similar to adult disease. Recent studies have unraveled the unique genetic makeup of this brain cancer, with nearly 80% found to harbor a p.Lys27Met histone H3.3 or p.Lys27Met histone H3.1 alteration. However, DIPGs are still thought of as one disease, with limited understanding of the genetic drivers of these tumors. To understand what drives DIPGs, we integrated whole-genome sequencing with methylation, expression and copy number profiling, discovering that DIPGs comprise three molecularly distinct subgroups (H3-K27M, silent and MYCN) and uncovering a new recurrent activating mutation affecting the activin receptor gene ACVR1 in 20% of DIPGs. Mutations in ACVR1 were constitutively activating, leading to SMAD phosphorylation and increased expression of the downstream activin signaling targets ID1 and ID2. Our results highlight distinct molecular subgroups and novel therapeutic targets for this incurable pediatric cancer. PMID:24705254

Buczkowicz, Pawel; Hoeman, Christine; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Pajovic, Sanja; Letourneau, Louis; Dzamba, Misko; Morrison, Andrew; Lewis, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Zuccaro, Jennifer; Agnihotri, Sameer; Ryall, Scott; Barszczyk, Mark; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; Bourgey, Mathieu; Bourque, Guillaume; Montpetit, Alexandre; Cordero, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Mangerel, Joshua; Tabori, Uri; Ho, King Ching; Huang, Annie; Taylor, Kathryn R; Mackay, Alan; Bendel, Anne E; Nazarian, Javad; Fangusaro, Jason R; Karajannis, Matthias A; Zagzag, David; Foreman, Nicholas K; Donson, Andrew; Hegert, Julia V; Smith, Amy; Chan, Jennifer; Lafay-Cousin, Lucy; Dunn, Sandra; Hukin, Juliette; Dunham, Chris; Scheinemann, Katrin; Michaud, Jean; Zelcer, Shayna; Ramsay, David; Cain, Jason; Brennan, Cameron; Souweidane, Mark M; Jones, Chris; Allis, C David; Brudno, Michael; Becher, Oren; Hawkins, Cynthia

2014-05-01

270

Multiplex genetic cancer testing identifies pathogenic mutations in TP53 and CDH1 in a patient with bilateral breast and endometrial adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Germline genetic testing for familial cancer syndromes is usually performed serially for the most likely genetic causes. In recent years the way genetic testing carried out has changed, as next generation sequencing now allows the simultaneous testing of multiple susceptibility genes at low costs. Case presentation Here, we present a female with bilateral breast cancer and endometrial adenocarcinoma. After simultaneous sequencing of 150 genes (890 kb) associated with hereditary cancer we identified pathogenic mutations in two high-penetrance genes, i.e. TP53 and CDH1 that would most likely not have been elucidated by serial screening of candidate genes. Conclusion As the two mutated genes are located on different chromosomes and cause different cancer syndromes these findings had a tremendous impact not only on genetic counseling of the index patient and her family but also on subsequent surveillance strategies.

2013-01-01

271

Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations in the nucleoside transporter gene SLC29A3 in dysosteosclerosis, a form of osteopetrosis  

PubMed Central

Dysosteosclerosis (DSS) is the form of osteopetrosis distinguished by the presence of skin findings such as red-violet macular atrophy, platyspondyly and metaphyseal osteosclerosis with relative radiolucency of widened diaphyses. At the histopathological level, there is a paucity of osteoclasts when the disease presents. In two patients with DSS, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous missense mutations in SLC29A3 by whole-exome sequencing. This gene encodes a nucleoside transporter, mutations in which cause histiocytosis–lymphadenopathy plus syndrome, a group of conditions with little or no skeletal involvement. This transporter is essential for lysosomal function in mice. We demonstrate the expression of Slc29a3 in mouse osteoclasts in vivo. In monocytes from patients with DSS, we observed reduced osteoclast differentiation and function (demineralization of calcium surface). Our report highlights the pleomorphic consequences of dysfunction of this nucleoside transporter, and importantly suggests a new mechanism for the control of osteoclast differentiation and function.

Campeau, Philippe M.; Lu, James T.; Sule, Gautam; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Bae, Yangjin; Madan, Simran; Hogler, Wolfgang; Shaw, Nicholas J.; Mumm, Steven; Gibbs, Richard A.; Whyte, Michael P.; Lee, Brendan H.

2012-01-01

272

Genetic Variants Associated with Breast Cancer Risk for Ashkenazi Jewish Women with Strong Family Histories but No Identifiable BRCA1/2 Mutation  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to establish genetic risk models is critical for early identification and optimal treatment of breast cancer. For such a model to gain clinical utility, more variants must be identified beyond those discovered in previous genome wide association studies (GWAS). This is especially true for women at high risk because of family history, but without BRCA1/2 mutations. Methods This study incorporates three datasets in a GWAS analysis of women with Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) homogeneous ancestry. Two independent discovery cohorts were comprised of 239 and 238 AJ women with invasive breast cancer or preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ and strong family histories of breast cancer, but lacking the three BRCA1/2 founder mutations, along with 294 and 230 AJ controls, respectively. An independent, third cohort of 203 AJ cases with familial breast cancer history and 263 healthy controls of AJ women was used for validation. Results A total of 19 SNPs were identified as associated with familial breast cancer risk in AJ women. Among these SNPs, 13 were identified from a panel of 109 discovery SNPs, including an FGFR2 haplotype. Additionally, 6 previously identified breast cancer GWAS SNPs were confirmed in this population. Seven of the 19 markers were significant in a multivariate predictive model of familial breast cancer in AJ women, 3 novel SNPs [rs17663555(5q13.2), rs566164(6q21), and rs11075884(16q22.2)], the FGFR2 haplotype, and 3 previously published SNPs [rs13387042(2q35), rs2046210(ESR1), and rs3112612(TOX3)], yielding moderate predictive power with an area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC (receiver-operator characteristic curve) of 0.74. Conclusion Population-specific genetic variants in addition to variants shared with populations of European ancestry may improve breast cancer risk prediction among AJ women from high-risk families without founder BRCA1/2 mutations.

Rinella, Erica S.; Shao, Yongzhao; Yackowski, Lauren; Pramanik, Sreemanta; Oratz, Ruth; Schnabel, Freya; Guha, Saurav; LeDuc, Charles; Campbell, Chris; Klugman, Susan D.; Terry, Mary Beth; Senie, Ruby T.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Daly, Mary; John, Esther M.; Roses, Daniel; Chung, Wendy K.; Ostrer, Harry

2014-01-01

273

High-throughput, pooled sequencing identifies mutations in NUBPL and FOXRED1 in human complex I deficiency  

PubMed Central

Discovering the molecular basis of mitochondrial respiratory chain disease is challenging given the large number of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved. We report a strategy of focused candidate gene prediction, high-throughput sequencing, and experimental validation to uncover the molecular basis of mitochondrial complex I (CI) disorders. We created five pools of DNA from a cohort of 103 patients and then performed deep sequencing of 103 candidate genes to spotlight 151 rare variants predicted to impact protein function. We used confirmatory experiments to establish genetic diagnoses in 22% of previously unsolved cases, and discovered that defects in NUBPL and FOXRED1 can cause CI deficiency. Our study illustrates how large-scale sequencing, coupled with functional prediction and experimental validation, can reveal novel disease-causing mutations in individual patients.

Calvo, Sarah E; Tucker, Elena J; Compton, Alison G; Kirby, Denise M; Crawford, Gabriel; Burtt, Noel P; Rivas, Manuel A; Guiducci, Candace; Bruno, Damien L; Goldberger, Olga A; Redman, Michelle C; Wiltshire, Esko; Wilson, Callum J; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey B; Daly, Mark J; Thorburn, David R; Mootha, Vamsi K

2010-01-01

274

Genetic variation in human serum albumin: a 313 Lys-->Asn mutation in albumin reading identified by PCR analysis.  

PubMed

An early case of bisalbuminaemia was reported in this journal in 1964, with the name Albumin Reading added later. Its use in electrophoretic comparisons led to some new variants being described as 'of the Reading type' on this basis alone. Protein sequencing and DNA studies have since found the single point mutation 313 Lys-->Asn common to this type, but the eponymous variant has not, until recently, been available for study. We now report on its characterisation using PCR analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, a method also applicable to studies of the population distribution of variants. We also draw attention to the need to link clinically-significant effects to individual variants of known structure. PMID:9544457

Savva, D; Li, B; Kragh-Hansen, U; Galliano, M; Minchiotti, L; Tárnoky, A L

1998-02-23

275

High throughput RNAi screening identifies ID1 as a synthetic sick/lethal gene interacting with the common TP53 mutation R175H  

PubMed Central

The TP53 mutation (R175H) is one of the most common mutations in human cancer. It is a highly attractive strategy for cancer therapy to find the genes that lead the R175H-expressing cancer cells. The aim of this study was to identify the synthetic sick/lethal gene interacting with R175H. Using lentiviral bar-coded comprehensive shRNA library and a tetracycline-inducible R175H expressed in the SF126 human glioblastoma cell line (SF126-tet-R175H), we conducted high-throughput screening to identify the candidate genes that induce synthetic sickness/lethality in R175H-expressing cells. We identified 906 candidate gene suppressions that may lead to accelerated cell growth inhibition in the presence of R175H. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) was one of the candidate genes, and its suppression by siRNA resulted in the acceleration of growth inhibition in cell lines both transiently and endogenously expressing R175H but not in TP53-null cell lines or other common p53 mutants (such as R273H). Flow cytometry analysis showed that ID1 suppression resulted in G1 arrest, and the arrest was accelerated by the expression of R175H. ID1 is a synthetic sick/lethal gene that interacts with R175H and is considered to be a novel molecular target for cancer therapy in R175H-expressing cells.

IMAI, HIROO; KATO, SHUNSUKE; SAKAMOTO, YASUHIRO; KAKUDO, YUICHI; SHIMODAIRA, HIDEKI; ISHIOKA, CHIKASHI

2014-01-01

276

Targeted deep resequencing identifies MID2 mutation for X-linked intellectual disability with varied disease severity in a large kindred from India.  

PubMed

We report a novel missense mutation (c.1040G>A, p.Arg347Gln) in MID2, which encodes ubiquitin ligase E3, as the likely cause of X-linked mental retardation in a large kindred. The mutation was observed in all affected and obligate carriers but not in any unaffected males of the family or in population controls (n = 200). When transiently expressed in HEK293T cell line, the mutation was found to abolish the function of the COS domain in the protein. The GFP-tagged mutant protein accumulated in the cytoplasm instead of binding to the cytoskeleton resulting in its altered subcellular localization. Screening of coding exons of this gene in additional 480 unrelated individuals with idiopathic intellectual disability identified another novel variation p.Asn343Ser. This study highlights the growing role of the ubiquitin pathway in intellectual disability and also, the difference in MID2 determined phenotype observed in this study compared with that of its paralogue MID1 reported in literature. PMID:24115387

Geetha, Thenral S; Michealraj, Kulandaimanuvel Antony; Kabra, Madhulika; Kaur, Gurjit; Juyal, Ramesh C; Thelma, B K

2014-01-01

277

Gene expression profiling and candidate gene re-sequencing identifies pathways and mutations important for malignant transformation caused by leukemogenic fusion genes  

PubMed Central

NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) and CALM-AF10 (CA10) are oncogenic fusion proteins produced by recurrent chromosomal translocations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice that express these fusions develop AML with a long latency and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that collaborating genetic events are required for leukemic transformation. We employed genetic techniques to identify both pre-leukemic abnormalities in healthy transgenic mice as well as collaborating events leading to leukemic transformation. Candidate gene resequencing revealed that 6 out of 27 (22%) CA10 AMLs spontaneously acquired a Ras pathway mutation and 8 out of 27 (30%) acquired a Flt3 mutation. Two CA10 AMLs acquired a Flt3 internal-tandem duplication, demonstrating that these mutations can be acquired in murine as well as human AML. Gene expression profiles revealed a marked upregulation of Hox genes, particularly Hoxa5, Hoxa9, and Hoxa10 in both NHD13 and CA10 mice. Furthermore, mir196b, which is embedded within the Hoxa locus, was overexpressed in both CA10 and NHD13 samples. In contrast, the Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx3 were differentially expressed; Meis1 was increased in CA10 AMLs but not NHD13 AMLs, whereas Pbx3 was consistently increased in NHD13 but not CA10 AMLs. Silencing of Pbx3 in NHD13 cells led to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in vitro, suggesting a previously unexpected role for Pbx3 in leukemic transformation.

Novak, Rachel L.; Harper, David P.; Caudell, David; Slape, Christopher; Beachy, Sarah H.; Aplan, Peter D.

2012-01-01

278

In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes  

PubMed Central

Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/ripcal.

2010-01-01

279

De Novo Pathogenic SCN8A Mutation Identified by Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Family Quartet Affected by Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy and SUDEP  

PubMed Central

Individuals with severe, sporadic disorders of infantile onset represent an important class of disease for which discovery of the underlying genetic architecture is not amenable to traditional genetic analysis. Full-genome sequencing of affected individuals and their parents provides a powerful alternative strategy for gene discovery. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on a family quartet containing an affected proband and her unaffected parents and sibling. The 15-year-old female proband had a severe epileptic encephalopathy consisting of early-onset seizures, features of autism, intellectual disability, ataxia, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. We discovered a de novo heterozygous missense mutation (c.5302A>G [p.Asn1768Asp]) in the voltage-gated sodium-channel gene SCN8A in the proband. This mutation alters an evolutionarily conserved residue in Nav1.6, one of the most abundant sodium channels in the brain. Analysis of the biophysical properties of the mutant channel demonstrated a dramatic increase in persistent sodium current, incomplete channel inactivation, and a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of steady-state fast inactivation. Current-clamp analysis in hippocampal neurons transfected with p.Asn1768Asp channels revealed increased spontaneous firing, paroxysmal-depolarizing-shift-like complexes, and an increased firing frequency, consistent with a dominant gain-of-function phenotype in the heterozygous proband. This work identifies SCN8A as the fifth sodium-channel gene to be mutated in epilepsy and demonstrates the value of WGS for the identification of pathogenic mutations causing severe, sporadic neurological disorders.

Veeramah, Krishna R.; O'Brien, Janelle E.; Meisler, Miriam H.; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.; Waxman, Stephen G.; Talwar, Dinesh; Girirajan, Santhosh; Eichler, Evan E.; Restifo, Linda L.; Erickson, Robert P.; Hammer, Michael F.

2012-01-01

280

Reduced mRNA expression in paraffin-embedded tissue identifies MLH1- and MSH2-deficient colorectal tumours and potential mutation carriers.  

PubMed

Based on the principle of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, we sought to identify MLH1 or MSH2-deficient colorectal tumours through relative quantification of mRNA expression with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. MLH1 and MSH2 mRNAs were almost equally expressed as defined by MLH1 to MSH2 transcript ratio (mean 1.41) in microsatellite stable, mismatch repair (MMR) proficient tumours (n = 16). A close correlation between loss of protein expression and MMR-mRNA levels was found in highly microsatellite instable (MSI-H) tumours deficient of MLH1 or MSH2. MLH1/MSH2 ratio was low in 11 sporadic and nine hereditary MLH1-deficient carcinomas (mean 0.51), whereas the ratio was high in 17 MSH2-deficient hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) associated carcinomas (mean 6.8). Notably, in the normal tissues of HNPCC patients with MSH2 mutations, the MLH1/MSH2 transcript ratios were significantly elevated (ratio > 2.0) as compared to the ratios of normal mucosa in patients with MMR-proficient tumours (27 of 32 ratio < 2.0; p = 0.00113). Analysis of B-lymphocytes of HNPCC patients with proven MMR gene mutation confirmed these findings. In conclusion, RT-PCR allows relative quantification of MMR gene mRNA expression in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Furthermore, this approach enables quantification of haploinsufficiency due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in normal tissue and B-lymphocytes from patients carrying MSH2 germline mutations and may be useful for identification of asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic germline mutations. PMID:18581137

Müller, Annegret; Zielinski, Dirk; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Oberschmid, Barbara; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Schackert, Hans K; Linnebacher, Markus; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Büttner, Reinhard; Rüschoff, Josef

2008-07-01

281

An efficient approach to identify ilvA mutations reveals an amino-terminal catalytic domain in biosynthetic threonine deaminase from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

High-level expression of the regulatory enzyme threonine deaminase in Escherichia coli strains grown on minimal medium that are deficient in the activities of enzymes needed for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis result in growth inhibition, possibly because of the accumulation of toxic levels of alpha-ketobutyrate, the product of the committed step in isoleucine biosynthesis. This condition affords a means for selecting genetic variants of threonine deaminase that are deficient in catalysis by suppression of growth inhibition. Strains harboring mutations in ilvA that decreased the catalytic activity of threonine deaminase were found to grow more rapidly than isogenic strains containing wild-type ilvA. Modification of the ilvA gene to introduce additional unique, evenly spaced restriction enzyme sites facilitated the identification of suppressor mutations by enabling small DNA fragments to be subcloned for sequencing. The 10 mutations identified in ilvA code for enzymes with significantly reduced activity relative to that of wild-type threonine deaminase. Values for their specific activities range from 40% of that displayed by wild-type enzyme to complete inactivation as evidenced by failure to complement an ilvA deletion strain to isoleucine prototrophy. Moreover, some mutant enzymes showed altered allosteric properties with respect to valine activation and isoleucine inhibition. The location of the 10 mutations in the 5' two-thirds of the ilvA gene is consistent with suggestions that threonine deaminase is organized functionally with an amino-terminal domain that is involved in catalysis and a carboxy-terminal domain that is important for regulation. PMID:8407838

Fisher, K E; Eisenstein, E

1993-10-01

282

Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies a Mutation in the Thiamine Transporter 2 (SLC19A3) Gene Associated with Alaskan Husky Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Alaskan Husky Encephalopathy (AHE) has been previously proposed as a mitochondrial encephalopathy based on neuropathological similarities with human Leigh Syndrome (LS). We studied 11 Alaskan Husky dogs with AHE, but found no abnormalities in respiratory chain enzyme activities in muscle and liver, or mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes that cause LS in people. A genome wide association study was performed using eight of the affected dogs and 20 related but unaffected control AHs using the Illumina canine HD array. SLC19A3 was identified as a positional candidate gene. This gene controls the uptake of thiamine in the CNS via expression of the thiamine transporter protein THTR2. Dogs have two copies of this gene located within the candidate interval (SLC19A3.2 – 43.36–43.38 Mb and SLC19A3.1 – 43.411–43.419 Mb) on chromosome 25. Expression analysis in a normal dog revealed that one of the paralogs, SLC19A3.1, was expressed in the brain and spinal cord while the other was not. Subsequent exon sequencing of SLC19A3.1 revealed a 4bp insertion and SNP in the second exon that is predicted to result in a functional protein truncation of 279 amino acids (c.624 insTTGC, c.625 C>A). All dogs with AHE were homozygous for this mutation, 15/41 healthy AH control dogs were heterozygous carriers while 26/41 normal healthy AH dogs were wild type. Furthermore, this mutation was not detected in another 187 dogs of different breeds. These results suggest that this mutation in SLC19A3.1, encoding a thiamine transporter protein, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AHE.

Vernau, Karen M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Brown, Emily A.; Cameron, Jessie M.; Huson, Heather J.; Higgins, Robert J.; Ackerley, Cameron; Sturges, Beverly K.; Dickinson, Peter J.; Puschner, Birgit; Giulivi, Cecilia; Shelton, G. Diane; Robinson, Brian H.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Bollen, Andrew W.; Bannasch, Danika L.

2013-01-01

283

Potential RNA Binding Proteins in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Identified as Suppressors of Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Npl3  

PubMed Central

The NPL3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with similarity to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Npl3p has been implicated in many nuclear-related events including RNA export, protein import, and rRNA processing. Several temperature-sensitive alleles of NPL3 have been isolated. We now report the sequence of these alleles. For one allele, npl3-1, four complementation groups of suppressors have been isolated. The cognate genes for the two recessive mutants were cloned. One of these is the previously known RNA15, which, like NPL3, also encodes a protein with similarity to the vertebrate hnRNP A/B protein family. The other suppressor corresponds to a newly defined gene we term HRP1, which also encodes a protein with similarity to the hnRNP A/B proteins of vertebrates. Mutations in HRP1 suppress all npl3 temperature-sensitive alleles but do not bypass an npl3 null allele. We show that HRP1 is essential for cell growth and that the corresponding protein is located in the nucleus. The discovery of two hnRNP homologues that can partially suppress the function of Np13p, also an RNA binding protein, will be discussed in terms of the possible roles for Npl3p in RNA metabolism.

Henry, M.; Borland, C. Z.; Bossie, M.; Silver, P. A.

1996-01-01

284

Agents that stabilize mutated von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein: results of a high-throughput screen to identify compounds that modulate VHL proteostasis.  

PubMed

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organs. Treatment is mainly surgical, and effective systemic therapies are needed. We developed a cell-based screening tool to identify compounds that stabilize or upregulate full-length, point-mutated VHL protein. The 786-0 cell line was infected with full-length W117A-mutated VHL linked to a C-terminal Venus fluorescent protein. This VHL-W117A-Venus line was used to screen the Prestwick drug library and was tested against proteasome inhibitors MG132 and bortezomib. Western blot validation and evaluation of functional readouts, including hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF2?) and glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) levels, were performed. We found that bortezomib, MG132, and the Prestwick compounds 8-azaguanine, thiostrepton, and thioguanosine upregulated VHL-W117A-Venus in 786-0 cells. 8-Azaguanine downregulated HIF2? levels and was augmented by the presence of VHL W117A. VHL p30 band intensities varied as a function of compound used, suggesting alternate posttranslational processing. Nuclear-cytoplasmic localization of VHL-W117A-Venus varied among the different compounds. In conclusion, a 786-0 cell line containing VHL-W117A-Venus was successfully used to identify compounds that upregulate VHL levels, with differential effect on VHL intracellular localization and posttranslational processing. Further screening efforts will broaden the number of pharmacophores available to develop therapeutic agents that will upregulate and refunctionalize mutated VHL. PMID:22357874

Ding, Zhiyong; German, Peter; Bai, Shanshan; Feng, Zhehui; Gao, Meng; Si, Wendy; Sobieski, Mary M; Stephan, Clifford C; Mills, Gordon B; Jonasch, Eric

2012-06-01

285

Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P?=?2.7×10?8, HR?=?1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P?=?1.4×10?8, HR?=?1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P?=?3.4×10?8, HR?=?1.20, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P?=?2×10?4). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%–50% compared to 81%–100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.

Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M.; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Lee, Adam; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Investigators, kConFab; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Caligo, Maria A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M.; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmana, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Arun, Banu K.; Rennert, Gad; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Gomez Garcia, Encarna B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gille, Johannes J. P.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A. M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M.; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T.; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Leone, Melanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Zlowocka-Perlowska, Elzbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Cohn, David E.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M.; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon Paluch, Shani; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; J?nson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teule, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A.; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R.; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Buys, Saundra S.; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A.; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K.; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Lu, Karen H.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; James, Paul A.; Hall, Per

2013-01-01

286

Genome-wide association study in BRCA1 mutation carriers identifies novel loci associated with breast and ovarian cancer risk.  

PubMed

BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 × 10(-8), HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10(-4)). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers. PMID:23544013

Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Lee, Adam; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V O; Neuhausen, Susan L; Szabo, Csilla I; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H; Karlan, Beth Y; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L; Godwin, Andrew K; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S; Southey, Melissa C; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmaña, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Arun, Banu K; Rennert, Gad; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Gille, Johannes J P; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Blok, Marinus J; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Rookus, Matti A; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A M; Wijnen, Juul T; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Side, Lucy E; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Léoné, Mélanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Z?owocka-Per?owska, El?bieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H F; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Blank, Stephanie V; Cohn, David E; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon Paluch, Shani; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C; Jønson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Mai, Phuong L; Loud, Jennifer T; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Buys, Saundra S; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B; Sokolenko, Anna P; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Lu, Karen H; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; James, Paul A; Hall, Per; Dunning, Alison M; Tessier, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie; Slager, Susan L; Wang, Chen; Hart, Steven

2013-01-01

287

Oral and Craniofacial Manifestations and Two Novel Missense Mutations of the NTRK1 Gene Identified in the Patient with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis  

PubMed Central

Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system resulting from mutations in neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 gene (NTRK1), which encodes the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TRKA. Here, we investigated the oral and craniofacial manifestations of a Chinese patient affected by autosomal-recessive CIPA and identified compound heterozygosity in the NTRK1 gene. The affected boy has multisystemic disorder with lack of reaction to pain stimuli accompanied by self-mutilation behavior, the inability to sweat leading to defective thermoregulation, and mental retardation. Oral and craniofacial manifestations included a large number of missing teeth, nasal malformation, submucous cleft palate, severe soft tissue injuries, dental caries and malocclusion. Histopathological evaluation of the skin sample revealed severe peripheral nerve fiber loss as well as mild loss and absent innervation of sweat glands. Ultrastructural and morphometric studies of a shed tooth revealed dental abnormalities, including hypomineralization, dentin hypoplasia, cementogenesis defects and a dysplastic periodontal ligament. Genetic analysis revealed a compound heterozygosity- c.1561T>C and c.2057G>A in the NTRK1 gene. This report extends the spectrum of NTRK1 mutations observed in patients diagnosed with CIPA and provides additional insight for clinical and molecular diagnosis.

Bai, Yudi; Liu, Xin; Yu, Ping; Xue, Yang; Ma, Shufang; Wei, Kewen; Jin, Yan; Wen, Lingying; Xuan, Kun

2013-01-01

288

Targeted Capture and Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies C9orf75, Encoding Taperin, as the Mutated Gene in Nonsyndromic Deafness DFNB79  

PubMed Central

Targeted genome capture combined with next-generation sequencing was used to analyze 2.9 Mb of the DFNB79 interval on chromosome 9q34.3, which includes 108 candidate genes. Genomic DNA from an affected member of a consanguineous family segregating recessive, nonsyndromic hearing loss was used to make a library of fragments covering the DFNB79 linkage interval defined by genetic analyses of four pedigrees. Homozygosity for eight previously unreported variants in transcribed sequences was detected by evaluating a library of 402,554 sequencing reads and was later confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Of these variants, six were determined to be polymorphisms in the Pakistani population, and one was in a noncoding gene that was subsequently excluded genetically from the DFNB79 linkage interval. The remaining variant was a nonsense mutation in a predicted gene, C9orf75, renamed TPRN. Evaluation of the other three DFNB79-linked families identified three additional frameshift mutations, for a total of four truncating alleles of this gene. Although TPRN is expressed in many tissues, immunolocalization of the protein product in the mouse cochlea shows prominent expression in the taper region of hair cell stereocilia. Consequently, we named the protein taperin.

Rehman, Atteeq Ur; Morell, Robert J.; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Khan, Shahid Y.; Boger, Erich T.; Shahzad, Mohsin; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Riazuddin, Saima; Khan, Shaheen N.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B.

2010-01-01

289

Exome Sequencing Identifies a DYNC1H1 Mutation in a Large Pedigree with Dominant Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease  

PubMed Central

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration with distal sensory loss and weakness, deep-tendon-reflex abnormalities, and skeletal deformities. It is caused by mutations in more than 40 genes. We investigated a four-generation family with 23 members affected by the axonal form (type 2), for which the common causes had been excluded by Sanger sequencing. Exome sequencing of three affected individuals separated by eight meioses identified a single shared novel heterozygous variant, c.917A>G, in DYNC1H1, which encodes the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain 1 (here, novel refers to a variant that has not been seen in dbSNP131or the August 2010 release of the 1000 Genomes project). Testing of six additional affected family members showed cosegregation and a maximum LOD score of 3.6. The shared DYNC1H1 gene variant is a missense substitution, p.His306Arg, at a highly conserved residue within the homodimerization domain. Three mouse models with different mutations within this domain have previously been reported with age-related progressive loss of muscle bulk and locomotor ability. Cytoplasmic dynein is a large multisubunit motor protein complex and has a key role in retrograde axonal transport in neurons. Our results highlight the importance of dynein and retrograde axonal transport in neuronal function in humans.

Weedon, Michael N.; Hastings, Robert; Caswell, Richard; Xie, Weijia; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Antoniadi, Thalia; Williams, Maggie; King, Cath; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Ellard, Sian

2011-01-01

290

RET Germline Mutations Identified by Exome Sequencing in a Chinese Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A/Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Family  

PubMed Central

Background Whole exome sequencing provides a labor-saving and direct means of genetic diagnosis of hereditary disorders in which the pathogenic gene harbors a large cohort of exons. We set out to demonstrate a suitable example of genetic diagnosis of MEN 2A/FMTC (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2/familial medullary thyroid carcinoma) using this approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the whole exome of six individuals from a large Chinese MEN2A/FMTC pedigree to identify the variants of the RET (REarranged during Transfection) protooncogene and followed this by validation. Then prophylactic or surgical thyroidectomy with modified or level VI lymph node dissection and adrenalectomy were performed for the carriers. The cases were closely followed up. Massively parallel sequencing revealed four missense mutations of RET. We unexpectedly discovered that the proband's daughter with MEN 2A-related MTC presented a novel p.C634Y/V292M/R67H/R982C compound mutation, due to the involvement of p.C634Y in the proband with MEN 2A and p.V292M/R67H/R982C in the proband's husband with FMTC. In the maternal origin, p.C634Y caused bilateral MTC in all 5 cases and bilateral pheochromocytoma in 2 of the 5; the earliest onset age was 28 years. In the paternal origin, one of the six p.V292M/R67H/R982C carriers presented bilateral MTC (70 years old), one only had bilateral C-cell hyperplasia (44 years), two had bilateral multi-nodules (46 and 48 years) and two showed no abnormality (22 and 19 years). Conclusions/Significance The results confirmed the successful clinical utility of whole exome sequencing, and our data suggested that the p.C634Y/V292M/R67H/R982C mutation of RET exhibited a more aggressive clinical phenotype than p.C634Y or p.V292M/R67H/R982C, while p.V292M/R67H/R982C presented a relatively milder pathogenicity of MTC and likely predisposed to FMTC.

Qi, Xiao-Ping; Ma, Ju-Ming; Du, Zhen-Fang; Ying, Rong-Biao; Fei, Jun; Jin, Hang-Yang; Han, Jian-Shan; Wang, Jin-Quan; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Chun-Yue; Liu, Wen-Ting; Lu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Xian-Ning

2011-01-01

291

Fine mapping and conditional analysis identify a new mutation in the autoimmunity susceptibility gene BLK that leads to reduced half-life of the BLK protein  

PubMed Central

Objectives To perform fine mapping of the autoimmunity susceptibility gene BLK and identify functional variants involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Genotyping of 1163 European SLE patients and 1482 controls and imputation were performed covering the BLK gene with 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Logistic regression analysis was done using PLINK and conditional analyses using GENABEL's test score. Transfections of BLK constructs on HEK293 cells containing the novel mutation or the wild type form were analysed for their effect on protein half-life using a protein stability assay, cycloheximide and western blot. CHiP-qPCR for detection of nuclear factor ? B (NFkB) binding. Results Fine mapping of BLK identified two independent genetic effects with functional consequences: one represented by two tightly linked associated haplotype blocks significantly enriched for NF?B-binding sites and numerous putative regulatory variants whose risk alleles correlated with low BLK mRNA levels. Binding of NFkBp50 and p65 to an associated 1.2 Kb haplotype segment was confirmed. A second independent genetic effect was represented by an Ala71Thr, low-frequency missense substitution with an OR=2.31 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.86). The 71Thr decreased BLK protein half-life. Conclusions These results show that rare and common regulatory variants in BLK are involved in disease susceptibility and both, albeit independently, lead to reduced levels of BLK protein.

Delgado-Vega, Angelica M; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Quiros, Manuel Bernal; Wu, Ying-Yu; Martinez-Garcia, Belen; Kozyrev, Sergey V; Frostegard, Johan; Truedsson, Lennart; de Ramon, Enrique; Gonzalez-Escribano, Maria F; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Witte, Torsten; Lauwerys, Bernard R; Endreffy, Emoke; Kovacs, Laszlo; Vasconcelos, Carlos; da Silva, Berta Martins; Wren, Jonathan D; Martin, Javier; Castillejo-Lopez, Casimiro; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E

2012-01-01

292

Exome sequencing identifies de novo gain of function missense mutation in KCND2 in identical twins with autism and seizures that slows potassium channel inactivation.  

PubMed

Numerous studies and case reports show comorbidity of autism and epilepsy, suggesting some common molecular underpinnings of the two phenotypes. However, the relationship between the two, on the molecular level, remains unclear. Here, whole exome sequencing was performed on a family with identical twins affected with autism and severe, intractable seizures. A de novo variant was identified in the KCND2 gene, which encodes the Kv4.2 potassium channel. Kv4.2 is a major pore-forming subunit in somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium current (ISA) channels. The de novo mutation p.Val404Met is novel and occurs at a highly conserved residue within the C-terminal end of the transmembrane helix S6 region of the ion permeation pathway. Functional analysis revealed the likely pathogenicity of the variant in that the p.Val404Met mutant construct showed significantly slowed inactivation, either by itself or after equimolar coexpression with the wild-type Kv4.2 channel construct consistent with a dominant effect. Further, the effect of the mutation on closed-state inactivation was evident in the presence of auxiliary subunits that associate with Kv4 subunits to form ISA channels in vivo. Discovery of a functionally relevant novel de novo variant, coupled with physiological evidence that the mutant protein disrupts potassium current inactivation, strongly supports KCND2 as the causal gene for epilepsy in this family. Interaction of KCND2 with other genes implicated in autism and the role of KCND2 in synaptic plasticity provide suggestive evidence of an etiological role in autism. PMID:24501278

Lee, Hane; Lin, Meng-Chin A; Kornblum, Harley I; Papazian, Diane M; Nelson, Stanley F

2014-07-01

293

IDH1 and IDH2 Gene Mutations Identify Novel Molecular Subsets Within De Novo Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the frequency and associations with prognostic markers and outcome of mutations in IDH genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenases in adult de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients and Methods Diagnostic bone marrow or blood samples from 358 patients were analyzed for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations by DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification/sequencing. FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, WT1, and MLL mutational analyses and gene- and microRNA-expression profiling were performed centrally. Results IDH mutations were found in 33% of the patients. IDH1 mutations were detected in 49 patients (14%; 47 with R132). IDH2 mutations, previously unreported in AML, were detected in 69 patients (19%; 13 with R172 and 56 with R140). R172 IDH2 mutations were mutually exclusive with all other prognostic mutations analyzed. Younger age (< 60 years), molecular low-risk (NPM1-mutated/FLT3-internal tandem duplication–negative) IDH1-mutated patients had shorter disease-free survival than molecular low-risk IDH1/IDH2-wild-type (wt) patients (P = .046). R172 IDH2-mutated patients had lower complete remission rates than IDH1/IDH2wt patients (P = .007). Distinctive microarray gene- and microRNA-expression profiles accurately predicted R172 IDH2 mutations. The highest expressed gene and microRNAs in R172 IDH2-mutated patients compared with the IDH1/IDH2wt patients were APP (previously associated with complex karyotype AML) and miR-1 and miR-133 (involved in embryonal stem-cell differentiation), respectively. Conclusion IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are recurrent in CN-AML and have an unfavorable impact on outcome. The R172 IDH2 mutations, previously unreported in AML, characterize a novel subset of CN-AML patients lacking other prognostic mutations and associate with unique gene- and microRNA-expression profiles that may lead to the discovery of novel, therapeutically targetable leukemogenic mechanisms.

Marcucci, Guido; Maharry, Kati; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Radmacher, Michael D.; Mrozek, Krzysztof; Margeson, Dean; Holland, Kelsi B.; Whitman, Susan P.; Becker, Heiko; Schwind, Sebastian; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Powell, Bayard L.; Carter, Thomas H.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Wetzler, Meir; Carroll, Andrew J.; Baer, Maria R.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

2010-01-01

294

Phage-display and correlated mutations identify an essential region of subdomain 1C involved in homodimerization of Escherichia coli FtsA.  

PubMed

FtsA plays an essential role in Escherichia coli cell division and is nearly ubiquitous in eubacteria. Several evidences postulated the ability of FtsA to interact with other septation proteins and with itself. To investigate these binding properties, we screened a phage-display library with FtsA. The isolated peptides defined a degenerate consensus sequence, which in turn displayed a striking similarity with residues 126-133 of FtsA itself. This result suggested that residues 126-133 were involved in homodimerization of FtsA. The hypothesis was supported by the analysis of correlated mutations, which identified a mutual relationship between a group of amino acids encompassing the ATP-binding site and a set of residues immediately downstream to amino acids 126-133. This information was used to assemble a model of a FtsA homodimer, whose accuracy was confirmed by probing multiple alternative docking solutions. Moreover, a prediction of residues responsible for protein-protein interaction validated the proposed model and confirmed once more the importance of residues 126-133 for homodimerization. To functionally characterize this region, we introduced a deletion in ftsA, where residues 126-133 were skipped. This mutant failed to complement conditional lethal alleles of ftsA, demonstrating that amino acids 126-133 play an essential role in E. coli. PMID:12486713

Carettoni, Daniele; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Yim, Lucía; Mingorance, Jesús; Massidda, Orietta; Vicente, Miguel; Valencia, Alfonso; Domenici, Enrico; Anderluzzi, Daniela

2003-02-01

295

Modelling, substrate docking and mutational analysis identify residues essential for function and specificity of the major fungal purine transporter AzgA.  

PubMed

The AzgA purine/H(+) symporter of Aspergillus nidulans is the founding member of a functionally and phylogenetically distinct transporter family present in fungi, bacteria and plants. Here a valid AzgA topological model is built based on the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli uracil transporter UraA, a member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT/NCS2) family. The model consists of 14 transmembrane, mostly ?-helical, segments (TMSs) and cytoplasmic N- and C-tails. A distinct compact core of 8 TMSs, made of two intertwined inverted repeats (TMSs 1-4 and 8-11), is topologically distinct from a flexible domain (TMSs 5-7 and 12-14). A putative substrate binding cavity is visible between the core and the gate domains. Substrate docking, molecular dynamics and mutational analysis identified several residues critical for purine binding and/or transport in TMS3, TMS8 and TMS10. Among these, Asn131 (TMS3), Asp339 (TMS8) and Glu394 (TMS10) are proposed to directly interact with substrates, while Asp342 (TMS8) might be involved in subsequent substrate translocation, through H(+) binding and symport. Thus, AzgA and other NAT transporters use topologically similar TMSs and amino acid residues for substrate binding and transport, which in turn implies that AzgA-like proteins constitute a distant subgroup of the ubiquitous NAT family. PMID:24818808

Krypotou, Emilia; Lambrinidis, George; Evangelidis, Thomas; Mikros, Emmanuel; Diallinas, George

2014-07-01

296

Point mutations identify a conserved region of the saccharomyces cerevisiae AFR1 gene that is essential for both the pheromone signaling and morphogenesis functions.  

PubMed Central

Mating pheromone receptors activate a G protein signal pathway that leads to the conjugation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This pathway also induces the production of Afr1p, a protein that negatively regulates pheromone receptor signaling and is required to form pointed projections of new growth that become the site of cell fusion during mating. Afr1p lacks strong similarity to any well-characterized proteins to help predict how it acts. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the different functions of Afr1p by isolating and characterizing seven mutants that were defective in regulating pheromone signaling. The AFR1 mutants were also defective when expressed as fusions to STE2, the alpha-factor receptor, indicating that the mutant Afr1 proteins are defective in function and not in co-localizing with receptors. The mutant genes contained four distinct point mutations that all occurred between codons 254 and 263, identifying a region that is critical for AFR1 function. Consistent with this, we found that the corresponding region is very highly conserved in the Afr1p homologs from the yeasts S. uvarum and S. douglasii. In contrast, there were no detectable effects on pheromone signaling caused by deletion or overexpression of YER158c, an open reading frame with overall sequence similarity to Afr1p that lacks this essential region. Interestingly, all of the AFR1 mutants showed a defect in their ability to form mating projections that was proportional to their defect in regulating pheromone signaling. This suggests that both functions may be due to the same action of Afr1p. Thus, these studies identify a specific region of Afr1p that is critical for its function in both signaling and morphogenesis.

DeMattei, C R; Davis, C P; Konopka, J B

2000-01-01

297

A new approach for identifying non-pathogenic mutations. An analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene in normal individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given q as the global frequency of the alleles causing a disease, any allele with a frequency higher than q minus the cumulative frequency of the previously known disease-causing mutations (threshold) cannot be the cause of that disease. This principle was applied to the analysis of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations in order to decide whether they are

Cristina Bombieri; Silvia Giorgi; Soukeyna Carles; Rafael de Cid; Francesca Belpinati; Caterina Tandoi; Nathalie Pallares-Ruiz; Conxi Lazaro; Bianca Maria Ciminelli; Marie-Catherine Romey; Teresa Casals; Fiorenza Pompei; Giorgio Gandini; Mireille Claustres; Xavier Estivill; Pier Franco Pignatti; Guido Modiano

2000-01-01

298

Targeted next-generation sequencing detects point mutations, insertions, deletions and balanced chromosomal rearrangements as well as identifies novel leukemia-specific fusion genes in a single procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequence enrichment from complex genomic samples using microarrays enables targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). In this study, we combined 454 shotgun pyrosequencing with long oligonucleotide sequence capture arrays. We demonstrate the detection of mutations including point mutations, deletions and insertions in a cohort of 22 patients presenting with acute leukemias and myeloid neoplasms. Importantly, this one-step methodological procedure also allowed

V Grossmann; A Kohlmann; H-U Klein; S Schindela; S Schnittger; F Dicker; M Dugas; W Kern; T Haferlach; C Haferlach

2011-01-01

299

Somatic mosaicism for a newly identified splice-site mutation in a patient with adenosine deaminase-deficient immunodeficiency and spontaneous clinical recovery  

SciTech Connect

Absent or severely reduced adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity produces inherited immunodeficiency of varying severity, with defects of both cellular and humoral immunity. The authors report somatic mosaicism as the basis for a delayed presentation and unusual course of a currently healthy young adult receiving no therapy. He was diagnosed at age 2[1/2] years because of life-threatening pneumonia, recurrent infections, failure of normal growth, and lymphopenia, but he retained significant cellular immune function. A fibroblast cell line and a B cell line, established at diagnosis, lacked ADA activity and were heteroallelic for a splice-donor-site mutation in IVS 1 (+1GT[yields]CT) and a missense mutation (Arg101Gln). All clones (17/17) isolated from the B cell mRNA carried the missense mutation, indicating that the allele with the splice-site mutation produced unstable mRNA. In striking contrast, a B cell line established at age 16 years expressed 50% of normal ADA; 50% had the missense mutation. Genomic DNA contained the missense mutation but not the splice-site mutation. All three cell lines were identical for multiple polymorphic markers and the presence of a Y chromosome. In vivo somatic mosaicism was demonstrated in genomic DNA from peripheral blood cells obtained at 16 years of age, in that less than half the DNA carried the splice-site mutation (P<.0.02, vs. original B cell line). Consistent with mosaicism, erythrocyte content of the toxic metabolite deoxyATP was only minimally elevated. Somatic mosaicism could have arisen either by somatic mutation or by reversion at the site of mutation. Selection in vivo for ADA normal hematopoietic cells may have played a role in the return to normal health, in the absence of therapy. 57 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Hirschhorn, R.; Yang, D.R.; Israni, A.; Huie, M.L. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States)); Ownby, D.R. (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States))

1994-07-01

300

Intestinal Cell Barrier Function In Vitro Is Severely Compromised by Keratin 8 and 18 Mutations Identified in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Keratin 8 and 18 (K8/K18) mutations have been implicated in the aetiology of certain pathogenic processes of the liver and pancreas. While some K8 mutations (K8 G62C, K8 K464N) are also presumed susceptibility factors for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the only K18 mutation (K18 S230T) discovered so far in an IBD patient is thought to be a polymorphism. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that these mutations might also directly affect intestinal cell barrier function. Cell monolayers of genetically engineered human colonocytes expressing these mutations were tested for permeability, growth rate and resistance to heat-stress. We also calculated the change in dissociation constant (Kd, measure of affinity) each of these mutations introduces into the keratin protein, and present the first model of a keratin dimer L12 region with in silico clues to how the K18 S230T mutation may affect keratin function. Physiologically, these mutations cause up to 30% increase in paracellular permeability in vitro. Heat-stress induces little keratin clumping but instead cell monolayers peel off the surface suggesting a problem with cell junctions. K18 S230T has pronounced pathological effects in vitro marked by high Kd, low growth rate and increased permeability. The latter may be due to the altered distribution of tight junction components claudin-4 and ZO-1. This is the first time intestinal cells have been suggested also functionally impaired by K8/K18 mutations. Although an in vitro colonocyte model system does not completely mimic the epithelial lining of the intestine, nevertheless the data suggest that K8/K18 mutations may be also able to produce a phenotype in vivo.

Zupancic, Tina; Stojan, Jure; Lane, Ellen Birgitte; Komel, Radovan; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Liovic, Mirjana

2014-01-01

301

Mutational analysis of NM23-H2/NDP kinase identifies the structural domains critical to recognition of a c-myc regulatory element.  

PubMed Central

NM23-H2, a presumed regulator of tumor metastasis in humans, is a hexameric protein with both enzymatic (NDP kinase) and regulatory (transcriptional activation) activity. While the structure and catalytic mechanisms have been well characterized, the mode of DNA binding is not known. We examined this latter function in a site-directed mutational study and identified residues and domains essential for the recognition of a c-myc regulatory sequence. Three amino acids, Arg-34, Asn-69, and Lys-135, were found among 30 possibilities to be critical for DNA binding. Two of these, Asn-69 and Lys-135, are not conserved between NM23 variants differing in DNA-binding potential, suggesting that DNA recognition resides partly in nonconserved amino acids. All three DNA-binding defective mutant proteins are active enzymatically and appear to be stable hexamers, suggesting that they perform at the level of DNA recognition and that separate functional domains exist for enzyme catalysis and DNA binding. In the context of the known crystal structure of NM23-H2, the DNA-binding residues are located within distinct structural motifs in the monomer, which are exposed to the surface near the 2-fold axis of adjacent subunits in the hexamer. These findings are explained by a model in which NM23-H2 binds DNA with a combinatorial surface consisting of the "outer" face of the dimer. Chemical crosslinking data support a dimeric DNA-binding mode by NM23-H2. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Postel, E H; Weiss, V H; Beneken, J; Kirtane, A

1996-01-01

302

RUNX1 point mutations potentially identify a subset of early immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that may originate from differentiated T-cells.  

PubMed

The RUNX1/AML1 gene is among the most frequently mutated genes in human leukaemia. However, its association with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) remains poorly understood. In order to examine RUNX1 point mutations in T-ALL, we conducted an amplicon-based deep sequencing in 65 Southeast Asian childhood patients and 20 T-ALL cell lines, and detected RUNX1 mutations in 6 patients (9.2%) and 5 cell lines (25%). Interestingly, RUNX1-mutated T-ALL cases seem to constitute a subset of early immature T-ALL that may originate from differentiated T-cells. This result provides a deeper insight into the mechanistic basis for leukaemogenesis. PMID:24792891

Mok, Michelle Meng Huang; Du, Linsen; Wang, Chelsia Qiuxia; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Liu, Te Chih; Yin Kham, Shirley Kow; Sanda, Takaomi; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh; Osato, Motomi

2014-07-15

303

A newly identified insertion mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor-beta gene in a Korean family with generalized thyroid hormone resistance.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (RTH) is a rare disorder and is characterized by elevated levels of circulating free thyroid hormones, inappropriate secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and reduced peripheral tissue response to thyroid hormone. 90% of RTH subjects, when studied at the level of the gene, have been found to harbor mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor-beta(THRB) gene. These affected individuals have been shown to possess a variety of missense mutations, resulting from changes in a single nucleotide in the THRB gene that corresponds to amino acid alternation. However, insertion or deletion mutations in the THRB gene sequence are quite rare, and have been observed in only a very few cases. In this study, we describe two such cases, in which two members of the same family were determined to harbor an insertion mutation in exon 10, and had also been diagnosed with generalized RTH. This insertion mutation, specifically the insertion of a cytosine at nucleotide 1358 of the THRB gene, is, to the best of our knowledge, the first such mutation reported among RTH patients in Korea. PMID:17596672

Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Tae Sun; Baek, Hong Sun; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Park, Ji Hyun

2007-06-01

304

Alexander Disease: Report of Two Unrelated Infantile Form Cases, Identified by GFAP Mutation Analysis and Review of Literature; The First Report from Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Alexander disease (AD) is a sporadic leukodystrophy that predominantly affects infants and children and usually results in death within ten years after onset. The infantile form comprises the most of affected individuals. It presents in the first two years of life, typically with progressive psychomotor retardation with loss of developmental milestones, megalencephaly and frontal bossing, seizures, pyramidal signs and ataxia. The diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and confirmed by GFAP gene molecular testing. GFAP gene encodes glial fibrillary acidic protein, is the only gene in which mutation is currently known to cause AD which is inherited in autosomal dominant manner. Case Presentation In this article we report the first two Iranian cases of infantile AD and their clinical, brain MRI and molecular findings. We report two novel mutations too in the GFAP gene that are associated with infantile form of AD. Conclusion GFAP gene mutations are a reliable marker for infantile AD diagnosed according to clinical and MRI defined criteria. A genotype-phenotype correlation had been discerned for the two most frequently reported GFAP gene mutations in infantile type of AD (R79 and R239), with the phenotype of the R79 mutations appearing much less severe than that of the R239 mutations. Our findings confirm this theory.

Ashrafi, Mahmoud-Reza; Tavasoli, Alireza; Aryani, Omid; Alizadeh, Hooman; Houshmand, Massoud

2013-01-01

305

The FMR1 CGG repeat test is not a candidate prescreening tool for identifying women with a high probability of being carriers of BRCA mutations.  

PubMed

The identification of women with a high probability of being carriers of pathogenic BRCA mutation is not straightforward and a major improvement would be the availability of markers of mutations that could be directly evaluated in individuals asking for genetic testing. The FMR1 gene testing was recently proposed as a candidate prescreening tool because an association between BRCA pathogenic mutations and FMR1 genotypes with 'low alleles' (CGG repeat number <26) was observed. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the distribution of FMR1 alleles and genotypes between BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers in a cohort of 147 Italian women, free of cancer or affected by breast and/or ovarian cancer, who were tested for the presence of BRCA mutation in a clinical setting. The distribution of FMR1 CGG repeat numbers in the two groups was similar (lower allele median/mean were 30/27.4 and 30/27.9, respectively; Mann-Whitney test P=0.997) and no difference in the FMR1 genotype distribution was present (?(2)=0.503, d.f.=2, P=0.78). This result is in contrast with literature data and suggests that FMR1 genetic testing is not a candidate BRCA prescreening tool. PMID:24065114

Ricci, Maria Teresa; Pennese, Loredana; Gismondi, Viviana; Perfumo, Chiara; Grasso, Marina; Gennaro, Elena; Bruzzi, Paolo; Varesco, Liliana

2014-02-01

306

A founder synonymous COL7A1 mutation in three Danish families with dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa identifies exonic regulatory sequences required for exon 87 splicing.  

PubMed

Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (DEB-Pr) (OMIM 604129) represents a distinct variant within the DEB clinical spectrum. It is characterized by intense pruritus and distinctive nodular prurigo-like and/or hypertrophic lichenoid lesions mainly localized on the arms, legs and upper shoulders. DEB-Pr is caused by either dominant (DDEB-Pr) or recessive mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen (COLVII). The full spectrum of COL7A1 mutations in DEB-Pr remains elusive and the genotype-phenotype correlation is largely incomplete. Here, we report and functionally characterize a previously unrecognized translationally silent exonic COL7A1 mutation that results in skipping of exon 87 and is associated with DDEB-Pr phenotypes in several members of three apparently unrelated Danish families. A haplotype segregation study suggested a common ancestor in these kindred. Functional splicing analysis of the mutant exon by a COL7A1 minigene construct and computational prediction for splicing regulatory cis-sequences prove that the mutation alters the activity of an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) critical for exon inclusion. These findings substantiate for the first time the involvement of an ESE mutation in the pathogenesis of DEB and have implications for genetic counselling of Danish families with DDEB. PMID:21574979

Covaciu, C; Grosso, F; Pisaneschi, E; Zambruno, G; Gregersen, P A; Sommerlund, M; Hertz, J M; Castiglia, D

2011-09-01

307

KRAS Mutation  

PubMed Central

Treatment of colon carcinoma with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody Cetuximab is reported to be ineffective in KRAS-mutant tumors. Mutation testing techniques have therefore become an urgent concern. We have compared three methods for detecting KRAS mutations in 59 cases of colon carcinoma: 1) high resolution melting, 2) the amplification refractory mutation system using a bifunctional self-probing primer (ARMS/Scorpion, ARMS/S), and 3) direct sequencing. We also evaluated the effects of the methods of sectioning and coring of paraffin blocks to obtain tumor DNA on assay sensitivity and specificity. The most sensitive and specific combination of block sampling and mutational analysis was ARMS/S performed on DNA derived from 1-mm paraffin cores. This combination of tissue sampling and testing method detected KRAS mutations in 46% of colon tumors. Four samples were positive by ARMS/S, but initially negative by direct sequencing. Cloned DNA samples were retested by direct sequencing, and in all four cases KRAS mutations were identified in the DNA. In six cases, high resolution melting abnormalities could not be confirmed as specific mutations either by ARMS/S or direct sequencing. We conclude that coring of the paraffin blocks and testing by ARMS/S is a sensitive, specific, and efficient method for KRAS testing.

Franklin, Wilbur A.; Haney, Jerry; Sugita, Michio; Bemis, Lynne; Jimeno, Antonio; Messersmith, Wells A.

2010-01-01

308

Massively parallel resequencing of the isogenic Drosophila melanogaster strain w1118; iso-2; iso-3 identifies hotspots for mutations in sensory perception genes  

PubMed Central

We used the Illumina reversible-short sequencing technology to obtain 17-fold average depth (s.d. ~8) of ~94% of the euchromatic genome and ~1–5% of the heterochromatin sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster isogenic strain w1118; iso-2; iso-3. We show that this strain has a ~9 kb deletion that uncovers the first exon of the white (w) gene, ~4 kb of downstream promoter sequences, and most of the first intron, thus demonstrating that whole-genome sequencing can be used for mutation characterization. We chose this strain because there are thousands of transposon insertion lines and hundreds of isogenic deficiency lines available with this genetic background, such as the Exelixis, Inc., and the DrosDEL collections. We compared our sequence to Release 5 of the finished reference genome sequence which was made from the isogenic strain y1; cn1 bw1 sp1 and identified 356,614 candidate SNPs in the ~117 Mb unique sequence genome, which represents a substitution rate of ~1/305 nucleotides (~0.30%). The distribution of SNPs is not uniform, but rather there is a ~2-fold increase in SNPs on the autosome arms compared with the X chromosome and a ~7-fold increase when compared to the small 4th chromosome. This is consistent with previous analyses that demonstrated a correlation between recombination frequency and SNP frequency. An unexpected finding was a SNP hotpot in a ~20 Mb central region of the 4th chromosome, which might indicate higher than expected recombination frequency in this region of this chromosome. Interestingly, genes involved in sensory perception are enriched in SNP hotspots and genes encoding developmental genes are enriched in SNP coldspots, which suggests that recombination frequencies might be proportional to the evolutionary selection coefficient. There are currently 12 Drosophila species sequenced, and this represents one of many isogenic Drosophila melanogaster genome sequences that are in progress. Because of the dramatic increase in power in using isogenic lines rather than outbred individuals, the SNP information should be valuable as a test bed for understanding genotype-by-environment interactions in human population studies.

Platts, Adrian E.; Land, Susan J.; Chen, Lang; Page, Grier P.; Rasouli, Parsa; Wang, Luan; Lu, Xiangyi; Ruden, Douglas M.

2013-01-01

309

Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae That Block Meiotic Prophase Chromosome Metabolism and Confer Cell Cycle Arrest at Pachytene Identify Two New Meiosis-Specific Genes Sae1 and Sae3  

PubMed Central

Two new meiosis-specific genes, SAE1 and SAE3, have been identified in a screen for mutations that confer an intermediate block in meiotic prophase. Such mutations confer a block to spore formation that is circumvented by addition of a mutation that eliminates meiotic recombination initiation and other aspects of chromosome metabolism, i.e., spo11. We show that sae1-1 and sae3-1 mutations each confer a distinct defect in meiotic recombination. sae1-1 produces recombinants but very slowly and ultimately to less than half the wild-type level; sae3-1 makes persistent hyper-resected meiotic double-strand breaks and has a severe defect in formation of recombinants. Both mutants arrest at the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase, sae1-1 temporarily and sae3-1 permanently. The phenotypes conferred by sae3-1 are similar to those conferred by mutation of the yeast RecA homologue DMC1, suggesting that SAE3 and DMC1 act at the same step(s) of chromosome metabolism. These results provide further evidence that intermediate blocks to prophase chromosome metabolism cause cell-cycle arrest. SAE1 encodes a 208-residue protein homologous to vertebrate mRNA cap-binding protein 20. SAE3 corresponds to a meiosis-specific RNA encoding an unusually short open reading frame of 50 codons.

McKee, AHZ.; Kleckner, N.

1997-01-01

310

Mutational Profiling of Kinases in Human Tumours of Pancreatic Origin Identifies Candidate Cancer Genes in Ductal and Ampulla of Vater Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProtein kinases are key regulators of cellular processes (such as proliferation, apoptosis and invasion) that are often deregulated in human cancers. Accordingly, kinase genes have been the first to be systematically analyzed in human tumors leading to the discovery that many oncogenes correspond to mutated kinases. In most cases the genetic alterations translate in constitutively active kinase proteins, which are

Vincenzo Corbo; Rossana Ritelli; Stefano Barbi; Niccola Funel; Daniela Campani; Alberto Bardelli; Aldo Scarpa; Hana Algül

2010-01-01

311

Novel CIC point mutations and an exon-spanning, homozygous deletion identified in oligodendroglial tumors by a comprehensive genomic approach including transcriptome sequencing.  

PubMed

Oligodendroglial tumors form a distinct subgroup of gliomas, characterized by a better response to treatment and prolonged overall survival. Most oligodendrogliomas and also some oligoastrocytomas are characterized by a unique and typical unbalanced translocation, der(1,19), resulting in a 1p/19q co-deletion. Candidate tumor suppressor genes targeted by these losses, CIC on 19q13.2 and FUBP1 on 1p31.1, were only recently discovered. We analyzed 17 oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas by applying a comprehensive approach consisting of RNA expression analysis, DNA sequencing of CIC, FUBP1, IDH1/2, and array CGH. We confirmed three different genetic subtypes in our samples: i) the "oligodendroglial" subtype with 1p/19q co-deletion in twelve out of 17 tumors; ii) the "astrocytic" subtype in three tumors; iii) the "other" subtype in two tumors. All twelve tumors with the 1p/19q co-deletion carried the most common IDH1 R132H mutation. In seven of these tumors, we found protein-disrupting point mutations in the remaining allele of CIC, four of which are novel. One of these tumors also had a deleterious mutation in FUBP1. Only by integrating RNA expression and array CGH data, were we able to discover an exon-spanning homozygous microdeletion within the remaining allele of CIC in an additional tumor with 1p/19q co-deletion. Therefore we propose that the mutation rate might be underestimated when looking at sequence variants alone. In conclusion, the high frequency and the spectrum of CIC mutations in our 1p/19q-codeleted tumor cohort support the hypothesis that CIC acts as a tumor suppressor in these tumors, whereas FUBP1 might play only a minor role. PMID:24086756

Eisenreich, Sophie; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; Szafranski, Karol; Campos Valenzuela, Jaime A; Rump, Andreas; Nigro, Janice M; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Gerlach, Eva-Maria; Hackmann, Karl; Schröck, Evelin; Krex, Dietmar; Kaderali, Lars; Schackert, Gabriele; Platzer, Matthias; Klink, Barbara

2013-01-01

312

Identification of three novel OA1 gene mutations identified in three families misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus and carrier status determination by real-time quantitative PCR assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) is caused by mutations in OA1 gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localised to melanosomes. OA1 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers and reduced visual acuity. Affected Caucasian males usually

Valérie Faugère; Sylvie Tuffery-Giraud; Christian Hamel; Mireille Claustres

2003-01-01

313

Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies Mutations of SMPX, which Encodes the Small Muscle Protein, X-Linked, as a Cause of Progressive Hearing Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Dutch family with an X-linked postlingual progressive hearing impairment, a critical linkage interval was determined to span a region of 12.9 Mb flanked by the markers DXS7108 and DXS7110. This interval overlaps with the previously described DFNX4 locus and contains 75 annotated genes. Subsequent next-generation sequencing (NGS) detected one variant within the linkage interval, a nonsense mutation in

Margit Schraders; Jaap Oostrik; Hao Hu; Sriram Kannan; Hannie Kremer

2011-01-01

314

Missense mutations in SH2D1A identified in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease differentially affect the expression and function of SAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in SH2D1A, which encodes signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). In addition to SLAM, SAP associates with several other cell-surface receptors including 2B4 (CD244), Ly9 (CD229), CD84 and NTB-A. SAP contains a single src-homology-2 domain and acts as an intracellular adaptor protein by recruiting the protein tyrosine kinase FynT

Nathan J. Hare; Cindy S. Ma; Frank Alvaro; Kim E. Nichols; Stuart G. Tangye

2006-01-01

315

Clinical flow cytometric screening of SAP and XIAP expression accurately identifies patients with SH2D1A and XIAP/BIRC4 mutations.  

PubMed

Introduction: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is caused by mutations in two genes, SH2D1A and XIAP/BIRC4. Flow cytometric methods have been developed to detect the gene products, SAP and XIAP. However, there is no literature describing the accuracy of flow cytometric screening performed in a clinical lab setting. Methods: We reviewed the clinical flow cytometric testing results for 656 SAP and 586 XIAP samples tested during a 3-year period. Genetic testing was clinically performed as directed by the managing physician in 137 SAP (21%) and 115 XIAP (20%) samples. We included these samples for analyses of flow cytometric test accuracy. Results: SH2D1A mutations were detected in 15/137 samples. SAP expression was low in 13/15 (sensitivity 87%, CI 61-97%). Of the 122 samples with normal sequencing, SAP was normal in 109 (specificity 89%, CI 82-94%). The positive predictive values (PPVs) and the negative predictive values (NPVs) were 50% and 98%, respectively. XIAP/BIRC4 mutations were detected in 19/115 samples. XIAP expression was low in 18/19 (sensitivity 95%, CI 73-100%). Of the 96 samples with normal sequencing, 59 had normal XIAP expression (specificity 61%, CI 51-71%). The PPVs and NPVs were 33% and 98%, respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was able to improve the specificity to 75%. Conclusion: Clinical flow cytometric screening tests for SAP and XIAP deficiencies offer good sensitivity and specificity for detecting genetic mutations, and are characterized by high NPVs. We recommend these tests for patients suspected of having X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP1) or XLP2. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society. PMID:24616127

Gifford, Carrie E; Weingartner, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Joyce; Johnson, Judith; Zhang, Kejian; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Bleesing, Jack J; Marsh, Rebecca A

2014-07-01

316

Homozygosity Mapping and Candidate Prioritization Identify Mutations, Missed by Whole-Exome Sequencing, in SMOC2, Causing Major Dental Developmental Defects  

PubMed Central

Inherited dental malformations constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Here, we report on a severe developmental dental defect that results in a dentin dysplasia phenotype with major microdontia, oligodontia, and shape abnormalities in a highly consanguineous family. Homozygosity mapping revealed a unique zone on 6q27-ter. The two affected children were found to carry a homozygous mutation in SMOC2. Knockdown of smoc2 in zebrafish showed pharyngeal teeth that had abnormalities reminiscent of the human phenotype. Moreover, smoc2 depletion in zebrafish affected the expression of three major odontogenesis genes: dlx2, bmp2, and pitx2.

Bloch-Zupan, Agnes; Jamet, Xavier; Etard, Christelle; Laugel, Virginie; Muller, Jean; Geoffroy, Veronique; Strauss, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Valerie; Marion, Vincent; Poch, Olivier; Strahle, Uwe; Stoetzel, Corinne; Dollfus, Helene

2011-01-01

317

Mutations in Conserved Residues of the C. elegans microRNA Argonaute ALG-1 Identify Separable Functions in ALG-1 miRISC Loading and Target Repression.  

PubMed

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and stabilizing microRNAs. However, our results suggest that ALG-1(anti) proteins may sequester microRNAs in immature and functionally deficient microRNA Induced Silencing Complexes (miRISCs), and hence compete with ALG-2 for access to functional microRNAs. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that ALG-1(anti) proteins display an increased association with Dicer and a decreased association with AIN-1/GW182. These findings suggest that alg-1(anti) mutations impair the ability of ALG-1 miRISC to execute a transition from Dicer-associated microRNA processing to AIN-1/GW182 associated effector function, and indicate an active role for ALG/Argonaute in mediating this transition. PMID:24763381

Zinovyeva, Anna Y; Bouasker, Samir; Simard, Martin J; Hammell, Christopher M; Ambros, Victor

2014-04-01

318

Mutations in Conserved Residues of the C. elegans microRNA Argonaute ALG-1 Identify Separable Functions in ALG-1 miRISC Loading and Target Repression  

PubMed Central

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and stabilizing microRNAs. However, our results suggest that ALG-1(anti) proteins may sequester microRNAs in immature and functionally deficient microRNA Induced Silencing Complexes (miRISCs), and hence compete with ALG-2 for access to functional microRNAs. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that ALG-1(anti) proteins display an increased association with Dicer and a decreased association with AIN-1/GW182. These findings suggest that alg-1(anti) mutations impair the ability of ALG-1 miRISC to execute a transition from Dicer-associated microRNA processing to AIN-1/GW182 associated effector function, and indicate an active role for ALG/Argonaute in mediating this transition.

Zinovyeva, Anna Y.; Bouasker, Samir; Simard, Martin J.; Hammell, Christopher M.; Ambros, Victor

2014-01-01

319

A novel hemoglobin variant beta135(H13) Ala > Asp identified in an asymptomatic Korean family by direct sequencing: suggesting a new insight into Hb Beckman mutation.  

PubMed

This article describes the clinical observation of a novel hemoglobin (Hb) variant found during the course of routine blood testing on a 61-year-old subject. The Hb variant was observed during HbA1c testing by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. Alkaline electrophoresis and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of a new Hb variant, HBB:c.407C > A (p.Ala136Asp). This mutation has been reported to induce Hb Beckman variant in the Globin Gene Server. However, it was different from the only experimental report for Hb Beckman by Rahbar, Lee & Asmeron (p.Ala136Glu; Hb Beckman alpha2 beta2 135(H13) ala-to-glu: a new unstable variant and reduced oxygen affinity. Blood 78, 204a). And our case was asymptomatic with normal lab findings, while Rahbar et al.'s case showed the clinical manifestations of chronic anemia. This would be a report for a novel Hb variant suggesting new insight of Hb Beckman variant. This would be a report of a novel Hb variant suggesting new insights into Hb Beckman variant. PMID:19453576

Kim, S Y; Kim, G Y J; Jo, S A; Lee, E H; Cho, E H; Hwang, S H; Lee, E Y

2010-02-01

320

Mutational Analysis of the EMCV 2A Protein Identifies a Nuclear Localization Signal and an eIF4E Binding Site  

PubMed Central

Cardioviruses have a unique 2A protein (143 aa). During genome translation, the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2A is released through a ribosome skipping event mitigated through C-terminal 2A sequences and by subsequent N-terminal reaction with viral 3Cpro. Although viral replication is cytoplasmic, mature 2A accumulates in nucleoli shortly after infection. Some protein also transiently associates with cytoplasmic 40S ribosomal subunits, an activity contributing to inhibition of cellular cap-dependent translation. Cardiovirus sequences predict an eIF4E binding site (aa 126–134) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS, aa 91–102), within 2A, both of which are functional during EMCV infection. Point mutations preventing eIF4E:2A interactions gave small-plaque phenotype viruses, but still inhibited cellular cap-dependent translation. Deletions within the NLS motif relocalized 2A to the cytoplasm and abrogated the inhibition of cap-dependent translation. A fusion protein linking the 2A NLS to eGFP was sufficient to redirect the reporter to the nucleus but not into nucleoli.

Groppo, Rachel; Brown, Bradley A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

2010-01-01

321

Exome sequencing identifies 2 novel presenilin 1 mutations (p.L166V and p.S230R) in British early-onset Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) represents 1%-2% of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases, and it is generally characterized by a positive family history and a rapidly progressive symptomatology. Rare coding and fully penetrant variants in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the only causative mutations reported for autosomal dominant AD. Thus, in this study we used exome sequencing data to rapidly screen rare coding variability in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2, in a British cohort composed of 47 unrelated EOAD cases and 179 elderly controls, neuropathologically proven. We report 2 novel and likely pathogenic variants in PSEN1 (p.L166V and p.S230R). A comprehensive catalog of rare pathogenic variants in the AD Mendelian genes is pivotal for a premortem diagnosis of autosomal dominant EOAD and for the differential diagnosis with other early onset dementias such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). PMID:24880964

Sassi, Celeste; Guerreiro, Rita; Gibbs, Raphael; Ding, Jinhui; Lupton, Michelle K; Troakes, Claire; Lunnon, Katie; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Brown, Kristelle S; Medway, Chirstopher; Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Mann, David; Snowden, Julie; Neary, David; Harris, Jeniffer; Bras, Jose; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John F; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

2014-10-01

322

Analysis of the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus Identifies Mutations That Allow Differentiation of the Main Clonal Lineages  

PubMed Central

Nosocomial infections involving epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are a serious problem in many countries. In order to analyze outbreaks, the infectious isolates have to be typed; however, most molecular methods are expensive or labor-intensive. Here, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of cell extracts for the molecular characterization of S. aureus strains. The peak patterns of 401 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including clinical and laboratory strains, were analyzed. Database searches indicated the peptides that were represented by the corresponding peaks in the spectra. The identities of the peptides were confirmed by the sequencing of mutants, the expression of antisense RNA fragments that resulted in the knockdown of the peptide of interest and the concomitant loss of the signal, or tandem MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). It was shown that the signals derive mainly from stress proteins and ribosomal proteins. Peak shifts that differentiate the main S. aureus clonal complexes CC5, CC22, CC8, CC45, CC30, and CC1 correlate to point mutations in the respective genes. Retrospective typing of an MRSA outbreak showed that it is possible to differentiate unrelated MSSA, MRSA, and borderline resistant S. aureus (BORSA) strains isolated from health care workers. In conclusion, this method allows for the detection of the epidemic lineages of S. aureus during species identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis.

Josten, Michaele; Reif, Marion; Szekat, Christiane; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Roemer, Terry; Sparbier, Katrin; Kostrzewa, Markus; Rohde, Holger; Sahl, Hans-Georg

2013-01-01

323

Mutational analysis of the EMCV 2A protein identifies a nuclear localization signal and an eIF4E binding site  

SciTech Connect

Cardioviruses have a unique 2A protein (143 aa). During genome translation, the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2A is released through a ribosome skipping event mitigated through C-terminal 2A sequences and by subsequent N-terminal reaction with viral 3C{sup pro}. Although viral replication is cytoplasmic, mature 2A accumulates in nucleoli shortly after infection. Some protein also transiently associates with cytoplasmic 40S ribosomal subunits, an activity contributing to inhibition of cellular cap-dependent translation. Cardiovirus sequences predict an eIF4E binding site (aa 126-134) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS, aa 91-102), within 2A, both of which are functional during EMCV infection. Point mutations preventing eIF4E:2A interactions gave small-plaque phenotype viruses, but still inhibited cellular cap-dependent translation. Deletions within the NLS motif relocalized 2A to the cytoplasm and abrogated the inhibition of cap-dependent translation. A fusion protein linking the 2A NLS to eGFP was sufficient to redirect the reporter to the nucleus but not into nucleoli.

Groppo, Rachel; Brown, Bradley A.; Palmenberg, Ann C., E-mail: acpalmen@wisc.ed

2011-02-05

324

Lampe1: An ENU-Germline Mutation Causing Spontaneous Hepatosteatosis Identified through Targeted Exon-Enrichment and Next-Generation Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a small scale ENU mutagenesis approach we identified a recessive germline mutant, designated Lampe1 that exhibited growth retardation and spontaneous hepatosteatosis. Low resolution mapping based on 20 intercrossed Lampe1 mice revealed linkage to a ?14 Mb interval on the distal site of chromosome 11 containing a total of 285 genes. Exons and 50 bp flanking sequences within the critical

Rachel Sheridan; Kristin Lampe; Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa; Patrick Putnam; Mehdi Keddache; Senad Divanovic; Jorge Bezerra; Kasper Hoebe

2011-01-01

325

Mutational analyses of the BbCRASP-1 protein of Borrelia burgdorferi identify residues relevant for the architecture and binding of host complement regulators FHL-1 and factor H.  

PubMed

Borrelia burgdorferi exploits multiple strategies to evade host immune responses. One central immune escape mechanism is the inactivation of the host complement attack by acquisition host complement regulators FHL-1 and factor H via complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (BbCRASPs). The BbCRASP-1 protein is the first bacterial factor H/FHL-1-binding protein for which the atomic structure has been solved. Previously, 3 regions including the C terminus were identified as putative contact sites for the two complement regulators by the pepspot analysis. Based on the crystallographic structure an in vitro mutagenesis approach was conducted to identify amino acid residues which are relevant for FHL-1 and factor H binding by exchanging single or multiple residues in region 1 and the C-terminally located region 3. Single changes at 4 positions in region 1 either reduced (Lys136, Lys141, Glu147) or completely eliminated (Leu146) binding of both complement regulators. Substitutions clustered within the C-terminal region decreased (Glu234, Lys238, Tyr239, Lys241, Asp244, Thr245) or abolished binding (Lys240, Asp242, Leu246) of both complement regulators. Mapping the mutations onto the atomic structure of BbCRASP-1 reveals that, in contrast to earlier assumption, the C-terminal mutations act indirectly on FHL-1 and factor H binding, whilst the region 1 mutations map the site of direct complement regulator interaction. The elucidation of BbCRASP-1 structure - function may allow development of novel therapeutic strategies against Lyme disease. PMID:19138559

Kraiczy, Peter; Hanssen-Hübner, Christa; Kitiratschky, Veronique; Brenner, Christiane; Besier, Silke; Brade, Volker; Simon, Markus M; Skerka, Christine; Roversi, Pietro; Lea, Susan M; Stevenson, Brian; Wallich, Reinhard; Zipfel, Peter F

2009-04-01

326

Analysis of early strains of the norovirus pandemic variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 identifies mutations in adaptive sites of the capsid protein.  

PubMed

Global surveillance for norovirus identified in 2012 the emergence of a novel pandemic GII.4 variant, termed Sydney 2012. In Italy, the novel pandemic variant was identified as early as November 2011 but became predominant only in the winter season 2012-2013. Upon sequencing and comparison with strains of global origin, the early Sydney 2012 strains were found to differ from those spreading in 2012-2013 in the capsid (ORF2) putative epitopes B, C and D, segregating into a distinct phylogenetic clade. At least three residues (333, 340 and 393, in epitopes B, C and D, respectively) of the VP1 varied among Sydney 2012 strains of different clades. These findings suggest that the spread of the pandemic variant in Italy during the winter season 2012-2013 was due to the introduction of strains distinct from those circulating at low frequency in the former winter season and that similar strains were also circulating elsewhere worldwide. PMID:24503099

Giammanco, G M; De Grazia, S; Terio, V; Lanave, G; Catella, C; Bonura, F; Saporito, L; Medici, M C; Tummolo, F; Calderaro, A; Bányai, K; Hansman, G; Martella, V

2014-02-01

327

Culture-independent sequence analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens identifies regions of recombination and in-patient sequence mutations.  

PubMed

A culture-independent genome sequencing approach was developed and used to examine genomic variability in Chlamydia trachomatis-positive specimens that were collected from patients in the Seattle, WA, USA, area. The procedure is based on an immunomagnetic separation approach with chlamydial LPS-specific mAbs, followed by DNA purification and total DNA amplification, and subsequent Illumina-based sequence analysis. Quality of genome sequencing was independent of the total number of inclusion-forming units determined for the sample and the amount of non-chlamydial DNA in the Illumina libraries. A geographically and temporally linked clade of isolates was identified with evidence of several different regions of recombination and variable ompA sequence types, suggesting that recombination is common within outbreaks. Culture-independent sequence analysis revealed a linkage pattern at two nucleotide positions that was unique to the genomes of isolates from patients, but not in C. trachomatis recombinants generated in vitro. These data demonstrated that culture-independent sequence analysis can be used to rapidly and inexpensively collect genome data from patients infected by C. trachomatis, and that this approach can be used to examine genomic variation within this species. PMID:23842467

Putman, Timothy E; Suchland, Robert J; Ivanovitch, John D; Rockey, Daniel D

2013-10-01

328

Modeling, Substrate Docking, and Mutational Analysis Identify Residues Essential for the Function and Specificity of a Eukaryotic Purine-Cytosine NCS1 Transporter*  

PubMed Central

The recent elucidation of crystal structures of a bacterial member of the NCS1 family, the Mhp1 benzyl-hydantoin permease from Microbacterium liquefaciens, allowed us to construct and validate a three-dimensional model of the Aspergillus nidulans purine-cytosine/H+ FcyB symporter. The model consists of 12 transmembrane ?-helical, segments (TMSs) and cytoplasmic N- and C-tails. A distinct core of 10 TMSs is made of two intertwined inverted repeats (TMS1–5 and TMS6–10) that are followed by two additional TMSs. TMS1, TMS3, TMS6, and TMS8 form an open cavity that is predicted to host the substrate binding site. Based on primary sequence alignment, three-dimensional topology, and substrate docking, we identified five residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in FcyB; Ser-85 (TMS1), Trp-159, Asn-163 (TMS3), Trp-259 (TMS6), and Asn-354 (TMS8). To validate the role of these and other putatively critical residues, we performed a systematic functional analysis of relevant mutants. We show that the proposed substrate binding residues, plus Asn-350, Asn-351, and Pro-353 are irreplaceable for FcyB function. Among these residues, Ser-85, Asn-163, Asn-350, Asn-351, and Asn-354 are critical for determining the substrate binding affinity and/or the specificity of FcyB. Our results suggest that Ser-85, Asn-163, and Asn-354 directly interact with substrates, Trp-159 and Trp-259 stabilize binding through ?-? stacking interactions, and Pro-353 affects the local architecture of substrate binding site, whereas Asn-350 and Asn-351 probably affect substrate binding indirectly. Our work is the first systematic approach to address structure-function-specificity relationships in a eukaryotic member of NCS1 family by combining genetic and computational approaches.

Krypotou, Emilia; Kosti, Vasiliki; Amillis, Sotiris; Myrianthopoulos, Vassilios; Mikros, Emmanuel; Diallinas, George

2012-01-01

329

The familial dementia gene revisited: a missense mutation revealed by whole-exome sequencing identifies ITM2B as a candidate gene underlying a novel autosomal dominant retinal dystrophy in a large family.  

PubMed

Inherited retinal diseases are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders for which a significant number of cases remain genetically unresolved. Increasing knowledge on underlying pathogenic mechanisms with precise phenotype-genotype correlation is, however, critical for establishing novel therapeutic interventions for these yet incurable neurodegenerative conditions. We report phenotypic and genetic characterization of a large family presenting an unusual autosomal dominant retinal dystrophy. Phenotypic characterization revealed a retinopathy dominated by inner retinal dysfunction and ganglion cell abnormalities. Whole-exome sequencing identified a missense variant (c.782A>C, p.Glu261Ala) in ITM2B coding for Integral Membrane Protein 2B, which co-segregates with the disease in this large family and lies within the 24.6 Mb interval identified by microsatellite haplotyping. The physiological role of ITM2B remains unclear and has never been investigated in the retina. RNA in situ hybridization reveals Itm2b mRNA in inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers within the retina, with immunostaining demonstrating the presence of the corresponding protein in the same layers. Furthermore, ITM2B in the retina co-localizes with its known interacting partner in cerebral tissue, the amyloid ? precursor protein, critical in Alzheimer disease physiopathology. Interestingly, two distinct ITM2B mutations, both resulting in a longer protein product, had already been reported in two large autosomal dominant families with Alzheimer-like dementia but never in subjects with isolated retinal diseases. These findings should better define pathogenic mechanism(s) associated with ITM2B mutations underlying dementia or retinal disease and add a new candidate to the list of genes involved in inherited retinal dystrophies. PMID:24026677

Audo, Isabelle; Bujakowska, Kinga; Orhan, Elise; El Shamieh, Said; Sennlaub, Florian; Guillonneau, Xavier; Antonio, Aline; Michiels, Christelle; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Letexier, Melanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Nguyen, Hoan; Luu, Tien D; Léveillard, Thierry; Poch, Olivier; Dollfus, Hélène; Paques, Michel; Goureau, Olivier; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Sahel, José-Alain; Zeitz, Christina

2014-01-15

330

Molecular modeling of ErbB4/HER4 kinase in the context of the HER4 signaling network helps rationalize the effects of clinically identified HER4 somatic mutations on the cell phenotype.  

PubMed

In the ErbB/HER family of receptor tyrosine kinases, the deregulation of the EGFR/ErbB1/HER1, HER2/ErbB2, and HER3/ErbB3 kinases is associated with several cancers, while the HER4/ErbB4 kinase has been shown to play an anti-carcinogenic role in certain tumors. We present molecular and network models of HER4/ErbB4 activation and signaling in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms of activation and rationalize the effects of the clinically identified HER4 somatic mutants. Our molecular-scale simulations identify the important role played by the interactions within the juxtamembrane region during the activation process. Our results also support the hypothesis that the HER4 mutants may heterodimerize but not activate, resulting in blockage of the HER4-STAT5 differentiation pathway, in favor of the proliferative PI3K/AKT pathway. Translating our molecular simulation results into a cellular pathway model of wild type versus mutant HER4 signaling, we are able to recapitulate the major features of the PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT activation downstream of HER4. Our model predicts that the signaling downstream of the wild type HER4 is enriched for the JAK-STAT pathway, whereas downstream of the mutant HER4 is enriched for the PI3K/AKT pathway. HER4 mutations may hence constitute a cellular shift from a program of differentiation to that of proliferation. PMID:24318637

Telesco, Shannon E; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

2013-12-01

331

Mitochondrial Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA cause a number of neurological diseases with defined neuropathology; however, mutations in this genome have also been found to be important in a number of more common neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, the authors discuss the importance of mitochondrial DNA mutations in a number of different diseases and speculate how such mutations could lead to cell loss. Increasing our understanding of how mitochondrial DNA mutations affect mitochondrial metabolism and subsequently result in neurodegenerative disease will prove vital to the development of targeted therapies and treatments.

Lax, Nichola Z.; Turnbull, Doug M.

2011-01-01

332

PRRT2 gene mutations  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective: The proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT2) gene was recently identified using exome sequencing as the cause of autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with or without infantile convulsions (IC) (PKD/IC syndrome). Episodic neurologic disorders, such as epilepsy, migraine, and paroxysmal movement disorders, often coexist and are thought to have a shared channel-related etiology. To investigate further the frequency, spectrum, and phenotype of PRRT2 mutations, we analyzed this gene in 3 large series of episodic neurologic disorders with PKD/IC, episodic ataxia (EA), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). Methods: The PRRT2 gene was sequenced in 58 family probands/sporadic individuals with PKD/IC, 182 with EA, 128 with HM, and 475 UK and 96 Asian controls. Results: PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 28 out of 58 individuals with PKD/IC (48%), 1/182 individuals with EA, and 1/128 individuals with HM. A number of loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified; the most common mutation found was the p.R217Pfs*8 insertion. Males were more frequently affected than females (ratio 52:32). There was a high proportion of PRRT2 mutations found in families and sporadic cases with PKD associated with migraine or HM (10 out of 28). One family had EA with HM and another large family had typical HM alone. Conclusions: This work expands the phenotype of mutations in the PRRT2 gene to include the frequent occurrence of migraine and HM with PKD/IC, and the association of mutations with EA and HM and with familial HM alone. We have also extended the PRRT2 mutation type and frequency in PKD and other episodic neurologic disorders.

Gardiner, Alice R.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Stamelou, Maria; Dale, Russell C.; Kurian, Manju A.; Schneider, Susanne A.; Wali, G.M.; Counihan, Tim; Schapira, Anthony H.; Spacey, Sian D.; Valente, Enza-Maria; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Teive, Helio A.G.; Raskin, Salmo; Sander, Josemir W.; Lees, Andrew; Warner, Tom; Kullmann, Dimitri M.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Hanna, Michael

2012-01-01

333

Genetic Analysis of 63 Mutations Affecting Maize Kernel Development Isolated from Mutator Stocks  

PubMed Central

Sixty-three mutations affecting development of the maize kernel were isolated from active Robertson's Mutator (Mu) stocks. At least 14 previously undescribed maize gene loci were defined by mutations in this collection. Genetic mapping located 53 of these defective kernel (dek) mutations to particular chromosome arms, and more precise map determinations were made for 21 of the mutations. Genetic analyses identified 20 instances of allelism between one of the novel mutations and a previously described dek mutation, or between new dek mutations identified in this study; phenotypic variability was observed in three of the allelic series. Viability testing of homozygous mutant kernels identified numerous dek mutations with various pleiotropic effects on seedling and plant development. The mutations described here presumably arose by insertion of a Mu transposon within a dek gene; thus, many of the affected loci are expected to be accessible to molecular cloning via transposon-tagging.

Scanlon, M. J.; Stinard, P. S.; James, M. G.; Myers, A. M.; Robertson, D. S.

1994-01-01

334

Mutations linked to breast cancer treatment resistance  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a type of mutation that develops after breast cancer patients take anti-estrogen therapies. The mutations explain one reason why patients often become resistant to this therapy.

335

Three mutations identified in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel ?-subunit gene of permethrin-resistant human head lice reduce the permethrin sensitivity of house fly Vssc1 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes  

PubMed Central

Point mutations in the para-orthologous sodium channel ?-subunit of the head louse (M815I, T917I and L920F) are associated with permethrin- and DDT-resistance. These mutations were inserted in all combinations using site-directed mutagenesis at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions (M827I, T929I and L932F) of the house fly para-orthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel ?-subunit (Vssc1WT) gene and heterologously co-expressed with the sodium channel auxiliary subunit of house fly (Vssc?) in Xenopus oocytes. The double mutant possessing M827I and T929I (Vssc1MITI/Vssc?) caused a ~4.0 mV hyperpolarizing shift and the triple mutant, Vssc1MITILF/Vssc?, caused a ~3.2 mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation curves. Vssc1MITI/Vssc?, Vssc1TILF/Vssc? and Vssc1MITILF/Vssc? caused depolarizing shifts (~6.6, ~7.6 and ~8.8 mV, respectively) in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation curves. The M827I and L932F mutations reduced permethrin sensitivity when expressed alone but the T929I mutation, either alone or in combination, virtually abolished permethrin sensitivity. Thus, the T929I mutation is the principal cause of permethrin resistance in head lice. Comparison of the expression rates of channels containing single, double and triple mutations with that of Vssc1WT/Vssc? channels indicates that the M827I mutation may play a role in rescuing the decreased expression of channels containing T929I.

Symington, Steven B.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Soderlund, David M.; Clark, J. Marshall

2008-01-01

336

Three mutations identified in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit gene of permethrin-resistant human head lice reduce the permethrin sensitivity of house fly Vssc1 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed

Point mutations in the para-orthologous sodium channel alpha-subunit of the head louse (M815I, T917I, and L920F) are associated with permethrin resistance and DDT resistance. These mutations were inserted in all combinations using site-directed mutagenesis at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions (M827I, T929I, and L932F) of the house fly para-orthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit (Vssc1(WT)) gene and heterologously co-expressed with the sodium channel auxiliary subunit of house fly (Vsscbeta) in Xenopus oocytes. The double mutant possessing M827I and T929I (Vssc1(MITI)/Vsscbeta) caused a approximately 4.0mV hyperpolarizing shift and the triple mutant, Vssc1(MITILF)/Vsscbeta, caused a approximately 3.2mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation curves. Vssc1(MITI)/Vsscbeta, Vssc1(TILF)/Vsscbeta, and Vssc1(MITILF)/Vsscbeta caused depolarizing shifts ( approximately 6.6, approximately 7.6, and approximately 8.8mV, respectively) in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation curves. The M827I and L932F mutations reduced permethrin sensitivity when expressed alone but the T929I mutation, either alone or in combination, virtually abolished permethrin sensitivity. Thus, the T929I mutation is the principal cause of permethrin resistance in head lice. Comparison of the expression rates of channels containing single, double and triple mutations with that of Vssc1(WT)/Vsscbeta channels indicates that the M827I mutation may play a role in rescuing the decreased expression of channels containing T929I. PMID:18252244

SupYoon, Kyong; Symington, Steven B; Hyeock Lee, Si; Soderlund, David M; Marshall Clark, J

2008-03-01

337

The androgen receptor gene mutations database.  

PubMed Central

The androgen receptor gene mutations database is a comprehensive listing of mutations published in journals and meetings proceedings. The majority of mutations are point mutations identified in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Information is included regarding the phenotype, the nature and location of the mutations, as well as the effects of the mutations on the androgen binding activity of the receptor. The current version of the database contains 149 entries, of which 114 are unique mutations. The database is available from EMBL (NetServ@EMBL-Heidelberg.DE) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (mc33001@musica.mcgill.ca).

Patterson, M N; Hughes, I A; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L

1994-01-01

338

Sodium channel mutations and arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the identification of the first SCN5A mutation associated with long QT syndrome in 1995, several mutations in this gene for the ? subunit of the cardiac sodium channel have been identified in a heterogeneous subset of cardiac rhythm syndromes, including Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction defect, sick sinus node syndrome, atrial fibrillation and dilated cardiomyopathy. Robust clinical evidence has

Yanfei Ruan; Nian Liu; Silvia G. Priori

2009-01-01

339

KRAS mutations: analytical considerations.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death globally. Significant improvements in survival have been made in patients with metastasis by new therapies. For example, Cetuximab and Panitumumab are monoclonal antibodies that inhibit the epidermal growth receptor (EGFR). KRAS mutations in codon 12 and 13 are the recognized biomarkers that are analyzed in clinics before the administration of anti-EGFR therapy. Genetic analyses have revealed that mutations in KRAS predict a lack of response to Panitumumab and Cetuximab in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). Notably, it is estimated that 35-45% of CRC patients harbor KRAS mutations. Therefore, KRAS mutation testing should be performed in all individuals with the advanced CRC in order to identify the patients who will not respond to the monoclonal EGFR antibody inhibitors. New techniques for KRAS testing have arisen rapidly, and each technique has advantages and disadvantages. Herein, we review the latest published literature specific to KRAS mutation testing techniques. Since reliability and feasibility are important issues in clinical analyses. Therefore, this review also summarizes the effectiveness and limitations of numerous KRAS mutation testing techniques. PMID:24534449

Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Liu, Ta-Chih; Er, Tze-Kiong

2014-04-20

340

Biochemical analyses are instrumental in identifying the impact of mutations on holo and/or apo-forms and on the region(s) of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase variants associated with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I?  

PubMed Central

Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1) is a disorder of glyoxylate metabolism caused by mutations in the human AGXT gene encoding liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme. Previous investigations highlighted that, although PH1 is characterized by a significant variability in terms of enzymatic phenotype, the majority of the pathogenic variants are believed to share both structural and functional defects, as mainly revealed by data on AGT activity and expression level in crude cellular extracts. However, the knowledge of the defects of the AGT variants at a protein level is still poor. We therefore performed a side-by-side comparison between normal AGT and nine purified recombinant pathogenic variants in terms of catalytic activity, coenzyme binding mode and affinity, spectroscopic features, oligomerization, and thermal stability of both the holo- and apo-forms. Notably, we chose four variants in which the mutated residues are located in the large domain of AGT either within the active site and interacting with the coenzyme or in its proximity, and five variants in which the mutated residues are distant from the active site either in the large or in the small domain. Overall, this integrated analysis of enzymatic activity, spectroscopic and stability information is used to (i) reassess previous data obtained with crude cellular extracts, (ii) establish which form(s) (i.e. holoenzyme and/or apoenzyme) and region(s) (i.e. active site microenvironment, large and/or small domain) of the protein are affected by each mutation, and (iii) suggest the possible therapeutic approach for patients bearing the examined mutations.

Oppici, Elisa; Montioli, Riccardo; Lorenzetto, Antonio; Bianconi, Silvia; Borri Voltattorni, Carla; Cellini, Barbara

2012-01-01

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Bayesian analysis of mutational spectra.  

PubMed Central

Studies that examine both the frequency of gene mutation and the pattern or spectrum of mutational changes can be used to identify chemical mutagens and to explore the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis. In this article, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for the analysis of mutational spectra. We assume that the total number of independent mutations and the numbers of mutations falling into different response categories, defined by location within a gene and/or type of alteration, follow binomial and multinomial sampling distributions, respectively. We use prior distributions to summarize past information about the overall mutation frequency and the probabilities corresponding to the different mutational categories. These priors can be chosen on the basis of data from previous studies using an approach that accounts for heterogeneity among studies. Inferences about the overall mutation frequency, the proportions of mutations in each response category, and the category-specific mutation frequencies can be based on posterior distributions, which incorporate past and current data on the mutant frequency and on DNA sequence alterations. Methods are described for comparing groups and for assessing dose-related trends. We illustrate our approach using data from the literature.

Dunson, D B; Tindall, K R