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1

Identification and characterization of a novel TACSTD2 mutation in gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the clinical, histological, in vivo confocal microscopic, and molecular profile in a family with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) from north India. Methods Two siblings from a consanguineous family presented with clinical features analogous to GDLD. Detailed clinical evaluations were performed for all the available affected and unaffected members of this family. In vivo confocal microscopy and histology was done wherever necessary. DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct sequencing to detect mutations in the tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) gene. Protein modeling studies were done to asses the effect of the mutation on the protein structure. Results The diagnosis of GDLD was established in the patient and the affected sibling on slit-lamp examinations, which revealed mulberry-like opacities in the subepithelium and anterior stroma that were confirmed on histopathology. The findings of the in vivo confocal microscopy were consistent with those reported in previous reports. Sequencing TACSTD2 revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation c.356G>A, leading to amino acid substitution C119Y in the two affected siblings. The mutation was found to be pathogenic on Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) analysis and was not found in normal controls and unaffected individuals of the family. A synonymous, previously reported, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs13267) was also seen in all the individuals of the family. Protein modeling studies involving wild-type and mutant protein indicated an exposed cysteine residue in the mutant protein. Conclusions A novel TACSTD2 C119Y mutation leading to an amino acid substitution was identified in two affected siblings of a family. Protein modeling studies revealed an exposed cysteine residue, which might cause interchain disulfide bond formation and protein aggregation leading to disturbed cell junctions of the corneal epithelium. PMID:20454699

Paliwal, Preeti; Gupta, Jaya; Tandon, Radhika; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S.; Kashyap, Seema; Sen, Seema; Kaur, Punit; Dube, Divya; Vajpayee, Rasik B.

2010-01-01

2

Two novel mutations of TACSTD2 found in three Japanese gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy families with their aberrant subcellular localization  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report two novel mutation of the tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) gene in 3 Japanese patients with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD). Methods Genomic DNAs were extracted from the peripheral blood of 3 Japanese families. The coding region of TACSTD2 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subjected to direct sequencing analysis. Plasmid vectors harboring normal and mutated TACSTD2 were transfected to the immortalized human corneal epithelial cells to identify the subcellular localization of the normal and mutated TACSTD2 gene products. Results Sequencing analysis of TACSTD2 revealed two novel homozygous mutations (c.840_841insTCATCATCGCCGGCCTCATC and c.675C>A which may result in frameshift (p.Ile281SerfsX23) and nonsense (p.Tyr225X) mutations, respectively) in the 3 GDLD patients. Protein expression analysis showed that the mutated gene product was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm, whereas the normal gene product accumulated at the cell-to-cell borders. Conclusions This study reports two novel mutations in 3 GDLD families and expands the spectrum of mutations in TACSTD2 that may cause pathological corneal amyloidosis. PMID:21541270

Nakatsukasa, Mina; Yamasaki, Kenta; Fukuoka, Hideki; Matsuda, Akira; Nishida, Kohji; Kinoshita, Shigeru

2011-01-01

3

Loss of miR-125b-1 contributes to head and neck cancer development by dysregulating TACSTD2 and MAPK pathway  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer, but their role in head and neck cancer development and progression is not well defined. We aimed to determine whether specific miRNAs and their target mRNAs contribute to head and neck cancer pathogenesis and progression. To identify miRNAs associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), we analyzed HNSCC cell lines, normal head and neck tissues and normal keratinocytes by miRNA profiling; a group of differentially expressed miRNAs was identified, which includes miR-125b. Decreased expression of miR-125b is known to occur in epithelial cancers and many target mRNAs for this miR have been reported. We found decreased expression of miR-125b-1 and hypermethylation of its promoter in HNSCC compared with its non-malignant counterpart. The TACSTD2 (also known as TROP2) gene was identified and validated as a direct target of miR-125b-1. Abnormal expression of TACSTD2 cell-surface glycoprotein has been reported in most epithelial tumors, and the overexpressions of this mRNA and protein product has been considered a useful tumor marker. We report that miR-125b-1 causes mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway dysfunction through regulation of TACSTD2 expression. Thus, loss of miR-125b-1 may have a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck and possibly of other tumors. PMID:23416980

Nakanishi, H; Taccioli, C; Palatini, J; Fernandez-Cymering, C; Cui, R; Kim, T; Volinia, S; Croce, CM

2015-01-01

4

Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.  

PubMed

Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments). PMID:15617159

Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

2004-12-01

5

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma  

PubMed Central

We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1P29S) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1P29S showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22842228

Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M; Brash, Douglas E; Stern, David F; Materin, Miguel A; Lo, Roger S; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K; Hayward, Nicholas K; Lifton, Richard P; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J; Halaban, Ruth

2012-01-01

6

International team identifies critical genes mutated in stomach cancer  

Cancer.gov

An international team of scientists, led by researchers from the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School in Singapore and National Cancer Centre of Singapore, has identified hundreds of novel genes that are mutated in stomach cancer, the second-most lethal cancer worldwide.

7

All-codon scanning identifies p53 cancer rescue mutations  

E-print Network

All-codon scanning identifies p53 cancer rescue mutations Roberta Baronio1 , Samuel A. Danziger1 with modified properties. We describe the fast and simple All- Codon Scanning (ACS) strategy that creates a defined gene library wherein each individual codon within a specific target region is changed into all

Lathrop, Richard H.

8

Hypocrea jecorina cellobiohydrolase I stabilizing mutations identified using noncontiguous recombination.  

PubMed

Noncontiguous recombination (NCR) is a method to identify pieces of structure that can be swapped among homologous proteins to create new, chimeric proteins. These "blocks" are encoded by elements of sequence that are not necessarily contiguous along the polypeptide chain. We used NCR to design a library in which blocks of structure from Hypocrea jecorina cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) and its two thermostable homologues from Talaromyces emersonii and Chaetomium thermophilum are shuffled to create 531,438 possible chimeric enzymes. We constructed a maximally informative subset of 35 chimeras to analyze this library and found that the blocks contribute additively to the stability of a chimera. Within two highly stabilizing blocks, we uncovered six single amino acid substitutions that each improve the stability of H. jecorina cellobiohydrolase I by 1-3 °C. The small number of measurements required to find these mutations demonstrates that noncontiguous recombination is an efficient strategy for identifying stabilizing mutations. PMID:23688124

Smith, Matthew A; Bedbrook, Claire N; Wu, Timothy; Arnold, Frances H

2013-12-20

9

Exome sequencing identified new mutations in a Marfan syndrome family  

PubMed Central

Marfan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant hereditary connective tissue disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome currently. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is efficient to identify genetic lesions at the exome level. Here we carried out exome sequencing of two Marfan syndrome patients. Further Sanger sequencing validation in other five members from the same family was also implemented to confirm new variants which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Two new variants, including one nonsense SNP in the Marfan syndrome gene FBN1 and one missense mutation in exon 15 of LRP1, which may be related to the phenotype of the patients were identified. The exome sequencing analysis provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1229110069114125. PMID:24484584

2014-01-01

10

LineUp: Identifying Deleterious Mutations Using Protein Domain Alignment - Brady Bernard, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos LineUp: Identifying Deleterious Mutations Using Protein Domain Alignment - Brady Bernard LineUp: Identifying Deleterious Mutations Using Protein Domain Alignment - Brady Bernard, TCGA Scientific Symposium

11

Exome sequencing identifies secondary mutations of SETBP1 and JAK3 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia  

E-print Network

leukemia Highlights Wholeexome sequencing analysis identified that SETBP1 and JAK3 genes were among common targets for secondary mutations in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), an intractable pediatric leukemia with poor prognosis. These newly identified gene mutations were often subclonal

Takahashi, Ryo

12

All-codon scanning identifies p53 cancer rescue mutations  

PubMed Central

In vitro scanning mutagenesis strategies are valuable tools to identify critical residues in proteins and to generate proteins with modified properties. We describe the fast and simple All-Codon Scanning (ACS) strategy that creates a defined gene library wherein each individual codon within a specific target region is changed into all possible codons with only a single codon change per mutagenesis product. ACS is based on a multiplexed overlapping mutagenesis primer design that saturates only the targeted gene region with single codon changes. We have used ACS to produce single amino-acid changes in small and large regions of the human tumor suppressor protein p53 to identify single amino-acid substitutions that can restore activity to inactive p53 found in human cancers. Single-tube reactions were used to saturate defined 30-nt regions with all possible codon changes. The same technique was used in 20 parallel reactions to scan the 600-bp fragment encoding the entire p53 core domain. Identification of several novel p53 cancer rescue mutations demonstrated the utility of the ACS approach. ACS is a fast, simple and versatile method, which is useful for protein structure–function analyses and protein design or evolution problems. PMID:20581117

Baronio, Roberta; Danziger, Samuel A.; Hall, Linda V.; Salmon, Kirsty; Hatfield, G. Wesley; Lathrop, Richard H.; Kaiser, Peter

2010-01-01

13

NIH Researchers Identify New Gene Mutation Associated with ALS and Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... identify new gene mutation associated with ALS and dementia April 7, 2014 A rare mutation in a ... several people had been diagnosed with ALS and dementia, the investigators used exome sequencing—a technique in ...

14

Identifying and Mapping Parallel Mutations of GAR-3  

E-print Network

on agarose gel to determine which regions contain 100 percent mutant DNA and could thus statistically be the site of the mutation. We believe the mutation lies in a region on the left end of the X chromosome, based on a larger proportion of N2 DNA compared...

Prompuntagorn, Christopher

2009-06-09

15

Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

2008-01-01

16

Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies New Causative Mutations in Tunisian Families with Non-Syndromic Deafness  

PubMed Central

Identification of the causative mutations in patients affected by autosomal recessive non syndromic deafness (DFNB forms), is demanding due to genetic heterogeneity. After the exclusion of GJB2 mutations and other mutations previously reported in Tunisian deaf patients, we performed whole exome sequencing in patients affected with severe to profound deafness, from four unrelated consanguineous Tunisian families. Four biallelic non previously reported mutations were identified in three different genes: a nonsense mutation, c.208C>T (p.R70X), in LRTOMT, a missense mutation, c.5417T>C (p.L1806P), in MYO15A and two splice site mutations, c.7395+3G>A, and c.2260+2T>A, in MYO15A and TMC1 respectively. We thereby provide evidence that whole exome sequencing is a powerful, cost-effective screening tool to identify mutations causing recessive deafness in consanguineous families. PMID:24926664

Zainine, Rim; Louha, Malek; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Laroussi, Nadia; Chargui, Mariem; Kefi, Rym; Jonard, Laurence; Dorboz, Imen; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Salah, Sihem Belhaj; Levilliers, Jacqueline; Weil, Dominique; McElreavey, Kenneth; Boespflug, Odile Tanguy; Besbes, Ghazi; Abdelhak, Sonia; Petit, Christine

2014-01-01

17

Mutation screening of the HGD gene identifies a novel alkaptonuria mutation with significant founder effect and high prevalence.  

PubMed

Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder; caused by the mutations in the homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene located on Chromosome 3q13.33. AKU is a rare disorder with an incidence of 1: 250,000 to 1: 1,000,000, but Slovakia and the Dominican Republic have a relatively higher incidence of 1: 19,000. Our study focused on studying the frequency of AKU and identification of HGD gene mutations in nomads. HGD gene sequencing was used to identify the mutations in alkaptonurics. For the past four years, from subjects suspected to be clinically affected, we found 16 positive cases among a randomly selected cohort of 41 Indian nomads (Narikuravar) settled in the specific area of Tamil Nadu, India. HGD gene mutation analysis showed that 11 of these patients carry the same homozygous splicing mutation c.87 + 1G > A; in five cases, this mutation was found to be heterozygous, while the second AKU-causing mutation was not identified in these patients. This result indicates that the founder effect and high degree of consanguineous marriages have contributed to AKU among nomads. Eleven positive samples were homozygous for a novel mutation c.87 + 1G > A, that abolishes an intron 2 donor splice site and most likely causes skipping of exon 2. The prevalence of AKU observed earlier seems to be highly increased in people of nomadic origin. PMID:24575791

Sakthivel, Srinivasan; Zatkova, Andrea; Nemethova, Martina; Surovy, Milan; Kadasi, Ludevit; Saravanan, Madurai P

2014-05-01

18

A spatial simulation approach to account for protein structure when identifying non-random somatic mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Current research suggests that a small set of “driver” mutations are responsible for tumorigenesis while a larger body of “passenger” mutations occur in the tumor but do not progress the disease. Due to recent pharmacological successes in treating cancers caused by driver mutations, a variety of methodologies that attempt to identify such mutations have been developed. Based on the hypothesis that driver mutations tend to cluster in key regions of the protein, the development of cluster identification algorithms has become critical. Results We have developed a novel methodology, SpacePAC (Spatial Protein Amino acid Clustering), that identifies mutational clustering by considering the protein tertiary structure directly in 3D space. By combining the mutational data in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and the spatial information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), SpacePAC is able to identify novel mutation clusters in many proteins such as FGFR3 and CHRM2. In addition, SpacePAC is better able to localize the most significant mutational hotspots as demonstrated in the cases of BRAF and ALK. The R package is available on Bioconductor at: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/SpacePAC.html. Conclusion SpacePAC adds a valuable tool to the identification of mutational clusters while considering protein tertiary structure. PMID:24990767

2014-01-01

19

Identifying DNA mutations in purified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

In recent years, it has become apparent that genomic instability is tightly related to many developmental disorders, cancers, and aging. Given that stem cells are responsible for ensuring tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the stem cell population is critical for preserving genomic integrity of tissues. Therefore, significant interest has arisen in assessing the impact of endogenous and environmental factors on genomic integrity in stem cells and their progeny, aiming to understand the etiology of stem-cell based diseases. LacI transgenic mice carry a recoverable ? phage vector encoding the LacI reporter system, in which the LacI gene serves as the mutation reporter. The result of a mutated LacI gene is the production of ?-galactosidase that cleaves a chromogenic substrate, turning it blue. The LacI reporter system is carried in all cells, including stem/progenitor cells and can easily be recovered and used to subsequently infect E. coli. After incubating infected E. coli on agarose that contains the correct substrate, plaques can be scored; blue plaques indicate a mutant LacI gene, while clear plaques harbor wild-type. The frequency of blue (among clear) plaques indicates the mutant frequency in the original cell population the DNA was extracted from. Sequencing the mutant LacI gene will show the location of the mutations in the gene and the type of mutation. The LacI transgenic mouse model is well-established as an in vivo mutagenesis assay. Moreover, the mice and the reagents for the assay are commercially available. Here we describe in detail how this model can be adapted to measure the frequency of spontaneously occurring DNA mutants in stem cell-enriched Lin(-)IL7R(-)Sca-1(+)cKit(++)(LSK) cells and other subpopulations of the hematopoietic system. PMID:24637843

Cheng, Ziming; Zhou, Ting; Merchant, Azhar; Prihoda, Thomas J; Wickes, Brian L; Xu, Guogang; Walter, Christi A; Rebel, Vivienne I

2014-01-01

20

A Differential Wiring Analysis of Expression Data Correctly Identifies the Gene Containing the Causal Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factor (TF) regulation is often post-translational. TF modifications such as reversible phosphorylation and missense mutations, which can act independent of TF expression level, are overlooked by differential expression analysis. Using bovine Piedmontese myostatin mutants as proof-of-concept, we propose a new algorithm that correctly identifies the gene containing the causal mutation from microarray data alone. The myostatin mutation releases the

Nicholas J. Hudson; Antonio Reverter; Brian P. Dalrymple

2009-01-01

21

Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution1,2. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes3,4. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer. PMID:21642962

Puente, Xose S.; Pinyol, Magda; Quesada, Víctor; Conde, Laura; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Villamor, Neus; Escaramis, Georgia; Jares, Pedro; Beà, Sílvia; González-Díaz, Marcos; Bassaganyas, Laia; Baumann, Tycho; Juan, Manel; López-Guerra, Mónica; Colomer, Dolors; Tubío, José M. C.; López, Cristina; Navarro, Alba; Tornador, Cristian; Aymerich, Marta; Rozman, María; Hernández, Jesús M.; Puente, Diana A.; Freije, José M. P.; Velasco, Gloria; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Costa, Dolors; Carrió, Anna; Guijarro, Sara; Enjuanes, Anna; Hernández, Lluís; Yagüe, Jordi; Nicolás, Pilar; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M.; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Castillo, Ester; Dohm, Juliane C.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Piris, Miguel A.; de Alava, Enrique; Miguel, Jesús San; Royo, Romina; Gelpí, Josep L.; Torrents, David; Orozco, Modesto; Pisano, David G.; Valencia, Alfonso; Guigó, Roderic; Bayés, Mónica; Heath, Simon; Gut, Marta; Klatt, Peter; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Stebbings, Lucy A.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.; Gut, Ivo; López-Guillermo, Armando; Estivill, Xavier; Montserrat, Emili; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías

2012-01-01

22

Recurrent mutations of NOTCH genes in follicular lymphoma identify a distinctive subset of tumours.  

PubMed

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common malignant lymphomas. The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation is found in about 80% of cases and plays an important role in lymphomagenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and transformation of this lymphoma are not fully understood. Gain-of-function mutations of NOTCH1 or NOTCH2 have recently been reported in several B cell lymphoid neoplasms but the role of these mutations in FL is not known. In this study we investigated the mutational status of these genes in 112 FLs. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 mutations were identified in five and two cases, respectively (total 7/112, 6.3%). All mutations predicted for truncated protein in the PEST domain and were identical to those identified in other B cell lymphoid neoplasms. NOTCH-mutated FL cases were characterized by lower frequency of t(14;18) (14% versus 69%, p = 0.01), higher incidence of splenic involvement (71% versus 25%, p = 0.02) and female predominance (100% versus 55%, p = 0.04). A diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) component was more frequently identified in NOTCH-mutated FL than in wild-type cases (57% versus 18%, p = 0.03). These results indicate that NOTCH mutations are uncommon in FL but may occur in a subset of cases with distinctive, characteristic, clinicopathological features. PMID:25141821

Karube, Kennosuke; Martínez, Daniel; Royo, Cristina; Navarro, Alba; Pinyol, Magda; Cazorla, Maite; Castillo, Paola; Valera, Alexandra; Carrió, Anna; Costa, Dolors; Colomer, Dolors; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Esteban, Daniel; Giné, Eva; López-Guillermo, Armando; Campo, Elias

2014-11-01

23

Simulated annealing based algorithm for identifying mutated driver pathways in cancer.  

PubMed

With the development of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, large-scale cancer genomics projects can be implemented to help researchers to identify driver genes, driver mutations, and driver pathways, which promote cancer proliferation in large numbers of cancer patients. Hence, one of the remaining challenges is to distinguish functional mutations vital for cancer development, and filter out the unfunctional and random "passenger mutations." In this study, we introduce a modified method to solve the so-called maximum weight submatrix problem which is used to identify mutated driver pathways in cancer. The problem is based on two combinatorial properties, that is, coverage and exclusivity. Particularly, we enhance an integrative model which combines gene mutation and expression data. The experimental results on simulated data show that, compared with the other methods, our method is more efficient. Finally, we apply the proposed method on two real biological datasets. The results show that our proposed method is also applicable in real practice. PMID:24982873

Li, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Yu-Lang; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Wang, Hong-Qiang

2014-01-01

24

Molecular testing of 163 patients with Morquio A (Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) identifies 39 novel GALNS mutations.  

PubMed

Morquio A (Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA; MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by partial or total deficiency of the enzyme galactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS; also known as N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase) encoded by the GALNS gene. Patients who inherit two mutated GALNS gene alleles have a decreased ability to degrade the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate, thereby causing GAG accumulation within lysosomes and consequently pleiotropic disease. GALNS mutations occur throughout the gene and many mutations are identified only in single patients or families, causing difficulties both in mutation detection and interpretation. In this study, molecular analysis of 163 patients with Morquio A identified 99 unique mutations in the GALNS gene believed to negatively impact GALNS protein function, of which 39 are previously unpublished, together with 26 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Recommendations for the molecular testing of patients, clear reporting of sequence findings, and interpretation of sequencing data are provided. PMID:24726177

Morrone, A; Tylee, K L; Al-Sayed, M; Brusius-Facchin, A C; Caciotti, A; Church, H J; Coll, M J; Davidson, K; Fietz, M J; Gort, L; Hegde, M; Kubaski, F; Lacerda, L; Laranjeira, F; Leistner-Segal, S; Mooney, S; Pajares, S; Pollard, L; Ribeiro, I; Wang, R Y; Miller, N

2014-06-01

25

Yale team identifies successful combination drug therapies for melanoma mutations  

Cancer.gov

Yale Cancer Center researchers have identified several effective combinations of therapies that inhibit melanomas driven by two of the most formidable cancer genes. Some combinations include cholesterol-lowering statin drugs. The study appears in the journal Cancer Discovery. The Yale scientists were seeking to overcome the problems of resistance and partial response to single-drug cancer therapy in patients with melanoma.

26

GNAq mutations are not identified in papillary thyroid carcinomas and hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

Activating mutations of GNAq protein in a hotspot at codon 209 have been recently described in uveal melanomas. Since these neoplasms share with thyroid carcinomas a high frequency of MAP kinase pathway-activating mutations, we hypothesized whether GNAq mutations could also play a role in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Additionally, activating mutations of another subtype of G protein (GNAS1) are frequently found in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, making it plausible that GNAq-activating mutations could also be found in some of these nodules. To investigate thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules for GNAq mutations in exon 5, codon 209, a total of 32 RET/PTC, BRAF, and RAS negative thyroid papillary carcinomas and 13 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were evaluated. No mutations were identified. Although plausible, GNAq mutations seem not to play an important role in the development of thyroid follicular neoplasms, either benign hyperfunctioning nodules or malignant papillary carcinomas. Our results are in accordance with the literature, in which no GNAq hotspot mutations were found in thyroid papillary carcinomas, as well as in an extensive panel of other tumors. The molecular basis for MAP-kinase pathway activation in RET-PTC/BRAF/RAS negative thyroid carcinomas remains to be determined. PMID:20714830

Cassol, Clarissa A; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

2010-12-01

27

Mutation and evolutionary analyses identify NR2E1-candidate-regulatory mutations in humans with severe cortical malformations  

PubMed Central

Nuclear receptor 2E1 (NR2E1) is expressed in human fetal and adult brains; however, its role in human brain–behavior development is unknown. Previously, we have corrected the cortical hypoplasia and behavioral abnormalities in Nr2e1?/? mice using a genomic clone spanning human NR2E1, which bolsters the hypothesis that NR2E1 may similarly play a role in human cortical and behavioral development. To test the hypothesis that humans with abnormal brain–behavior development may have null or hypomorphic NR2E1 mutations, we undertook the first candidate mutation screen of NR2E1 by sequencing its entire coding region, untranslated, splice site, proximal promoter and evolutionarily conserved non-coding regions in 56 unrelated patients with cortical disorders, namely microcephaly. We then genotyped the candidate mutations in 325 unrelated control subjects and 15 relatives. We did not detect any coding region changes in NR2E1; however, we identified seven novel candidate regulatory mutations that were absent from control subjects. We used in silico tools to predict the effects of these candidate mutations on neural transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Four candidate mutations were predicted to alter TFBS. To facilitate the present and future studies of NR2E1, we also elucidated its molecular evolution, genetic diversity, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium by sequencing an additional 94 unaffected humans representing Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Oceania, as well as great apes and monkeys. We detected strong purifying selection, low genetic diversity, 21 novel polymorphisms and five common haplotypes at NR2E1. We conclude that protein-coding changes in NR2E1 do not contribute to cortical and behavioral abnormalities in the patients examined here, but that regulatory mutations may play a role. PMID:17054721

Kumar, R A; Leach, S; Bonaguro, R; Chen, J; Yokom, D W; Abrahams, B S; Seaver, L; Schwartz, C E; Dobyns, W; Brooks-Wilson, A; Simpson, E M

2007-01-01

28

Whole exome sequencing identifies ATRX mutation as a key molecular determinant in lower-grade glioma  

PubMed Central

The molecular foundations of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs)—astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma—remain less well characterized than those of their fully malignant counterpart, glioblastoma. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) likely represent initiating pathogenic events. However, while IDH mutations appear to dramatically alter cellular epigenomic landscapes, definitive downstream transformative mechanisms have not been characterized. It remains likely, therefore, that additional genomic abnormalities collaborate with IDH mutation to drive oncogenesis in LGG. We performed whole exome sequencing in 4 LGGs, followed by focused resequencing in an additional 28, and found a high incidence of mutations in the ATRX gene (? thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked). ATRX forms a core component of a chromatin remodeling complex active in telomere biology. Mutations in ATRX have been identified in multiple tumor types and appear to cause alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a presumed precursor to genomic instability. In our samples, ATRX mutation was entirely restricted to IDH-mutant tumors, closely correlated with TP53 mutation and astrocytic differentiation, and mutually exclusive with 1p/19q codeletion, the molecular hallmark of oligodendroglioma. Moreover, ATRX mutation was highly enriched in tumors of so-called early progenitor-like transcriptional subclass (~85%), which our prior work has linked to specific cells of origin in the forebrain subventricular zone. Finally, ATRX mutation correlated with ALT, providing a mechanistic link to genomic instability. In summary, our findings both identify ATRX mutation as a defining molecular determinant for a large subset of IDH-mutant gliomas and have direct implications on pathogenic mechanisms across the wide spectrum of LGGs. PMID:23104868

Kannan, Kasthuri; Inagaki, Akiko; Silber, Joachim; Gorovets, Daniel; Zhang, Jianan; Kastenhuber, Edward R.; Heguy, Adriana; Petrini, John H.; Chan, Timothy A.; Huse, Jason T.

2012-01-01

29

Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel EMD mutation in a Chinese family with dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Variants in the emerin gene (EMD) were implicated in X-linked recessive Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), characterized by early-onset contractures of tendons, progressive muscular weakness and cardiomyopathy. To date, 223 mutations have been reported in EMD gene and the majority of them caused a predominant skeletal muscular phenotype. In this study, we identified a novel deletion mutation in EMD exon 1, which results in almost a complete loss of emerin protein in a large Chinese family. However, the patients suffered severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) but very mild skeletal muscle disorder. Case presentation Whole exome sequencing (WES) and linkage analysis were performed to identify the underlying mutation in a Chinese DCM family spanning five generations. A missense variation in the GPR50 gene was found co-segregated with the disease phenotype, whereas no functional alteration was detected in the variant GPR50 protein. When analyzing the failure sequences in the exome sequencing data, a novel deletion mutation (c.26_39delATACCGAGCTGACC) in EMD exon 1, was identified in this family. Different from the typical clinical features caused by most reported EMD mutations, patients in our study presented very mild skeletal muscle degeneration that had not been diagnosed until the mutation was found. Conclusion We described a family with rare clinical presentations caused by a novel EMD deletion mutation. Our findings broaden the heterogeneous spectrum of phenotypes attributed to EMD mutations and provide new insight to explain the genotype-phenotype correlations between EMD mutations and EDMD symptoms. PMID:24997722

2014-01-01

30

Pan-cancer network analysis identifies combinations of rare somatic mutations across pathways and protein complexes.  

PubMed

Cancers exhibit extensive mutational heterogeneity, and the resulting long-tail phenomenon complicates the discovery of genes and pathways that are significantly mutated in cancer. We perform a pan-cancer analysis of mutated networks in 3,281 samples from 12 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using HotNet2, a new algorithm to find mutated subnetworks that overcomes the limitations of existing single-gene, pathway and network approaches. We identify 16 significantly mutated subnetworks that comprise well-known cancer signaling pathways as well as subnetworks with less characterized roles in cancer, including cohesin, condensin and others. Many of these subnetworks exhibit co-occurring mutations across samples. These subnetworks contain dozens of genes with rare somatic mutations across multiple cancers; many of these genes have additional evidence supporting a role in cancer. By illuminating these rare combinations of mutations, pan-cancer network analyses provide a roadmap to investigate new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities across cancer types. PMID:25501392

Leiserson, Mark D M; Vandin, Fabio; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Dobson, Jason R; Eldridge, Jonathan V; Thomas, Jacob L; Papoutsaki, Alexandra; Kim, Younhun; Niu, Beifang; McLellan, Michael; Lawrence, Michael S; Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; Tamborero, David; Cheng, Yuwei; Ryslik, Gregory A; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Getz, Gad; Ding, Li; Raphael, Benjamin J

2015-02-01

31

Somatic mutations identify a subgroup of aplastic anemia patients who progress to myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

The distinction between acquired aplastic anemia (AA) and hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome (hMDS) is often difficult, especially nonsevere AA. We postulated that somatic mutations are present in a subset of AA, and predict malignant transformation. From our database, we identified 150 AA patients with no morphological evidence of MDS, who had stored bone marrow (BM) and constitutional DNA. We excluded Fanconi anemia, mutations of telomere maintenance, and a family history of BM failure (BMF) or cancer. The initial cohort of 57 patients was screened for 835 known genes associated with BMF and myeloid cancer; a second cohort of 93 patients was screened for mutations in ASXL1, DNMT3A, BCOR, TET2, and MPL. Somatic mutations were detected in 19% of AA, and included ASXL1 (n = 12), DNMT3A (n = 8) and BCOR (n = 6). Patients with somatic mutations had a longer disease duration (37 vs 8 months, P < .04), and shorter telomere lengths (median length, 0.9 vs 1.1, P < .001), compared with patients without mutations. Somatic mutations in AA patients with a disease duration of >6 months were associated with a 40% risk of transformation to MDS (P < .0002). Nearly one-fifth of AA patients harbor mutations in genes typically seen in myeloid malignancies that predicted for later transformation to MDS. PMID:25139356

Kulasekararaj, Austin G; Jiang, Jie; Smith, Alexander E; Mohamedali, Azim M; Mian, Syed; Gandhi, Shreyans; Gaken, Joop; Czepulkowski, Barbara; Marsh, Judith C W; Mufti, Ghulam J

2014-10-23

32

Whole Exome Analysis Identifies Frequent CNGA1 Mutations in Japanese Population with Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate frequent disease-causing gene mutations in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in the Japanese population. Methods In total, 99 Japanese patients with non-syndromic and unrelated arRP or sporadic RP (spRP) were recruited in this study and ophthalmic examinations were conducted for the diagnosis of RP. Among these patients, whole exome sequencing analysis of 30 RP patients and direct sequencing screening of all CNGA1 exons of the other 69 RP patients were performed. Results Whole exome sequencing of 30 arRP/spRP patients identified disease-causing gene mutations of CNGA1 (four patients), EYS (three patients) and SAG (one patient) in eight patients and potential disease-causing gene variants of USH2A (two patients), EYS (one patient), TULP1 (one patient) and C2orf71 (one patient) in five patients. Screening of an additional 69 arRP/spRP patients for the CNGA1 gene mutation revealed one patient with a homozygous mutation. Conclusions This is the first identification of CNGA1 mutations in arRP Japanese patients. The frequency of CNGA1 gene mutation was 5.1% (5/99 patients). CNGA1 mutations are one of the most frequent arRP-causing mutations in Japanese patients. PMID:25268133

Katagiri, Satoshi; Akahori, Masakazu; Sergeev, Yuri; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Furuno, Masaaki; Hayashi, Takaaki; Kondo, Mineo; Ueno, Shinji; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Shinoda, Kei; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Tsurusaki, Yohinori; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takeshi

2014-01-01

33

Whole-genome sequencing identifies a recurrent functional synonymous mutation in melanoma  

PubMed Central

Synonymous mutations, which do not alter the protein sequence, have been shown to affect protein function [Sauna ZE, Kimchi-Sarfaty C (2011) Nat Rev Genet 12(10):683–691]. However, synonymous mutations are rarely investigated in the cancer genomics field. We used whole-genome and -exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in 29 melanoma samples. Validation of one synonymous somatic mutation in BCL2L12 in 285 samples identified 12 cases that harbored the recurrent F17F mutation. This mutation led to increased BCL2L12 mRNA and protein levels because of differential targeting of WT and mutant BCL2L12 by hsa-miR-671–5p. Protein made from mutant BCL2L12 transcript bound p53, inhibited UV-induced apoptosis more efficiently than WT BCL2L12, and reduced endogenous p53 target gene transcription. This report shows selection of a recurrent somatic synonymous mutation in cancer. Our data indicate that silent alterations have a role to play in human cancer, emphasizing the importance of their investigation in future cancer genome studies. PMID:23901115

Gartner, Jared J.; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Prickett, Todd D.; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Stitzel, Michael L.; Lin, Jimmy C.; Davis, Sean; Simhadri, Vijaya L.; Jha, Sujata; Katagiri, Nobuko; Gotea, Valer; Teer, Jamie K.; Morken, Mario A.; Bhanot, Umesh K.; Chen, Guo; Elnitski, Laura L.; Davies, Michael A.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Hannah; Karchin, Rachel; Robinson, William; Robinson, Steven; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Collins, Francis S.; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Komar, Anton A.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Margulies, Elliott H.; Samuels, Yardena

2013-01-01

34

Novel SLC20A2 mutations identified in southern Chinese patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by bilateral and symmetric cerebral calcifications. Recently, SLC20A2 was identified as a causative gene for familial IBGC, and three mutations were reported in a northern Chinese population. Here, we aimed to explore the mutation spectrum of SLC20A2 in a southern Chinese population. Sanger sequencing was employed to screen mutations within SLC20A2 in two IBGC families and 14 sporadic IBGC cases from a southern Han Chinese population. Four novel mutations (c.82G>A p.D28N, c.185T>C p.L62P, c.1470_1478delGCAGGTCCT p.Q491_L493del and c.935-1G>A) were identified in two families and two sporadic cases, respectively; none were detected in 200 unrelated controls. No mutation was found in the remaining 12 patients. Different mutations may result in varied phenotypes, including brain calcification and clinical manifestations. Our study supports the hypothesis that SLC20A2 is a causative gene of IBGC and expands the mutation spectrum of SLC20A2, which facilitates the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation of IBGC. PMID:23939468

Chen, Wan-Jin; Yao, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Jie; Ni, Wang; He, Jin; Li, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Yi; Zhao, Gui-Xian; Murong, Shen-Xing; Wang, Ning; Wu, Zhi-Ying

2013-10-15

35

Whole-genome sequencing identifies a recurrent functional synonymous mutation in melanoma.  

PubMed

Synonymous mutations, which do not alter the protein sequence, have been shown to affect protein function [Sauna ZE, Kimchi-Sarfaty C (2011) Nat Rev Genet 12(10):683-691]. However, synonymous mutations are rarely investigated in the cancer genomics field. We used whole-genome and -exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in 29 melanoma samples. Validation of one synonymous somatic mutation in BCL2L12 in 285 samples identified 12 cases that harbored the recurrent F17F mutation. This mutation led to increased BCL2L12 mRNA and protein levels because of differential targeting of WT and mutant BCL2L12 by hsa-miR-671-5p. Protein made from mutant BCL2L12 transcript bound p53, inhibited UV-induced apoptosis more efficiently than WT BCL2L12, and reduced endogenous p53 target gene transcription. This report shows selection of a recurrent somatic synonymous mutation in cancer. Our data indicate that silent alterations have a role to play in human cancer, emphasizing the importance of their investigation in future cancer genome studies. PMID:23901115

Gartner, Jared J; Parker, Stephen C J; Prickett, Todd D; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Stitzel, Michael L; Lin, Jimmy C; Davis, Sean; Simhadri, Vijaya L; Jha, Sujata; Katagiri, Nobuko; Gotea, Valer; Teer, Jamie K; Wei, Xiaomu; Morken, Mario A; Bhanot, Umesh K; Chen, Guo; Elnitski, Laura L; Davies, Michael A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Carter, Hannah; Karchin, Rachel; Robinson, William; Robinson, Steven; Rosenberg, Steven A; Collins, Francis S; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Komar, Anton A; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Hayward, Nicholas K; Margulies, Elliott H; Samuels, Yardena

2013-08-13

36

A genetic pedigree analysis to identify gene mutations involved in femoral head necrosis.  

PubMed

The present study presents results from a linkage and mutation screening analysis aiming to identify the causative gene of femoral head necrosis, also known as osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH), in a Chinese pedigree. We collected clinical data on the osteonecrosis pedigree, and extracted blood and genomic DNA from the family members. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing allowed to identify a mutation in the COL2A1 gene of the proband; the clinical manifestations of the proband meet the criteria for osteonecrosis. The exons of COL2A1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and mutation screening was conducted by direct sequencing in all the family members. The locus was also sequenced in 50 unrelated healthy controls. The c.3665G>A heterozygous mutation was detected in patients of the pedigree, but not in healthy individuals. We conclude that a mutation in the COL2A1 gene is the causative agent of ONFH in this family. Therefore, this mutation may be associated with osteonecrosis in Chinese populations. PMID:25050885

Wang, Lin; Pan, Hehai; Zhu, Zhen-An

2014-10-01

37

Exome sequencing identifies GRIN2A as frequently mutated in melanoma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of melanoma is increasing more than any other cancer, and knowledge of its genetic alterations is limited. To systematically analyze such alterations, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 14 matched normal and metastatic tumor DNAs. Using stringent criteria, we identified 68 genes that appeared to be somatically mutated at elevated frequency, many of which are not known to be genetically altered in tumors. Most importantly, we discovered that TRRAP harbored a recurrent mutation that clustered in one position (p. Ser722Phe) in 6 out of 67 affected individuals (~4%), as well as a previously unidentified gene, GRIN2A, which was mutated in 33% of melanoma samples. The nature, pattern and functional evaluation of the TRRAP recurrent mutation suggest that TRRAP functions as an oncogene. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive map of genetic alterations in melanoma to date and suggests that the glutamate signaling pathway is involved in this disease. PMID:21499247

Wei, Xiaomu; Walia, Vijay; Lin, Jimmy C; Teer, Jamie K; Prickett, Todd D; Gartner, Jared; Davis, Sean; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Davies, Michael A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Robinson, William; Robinson, Steven; Rosenberg, Steven A; Samuels, Yardena

2011-01-01

38

VCP gene analyses in Japanese patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identify a new mutation.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence has proven that mutations in the VCP gene encoding valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia. This gene was later found to be causative for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, occurring typically in elderly persons. We thus sequenced the VCP gene in 75 Japanese patients with sporadic ALS negative for mutations in other genes causative for ALS and found a novel mutation, p.Arg487His, in 1 patient. The newly identified mutant as well as known mutants rendered neuronal cells susceptible to oxidative stress. The presence of the mutation in the Japanese population extends the geographic region for involvement of the VCP gene in sporadic ALS to East Asia. PMID:25457024

Hirano, Makito; Nakamura, Yusaku; Saigoh, Kazumasa; Sakamoto, Hikaru; Ueno, Shuichi; Isono, Chiharu; Mitsui, Yoshiyuki; Kusunoki, Susumu

2014-10-16

39

Whole-exome sequencing identifies somatic ATRX mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.  

PubMed

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) are the solid tumour type most commonly associated with an inherited susceptibility syndrome. However, very little is known about the somatic genetic changes leading to tumorigenesis or malignant transformation. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing on a discovery set of 21 PCC/PGL and identify somatic ATRX mutations in two SDHB-associated tumours. Targeted sequencing of a separate validation set of 103 PCC/PGL identifies somatic ATRX mutations in 12.6% of PCC/PGL. PCC/PGL with somatic ATRX mutations are associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and clinically aggressive behaviour. This finding suggests that loss of ATRX, an SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling protein, is important in the development of clinically aggressive PCC/PGL. PMID:25608029

Fishbein, Lauren; Khare, Sanika; Wubbenhorst, Bradley; DeSloover, Daniel; D'Andrea, Kurt; Merrill, Shana; Cho, Nam Woo; Greenberg, Roger A; Else, Tobias; Montone, Kathleen; LiVolsi, Virginia; Fraker, Douglas; Daber, Robert; Cohen, Debbie L; Nathanson, Katherine L

2015-01-01

40

Two Novel Mutations Identified in an African-American Child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C > T (p.Q1208X) and c.11002G > T (p.E3668X). Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS. PMID:20368792

Morrone, Kerry; Wang, Yanhua; Huizing, Marjan; Sutton, Elie; White, James G.; Gahl, William A.; Moody, Karen

2010-01-01

41

Driver somatic mutations identify distinct disease entities within myeloid neoplasms with myelodysplasia  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of the genetic basis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) has considerably improved. To define genotype/phenotype relationships of clinical relevance, we studied 308 patients with MDS, MDS/MPN, or acute myeloid leukemia evolving from MDS. Unsupervised statistical analysis, including the World Health Organization classification criteria and somatic mutations, showed that MDS associated with SF3B1-mutation (51 of 245 patients, 20.8%) is a distinct nosologic entity irrespective of current morphologic classification criteria. Conversely, MDS with ring sideroblasts with nonmutated SF3B1 segregated in different clusters with other MDS subtypes. Mutations of genes involved in DNA methylation, splicing factors other than SF3B1, and genes of the RAS pathway and cohesin complex were independently associated with multilineage dysplasia and identified a distinct subset (51 of 245 patients, 20.8%). No recurrent mutation pattern correlated with unilineage dysplasia without ring sideroblasts. Irrespective of driver somatic mutations, a threshold of 5% bone marrow blasts retained a significant discriminant value for identifying cases with clonal evolution. Comutation of TET2 and SRSF2 was highly predictive of a myeloid neoplasm characterized by myelodysplasia and monocytosis, including but not limited to, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. These results serve as a proof of concept that a molecular classification of myeloid neoplasms is feasible. PMID:24970933

Papaemmanuil, Elli; Ambaglio, Ilaria; Elena, Chiara; Gallì, Anna; Della Porta, Matteo G.; Travaglino, Erica; Pietra, Daniela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Ubezio, Marta; Bono, Elisa; Da Vià, Matteo C.; Brisci, Angela; Bruno, Francesca; Cremonesi, Laura; Ferrari, Maurizio; Boveri, Emanuela; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Campbell, Peter J.; Cazzola, Mario

2014-01-01

42

Driver somatic mutations identify distinct disease entities within myeloid neoplasms with myelodysplasia.  

PubMed

Our knowledge of the genetic basis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) has considerably improved. To define genotype/phenotype relationships of clinical relevance, we studied 308 patients with MDS, MDS/MPN, or acute myeloid leukemia evolving from MDS. Unsupervised statistical analysis, including the World Health Organization classification criteria and somatic mutations, showed that MDS associated with SF3B1-mutation (51 of 245 patients, 20.8%) is a distinct nosologic entity irrespective of current morphologic classification criteria. Conversely, MDS with ring sideroblasts with nonmutated SF3B1 segregated in different clusters with other MDS subtypes. Mutations of genes involved in DNA methylation, splicing factors other than SF3B1, and genes of the RAS pathway and cohesin complex were independently associated with multilineage dysplasia and identified a distinct subset (51 of 245 patients, 20.8%). No recurrent mutation pattern correlated with unilineage dysplasia without ring sideroblasts. Irrespective of driver somatic mutations, a threshold of 5% bone marrow blasts retained a significant discriminant value for identifying cases with clonal evolution. Comutation of TET2 and SRSF2 was highly predictive of a myeloid neoplasm characterized by myelodysplasia and monocytosis, including but not limited to, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. These results serve as a proof of concept that a molecular classification of myeloid neoplasms is feasible. PMID:24970933

Malcovati, Luca; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Ambaglio, Ilaria; Elena, Chiara; Gallì, Anna; Della Porta, Matteo G; Travaglino, Erica; Pietra, Daniela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Ubezio, Marta; Bono, Elisa; Da Vià, Matteo C; Brisci, Angela; Bruno, Francesca; Cremonesi, Laura; Ferrari, Maurizio; Boveri, Emanuela; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Campbell, Peter J; Cazzola, Mario

2014-08-28

43

Mutations in TLR/MYD88 pathway identify a subset of young chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with favorable outcome.  

PubMed

Mutations in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes have been found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at low frequency. We analyzed the incidence, clinicobiological characteristics, and outcome of patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations in 587 CLL patients. Twenty-three patients (3.9%) had mutations, 19 in MYD88 (one with concurrent IRAK1 mutation), 2 TLR2 (one with concomitant TLR6 mutation), 1 IRAK1, and 1 TLR5. No mutations were found in IRAK2 and IRAK4. TLR/MYD88-mutated CLL overexpressed genes of the nuclear factor ?B pathway. Patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations were significantly younger (83% age ?50 years) than those with no mutations. TLR/MYD88 mutations were the most frequent in young patients. Patients with mutated TLR/MYD88 CLL had a higher frequency of mutated IGHV and low expression of CD38 and ZAP-70. Overall survival (OS) was better in TLR/MYD88-mutated than unmutated patients in the whole series (10-year OS, 100% vs 62%; P = .002), and in the subset of patients age ?50 years (100% vs 70%; P = .02). In addition, relative OS of TLR/MYD88-mutated patients was similar to that in the age- and gender-matched population. In summary, TLR/MYD88 mutations identify a population of young CLL patients with favorable outcome. PMID:24782504

Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Pinyol, Magda; Navarro, Alba; Aymerich, Marta; Jares, Pedro; Juan, Manel; Rozman, María; Colomer, Dolors; Delgado, Julio; Giné, Eva; González-Díaz, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; Colado, Enrique; Rayón, Consolación; Payer, Angel R; Terol, Maria José; Navarro, Blanca; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xosé S; Rozman, Ciril; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Villamor, Neus

2014-06-12

44

Exome sequencing circumvents missing clinical data and identifies a BSCL2 mutation in congenital lipodystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Exome sequencing has become more and more affordable and the technique has emerged as an important diagnostic tool for monogenic disorders at early stages of investigations, in particular when clinical information is limited or unspecific as well as in cases of genetic heterogeneity. Methods We identified a consanguineous Pakistani family segregating an autosomal recessive phenotype characterized by muscular hypertrophy, mild mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities. The available clinical information was incomplete and we applied whole exome sequencing in an affected family member for the identification of candidate gene variants. Results Exome sequencing identified a previously unreported homozygous mutation in the acceptor splice site of intron 5 in the BSCL2 gene (c.574-2A?>?G). Expression analysis revealed that the mutation was associated with skipping of exon 6. BSCL2 mutations are associated with Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy and a clinical re-evaluation of affected individuals confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions Exome sequencing is a powerful technique for the identification of candidate gene variants in Mendelian traits. We applied this technique on a single individual affected by a likely autosomal recessive disorder without access to complete clinical details. A homozygous and truncating mutation was identified in the BSCL2 gene suggesting congenital generalized lipodystrophy. Incomplete phenotypic delineations are frequent limiting factors in search for a diagnosis and may lead to inappropriate care and follow-up. Our study exemplifies exome sequencing as a powerful diagnostic tool in Mendelian disorders that may complement missing clinical information and accelerate clinical diagnosis. PMID:24961962

2014-01-01

45

Mutational Analysis of EGFR and Related Signaling Pathway Genes in Lung Adenocarcinomas Identifies a Novel Somatic Kinase Domain Mutation in FGFR4  

PubMed Central

Background Fifty percent of lung adenocarcinomas harbor somatic mutations in six genes that encode proteins in the EGFR signaling pathway, i.e., EGFR, HER2/ERBB2, HER4/ERBB4, PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS. We performed mutational profiling of a large cohort of lung adenocarcinomas to uncover other potential somatic mutations in genes of this signaling pathway that could contribute to lung tumorigenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed genomic DNA from a total of 261 resected, clinically annotated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. The coding sequences of 39 genes were screened for somatic mutations via high-throughput dideoxynucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified gene products. Mutations were considered to be somatic only if they were found in an independent tumor-derived PCR product but not in matched normal tissue. Sequencing of 9MB of tumor sequence identified 239 putative genetic variants. We further examined 22 variants found in RAS family genes and 135 variants localized to exons encoding the kinase domain of respective proteins. We identified a total of 37 non-synonymous somatic mutations; 36 were found collectively in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA. One somatic mutation was a previously unreported mutation in the kinase domain (exon 16) of FGFR4 (Glu681Lys), identified in 1 of 158 tumors. The FGFR4 mutation is analogous to a reported tumor-specific somatic mutation in ERBB2 and is located in the same exon as a previously reported kinase domain mutation in FGFR4 (Pro712Thr) in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Conclusions/Significance This study is one of the first comprehensive mutational analyses of major genes in a specific signaling pathway in a sizeable cohort of lung adenocarcinomas. Our results suggest the majority of gain-of-function mutations within kinase genes in the EGFR signaling pathway have already been identified. Our findings also implicate FGFR4 in the pathogenesis of a subset of lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:17487277

Marks, Jenifer L.; McLellan, Michael D.; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Lash, Alex E.; Kasai, Yumi; Broderick, Stephen; Sarkaria, Inderpal S.; Pham, DuyKhanh; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Miner, Tracie L.; Fewell, Ginger A.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Kris, Mark G.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Varmus, Harold; Pao, William

2007-01-01

46

Exome Sequencing Identifies an MYH3 Mutation in a Family with Distal Arthrogryposis Type 1  

PubMed Central

Background: Few genes responsible for distal arthrogryposis type 1 are known, although genes coding for the proteins in the sarcomere have been implicated in other types of distal arthrogryposis. Cost-effective sequencing methods are now available to examine all genes in the human genome for the purpose of establishing the genetic basis of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: A multigenerational family with distal arthrogryposis type 1 characterized by clubfoot and mild hand contractures was identified, and exome sequencing was performed on DNA from one of the affected family members. Linkage analysis was used to confirm whether a genetic variant segregated with distal arthrogryposis. Results: Exome sequencing identified 573 novel variants that were not present in control databases. A missense mutation in MYH3 (a gene coding for the heavy chain of myosin), causing an F437I amino acid substitution, was identified that segregated with distal arthrogryposis in this family. Linkage analysis confirmed that this MYH3 mutation was the only exome variant common to all six affected individuals. Conclusions: Identification of an MYH3 mutation in this family with distal arthrogryposis type 1 broadens the phenotype associated with MYH3 mutations to include distal arthrogryposis types 1, 2A (Freeman-Sheldon syndrome), and 2B (Sheldon-Hall syndrome). Exome sequencing is a useful and cost-effective method to discover causative genetic mutations, although data from extended families may be needed to confirm the importance of the hundreds of identified variants. Clinical Relevance: Distal arthrogryposis type 1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated clubfoot, particularly when hand contractures are present in any family member or when the clubfoot is severe and resistant to treatment. PMID:21531865

Alvarado, David M.; Buchan, Jillian G.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Dobbs, Matthew B.

2011-01-01

47

Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

1995-01-01

48

BRAF mutation as a potential marker to identify the proximal colon serrated polyps with malignant potential  

PubMed Central

A large number of serrated polyps with malignant potential in the proximal colon were underestimated using currently available criteria mostly based on architectural and cytological features, contributing to proximal interval colorectal cancers. Recently, increasing evidences indicate that BRAF(V600E) mutation is a specific molecular feature and driver of the serrated pathway, and proximal serrated polyps with BRAF(V600E) mutation have a high risk of progression to malignancy. We proposed that immunohistochemical detection of BRAF(V600E) using a BRAF(V600E) mutation-specific antibody is a feasible technique for reproducibly identifying proximal serrated polyps with malignant potential in clinical practice, which may need more aggressive treatment and vigilant clinical monitoring. PMID:25550768

Fu, Xiangsheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan

2014-01-01

49

Mutations in Multidomain Protein MEGF8 Identify a Carpenter Syndrome Subtype Associated with Defective Lateralization  

PubMed Central

Carpenter syndrome is an autosomal-recessive multiple-congenital-malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet; many other clinical features occur, and the most frequent include obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease. Mutations of RAB23, encoding a small GTPase that regulates vesicular transport, are present in the majority of cases. Here, we describe a disorder caused by mutations in multiple epidermal-growth-factor-like-domains 8 (MEGF8), which exhibits substantial clinical overlap with Carpenter syndrome but is frequently associated with abnormal left-right patterning. We describe five affected individuals with similar dysmorphic facies, and three of them had either complete situs inversus, dextrocardia, or transposition of the great arteries; similar cardiac abnormalities were previously identified in a mouse mutant for the orthologous Megf8. The mutant alleles comprise one nonsense, three missense, and two splice-site mutations; we demonstrate in zebrafish that, in contrast to the wild-type protein, the proteins containing all three missense alterations provide only weak rescue of an early gastrulation phenotype induced by Megf8 knockdown. We conclude that mutations in MEGF8 cause a Carpenter syndrome subtype frequently associated with defective left-right patterning, probably through perturbation of signaling by hedgehog and nodal family members. We did not observe any subject with biallelic loss-of function mutations, suggesting that some residual MEGF8 function might be necessary for survival and might influence the phenotypes observed. PMID:23063620

Twigg, Stephen R.F.; Lloyd, Deborah; Jenkins, Dagan; Elçioglu, Nursel E.; Cooper, Christopher D.O.; Al-Sannaa, Nouriya; Annagür, Ali; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hüning, Irina; Knight, Samantha J.L.; Goodship, Judith A.; Keavney, Bernard D.; Beales, Philip L.; Gileadi, Opher; McGowan, Simon J.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.

2012-01-01

50

New de novo genetic mutations in schizophrenia identified -Mental Wellness Today http://www.mentalwellnesstoday.com/...hizophrenia/schizophrenia-articles/16-shizophrenia-research/194-new-de-novo-genetic-mutations-in-schizophrenia-identified[10/10/2012 4:3  

E-print Network

New de novo genetic mutations in schizophrenia identified - Mental Wellness Today http://www.mentalwellnesstoday.com/...hizophrenia/schizophrenia-articles/16-shizophrenia-research/194-new-de-novo-genetic-mutations-in-schizophrenia-identified[10/10/2012 4 Articles Heart attack more likely in those with schizophrenia: Study Faith Can Help Mental Health Outcomes

51

Massively parallel sequencing identifies the gene Megf8 with ENU-induced mutation causing heterotaxy.  

PubMed

Forward genetic screens with ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis can facilitate gene discovery, but mutation identification is often difficult. We present the first study in which an ENU-induced mutation was identified by massively parallel DNA sequencing. This mutation causes heterotaxy and complex congenital heart defects and was mapped to a 2.2-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7. Massively parallel sequencing of the entire 2.2-Mb interval identified 2 single-base substitutions, one in an intergenic region and a second causing replacement of a highly conserved cysteine with arginine (C193R) in the gene Megf8. Megf8 is evolutionarily conserved from human to fruit fly, and is observed to be ubiquitously expressed. Morpholino knockdown of Megf8 in zebrafish embryos resulted in a high incidence of heterotaxy, indicating a conserved role in laterality specification. Megf8(C193R) mouse mutants show normal breaking of symmetry at the node, but Nodal signaling failed to be propagated to the left lateral plate mesoderm. Videomicroscopy showed nodal cilia motility, which is required for left-right patterning, is unaffected. Although this protein is predicted to have receptor function based on its amino acid sequence, surprisingly confocal imaging showed it is translocated into the nucleus, where it is colocalized with Gfi1b and Baf60C, two proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. Overall, through the recovery of an ENU-induced mutation, we uncovered Megf8 as an essential regulator of left-right patterning. PMID:19218456

Zhang, Zhen; Alpert, Deanne; Francis, Richard; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Yu, Qing; Tansey, Terry; Sabol, Steven L; Cui, Cheng; Bai, Yongli; Koriabine, Maxim; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chen, Feng; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Gunn, Teresa M; Kramer, Kenneth L; De Jong, Pieter J; Pennacchio, Len A; Lo, Cecilia W

2009-03-01

52

NGS identifies TAZ mutation in a family with X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

We reported a family with two male siblings affected with infantile dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Extensive evaluation failed to identify the underlying cause for the DCM. Next generation sequencing (NGS) with targeted enrichment identified a hemizygous variant c.718G>C (p.Gly240Arg) in the TAZ gene. This variant has been reported in three other families with X linked infantile DCM and is therefore likely pathogenic. NGS allows efficient screening of a large number of uncommon genes in complex disorders like DCM, in which there is substantial genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The identification of TAZ mutation has major impact on their medical care as the surveillance needs to be expanded to cover for the Barth syndrome, a severe metabolic phenotype also caused by TAZ mutation, in addition to DCM. PMID:23345479

Man, Elim; Lafferty, Katherine A; Funke, Birgit H; Lun, Kin-Shing; Chan, Shu-Yan; Chau, Adolphus Kai-Tung; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin

2013-01-01

53

MGH Cancer Center team identifies potential treatment target for KRAS-mutated colon cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center have identified a new potential strategy for treating colon tumors driven by mutations in the KRAS gene, which usually resist both conventional and targeted treatments. In a paper appearing in the Feb. 17 issue of Cell, the team reports that targeting a later step in the pathway leading from KRAS activation to tumor growth may be able to halt the process.

54

A newly identified splice site mutation in ZMPSTE24 causes restrictive dermopathy in the Middle East.  

PubMed

Restrictive dermopathy (RD) is a severe neonatal inherited skin syndrome of which children die shortly after birth. Clinical features include intrauterine growth retardation, taut translucent and easily eroded skin, multiple joint ankylosis and distinct facial features. RD is usually caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ZMPSTE24, predicted to cause loss of function of the encoded zinc metalloproteinase STE24. ZMPSTE24 is essential for the processing of the nuclear intermediate filament protein prelamin A. We report two distantly related children from the United Arab Emirates with RD. Remarkably, they lived up to 2 months, suggesting some residual function of the mutant protein. We sought to confirm the diagnosis by thorough microscopic analysis of patient skin, to identify the causative mutation and to study its functional consequences. A skin biopsy was obtained and processed for light and electron microscopy. Peripheral blood leucocytes were used for DNA and RNA isolation, and detection of prelamin A by immunofluorescence. Analysis of the skin confirmed the earlier reported densely packed collagen bundles and lack of elastin fibres. In both patients a homozygous splice site mutation c.627+1G>C in ZMPSTE24 was identified. Analysis of the ZMPSTE24 mRNA revealed an in-frame exon 5 skipping. Accumulation of prelamin A could be detected at the nuclear envelope of patient blood lymphocytes. We thus report the first splice site mutation in ZMPSTE24, which is likely to be a founder mutation in the United Arab Emirates. The accumulation of prelamin A at the nuclear periphery is consistent with defective ZMPSTE24 function. Interestingly, a regular blood sample can be used to investigate prelamin A accumulation. PMID:18671782

Sander, C S; Salman, N; van Geel, M; Broers, J L V; Al-Rahmani, A; Chedid, F; Hausser, I; Oji, V; Al Nuaimi, K; Berger, T G; Verstraeten, V L R M

2008-09-01

55

Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel LEPR mutations in individuals with severe early onset obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Obesity is a major public health problem that increases risk for a broad spectrum of co-morbid conditions. Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to susceptibility to obesity, previous efforts to discover the relevant genes using positional cloning have failed to account for most of the apparent genetic risk variance. Design and Methods Deploying a strategy combining analysis of exome sequencing data in extremely obese members of four consanguineous families with segregation analysis, we screened for causal genetic variants. Filter-based analysis and homozygosity mapping were used to identify and prioritize putative functional variants. Results We identified two novel frameshift mutations in the Leptin Receptor (LEPR) in two of the families. Conclusions These results provide proof-of-principle that whole-exome sequencing of families segregating for extreme obesity can identify causal pathogenic mutations. The methods described here can be extended to additional families segregating for extreme obesity and should enable the identification of mutations in novel genes that predispose to obesity. PMID:23616257

Gill, Richard; Cheung, Yee Him; Shen, Yufeng; Lanzano, Patricia; Mirza, Nazrat M.; Ten, Svetlana; Maclaren, Noel K.; Motaghedi, Roja; Han, Joan C.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

56

A Novel COL4A5 Mutation Identified in a Chinese Han Family Using Exome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Alport syndrome (AS) is a monogenic disease of the basement membrane (BM), resulting in progressive renal failure due to glomerulonephropathy, variable sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular anomalies. It is caused by mutations in the collagen type IV alpha-3 gene (COL4A3), the collagen type IV alpha-4 gene (COL4A4), and the collagen type IV alpha-5 gene (COL4A5), which encodes type IV collagen ?3, ?4, and ?5 chains, respectively. To explore the disease-related gene in a four-generation Chinese Han pedigree of AS, exome sequencing was conducted on the proband, and a novel deletion mutation c.499delC (p.Pro167Glnfs*36) in the COL4A5 gene was identified. This mutation, absent in 1,000 genomes project, HapMap, dbSNP132, YH1 databases, and 100 normal controls, cosegregated with patients in the family. Neither sensorineural hearing loss nor typical COL4A5-related ocular abnormalities (dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and the rare posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy) were present in patients of this family. The phenotypes of patients in this AS family were characterized by early onset-age and rapidly developing into end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Our discovery broadens the mutation spectrum in the COL4A5 gene associated with AS, which may also shed new light on genetic counseling for AS. PMID:25110662

Xiu, Xiaofei; Yuan, Jinzhong; Deng, Xiong; Xiao, Jingjing; Xu, Hongbo; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Guan, Liping; Xu, Fengping

2014-01-01

57

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent SPOP, FOXA1 and MED12 mutations in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide and causes over 250,000 deaths each year1. Overtreatment of indolent disease also results in significant morbidity2. Common genetic alterations in prostate cancer include losses of NKX3.1 (8p21)3,4 and PTEN (10q23)5,6, gains of the androgen receptor gene (AR)7,8 and fusion of ETS-family transcription factor genes with androgen-responsive promoters9–11. Recurrent somatic base-pair substitutions are believed to be less contributory in prostate tumorigenesis12,13 but have not been systematically analyzed in large cohorts. Here we sequenced the exomes of 112 prostate tumor/normal pairs. Novel recurrent mutations were identified in multiple genes, including MED12 and FOXA1. SPOP was the most frequently mutated gene, with mutations involving the SPOP substrate binding cleft in 6–15% of tumors across multiple independent cohorts. SPOP-mutant prostate cancers lacked ETS rearrangements and exhibited a distinct pattern of genomic alterations. Thus, SPOP mutations may define a new molecular subtype of prostate cancer. PMID:22610119

Barbieri, Christopher E.; Baca, Sylvan C.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Demichelis, Francesca; Blattner, Mirjam; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; White, Thomas A.; Stojanov, Petar; Van Allen, Eliezer; Stransky, Nicolas; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Chae, Sung-Suk; Boysen, Gunther; Auclair, Daniel; Onofrio, Robert; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y.; Sheikh, Karen; Vuong, Terry; Guiducci, Candace; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Hussain, Wasay M.; Ramos, Alex H.; Winckler, Wendy; Redman, Michelle C.; Ardlie, Kristin; Tewari, Ashutosh K.; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Rupp, Niels; Wild, Peter J.; Moch, Holger; Morrissey, Colm; Nelson, Peter S.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Golub, Todd R.; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S.; Getz, Gad; Rubin, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.

2013-01-01

58

Mutation in CYP27A1 identified in family with coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most severe outcome of CAD. Despite extensive efforts, the genetics of CAD is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the genetic cause of CAD in a pedigree with several affected individuals. Exome sequencing led to identification of a mutation in CYP27A1 that causes p.Arg225His in the encoded protein sterol 27-hydroxylase as the likely cause of CAD in the pedigree. The enzyme is multifunctional, and several of its functions including its functions in vitamin D metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) are relevant to the CAD phenotype. Measurements of vitamin D levels suggested that the mutation does not affect CAD by affecting this parameter. We suggest that the mutation may cause CAD by affecting RCT. Screening of all coding regions of the CYP27A1 in 100 additional patients led to finding four variations (p.Arg14Gly, p.Arg26Lys, p.Ala27Arg, and p.Val86Met) in seven patients that may contribute to their CAD status. CYP27A1 is the known causative gene of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, a disorder which is sometimes accompanied by early onset atherosclerosis. This and the observation of potentially harmful variations in unrelated CAD patients provide additional evidence for the suggested causative role of the p.Arg225His mutation in CAD. PMID:24080357

Inanloorahatloo, Kolsoum; Zand Parsa, Amir Farhang; Huse, Klaus; Rasooli, Paniz; Davaran, Saeid; Platzer, Matthias; Fan, Jian-Bing; Amini, Sasan; Steemers, Frank; Elahi, Elahe

2013-12-01

59

Functional study of NIPA2 mutations identified from the patients with childhood absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Recently many genetic mutations that are associated with epilepsy have been identified. The protein NIPA2 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region protein 2) is a highly selective magnesium transporter encoded by the gene NIPA2 in which we have found three mutations (p.I178F, p.N244S and p.N334_E335insD) within a population of patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). In this study, immunofluorescence labeling, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), MTT metabolic rate detection and computational modeling were utilized to elucidate how these mutations result in CAE. We found in cultured neurons that NIPA2 (wild-type) proteins were localized to the cell periphery, whereas mutant proteins were not effectively trafficked to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found a decrease in intracellular magnesium concentration in the neurons transfected with mutant NIPA2, but no effect on the survival of neurons. To understand how low intracellular magnesium resulted in hyperexcitability, we built and analyzed a computational model to simulate the effects of mutations. The model suggested that lower intracellular magnesium concentration enhanced synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents. This study primarily reveals that a selective magnesium transporter NIPA2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of CAE. PMID:25347071

Xie, Han; Zhang, Yuehua; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Jingmin; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiru; Netoff, Theoden; Jiang, Yuwu

2014-01-01

60

Functional Study of NIPA2 Mutations Identified from the Patients with Childhood Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Recently many genetic mutations that are associated with epilepsy have been identified. The protein NIPA2 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region protein 2) is a highly selective magnesium transporter encoded by the gene NIPA2 in which we have found three mutations (p.I178F, p.N244S and p.N334_E335insD) within a population of patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). In this study, immunofluorescence labeling, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), MTT metabolic rate detection and computational modeling were utilized to elucidate how these mutations result in CAE. We found in cultured neurons that NIPA2 (wild-type) proteins were localized to the cell periphery, whereas mutant proteins were not effectively trafficked to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found a decrease in intracellular magnesium concentration in the neurons transfected with mutant NIPA2, but no effect on the survival of neurons. To understand how low intracellular magnesium resulted in hyperexcitability, we built and analyzed a computational model to simulate the effects of mutations. The model suggested that lower intracellular magnesium concentration enhanced synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents. This study primarily reveals that a selective magnesium transporter NIPA2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of CAE. PMID:25347071

Xie, Han; Zhang, Yuehua; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Jingmin; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiru; Netoff, Theoden; Jiang, Yuwu

2014-01-01

61

New mutations in flagellar motors identified by whole genome sequencing in Chlamydomonas  

PubMed Central

Background The building of a cilium or flagellum requires molecular motors and associated proteins that allow the relocation of proteins from the cell body to the distal end and the return of proteins to the cell body in a process termed intraflagellar transport (IFT). IFT trains are carried out by kinesin and back to the cell body by dynein. Methods We used whole genome sequencing to identify the causative mutations for two temperature-sensitive flagellar assembly mutants in Chlamydomonas and validated the changes using reversion analysis. We examined the effect of these mutations on the localization of IFT81, an IFT complex B protein, the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DHC1b), and the dynein light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Results The strains, fla18 and fla24, have mutations in kinesin-2 and cytoplasmic dynein, respectively. The fla18 mutation alters the same glutamic acid (E24G) mutated in the fla10-14 allele (E24K). The fla18 strain loses flagella at 32?C more rapidly than the E24K allele but less rapidly than the fla10-1 allele. The fla18 mutant loses its flagella by detachment rather than by shortening. The fla24 mutation falls in cytoplasmic dynein and changes a completely conserved amino acid (L3243P) in an alpha helix in the AAA5 domain. The fla24 mutant loses its flagella by shortening within 6 hours at 32?C. DHC1b protein is reduced by 18-fold and D1bLIC is reduced by 16-fold at 21?C compared to wild-type cells. We identified two pseudorevertants (L3243S and L3243R), which remain flagellated at 32?C. Although fla24 cells assemble full-length flagella at 21?C, IFT81 protein localization is dramatically altered. Instead of localizing at the basal body and along the flagella, IFT81 is concentrated at the proximal end of the flagella. The pseudorevertants show wild-type IFT81 localization at 21?C, but proximal end localization of IFT81 at 32?C. Conclusions The change in the AAA5 domain of the cytoplasmic dynein in fla24 may block the recycling of IFT trains after retrograde transport. It is clear that different alleles in the flagellar motors reveal different functions and roles. Multiple alleles will be important for understanding structure-function relationships. PMID:24229452

2013-01-01

62

Novel mutations causing biotinidase deficiency in individuals identified by newborn screening in Michigan including an unique intronic mutation that alters mRNA expression of the biotinidase gene.  

PubMed

Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in the inability to recycle the vitamin biotin. Individuals with biotinidase deficiency can develop neurological and cutaneous symptoms if they are not treated with biotin. To date, more than 165 mutations in the biotinidase gene (BTD) have been reported. Essentially all the mutations result in enzymatic activities with less than 10% of mean normal serum enzyme activity (profound biotinidase deficiency) with the exception of the c.1330G>C (p.D444H) mutation, which results in an enzyme having 50% of mean normal serum activity and causes partial biotinidase deficiency (10-30% of mean normal serum biotinidase activity) if there is a mutation for profound biotinidase deficiency on the second allele. We now reported eight novel mutations in ten children identified by newborn screening in Michigan from 1988 to the end of 2012. Interestingly, one intronic mutation, c.310-15delT, results in an approximately two-fold down-regulation of BTD mRNA expression by Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This is the first report of an intronic mutation in the BTD gene with demonstration of its effect on enzymatic activity by altering mRNA expression. This study identified three other mutations likely to cause partial biotinidase deficiency. These results emphasize the importance of full gene sequencing of BTD on patients with biotinidase deficiency to better understand the genotype and phenotype correlation in the future. PMID:24797656

Li, H; Spencer, L; Nahhas, F; Miller, J; Fribley, A; Feldman, G; Conway, R; Wolf, B

2014-07-01

63

Extragenic Suppressors of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Prp4 Mutations Identify a Negative Regulator of Prp Genes  

PubMed Central

The PRP4 gene encodes a protein that is a component of the U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle and is necessary for both spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. To identify genes whose products interact with the PRP4 gene or gene product, we isolated second-site suppressors of temperature-sensitive prp4 mutations. We limited ourselves to suppressors with a distinct phenotype, cold sensitivity, to facilitate analysis of mutants. Ten independent recessive suppressors were obtained that identified four complementation groups, spp41, spp42, spp43 and spp44 (suppressor of prp4, numbers 1-4). spp41-spp44 suppress the pre-mRNA splicing defect as well as the temperature-sensitive phenotype of prp4 strains. Each of these spp mutations also suppresses prp3; spp41 and spp42 suppress prp11 as well. Neither spp41 nor spp42 suppresses null alleles of prp3 or prp4, indicating that the suppression does not occur via a bypass mechanism. The spp41 and spp42 mutations are neither allele- nor gene-specific in their pattern of suppression and do not result in a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. Thus the SPP41 and SPP42 gene products are unlikely to participate directly in mRNA splicing or interact directly with Prp3p or Prp4p. Expression of PRP3-lacZ and PRP4-lacZ gene fusions is increased in spp41 strains, suggesting that wild-type Spp41p represses expression of PRP3 and PRP4. SPP41 was cloned and sequenced and found to be essential. spp43 is allelic to the previously identified suppressor srn1, which encodes a negative regulator of gene expression. PMID:8005438

Maddock, J. R.; Weidenhammer, E. M.; Adams, C. C.; Lunz, R. L.; Woolford-Jr., J. L.

1994-01-01

64

Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success  

PubMed Central

Mutations in RPE65, a gene essential to normal operation of the visual (retinoid) cycle, cause the childhood blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Retinal gene therapy restores vision to blind canine and murine models of LCA. Gene therapy in blind humans with LCA from RPE65 mutations may also have potential for success but only if the retinal photoreceptor layer is intact, as in the early-disease stage-treated animals. Here, we use high-resolution in vivo microscopy to quantify photoreceptor layer thickness in the human disease to define the relationship of retinal structure to vision and determine the potential for gene therapy success. The normally cone photoreceptor-rich central retina and rod-rich regions were studied. Despite severely reduced cone vision, many RPE65-mutant retinas had near-normal central microstructure. Absent rod vision was associated with a detectable but thinned photoreceptor layer. We asked whether abnormally thinned RPE65-mutant retina with photoreceptor loss would respond to treatment. Gene therapy in Rpe65-/- mice at advanced-disease stages, a more faithful mimic of the humans we studied, showed success but only in animals with better-preserved photoreceptor structure. The results indicate that identifying and then targeting retinal locations with retained photoreceptors will be a prerequisite for successful gene therapy in humans with RPE65 mutations and in other retinal degenerative disorders now moving from proof-of-concept studies toward clinical trials. PMID:15837919

Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Heon, Elise; Pittler, Steven J.; Milam, Ann H.; Maguire, Albert M.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M.; Bennett, Jean

2005-01-01

65

Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies Three Novel Mutations in ANTXR1 in Families with GAPO Syndrome  

PubMed Central

GAPO syndrome (OMIM#230740) is the acronym for growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and optic atrophy. About 35 cases have been reported, making it among one of the rarest recessive conditions. Distinctive craniofacial features including alopecia, rarefaction of eyebrows and eyelashes, frontal bossing, high forehead, mid-facial hypoplasia, hypertelorism, and thickened eyelids and lips make GAPO syndrome a clinically recognizable phenotype. While this genomic study was in progress mutations in ANTXR1 were reported to cause GAPO syndrome. In our study we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) for five affected individuals from three Turkish kindreds segregating the GAPO trait. Exome sequencing analysis identified three novel homozygous mutations including; one frame-shift (c.1220_1221insT; p.Ala408Cysfs*2), one splice site (c.411A>G; p.Gln137Gln), and one non-synonymous (c.1150G>A; p.Gly384Ser) mutation in the ANTXR1 gene. Our studies expand the allelic spectrum in this rare condition and potentially provide insight into the role of ANTXR1 in the regulation of the extracellular matrix. PMID:25045128

Bayram, Yavuz; Pehlivan, Davut; Karaca, Ender; Gambin, Tomasz; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Erdin, Serkan; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Muzny, Donna; Elcioglu, Nursel H.; Yildirim, M. Selman; Bozkurt, Banu; Zamani, Ayse Gul; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.

2015-01-01

66

Perturbation of the mutated EGFR interactome identifies vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that elucidating the interactome of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) forms that are mutated in lung cancer, via global analysis of protein–protein interactions, phosphorylation, and systematically perturbing the ensuing network nodes, should offer a new, more systems-level perspective of the molecular etiology. Here, we describe an EGFR interactome of 263 proteins and offer a 14-protein core network critical to the viability of multiple EGFR-mutated lung cancer cells. Cells with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) had differential dependence of the core network proteins based on the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance. Of the 14 proteins, 9 are shown to be specifically associated with survival of EGFR-mutated lung cancer cell lines. This included EGFR, GRB2, MK12, SHC1, ARAF, CD11B, ARHG5, GLU2B, and CD11A. With the use of a drug network associated with the core network proteins, we identified two compounds, midostaurin and lestaurtinib, that could overcome drug resistance through direct EGFR inhibition when combined with erlotinib. Our results, enabled by interactome mapping, suggest new targets and combination therapies that could circumvent EGFR TKI resistance. PMID:24189400

Li, Jiannong; Bennett, Keiryn; Stukalov, Alexey; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Guolin; Yoshida, Takeshi; Okamoto, Isamu; Kim, Jae-Young; Song, Lanxi; Bai, Yun; Qian, Xiaoning; Rawal, Bhupendra; Schell, Michael; Grebien, Florian; Winter, Georg; Rix, Uwe; Eschrich, Steven; Colinge, Jacques; Koomen, John; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Haura, Eric B

2013-01-01

67

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers identify genetic mutation responsible for most cases of a rare lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified a gene mutation that underlies the vast majority of cases of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, a rare form of lymphoma that has eluded all previous efforts to find a genetic cause.

68

Exome sequencing identifies CTSK mutations in patients originally diagnosed as intermediate osteopetrosis?  

PubMed Central

Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone density due to lack of resorption by the osteoclasts. Genetic studies have widely unraveled the molecular basis of the most severe forms, while cases of intermediate severity are more difficult to characterize, probably because of a large heterogeneity. Here, we describe the use of exome sequencing in the molecular diagnosis of 2 siblings initially thought to be affected by “intermediate osteopetrosis”, which identified a homozygous mutation in the CTSK gene. Prompted by this finding, we tested by Sanger sequencing 25 additional patients addressed to us for recessive osteopetrosis and found CTSK mutations in 4 of them. In retrospect, their clinical and radiographic features were found to be compatible with, but not typical for, Pycnodysostosis. We sought to identify modifier genes that might have played a role in the clinical manifestation of the disease in these patients, but our results were not informative. In conclusion, we underline the difficulties of differential diagnosis in some patients whose clinical appearance does not fit the classical malignant or benign picture and recommend that CTSK gene be included in the molecular diagnosis of high bone density conditions. PMID:24269275

Pangrazio, Alessandra; Puddu, Alessandro; Oppo, Manuela; Valentini, Maria; Zammataro, Luca; Vellodi, Ashok; Gener, Blanca; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Raza, Jamal; Atta, Irum; Vezzoni, Paolo; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Villa, Anna; Sobacchi, Cristina

2014-01-01

69

Characteristics of Women with Ovarian Carcinoma who have BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations not Identified by Clinical Testing  

PubMed Central

Goals Few studies have comprehensively tested all ovarian cancer patients for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations. We sought to determine if clinically identified mutation carriers differed in clinical characteristics and outcomes from mutation carriers not identified during routine clinical care. Methods We included women with ovarian, tubal or peritoneal carcinoma. BROCA, an assay using targeted capture and massively parallel sequencing was used to identify mutations in BRCA1/2 and 19 other tumor suppressor genes. We identified subjects with BRCA1/2 mutations using BROCA that had not previously received standard genetic testing (BROCA, n = 37) and compared them to subjects with BRCA1/2 mutations identified during routine clinical care (known, n = 70), and to those wildtype for 21 genes using BROCA (wildtype, n = 291). Results BROCA mutation carriers were older than known carriers, median age of 58 (range 41 - 77), vs. 51 (range 33-76, p=0.003, Mann-Whitney). 58/70 (82.9%) of known carriers had a strong family history, compared with 15/37 (40.5%) of BROCA carriers, p<0.0001, (Fisher's Exact). Median overall survival was significantly worse for BROCA mutation carriers compared to known mutation carriers, (45 vs. 93 months, p < 0.0001, HR 3.47 (1.79 – 6.72), Log-rank test). The improved survival for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (known and BROCA) compared with wildtype cases (69 vs. 44 months, p=0.0001, HR 0.58 (0.43 – 0.77), Log-rank test) was driven by known mutation carriers. Conclusions Older age, absence of a strong family history, and poor survival are all associated with decreased clinical identification of inherited BRCA1/2 mutations in women with ovarian cancer. Using age and family history to direct genetic testing will miss a significant percentage of mutation carriers. Testing should be initiated at the time of diagnosis to maximize identification of mutations and minimize survival bias. PMID:23262210

Norquist, Barbara M.; Pennington, Kathryn P.; Agnew, Kathy J.; Harrell, Maria I.; Pennil, Christopher C.; Lee, Ming K.; Casadei, Silvia; Thornton, Anne M.; Garcia, Rochelle L.; Walsh, Tom; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

70

Novel CDH1 germline mutations identified in Chinese gastric cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To give a comprehensive report of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) variations in a population at a high risk for gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: The samples consisted of 178 men and 58 women with a mean age of 62.3 ± 9.4 years and an age range of 30-84 years. A total of 240 cancer-free controls were recruited (mean age of 61.8 ± 10.1 years, age range of 26-82 years). Samples were screened for CDH1 germline mutations by high-resolution melting analysis or directly sequencing. Luciferase reporter assay, RNA splicing assay and bioinformatic analysis were used to evaluate the effect of mutations. RESULTS: Four novel CDH1 sequence alterations were identified in GC patients including a G>T transition 49 bp before the start codon; a three-nucleotide deletion, c.44_46del TGC; one missense mutation, c.604G>A (V202I); and one variation in the intron, c.1320+7A>G. In addition, polymorphism frequencies were observed for CDH1-164delT, -161C>A, -73A>C, c.48+6C>T, c.48+62_48+63delinsCGTGCCCCAGCCC, c.894C>T (A298A), c.1224G>A (A408A), c.1888C>G (L630V), c.2076T>C (A692A), and c.2253C>T (N751N) which is similar to the data reported in http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/. RNA splicing analysis suggested that the c.1320+7A>G and c.1224G>A variations did not affect exon splicing ability. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the c.-49T variation might be helpful for E-cadherin transcription, though the increase in transcription activity is limited (only 33%). SIFT score and PolyPhen analysis both demonstrated that the L630V missense mutation probably damages protein function, while the V202I variant does not. CONCLUSION: This study reveals novel mutations in sporadic GC patients which had been poorly investigated for susceptibility genes. PMID:23431106

Chen, Qin-Hua; Deng, Wei; Li, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Mei; Wang, Li-Feng; Xiao, Nong; He, Qiong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Fan, Yi-Mei

2013-01-01

71

Integrated Analysis of Mutation Data from Various Sources Identifies Key Genes and Signaling Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, a number of studies have performed genome or exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified hundreds or even thousands of mutations in protein-coding genes. However, these studies have only focused on a limited number of candidate genes, and many important mutation resources remain to be explored. Principal Findings In this study, we integrated mutation data obtained from various sources and performed pathway and network analysis. We identified 113 pathways that were significantly mutated in HCC samples and found that the mutated genes included in these pathways contained high percentages of known cancer genes, and damaging genes and also demonstrated high conservation scores, indicating their important roles in liver tumorigenesis. Five classes of pathways that were mutated most frequently included (a) proliferation and apoptosis related pathways, (b) tumor microenvironment related pathways, (c) neural signaling related pathways, (d) metabolic related pathways, and (e) circadian related pathways. Network analysis further revealed that the mutated genes with the highest betweenness coefficients, such as the well-known cancer genes TP53, CTNNB1 and recently identified novel mutated genes GNAL and the ADCY family, may play key roles in these significantly mutated pathways. Finally, we highlight several key genes (e.g., RPS6KA3 and PCLO) and pathways (e.g., axon guidance) in which the mutations were associated with clinical features. Conclusions Our workflow illustrates the increased statistical power of integrating multiple studies of the same subject, which can provide biological insights that would otherwise be masked under individual sample sets. This type of bioinformatics approach is consistent with the necessity of making the best use of the ever increasing data provided in valuable databases, such as TCGA, to enhance the speed of deciphering human cancers. PMID:24988079

Wei, Lin; Tang, Ruqi; Lian, Baofeng; Zhao, Yingjun; He, Xianghuo; Xie, Lu

2014-01-01

72

A genomic strategy for the functional validation of colorectal cancer genes identifies potential therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Summary/Abstract Genes that are highly overexpressed in tumor cells can be required for tumor cell survival, and have the potential to be selective therapeutic targets. In an attempt to identify such targets, we combined a functional genomics and a systems biology approach to assess the consequences of RNAi-mediated silencing of overexpressed genes that were selected from 140 gene expression profiles from colorectal cancers (CRC) and matched normal mucosa. In order to identify credible models for in-depth functional analysis, we first confirmed the overexpression of these genes in 25 different CRC cell lines. We then identified five candidate genes that profoundly reduced the viability of CRC cell lines when silenced with either siRNAs or shRNAs, i.e., HMGA1, TACSTD2, RRM2, RPS2, and NOL5A. These genes were further studied by systematic analysis of comprehensive gene expression profiles generated following siRNA-mediated silencing. Exploration of these RNAi-specific gene expression signatures allowed the identification of the functional space in which the five genes operate, and showed enrichment for cancer specific signaling pathways, some known to be involved in CRC. By comparing the expression of the RNAi signature genes with their respective expression levels in an independent set of primary rectal carcinomas we could recapitulate these defined RNAi signatures, therefore establishing the biologically relevance of our observations. This strategy identified the signaling pathways that are affected by the prominent oncogenes HMGA1 and TACSTD2, established a yet unknown link between RRM2 and PLK1, and identified RPS2 and NOL5A as promising potential therapeutic targets in CRC. PMID:20473941

Grade, Marian; Hummon, Amanda B.; Camps, Jordi; Emons, Georg; Spitzner, Melanie; Gaedcke, Jochen; Hoermann, Patrick; Ebner, Reinhard; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Caplen, Natasha J.; Ried, Thomas

2010-01-01

73

Exome Sequencing and Functional Analysis Identifies a Novel Mutation in EXT1 Gene That Causes Multiple Osteochondromas  

PubMed Central

Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an inherited skeletal disorder, and the molecular mechanism of MO remains elusive. Exome sequencing has high chromosomal coverage and accuracy, and has recently been successfully used to identify pathogenic gene mutations. In this study, exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing validation was first used to screen gene mutations in two representative MO patients from a Chinese family. After filtering the data from the 1000 Genome Project and the dbSNP database (build 132), the detected candidate gene mutations were further validated via Sanger sequencing of four other members of the same MO family and 200 unrelated healthy subjects. Immunohistochemisty and multiple sequence alignment were performed to evaluate the importance of the identified causal mutation. A novel frameshift mutation, c.1457insG at codon 486 of exon 6 of EXT1 gene, was identified, which truncated the glycosyltransferase domain of EXT1 gene. Multiple sequence alignment showed that codon 486 of EXT1 gene was highly conserved across various vertebrates. Immunohistochemisty demonstrated that the chondrocytes with functional EXT1 in MO were less than those in extragenetic solitary chondromas. The novel c.1457insG deleterious mutation of EXT1 gene reported in this study expands the causal mutation spectrum of MO, and may be helpful for prenatal genetic screening and early diagnosis of MO. PMID:24009674

Guo, Xiong; Zhang, Yingang; Wen, Yan; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Zengtie; Ma, Weijuan; Dai, Lanlan; Liu, Xuanzhu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jun

2013-01-01

74

Whole exome sequencing identifies a mutation for a novel form of corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis is an extremely rare condition. The classical form, affecting Native American Haliwa-Saponi tribe members, is called hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis (HBID). Herein, we present a new form of corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis for which we identified the causative gene by using deep sequencing technology. Methods and results A seven member Caucasian French family with two corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis affected individuals (6-year-old proband and his mother) was ascertained. The proband presented with bilateral complete corneal opacification and dyskeratosis. Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and laryngeal dyskeratosis were associated with the phenotype. Histopathology studies of cornea and vocal cord biopsies showed dyskeratotic keratinisation. Quantitative PCR ruled out 4q35 duplication, classically described in HBID cases. Next generation sequencing with mean coverage of 50× using the Illumina Hi Seq and whole exome capture processing was performed. Sequence reads were aligned, and screened for single nucleotide variants and insertion/deletion calls. In-house pipeline filtering analyses and comparisons with available databases were performed. A novel missense mutation M77T was discovered for the gene NLRP1 which maps to chromosome 17p13.2. This was a de novo mutation in the proband’s mother, following segregation in the family, and not found in 738 control DNA samples. NLRP1 expression was determined in adult corneal epithelium. The amino acid change was found to destabilise significantly the protein structure. Conclusions We describe a new corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis and how we identified its causative gene. The NLRP1 gene product is implicated in inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and caspase mediated apoptosis. NLRP1 polymorphisms are associated with various diseases. PMID:23349227

Soler, Vincent José; Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Galiacy, Stéphane D; Limviphuvadh, Vachiranee; Klemm, Thomas Patrick; St Germain, Elizabeth; Fournié, Pierre R; Guillaud, Céline; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Hawthorne, Felicia; Suarez, Cyrielle; Kantelip, Bernadette; Afshari, Natalie A; Creveaux, Isabelle; Luo, Xiaoyan; Meng, Weihua; Calvas, Patrick; Cassagne, Myriam; Arné, Jean-Louis; Rozen, Steven G; Malecaze, François; Young, Terri L

2014-01-01

75

Genome-Wide Homozygosity Mapping in Families with Leber Congenital Amaurosis Identifies Mutations in AIPL1 and RDH12 Genes.  

PubMed

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) causes severe visual impairment and blindness very early in life. Mutant alleles of several genes acting in different pathways, of which all have critical roles for normal retinal function, were involved in LCA development. The purpose of this study was to use genome-wide genotyping to identify LCA-causing loci in two Turkish families. Genome-wide genotyping and haplotype analysis were performed for prioritization of candidate genes for mutation screening in families with LCA. Identified informative critical choromosomal regions obtained by homozygosity mapping from the families were searched for overlapping of any LCA causative genes. Corresponding clinical phenotypes of the patients with identified mutations were evaluated. In this study, two families were shown to be linked to two different LCA loci covering retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) and aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting protein-like1 (AIPL1) genes. Mutation screening revealed a novel p.Gln141* mutation in the AIPL1 gene and a previously described p.Thr49Met mutation in the RDH12 gene in a homozygous state. Our patients with the RDH12 mutation had the distinct macular coloboma sign, and the patient with the AIPL1 mutation developed microphthalmia and severe widespread retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, in contrast to previously reported cases. It is currently evident that mutation screening needs to be done in at least 18 genes known to be associated with LCA. Thus, homozygosity mapping is an alternative technique to improve the molecular diagnosis in LCA, which is a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous diseases causing retinal degeneration. The patients without mutation in known genes may further be analyzed by using next-generation sequencing. PMID:25148430

Yücel-Y?lmaz, Didem; Tarlan, Berçin; K?ratl?, Hayyam; Ozgül, R?za Köksal

2014-12-01

76

Seven New Mutations in hMSH2, an HNPCC Gene, Identified by Denaturing Gradient-Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a relatively common autosomal dominant cancer-susceptibility condition. The recent isolation of the DNA mismatch repair genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1, and hPMS2) responsible for HNPCC has allowed the search for germ-line mutations in affected individuals. In this study we used denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis to screen for mutations in the hMSH2 gene. Analysis of all the 16 exons of hMSH2, in 34 unrelated HNPCC kindreds, has revealed seven novel pathogenic germ-line mutations resulting in stop codons either directly or through frameshifts. Additionally, nucleotide substitutions giving rise to one missense, two silent, and one useful polymorphism have been identified. The proportion of families in which hMSH2 mutations were found is 21%. Although the spectrum of mutations spread at the hMSH2 gene among HNPCC patients appears extremely heterogeneous, we were not able to establish any correlation between the site of the individual mutations and the corresponding tumor spectrum. Our results indicate that, given the genomic size and organization of the hMSH2 gene and the heterogeneity of its mutation spectrum, a rapid and efficient mutation detection procedure is necessary for routine molecular diagnosis and presymptomatic detection of the disease in a clinical setup. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7726159

Wijnen, Juul; Vasen, Hans; Khan, P. Meera; Menko, Fred H.; van der Klift, Heleen; van Leeuwen, Claus; van den Broek, Marianne; van Leeuwen-Cornelisse, Inge; Nagengast, Fokko; Meijers-Heijboer, Anne; Lindhout, Dick; Griffioen, Gerrit; Cats, Annemieke; Kleibeuker, Jan; Varesco, Liliana; Bertario, Lucio; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Mohr, Jan; Fodde, Riccardo

1995-01-01

77

Exome sequencing identifies frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Through exomic sequencing of 32 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, we discovered frequent inactivating mutations in multiple chromatin-remodeling genes (including BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1), and mutation in one of these genes occurred in almost half of the carcinomas sequenced. We also identified frequent mutations at previously reported hotspots in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding metabolic enzymes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. In contrast, TP53 was the most frequently altered gene in a series of nine gallbladder carcinomas. These discoveries highlight the key role of dysregulated chromatin remodeling in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:24185509

Selaru, Florin M; Streppel, Mirte M; Lucas, Donald J; Niknafs, Noushin; Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Maitra, Anirban; Argani, Pedram; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin T; Dima, Simona; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Mafficini, Andrea; Capelli, Paola; Lawlor, Rita T; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo; Jarnagin, William; Klimstra, David; Karchin, Rachel; Velculescu, Victor E; Hruban, Ralph H; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Wood, Laura D

2014-01-01

78

Identity-by-descent filtering of exome sequence data identifies PIGV mutations in hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphatasia mental retardation (HPMR) syndrome is an autosomal recessive form of mental retardation with distinct facial features and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. We performed whole-exome sequencing in three siblings of a nonconsanguineous union with HPMR and performed computational inference of regions identical by descent in all siblings to establish PIGV, encoding a member of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway, as the gene mutated in HPMR. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in PIGV in three additional families. PMID:20802478

Krawitz, Peter M; Schweiger, Michal R; Rödelsperger, Christian; Marcelis, Carlo; Kölsch, Uwe; Meisel, Christian; Stephani, Friederike; Kinoshita, Taroh; Murakami, Yoshiko; Bauer, Sebastian; Isau, Melanie; Fischer, Axel; Dahl, Andreas; Kerick, Martin; Hecht, Jochen; Köhler, Sebastian; Jäger, Marten; Grünhagen, Johannes; de Condor, Birgit Jonske; Doelken, Sandra; Brunner, Han G; Meinecke, Peter; Passarge, Eberhard; Thompson, Miles D; Cole, David E; Horn, Denise; Roscioli, Tony; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N

2010-10-01

79

Characterization of Novel MSX1 Mutations Identified in Japanese Patients with Nonsyndromic Tooth Agenesis  

PubMed Central

Since MSX1 and PAX9 are linked to the pathogenesis of nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, we performed detailed mutational analysis of these two genes sampled from Japanese patients. We identified two novel MSX1 variants with an amino acid substitution within the homeodomain; Thr174Ile (T174I) from a sporadic hypodontia case and Leu205Arg (L205R) from a familial oligodontia case. Both the Thr174 and Leu205 residues in the MSX1 homeodomain are highly conserved among different species. To define possible roles of mutations at these amino acids in the pathogenesis of nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, we performed several functional analyses. It has been demonstrated that MSX1 plays a pivotal role in hard tissue development as a suppressor for mesenchymal cell differentiation. To evaluate the suppression activity of the variants in mesenchymal cells, we used the myoD-promoter, which is one of convenient reporter assay system for MSX1. Although the gene products of these MSX1 variants are stable and capable of normal nuclear localization, they do not suppress myoD-promoter activity in differentiated C2C12 cells. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying our results, we performed further analyses including electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and co-immunoprecipitation assays to survey the molecular interactions between the mutant MSX1 proteins and the oligonucleotide DNA with MSX1 consensus binding motif or EZH2 methyltransferase. Since EZH2 is reported to interact with MSX1 and regulate MSX1 mediated gene suppression, we hypothesized that the T174I and L205R substitutions would impair this interaction. We conclude from the results of our experiments that the DNA binding ability of MSX1 is abolished by these two amino acid substitutions. This illustrates a causative role of the T174I and L205R MSX1 homeodomain mutations in tooth agenesis, and suggests that they may influence cell proliferation and differentiation resulting in lesser tooth germ formation in vivo. PMID:25101640

Yamaguchi, Seishi; Machida, Junichiro; Kamamoto, Munefumi; Kimura, Masashi; Shibata, Akio; Tatematsu, Tadashi; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Higashi, Yujiro; Jezewski, Peter; Nakayama, Atsuo; Shimozato, Kazuo; Tokita, Yoshihito

2014-01-01

80

Characterization of novel MSX1 mutations identified in Japanese patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis.  

PubMed

Since MSX1 and PAX9 are linked to the pathogenesis of nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, we performed detailed mutational analysis of these two genes sampled from Japanese patients. We identified two novel MSX1 variants with an amino acid substitution within the homeodomain; Thr174Ile (T174I) from a sporadic hypodontia case and Leu205Arg (L205R) from a familial oligodontia case. Both the Thr174 and Leu205 residues in the MSX1 homeodomain are highly conserved among different species. To define possible roles of mutations at these amino acids in the pathogenesis of nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, we performed several functional analyses. It has been demonstrated that MSX1 plays a pivotal role in hard tissue development as a suppressor for mesenchymal cell differentiation. To evaluate the suppression activity of the variants in mesenchymal cells, we used the myoD-promoter, which is one of convenient reporter assay system for MSX1. Although the gene products of these MSX1 variants are stable and capable of normal nuclear localization, they do not suppress myoD-promoter activity in differentiated C2C12 cells. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying our results, we performed further analyses including electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and co-immunoprecipitation assays to survey the molecular interactions between the mutant MSX1 proteins and the oligonucleotide DNA with MSX1 consensus binding motif or EZH2 methyltransferase. Since EZH2 is reported to interact with MSX1 and regulate MSX1 mediated gene suppression, we hypothesized that the T174I and L205R substitutions would impair this interaction. We conclude from the results of our experiments that the DNA binding ability of MSX1 is abolished by these two amino acid substitutions. This illustrates a causative role of the T174I and L205R MSX1 homeodomain mutations in tooth agenesis, and suggests that they may influence cell proliferation and differentiation resulting in lesser tooth germ formation in vivo. PMID:25101640

Yamaguchi, Seishi; Machida, Junichiro; Kamamoto, Munefumi; Kimura, Masashi; Shibata, Akio; Tatematsu, Tadashi; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Higashi, Yujiro; Jezewski, Peter; Nakayama, Atsuo; Shimozato, Kazuo; Tokita, Yoshihito

2014-01-01

81

A novel insertion mutation identified in exon 10 of the MEFV gene associated with Familial Mediterranean Fever  

PubMed Central

Background Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), characterized by recurrent fever and inflammation of serous membranes, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene. Around 296 mutations have been reported to date. Methods Two two-generation Turkish families with a total of four members diagnosed with FMF clinically were screened with DNA sequencing performed on exon 2 and exon 10 of the MEFV genes. Then, complete exome sequencing analysis of MEFV gene was done for four patients in whom novel mutation was detected. Results A novel single base Guanine (G) insertion mutation in the coding region of MEFV gene, named c.2330dupG (p.Gln778Serfs*4 or Q778SfsX4) resulting in a mutated Pyrin/Marenostrin protein was identified. Conclusions This is the first report of a new mutation in exon 10 of the MEFV gene in two Turkish families. This novel pattern of insertion mutation may provide important information for further studies on FMF pathogenesis. PMID:24980720

2014-01-01

82

Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ~50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database) and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs) of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met) was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin. PMID:21807602

2011-01-01

83

New Approach Identifies Mutations that Drive Cancer | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

One of the hallmarks of cancer is the large and varied number of mutations found in the DNA of malignant cells. In recent years, researchers have developed what is known as the "driver and passenger mutation theory," which says that of the many mutations found in a cancer cell's genome, only a few "drive" the development of cancer, while others just come along for the ride, a by-product of the general genomic instability that characterizes malignant cells.

84

Disease-Targeted Sequencing of Ion Channel Genes identifies de novo mutations in Patients with Non-Familial Brugada Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is one of the ion channelopathies associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). The most common BrS-associated gene (SCN5A) only accounts for approximately 20–25% of BrS patients. This study aims to identify novel mutations across human ion channels in non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants through disease-targeted sequencing. We performed disease-targeted multi-gene sequencing across 133 human ion channel genes and 12 reported BrS-associated genes in 15 unrelated, non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants. Candidate variants were validated by mass spectrometry and Sanger sequencing. Five de novo mutations were identified in four genes (SCNN1A, KCNJ16, KCNB2, and KCNT1) in three BrS patients (20%). Two of the three patients presented SCD and one had syncope. Interestingly, the two patients presented with SCD had compound mutations (SCNN1A:Arg350Gln and KCNB2:Glu522Lys; SCNN1A:Arg597* and KCNJ16:Ser261Gly). Importantly, two SCNN1A mutations were identified from different families. The KCNT1:Arg1106Gln mutation was identified in a patient with syncope. Bioinformatics algorithms predicted severe functional interruptions in these four mutation loci, suggesting their pivotal roles in BrS. This study identified four novel BrS-associated genes and indicated the effectiveness of this disease-targeted sequencing across ion channel genes for non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants. PMID:25339316

Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Ho, Chia-Chuan; Liu, Yen-Bin; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Lin, Lian-Yu; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Yeh, Shih-Fan Sherri; Lai, Ling-Ping; Chuang, Eric Y.; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

2014-01-01

85

Targeted exome capture and sequencing identifies novel PRPF31 mutations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in Chinese families  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify disease-causing mutations in two Chinese families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Design Prospective analysis. Patients Two Chinese adRP families underwent genetic diagnosis. A specific hereditary eye disease enrichment panel (HEDEP) based on targeted exome capture technology was used to collect the protein coding regions of targeted 371 hereditary eye disease genes; high throughput sequencing was done with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The identified variants were confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Setting All experiments were performed in a large laboratory specialising in genetic studies in the Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital. Results Two novel mutations, including one splice site mutation (Int10 c.1074-2 A>T; p.Y359SfsX29) and one insertion (c.824_825insA; p.Y275X) of PRPF31 were identified in the two families. The two mutations segregated with the disease phenotype in their respective families. Conclusions Our findings broaden the spectrum of PRPF31 mutations causing adRP and the phenotypic spectrum of the disease in Chinese patients. The HEDEP based on targeted exome capture technology is an efficient method for molecular diagnosis in adRP patients. PMID:24202059

Yang, Liping; Yin, Xiaobei; Wu, Lemeng; Chen, Ningning; Zhang, Huirong; Li, Genlin; Ma, Zhizhong

2013-01-01

86

Two-round coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR)-based sanger sequencing identifies a novel spectrum of low-level mutations in lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Reliable identification of cancer-related mutations in TP53 is often problematic, as these mutations can be randomly distributed throughout numerous codons and their relative abundance in clinical samples can fall below the sensitivity limits of conventional sequencing. To ensure the highest sensitivity in mutation detection, we adapted the recently described coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR) method to employ two consecutive rounds of COLD-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Using this highly sensitive approach we screened 48 nonmicrodissected lung adenocarcinoma samples for TP53 mutations. Twenty-four missense/frameshift TP53 mutations throughout exons 5 to 8 were identified in 23 out of 48 (48%) lung adenocarcinoma samples examined, including eight low-level mutations at an abundance of approximately 1 to 17%, most of which would have been missed using conventional methodologies. The identified alterations include two rare lung adenocarcinoma mutations, one of which is a "disruptive" mutation currently undocumented in the lung cancer mutation databases. A sample harboring a low-level mutation ( approximately 2% abundance) concurrently with a clonal mutation (80% abundance) revealed intratumoral TP53 mutation heterogeneity. The ability to identify and sequence low-level mutations in the absence of elaborate microdissection, via COLD-PCR-based Sanger sequencing, provides a platform for accurate mutation profiling in clinical specimens and the use of TP53 as a prognostic/predictive biomarker, evaluation of cancer risk, recurrence, and further understanding of cancer biology. PMID:19760750

Li, Jin; Milbury, Coren A; Li, Cheng; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

2009-11-01

87

A novel acid ?-glucosidase mutation identified in a Pakistani family with glycogen storage disease type II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel mutation, C118t, in exon 2 of the acid a-glucosidase gene has been found in an infant with glycogen storage disease type II. This mutation is predicted to result in protein truncation. The phenotype was that of the severe infantile form of the disorder with lack of motor development, but with eye regard, social smile and vocalization. The parents

M. A. Kroos; A. E. Waitfield; M. Joosse; B. Winchester; A. J. J. Reuser; K. D. MacDermot

1997-01-01

88

Pancreatic phenotype in infants with cystic fibrosis identified by mutation screening  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the pancreatic phenotype of infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed in the first week of life by a combined immunoreactive trypsin/mutation screening program. Design A prospective evaluation of pancreatic function in infants with CF at the time of neonatal diagnosis and up to the age of 12. Setting Two different centres (Verona, Italy and Westmead, Australia) to enable comparison of results between two regions where <60% or ?90% of patients, respectively, have at least one single ?F508 a mutation. Patients 315 children with CF including 149 at Verona and 166 at Westmead. Interventions Fat balance studies over 3–5?days and pancreatic stimulation tests with main outcome measures being faecal fat or pancreatic colipase secretion. Patients with malabsorption are pancreatic insufficient (PI) or with normal absorption and pancreatic sufficient (PS). Results 34 infants (23%) at Verona and 46 (28%) at Westmead were PS at diagnosis. 15% of those with two class I, II or III “severe” mutations and 26/28 (93%) of those with class IV or V mutations were PS at this early age. Of the 80 infants with PS, 20 became PI before the age of 12. All 20 had two severe mutations. Conclusion Neonatal mutational screening programs for CF are less likely to detect PS patients with non??F508 mutations. Of PS patients who are detected, those with two severe class I, II or III mutations are at particularly high risk of becoming PI during early childhood. PMID:17449517

Cipolli, Marco; Castellani, Carlo; Wilcken, Bridget; Massie, John; McKay, Karen; Gruca, Margie; Tamanini, Anna; Assael, Maurice Baroukh; Gaskin, Kevin

2007-01-01

89

Exome sequencing identifies highly recurrent MED12 somatic mutations in breast fibroadenoma.  

PubMed

Fibroadenomas are the most common breast tumors in women under 30 (refs. 1,2). Exome sequencing of eight fibroadenomas with matching whole-blood samples revealed recurrent somatic mutations solely in MED12, which encodes a Mediator complex subunit. Targeted sequencing of an additional 90 fibroadenomas confirmed highly frequent MED12 exon 2 mutations (58/98, 59%) that are probably somatic, with 71% of mutations occurring in codon 44. Using laser capture microdissection, we show that MED12 fibroadenoma mutations are present in stromal but not epithelial mammary cells. Expression profiling of MED12-mutated and wild-type fibroadenomas revealed that MED12 mutations are associated with dysregulated estrogen signaling and extracellular matrix organization. The fibroadenoma MED12 mutation spectrum is nearly identical to that of previously reported MED12 lesions in uterine leiomyoma but not those of other tumors. Benign tumors of the breast and uterus, both of which are key target tissues of estrogen, may thus share a common genetic basis underpinned by highly frequent and specific MED12 mutations. PMID:25038752

Lim, Weng Khong; Ong, Choon Kiat; Tan, Jing; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Ooi, Wei Siong; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

2014-08-01

90

New de novo Genetic Mutations in Schizophrenia Identified | Columbia University Medical Center http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/news-room/2012/10/03/new-de-novo-genetic-mutations-in-schizophrenia-identified/#.UKJgImdNKuJ[11/13/2012 9:59:28 AM  

E-print Network

New de novo Genetic Mutations in Schizophrenia Identified | Columbia University Medical Center http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/news-room/2012/10/03/new-de-novo-genetic-mutations-in-schizophrenia-identified/#.UKJgImdNKuJ[11/13/2012 9 Profiles | Map | RSS | Giving New de novo Genetic Mutations in Schizophrenia Identified October 3, 2012 New

91

Functional analysis of a promoter variant identified in the CFTR gene in cis of a frameshift mutation  

PubMed Central

In monogenic diseases, the presence of several sequence variations in the same allele may complicate our understanding of genotype–phenotype relationships. We described new alterations identified in a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient harboring a 48C>G promoter sequence variation associated in cis of a 3532AC>GTA mutation and in trans with the F508del mutation. Functional analyses including in vitro experiments confirmed the deleterious effect of the 3532GTA frameshift mutation through the creation of a premature termination codon. The analyses also revealed that the 48G promoter variant has a negative effect on both transcription and mRNA level, thus demonstrating the importance of analyzing all mutations or sequence variations with potential impact on CF transmembrane conductance regulator processing, even when the two known disease-causing mutations have already been detected. Our results emphasize the need to perform, wherever possible, functional studies that may greatly assist the interpretation of the disease-causing potential of rare mutation-associated sequence variations. PMID:21847140

Viart, Victoria; Georges, Marie Des; Claustres, Mireille; Taulan, Magali

2012-01-01

92

Exome sequencing of serous endometrial tumors identifies recurrent somatic mutations in chromatin-remodeling and ubiquitin ligase complex genes.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, causing ~74,000 deaths annually. Serous endometrial cancers are a clinically aggressive subtype with a poorly defined genetic etiology. We used whole-exome sequencing to comprehensively search for somatic mutations within ~22,000 protein-encoding genes in 13 primary serous endometrial tumors. We subsequently resequenced 18 genes, which were mutated in more than 1 tumor and/or were components of an enriched functional grouping, from 40 additional serous tumors. We identified high frequencies of somatic mutations in CHD4 (17%), EP300 (8%), ARID1A (6%), TSPYL2 (6%), FBXW7 (29%), SPOP (8%), MAP3K4 (6%) and ABCC9 (6%). Overall, 36.5% of serous tumors had a mutated chromatin-remodeling gene, and 35% had a mutated ubiquitin ligase complex gene, implicating frequent mutational disruption of these processes in the molecular pathogenesis of one of the deadliest forms of endometrial cancer. PMID:23104009

Le Gallo, Matthieu; O'Hara, Andrea J; Rudd, Meghan L; Urick, Mary Ellen; Hansen, Nancy F; O'Neil, Nigel J; Price, Jessica C; Zhang, Suiyuan; England, Bryant M; Godwin, Andrew K; Sgroi, Dennis C; Hieter, Philip; Mullikin, James C; Merino, Maria J; Bell, Daphne W

2012-12-01

93

A Novel SRD5A2 Mutation with Loss of Function Identified in Chinese Patients with Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the functional change of SRD5A2 gene mutations identified in patients with 5?-reductase type 2 deficiency. Patients and Methods: Three unrelated subjects born with ambiguous genitalia were included. All patients were initially reared as girls, but they gradually exhibited variable degrees of virilization at puberty without breast development, followed by a change of gender role. Sequencing analysis of

Manna Zhang; Jun Yang; Huijie Zhang; Guang Ning; Xiaoying Li; Shouyue Sun

2011-01-01

94

Structural and functional analysis of APOA5 mutations identified in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia[S  

PubMed Central

During the diagnosis of three unrelated patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, three APOA5 mutations [p.(Ser232_Leu235)del, p.Leu253Pro, and p.Asp332ValfsX4] were found without evidence of concomitant LPL, APOC2, or GPIHBP1 mutations. The molecular mechanisms by which APOA5 mutations result in severe hypertriglyceridemia remain poorly understood, and the functional impairment/s induced by these specific mutations was not obvious. Therefore, we performed a thorough structural and functional analysis that included follow-up of patients and their closest relatives, measurement of apoA-V serum concentrations, and sequencing of the APOA5 gene in 200 nonhyperlipidemic controls. Further, we cloned, overexpressed, and purified both wild-type and mutant apoA-V variants and characterized their capacity to activate LPL. The interactions of recombinant wild-type and mutated apoA-V variants with liposomes of different composition, heparin, LRP1, sortilin, and SorLA/LR11 were also analyzed. Finally, to explore the possible structural consequences of these mutations, we developed a three-dimensional model of full-length, lipid-free human apoA-V. A complex, wide array of impairments was found in each of the three mutants, suggesting that the specific residues affected are critical structural determinants for apoA-V function in lipoprotein metabolism and, therefore, that these APOA5 mutations are a direct cause of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:23307945

Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Julve, Josep; Nilsson, Stefan K.; Lookene, Aivar; Martín-Campos, Jesús M.; Roig, Rosa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M.; Sloan, John H.; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

2013-01-01

95

Exome and whole-genome sequencing of esophageal adenocarcinoma identifies recurrent driver events and mutational complexity  

E-print Network

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen 600% over the last 30 years. With a 5-year survival rate of ~15%, the identification of new therapeutic targets for EAC is greatly important. We analyze the mutation ...

Lander, Eric S.

96

Novel TECTA Mutations Identified in Stable Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Their Clinical Implications.  

PubMed

TECTA is a causative gene of autosomal dominant (DFNA8/A12) and autosomal recessive (DFNB 21) nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL). Mutations in TECTA account for 4% of all autosomal dominant NSHL cases in some populations and are thus thought to be one of the major causes of autosomal dominant NSHL. A genotype-phenotype correlation for autosomal dominant mutations in the TECTA gene has been proposed. Two families (SB146 and SB149), which segregated moderate NSHL in an autosomal dominant fashion, were included in this study. We performed targeted resequencing of 134 known deafness genes (TRS-134) and bioinformatics analyses to find causative mutations for NSHL in these 2 families. Through TRS-134, we detected 2 novel mutations, i.e. c.3995G>T (p.C1332F) and c.5618C>T (p.T1873I), in the TECTA gene. These mutations cosegregated with NSHL in the studied families and were not detected in normal controls. The mutations c.3995G>T and c.5618C>T reside in the von Willebrand factor type D3-D4 (vWFD3-D4) interdomain of the zonadhesin (ZA) domain and the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, respectively. p.C1332F is the first mutation detected in the vWFD3-D4 interdomain of the ZA domain. The mutations p.C1332F and p.T1873I were associated with stable high-frequency and mid-frequency hearing loss, respectively. Notably, the cysteine residue mutated to phenylalanine in SB146 was not related to progression of sensorineural hearing loss, which argues against the previous hypothesis. Here we confirm a known genotype-phenotype correlation for the ZP domain and propose a hypothetical genotype-phenotype correlation which relates mutations in vWFD3-D4 to stable high-frequency NSHL in Koreans. This clinical feature makes subjects with the missense mutation in the vWFD3-D4 interdomain of TECTA potentially good candidates for middle ear implantation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25413827

Kim, Ah Reum; Chang, Mun Young; Koo, Ja-Won; Oh, Seung Ha; Choi, Byung Yoon

2015-01-01

97

Somatic Mutation Profiles of MSI and MSS Colorectal Cancer Identified by Whole Exome Next Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is with approximately 1 million cases the third most common cancer worldwide. Extensive research is ongoing to decipher the underlying genetic patterns with the hope to improve early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this direction, the recent progress in next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the field of cancer genomics. However, one caveat of these studies remains the large amount of genetic variations identified and their interpretation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the first work on whole exome NGS of primary colon cancers. We performed 454 whole exome pyrosequencing of tumor as well as adjacent not affected normal colonic tissue from microsatellite stable (MSS) and microsatellite instable (MSI) colon cancer patients and identified more than 50,000 small nucleotide variations for each tissue. According to predictions based on MSS and MSI pathomechanisms we identified eight times more somatic non-synonymous variations in MSI cancers than in MSS and we were able to reproduce the result in four additional CRCs. Our bioinformatics filtering approach narrowed down the rate of most significant mutations to 359 for MSI and 45 for MSS CRCs with predicted altered protein functions. In both CRCs, MSI and MSS, we found somatic mutations in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, BMPR1A, a gene where so far germline mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome, and show that the mutations functionally impair the protein function. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that with deep sequencing of tumor exomes one may be able to predict the microsatellite status of CRC and in addition identify potentially clinically relevant mutations. PMID:21203531

Roehr, Christina; Fischer, Axel; Isau, Melanie; Boerno, Stefan T.; Wunderlich, Andrea; Barmeyer, Christian; Seemann, Petra; Koenig, Jana; Lappe, Michael; Kuss, Andreas W.; Garshasbi, Masoud; Bertram, Lars; Trappe, Kathrin; Werber, Martin; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Zatloukal, Kurt; Lehrach, Hans; Schweiger, Michal R.

2010-01-01

98

Application of next-generation sequencing to identify genes and mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP).  

PubMed

The goal of our research is to identify genes and mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). For this purpose we established a cohort of more than 250 independently ascertained families with adRP in the Houston Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Diseases. Affected members of each family were screened for disease-causing mutations in genes and gene regions that are commonly associated with adRP. By this approach, we detected mutations in 65?% of the families, leaving 85 families that are likely to harbor mutations outside of the "common" regions or in novel genes. Of these, 32 families were tested by several types of next-generation sequencing (NGS), including (a) targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) NGS, (b) whole exome NGS, and (c) targeted retinal-capture NGS. We detected mutations in 11 of these families (31?%) bringing the total detected in the adRP cohort to 70?%. Several large families have also been tested for linkage using Afymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. PMID:24664689

Daiger, Stephen P; Bowne, Sara J; Sullivan, Lori S; Blanton, Susan H; Weinstock, George M; Koboldt, Daniel C; Fulton, Robert S; Larsen, David; Humphries, Peter; Humphries, Marian M; Pierce, Eric A; Chen, Rui; Li, Yumei

2014-01-01

99

Mutations in the DDR2 kinase gene identify a novel therapeutic target in squamous cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

While genomically targeted therapies have improved outcomes for patients with lung adenocarcinoma, little is known about the genomic alterations which drive squamous cell lung cancer. Sanger sequencing of the tyrosine kinome identified mutations in the DDR2 kinase gene in 3.8% of squamous cell lung cancers and cell lines. Squamous lung cancer cell lines harboring DDR2 mutations were selectively killed by knock-down of DDR2 by RNAi or by treatment with the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor dasatinib. Tumors established from a DDR2 mutant cell line were sensitive to dasatinib in xenograft models. Expression of mutated DDR2 led to cellular transformation which was blocked by dasatinib. A squamous cell lung cancer patient with a response to dasatinib and erlotinib treatment harbored a DDR2 kinase domain mutation. These data suggest that gain-of-function mutations in DDR2 are important oncogenic events and are amenable to therapy with dasatinib. As dasatinib is already approved for use, these findings could be rapidly translated into clinical trials. PMID:22328973

Hammerman, Peter S; Sos, Martin L; Ramos, Alex H; Xu, Chunxiao; Dutt, Amit; Zhou, Wenjun; Brace, Lear E; Woods, Brittany A; Lin, Wenchu; Zhang, Jianming; Deng, Xianming; Lim, Sang Min; Heynck, Stefanie; Peifer, Martin; Simard, Jeffrey R; Lawrence, Michael S; Onofrio, Robert C; Salvesen, Helga B; Seidel, Danila; Zander, Thomas; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Soltermann, Alex; Moch, Holger; Koker, Mirjam; Leenders, Frauke; Gabler, Franziska; Querings, Silvia; Ansén, Sascha; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Lorimier, Philippe; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Helland, Åslaug; Petersen, Iver; Clement, Joachim H; Groen, Harry; Timens, Wim; Sietsma, Hannie; Stoelben, Erich; Wolf, Jürgen; Beer, David G; Tsao, Ming Sound; Hanna, Megan; Hatton, Charles; Eck, Michael J; Janne, Pasi A; Johnson, Bruce E; Winckler, Wendy; Greulich, Heidi; Bass, Adam J; Cho, Jeonghee; Rauh, Daniel; Gray, Nathanael S; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Haura, Eric B; Thomas, Roman K; Meyerson, Matthew

2011-01-01

100

Integrated mutational and cytogenetic analysis identifies new prognostic subgroups in chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

The identification of new genetic lesions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prompts a comprehensive and dynamic prognostic algorithm including gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities and their changes during clonal evolution. By integrating mutational and cytogenetic analysis in 1274 CLL samples and using both a training-validation and a time-dependent design, 4 CLL subgroups were hierarchically classified: (1) high-risk, harboring TP53 and/or BIRC3 abnormalities (10-year survival: 29%); (2) intermediate-risk, harboring NOTCH1 and/or SF3B1 mutations and/or del11q22-q23 (10-year survival: 37%); (3) low-risk, harboring +12 or a normal genetics (10-year survival: 57%); and (4) very low-risk, harboring del13q14 only, whose 10-year survival (69.3%) did not significantly differ from a matched general population. This integrated mutational and cytogenetic model independently predicted survival, improved CLL prognostication accuracy compared with FISH karyotype (P < .0001), and was externally validated in an independent CLL cohort. Clonal evolution from lower to higher risk implicated the emergence of NOTCH1, SF3B1, and BIRC3 abnormalities in addition to TP53 and 11q22-q23 lesions. By taking into account clonal evolution through time-dependent analysis, the genetic model maintained its prognostic relevance at any time from diagnosis. These findings may have relevant implications for the design of clinical trials aimed at assessing the use of mutational profiling to inform therapeutic decisions. PMID:23243274

Rasi, Silvia; Spina, Valeria; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Monti, Sara; Ciardullo, Carmela; Deambrogi, Clara; Khiabanian, Hossein; Serra, Roberto; Bertoni, Francesco; Forconi, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca; Marasca, Roberto; Dal-Bo, Michele; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Bulian, Pietro; Nomdedeu, Josep; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Gattei, Valter; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul; Foà, Robin; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Gaidano, Gianluca

2013-01-01

101

Founder mutation in RSPH4A identified in patients of Hispanic descent with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by ciliary dysfunction resulting in chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease, respiratory distress in term neonates, laterality (situs) defects, and bronchiectasis. Diagnosis has traditionally relied on ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities seen by electron microscopy. Mutations in radial spoke head proteins occur in PCD patients with central apparatus defects. Advances in genetic testing have been crucial in addressing the diagnostic challenge. Here, we describe a novel splice-site mutation (c.921+3_6delAAGT) in RSPH4A, which leads to a premature translation termination signal in nine subjects with PCD (seven families). Loss-of-function was confirmed with quantitative ciliary ultrastructural analysis, measurement of ciliary beat frequency and waveform, and transcript analysis. All nine individuals carrying c.921+3_6delAAGT splice-site mutation in RSPH4A were Hispanic with ancestry tracing to Puerto Rico. This mutation is a founder mutation and a common cause of PCD without situs abnormalities in patients of Puerto Rican descent. PMID:23798057

Daniels, M. Leigh Anne; Leigh, Margaret W.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Armstrong, Michael C.; Carson, Johnny L.; Hazucha, Milan; Dell, Sharon D.; Eriksson, Maria; Collins, Francis S.; Knowles, Michael R.; Zariwala, Maimoona A.

2013-01-01

102

Integrated mutational and cytogenetic analysis identifies new prognostic subgroups in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The identification of new genetic lesions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prompts a comprehensive and dynamic prognostic algorithm including gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities and their changes during clonal evolution. By integrating mutational and cytogenetic analysis in 1274 CLL samples and using both a training-validation and a time-dependent design, 4 CLL subgroups were hierarchically classified: (1) high-risk, harboring TP53 and/or BIRC3 abnormalities (10-year survival: 29%); (2) intermediate-risk, harboring NOTCH1 and/or SF3B1 mutations and/or del11q22-q23 (10-year survival: 37%); (3) low-risk, harboring +12 or a normal genetics (10-year survival: 57%); and (4) very low-risk, harboring del13q14 only, whose 10-year survival (69.3%) did not significantly differ from a matched general population. This integrated mutational and cytogenetic model independently predicted survival, improved CLL prognostication accuracy compared with FISH karyotype (P < .0001), and was externally validated in an independent CLL cohort. Clonal evolution from lower to higher risk implicated the emergence of NOTCH1, SF3B1, and BIRC3 abnormalities in addition to TP53 and 11q22-q23 lesions. By taking into account clonal evolution through time-dependent analysis, the genetic model maintained its prognostic relevance at any time from diagnosis. These findings may have relevant implications for the design of clinical trials aimed at assessing the use of mutational profiling to inform therapeutic decisions. PMID:23243274

Rossi, Davide; Rasi, Silvia; Spina, Valeria; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Monti, Sara; Ciardullo, Carmela; Deambrogi, Clara; Khiabanian, Hossein; Serra, Roberto; Bertoni, Francesco; Forconi, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca; Marasca, Roberto; Dal-Bo, Michele; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Bulian, Pietro; Nomdedeu, Josep; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Gattei, Valter; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul; Foà, Robin; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Gaidano, Gianluca

2013-02-21

103

Mathematics Helps Identify Which Cancer Mutations Occur Early in Brain Cancer | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

One of the hallmarks of cancer is that as cancer develops, it accumulates a large number of mutations. Several years ago, researchers in the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (Dana-Farber PS-OC) developed a computational model that can determine the order in which these mutations arise. Now, these investigators have extended their work to include known information about the signaling pathways, enabling them to explore which pathways are altered early or late in the development of the four major forms of glioblastoma.

104

A new pma1 mutation identified in a chronologically long-lived fission yeast mutant  

PubMed Central

We isolated a chronologically long-lived mutant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found a new mutation in pma1+ that encoded for an essential P-type proton ATPase. An Asp-138 to Asn mutation resulted in reduced Pma1 activity, concomitant with an increase in the chronological lifespan of this fission yeast. This study corroborates our previous report indicating Pma1 activity is crucial for the determination of life span of fission yeast, and offers information for better understanding of the enzyme, Pma1. PMID:25379379

Naito, Chikako; Ito, Hirokazu; Oshiro, Tomoko; Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Murakami, Hiroshi; Aiba, Hirofumi

2014-01-01

105

Mutation Detection of PKD1 Identifies a Novel Mutation Common to Three Families with Aneurysms and/or Very-Early-Onset Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary It is known that several of the most severe complications of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, such as intracranial aneurysms, cluster in families. There have been no studies reported to date, however, that have attempted to correlate severely affected pedigrees with a particular genotype. Until recently, in fact, mutation detection for most of the PKD1 gene was virtually impossible because of the presence of several highly homologous loci also located on chromosome 16. In this report we describe a cluster of 4 bp in exon 15 that are unique to PKD1. Forward and reverse PKD1-specific primers were designed in this location to amplify regions of the gene from exons 11–21 by use of long-range PCR. The two templates described were used to analyze 35 pedigrees selected for study because they included individuals with either intracranial aneurysms and/or very-early-onset disease. We identified eight novel truncating mutations, two missense mutations not found in a panel of controls, and several informative polymorphisms. Many of the polymorphisms were also present in the homologous loci, supporting the idea that they may serve as a reservoir for genetic variability in the PKD1 gene. Surprisingly, we found that three independently ascertained pedigrees had an identical 2-bp deletion in exon 15. This raises the possibility that particular genotypes may be associated with more-severe disease. PMID:10577909

Watnick, Terry; Phakdeekitcharoen, Bunyong; Johnson, Ann; Gandolph, Michael; Wang, Mei; Briefel, Gary; Klinger, Katherine W.; Kimberling, William; Gabow, Patricia; Germino, Gregory G.

1999-01-01

106

Mutational analysis identifies two separable roles of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae splicing factor Prp18.  

PubMed Central

Prp18 functions in the second step of pre-mRNA splicing, joining the spliceosome just prior to the transesterification reaction that creates the mature mRNA. Prp18 interacts with Slu7, and the functions of the two proteins are intertwined. Using the X-ray structure of Prp18, we have designed mutants in Prp18 that imply that Prp18 has two distinct roles in splicing. Deletion mutations were used to delineate the surface of Prp18 that interacts with Slu7, and point mutations in Prp18 were used to define amino acids that contact Slu7. Experiments in which Slu7 and mutant Prp18 proteins were expressed at different levels support a model in which interaction between the proteins is needed for stable binding of both proteins to the spliceosome. Mutations in an evolutionarily conserved region show that it is critical for Prp18 function but is not involved in binding Slu7. Alleles with mutations in the conserved region are dominant negative, suggesting that the resulting mutant prp18 proteins make proper contacts with the spliceosome, but fail to carry out a Prp18-specific function. Prp18 thus appears to have two separable roles in splicing, one in stabilizing interaction of Slu7 with the spliceosome, and a second that requires the conserved loop. PMID:12403466

Bacíková, Dagmar; Horowitz, David S

2002-01-01

107

Early frameshift mutation in PIGA identified in a large XLID family without neonatal lethality.  

PubMed

The phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA) protein is a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor pathway. Germline mutations in PIGA located at Xp22.2 are thought to be lethal in males. However, a nonsense mutation in the last coding exon was recently described in two brothers with multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2) who survived through birth likely because of the hypomorphic nature of the truncated protein, but died in their first weeks of life. Here, we report on a frameshift mutation early in the PIGA cDNA (c.76dupT; p.Y26Lfs*3) that cosegregates with the disease in a large family diagnosed with a severe syndromic form of X-linked intellectual disability. Unexpectedly, CD59 surface expression suggested the production of a shorter PIGA protein with residual functionality. We provide evidence that the second methionine at position 37 may be used for the translation of a 36 amino acids shorter PIGA. Complementation assays confirmed that this shorter PIGA cDNA was able to partially rescue the surface expression of CD59 in a PIGA-null cell line. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that the early frameshift mutation in PIGA produces a truncated hypomorph, which is sufficient to rescue the lethality in males but not the MCAHS2-like phenotype. PMID:24357517

Belet, Stefanie; Fieremans, Nathalie; Yuan, Xuan; Van Esch, Hilde; Verbeeck, Jelle; Ye, Zhaohui; Cheng, Linzhao; Brodsky, Brett R; Hu, Hao; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Brodsky, Robert A; Froyen, Guy

2014-03-01

108

Massively Parallel DNA Sequencing Successfully Identifies New Causative Mutations in Deafness Genes in Patients with Cochlear Implantation and EAS  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors, the most common etiology in severe to profound hearing loss, are one of the key determinants of Cochlear Implantation (CI) and Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS) outcomes. Satisfactory auditory performance after receiving a CI/EAS in patients with certain deafness gene mutations indicates that genetic testing would be helpful in predicting CI/EAS outcomes and deciding treatment choices. However, because of the extreme genetic heterogeneity of deafness, clinical application of genetic information still entails difficulties. Target exon sequencing using massively parallel DNA sequencing is a new powerful strategy to discover rare causative genes in Mendelian disorders such as deafness. We used massive sequencing of the exons of 58 target candidate genes to analyze 8 (4 early-onset, 4 late-onset) Japanese CI/EAS patients, who did not have mutations in commonly found genes including GJB2, SLC26A4, or mitochondrial 1555A>G or 3243A>G mutations. We successfully identified four rare causative mutations in the MYO15A, TECTA, TMPRSS3, and ACTG1 genes in four patients who showed relatively good auditory performance with CI including EAS, suggesting that genetic testing may be able to predict the performance after implantation. PMID:24130743

Miyagawa, Maiko; Nishio, Shin-ya; Ikeda, Takuo; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Usami, Shin-ichi

2013-01-01

109

Exome Sequencing Identifies a Dominant TNNT3 Mutation in a Large Family with Distal Arthrogryposis  

PubMed Central

Distal arthrogryposis (DA) is a group of rare, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders primarily characterized by congenital contractures of the distal limb joints without a neuromuscular disease. Mutations in at least 8 different genes have been shown to cause DA. Here, we report a 4-generation Indian family with 18 affected members presenting variable features of camptodactyly, brachydactyly, syndactyly, decreased flexion palmar creases, ulnar deviation of the hands, sandal gaps and club feet. We undertook exome sequencing of 3 distantly related affected individuals. Bioinformatics filtering revealed a known pathogenic missense mutation c.188G>A (p.Arg63His) in TNNT3 in all 3 affected individuals that segregated with the phenotype. The affected individuals exhibit significant phenotypic variability. This study demonstrates the value of exome sequencing helping to define the causative variant in genetically heterogeneous disorders. PMID:25337069

Daly, Sarah B.; Shah, Hitesh; O'Sullivan, James; Anderson, Beverley; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Williams, Simon; Al-Sheqaih, Nada; Mueed Bidchol, Abdul; Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G.; Girisha, Katta M.

2014-01-01

110

Syncope and recurrent ventricular tachycardia with a newly identified desmosomal gene mutation  

PubMed Central

Ventricular arrhythmias in young people most commonly occur due to the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We present a case in which the patient had exercise induced syncopal spells and was found to have ventricular tachycardia (VT) during both exercise stress testing and an electrophysiology study. Further genetic studies showed a previously unseen desmosomal gene mutation confirming the presence of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC). PMID:24689027

Banga, Sandeep; Chalfoun, Nagib; Finta, Bohuslav; Elmouchi, Darryl; Dahu, Musa; Woelfel, Alan; McNamara, Richard F; Fritz, Timothy; Schuitema, Jennifer I; Judson, Carly A; Gauri, Andre

2013-01-01

111

High-throughput profiling identifies clinically actionable mutations in salivary duct carcinoma.  

PubMed

BackgroundSalivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a highly aggressive subtype of salivary gland cancers and there is no established standard therapy for this disease. Thus, development of molecular markers for SDC will be important to guide the diagnosis and therapy of this aggressive tumor.MethodsWe performed next-generation sequencing using the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq cancer panel, which explores the mutational status of hotspot regions in 50 cancer-associated genes, and we analyzed copy number variations (CNVs) of 21 genes by NanoString nCounter for 37 patients with SDC. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was also conducted to confirm ERBB2 gene amplification. Clinical records and tumor histopathology of the patients were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsGenetic alterations were detected in 29 of 37 (78.3%) tumors, including mutations in PIK3CA (N¿=¿9, 24.3%), ERBB2 (N¿=¿4, 10.8%), and EGFR (N¿=¿4, 10.8%). To our knowledge, this is the first time that ERBB2 mutations have been reported in this tumor type. Both PIK3CA and ERBB2 mutation status were associated with poor overall survival, but without statistical significance. ERBB2 amplification was strong and common in SDC and almost all cases also exhibited EGFR and ERBB3 amplifications.ConclusionsThis study reports the largest and most comprehensive analysis of DNA aberrations in SDC. Our results show that PIK3CA and/or ERBB2 alterations in the development of SDC might be a useful diagnostic tool and could serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25343854

Ku, Bo; Jung, Hyun; Sun, Jong-Mu; Ko, Young; Jeong, Han-Sin; Son, Young-Ik; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Park, Keunchil; Ahn, Myung-Ju

2014-10-25

112

Whole exome sequencing identifies homozygous GPR161 mutation in a family with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.  

PubMed

Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole exome sequencing to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk - characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: Targeted whole exome sequencing (WES) was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

2014-10-16

113

Novel Mutations in the ZEB1 Gene Identified in Czech and British Patients With Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We describe the search for mutations in six unrelated Czech and four unrelated British families with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD); a relatively rare eye disorder. Coding exons and intron/exon boundaries of all three genes (VSX1, COL8A2, and ZEB1/TCF8) previously reported to be implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder were screened by DNA sequencing. Four novel pathogenic mutations were identified in four families; two deletions, one nonsense, and one duplication within exon 7 in the ZEB1 gene located at 10p11.2. We also genotyped the Czech patients to test for a founder haplotype and lack of disease segregation with the 20p11.2 locus we previously described. Although a systematic clinical examination was not performed, our investigation does not support an association between ZEB1 changes and self reported non-ocular anomalies. In the remaining six families no disease causing mutations were identified thereby indicating that as yet unidentified gene(s) are likely to be responsible for PPCD. PMID:17437275

Liskova, Petra; Tuft, Stephen J.; Gwilliam, Rhian; Ebenezer, Neil D.; Jirsova, Katerina; Prescott, Quincy; Martincova, Radka; Pretorius, Marike; Sinclair, Neil; Boase, David L.; Jeffrey, Margaret J.; Deloukas, Panos; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Filipec, Martin; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.

2009-01-01

114

Genome sequencing identifies a novel mutation in ATP1A3 in a family with dystonia in females only.  

PubMed

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal movements or postures. Several genetic causes of dystonia have been elucidated but genetic causes of dystonia specifically affecting females have not yet been described. In the present study, we investigated a large dystonia family from New Zealand in which only females were affected. They presented with a generalized form of the disorder including laryngeal, cervical, and arm dystonia. We found a novel, likely disease-causing, three base-pair deletion (c.443_445delGAG, p.Ser148del) in ATP1A3 in this family by combining genome and exome sequencing. Mutations in ATP1A3 have previously been linked to rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and CAPOS syndrome. Therefore, we re-examined our patients with a specific focus on typical symptoms of these conditions. It turned out that all patients reported a rapid onset of dystonic symptoms following a trigger suggesting a diagnosis of RDP. Notably, none of the patients showed clear symptoms of parkinsonism or symptoms specific for AHC or CAPOS. The ATP1A3 gene is located on chromosome 19q13.2, thus, providing no obvious explanation for the preponderance to affect females. Interestingly, we also identified one unaffected male offspring carrying the p.Ser148del mutation suggesting reduced penetrance of this mutation, a phenomenon that has also been observed for other RDP-causing mutations in ATP1A3. Although phenotypic information in this family was initially incomplete, the identification of the p.Ser148del ATP1A3 mutation elicited clinical re-examination of patients subsequently allowing establishing the correct diagnosis, a phenomenon known as "reverse phenotyping". PMID:25359261

Wilcox, Robert; Brænne, Ingrid; Brüggemann, Norbert; Winkler, Susen; Wiegers, Karin; Bertram, Lars; Anderson, Tim; Lohmann, Katja

2015-01-01

115

Fine Mapping of the 1p36 Deletion Syndrome Identifies Mutation of PRDM16 as a Cause of Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Deletion 1p36 syndrome is recognized as the most common terminal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe the loss of a gene within the deletion that is responsible for the cardiomyopathy associated with monosomy 1p36, and we confirm its role in nonsyndromic left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). With our own data and publically available data from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified a minimal deletion for the cardiomyopathy associated with 1p36del syndrome that included only the terminal 14 exons of the transcription factor PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16), a gene that had previously been shown to direct brown fat determination and differentiation. Resequencing of PRDM16 in a cohort of 75 nonsyndromic individuals with LVNC detected three mutations, including one truncation mutant, one frameshift null mutation, and a single missense mutant. In addition, in a series of cardiac biopsies from 131 individuals with DCM, we found 5 individuals with 4 previously unreported nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of PRDM16. None of the PRDM16 mutations identified were observed in more than 6,400 controls. PRDM16 has not previously been associated with cardiac disease but is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes throughout murine and human development and in the adult heart. Modeling of PRDM16 haploinsufficiency and a human truncation mutant in zebrafish resulted in both contractile dysfunction and partial uncoupling of cardiomyocytes and also revealed evidence of impaired cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. In conclusion, mutation of PRDM16 causes the cardiomyopathy in 1p36 deletion syndrome as well as a proportion of nonsyndromic LVNC and DCM. PMID:23768516

Arndt, Anne-Karin; Schafer, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Jorg-Detlef; Sabeh, M. Khaled; Plovie, Eva R.; Caliebe, Almuth; Klopocki, Eva; Musso, Gabriel; Werdich, Andreas A.; Kalwa, Hermann; Heinig, Matthias; Padera, Robert F.; Wassilew, Katharina; Bluhm, Julia; Harnack, Christine; Martitz, Janine; Barton, Paul J.; Greutmann, Matthias; Berger, Felix; Hubner, Norbert; Siebert, Reiner; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Cook, Stuart A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Klaassen, Sabine

2013-01-01

116

Exome sequencing identifies a missense mutation in Isl1 associated with low penetrance otitis media in dearisch mice  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media) is very common and can lead to serious complications if not resolved. Genetic studies suggest an inherited component, but few of the genes that contribute to this condition are known. Mouse mutants have contributed significantly to the identification of genes predisposing to otitis media Results The dearisch mouse mutant is an ENU-induced mutant detected by its impaired Preyer reflex (ear flick in response to sound). Auditory brainstem responses revealed raised thresholds from as early as three weeks old. Pedigree analysis suggested a dominant but partially penetrant mode of inheritance. The middle ear of dearisch mutants shows a thickened mucosa and cellular effusion suggesting chronic otitis media with effusion with superimposed acute infection. The inner ear, including the sensory hair cells, appears normal. Due to the low penetrance of the phenotype, normal backcross mapping of the mutation was not possible. Exome sequencing was therefore employed to identify a non-conservative tyrosine to cysteine (Y71C) missense mutation in the Islet1 gene, Isl1Drsh. Isl1 is expressed in the normal middle ear mucosa. The findings suggest the Isl1Drshmutation is likely to predispose carriers to otitis media. Conclusions Dearisch, Isl1Drsh, represents the first point mutation in the mouse Isl1 gene and suggests a previously unrecognized role for this gene. It is also the first recorded exome sequencing of the C3HeB/FeJ background relevant to many ENU-induced mutants. Most importantly, the power of exome resequencing to identify ENU-induced mutations without a mapped gene locus is illustrated. PMID:21936904

2011-01-01

117

A missense mutation in AGTPBP1 was identified in sheep with a lower motor neuron disease  

PubMed Central

A type of lower motor neuron (LMN) disease inherited as autosomal recessive in Romney sheep was characterized with normal appearance at birth, but with progressive weakness and tetraparesis after the first week of life. Here, we carried out genome-wide homozygosity mapping using Illumina Ovine SNP50 BeadChips on lambs descended from one carrier ram, including 19 sheep diagnosed as affected and 11 of their parents that were therefore known carriers. A homozygous region of 136 consecutive single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci on chromosome 2 was common to all affected sheep and it was the basis for searching for the positional candidate genes. Other homozygous regions shared by all affected sheep spanned eight or fewer SNP loci. The 136-SNP region contained the sheep ATP/GTP-binding protein 1 (AGTPBP1) gene. Mutations in this gene have been shown to be related to Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) phenotypes including ataxia in mice. One missense mutation c.2909G>C on exon 21 of AGTPBP1 was discovered, which induces an Arg to Pro substitution (p.Arg970Pro) at amino-acid 970, a conserved residue for the catalytic activity of AGTPBP1. Genotyping of this mutation showed 100% concordant rate with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected, carrier, phenotypically normal and unrelated normal individuals. This is the first report showing a mutant AGTPBP1 is associated with a LMN disease in a large mammal animal model. Our finding raises the possibility of human patients with the same etiology caused by this gene or other genes in the same pathway of neuronal development. PMID:22588130

Zhao, X; Onteru, S K; Dittmer, K E; Parton, K; Blair, H T; Rothschild, M F; Garrick, D J

2012-01-01

118

Analysis of 30 putative BRCA1 splicing mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families identifies exonic splice site mutations that escape in silico prediction.  

PubMed

Screening for pathogenic mutations in breast and ovarian cancer genes such as BRCA1/2, CHEK2 and RAD51C is common practice for individuals from high-risk families. However, test results may be ambiguous due to the presence of unclassified variants (UCV) in the concurrent absence of clearly cancer-predisposing mutations. Especially the presence of intronic or exonic variants within these genes that possibly affect proper pre-mRNA processing poses a challenge as their functional implications are not immediately apparent. Therefore, it appears necessary to characterize potential splicing UCV and to develop appropriate classification tools. We investigated 30 distinct BRCA1 variants, both intronic and exonic, regarding their spliceogenic potential by commonly used in silico prediction algorithms (HSF, MaxEntScan) along with in vitro transcript analyses. A total of 25 variants were identified spliceogenic, either causing/enhancing exon skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites, or both. Except from a single intronic variant causing minor effects on BRCA1 pre-mRNA processing in our analyses, 23 out of 24 intronic variants were correctly predicted by MaxEntScan, while HSF was less accurate in this cohort. Among the 6 exonic variants analyzed, 4 severely impair correct pre-mRNA processing, while the remaining two have partial effects. In contrast to the intronic alterations investigated, only half of the spliceogenic exonic variants were correctly predicted by HSF and/or MaxEntScan. These data support the idea that exonic splicing mutations are commonly disease-causing and concurrently prone to escape in silico prediction, hence necessitating experimental in vitro splicing analysis. PMID:23239986

Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Becker, Alexandra A; Hauke, Jan; Weber, Ute; Engert, Stefanie; Köhler, Juliane; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Rhiem, Kerstin; Hahnen, Eric; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K

2012-01-01

119

Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) rapidly identified a critical missense mutation (P236T) of bovine ACADVL gene affecting growth traits.  

PubMed

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL), encoding ACADVL protein, targets the inner mitochondrial membrane where it catalyzes the first step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway and plays an important role in body metabolism and oxidation of long chain fatty acid releasing energy. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) is an easy-to-operate, rapid, inexpensive, and exact method for SNP genotyping. Herein, T-ARMS-PCR was carried out to detect a critical missense mutation (AC_000176:g.2885C>A; Pro236Thr) within the ACADVL gene in 644 individuals from two cattle breeds. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the T-ARMS-PCR at this locus, the genotype of the sampled individuals was also identified by PCR-RFLP. The concordance between these two methods was 98.76%. Statistical analysis showed that the bovine ACADVL gene had a significant effect on chest width (P<0.05), chest depth (P<0.05), and hip width (P<0.05) in the Qinchuan breed. The cattle with AA genotype had superior growth traits compared to cattle with AC and/or CC genotypes. The "A" allele had positive effects on growth traits. Therefore, T-ARMS-PCR can replace PCR-RFLP for rapid genotyping of this mutation, which could be used as a DNA marker for selecting individuals with superior growth traits in the Qinchuan breed. These findings contribute to breeding and genetics in beef cattle industry. PMID:25620159

Zhang, Sihuan; Dang, Yonglong; Zhang, Qingfeng; Qin, Qiaomei; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

2015-04-01

120

Assessment of canine BEST1 variations identifies new mutations and establishes an independent bestrophinopathy model (cmr3)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Mutations in bestrophin 1 (BEST1) are associated with a group of retinal disorders known as bestrophinopathies in man and canine multifocal retinopathies (cmr) in the dog. To date, the dog is the only large animal model suitable for the complex characterization and in-depth studies of Best-related disorders. In the first report of cmr, the disease was described in a group of mastiff-related breeds (cmr1) and the Coton de Tulear (cmr2). Additional breeds, e.g., the Lapponian herder (LH) and others, subsequently were recognized with similar phenotypes, but linked loci are unknown. Analysis of the BEST1 gene aimed to identify mutations in these additional populations and extend our understanding of genotype–phenotype associations. Methods Animals were subjected to routine eye exams, phenotypically characterized, and samples were collected for molecular studies. Known BEST1 mutations were assessed, and the canine BEST1 coding exons were amplified and sequenced in selected individuals that exhibited a cmr compatible phenotype but that did not carry known mutations. Resulting sequence changes were genotyped in several different breeds and evaluated in the context of the phenotype. Results Seven novel coding variants were identified in exon 10 of cBEST1. Two linked mutations were associated with cmr exclusive to the LH breed (cmr3). Two individuals of Jämthund and Norfolk terrier breeds were heterozygous for two conservative changes, but these were unlikely to have disease-causing potential. Another three substitutions were found in the Bernese mountain dog that were predicted to have a deleterious effect on protein function. Previously reported mutations were excluded from segregation in these populations, but cmr1 was confirmed in another mastiff-related breed, the Italian cane corso. Conclusions A third independent canine model for human bestrophinopathies has been established in the LH breed. While exhibiting a phenotype comparable to cmr1 and cmr2, the novel cmr3 mutation is predicted to be based on a distinctly different molecular mechanism. So far cmr2 and cmr3 are exclusive to a single dog breed each. In contrast, cmr1 is found in multiple related breeds. Additional sequence alterations identified in exon 10 of cBEST1 in other breeds exhibit potential disease-causing features. The inherent genetic and phenotypic variation observed with retinal disorders in canines is complicated further by cmr3 being one of four distinct genetic retinal traits found to segregate in LH. Thus, a combination of phenotypic, molecular, and population analysis is required to establish a strong phenotype–genotype association. These results indicate that cmr has a larger impact on the general dog population than was initially suspected. The complexity of these models further confirms the similarity to human bestrophinopathies. Moreover, analyses of multiple canine models will provide additional insight into the molecular basis underlying diseases caused by mutations in BEST1. PMID:21197113

Wickström, Kaisa; Slavik, Julianna; Lindauer, Sarah J.; Ahonen, Saija; Schelling, Claude; Lohi, Hannes; Guziewicz, Karina E.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

2010-01-01

121

A Novel Forward Genetic Screen for Identifying Mutations Affecting Larval Neuronal Dendrite Development in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate and invertebrate dendrites are information-processing compartments that can be found on both central and peripheral neurons. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of information processing in the nervous system ultimately requires an understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate dendrite formation and maintenance. Despite the importance of dendrite development, few forward genetic approaches have been used to analyze the latest stages of dendrite development, including the formation of F-actin-rich dendritic filopodia or dendritic spines. We developed a forward genetic screen utilizing transgenic Drosophila second instar larvae expressing an actin, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (actin?GFP) in subsets of sensory neurons. Utilizing this fluorescent transgenic reporter, we conducted a forward genetic screen of >4000 mutagenized chromosomes bearing lethal mutations that affected multiple aspects of larval dendrite development. We isolated 13 mutations on the X and second chromosomes composing 11 complementation groups affecting dendrite outgrowth/branching, dendritic filopodia formation, or actin?GFP localization within dendrites in vivo. In a fortuitous observation, we observed that the structure of dendritic arborization (da) neuron dendritic filopodia changes in response to a changing environment. PMID:16415365

Medina, Paul Mark B.; Swick, Lance L.; Andersen, Ryan; Blalock, Zachary; Brenman, Jay E.

2006-01-01

122

Whole exome sequencing and functional studies identify an intronic mutation in TRAPPC2 that causes SEDT.  

PubMed

Skeletal dysplasias are challenging to diagnose because of their phenotypic variability, genetic heterogeneity, and diverse inheritance patterns. We conducted whole exome sequencing of a Turkish male with a suspected X-linked skeletal dysplasia of unknown etiology as well as his unaffected mother and maternal uncle. Bioinformatic filtering of variants implicated in skeletal system development revealed a novel hemizygous mutation, c.341-(11_9)delAAT, in an intron of TRAPPC2, the causative locus of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SEDT). We show that this deletion leads to the loss of wild-type TRAPPC2 and the generation of two functionally impaired mRNAs in patient cells. These consequences are predicted to disrupt function of SEDLIN/TRAPPC2. The clinical and research data were returned, with appropriate caveats, to the patient and informed his disease status and reproductive choices. Our findings expand the allelic repertoire of SEDT and show how prior filtering of the morbid human genome informed by inheritance pattern and phenotype, when combined with appropriate functional tests in patient-derived cells, can expedite discovery, overcome issues of missing data and help interpret variants of unknown significance. Finally, this example shows how the return of a clinically confirmed mutational finding, supported by research allele pathogenicity data, can assist individuals with inherited disorders with life choices. PMID:23656395

Davis, E E; Savage, J H; Willer, J R; Jiang, Y-H; Angrist, M; Androutsopoulos, A; Katsanis, N

2014-04-01

123

FixingTIM: interactive exploration of sequence and structural data to identify functional mutations in protein families  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the 3D structure and functionality of proteins can lead to insight into the associated cellular processes, speed up the creation of pharmaceutical products, and develop drugs that are more effective in combating disease. Methods We present the design and implementation of a visual mining and analysis tool to help identify protein mutations across a family of structural models and to help discover the effect of these mutations on protein function. We integrate 3D structure and sequence information in a common visual interface; multiple linked views and a computational backbone allow comparison at the molecular and atomic levels, while a novel trend-image visual abstraction allows for the sorting and mining of large collections of sequences and of their residues. Results We evaluate our approach on the triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) family structural models and sequence data and show that our tool provides an effective, scalable way to navigate a family of proteins, as well as a means to inspect the structure and sequence of individual proteins. Conclusions The TIM application shows that our tool can assist in the navigation of families of proteins, as well as in the exploration of individual protein structures. In conjunction with domain expert knowledge, this interactive tool can help provide biophysical insight into why specific mutations affect function and potentially suggest additional modifications to the protein that could be used to rescue functionality. PMID:25237390

2014-01-01

124

Erythrocyte Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation identified in multiple breeds of domestic cats  

PubMed Central

Background Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK deficiency) is an inherited hemolytic anemia that has been documented in the Abyssinian and Somali breeds as well as random bred domestic shorthair cats. The disease results from mutations in PKLR, the gene encoding the regulatory glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK). Multiple isozymes are produced by tissue-specific differential processing of PKLR mRNA. Perturbation of PK decreases erythrocyte longevity resulting in anemia. Additional signs include: severe lethargy, weakness, weight loss, jaundice, and abdominal enlargement. In domestic cats, PK deficiency has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance with high variability in onset and severity of clinical symptoms. Results Sequence analysis of PKLR revealed an intron 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 304 concordant with the disease phenotype in Abyssinian and Somali cats. Located 53 nucleotides upstream of the exon 6 splice site, cats with this SNP produce liver and blood processed mRNA with a 13 bp deletion at the 3’ end of exon 5. The frame-shift mutation creates a stop codon at amino acid position 248 in exon 6. The frequency of the intronic SNP in 14,179 American and European cats representing 38 breeds, 76 western random bred cats and 111 cats of unknown breed is 6.31% and 9.35% when restricted to the 15 groups carrying the concordant SNP. Conclusions PK testing is recommended for Bengals, Egyptian Maus, La Perms, Maine Coon cats, Norwegian Forest cats, Savannahs, Siberians, and Singapuras, in addition to Abyssinians and Somalis as well an any new breeds using the afore mentioned breeds in out crossing or development programs. PMID:23110753

2012-01-01

125

QTL Analysis Identifies a Modifier Locus of Aganglionosis in the Rat Model of Hirschsprung Disease Carrying Ednrbsl Mutations  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) exhibits complex genetics with incomplete penetrance and variable severity thought to result as a consequence of multiple gene interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate the developing gut. As reported previously, when the same null mutation of the Ednrb gene, Ednrbsl, was introgressed into the F344 strain, almost 60% of F344-Ednrbsl/sl pups did not show any symptoms of aganglionosis, appearing healthy and normally fertile. These findings strongly suggested that the severity of HSCR was affected by strain-specific genetic factor (s). In this study, the genetic basis of such large strain differences in the severity of aganglionosis in the rat model was studied by whole-genome scanning for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using an intercross of (AGH-Ednrbsl×F344-Ednrbsl) F1 with the varying severity of aganglionosis. Genome linkage analysis identified one significant QTL on chromosome 2 for the severity of aganglionosis. Our QTL analyses using rat models of HSCR revealed that multiple genetic factors regulated the severity of aganglionosis. Moreover, a known HSCR susceptibility gene, Gdnf, was found in QTL that suggested a novel non-coding sequence mutation in GDNF that modifies the penetrance and severity of the aganglionosis phenotype in EDNRB-deficient rats. A further identification and analysis of responsible genes located on the identified QTL could lead to the richer understanding of the genetic basis of HSCR development. PMID:22132166

Dang, Ruihua; Torigoe, Daisuke; Sasaki, Nobuya; Agui, Takashi

2011-01-01

126

Exome sequencing identifies a recurrent de novo ZSWIM6 mutation associated with acromelic frontonasal dysostosis.  

PubMed

Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis (AFND) is a rare disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial, brain, and limb malformations, including frontonasal dysplasia, interhemispheric lipoma, agenesis of the corpus callosum, tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly of the feet, and intellectual disability. Exome sequencing of one trio and two unrelated probands revealed the same heterozygous variant (c.3487C>T [p. Arg1163Trp]) in a highly conserved protein domain of ZSWIM6; this variant has not been seen in the 1000 Genomes data, dbSNP, or the Exome Sequencing Project. Sanger validation of the three trios confirmed that the variant was de novo and was also present in a fourth isolated proband. In situ hybridization of early zebrafish embryos at 24 hr postfertilization (hpf) demonstrated telencephalic expression of zswim6 and onset of midbrain, hindbrain, and retinal expression at 48 hpf. Immunohistochemistry of later-stage mouse embryos demonstrated tissue-specific expression in the derivatives of all three germ layers. qRT-PCR expression analysis of osteoblast and fibroblast cell lines available from two probands was suggestive of Hedgehog pathway activation, indicating that the ZSWIM6 mutation associated with AFND may lead to the craniofacial, brain and limb malformations through the disruption of Hedgehog signaling. PMID:25105228

Smith, Joshua D; Hing, Anne V; Clarke, Christine M; Johnson, Nathan M; Perez, Francisco A; Park, Sarah S; Horst, Jeremy A; Mecham, Brig; Maves, Lisa; Nickerson, Deborah A; Cunningham, Michael L

2014-08-01

127

Exome Sequencing Identifies a Recurrent De Novo ZSWIM6 Mutation Associated with Acromelic Frontonasal Dysostosis  

PubMed Central

Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis (AFND) is a rare disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial, brain, and limb malformations, including frontonasal dysplasia, interhemispheric lipoma, agenesis of the corpus callosum, tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly of the feet, and intellectual disability. Exome sequencing of one trio and two unrelated probands revealed the same heterozygous variant (c.3487C>T [p. Arg1163Trp]) in a highly conserved protein domain of ZSWIM6; this variant has not been seen in the 1000 Genomes data, dbSNP, or the Exome Sequencing Project. Sanger validation of the three trios confirmed that the variant was de novo and was also present in a fourth isolated proband. In situ hybridization of early zebrafish embryos at 24 hr postfertilization (hpf) demonstrated telencephalic expression of zswim6 and onset of midbrain, hindbrain, and retinal expression at 48 hpf. Immunohistochemistry of later-stage mouse embryos demonstrated tissue-specific expression in the derivatives of all three germ layers. qRT-PCR expression analysis of osteoblast and fibroblast cell lines available from two probands was suggestive of Hedgehog pathway activation, indicating that the ZSWIM6 mutation associated with AFND may lead to the craniofacial, brain and limb malformations through the disruption of Hedgehog signaling. PMID:25105228

Smith, Joshua D.; Hing, Anne V.; Clarke, Christine M.; Johnson, Nathan M.; Perez, Francisco A.; Park, Sarah S.; Horst, Jeremy A.; Mecham, Brig; Maves, Lisa; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Michael L.

2014-01-01

128

Jejunal Cancer with WRN Mutation Identified from Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Study and Minireview  

PubMed Central

Small bowel cancer is a rare, gastrointestinal cancer originating from the small intestines. Carcinogenesis in the jejunum, the middle segment of the small intestines, occurs less commonly than in the duodenum and ileum. Despite the increasing incidences globally, the cancer is still poorly understood, which includes lack of pathological understanding and etiological reasoning, as it seems to exhibit both similarities and differences with other types of cancers. A 76-year-old Asian man was presented with abdominal pain, which was later attributed to an adenocarcinoma in the jejunum. Initial immunoreactive staining results found no connections to colorectal cancer. The microsatellite instability test was further examined by immunohistochemistry which revealed them to be wild-type. From our exome-capture sequencing results, mutations of WRN may be important as they represent the only genetic defect in this jejunal cancer. The patient has since undergone surgical resection of his cancer and is currently being treated with chemotherapy. The pathology, genomic markers, and treatments are described along with literature review. PMID:25018888

Chang, Christopher; Shiah, Her-Shyong; Hsu, Nan-Yung; Huang, Hsiu-Ying; Chu, Jan-Show; Yen, Yun

2014-01-01

129

Identifying disease mutations in genomic medicine settings: current challenges and how to accelerate progress  

PubMed Central

The pace of exome and genome sequencing is accelerating, with the identification of many new disease-causing mutations in research settings, and it is likely that whole exome or genome sequencing could have a major impact in the clinical arena in the relatively near future. However, the human genomics community is currently facing several challenges, including phenotyping, sample collection, sequencing strategies, bioinformatics analysis, biological validation of variant function, clinical interpretation and validity of variant data, and delivery of genomic information to various constituents. Here we review these challenges and summarize the bottlenecks for the clinical application of exome and genome sequencing, and we discuss ways for moving the field forward. In particular, we urge the need for clinical-grade sample collection, high-quality sequencing data acquisition, digitalized phenotyping, rigorous generation of variant calls, and comprehensive functional annotation of variants. Additionally, we suggest that a 'networking of science' model that encourages much more collaboration and online sharing of medical history, genomic data and biological knowledge, including among research participants and consumers/patients, will help establish causation and penetrance for disease causal variants and genes. As we enter this new era of genomic medicine, we envision that consumer-driven and consumer-oriented efforts will take center stage, thus allowing insights from the human genome project to translate directly back into individualized medicine. PMID:22830651

2012-01-01

130

A novel VSX1 mutation identified in an individual with keratoconus in India  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the possible role of the VSX1 gene in a group of patients from the Indian subcontinent with keratoconus. Methods Molecular analysis of 66 patients with a diagnosis of keratoconus, based on clinical examination and corneal topography, was carried out. DNA extraction from peripheral blood followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of the VSX1 gene was performed. The entire coding region and the exon–intron junctions of the VSX1 gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results A novel change at c.525G>C, replacing amino acid glutamine at position 175 with histidine, was found in one affected individual. One of the previously reported SNPs (rs12480307) was found with equal frequency in both patients and controls. Conclusions This is the first report from the Indian subcontinent exploring the role of VSX1 in the causation of keratoconus. One novel mutation (Q175H) predicted to be a potentially damaging change was seen in an affected individual; this substantiates the importance of this gene but its precise role in disease causation needs further investigation. PMID:19956409

Paliwal, Preeti; Singh, Anuradha; Tandon, Radhika; Titiyal, Jeevan S

2009-01-01

131

Tomato tos1 mutation identifies a gene essential for osmotic tolerance and abscisic acid sensitivity  

E-print Network

stress severely limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. We have used mutagenesis to identify stresses. Characterisation of tss2 suggested that signalling by the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA) is important for salt and/or osmotic plant tolerance, because tss2 is hypersensitive to growth inh

Málaga, Universidad de

132

Exome-wide rare variant analysis identifies TUBA4A mutations associated with familial ALS.  

PubMed

Exome sequencing is an effective strategy for identifying human disease genes. However, this methodology is difficult in late-onset diseases where limited availability of DNA from informative family members prohibits comprehensive segregation analysis. To overcome this limitation, we performed an exome-wide rare variant burden analysis of 363 index cases with familial ALS (FALS). The results revealed an excess of patient variants within TUBA4A, the gene encoding the Tubulin, Alpha 4A protein. Analysis of a further 272 FALS cases and 5,510 internal controls confirmed the overrepresentation as statistically significant and replicable. Functional analyses revealed that TUBA4A mutants destabilize the microtubule network, diminishing its repolymerization capability. These results further emphasize the role of cytoskeletal defects in ALS and demonstrate the power of gene-based rare variant analyses in situations where causal genes cannot be identified through traditional segregation analysis. PMID:25374358

Smith, Bradley N; Ticozzi, Nicola; Fallini, Claudia; Gkazi, Athina Soragia; Topp, Simon; Kenna, Kevin P; Scotter, Emma L; Kost, Jason; Keagle, Pamela; Miller, Jack W; Calini, Daniela; Vance, Caroline; Danielson, Eric W; Troakes, Claire; Tiloca, Cinzia; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Lewis, Elizabeth A; King, Andrew; Colombrita, Claudia; Pensato, Viviana; Castellotti, Barbara; de Belleroche, Jacqueline; Baas, Frank; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L M A; Sapp, Peter C; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; McLaughlin, Russell L; Polak, Meraida; Asress, Seneshaw; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; Muñoz-Blanco, José Luis; Simpson, Michael; van Rheenen, Wouter; Diekstra, Frank P; Lauria, Giuseppe; Duga, Stefano; Corti, Stefania; Cereda, Cristina; Corrado, Lucia; Sorarù, Gianni; Morrison, Karen E; Williams, Kelly L; Nicholson, Garth A; Blair, Ian P; Dion, Patrick A; Leblond, Claire S; Rouleau, Guy A; Hardiman, Orla; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Pall, Hardev; Shaw, Pamela J; Turner, Martin R; Talbot, Kevin; Taroni, Franco; García-Redondo, Alberto; Wu, Zheyang; Glass, Jonathan D; Gellera, Cinzia; Ratti, Antonia; Brown, Robert H; Silani, Vincenzo; Shaw, Christopher E; Landers, John E

2014-10-22

133

Characterization of mutations in the CPO gene in British patients demonstrates absence of genotype-phenotype correlation and identifies relationship between hereditary coproporphyria and harderoporphyria.  

PubMed

Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is the least common of the autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias. It results from mutations in the CPO gene that encodes the mitochondrial enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase. A few patients have also been reported who are homoallellic or heteroallelic for CPO mutations and are clinically distinct from those with HCP. In such patients the presence of a specific mutation (K404E) on one or both alleles produces a neonatal hemolytic anemia that is known as "harderoporphyria"; mutations on both alleles elsewhere in the gene give rise to the "homozygous" variant of HCP. The molecular relationship between these disorders and HCP has not been defined. We describe the molecular investigation and clinical features of 17 unrelated British patients with HCP. Ten novel and four previously reported CPO mutations, together with three previously unrecognized single-nucleotide polymorphisms, were identified in 15 of the 17 patients. HCP is more heterogeneous than other acute porphyrias, with all but one mutation being restricted to a single family, with a predominance of missense mutations (10 missense, 2 nonsense, 1 frameshift, and 1 splice site). Of the four known mutations, one (R331W) has previously been reported to cause disease only in homozygotes. Heterologous expression of another mutation (R401W) demonstrated functional properties similar to those of the K404E harderoporphyria mutation. In all patients, clinical presentation was uniform, in spite of the wide range (1%-64%) of residual coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity, as determined by heterologous expression. Our findings add substantially to knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of HCP, show that single copies of CPO mutations that are known or predicted to cause "homozygous" HCP or harderoporphyria can produce typical HCP in adults, and demonstrate that the severity of the phenotype does not correlate with the degree of inactivation by mutation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase. PMID:11309681

Lamoril, J; Puy, H; Whatley, S D; Martin, C; Woolf, J R; Da Silva, V; Deybach, J C; Elder, G H

2001-05-01

134

Characterization of Mutations in the CPO Gene in British Patients Demonstrates Absence of Genotype-Phenotype Correlation and Identifies Relationship between Hereditary Coproporphyria and Harderoporphyria  

PubMed Central

Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is the least common of the autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias. It results from mutations in the CPO gene that encodes the mitochondrial enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase. A few patients have also been reported who are homoallellic or heteroallelic for CPO mutations and are clinically distinct from those with HCP. In such patients the presence of a specific mutation (K404E) on one or both alleles produces a neonatal hemolytic anemia that is known as “harderoporphyria”; mutations on both alleles elsewhere in the gene give rise to the “homozygous” variant of HCP. The molecular relationship between these disorders and HCP has not been defined. We describe the molecular investigation and clinical features of 17 unrelated British patients with HCP. Ten novel and four previously reported CPO mutations, together with three previously unrecognized single-nucleotide polymorphisms, were identified in 15 of the 17 patients. HCP is more heterogeneous than other acute porphyrias, with all but one mutation being restricted to a single family, with a predominance of missense mutations (10 missense, 2 nonsense, 1 frameshift, and 1 splice site). Of the four known mutations, one (R331W) has previously been reported to cause disease only in homozygotes. Heterologous expression of another mutation (R401W) demonstrated functional properties similar to those of the K404E harderoporphyria mutation. In all patients, clinical presentation was uniform, in spite of the wide range (1%–64%) of residual coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity, as determined by heterologous expression. Our findings add substantially to knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of HCP, show that single copies of CPO mutations that are known or predicted to cause “homozygous” HCP or harderoporphyria can produce typical HCP in adults, and demonstrate that the severity of the phenotype does not correlate with the degree of inactivation by mutation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase. PMID:11309681

Lamoril, Jérôme; Puy, Hervé; Whatley, Sharon D.; Martin, Caroline; Woolf, Jacqueline R.; Da Silva, Vasco; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Elder, George H.

2001-01-01

135

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic mutations in EIF1AX and SF3B1 in uveal melanoma with disomy 3  

PubMed Central

Gene expression profiles and chromosome 3 copy number divide uveal melanomas into two distinct classes correlating with prognosis1–3. Using exome sequencing, we identified recurrent somatic mutations in EIF1AX and SF3B1, specifically occurring in uveal melanomas with disomy 3, which rarely metastasize. Targeted resequencing showed that 24 of 31 tumors with disomy 3 (77%) had mutations in either EIF1AX (15; 48%) or SF3B1 (9; 29%). Mutations were infrequent (2/35; 5.7%) in uveal melanomas with monosomy 3, which are associated with poor prognosis2. Resequencing of 13 uveal melanomas with partial monosomy 3 identified 8 tumors with a mutation in either SF3B1 (7; 54%) or EIF1AX (1; 8%). All EIF1AX mutations caused in-frame changes affecting the N terminus of the protein, whereas 17 of 19 SF3B1 mutations encoded an alteration of Arg625. Resequencing of ten uveal melanomas with disomy 3 that developed metastases identified SF3B1 mutations in three tumors, none of which targeted Arg625. PMID:23793026

Martin, Marcel; Maßhöfer, Lars; Temming, Petra; Rahmann, Sven; Metz, Claudia; Bornfeld, Norbert; van de Nes, Johannes; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Zeschnigk, Michael

2014-01-01

136

Novel prognostic gene mutations identified in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and their impact on clinical practice.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by progressive accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, liver, and lymphoid organs. Although most patients with CLL have an insidious clinical course, a subset of cases present with fast evolution and chemotherapy resistance, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Few clinically validated prognostic markers, such as TP53, are available for use in clinical practice to guide treatment decisions. Recently, several novel prognostically relevant molecular markers have been identified in CLL. We conducted a narrative literature review of the latest findings to evaluate the potential inclusion of these markers in the management of CLL cases. PMID:24548608

Campregher, Paulo Vidal; Hamerschlak, Nelson

2014-08-01

137

Mutational Analysis of the Yeast TRAPP Subunit Trs20p Identifies Roles in Endocytic Recycling and Sporulation  

PubMed Central

Trs20p is a subunit of the evolutionarily conserved TRAPP (TRAnsport Protein Particle) complex that mediates various aspects of membrane trafficking. Three TRAPP complexes have been identified in yeast with roles in ER-to-Golgi trafficking, post-Golgi and endosomal-to-Golgi transport and in autophagy. The role of Trs20p, which is essential for viability and a component of all three complexes, and how it might function within each TRAPP complex, has not been clarified to date. To begin to address the role of Trs20p we generated different mutants by random mutagenesis but, surprisingly, no defects were observed in diverse anterograde transport pathways or general secretion in Trs20 temperature-sensitive mutants. Instead, mutation of Trs20 led to defects in endocytic recycling and a block in sporulation/meiosis. The phenotypes of different mutants appear to be separable suggesting that the mutations affect the function of Trs20 in different TRAPP complexes. PMID:23049729

Mahfouz, Hichem; Ragnini-Wilson, Antonella; Venditti, Rossella; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Wilson, Cathal

2012-01-01

138

Exome sequencing identifies frequent mutation of the SWI/SNF complex gene PBRM1 in renal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The genetics of renal cancer is dominated by inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the commonest histological subtype. A recent large-scale screen of ?3,500 genes by PCR-based exon re-sequencing identified several new cancer genes in ccRCC including UTX (also known as KDM6A), JARID1C (also known as KDM5C) and SETD2 (ref. 2). These genes encode enzymes that demethylate (UTX, JARID1C) or methylate (SETD2) key lysine residues of histone H3. Modification of the methylation state of these lysine residues of histone H3 regulates chromatin structure and is implicated in transcriptional control. However, together these mutations are present in fewer than 15% of ccRCC, suggesting the existence of additional, currently unidentified cancer genes. Here, we have sequenced the protein coding exome in a series of primary ccRCC and report the identification of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene PBRM1 (ref. 4) as a second major ccRCC cancer gene, with truncating mutations in 41% (92/227) of cases. These data further elucidate the somatic genetic architecture of ccRCC and emphasize the marked contribution of aberrant chromatin biology. PMID:21248752

Varela, Ignacio; Tarpey, Patrick; Raine, Keiran; Huang, Dachuan; Ong, Choon Kiat; Stephens, Philip; Davies, Helen; Jones, David; Lin, Meng-Lay; Teague, Jon; Bignell, Graham; Butler, Adam; Cho, Juok; Dalgliesh, Gillian L; Galappaththige, Danushka; Greenman, Chris; Hardy, Claire; Jia, Mingming; Latimer, Calli; Lau, King Wai; Marshall, John; McLaren, Stuart; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Stebbings, Lucy; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, L F A; Richard, Stephane; Kahnoski, Richard J; Anema, John; Tuveson, David A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Mustonen, Ville; Fischer, Andrej; Adams, David J; Rust, Alistair; Chan-on, Waraporn; Subimerb, Chutima; Dykema, Karl; Furge, Kyle; Campbell, Peter J; Teh, Bin Tean; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

2011-01-27

139

Combined NGS Approaches Identify Mutations in the Intraflagellar Transport Gene IFT140 in Skeletal Ciliopathies with Early Progressive Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Ciliopathies are genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by variable expressivity and overlaps between different disease entities. This is exemplified by the short rib-polydactyly syndromes, Jeune, Sensenbrenner, and Mainzer-Saldino chondrodysplasia syndromes. These three syndromes are frequently caused by mutations in intraflagellar transport (IFT) genes affecting the primary cilia, which play a crucial role in skeletal and chondral development. Here, we identified mutations in IFT140, an IFT complex A gene, in five Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) and two Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MSS) families, by screening a cohort of 66 JATD/MSS patients using whole exome sequencing and targeted resequencing of a customized ciliopathy gene panel. We also found an enrichment of rare IFT140 alleles in JATD compared with nonciliopathy diseases, implying putative modifier effects for certain alleles. IFT140 patients presented with mild chest narrowing, but all had end-stage renal failure under 13 years of age and retinal dystrophy when examined for ocular dysfunction. This is consistent with the severe cystic phenotype of Ift140 conditional knockout mice, and the higher level of Ift140 expression in kidney and retina compared with the skeleton at E15.5 in the mouse. IFT140 is therefore a major cause of cono-renal syndromes (JATD and MSS). The present study strengthens the rationale for IFT140 screening in skeletal ciliopathy spectrum patients that have kidney disease and/or retinal dystrophy. PMID:23418020

Schmidts, Miriam; Frank, Valeska; Eisenberger, Tobias; al Turki, Saeed; Bizet, Albane A.; Antony, Dinu; Rix, Suzanne; Decker, Christian; Bachmann, Nadine; Bald, Martin; Vinke, Tobias; Toenshoff, Burkhard; Donato, Natalia Di; Neuhann, Theresa; Hartley, Jane L.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Bogdanovi?, Radovan; Peco-Anti?, Amira; Mache, Christoph; Hurles, Matthew E.; Joksi?, Ivana; Gu?-Š?eki?, Marija; Dobricic, Jelena; Brankovic-Magic, Mirjana; Bolz, Hanno J.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Beales, Philip L.; Scambler, Peter J.; Saunier, Sophie; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Bergmann, Carsten

2014-01-01

140

Exome sequencing identifies frequent mutation of the SWI/SNF complex gene PBRM1 in renal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Summary The genetics of renal cancer is dominated by inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the commonest histological subtype. A recent large-scale screen of ~3500 genes by PCR-based exon re-sequencing identified several new cancer genes in ccRCC including UTX (KDM6A)1, JARID1C (KDM5C) and SETD22. These genes encode enzymes that demethylate (UTX, JARID1C) or methylate (SETD2) key lysine residues of histone H3. Modification of the methylation state of these lysine residues of histone H3 regulates chromatin structure and is implicated in transcriptional control3. However, together these mutations are present in fewer than 15% of ccRCC, suggesting the existence of additional, currently unidentified cancer genes. Here, we have sequenced the protein coding exome in a series of primary ccRCC and report the identification of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex gene PBRM14 as a second major ccRCC cancer gene, with truncating mutations in 41% (92/227) of cases. These data further elucidate the somatic genetic architecture of ccRCC and emphasize the marked contribution of aberrant chromatin biology. PMID:21248752

Varela, Ignacio; Tarpey, Patrick; Raine, Keiran; Huang, Dachuan; Ong, Choon Kiat; Stephens, Philip; Davies, Helen; Jones, David; Lin, Meng-Lay; Teague, Jon; Bignell, Graham; Butler, Adam; Cho, Juok; Dalgliesh, Gillian L.; Galappaththige, Danushka; Greenman, Chris; Hardy, Claire; Jia, Mingming; Latimer, Calli; Lau, King Wai; Marshall, John; McLaren, Stuart; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Stebbings, Lucy; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Richard, Stephane; Kahnoski, Richard J; Anema, John; Tuveson, David A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Mustonen, Ville; Fischer, Andrej; Adams, David J.; Rust, Alistair; Chan-on, Waraporn; Subimerb, Chutima; Dykema, Karl; Furge, Kyle; Campbell, Peter J.; Teh, Bin Tean; Stratton, Michael R.; Futreal, P. Andrew

2010-01-01

141

Next-generation sequencing of acute myeloid leukemia identifies the significance of TP53, U2AF1, ASXL1, and TET2 mutations.  

PubMed

We assessed the frequency and clinicopathologic significance of 19 genes currently identified as significantly mutated in myeloid neoplasms, RUNX1, ASXL1, TET2, CEBPA, IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, FLT3, NPM1, TP53, NRAS, EZH2, CBL, U2AF1, SF3B1, SRSF2, JAK2, CSF3R, and SETBP1, across 93 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Of these cases, 79% showed at least one nonsynonymous mutation, and cases of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities showed a lower frequency of mutations versus AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (P<0.001). Mutational analysis further demonstrated that TP53 mutations are associated with complex karyotype AML, whereas ASXL1 and U2AF1 mutations are associated with AML with myelodysplasia-related changes. Furthermore, U2AF1 mutations were specifically associated with trilineage morphologic dysplasia. Univariate analysis demonstrated that U2AF1 and TP53 mutations are associated with absence of clinical remission, poor overall survival (OS), and poor disease-free survival (DFS; P<0.0001), whereas TET2 and ASXL1 mutations are associated with poor OS (P<0.03). In multivariate analysis, U2AF1 and TP53 mutations retained independent prognostic significance in OS and DFS, respectively. Our results demonstrate unique relationships between mutations in AML, clinicopathologic prognosis, subtype categorization, and morphologic dysplasia.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 21 November 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.160. PMID:25412851

Ohgami, Robert S; Ma, Lisa; Merker, Jason D; Gotlib, Jason R; Schrijver, Iris; Zehnder, James L; Arber, Daniel A

2014-11-21

142

Driver mutations among never smoking female lung cancer tissues in China identify unique EGFR and KRAS mutation pattern associated with household coal burning  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer in never smokers, which has been partially attributed to household solid fuel use (i.e coal), is etiologically and clinically different from lung cancer attributed to tobacco smoking. To explore the spectrum of driver mutations among lung cancer tissues from never smokers, specifically in a population where high lung cancer rates have been attributed to indoor air pollution from domestic coal use, multiplexed assays were used to detect >40 point mutations, insertions, and deletions (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, AKT1, and PTEN) among the lung tumors of confirmed never smoking females from Xuanwei, China [32 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 7 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 1 adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSC)]. EGFR mutations were detected in 35% of tumors. 46% of these involved EGFR exon 18 G719X, while 14% were exon 21 L858R mutations. KRAS mutations, all of which were G12C_34G>T, were observed in 15% of tumors. EGFR and KRAS mutations were mutually exclusive, and no mutations were observed in the other tested genes. Most point mutations were transversions and were also found in tumors from patients who used coal in their homes. Our high mutation frequencies in EGFR exon 18 and KRAS and low mutation frequency in EGFR exon 21 are strikingly divergent from those in other smoking and never smoking populations from Asia. Given that our subjects live in a region where coal is typically burned indoors, our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of lung cancer among never smoking females exposed to indoor air pollution from coal. PMID:24055406

Hosgood, H. Dean; Pao, William; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hu, Wei; Pan, Yumei Helen; Kuchinsky, Kyle; Jones, Kirk D.; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; Simko, Jeff; Lan, Qing

2013-01-01

143

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 mutations in melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed exome sequencing to detect somatic mutations in protein-coding regions in seven melanoma cell lines and donor-matched germline cells. All melanoma samples had high numbers of somatic mutations, which showed the hallmark of UV-induced DNA repair. Such a hallmark was absent in tumor sample–specific mutations in two metastases derived from the same individual. Two melanomas with non-canonical BRAF mutations

Christian Iseli; Armand Valsesia; Daniel Robyr; Corinne Gehrig; Keith Harshman; Michel Guipponi; Olesya Bukach; Vincent Zoete; Olivier Michielin; Katja Muehlethaler; Daniel Speiser; Jacques S Beckmann; Ioannis Xenarios; Thanos D Halazonetis; C Victor Jongeneel; Brian J Stevenson; Sergey I Nikolaev; Donata Rimoldi; Stylianos E Antonarakis

2011-01-01

144

Whole exome sequencing identifies a POLRID mutation segregating in a father and two daughters with findings of Klippel-Feil and Treacher Collins syndromes.  

PubMed

We report on a father and his two daughters diagnosed with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) but with craniofacial differences (zygomatic and mandibular hypoplasia and cleft palate) and external ear abnormalities suggestive of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The diagnosis of KFS was favored, given that the neck anomalies were the predominant manifestations, and that the diagnosis predated later recognition of the association between spinal segmentation abnormalities and TCS. Genetic heterogeneity and the rarity of large families with KFS have limited the ability to identify mutations by traditional methods. Whole exome sequencing identified a nonsynonymous mutation in POLR1D (subunit of RNA polymerase I and II): exon2:c.T332C:p.L111P. Mutations in POLR1D are present in about 5% of individuals diagnosed with TCS. We propose that this mutation is causal in this family, suggesting a pathogenetic link between KFS and TCS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25348728

Giampietro, Philip F; Armstrong, Linlea; Stoddard, Alex; Blank, Robert D; Livingston, Janet; Raggio, Cathy L; Rasmussen, Kristen; Pickart, Michael; Lorier, Rachel; Turner, Amy; Sund, Sarah; Sobrera, Nara; Neptune, Enid; Sweetser, David; Santiago-Cornier, Alberto; Broeckel, Ulrich

2015-01-01

145

Whole-exome sequencing identifies a de novo TUBA1A mutation in a patient with sporadic malformations of cortical development: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to the number of genetic mutations that contribute to malformations of cortical development, identification of causative mutations in candidate genes is challenging. To overcome these challenges, we performed whole-exome sequencing in this study. Case presentation A Japanese patient presented with microcephaly and severe developmental delay. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of colpocephaly associated with lateral ventricle dilatation and the presence of a simplified gyral pattern. Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis were also noted. Because Sanger sequencing is expensive, laborious, and time-consuming, whole-exome sequencing was performed and a de novo missense mutation in TUBA1A (E27Q) was identified. Conclusion The novel mutation identified in this study was located in the genetic region that encodes the N-terminal domain of TUBA1A, a region of TUBA1A with few reported mutations. Retrospective assessment of the clinical and radiological features of this patient?i.e., microcephaly, lissencephaly (pachygyria) with cerebellar hypoplasia, and corpus callosum hypoplasia?indicated that the TUBA1A mutation did not lead to any contradictions. Because rapid and comprehensive mutation analysis by whole-exome sequencing is time- and cost-effective, it might be useful for genetic counseling of patients with sporadic malformations of cortical development. PMID:25053001

2014-01-01

146

Targeted high-throughput sequencing identifies pathogenic mutations in KCNQ4 in two large Chinese families with autosomal dominant hearing loss.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is highly heterogeneous, among them, KCNQ4 is one of the most frequent disease-causing genes. More than twenty KCNQ4 mutations have been reported, but none of them were detected in Chinese mainland families. In this study, we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation in a five generation Chinese family with 84 members and a known KCNQ4 mutation in a six generation Chinese family with 66 members. Mutation screening of 30 genes for ADNSHL was performed in the probands from thirty large Chinese families with ADNSHL by targeted region capture and high-throughput sequencing. The candidate variants and the co-segregation of the phenotype were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing in all ascertained family members. Then we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation p.W275R in exon 5 and a known KCNQ4 mutation p.G285S in exon 6 in two large Chinese ADNSHL families segregating with post-lingual high frequency-involved and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. This is the first report of KCNQ4 mutation in Chinese mainland families. KCNQ4, a member of voltage-gated potassium channel family, is likely to be a common gene in Chinese patients with ADNSHL. The results also support that the combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing is a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for autosomal dominant hereditary deafness. PMID:25116015

Wang, Hongyang; Zhao, Yali; Yi, Yuting; Gao, Yun; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Dayong; Li, Qian; Lan, Lan; Li, Na; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zifang; Han, Bing; Zhao, Feifan; Zong, Liang; Xiong, Wenping; Yu, Lan; Song, Lijie; Yi, Xin; Yang, Ling; Petit, Christine; Wang, Qiuju

2014-01-01

147

Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Pathogenic Mutations in KCNQ4 in Two Large Chinese Families with Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is highly heterogeneous, among them, KCNQ4 is one of the most frequent disease-causing genes. More than twenty KCNQ4 mutations have been reported, but none of them were detected in Chinese mainland families. In this study, we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation in a five generation Chinese family with 84 members and a known KCNQ4 mutation in a six generation Chinese family with 66 members. Mutation screening of 30 genes for ADNSHL was performed in the probands from thirty large Chinese families with ADNSHL by targeted region capture and high-throughput sequencing. The candidate variants and the co-segregation of the phenotype were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing in all ascertained family members. Then we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation p.W275R in exon 5 and a known KCNQ4 mutation p.G285S in exon 6 in two large Chinese ADNSHL families segregating with post-lingual high frequency-involved and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. This is the first report of KCNQ4 mutation in Chinese mainland families. KCNQ4, a member of voltage-gated potassium channel family, is likely to be a common gene in Chinese patients with ADNSHL. The results also support that the combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing is a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for autosomal dominant hereditary deafness. PMID:25116015

Gao, Yun; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Dayong; Li, Qian; Lan, Lan; Li, Na; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zifang; Han, Bing; Zhao, Feifan; Zong, Liang; Xiong, Wenping; Yu, Lan; Song, Lijie; Yi, Xin; Yang, Ling; Petit, Christine; Wang, Qiuju

2014-01-01

148

Exome sequencing identifies compound heterozygous mutations in C12orf57 in two siblings with severe intellectual disability, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal coloboma, and intractable seizures.  

PubMed

In patients with genetically heterogeneous disorders such as intellectual disability or epilepsy, exome sequencing is a powerful tool to elucidate the underlying genetic cause. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in C12orf57 have recently been described to cause an autosomal recessive syndromic form of intellectual disability, including agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, optic coloboma, and intractable seizures. Here, we report on two siblings from nonconsanguineous parents harboring two compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in C12orf57 identified by exome sequencing, including a novel nonsense mutation, and review the patients described in the literature. PMID:24798461

Platzer, Konrad; Hüning, Irina; Obieglo, Carolin; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Gabriel, Rainer; Strom, Tim M; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kaiser, Frank J

2014-08-01

149

Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans lin-1 ETS Gene Identify a C-Terminal Regulatory Domain Phosphorylated by ERK MAP Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of lin-1 loss-of-function mutations suggests that lin-1 controls multiple cell-fate decisions during Caenorhabditis elegans development and is negatively regulated by a conserved receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras-ERK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway. LIN-1 protein con- tains an ETS domain and presumably regulates transcription. We identified and characterized six gain- of-function mutations that define a new class of lin-1

Dave Jacobs; Greg J. Beitel; Scott G. Clark; H. Robert Horvitz; Kerry Kornfeld

1998-01-01

150

DFNA8/12 Caused by TECTA Mutations is the Most Identified Subtype of Non-syndromic Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of DFNA8/DFNA12 (DFNA8/12), a type of autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), is unknown as comprehensive population-based genetic screening has not been conducted. We therefore completed unbiased screening for TECTA mutations in a Spanish cohort of 372 probands from ADNSHL families. Three additional families (Spanish, Belgian and English) known to be linked to DFNA8/12 were also included in the screening. In an additional cohort of 835 American ADNSHL families, we preselected 73 probands for TECTA screening based on audiometric data. In aggregate, we identified 23 TECTA mutations in this process. Remarkably 20 of these mutations are novel, more than doubling the number of reported TECTA ADNSHL mutations from 13 to 33. Mutations lie in all domains of the ?-tectorin protein, including those for the first time identified in the entactin domain, the vWFD1, vWFD2 and vWFD3 repeats, and the D1-D2 and TIL2 connectors. While the majority are private mutations, four of them – p.Cys1036Tyr, p.Cys1837Gly, p.Thr1866Met and p.Arg1890Cys – were observed in more than one unrelated family. For two of these mutations founder effects were also confirmed. Our data validate previously observed genotype-phenotype correlations in DFNA8/12 and introduce new correlations. Specifically, mutations in the N-terminal region of ?-tectorin (entactin domain, vWFD1 and vWFD2) lead to mid frequency NSHL, a phenotype previously associated only with mutations in the ZP domain. Collectively, our results indicate that DFNA8/12 hearing loss is a frequent type of ADNSHL. PMID:21520338

Hildebrand, Michael S.; Morín, Matías; Meyer, Nicole C.; Mayo, Fernando; Modamio-Hoybjor, Silvia; Mencía, Angeles; Olavarrieta, Leticia; Morales-Angulo, Carmelo; Nishimura, Carla J.; Workman, Heather; DeLuca, Adam P.; del Castillo, Ignacio; Taylor, Kyle R.; Tompkins, Bruce; Goodman, Corey W.; Schrauwen, Isabelle; Van Wesemael, Maarten; Lachlan, K.; Shearer, A. Eliot; Braun, Terry A.; Huygen, Patrick L.M.; Kremer, Hannie; Van Camp, Guy; Moreno, Felipe; Casavant, Thomas L.; Smith, Richard J.H.; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

151

Dominant Mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 Identify the Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease Active Site and an Exonuclease 1-Independent Mismatch Repair Pathway  

PubMed Central

Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1? mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway. PMID:24204293

Smith, Catherine E.; Mendillo, Marc L.; Bowen, Nikki; Hombauer, Hans; Campbell, Christopher S.; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

2013-01-01

152

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects.  

PubMed

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the 'empty' CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the 'head' structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M K; Emes, Richard D; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M

2014-07-01

153

Targeted NGS gene panel identifies mutations in RSPH1 causing primary ciliary dyskinesia and a common mechanism for ciliary central pair agenesis due to radial spoke defects  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited chronic respiratory obstructive disease with randomized body laterality and infertility, resulting from cilia and sperm dysmotility. PCD is characterized by clinical variability and extensive genetic heterogeneity, associated with different cilia ultrastructural defects and mutations identified in >20 genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies therefore present a promising approach for genetic diagnosis which is not yet in routine use. We developed a targeted panel-based NGS pipeline to identify mutations by sequencing of selected candidate genes in 70 genetically undefined PCD patients. This detected loss-of-function RSPH1 mutations in four individuals with isolated central pair (CP) agenesis and normal body laterality, from two unrelated families. Ultrastructural analysis in RSPH1-mutated cilia revealed transposition of peripheral outer microtubules into the ‘empty’ CP space, accompanied by a distinctive intermittent loss of the central pair microtubules. We find that mutations in RSPH1, RSPH4A and RSPH9, which all encode homologs of components of the ‘head’ structure of ciliary radial spoke complexes identified in Chlamydomonas, cause clinical phenotypes that appear to be indistinguishable except at the gene level. By high-resolution immunofluorescence we identified a loss of RSPH4A and RSPH9 along with RSPH1 from RSPH1-mutated cilia, suggesting RSPH1 mutations may result in loss of the entire spoke head structure. CP loss is seen in up to 28% of PCD cases, in whom laterality determination specified by CP-less embryonic node cilia remains undisturbed. We propose this defect could arise from instability or agenesis of the ciliary central microtubules due to loss of their normal radial spoke head tethering. PMID:24518672

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Jimenez, Gina; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Biju; Dixon, Mellisa; Hirst, Robert A.; Rutman, Andrew; Burgoyne, Thomas; Williams, Christopher; Scully, Juliet; Bolard, Florence; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Beales, Philip L.; Hogg, Claire; Yang, Pinfen; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Emes, Richard D.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Mitchison, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

154

Functional analysis of non-hotspot AKT1 mutants found in human breast cancers identifies novel driver mutations: implications for personalized medicine.  

PubMed

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-Akt-mTOR pathway is mutated at high frequency in human breast cancer, and this pathway is the focus of active drug discovery and clinical investigation. Trials of personalized cancer therapy seek to leverage knowledge of cancer gene mutations by using mutations to guide the choice of targeted therapies. At the same time, cancer genome sequencing studies are identifying low frequency variants of unknown significance in known cancer genes, as well as genes of unknown function. We have performed functional analysis of six non-hotspot AKT1 pleckstrin homology domain mutants identified in recent large-scale breast cancer sequencing studies. Three of these mutants cause constitutive activation of Akt1 in the absence of growth factors, leading to phosphorylation of downstream target proteins. Like the hotspot E17K mutation, these mutants confer constitutive membrane localization of Akt1. Finally, the same three mutants showed oncogenic activity in a cellular transformation assay. The other three mutants were inactive in all assays. These findings validate novel driver mutations in AKT1, and extend the number and type of mutations that activate the PI3-kinase pathway in human breast cancers. PMID:23237847

Yi, Kyung H; Axtmayer, Jossette; Gustin, John P; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Lauring, Josh

2013-01-01

155

Functional analysis of non-hotspot AKT1 mutants found in human breast cancers identifies novel driver mutations: implications for personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-Akt-mTOR pathway is mutated at high frequency in human breast cancer, and this pathway is the focus of active drug discovery and clinical investigation. Trials of personalized cancer therapy seek to leverage knowledge of cancer gene mutations by using mutations to guide the choice of targeted therapies. At the same time, cancer genome sequencing studies are identifying low frequency variants of unknown significance in known cancer genes, as well as genes of unknown function. We have performed functional analysis of six non-hotspot AKT1 pleckstrin homology domain mutants identified in recent large-scale breast cancer sequencing studies. Three of these mutants cause constitutive activation of Akt1 in the absence of growth factors, leading to phosphorylation of downstream target proteins. Like the hotspot E17K mutation, these mutants confer constitutive membrane localization of Akt1. Finally, the same three mutants showed oncogenic activity in a cellular transformation assay. The other three mutants were inactive in all assays. These findings validate novel driver mutations in AKT1, and extend the number and type of mutations that activate the PI3-kinase pathway in human breast cancers. PMID:23237847

Yi, Kyung H.; Axtmayer, Jossette; Gustin, John P.; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Lauring, Josh

2013-01-01

156

NOTCH1 mutations identify a chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient subset with worse prognosis in the setting of a rituximab-based induction and consolidation treatment.  

PubMed

Induction therapy with fludarabine followed by rituximab and consolidation plus maintenance with rituximab improved response duration (RD) and overall survival (OS) in our patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical impact of NOTCH1 mutations in this setting of patients. The study included 123 progressive CLL patients homogeneously assigned to first-line induction treatment with fludarabine followed by rituximab. Fifty-nine patients either in complete remission (CR) minimal residual disease positive (MRD+) after induction (n = 39) or in partial remission (PR, n = 20) underwent consolidation/maintenance therapy with rituximab. Sixteen patients in CR MRD?+ or PR underwent observation only. The presence of NOTCH1 mutations was investigated by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and by Sanger sequencing. NOTCH1 mutations occurred in 20 out of 123 (16.3 %) cases. Consolidated patients showed longer OS than unconsolidated patients (p = 0.030). Both NOTCH1 mutated and CR MRD+ or PR NOTCH1 mutated patients showed significantly shorter OS after treatment (p = 0.00014 and p = 0.0021, respectively). Moreover, NOTCH1 wild-type consolidated cases experienced significantly longer RD and OS than NOTCH1 mutated consolidated or not consolidated cases (p = 0.00001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Finally, the independent prognostic impact of NOTCH1 mutations for OS was confirmed in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). The presence of NOTCH1 mutations identifies a CLL subset with worse prognosis in the setting of a rituximab-based induction and consolidation treatment. PMID:24923451

Bo, Michele Dal; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Pozzo, Federico; Ragusa, Dario; Bulian, Pietro; Rossi, Davide; Capelli, Giovanni; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Niscola, Pasquale; Buccisano, Francesco; Bomben, Riccardo; Zucchetto, Antonella; Maurillo, Luca; de Fabritiis, Paolo; Amadori, Sergio; Gaidano, Gianluca; Gattei, Valter; Del Poeta, Giovanni

2014-10-01

157

Mutations in FGF17, IL17RD, DUSP6, SPRY4, and FLRT3 Are Identified in Individuals with Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism  

PubMed Central

Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) and its anosmia-associated form (Kallmann syndrome [KS]) are genetically heterogeneous. Among the >15 genes implicated in these conditions, mutations in FGF8 and FGFR1 account for ?12% of cases; notably, KAL1 and HS6ST1 are also involved in FGFR1 signaling and can be mutated in CHH. We therefore hypothesized that mutations in genes encoding a broader range of modulators of the FGFR1 pathway might contribute to the genetics of CHH as causal or modifier mutations. Thus, we aimed to (1) investigate whether CHH individuals harbor mutations in members of the so-called “FGF8 synexpression” group and (2) validate the ability of a bioinformatics algorithm on the basis of protein-protein interactome data (interactome-based affiliation scoring [IBAS]) to identify high-quality candidate genes. On the basis of sequence homology, expression, and structural and functional data, seven genes were selected and sequenced in 386 unrelated CHH individuals and 155 controls. Except for FGF18 and SPRY2, all other genes were found to be mutated in CHH individuals: FGF17 (n = 3 individuals), IL17RD (n = 8), DUSP6 (n = 5), SPRY4 (n = 14), and FLRT3 (n = 3). Independently, IBAS predicted FGF17 and IL17RD as the two top candidates in the entire proteome on the basis of a statistical test of their protein-protein interaction patterns to proteins known to be altered in CHH. Most of the FGF17 and IL17RD mutations altered protein function in vitro. IL17RD mutations were found only in KS individuals and were strongly linked to hearing loss (6/8 individuals). Mutations in genes encoding components of the FGF pathway are associated with complex modes of CHH inheritance and act primarily as contributors to an oligogenic genetic architecture underlying CHH. PMID:23643382

Miraoui, Hichem; Dwyer, Andrew A.; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Plummer, Lacey; Chung, Wilson; Feng, Bihua; Beenken, Andrew; Clarke, Jeff; Pers, Tune H.; Dworzynski, Piotr; Keefe, Kimberley; Niedziela, Marek; Raivio, Taneli; Crowley, William F.; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Quinton, Richard; Hughes, Virginia A.; Kumanov, Philip; Young, Jacques; Yialamas, Maria A.; Hall, Janet E.; Van Vliet, Guy; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Rubenstein, John; Mohammadi, Moosa; Tsai, Pei-San; Sidis, Yisrael; Lage, Kasper; Pitteloud, Nelly

2013-01-01

158

X-Linked Megalocornea Caused by Mutations in CHRDL1 Identifies an Essential Role for Ventroptin in Anterior Segment Development  

PubMed Central

X-linked megalocornea (MGC1) is an ocular anterior segment disorder characterized by an increased cornea diameter and deep anterior chamber evident at birth and later onset of mosaic corneal degeneration (shagreen), arcus juvenilis, and presenile cataracts. We identified copy-number variation, frameshift, missense, splice-site and nonsense mutations in the Chordin-like 1 gene (CHRDL1) on Xq23 as the cause of the condition in seven MGC1 families. CHRDL1 encodes ventroptin, a bone morphogenic protein antagonist with a proposed role in specification of topographic retinotectal projections. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed mild generalized cone system dysfunction and, in one patient, an interhemispheric asymmetry in visual evoked potentials. We show that CHRDL1 is expressed in the developing human cornea and anterior segment in addition to the retina. We explored the impact of loss of ventroptin function on brain function and morphology in vivo. CHRDL1 is differentially expressed in the human fetal brain, and there is high expression in cerebellum and neocortex. We show that MGC1 patients have a superior cognitive ability despite a striking focal loss of myelination of white matter. Our findings reveal an unexpected requirement for ventroptin during anterior segment development and the consequences of a lack of function in the retina and brain. PMID:22284829

Webb, Tom R.; Matarin, Mar; Gardner, Jessica C.; Kelberman, Dan; Hassan, Hala; Ang, Wei; Michaelides, Michel; Ruddle, Jonathan B.; Pennell, Craig E.; Yazar, Seyhan; Khor, Chiea C.; Aung, Tin; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Moore, Anthony T.; Sowden, Jane C.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Mackey, David A.; Tuft, Stephen J.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

2012-01-01

159

Mutational analysis of human glutathione transferase A2-2 identifies structural elements supporting high activity with the prodrug azathioprine.  

PubMed

Glutathione transferase (GST) A2-2 is the human enzyme displaying the highest catalytic activity with the prodrug azathioprine (Aza). The reaction releases pharmacologically active 6-mercaptopurine by displacing the imidazole moiety from the Aza molecule. The GST-catalyzed reaction is of medical significance, since high rates of Aza activation may lead to adverse side effects in treated patients. The present study involves structure-activity relationships in GST A2-2 variants. Chimeric GSTs were previously generated by DNA shuffling and two peptide segments, one N-terminal and one C-terminal, were identified as primary determinants of Aza activity. The segments contain several residues of the substrate-binding H-site and their significance for supporting high Aza activity was investigated. Substitution of the corresponding two small regions in the low-activity human GST A3-3 or rat GST A3-3 by the human GST A2-2 segments generated chimeras with ?10-fold enhanced Aza activity. The H-site residues Met208 and Leu213 in the C-terminal segment of GST A2-2 were mutated to produce a library with all possible residue combinations. At a calculated 93% library coverage, all of the 1880 mutants examined showed wild-type or decreased Aza activity, even though some retained activities with alternative substrates, further emphasizing the importance of this region for the targeted activity. PMID:22334756

Modén, Olof; Zhang, Wei; Mannervik, Bengt

2012-04-01

160

Genetic analysis of wild-isolated Neurospora crassa strains identified as dominant suppressors of repeat-induced point mutation.  

PubMed Central

Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) in Neurospora results in inactivation of duplicated DNA sequences. RIP is thought to provide protection against foreign elements such as retrotransposons, only one of which has been found in N. crassa. To examine the role of RIP in nature, we have examined seven N. crassa strains, identified among 446 wild isolates scored for dominant suppression of RIP. The test system involved a small duplication that targets RIP to the easily scorable gene erg-3. We previously showed that RIP in a small duplication is suppressed if another, larger duplication is present in the cross, as expected if the large duplication competes for the RIP machinery. In two of the strains, RIP suppression was associated with a barren phenotype--a characteristic of Neurospora duplications that is thought to result in part from a gene-silencing process called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). A suppressor of MSUD (Sad-1) was shown not to prevent known large duplications from impairing RIP. Single-gene duplications also can be barren but are too short to suppress RIP. RIP suppression in strains that were not barren showed inheritance that was either simple Mendelian or complex. Adding copies of the LINE-like retrotransposon Tad did not affect RIP efficiency. PMID:12871906

Bhat, Ashwin; Noubissi, Felicite K; Vyas, Meenal; Kasbekar, Durgadas P

2003-01-01

161

Audioprofile-directed screening identifies novel mutations in KCNQ4 causing hearing loss at the DFNA2 locus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gene identification in small families segregating autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss presents a significant challenge. To address this challenge, we have developed a machine learning based software tool, AudioGene v2.0, to prioritize candidate genes for mutation screening based on audioprofiling. Methods We analyzed audiometric data from a cohort of American families with high frequency autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss. Those families predicted to have a DFNA2 audioprofile by AudioGene v2.0 were screened for mutations in the KCNQ4 gene. Results Two novel missense mutations and a stop mutation were detected in three American families predicted to have DFNA2-related deafness for a positive predictive value of 6.3%. The false negative rate was 0%. The missense mutations were located in the channel pore region and the stop mutation was in transmembrane domain S5. The latter is the first DFNA2-causing stop mutation reported in KCNQ4. Conclusions Our data suggest: (1) that the N-terminal end of the P-loop is crucial in maintaining the integrity of the KCNQ4 channel pore; and, (2) that AudioGene audioprofile analysis can effectively prioritize genes for mutation screening in small families segregating high frequency autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss. AudioGene software will be made freely available to clinicians and researchers once it has been fullly validated. PMID:18941426

Hildebrand, Michael S.; Tack, Dylan; McMordie, Sarah J.; DeLuca, Adam; Hur, In Ae; Nishimura, Carla; Huygen, Patrick; Casavant, Thomas L.; Smith, Richard J.H.

2012-01-01

162

Clinical Features: Mutations of the MEF2C gene [OMIM # 600662] have been identified in patients with severe mental retardation,  

E-print Network

in patients with severe mental retardation, stereotypic movements, hypotonia, and epilepsy [1-4]. Patients can of the 5q14.3 region or mutation is responsible for severe mental retardation with stereotypic movements. Zweier, et al, 2010 detected four de novo mutations in MEF2C in 362 patients with severe mental

Gilad, Yoav

163

Clinical Features: Mutations of the MEF2C gene [OMIM # 600662] have been identified in patients with severe mental retardation,  

E-print Network

in patients with severe mental retardation, stereotypic movements, hypotonia, and epilepsy [1-4]. Patients can microdeletion of the 5q14.3 region or mutation is responsible for severe mental retardation with stereotypic. Zweier, et al, 2010 detected four de novo mutations in MEF2C in 362 patients with severe mental

Das, Soma

164

A novel DICER1 mutation identified in a female with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and multinodular goiter: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Germ-line mutations in the micro-ribonucleic acid processing gene DICER1 have been shown to predispose to a subset of benign tumors susceptible to malignant transformation, including ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, nontoxic multinodular goiter, multilocular cystic nephroma and pleuropulmonary blastoma, which can occur in children and young adults. This may be due to reduced Dcr-1 homolog expression in carriers of germline mutations, which causes impairment of micro-ribonucleic acid processing and deregulates the growth and differentiation of target cells, leading to an increased risk of tumorigenesis. Many carriers of germ-line DICER1 mutations remain unaffected, but development of tumors within carriers is associated with varying prognoses. Case presentation Despite the Dcr-1 homolog syndrome phenotype being incompletely defined, a DICER1 mutation was suspected when a girl (case 1 patient) of Danish ethnicity presented with both an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and a multinodular goiter at the age of 13 years. In addition, family history included a male sibling (case 2 patient) who also had a multinodular goiter and had undergone a hemithyroidectomy at the age of 14 years. Subsequent DICER1 screening of the girl identified two novel mutations in exon 21 - a nonsense (c.3647C>A, p.Ser1216*) and a missense (c.3649T>A, p.Tyr1217Asn) mutation. The siblings had inherited the mutations from their father and paternal grandfather, which both currently were asymptomatic, indicating reduced penetrance of the nonsense mutation. Analysis of the parents revealed that the mutations were present in cis, making the contribution of the missense mutation less significant. Conclusion We report a novel pathogenic DICER1 mutation (p.Ser1216*) in a Danish family associated with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and a multinodular goiter. A multinodular goiter was diagnosed in the siblings during childhood. Clinicians should be aware of a potential germ-line DICER1 mutation when evaluating multinodular goiter in young patients with or without a family history of thyroid diseases. PMID:24708902

2014-01-01

165

Whole-exome re-sequencing in a family quartet identifies POP1 mutations as the cause of a novel skeletal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Recent advances in DNA sequencing have enabled mapping of genes for monogenic traits in families with small pedigrees and even in unrelated cases. We report the identification of disease-causing mutations in a rare, severe, skeletal dysplasia, studying a family of two healthy unrelated parents and two affected children using whole-exome sequencing. The two affected daughters have clinical and radiographic features suggestive of anauxetic dysplasia (OMIM 607095), a rare form of dwarfism caused by mutations of RMRP. However, mutations of RMRP were excluded in this family by direct sequencing. Our studies identified two novel compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in POP1, which encodes a core component of the RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) complex that directly interacts with the RMRP RNA domains that are affected in anauxetic dysplasia. We demonstrate that these mutations impair the integrity and activity of this complex and that they impair cell proliferation, providing likely molecular and cellular mechanisms by which POP1 mutations cause this severe skeletal dysplasia. PMID:21455487

Glazov, Evgeny A; Zankl, Andreas; Donskoi, Marina; Kenna, Tony J; Thomas, Gethin P; Clark, Graeme R; Duncan, Emma L; Brown, Matthew A

2011-03-01

166

KLF2 mutation is the most frequent somatic change in splenic marginal zone lymphoma and identifies a subset with distinct genotype  

E-print Network

sequencing identifies 488 frequent mutation of the SWI/SNF complex gene PBRM1 in renal carcinoma. Nature 2011; 469: 489 539-542. 490 22 Stephens PJ, Tarpey PS, Davies H, Van Loo P, Greenman C, Wedge DC et al. The landscape of 491 cancer genes...

Clipson, Alexandra; Wang, Ming; de Leval, Laurence; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Vassiliou, George; Bolli, Niccolo; Grove, Carolyn; Moody, Sarah; Ibarz, Leire Escudero; Gundem, Gunes; Brugger, Kim; Xue, Xuemin; Mi, Ella; Bench, Anthony; Scott, Mike; Liu, Hongxiang; Follows, George; Robles, Eloy F.; Climent, Jose Angel Martinez; Oscier, David; Watkins, A. James; Du, Ming-Qing

2014-11-27

167

TBX1 Mutation Identified by Exome Sequencing in a Japanese Family with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome-Like Craniofacial Features and Hypocalcemia  

PubMed Central

Background Although TBX1 mutations have been identified in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS)-like phenotypes including characteristic craniofacial features, cardiovascular anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, and thymic hypoplasia, the frequency of TBX1 mutations remains rare in deletion-negative patients. Thus, it would be reasonable to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis in deletion-negative patients with 22q11.2DS-like phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied three subjects with craniofacial features and hypocalcemia (group 1), two subjects with craniofacial features alone (group 2), and three subjects with normal phenotype within a single Japanese family. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis excluded chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, and genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no copy number change specific to group 1 or groups 1+2. However, exome sequencing identified a heterozygous TBX1 frameshift mutation (c.1253delA, p.Y418fsX459) specific to groups 1+2, as well as six missense variants and two in-frame microdeletions specific to groups 1+2 and two missense variants specific to group 1. The TBX1 mutation resided at exon 9C and was predicted to produce a non-functional truncated protein missing the nuclear localization signal and most of the transactivation domain. Conclusions/Significance Clinical features in groups 1+2 are well explained by the TBX1 mutation, while the clinical effects of the remaining variants are largely unknown. Thus, the results exemplify the usefulness of exome sequencing in the identification of disease-causing mutations in familial disorders. Furthermore, the results, in conjunction with the previous data, imply that TBX1 isoform C is the biologically essential variant and that TBX1 mutations are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum, including most of 22q11.2DS phenotypes. PMID:24637876

Kawai, Masahiko; Nagashima, Takeshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakashima, Shinichi; Kato, Fumiko; Fukami, Maki; Aoki, Yoko; Matsubara, Yoichi

2014-01-01

168

Expression studies of a novel splice site mutation in the LIPH gene identified in a Japanese patient with autosomal recessive woolly hair.  

PubMed

Autosomal recessive woolly hair (ARWH) is characterized by short and tightly curled scalp hair without any obvious complications. The disease is known to be caused by either lipase H (LIPH) or LPAR6 genes. Proteins encoded by these two genes are closely related to each other in a lipid-signaling pathway that is believed to play crucial roles in hair follicle development and hair growth. In the Japanese population, most affected individuals with ARWH have been shown to carry two prevalent founder mutations in the LIPH gene, c.736T>A (p.Cys246Ser) and c.742C>A (p.His248Asn), while other LIPH mutations have been occasionally identified. In this study, we analyzed a Japanese patient with ARWH, and identified compound heterozygous mutations in the LIPH gene, c.736T>A (p.Cys246Ser) and c.982+5G>T. The latter one was a novel splice site mutation in intron 7. Expression studies using blood-derived RNA from the patient detected the LIPH transcript from the c.736T>A mutant allele, but not from the c.982+5G>T mutant allele. Furthermore, in vitro transcription assay in cultured cells showed that the mutation c.982+5G>T caused an aberrant splicing event, leading to a frame-shift and a premature termination codon (p.Met328Serfs*41). To the best of our knowledge, this is the second splice site mutation in the LIPH gene, and our findings further expand the spectrum of the LIPH mutations underlying ARWH. PMID:25271093

Hayashi, Ryota; Inui, Shigeki; Farooq, Muhammad; Ito, Masaaki; Shimomura, Yutaka

2014-10-01

169

Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Novel Mutations in RP1 as a Relatively Common Cause of Autosomal Recessive Rod-Cone Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We report ophthalmic and genetic findings in families with autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy (arRCD) and RP1 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in 242 sporadic and arRCD subjects. Genomic DNA was investigated using our customized next generation sequencing panel targeting up to 123 genes implicated in inherited retinal disorders. Stringent filtering coupled with Sanger sequencing and followed by cosegregation analysis was performed to confirm biallelism and the implication of the most likely disease causing variants. Sequencing identified 9 RP1 mutations in 7 index cases. Eight of the mutations were novel, and all cosegregated with severe arRCD phenotype, found associated with additional macular changes. Among the identified mutations, 4 belong to a region, previously associated with arRCD, and 5 others in a region previously associated with adRCD. Our prevalence studies showed that RP1 mutations account for up to 2.5% of arRCD. These results point out for the necessity of sequencing RP1 when genetically investigating sporadic and arRCD. It further highlights the interest of unbiased sequencing technique, which allows investigating the implication of the same gene in different modes of inheritance. Finally, it reports that different regions of RP1 can also lead to arRCD. PMID:25692139

El Shamieh, Said; Boulanger-Scemama, Elise; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Démontant, Vanessa; Condroyer, Christel; Letexier, Mélanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

2015-01-01

170

Functional characterization of mutations in the promoter proximal region of the telomerase hTERC gene identified in patients with hematological disorders  

PubMed Central

Telomerase RNA gene (hTERC) mutations have been identified in a subset of patients with bone-marrow failure syndromes (BMFS). While most of the mutations were found in the coding region of hTERC, some rare disease-associated mutations as well as polymorphic sequence changes were found in the promoter proximal region of the gene, including the -99C/G sequence change that was thought to modulate hTERC gene expression by disrupting Sp1 transcriptional factor binding [1]. We and other researchers recently identified, in addition to the -99C/G mutation, several other sequence variations (-240delCT, -714+C insertion, and -771A/G) in the hTERC promoter in other cohorts of patients with blood disorders. Using a convenient telomerase reconstitution assay coupled with the hTERC-promoter driven luciferase reporter assay, we characterized each of the hTERC's promoter sequence variants and found that these rare sequence changes did not negatively affect telomerase gene expression or function. We therefore conclude that all known mutations in the promoter proximal region of the hTERC gene to date do not necessarily contribute to the pathogenesis of hematological disorders by directly affecting telomerase transcriptional activity and/or its enzymatic function. PMID:21977231

Carroll, Kathryn A; Ly, Hinh

2011-01-01

171

Virulence-Associated Genome Mutations of Murine Rotavirus Identified by Alternating Serial Passages in Mice and Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3? consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. IMPORTANCE Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. PMID:24599996

Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

172

Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel FOXP3 Mutation in a 2-Generation Family With Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is heritable, but a total of 163 variants commonly implicated in IBD pathogenesis account for only 25% of the heritability. Rare, highly penetrant genetic variants may also explain mendelian forms of IBD and some of the missing heritability. To test the hypothesis that rare loss-of-function mutations can be causative, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 5 members of a 2-generation family of European ancestry presenting with an early-onset and atypical form of IBD. Methods WES was performed for all of the 5 family members; the mother and 3 male offspring were affected, whereas the father was unaffected. Mapping, annotation, and filtering criteria were used to reduce candidate variants. For functional testing we performed forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) staining and a T-cell suppression assay. Results We identified a novel missense variant in exon 6 of the X-linked FOXP3 gene. The c.694A>C substitution in FOXP3 results in a cysteine-toglycine change at the protein position 232 that is completely conserved among all vertebrates. This variant (heterozygous in the mother and hemizygous in all 3 affected sons) did not impair FOXP3 protein expression, but significantly reduced the ability of the host's T regulatory cells to suppress an inappropriate autoimmune response. The variant results in a milder immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked phenotype with early-onset IBD. Conclusions Our study illustrates the successful application of WES for making a definitive molecular diagnosis in a case of multiply affected families, with atypical IBD-like phenotype. Our results also have important implications for disease biology and disease-directed therapeutic development. PMID:24792626

Okou, David T.; Mondal, Kajari; Faubion, William A.; Kobrynski, Lisa J.; Denson, Lee A.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Xiong, Yuning; Svingen, Phyllis; Patel, Viren; Bose, Promita; Waters, Jon P.; Prahalad, Sampath; Cutler, David J.; Zwick, Michael E.; Kugathasan, Subra

2014-01-01

173

Mutations in 12 genes for inherited ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma identified by massively parallel sequencing.  

PubMed

Inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and other tumor suppressor genes predispose to ovarian carcinomas, but the overall burden of disease due to inherited mutations is not known. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we screened for germ-line mutations in 21 tumor suppressor genes in genomic DNA from women with primary ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. Subjects were consecutively enrolled at diagnosis and not selected for age or family history. All classes of mutations, including point mutations and large genomic deletions and insertions, were detected. Of 360 subjects, 24% carried germ-line loss-of-function mutations: 18% in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and 6% in BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MSH6, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, or TP53. Six of these genes were not previously implicated in inherited ovarian carcinoma. Primary carcinomas were generally characterized by genomic loss of normal alleles of the mutant genes. Of women with inherited mutations, >30% had no family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma, and >35% were 60 y or older at diagnosis. More patients with ovarian carcinoma carry cancer-predisposing mutations and in more genes than previously appreciated. Comprehensive genetic testing for inherited carcinoma is warranted for all women with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, regardless of age or family history. Clinical genetic testing is currently done gene by gene, with each test costing thousands of dollars. In contrast, massively parallel sequencing allows such testing for many genes simultaneously at low cost. PMID:22006311

Walsh, Tom; Casadei, Silvia; Lee, Ming K; Pennil, Christopher C; Nord, Alex S; Thornton, Anne M; Roeb, Wendy; Agnew, Kathy J; Stray, Sunday M; Wickramanayake, Anneka; Norquist, Barbara; Pennington, Kathryn P; Garcia, Rochelle L; King, Mary-Claire; Swisher, Elizabeth M

2011-11-01

174

Novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations in bladder cancer previously identified in non-lethal skeletal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene are responsible for several autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndromes and chondrodysplasias i.e. hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia, SADDAN and thanatophoric dysplasia – a neonatal lethal dwarfism syndrome. Recently, activating FGFR3 mutations have also been found to be present in cancer, i.e. at high frequency in carcinoma of the bladder and rarely in multiple

Bas W G van Rhijn; Angela A G van Tilborg; Irene Lurkin; Jacky Bonaventure; Annie de Vries; Jean-Paul Thiery; Theodorus H van der Kwast; Ellen C Zwarthoff; Francois Radvanyi

2002-01-01

175

Zebrafish Ciliopathy Screen Plus Human Mutational Analysis Identifies C21orf59 and CCDC65 Defects as Causing Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is caused when defects of motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, male infertility, and situs abnormalities. Multiple causative PCD mutations account for only 65% of cases, suggesting that many genes essential for cilia function remain to be discovered. By using zebrafish morpholino knockdown of PCD candidate genes as an in vivo screening platform, we identified c21orf59, ccdc65, and c15orf26 as critical for cilia motility. c21orf59 and c15orf26 knockdown in zebrafish and planaria blocked outer dynein arm assembly, and ccdc65 knockdown altered cilia beat pattern. Biochemical analysis in Chlamydomonas revealed that the C21orf59 ortholog FBB18 is a flagellar matrix protein that accumulates specifically when cilia motility is impaired. The Chlamydomonas ida6 mutant identifies CCDC65/FAP250 as an essential component of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex. Analysis of 295 individuals with PCD identified recessive truncating mutations of C21orf59 in four families and CCDC65 in two families. Similar to findings in zebrafish and planaria, mutations in C21orf59 caused loss of both outer and inner dynein arm components. Our results characterize two genes associated with PCD-causing mutations and elucidate two distinct mechanisms critical for motile cilia function: dynein arm assembly for C21orf59 and assembly of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex for CCDC65. PMID:24094744

Austin-Tse, Christina; Halbritter, Jan; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Gee, Heon Yung; Hellman, Nathan; Pathak, Narendra; Liu, Yan; Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; O’Toole, Eileen; Porath, Jonathan D.; Hurd, Toby W.; Chaki, Moumita; Diaz, Katrina A.; Kohl, Stefan; Lovric, Svjetlana; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Braun, Daniela A.; Schueler, Markus; Airik, Rannar; Otto, Edgar A.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Noone, Peadar G.; Carson, Johnny L.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Pittman, Jessica E.; Ferkol, Thomas W.; Atkinson, Jeffry J.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Sagel, Scott D.; Dell, Sharon D.; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Milla, Carlos E.; Loges, Niki T.; Omran, Heymut; Porter, Mary E.; King, Stephen M.; Knowles, Michael R.; Drummond, Iain A.; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2013-01-01

176

Secondary Variants in Individuals Undergoing Exome Sequencing: Screening of 572 Individuals Identifies High-Penetrance Mutations in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes  

PubMed Central

Genome- and exome-sequencing costs are continuing to fall, and many individuals are undergoing these assessments as research participants and patients. The issue of secondary (so-called incidental) findings in exome analysis is controversial, and data are needed on methods of detection and their frequency. We piloted secondary variant detection by analyzing exomes for mutations in cancer-susceptibility syndromes in subjects ascertained for atherosclerosis phenotypes. We performed exome sequencing on 572 ClinSeq participants, and in 37 genes, we interpreted variants that cause high-penetrance cancer syndromes by using an algorithm that filtered results on the basis of mutation type, quality, and frequency and that filtered mutation-database entries on the basis of defined categories of causation. We identified 454 sequence variants that differed from the human reference. Exclusions were made on the basis of sequence quality (26 variants) and high frequency in the cohort (77 variants) or dbSNP (17 variants), leaving 334 variants of potential clinical importance. These were further filtered on the basis of curation of literature reports. Seven participants, four of whom were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and three of whom did not meet family-history-based referral criteria, had deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. One participant had a deleterious SDHC mutation, which causes paragangliomas. Exome sequencing, coupled with multidisciplinary interpretation, detected clinically important mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes; four of such mutations were in individuals without a significant family history of disease. We conclude that secondary variants of high clinical importance will be detected at an appreciable frequency in exomes, and we suggest that priority be given to the development of more efficient modes of interpretation with trials in larger patient groups. PMID:22703879

Johnston, Jennifer J.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Facio, Flavia M.; Ng, David; Singh, Larry N.; Teer, Jamie K.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

2012-01-01

177

Candidate gene analysis of tooth agenesis identifies novel mutations in six genes and suggests significant role for WNT and EDA signaling and allele combinations.  

PubMed

Failure to develop complete dentition, tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly manifested most often as isolated but also as associated with many developmental syndromes. It typically affects third molars or one or few other permanent teeth but severe agenesis is also relatively prevalent. Here we report mutational analyses of seven candidate genes in a cohort of 127 probands with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. 82 lacked more than five permanent teeth excluding third molars, called as oligodontia. We identified 28 mutations, 17 of which were novel. Together with our previous reports, we have identified two mutations in MSX1, AXIN2 and EDARADD, five in PAX9, four in EDA and EDAR, and nine in WNT10A. They were observed in 58 probands (44%), with a mean number of missing teeth of 11.7 (range 4 to 34). Almost all of these probands had severe agenesis. Only few of the probands but several relatives with heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A or EDAR conformed to the common type of non-syndromic tooth agenesis, incisor-premolar hypodontia. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 affected predominantly posterior teeth, whereas both deciduous and permanent incisors were especially sensitive to mutations in EDA and EDAR. Many mutations in EDAR, EDARADD and WNT10A were present in several families. Biallelic or heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A were observed in 32 and hemizygous or heterozygous genotypes of EDA, EDAR or EDARADD in 22 probands. An EDARADD variant were in seven probands present together with variants in EDAR or WNT10A, suggesting combined phenotypic effects of alleles in distinct genes. PMID:23991204

Arte, Sirpa; Parmanen, Satu; Pirinen, Sinikka; Alaluusua, Satu; Nieminen, Pekka

2013-01-01

178

Candidate Gene Analysis of Tooth Agenesis Identifies Novel Mutations in Six Genes and Suggests Significant Role for WNT and EDA Signaling and Allele Combinations  

PubMed Central

Failure to develop complete dentition, tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly manifested most often as isolated but also as associated with many developmental syndromes. It typically affects third molars or one or few other permanent teeth but severe agenesis is also relatively prevalent. Here we report mutational analyses of seven candidate genes in a cohort of 127 probands with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. 82 lacked more than five permanent teeth excluding third molars, called as oligodontia. We identified 28 mutations, 17 of which were novel. Together with our previous reports, we have identified two mutations in MSX1, AXIN2 and EDARADD, five in PAX9, four in EDA and EDAR, and nine in WNT10A. They were observed in 58 probands (44%), with a mean number of missing teeth of 11.7 (range 4 to 34). Almost all of these probands had severe agenesis. Only few of the probands but several relatives with heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A or EDAR conformed to the common type of non-syndromic tooth agenesis, incisor-premolar hypodontia. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 affected predominantly posterior teeth, whereas both deciduous and permanent incisors were especially sensitive to mutations in EDA and EDAR. Many mutations in EDAR, EDARADD and WNT10A were present in several families. Biallelic or heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A were observed in 32 and hemizygous or heterozygous genotypes of EDA, EDAR or EDARADD in 22 probands. An EDARADD variant were in seven probands present together with variants in EDAR or WNT10A, suggesting combined phenotypic effects of alleles in distinct genes. PMID:23991204

Arte, Sirpa; Parmanen, Satu; Pirinen, Sinikka; Alaluusua, Satu; Nieminen, Pekka

2013-01-01

179

Combined exome and whole-genome sequencing identifies mutations in ARMC4 as a cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia with defects in the outer dynein arm  

PubMed Central

Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy disorder affecting cilia and sperm motility. A range of ultrastructural defects of the axoneme underlie the disease, which is characterised by chronic respiratory symptoms and obstructive lung disease, infertility and body axis laterality defects. We applied a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the gene responsible for this phenotype in two consanguineous families. Methods and results Data from whole-exome sequencing in a consanguineous Turkish family, and whole-genome sequencing in the obligate carrier parents of a consanguineous Pakistani family was combined to identify homozygous loss-of-function mutations in ARMC4, segregating in all five affected individuals from both families. Both families carried nonsense mutations within the highly conserved armadillo repeat region of ARMC4: c.2675C>A; pSer892* and c.1972G>T; p.Glu658*. A deficiency of ARMC4 protein was seen in patient's respiratory cilia accompanied by loss of the distal outer dynein arm motors responsible for generating ciliary beating, giving rise to cilia immotility. ARMC4 gene expression is upregulated during ciliogenesis, and we found a predicted interaction with the outer dynein arm protein DNAI2, mutations in which also cause PCD. Conclusions We report the first use of whole-genome sequencing to identify gene mutations causing PCD. Loss-of-function mutations in ARMC4 cause PCD with situs inversus and cilia immotility, associated with a loss of the distal outer (but not inner) dynein arms. This addition of ARMC4 to the list of genes associated with ciliary outer dynein arm defects expands our understanding of the complexities of PCD genetics. PMID:24203976

Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia; Munye, Mustafa M; James, Chela T; Schmidts, Miriam; Patel, Mitali; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Bacchelli, Chiara; Beales, Philip L; Scambler, Peter J; Hart, Stephen L; Danke-Roelse, Jeannette E; Sloper, John J; Hull, Sarah; Hogg, Claire; Emes, Richard D; Pals, Gerard; Moore, Anthony T; Chung, Eddie M K; Mitchison, Hannah M

2014-01-01

180

The Sac1 domain of SYNJ1 identified mutated in a family with early-onset progressive parkinsonism with generalized seizures  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to elucidate the genetic causes underlying early-onset parkinsonism (EOP) in a consanguineous Iranian family. To attain this, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed. As a result, a homozygous mutation (c.773G>A; p.Arg258Gln) lying within the NH2-terminal Sac1-like inositol phosphatase domain of polyphosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1), which has been implicated in the regulation of endocytic traffic at synapses, was identified as the disease-segregating mutation. This mutation impaired the phosphatase activity SYNJ1 against its Sac1 domain substrates in vitro. We concluded that the SYNJ1 mutation identified here is responsible for the EOP phenotype seen in our patients probably due to deficiencies in its phosphatase activity and consequent impairment of its synaptic functions. Our finding not only opens new avenues of investigation in the synaptic dysfunction mechanisms associated with parkinsonism, but also suggests phosphoinositide metabolism as a novel therapeutic target for parkinsonism. PMID:23804563

Krebs, Catharine E.; Karkheiran, Siamak; Powell, James C.; Cao, Mian; Makarov, Vladimir; Darvish, Hossein; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Walker, Ruth H.; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; De Camilli, Pietro; Yue, Zhenyu; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro

2013-01-01

181

Next-generation sequencing to dissect hereditary nephrotic syndrome in mice identifies a hypomorphic mutation in Lamb2 and models Pierson’s syndrome  

PubMed Central

The study of mutations causing the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children has greatly advanced our understanding of the kidney filtration barrier. In particular, these genetic variants have illuminated the roles of the podocyte, glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cell in glomerular filtration. However, in a significant number of familial and early onset cases, an underlying mutation cannot be identified, indicating that there are likely to be multiple unknown genes with roles in glomerular permeability. We now show how the combination of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing could be used to identify the range of mutations affecting these pathways. Using this approach, we isolated a novel mouse strain with a viable nephrotic phenotype and used whole-genome sequencing to isolate a causative hypomorphic mutation in Lamb2. This discovery generated a model for one part of the spectrum of human Pierson’s syndrome and provides a powerful proof of principle for accelerating gene discovery and improving our understanding of inherited forms of renal disease. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd PMID:24293254

Bull, Katherine R; Mason, Thomas; Rimmer, Andrew J; Crockford, Tanya L; Silver, Karlee L; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Hough, Tertius A; Chaudhry, Shirine; Roberts, Ian SD; Goodnow, Christopher C; Cornall, Richard J

2013-01-01

182

Exon capture analysis of G protein-coupled receptors identifies activating mutations in GRM3 in melanoma  

PubMed Central

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest human gene family, are important regulators of signaling pathways. However, knowledge of their genetic alterations is limited. In this study, we used exon capture and massively parallel sequencing methods to analyze the mutational status of 734 GPCRs in melanoma. This investigation revealed that one family member, GRM3, was frequently mutated and that one of its mutations clustered within one position. Biochemical analysis of GRM3 alterations revealed that mutant GRM3 selectively regulated the phosphorylation of MEK, leading to increased anchorage-independent growth and migration. Melanoma cells expressing mutant GRM3 had reduced cell growth and cellular migration after short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown of GRM3 or treatment with a selective MEK inhibitor, AZD-6244, which is currently being used in phase 2 clinical trials. Our study yields the most comprehensive map of genetic alterations in the GPCR gene family. PMID:21946352

Prickett, Todd D; Wei, Xiaomu; Cardenas-Navia, Isabel; Teer, Jamie K; Lin, Jimmy C; Walia, Vijay; Gartner, Jared; Jiang, Jiji; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Molinolo, Alfredo; Davies, Michael A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Rosenberg, Steven A; Margulies, Elliott H; Samuels, Yardena

2012-01-01

183

Sloan-Kettering study finds testing for mutations identified in squamous cell lung cancer tumors helps personalize treatment  

Cancer.gov

Screening lung cancer tumor samples for cancer-causing, or “driver,” genetic mutations can help physicians tailor patients’ treatments to target those specific mutations... Now, researchers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center have begun testing for three new genetic targets and found that together they occur in approximately 50 percent of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, which affects 40,000 Americans each year. Initial findings of the research will be presented on June 4 at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting.

184

Copyright 1999 by the Genetics Society of America Suppressors of the Arabidopsis lsd5 Cell Death Mutation Identify Genes  

E-print Network

Copyright © 1999 by the Genetics Society of America Suppressors of the Arabidopsis lsd5 Cell Death hypersensitive reaction (HR). Arabidopsis lsd mutants that spontaneously exhibit cell death reminiscent of the HR disease resistance, one of these mutants, lsd5, was used to isolate new mutations that suppress its cell

Dangl, Jeff

185

ATRX mutation in two adult brothers with non-specific moderate intellectual disability identified by exome sequencing?  

PubMed Central

In this report, we describe two adult brothers affected by moderate non-specific intellectual disability (ID). They showed minor facial anomalies, not clearly ascribable to any specific syndromic patterns, microcephaly, brachydactyly and broad toes. Both brothers presented seizures. Karyotype, subtelomeric and FMR1 analysis were normal in both cases. We performed array-CGH analysis that revealed no copy-number variations potentially associated with ID. Subsequent exome sequence analysis allowed the identification of the ATRX c.109C>T (p.R37X) mutation in both the affected brothers. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the mutation in the brothers and showed that the mother is a healthy carrier. Mutations in the ATRX gene cause the X-linked alpha thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome (MIM #301040), a severe clinical condition usually associated with profound ID, facial dysmorphism and alpha thalassemia. However, the syndrome is clinically heterogeneous and some mutations, including the c.109C>T, are associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum, with patients displaying a less severe phenotype with only mild-moderate ID. In the case presented here, exome sequencing provided an effective strategy to achieve the molecular diagnosis of ATR-X syndrome, which otherwise would have been difficult to consider due to the mild non-specific phenotype and the absence of a family history with typical severe cases. PMID:25606380

Moncini, S.; Bedeschi, M.F.; Castronovo, P.; Crippa, M.; Calvello, M.; Garghentino, R.R.; Scuvera, G.; Finelli, P.; Venturin, M.

2013-01-01

186

A General Method for Identifying Recessive Diploid-Specific Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Its Application to the Isolation of Mutants Blocked at Intermediate Stages of Meiotic Prophase and Characterization of a New Gene Sae2  

PubMed Central

We describe a general new approach for identifying recessive mutations that affect diploid strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the application of this method to the identification of mutations that confer an intermediate block in meiotic prophase chromosome metabolism. The method uses a temperature-sensitive conjugation mutation ste7-1 in combination with homothallism. The mutations of interest confer a defect in spore formation that is dependent upon a gene required for initiation of meiotic recombination and development of meiosis-specific chromosome structure (SPO11). Identified in this screen were null mutations of the DMC1 gene, nonnull mutations of RAD50 (rad50S), and mutations in three new genes designated SAE1, SAE2 and SAE3 (Sporulation in the Absence of Spo Eleven). Molecular characterization of the SAE2 gene and characterization of meiotic and mitotic phenotypes of sae2 mutants are also presented. The phenotypes conferred by a sae2 null mutation are virtually indistinguishable from those conferred by the previously identified nonnull mutations of RAD50 (rad50S). Most notably, both mutations confer only weak sensitivity to the radiomimetic agent methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) but completely block resection and turnover of meiosis-specific double-strand breaks. These observations provide further evidence that this constellation of phenotypes identifies a specific molecular function. PMID:9215888

McKee, AHZ.; Kleckner, N.

1997-01-01

187

Exome sequencing identifies a mutation in the ACTN2 gene in a family with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, left ventricular noncompaction, and sudden death.  

PubMed

BackgroundPotentially lethal and heritable cardiomyopathies and cardiac channelopathies are caused by heterogeneous autosomal dominant mutations in over 50 distinct genes, and multiple genes are responsible for a given disease. Clinical genetic tests are available for several of the inherited cardiac diseases and clinical investigations guide which test to order. This study describes a family with cardiac disease in which marked clinical diversity exists. In the absence of a unified clinical diagnosis, we used exome sequencing to identify a causal mutation.MethodsClinical evaluation of family members was performed, including physical examination, electrocardiography, 2D transthoracic echocardiography and review of autopsy records. Exome sequencing was performed on a clinically affected individual and co-segregation studies and haplotype analysis were performed to further confirm pathogenicity.ResultsClinically affected members showed marked cardiac phenotype heterogeneity. While some individuals were asymptomatic, other presentations included left ventricular non-compaction, a resuscitated cardiac arrest due to idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, and sudden unexplained death. Whole exome sequencing identified an Ala119Thr mutation in the alpha-actinin-2 (ACTN2) gene that segregated with disease. Haplotype analysis showed that this mutation segregated with an identical haplotype in a second, previously described family with clinically diverse cardiac disease, and is likely inherited from a common ancestor.ConclusionsMutations in the ACTN2 gene can be responsible for marked cardiac phenotype heterogeneity in families. The diverse mechanistic roles of ACTN2 in the cardiac Z-disc may explain this heterogeneous clinical presentation. Exome sequencing is a useful adjunct to cardiac genetic testing in families with mixed clinical presentations. PMID:25224718

Bagnall, Richard D; Molloy, Laura K; Kalman, Jonathan M; Semsarian, Christopher

2014-09-16

188

Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland)

2010-10-08

189

Altered-function p53 missense mutations identified in breast cancers can have subtle effects on transactivation  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the sequence-specific master regulator p53 that alter transactivation function from promoter response elements (REs) could result in changes in the strength of gene activation or spectra of genes regulated. Such mutations in this tumor suppressor might lead to dramatic phenotypic changes and diversification of cell responses to stress. We have determined “functional fingerprints” of sporadic breast cancer-related p53 mutants many of which are also associated with familial cancer proneness such as the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome and germline BRCA1/2 mutant-associated cancers. The ability of p53, wild type and mutants, to transactivate from 11 human target REs has been assessed at variable expression levels using a cellular, isogenomic yeast model system that allows for the rapid analysis of p53 function using a qualitative and a quantitative reporter. Among 50 missense mutants, 29 were classified as loss-of-function. The remaining 21 retained transactivation towards at least one RE. At high levels of galactose induced p53 expression, 12/21 mutants that retain transactivation appeared similar to WT. When the level of galactose was reduced, transactivation defects could be revealed suggesting that some breast cancer related mutants can have subtle changes in transcription. These findings have been compared with clinical data from an ongoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment trial for locally advanced breast tumors. The functional and nonfunctional missense mutations may distinguish tumors in terms of demographics, appearance and relapse, implying that heterogeneity in the functionality of specific p53 mutations could impact clinical behavior and outcome. PMID:20407015

Jordan, Jennifer J.; Inga, Alberto; Conway, Kathleen; Edmiston, Sharon; Carey, Lisa A.; Wu, Lin; Resnick, Michael A.

2010-01-01

190

Audioprofile-directed screening identifies novel mutations in KCNQ4 causing hearing loss at the DFNA2 locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Gene identification in small families segregating autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss presents a significant challenge. To address this challenge, we have developed a machine learning-based software tool, AudioGene v2.0, to prioritize candidate genes for mutation screening based on audioprofiling. METHODS: We analyzed audiometric data from a cohort of American families with high-frequency autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss. Those families

Michael S. Hildebrand; Dylan Tack; Sarah J. McMordie; Adam DeLuca; In Ae Hur; Carla Nishimura; Patrick Huygen; Thomas L. Casavant; Richard J. H. Smith

2008-01-01

191

APOA5 Q97X Mutation Identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family  

PubMed Central

Background Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis) were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. Methods We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel). Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. Results A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter) found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. Conclusion The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family. PMID:23151256

2012-01-01

192

Genomic Analysis of hESC Pedigrees Identifies De Novo Mutations and Enables Determination of the Timing and Origin of Mutational Events  

PubMed Central

Summary Given the association between mutational load and cancer, the observation that genetic aberrations are frequently found in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is of concern. Prior studies in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have shown that deletions and regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) tend to arise during reprogramming and early culture, whereas duplications more frequently occur during long-term culture. For the corresponding experiments in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we studied two sets of hESC lines: one including the corresponding parental DNA and the other generated from single blastomeres from four sibling embryos. Here, we show that genetic aberrations observed in hESCs can originate during preimplantation embryo development and/or early derivation. These early aberrations are mainly deletions and LOH, whereas aberrations arising during long-term culture of hESCs are more frequently duplications. Our results highlight the importance of close monitoring of genomic integrity and the development of improved methods for derivation and culture of hPSCs. PMID:24035391

Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Boscolo, Francesca S.; Amir, Hadar; Malcov, Mira; Amit, Ami; Laurent, Louise C.

2013-01-01

193

Exome sequencing identifies a novel mutation in PIK3R1 as the cause of SHORT syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance. Case presentation In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing approaches in two patients with clinical features of SHORT syndrome. We report the finding of a novel mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8), as well as a recurrent mutation c.1945C > T (p.Arg649Trp) in this gene. Conclusions We found a novel frameshift mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8) which consists of a deletion right before the site of substrate recognition. As a consequence, the protein lacks the position that interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue of the substrate, resulting in the development of SHORT syndrome. PMID:24886349

2014-01-01

194

Accurate mitochondrial DNA sequencing using off-target reads provides a single test to identify pathogenic point mutations  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Mitochondrial disorders are a common cause of inherited metabolic disease and can be due to mutations affecting mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA. The current diagnostic approach involves the targeted resequencing of mitochondrial DNA and candidate nuclear genes, usually proceeds step by step, and is time consuming and costly. Recent evidence suggests that variations in mitochondrial DNA sequence can be obtained from whole-exome sequence data, raising the possibility of a comprehensive single diagnostic test to detect pathogenic point mutations. Methods: We compared the mitochondrial DNA sequence derived from off-target exome reads with conventional mitochondrial DNA Sanger sequencing in 46 subjects. Results: Mitochondrial DNA sequences can be reliably obtained using three different whole-exome sequence capture kits. Coverage correlates with the relative amount of mitochondrial DNA in the original genomic DNA sample, heteroplasmy levels can be determined using variant and total read depths, and—providing there is a minimum read depth of 20-fold—rare sequencing errors occur at a rate similar to that observed with conventional Sanger sequencing. Conclusion: This offers the prospect of using whole-exome sequence in a diagnostic setting to screen not only all protein coding nuclear genes but also all mitochondrial DNA genes for pathogenic mutations. Off-target mitochondrial DNA reads can also be used to assess quality control and maternal ancestry, inform on ethnic origin, and allow genetic disease association studies not previously anticipated with existing whole-exome data sets. PMID:24901348

Griffin, Helen R.; Pyle, Angela; Blakely, Emma L.; Alston, Charlotte L.; Duff, Jennifer; Hudson, Gavin; Horvath, Rita; Wilson, Ian J.; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Taylor, Robert W.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

2014-01-01

195

Whole Exome Sequencing in a Random Sample of North American Women with Leiomyomas Identifies MED12 Mutations in Majority of Uterine Leiomyomas  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas (uterine fibroids) arise from smooth muscle tissue in the majority of women by age 45. It is common for these clonal tumors to develop from multiple locations within the uterus, leading to a variety of symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility. We performed whole exome sequencing on genomic DNA from five pairs of leiomyomas and corresponding normal myometrium to determine genetic variations unique to leiomyomas. Whole exome sequencing revealed that the gene encoding transcription factor MED12 (Mediator complex subunit 12) harbored heterozygous missense mutations caused by single nucleotide variants in highly conserved codon 44 of exon 2 in two of five leiomyomas. Sanger re-sequencing of MED12 among these five leiomyomas confirmed the two single nucleotide variants and detected a 42 base-pair deletion within exon 2 of MED12 in a third leiomyoma. MED12 was sequenced in an additional 143 leiomyomas and 73 normal myometrial tissues. Overall, MED12 was mutated in 100/148 (67%) of the genotyped leiomyomas: 79/148 (53%) leiomyomas exhibited heterozygous missense single nucleotide variants, 17/148 (11%) leiomyomas exhibited heterozygous in-frame deletions/insertion-deletions, 2/148 (1%) leiomyomas exhibited intronic heterozygous single nucleotide variants affecting splicing, and 2/148 (1%) leiomyomas exhibited heterozygous deletions/insertion-deletions spanning the intron 1-exon 2 boundary which affected the splice acceptor site. Mutations were not detected in MED12 in normal myometrial tissue. MED12 mutations were equally distributed among karyotypically normal and abnormal uterine leiomyomas and were identified in leiomyomas from both black and white American women. Our studies show an association between MED12 mutations and leiomyomas in ethnically and racially diverse American women. PMID:22428002

McGuire, Megan M.; Yatsenko, Alexander; Hoffner, Lori; Jones, Mirka; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

2012-01-01

196

Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations in the nucleoside transporter gene SLC29A3 in dysosteosclerosis, a form of osteopetrosis  

PubMed Central

Dysosteosclerosis (DSS) is the form of osteopetrosis distinguished by the presence of skin findings such as red-violet macular atrophy, platyspondyly and metaphyseal osteosclerosis with relative radiolucency of widened diaphyses. At the histopathological level, there is a paucity of osteoclasts when the disease presents. In two patients with DSS, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous missense mutations in SLC29A3 by whole-exome sequencing. This gene encodes a nucleoside transporter, mutations in which cause histiocytosis–lymphadenopathy plus syndrome, a group of conditions with little or no skeletal involvement. This transporter is essential for lysosomal function in mice. We demonstrate the expression of Slc29a3 in mouse osteoclasts in vivo. In monocytes from patients with DSS, we observed reduced osteoclast differentiation and function (demineralization of calcium surface). Our report highlights the pleomorphic consequences of dysfunction of this nucleoside transporter, and importantly suggests a new mechanism for the control of osteoclast differentiation and function. PMID:22875837

Campeau, Philippe M.; Lu, James T.; Sule, Gautam; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Bae, Yangjin; Madan, Simran; Högler, Wolfgang; Shaw, Nicholas J.; Mumm, Steven; Gibbs, Richard A.; Whyte, Michael P.; Lee, Brendan H.

2012-01-01

197

Genetic Variants Associated with Breast Cancer Risk for Ashkenazi Jewish Women with Strong Family Histories but No Identifiable BRCA1/2 Mutation  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to establish genetic risk models is critical for early identification and optimal treatment of breast cancer. For such a model to gain clinical utility, more variants must be identified beyond those discovered in previous genome wide association studies (GWAS). This is especially true for women at high risk because of family history, but without BRCA1/2 mutations. Methods This study incorporates three datasets in a GWAS analysis of women with Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) homogeneous ancestry. Two independent discovery cohorts were comprised of 239 and 238 AJ women with invasive breast cancer or preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ and strong family histories of breast cancer, but lacking the three BRCA1/2 founder mutations, along with 294 and 230 AJ controls, respectively. An independent, third cohort of 203 AJ cases with familial breast cancer history and 263 healthy controls of AJ women was used for validation. Results A total of 19 SNPs were identified as associated with familial breast cancer risk in AJ women. Among these SNPs, 13 were identified from a panel of 109 discovery SNPs, including an FGFR2 haplotype. Additionally, 6 previously identified breast cancer GWAS SNPs were confirmed in this population. Seven of the 19 markers were significant in a multivariate predictive model of familial breast cancer in AJ women, 3 novel SNPs [rs17663555(5q13.2), rs566164(6q21), and rs11075884(16q22.2)], the FGFR2 haplotype, and 3 previously published SNPs [rs13387042(2q35), rs2046210(ESR1), and rs3112612(TOX3)], yielding moderate predictive power with an area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC (receiver-operator characteristic curve) of 0.74. Conclusion Population-specific genetic variants in addition to variants shared with populations of European ancestry may improve breast cancer risk prediction among AJ women from high-risk families without founder BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:23354978

Rinella, Erica S.; Shao, Yongzhao; Yackowski, Lauren; Pramanik, Sreemanta; Oratz, Ruth; Schnabel, Freya; Guha, Saurav; LeDuc, Charles; Campbell, Chris; Klugman, Susan D.; Terry, Mary Beth; Senie, Ruby T.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Daly, Mary; John, Esther M.; Roses, Daniel; Chung, Wendy K.; Ostrer, Harry

2014-01-01

198

Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations.  

PubMed

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal brain cancer that arises in the brainstem of children, with no effective treatment and near 100% fatality. The failure of most therapies can be attributed to the delicate location of these tumors and to the selection of therapies on the basis of assumptions that DIPGs are molecularly similar to adult disease. Recent studies have unraveled the unique genetic makeup of this brain cancer, with nearly 80% found to harbor a p.Lys27Met histone H3.3 or p.Lys27Met histone H3.1 alteration. However, DIPGs are still thought of as one disease, with limited understanding of the genetic drivers of these tumors. To understand what drives DIPGs, we integrated whole-genome sequencing with methylation, expression and copy number profiling, discovering that DIPGs comprise three molecularly distinct subgroups (H3-K27M, silent and MYCN) and uncovering a new recurrent activating mutation affecting the activin receptor gene ACVR1 in 20% of DIPGs. Mutations in ACVR1 were constitutively activating, leading to SMAD phosphorylation and increased expression of the downstream activin signaling targets ID1 and ID2. Our results highlight distinct molecular subgroups and novel therapeutic targets for this incurable pediatric cancer. PMID:24705254

Buczkowicz, Pawel; Hoeman, Christine; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Pajovic, Sanja; Letourneau, Louis; Dzamba, Misko; Morrison, Andrew; Lewis, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Zuccaro, Jennifer; Agnihotri, Sameer; Ryall, Scott; Barszczyk, Mark; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; Bourgey, Mathieu; Bourque, Guillaume; Montpetit, Alexandre; Cordero, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Mangerel, Joshua; Tabori, Uri; Ho, King Ching; Huang, Annie; Taylor, Kathryn R; Mackay, Alan; Bendel, Anne E; Nazarian, Javad; Fangusaro, Jason R; Karajannis, Matthias A; Zagzag, David; Foreman, Nicholas K; Donson, Andrew; Hegert, Julia V; Smith, Amy; Chan, Jennifer; Lafay-Cousin, Lucy; Dunn, Sandra; Hukin, Juliette; Dunham, Chris; Scheinemann, Katrin; Michaud, Jean; Zelcer, Shayna; Ramsay, David; Cain, Jason; Brennan, Cameron; Souweidane, Mark M; Jones, Chris; Allis, C David; Brudno, Michael; Becher, Oren; Hawkins, Cynthia

2014-05-01

199

Sixteen novel mutations identified in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes in Slovenian families with Alport syndrome and benign familial hematuria.  

PubMed

Alport syndrome (ATS) and benign familial hematuria (BFH) are type IV collagen inherited disorders. Mutations in COL4A5 are generally believed to cause X-linked ATS, whereas mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes can be associated with the autosomal-recessive and -dominant type of ATS or BFH. In view of the wide spectrum of phenotypes, an exact diagnosis is sometimes difficult to achieve. This study involved screening each exon with boundary intronic sequences of COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes by optimized polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis in 17 families with ATS and in 40 families diagnosed as having BFH. Twelve different mutations were found in the COL4A5 gene in ATS patients, comprising nine missense mutations, a splice site mutation, a mutation causing frameshift, and a nonsense mutation. One of the missense mutations (p.G624D) was present not only in one family with ATS but also in five families with suspected BFH. Three heterozygous mutations in the COL4A3 gene (two missense and one frameshift) and four heterozygous mutations in COL4A4 (two splice site, one in-frame deletion, and one missense) were identified in patients with BFH. Sixteen mutations are to the best of our knowledge new and private. PMID:17396119

Slajpah, M; Gorinsek, B; Berginc, G; Vizjak, A; Ferluga, D; Hvala, A; Meglic, A; Jaksa, I; Furlan, P; Gregoric, A; Kaplan-Pavlovcic, S; Ravnik-Glavac, M; Glavac, D

2007-06-01

200

Targeted deep resequencing identifies MID2 mutation for X-linked intellectual disability with varied disease severity in a large kindred from India.  

PubMed

We report a novel missense mutation (c.1040G>A, p.Arg347Gln) in MID2, which encodes ubiquitin ligase E3, as the likely cause of X-linked mental retardation in a large kindred. The mutation was observed in all affected and obligate carriers but not in any unaffected males of the family or in population controls (n = 200). When transiently expressed in HEK293T cell line, the mutation was found to abolish the function of the COS domain in the protein. The GFP-tagged mutant protein accumulated in the cytoplasm instead of binding to the cytoskeleton resulting in its altered subcellular localization. Screening of coding exons of this gene in additional 480 unrelated individuals with idiopathic intellectual disability identified another novel variation p.Asn343Ser. This study highlights the growing role of the ubiquitin pathway in intellectual disability and also, the difference in MID2 determined phenotype observed in this study compared with that of its paralogue MID1 reported in literature. PMID:24115387

Geetha, Thenral S; Michealraj, Kulandaimanuvel Antony; Kabra, Madhulika; Kaur, Gurjit; Juyal, Ramesh C; Thelma, B K

2014-01-01

201

The CHEK2 1100delC Mutation Identifies Families with a Hereditary Breast and Colorectal Cancer Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Because of genetic heterogeneity, the identification of breast cancer–susceptibility genes has proven to be exceedingly difficult. Here, we define a new subset of families with breast cancer characterized by the presence of colorectal cancer cases. The 1100delC variant of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase CHEK2 gene was present in 18% of 55 families with hereditary breast and colorectal cancer (HBCC) as compared with 4% of 380 families with non-HBCC (P<.001), thus providing genetic evidence for the HBCC phenotype. The CHEK2 1100delC mutation was, however, not the major predisposing factor for the HBCC phenotype but appeared to act in synergy with another, as-yet-unknown susceptibility gene(s). The unequivocal definition of the HBCC phenotype opens new avenues to search for this putative HBCC-susceptibility gene. PMID:12690581

Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Wijnen, Juul; Vasen, Hans; Wasielewski, Marijke; Wagner, Anja; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Elstrodt, Fons; van den Bos, Renate; de Snoo, Anja; Tjon A Fat, Grace; Brekelmans, Cecile; Jagmohan, Shantie; Franken, Patrick; Verkuijlen, Paul; van den Ouweland, Ans; Chapman, Pamela; Tops, Carli; Möslein, Gabriela; Burn, John; Lynch, Henry; Klijn, Jan; Fodde, Riccardo; Schutte, Mieke

2003-01-01

202

Genome-wide association analysis identifies a mutation in the thiamine transporter 2 (SLC19A3) gene associated with Alaskan Husky encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Alaskan Husky Encephalopathy (AHE) has been previously proposed as a mitochondrial encephalopathy based on neuropathological similarities with human Leigh Syndrome (LS). We studied 11 Alaskan Husky dogs with AHE, but found no abnormalities in respiratory chain enzyme activities in muscle and liver, or mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes that cause LS in people. A genome wide association study was performed using eight of the affected dogs and 20 related but unaffected control AHs using the Illumina canine HD array. SLC19A3 was identified as a positional candidate gene. This gene controls the uptake of thiamine in the CNS via expression of the thiamine transporter protein THTR2. Dogs have two copies of this gene located within the candidate interval (SLC19A3.2 - 43.36-43.38 Mb and SLC19A3.1 - 43.411-43.419 Mb) on chromosome 25. Expression analysis in a normal dog revealed that one of the paralogs, SLC19A3.1, was expressed in the brain and spinal cord while the other was not. Subsequent exon sequencing of SLC19A3.1 revealed a 4bp insertion and SNP in the second exon that is predicted to result in a functional protein truncation of 279 amino acids (c.624 insTTGC, c.625 C>A). All dogs with AHE were homozygous for this mutation, 15/41 healthy AH control dogs were heterozygous carriers while 26/41 normal healthy AH dogs were wild type. Furthermore, this mutation was not detected in another 187 dogs of different breeds. These results suggest that this mutation in SLC19A3.1, encoding a thiamine transporter protein, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AHE. PMID:23469184

Vernau, Karen M; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Brown, Emily A; Cameron, Jessie M; Huson, Heather J; Higgins, Robert J; Ackerley, Cameron; Sturges, Beverly K; Dickinson, Peter J; Puschner, Birgit; Giulivi, Cecilia; Shelton, G Diane; Robinson, Brian H; DiMauro, Salvatore; Bollen, Andrew W; Bannasch, Danika L

2013-01-01

203

Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies a Mutation in the Thiamine Transporter 2 (SLC19A3) Gene Associated with Alaskan Husky Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Alaskan Husky Encephalopathy (AHE) has been previously proposed as a mitochondrial encephalopathy based on neuropathological similarities with human Leigh Syndrome (LS). We studied 11 Alaskan Husky dogs with AHE, but found no abnormalities in respiratory chain enzyme activities in muscle and liver, or mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes that cause LS in people. A genome wide association study was performed using eight of the affected dogs and 20 related but unaffected control AHs using the Illumina canine HD array. SLC19A3 was identified as a positional candidate gene. This gene controls the uptake of thiamine in the CNS via expression of the thiamine transporter protein THTR2. Dogs have two copies of this gene located within the candidate interval (SLC19A3.2 – 43.36–43.38 Mb and SLC19A3.1 – 43.411–43.419 Mb) on chromosome 25. Expression analysis in a normal dog revealed that one of the paralogs, SLC19A3.1, was expressed in the brain and spinal cord while the other was not. Subsequent exon sequencing of SLC19A3.1 revealed a 4bp insertion and SNP in the second exon that is predicted to result in a functional protein truncation of 279 amino acids (c.624 insTTGC, c.625 C>A). All dogs with AHE were homozygous for this mutation, 15/41 healthy AH control dogs were heterozygous carriers while 26/41 normal healthy AH dogs were wild type. Furthermore, this mutation was not detected in another 187 dogs of different breeds. These results suggest that this mutation in SLC19A3.1, encoding a thiamine transporter protein, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AHE. PMID:23469184

Vernau, Karen M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Brown, Emily A.; Cameron, Jessie M.; Huson, Heather J.; Higgins, Robert J.; Ackerley, Cameron; Sturges, Beverly K.; Dickinson, Peter J.; Puschner, Birgit; Giulivi, Cecilia; Shelton, G. Diane; Robinson, Brian H.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Bollen, Andrew W.; Bannasch, Danika L.

2013-01-01

204

An RNA-seq Protocol to Identify mRNA Expression Changes in Mouse Diaphyseal Bone: Applications in Mice with Bone Property Altering Lrp5 Mutations  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function and certain missense mutations in the Wnt co-receptor LRP5 significantly decrease or increase bone mass, respectively. These human skeletal phenotypes have been recapitulated in mice harboring Lrp5 knockout and knockin mutations. We hypothesized that measuring mRNA expression in diaphyseal bone from mice with Lrp5 wild-type (Lrp5+/+), knockout (Lrp5?/?), and high bone mass (HBM)-causing (Lrp5p.A214V/+) alleles could identify genes and pathways that regulate or are regulated by LRP5 activity. We performed RNA-seq on pairs of tibial diaphyseal bones from four 16-week-old mice with each of the aforementioned genotypes. We then evaluated different methods for controlling for contaminating non-skeletal tissue (i.e., blood, bone marrow, and skeletal muscle) in our data. These methods included pre-digestion of diaphyseal bone with collagenase and separate transcriptional profiling of blood, skeletal muscle and bone marrow. We found that collagenase digestion reduced contamination, but also altered gene expression in the remaining cells. In contrast, in silico filtering of the diaphyseal bone RNA-seq data for highly expressed blood, skeletal muscle, and bone marrow transcripts significantly increased the correlation between RNA-seq data from an animal’s right and left tibiae and from animals with the same Lrp5 genotype. We conclude that reliable and reproducible RNA-seq data can be obtained from mouse diaphyseal bone and that lack of LRP5 has a more pronounced effect on gene expression than the HBM-causing LRP5 missense mutation. We identified 84 differentially expressed protein-coding transcripts between LRP5 “sufficient” (i.e., Lrp5+/+ and Lrp5p.A214V/+) and “insufficient” (Lrp5?/?) diaphyseal bone, and far fewer differentially expressed genes between Lrp5p.A214V/+ and Lrp5+/+ diaphyseal bone. PMID:23553928

Ayturk, Ugur M.; Jacobsen, Christina M.; Christodoulou, Danos C.; Gorham, Joshua; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Robling, Alexander G.; Warman, Matthew L.

2013-01-01

205

Potential RNA Binding Proteins in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Identified as Suppressors of Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Npl3  

PubMed Central

The NPL3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with similarity to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Npl3p has been implicated in many nuclear-related events including RNA export, protein import, and rRNA processing. Several temperature-sensitive alleles of NPL3 have been isolated. We now report the sequence of these alleles. For one allele, npl3-1, four complementation groups of suppressors have been isolated. The cognate genes for the two recessive mutants were cloned. One of these is the previously known RNA15, which, like NPL3, also encodes a protein with similarity to the vertebrate hnRNP A/B protein family. The other suppressor corresponds to a newly defined gene we term HRP1, which also encodes a protein with similarity to the hnRNP A/B proteins of vertebrates. Mutations in HRP1 suppress all npl3 temperature-sensitive alleles but do not bypass an npl3 null allele. We show that HRP1 is essential for cell growth and that the corresponding protein is located in the nucleus. The discovery of two hnRNP homologues that can partially suppress the function of Np13p, also an RNA binding protein, will be discussed in terms of the possible roles for Npl3p in RNA metabolism. PMID:8770588

Henry, M.; Borland, C. Z.; Bossie, M.; Silver, P. A.

1996-01-01

206

Molecular basis of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency caused by 3 newly identified missense mutations (c.187T>C, c.469G>C and c.740T>C) and a tabulation of known mutations.  

PubMed

Hereditary pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency is the most frequent enzymopathy of red blood cell nucleotide metabolism that causes hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. The disease is usually characterized by mild-to-moderate hemolytic anemia, reticulocytosis and hyperbilirubinemia. To date, diagnosis ultimately depends upon demonstration of a reduced level of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase type-I (P5'N-1) activity in red cells and detection of mutations in the P5'N-1 gene. To unravel the causes of the P5'N deficiency and to obtain data for a definitive diagnosis three newly described missense mutations (c.187T>C, c.469G>C and c.740T>C) identified in patients with hemolytic anemia have been characterized at protein level. The mutant enzymes (C63R, G157R and I247T) were obtained as recombinant forms and purified to homogeneity. The enzymes were altered, although to a different extent, in both thermal stability and catalytic efficiency. The catalytic efficiency of all mutants was reduced especially towards UMP (up to more than 200 times), owing to the increased Km values (approximately, 10-25 times higher). The G157R enzyme was severely heat unstable and lost half of its activity after about 23 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. At higher temperature C63R and I247T mutants as well were less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Therefore, although the mutations targeted different regions of the P5'N-1 structure, they produced similar effects on the molecular properties of the enzyme. Thus, all affected amino acids are functionally and structurally important for preserving the enzyme activity during the red cell life span. PMID:18499901

Chiarelli, Laurent R; Morera, Simone M; Galizzi, Alessandro; Fermo, Elisa; Zanella, Alberto; Valentini, Giovanna

2008-01-01

207

Topology based data analysis identifies a subgroup of breast cancers with a unique mutational profile and excellent survival  

PubMed Central

High-throughput biological data, whether generated as sequencing, transcriptional microarrays, proteomic, or other means, continues to require analytic methods that address its high dimensional aspects. Because the computational part of data analysis ultimately identifies shape characteristics in the organization of data sets, the mathematics of shape recognition in high dimensions continues to be a crucial part of data analysis. This article introduces a method that extracts information from high-throughput microarray data and, by using topology, provides greater depth of information than current analytic techniques. The method, termed Progression Analysis of Disease (PAD), first identifies robust aspects of cluster analysis, then goes deeper to find a multitude of biologically meaningful shape characteristics in these data. Additionally, because PAD incorporates a visualization tool, it provides a simple picture or graph that can be used to further explore these data. Although PAD can be applied to a wide range of high-throughput data types, it is used here as an example to analyze breast cancer transcriptional data. This identified a unique subgroup of Estrogen Receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers that express high levels of c-MYB and low levels of innate inflammatory genes. These patients exhibit 100% survival and no metastasis. No supervised step beyond distinction between tumor and healthy patients was used to identify this subtype. The group has a clear and distinct, statistically significant molecular signature, it highlights coherent biology but is invisible to cluster methods, and does not fit into the accepted classification of Luminal A/B, Normal-like subtypes of ER+ breast cancers. We denote the group as c-MYB+ breast cancer. PMID:21482760

Nicolau, Monica; Levine, Arnold J.; Carlsson, Gunnar

2011-01-01

208

Exome sequencing identifies frequent mutation of the SWI\\/SNF complex gene PBRM1 in renal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetics of renal cancer is dominated by inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the commonest histological subtype. A recent large-scale screen of ~3,500 genes by PCR-based exon re-sequencing identified several new cancer genes in ccRCC including UTX (also known as KDM6A), JARID1C (also known as KDM5C) and SETD2 (ref. 2). These genes encode

Ignacio Varela; Patrick Tarpey; Keiran Raine; Dachuan Huang; Choon Kiat Ong; Philip Stephens; Helen Davies; David Jones; Meng-Lay Lin; Jon Teague; Graham Bignell; Adam Butler; Juok Cho; Gillian L. Dalgliesh; Danushka Galappaththige; Chris Greenman; Claire Hardy; Mingming Jia; Calli Latimer; King Wai Lau; John Marshall; Stuart McLaren; Andrew Menzies; Laura Mudie; Lucy Stebbings; David A. Largaespada; L. F. A. Wessels; Stephane Richard; Richard J. Kahnoski; John Anema; David A. Tuveson; Pedro A. Perez-Mancera; Ville Mustonen; Andrej Fischer; David J. Adams; Alistair Rust; Waraporn Chan-On; Chutima Subimerb; Karl Dykema; Kyle Furge; Peter J. Campbell; Bin Tean Teh; Michael R. Stratton; P. Andrew Futreal

2011-01-01

209

Oral and Craniofacial Manifestations and Two Novel Missense Mutations of the NTRK1 Gene Identified in the Patient with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis  

PubMed Central

Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system resulting from mutations in neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 gene (NTRK1), which encodes the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TRKA. Here, we investigated the oral and craniofacial manifestations of a Chinese patient affected by autosomal-recessive CIPA and identified compound heterozygosity in the NTRK1 gene. The affected boy has multisystemic disorder with lack of reaction to pain stimuli accompanied by self-mutilation behavior, the inability to sweat leading to defective thermoregulation, and mental retardation. Oral and craniofacial manifestations included a large number of missing teeth, nasal malformation, submucous cleft palate, severe soft tissue injuries, dental caries and malocclusion. Histopathological evaluation of the skin sample revealed severe peripheral nerve fiber loss as well as mild loss and absent innervation of sweat glands. Ultrastructural and morphometric studies of a shed tooth revealed dental abnormalities, including hypomineralization, dentin hypoplasia, cementogenesis defects and a dysplastic periodontal ligament. Genetic analysis revealed a compound heterozygosity- c.1561T>C and c.2057G>A in the NTRK1 gene. This report extends the spectrum of NTRK1 mutations observed in patients diagnosed with CIPA and provides additional insight for clinical and molecular diagnosis. PMID:23799134

Bai, Yudi; Liu, Xin; Yu, Ping; Xue, Yang; Ma, Shufang; Wei, Kewen; Jin, Yan; Wen, Lingying; Xuan, Kun

2013-01-01

210

Positional cloning and next-generation sequencing identified a TGM6 mutation in a large Chinese pedigree with acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

An inherited predisposition to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is exceedingly rare, but the investigation of these families will aid in the delineation of the underlying mechanisms of the more common, sporadic cases. Three AML predisposition genes, RUNX1, CEBPA and GATA2, have been recognised, but the culprit genes in the majority of AML pedigrees remain obscure. We applied a combined strategy of linkage analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology in an autosomal-dominant AML Chinese family with 11 cases in four generations. A genome-wide linkage scan using a 500K SNP genotyping array was conducted to identify a previously unreported candidate region on 20p13 with a maximum multipoint heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) score of 3.56 (P=0.00005). Targeted NGS within this region and whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed a missense mutation in TGM6 (RefSeq, NM_198994.2:c.1550T>G, p.(L517W)), which cosegregated with the phenotype in this family, and was absent in 530 healthy controls. The mutated amino acid was located in a highly conserved position, which may be deleterious and affect the activation of TGM6. Our results strongly support the candidacy of TGM6 as a novel familial AML-associated gene. PMID:24755948

Pan, Li-Li; Huang, Yuan-Mao; Wang, Min; Zhuang, Xiao-E; Luo, Dong-Feng; Guo, Shi-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Shun; Huang, Qing; Lin, Sheng-Long; Wang, Shao-Yuan

2015-02-01

211

Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P?=?2.7×10?8, HR?=?1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P?=?1.4×10?8, HR?=?1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P?=?3.4×10?8, HR?=?1.20, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P?=?2×10?4). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%–50% compared to 81%–100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers. PMID:23544013

Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M.; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Lee, Adam; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Investigators, kConFab; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Caligo, Maria A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M.; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmaña, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Arun, Banu K.; Rennert, Gad; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gille, Johannes J. P.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A. M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M.; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T.; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Léoné, Mélanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Z?owocka-Per?owska, El?bieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Cohn, David E.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M.; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon Paluch, Shani; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; Jønson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A.; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R.; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Buys, Saundra S.; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A.; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K.; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.

2013-01-01

212

To the Root of the Curl: A Signature of a Recent Selective Sweep Identifies a Mutation That Defines the Cornish Rex Cat Breed  

PubMed Central

The cat (Felis silvestris catus) shows significant variation in pelage, morphological, and behavioral phenotypes amongst its over 40 domesticated breeds. The majority of the breed specific phenotypic presentations originated through artificial selection, especially on desired novel phenotypic characteristics that arose only a few hundred years ago. Variations in coat texture and color of hair often delineate breeds amongst domestic animals. Although the genetic basis of several feline coat colors and hair lengths are characterized, less is known about the genes influencing variation in coat growth and texture, especially rexoid – curly coated types. Cornish Rex is a cat breed defined by a fixed recessive curly coat trait. Genome-wide analyses for selection (di, Tajima’s D and nucleotide diversity) were performed in the Cornish Rex breed and in 11 phenotypically diverse breeds and two random bred populations. Approximately 63K SNPs were used in the analysis that aimed to localize the locus controlling the rexoid hair texture. A region with a strong signature of recent selective sweep was identified in the Cornish Rex breed on chromosome A1, as well as a consensus block of homozygosity that spans approximately 3 Mb. Inspection of the region for candidate genes led to the identification of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6). A 4 bp deletion in exon 5, c.250_253_delTTTG, which induces a premature stop codon in the receptor, was identified via Sanger sequencing. The mutation is fixed in Cornish Rex, absent in all straight haired cats analyzed, and is also segregating in the German Rex breed. LPAR6 encodes a G protein-coupled receptor essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the hair shaft; and has mutations resulting in a wooly hair phenotype in humans. PMID:23826204

Gandolfi, Barbara; Alhaddad, Hasan; Affolter, Verena K.; Brockman, Jeffrey; Haggstrom, Jens; Joslin, Shannon E. K.; Koehne, Amanda L.; Mullikin, James C.; Outerbridge, Catherine A.; Warren, Wesley C.; Lyons, Leslie A.

2013-01-01

213

Gain-of-Sensitivity Mutations in a Trim5-Resistant Primary Isolate of Pathogenic SIV Identify Two Independent Conserved Determinants of Trim5? Specificity  

PubMed Central

Retroviral capsid recognition by Trim5 blocks productive infection. Rhesus macaques harbor three functionally distinct Trim5 alleles: Trim5?Q, Trim5?TFP and Trim5CypA. Despite the high degree of amino acid identity between Trim5?Q and Trim5?TFP alleles, the Q/TFP polymorphism results in the differential restriction of some primate lentiviruses, suggesting these alleles differ in how they engage these capsids. Simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaques (SIVmac) evolved to resist all three alleles. Thus, SIVmac provides a unique opportunity to study a virus in the context of the Trim5 repertoire that drove its evolution in vivo. We exploited the evolved rhesus Trim5? resistance of this capsid to identify gain-of-sensitivity mutations that distinguish targets between the Trim5?Q and Trim5?TFP alleles. While both alleles recognize the capsid surface, Trim5?Q and Trim5?TFP alleles differed in their ability to restrict a panel of capsid chimeras and single amino acid substitutions. When mapped onto the structure of the SIVmac239 capsid N-terminal domain, single amino acid substitutions affecting both alleles mapped to the ?-hairpin. Given that none of the substitutions affected Trim5?Q alone, and the fact that the ?-hairpin is conserved among retroviral capsids, we propose that the ?-hairpin is a molecular pattern widely exploited by Trim5? proteins. Mutations specifically affecting rhesus Trim5?TFP (without affecting Trim5?Q) surround a site of conservation unique to primate lentiviruses, overlapping the CPSF6 binding site. We believe targeting this site is an evolutionary innovation driven specifically by the emergence of primate lentiviruses in Africa during the last 12 million years. This modularity in targeting may be a general feature of Trim5 evolution, permitting different regions of the PRYSPRY domain to evolve independent interactions with capsid. PMID:23675300

McCarthy, Kevin R.; Schmidt, Aaron G.; Kirmaier, Andrea; Wyand, Allison L.; Newman, Ruchi M.; Johnson, Welkin E.

2013-01-01

214

Mapping of ATP binding regions in poly(A) polymerases by photoaffinity labeling and by mutational analysis identifies a domain conserved in many nucleotidyltransferases.  

PubMed Central

We have identified regions in poly(A) polymerases that interact with ATP. Conditions were established for efficient cross-linking of recombinant bovine and yeast poly(A) polymerases to 8-azido-ATP. Mn2+ strongly stimulated this reaction due to a 50-fold lower Ki for 8-azido-ATP in the presence of Mn2+. Mutations of the highly conserved Asp residues 113, 115, and 167, critical for metal binding in the catalytic domain of bovine poly(A) polymerase, led to a strong reduction of cross-linking efficiency, and Mn2+ no longer stimulated the reaction. Sites of 8-azido-ATP cross-linking were mapped in different poly(A) polymerases by CNBr-cleavage and analysis of tryptic peptides by mass spectroscopy. The main cross-link in Schizosaccharomyces pombe poly(A) polymerase could be assigned to the peptide DLELSDNNLLK (amino acids 167-177). Database searches with sequences surrounding the cross-link site detected significant homologies to other nucleotidyltransferase families, suggesting a conservation of the nucleotide-binding fold among these families of enzymes. Mutations in the region of the "helical turn motif" (a domain binding the triphosphate moiety of the nucleotide) and in the suspected nucleotide-binding helix of bovine poly(A) polymerase impaired ATP binding and catalysis. The results indicate that ATP is bound in part by the helical turn motif and in part by a region that may be a structural analog to the fingers domain found in many polymerases. PMID:10595540

Martin, G.; Jenö, P.; Keller, W.

1999-01-01

215

IDH1 and IDH2 Gene Mutations Identify Novel Molecular Subsets Within De Novo Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the frequency and associations with prognostic markers and outcome of mutations in IDH genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenases in adult de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients and Methods Diagnostic bone marrow or blood samples from 358 patients were analyzed for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations by DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification/sequencing. FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, WT1, and MLL mutational analyses and gene- and microRNA-expression profiling were performed centrally. Results IDH mutations were found in 33% of the patients. IDH1 mutations were detected in 49 patients (14%; 47 with R132). IDH2 mutations, previously unreported in AML, were detected in 69 patients (19%; 13 with R172 and 56 with R140). R172 IDH2 mutations were mutually exclusive with all other prognostic mutations analyzed. Younger age (< 60 years), molecular low-risk (NPM1-mutated/FLT3-internal tandem duplication–negative) IDH1-mutated patients had shorter disease-free survival than molecular low-risk IDH1/IDH2-wild-type (wt) patients (P = .046). R172 IDH2-mutated patients had lower complete remission rates than IDH1/IDH2wt patients (P = .007). Distinctive microarray gene- and microRNA-expression profiles accurately predicted R172 IDH2 mutations. The highest expressed gene and microRNAs in R172 IDH2-mutated patients compared with the IDH1/IDH2wt patients were APP (previously associated with complex karyotype AML) and miR-1 and miR-133 (involved in embryonal stem-cell differentiation), respectively. Conclusion IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are recurrent in CN-AML and have an unfavorable impact on outcome. The R172 IDH2 mutations, previously unreported in AML, characterize a novel subset of CN-AML patients lacking other prognostic mutations and associate with unique gene- and microRNA-expression profiles that may lead to the discovery of novel, therapeutically targetable leukemogenic mechanisms. PMID:20368543

Marcucci, Guido; Maharry, Kati; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Radmacher, Michael D.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Margeson, Dean; Holland, Kelsi B.; Whitman, Susan P.; Becker, Heiko; Schwind, Sebastian; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Powell, Bayard L.; Carter, Thomas H.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Wetzler, Meir; Carroll, Andrew J.; Baer, Maria R.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

2010-01-01

216

Clinical Features and Molecular Genetics: Mutations in the ARX gene have been identified in patients with X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia  

E-print Network

/cryptogenic infantile spasms [2], and X-linked mental retardation (MRX) [3]. Preliminary findings and ongoing studies. Stromme et al." Mutations in the human ortholog of Aristaless cause X-linked mental retardation expressed in the telencephalon, is mutated in X-linked mental retardation". (2002) Hum. Mol. Genet. 11

Das, Soma

217

Clinical Features and Molecular Genetics: Mutations in the ARX gene have been identified in patients with X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia  

E-print Network

/cryptogenic infantile spasms [2], and X-linked mental retardation (MRX) [3]. Preliminary findings and ongoing studies:359-69. 2. Stromme et al." Mutations in the human ortholog of Aristaless cause X-linked mental retardation expressed in the telencephalon, is mutated in X-linked mental retardation". (2002) Hum. Mol. Genet. 11

Ober, Carole

218

Somatic mosaicism for a newly identified splice-site mutation in a patient with adenosine deaminase-deficient immunodeficiency and spontaneous clinical recovery  

SciTech Connect

Absent or severely reduced adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity produces inherited immunodeficiency of varying severity, with defects of both cellular and humoral immunity. The authors report somatic mosaicism as the basis for a delayed presentation and unusual course of a currently healthy young adult receiving no therapy. He was diagnosed at age 2[1/2] years because of life-threatening pneumonia, recurrent infections, failure of normal growth, and lymphopenia, but he retained significant cellular immune function. A fibroblast cell line and a B cell line, established at diagnosis, lacked ADA activity and were heteroallelic for a splice-donor-site mutation in IVS 1 (+1GT[yields]CT) and a missense mutation (Arg101Gln). All clones (17/17) isolated from the B cell mRNA carried the missense mutation, indicating that the allele with the splice-site mutation produced unstable mRNA. In striking contrast, a B cell line established at age 16 years expressed 50% of normal ADA; 50% had the missense mutation. Genomic DNA contained the missense mutation but not the splice-site mutation. All three cell lines were identical for multiple polymorphic markers and the presence of a Y chromosome. In vivo somatic mosaicism was demonstrated in genomic DNA from peripheral blood cells obtained at 16 years of age, in that less than half the DNA carried the splice-site mutation (P<.0.02, vs. original B cell line). Consistent with mosaicism, erythrocyte content of the toxic metabolite deoxyATP was only minimally elevated. Somatic mosaicism could have arisen either by somatic mutation or by reversion at the site of mutation. Selection in vivo for ADA normal hematopoietic cells may have played a role in the return to normal health, in the absence of therapy. 57 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Hirschhorn, R.; Yang, D.R.; Israni, A.; Huie, M.L. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States)); Ownby, D.R. (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States))

1994-07-01

219

A de novo missense mutation of the beta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel causes hypertension and Liddle syndrome, identifying a proline-rich segment critical for regulation of channel activity.  

PubMed Central

Liddle syndrome is a mendelian form of hypertension characterized by constitutively elevated renal Na reabsorption that can result from activating mutations in the beta or gamma subunit of the epithelial Na channel. All reported mutations have deleted the last 45-76 normal amino acids from the cytoplasmic C terminus of one of these channel subunits. While these findings implicate these terminal segments in the normal negative regulation of channel activity, they do not identify the amino acid residues that are critical targets for these mutations. Potential targets include the short highly conserved Pro-rich segments present in the C terminus of beta and gamma subunits; these segments are similar to SH3-binding domains that mediate protein-protein interaction. We now report a kindred with Liddle syndrome in which affected patients have a mutation in codon 616 of the beta subunit resulting in substitution of a Leu for one of these highly conserved Pro residues. The functional significance of this mutation is demonstrated both by the finding that this is a de novo mutation appearing concordantly with the appearance of Liddle syndrome in the kindred and also by the marked activation of amiloride-sensitive Na channel activity seen in Xenopus oocytes expressing channels containing this mutant subunit (8.8-fold increase compared with control oocytes expressing normal channel subunits; P = 0.003). These findings demonstrate a de novo missense mutation causing Liddle syndrome and identify a critical channel residue important for the normal regulation of Na reabsorption in humans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8524790

Hansson, J H; Schild, L; Lu, Y; Wilson, T A; Gautschi, I; Shimkets, R; Nelson-Williams, C; Rossier, B C; Lifton, R P

1995-01-01

220

RUNX1 point mutations potentially identify a subset of early immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that may originate from differentiated T-cells.  

PubMed

The RUNX1/AML1 gene is among the most frequently mutated genes in human leukaemia. However, its association with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) remains poorly understood. In order to examine RUNX1 point mutations in T-ALL, we conducted an amplicon-based deep sequencing in 65 Southeast Asian childhood patients and 20 T-ALL cell lines, and detected RUNX1 mutations in 6 patients (9.2%) and 5 cell lines (25%). Interestingly, RUNX1-mutated T-ALL cases seem to constitute a subset of early immature T-ALL that may originate from differentiated T-cells. This result provides a deeper insight into the mechanistic basis for leukaemogenesis. PMID:24792891

Mok, Michelle Meng Huang; Du, Linsen; Wang, Chelsia Qiuxia; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Liu, Te Chih; Yin Kham, Shirley Kow; Sanda, Takaomi; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh; Osato, Motomi

2014-07-15

221

Mutational Analysis of Cysteine Residues within the Extracellular Domains of the Human Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) 1 Receptor Identifies Seven Mutants That Are Defective in VIP Binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the requirement of cysteine residues in the extracellular domains of the human VIP 1 receptor for binding VIP. Cys37, Cys50, Cys63, Cys72, Cys86, Cys105 and Cys122 (N-terminal extracellular domain), Cys208 and Cys215 (second extracellular loop) and Cys288 (third extracellular loop) were mutated into glycine, and mutated cDNAs tranfected into Cos-7 cells. It appeared

P. Gaudin; A. Couvineau; J. J. Maoret; C. Rouyerfessard; M. Laburthe

1995-01-01

222

Clinical Features and Molecular Genetics: Mutations in the ARX gene have been identified in patients with X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia  

E-print Network

/cryptogenic infantile spasms [2], and X-linked mental retardation (MRX) [3]. Preliminary findings and ongoing studies in the human ortholog of Aristaless cause X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy". (2002) Nature Genet. 30, is mutated in X-linked mental retardation". (2002) Hum. Mol. Genet. 11:981-991. Committed to CUSTOMIZED

Gilad, Yoav

223

Clinical Features and Molecular Genetics: Mutations in the ARX gene have been identified in patients with X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia  

E-print Network

/cryptogenic infantile spasms (2), and X-linked mental retardation (MRX) (3). Preliminary findings and ongoing studies in the human ortholog of Aristaless cause X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy. Nat Genet 2002: 30: 441 in the telencephalon, is mutated in X-linked mental retardation. Hum Mol Genet 2002: 11: 981-991. Committed

Das, Soma

224

Exome sequencing identifies DYNC2H1 mutations as a common cause of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome) without major polydactyly, renal or retinal involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) is a rare, often lethal, recessively inherited chondrodysplasia characterised by shortened ribs and long bones, sometimes accompanied by polydactyly, and renal, liver and retinal disease. Mutations in intraflagellar transport (IFT) genes cause JATD, including the IFT dynein-2 motor subunit gene DYNC2H1. Genetic heterogeneity and the large DYNC2H1 gene size have hindered JATD genetic diagnosis. Aims and methods To determine the contribution to JATD we screened DYNC2H1 in 71 JATD patients JATD patients combining SNP mapping, Sanger sequencing and exome sequencing. Results and conclusions We detected 34 DYNC2H1 mutations in 29/71 (41%) patients from 19/57 families (33%), showing it as a major cause of JATD especially in Northern European patients. This included 13 early protein termination mutations (nonsense/frameshift, deletion, splice site) but no patients carried these in combination, suggesting the human phenotype is at least partly hypomorphic. In addition, 21 missense mutations were distributed across DYNC2H1 and these showed some clustering to functional domains, especially the ATP motor domain. DYNC2H1 patients largely lacked significant extra-skeletal involvement, demonstrating an important genotype–phenotype correlation in JATD. Significant variability exists in the course and severity of the thoracic phenotype, both between affected siblings with identical DYNC2H1 alleles and among individuals with different alleles, which suggests the DYNC2H1 phenotype might be subject to modifier alleles, non-genetic or epigenetic factors. Assessment of fibroblasts from patients showed accumulation of anterograde IFT proteins in the ciliary tips, confirming defects similar to patients with other retrograde IFT machinery mutations, which may be of undervalued potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23456818

Schmidts, Miriam; Arts, Heleen H; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yap, Zhimin; Oud, Machteld M; Antony, Dinu; Duijkers, Lonneke; Emes, Richard D; Stalker, Jim; Yntema, Jan-Bart L; Plagnol, Vincent; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; Forsythe, Elisabeth; Lausch, Ekkehart; Veltman, Joris A; Roeleveld, Nel; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Kutkowska-Kazmierczak, Anna; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Elçio?lu, Nursel; van Maarle, Merel C; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Smithson, Sarah F; Wellesley, Diana; Verbeek, Nienke E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Kayserili, Hulya; Scambler, Peter J; Beales, Philip L; Knoers, Nine VAM; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M

2013-01-01

225

Novel CIC Point Mutations and an Exon-Spanning, Homozygous Deletion Identified in Oligodendroglial Tumors by a Comprehensive Genomic Approach Including Transcriptome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Oligodendroglial tumors form a distinct subgroup of gliomas, characterized by a better response to treatment and prolonged overall survival. Most oligodendrogliomas and also some oligoastrocytomas are characterized by a unique and typical unbalanced translocation, der(1,19), resulting in a 1p/19q co-deletion. Candidate tumor suppressor genes targeted by these losses, CIC on 19q13.2 and FUBP1 on 1p31.1, were only recently discovered. We analyzed 17 oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas by applying a comprehensive approach consisting of RNA expression analysis, DNA sequencing of CIC, FUBP1, IDH1/2, and array CGH. We confirmed three different genetic subtypes in our samples: i) the “oligodendroglial” subtype with 1p/19q co-deletion in twelve out of 17 tumors; ii) the “astrocytic” subtype in three tumors; iii) the “other” subtype in two tumors. All twelve tumors with the 1p/19q co-deletion carried the most common IDH1 R132H mutation. In seven of these tumors, we found protein-disrupting point mutations in the remaining allele of CIC, four of which are novel. One of these tumors also had a deleterious mutation in FUBP1. Only by integrating RNA expression and array CGH data, were we able to discover an exon-spanning homozygous microdeletion within the remaining allele of CIC in an additional tumor with 1p/19q co-deletion. Therefore we propose that the mutation rate might be underestimated when looking at sequence variants alone. In conclusion, the high frequency and the spectrum of CIC mutations in our 1p/19q-codeleted tumor cohort support the hypothesis that CIC acts as a tumor suppressor in these tumors, whereas FUBP1 might play only a minor role. PMID:24086756

Eisenreich, Sophie; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; Szafranski, Karol; Campos Valenzuela, Jaime A.; Rump, Andreas; Nigro, Janice M.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Gerlach, Eva-Maria; Hackmann, Karl; Schröck, Evelin; Krex, Dietmar; Kaderali, Lars; Schackert, Gabriele; Platzer, Matthias; Klink, Barbara

2013-01-01

226

Homozygosity Mapping and Candidate Prioritization Identify Mutations, Missed by Whole-Exome Sequencing, in SMOC2, Causing Major Dental Developmental Defects  

PubMed Central

Inherited dental malformations constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Here, we report on a severe developmental dental defect that results in a dentin dysplasia phenotype with major microdontia, oligodontia, and shape abnormalities in a highly consanguineous family. Homozygosity mapping revealed a unique zone on 6q27-ter. The two affected children were found to carry a homozygous mutation in SMOC2. Knockdown of smoc2 in zebrafish showed pharyngeal teeth that had abnormalities reminiscent of the human phenotype. Moreover, smoc2 depletion in zebrafish affected the expression of three major odontogenesis genes: dlx2, bmp2, and pitx2. PMID:22152679

Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Jamet, Xavier; Etard, Christelle; Laugel, Virginie; Muller, Jean; Geoffroy, Véronique; Strauss, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Valérie; Marion, Vincent; Poch, Olivier; Strahle, Uwe; Stoetzel, Corinne; Dollfus, Hélène

2011-01-01

227

Mutations in Conserved Residues of the C. elegans microRNA Argonaute ALG-1 Identify Separable Functions in ALG-1 miRISC Loading and Target Repression  

PubMed Central

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and stabilizing microRNAs. However, our results suggest that ALG-1(anti) proteins may sequester microRNAs in immature and functionally deficient microRNA Induced Silencing Complexes (miRISCs), and hence compete with ALG-2 for access to functional microRNAs. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that ALG-1(anti) proteins display an increased association with Dicer and a decreased association with AIN-1/GW182. These findings suggest that alg-1(anti) mutations impair the ability of ALG-1 miRISC to execute a transition from Dicer-associated microRNA processing to AIN-1/GW182 associated effector function, and indicate an active role for ALG/Argonaute in mediating this transition. PMID:24763381

Zinovyeva, Anna Y.; Bouasker, Samir; Simard, Martin J.; Hammell, Christopher M.; Ambros, Victor

2014-01-01

228

Exome sequencing identifies 2 novel presenilin 1 mutations (p.L166V and p.S230R) in British early-onset Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed Central

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) represents 1%–2% of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases, and it is generally characterized by a positive family history and a rapidly progressive symptomatology. Rare coding and fully penetrant variants in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the only causative mutations reported for autosomal dominant AD. Thus, in this study we used exome sequencing data to rapidly screen rare coding variability in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2, in a British cohort composed of 47 unrelated EOAD cases and 179 elderly controls, neuropathologically proven. We report 2 novel and likely pathogenic variants in PSEN1 (p.L166V and p.S230R). A comprehensive catalog of rare pathogenic variants in the AD Mendelian genes is pivotal for a premortem diagnosis of autosomal dominant EOAD and for the differential diagnosis with other early onset dementias such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). PMID:24880964

Sassi, Celeste; Guerreiro, Rita; Gibbs, Raphael; Ding, Jinhui; Lupton, Michelle K.; Troakes, Claire; Lunnon, Katie; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Brown, Kristelle S.; Medway, Chirstopher; Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Mann, David; Snowden, Julie; Neary, David; Harris, Jeniffer; Bras, Jose; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John F.; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

2014-01-01

229

Mutational analysis of the EMCV 2A protein identifies a nuclear localization signal and an eIF4E binding site  

SciTech Connect

Cardioviruses have a unique 2A protein (143 aa). During genome translation, the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2A is released through a ribosome skipping event mitigated through C-terminal 2A sequences and by subsequent N-terminal reaction with viral 3C{sup pro}. Although viral replication is cytoplasmic, mature 2A accumulates in nucleoli shortly after infection. Some protein also transiently associates with cytoplasmic 40S ribosomal subunits, an activity contributing to inhibition of cellular cap-dependent translation. Cardiovirus sequences predict an eIF4E binding site (aa 126-134) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS, aa 91-102), within 2A, both of which are functional during EMCV infection. Point mutations preventing eIF4E:2A interactions gave small-plaque phenotype viruses, but still inhibited cellular cap-dependent translation. Deletions within the NLS motif relocalized 2A to the cytoplasm and abrogated the inhibition of cap-dependent translation. A fusion protein linking the 2A NLS to eGFP was sufficient to redirect the reporter to the nucleus but not into nucleoli.

Groppo, Rachel; Brown, Bradley A.; Palmenberg, Ann C., E-mail: acpalmen@wisc.ed

2011-02-05

230

Mutational analysis of mammalian poly(A) polymerase identifies a region for primer binding and catalytic domain, homologous to the family X polymerases, and to other nucleotidyltransferases.  

PubMed Central

We have tested deletion and substitution mutants of bovine poly(A) polymerase, and have identified a small region that overlaps with a nuclear localization signal and binds to the RNA primer. Systematic mutagenesis of carboxylic amino acids led to the identification of three aspartates that are essential for catalysis. Sequence and secondary structure comparisons of regions surrounding these aspartates with sequences of other polymerases revealed a significant homology to the palm structure of DNA polymerase beta, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase and DNA polymerase IV of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all members of the family X of polymerases. This homology extends as far as cca: tRNA nucleotidyltransferase and streptomycin adenylyltransferase, an antibiotic resistance factor. Images PMID:8665867

Martin, G; Keller, W

1996-01-01

231

Mutational Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 MicroRNAs Identifies Viral mRNA Targets and Reveals Phenotypic Effects in Culture  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a ubiquitous human pathogen, expresses several viral microRNAs (miRNAs). These, along with the latency-associated transcript, represent the only viral RNAs detectable in latently infected neuronal cells. Here, for the first time, we analyze which HSV-1 miRNAs are loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), the key effector of miRNA function. Only 9 of the 17 reported HSV-1 miRNAs, i.e., miR-H1 to miR-H8 plus miR-H11, were found to actually load into the RISC. Surprisingly, this analysis also revealed that HSV-1 miRNAs loaded into the RISC with efficiencies that differed widely; <1% of the miR-H1-3p miRNA detectable in HSV-1-infected cells was loaded into the RISC. Analysis of HSV-1 mutants individually lacking the viral miR-H2, miR-H3, or miR-H4 miRNA revealed that loss of these miRNAs affected the rate of replication of HSV-1 in neuronal cells but not in fibroblasts. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression, as well as assays mapping viral miRNA binding sites in infected cells, showed that endogenous HSV-1 miR-H2 binds to viral ICP0 mRNA and inhibits its expression, while endogenous miR-H4 inhibits the expression of the viral ICP34.5 gene. In contrast, no viral mRNA target for miR-H3 could be detected, even though miR-H3, like miR-H4, is perfectly complementary to ICP34.5 mRNA. Together, these data demonstrate that endogenous HSV-1 miRNA expression can significantly alter viral replication in culture, and they also identify two viral mRNA targets for miR-H2 and miR-H4 that can partially explain this phenotype. PMID:23536669

Flores, Omar; Nakayama, Sanae; Whisnant, Adam W.; Javanbakht, Hassan; Cullen, Bryan R.

2013-01-01

232

Expression and mutation analyses implicate ARHGAP29 as the etiologic gene for the cleft lip with or without cleft palate locus identified by genome wide association on chromosome 1p22  

PubMed Central

Background Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect with complex etiology reflecting the action of multiple genetic and/or environmental factors. Genome wide association studies have successfully identified five novel loci associated with NSCL/P including a locus on 1p22.1 near the ABCA4 gene. Since neither expression analysis nor mutation screening support a role for ABCA4 in NSCL/P, we investigated the adjacent gene ARHGAP29. Methods Mutation screening for ARHGAP29 protein coding exons was conducted in 180 individuals with NSCL/P and controls from the US and the Philippines. Nine exons with variants in ARHGAP29 were then screened in an independent set of 872 cases and 802 controls. Arhgap29 expression was evaluated using in situ hybridization in murine embryos. Results Sequencing of ARHGAP29 revealed eight potentially deleterious variants in cases including a frameshift and a nonsense variant. Arhgap29 showed craniofacial expression and was reduced in a mouse deficient for Irf6, a gene previously shown to have a critical role in craniofacial development. Conclusion The combination of genome wide association, rare coding sequence variants, craniofacial specific expression and interactions with IRF6 support a role for ARHGAP29 in NSCL/P and as the etiologic gene at the 1p22 GWAS locus for NSCL/P. This work suggests a novel pathway in which the IRF6 gene regulatory network interacts with the Rho pathway via ARHGAP29. PMID:23008150

Leslie, Elizabeth J; Mansilla, M Adela; Biggs, Leah C; Schuette, Kristi; Bullard, Steve; Cooper, Margaret; Dunnwald, Martine; Lidral, Andrew C; Marazita, Mary L; Beaty, Terri H; Murray, Jeffrey C

2012-01-01

233

A novel ?-thalassemia frameshift mutation: codon 8 (-C).  

PubMed

We report a novel ?-thalassemia (?-thal) point mutation detected during newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies. Sequence analyses identified a frameshift mutation at codon 8 (-C) in exon 1 of the ?2-globin gene. This mutation causes an ?(+)-thal phenotype. PMID:22242813

Tang, Hai-Shen; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Xing-Mei; Li, Ru; Liao, Can; Li, Dong-Zhi

2012-01-01

234

Genetic Analysis of 63 Mutations Affecting Maize Kernel Development Isolated from Mutator Stocks  

PubMed Central

Sixty-three mutations affecting development of the maize kernel were isolated from active Robertson's Mutator (Mu) stocks. At least 14 previously undescribed maize gene loci were defined by mutations in this collection. Genetic mapping located 53 of these defective kernel (dek) mutations to particular chromosome arms, and more precise map determinations were made for 21 of the mutations. Genetic analyses identified 20 instances of allelism between one of the novel mutations and a previously described dek mutation, or between new dek mutations identified in this study; phenotypic variability was observed in three of the allelic series. Viability testing of homozygous mutant kernels identified numerous dek mutations with various pleiotropic effects on seedling and plant development. The mutations described here presumably arose by insertion of a Mu transposon within a dek gene; thus, many of the affected loci are expected to be accessible to molecular cloning via transposon-tagging. PMID:8138165

Scanlon, M. J.; Stinard, P. S.; James, M. G.; Myers, A. M.; Robertson, D. S.

1994-01-01

235

ATM mutations in hereditary pancreatic cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide sequencing identified heterozygous, constitutional, Ataxia telangiectaisa mutated (ATM) gene mutations in two kindreds with familial pancreatic cancer. Mutations segregated with disease in both kindreds and tumor analysis demonstrated LOH of the wildtype allele. Sequence analysis of an additional 166 familial pancreatic cancer probands indentified four additional patients with deleterious mutations in the ATM gene, while no deleterious mutations were identified in 190 spouse controls (p=0.046). These results indicate that ATM mutations play an important role in familial pancreatic cancer predisposition. PMID:22585167

Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jiao, Yuchen; Yu, Jun; Kopelovich, Levy; Petersen, Gloria M.; Bondy, Melissa; Gallinger, Steven; Schwartz, Ann G.; Syngal, Sapna; Cote, Michele L.; Axilbund, Jennifer; Schulick, Richard; Ali, Syed Z.; Eshleman, James R.; Velculescu, Victor; Goggins, Michael; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulous, Nikolas; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Klein, Alison P.

2013-01-01

236

Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph?) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph? MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

Lavi, Noa

2014-01-01

237

Calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph(-)) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph(-) MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

Lavi, Noa

2014-10-01

238

Novel ABCC6 Mutations in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporter gene (ABCC6), which manifests with cutaneous, ophthalmologic, and cardiovascular findings. We studied a cohort of 19 families with PXE, and identified 16 different mutations, nine of which were novel variants. The mutation detection rate was about 77%. We found that arginine codon

Nicolas Chassaing; Ludovic Martin; Juliette Mazereeuw; Laurence Barrié; Sonia Nizard; Jean-Louis Bonafé; Patrick Calvas; Alain Hovnanian

2004-01-01

239

ENAM mutations with incomplete penetrance.  

PubMed

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations. PMID:25143514

Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Koruyucu, M; Gencay, K; Bayram, M; Tuna, E B; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

2014-10-01

240

Analysis of Mucolipidosis II/III GNPTAB Missense Mutations Identifies Domains of UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal Enzyme GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase Involved in Catalytic Function and Lysosomal Enzyme Recognition.  

PubMed

UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase tags newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes with mannose 6-phosphate recognition markers, which are required for their targeting to the endolysosomal system. GNPTAB encodes the ? and ? subunits of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, and mutations in this gene cause the lysosomal storage disorders mucolipidosis II and III ??. Prior investigation of missense mutations in GNPTAB uncovered amino acids in the N-terminal region and within the DMAP domain involved in Golgi retention of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase and its ability to specifically recognize lysosomal hydrolases, respectively. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the remaining missense mutations in GNPTAB reported in mucolipidosis II and III ?? patients using cell- and zebrafish-based approaches. We show that the Stealth domain harbors the catalytic site, as some mutations in these regions greatly impaired the activity of the enzyme without affecting its Golgi localization and proteolytic processing. We also demonstrate a role for the Notch repeat 1 in lysosomal hydrolase recognition, as missense mutations in conserved cysteine residues in this domain do not affect the catalytic activity but impair mannose phosphorylation of certain lysosomal hydrolases. Rescue experiments using mRNA bearing Notch repeat 1 mutations in GNPTAB-deficient zebrafish revealed selective effects on hydrolase recognition that differ from the DMAP mutation. Finally, the mutant R587P, located in the spacer between Notch 2 and DMAP, was partially rescued by overexpression of the ? subunit, suggesting a role for this region in ? subunit binding. These studies provide new insight into the functions of the different domains of the ? and ? subunits. PMID:25505245

Qian, Yi; van Meel, Eline; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Yox, Alex; Steet, Richard; Kornfeld, Stuart

2015-01-30

241

Dozens of new de novo genetic mutations in schizophrenia identified http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121003132420.htm[10/9/2012 1:10:35 PM  

E-print Network

Mental Health Research Diseases and Conditions Genes Mind & Brain Schizophrenia Mental Health Disorders to the growing list of genetic variants that can contribute to the disease. The study, the largest and most in a substantial portion of sporadic cases of schizophrenia. The mutations were found in the part of the genome

242

?-Globin Mutations in Egyptian Patients With ?-Thalassemia.  

PubMed

?-thalassemia is a common hereditary disorder, particularly in Middle Eastern countries. More than 200 mutations in the ? globin gene have been reported; most are point mutations in functionally important regions (HBB; OMIM #141900)). The spectrum of mutations varies significantly between different geographical regions; only a few common mutations of ?-globin cause ?-thalassemia in each population. The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of mutations that cause ?-thalassemia in the North Coast of Egypt and to investigate their correlation with the phenotypic severity of ?-thalassemia. We carried out our study with a total of 47 Egyptian patients (25 male and 22 female) confirmed to have ?-thalassemia. Evaluation of ?-thalassemia mutations revealed the presence of 10 ?-globin mutations. The most frequently encountered mutations were intronic: IVS 1.6 [T>C] (27.66%) and IVS 1.110 [G>A] (22.35%), followed by IVS 2.848 [C>A], IVS 1.1 (G>A), and IVS 2.745 [C>G]. We observed the exonic and promoter mutations less frequently. A homozygous mutation was found in 24 patients (51%) and compound heterozygous mutations were found in 13 patients (28%). However, in 9 patients (19%), we identified only 1 mutation. In 1 patient (2%), we detected no mutation. The detection rate of the method that we used in our population was 88% (83 of the tested 94 alleles). The results we obtained did not reveal any correlation between genotype and phenotype among patients with ?-thalassemia. PMID:25617386

Elmezayen, Ammar D; Kotb, Samia M; Sadek, Nadia A; Abdalla, Ebtesam M

2015-01-01

243

[APC mutation analysis in sporadic colorectal cancer].  

PubMed

APC gene, responsible for familial adenomatous polyposiscoli, is one of the tumor suppressor genes involved in tumorigenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer. Because the majority of APC mutations are located in the 5' end of exon 15 and 95% of them generate stop codon, a coupled in vitro transcription and translation system (IVSP) was used to detect somatic APC mutation of exon 15 in sporadic colorectal cancer. Forty-nine mutated sporadic cases containing 59 truncated bands (9 cases with 2 bands) were identified. The results of the study showed: 1. APC frameshift mutations were more frequent than point mutations (60% vs 40%). Most of the frameshift mutations (32/35) were deletion or insertion of 1-2 bp, whereas 16 of all 23 point mutations presented C-to-T transitions. Mutations (57/59) were mostly but unevenly distributed in segment 2 and 3 of exon 15, while in segment 3, 69% (45/59) of all the mutations were predominantly located in mutation cluster region (codon 1286-1531). In seven of the 9 cases with 2 mutations their close proximity with each other is suggestive of the possibility of mutations at 2 independent alleles. The similarities between APC somatic and germline mutations suggest that APC gene might well have some common functions during the tumorigenesis of sporadic and hereditary coloretal cancer. PMID:9387290

Huang, J; Zheng, S; Jin, S

1996-11-01

244

A role for helix 3 of the TRbeta ligand-binding domain in coactivator recruitment identified by characterization of a third cluster of mutations in resistance to thyroid hormone.  

PubMed Central

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) has hitherto been associated with thyroid hormone beta receptor (TRbeta) mutations which cluster in two regions (alphaalpha 310-353 and alphaalpha 429-461) of the hormone-binding domain and closely approximate the ligand-binding cavity. Here, we describe a third cluster of RTH mutations extending from alphaalpha 234-282 which constitute a third boundary of the ligand pocket. One mutant, T277A, exhibits impaired transactivation which is disproportionate to its mildly reduced ligand affinity (Ka). T3-dependent recruitment of coactivators (SRC-1, ACTR) by mutant receptor-RXR heterodimers was reduced in comparison with wild-type. Cotransfection of SRC-1 restored transactivation by T277A. In the TRbeta crystal structure this helix 3 residue is surface-exposed and is in close proximity to residues L454 and E457 in helix 12 which are known to be critical for coactivator interaction, suggesting that they all constitute part of a receptor-coactivator interface. The transcriptional function of other mutants (A234T, R243W/Q, A268D, Delta276I, A279V, R282S) in this cluster correlated with their reduced Ka and they inhibited wild-type TRbeta action in a dominant negative manner. DNA binding, heterodimerization and corepressor recruitment were preserved in all mutants, signifying the importance of these attributes for dominant negative activity and correlating with the absence of natural mutations in regions bordering the third cluster which mediate these functions. PMID:9707435

Collingwood, T N; Wagner, R; Matthews, C H; Clifton-Bligh, R J; Gurnell, M; Rajanayagam, O; Agostini, M; Fletterick, R J; Beck-Peccoz, P; Reinhardt, W; Binder, G; Ranke, M B; Hermus, A; Hesch, R D; Lazarus, J; Newrick, P; Parfitt, V; Raggatt, P; de Zegher, F; Chatterjee, V K

1998-01-01

245

Gefitinib Treatment in EGFR Mutated Caucasian NSCLC  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the phase IV, open-label, single-arm study NCT01203917, first-line gefitinib 250 mg/d was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (previously published). Here, we report EGFR mutation analyses of plasma-derived, circulating-free tumor DNA. Methods: Mandatory tumor and duplicate plasma (1 and 2) baseline samples were collected (all screened patients; n = 1060). Preplanned, exploratory analyses included EGFR mutation (and subtype) status of tumor versus plasma and between plasma samples. Post hoc, exploratory analyses included efficacy by tumor and plasma EGFR mutation (and subtype) status. Results: Available baseline tumor samples were 1033 of 1060 (118 positive of 859 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 13.7%). Available plasma 1 samples were 803 of 1060 (82 positive of 784 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 10.5%). Mutation status concordance between 652 matched tumor and plasma 1 samples was 94.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.3–96.0) (comparable for mutation subtypes); test sensitivity was 65.7% (95% CI, 55.8–74.7); and test specificity was 99.8% (95% CI, 99.0–100.0). Twelve patients of unknown tumor mutation status were subsequently identified as plasma mutation-positive. Available plasma 2 samples were 803 of 1060 (65 positive of 224 mutation status-evaluable and -known). Mutation status concordance between 224 matched duplicate plasma 1 and 2 samples was 96.9% (95% CI, 93.7–98.7). Objective response rates are as follows: mutation-positive tumor, 70% (95% CI, 60.5–77.7); mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1, 76.9% (95% CI, 65.4–85.5); and mutation-positive tumor and mutation-negative plasma 1, 59.5% (95% CI, 43.5–73.7). Median progression-free survival (months) was 9.7 (95% CI, 8.5–11.0; 61 events) for mutation-positive tumor and 10.2 (95% CI, 8.5–12.5; 36 events) for mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1. Conclusion: The high concordance, specificity, and sensitivity demonstrate that EGFR mutation status can be accurately assessed using circulating-free tumor DNA. Although encouraging and suggesting that plasma is a suitable substitute for mutation analysis, tumor tissue should remain the preferred sample type when available. PMID:25122430

Ostoros, Gyula; Cobo, Manuel; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Cole, Rebecca; McWalter, Gael; Walker, Jill; Dearden, Simon; Webster, Alan; Milenkova, Tsveta; McCormack, Rose

2014-01-01

246

Strategy of mutual compensation of green and red mutants of firefly luciferase identifies a mutation of the highly conservative residue E457 with a strong red shift of bioluminescence.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence spectra of firefly luciferases demonstrate highly pH-sensitive spectra changing the color from green to red light when pH is lowered from alkaline to acidic. This reflects a change of ratio of the green and red emitters in the bimodal spectra of bioluminescence. We show that the mutations strongly stabilizing green (Y35N) or red (H433Y) emission compensate each other leading to the WT color of firefly luciferase. We further used this compensating ability of Y35N to search for strong red-shifting mutations in the C-domain of firefly luciferase by random mutagenesis. The discovered mutation E457K substantially increased the contribution of the red emitter and caused a 12 nm red shift of the green emitter as well. E457 is highly conservative not only in beetle luciferases but also in a whole ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes and forms a conservative structural hydrogen bond with V471. Our results suggest that the removal of this hydrogen bond only mildly affects luciferase properties and that most of the effect of E457K is caused by the introduction of positive charge. E457 forms a salt bridge with R534 in most ANL enzymes including pH-insensitive luciferases which is absent in pH-sensitive firefly luciferases. The mutant A534R shows that this salt bridge is not important for pH-sensitivity but considerably improves in vivo thermostability. Although E457 is located far from the oxyluciferin-binding site, the properties of the mutant E457K suggest that it affects color by influencing the AMP binding. PMID:24057044

Koksharov, Mikhail I; Ugarova, Natalia N

2013-11-01

247

VSX2 mutations in autosomal recessive microphthalmia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To further explore the spectrum of mutations in the Visual System Homeobox 2 (VSX2/CHX10) gene previously found to be associated with autosomal recessive microphthalmia. Methods We screened 95 probands with syndromic or isolated developmental ocular conditions (including 55 with anophthalmia/microphthalmia) for mutations in VSX2. Results Homozygous mutations in VSX2 were identified in two out of five consanguineous families with isolated microphthalmia. A novel missense mutation, c.668G>C (p.G223A), was identified in a large Pakistani family with multiple sibships affected with bilateral microphthalmia. This p.G223A mutation affects the conserved CVC motif that was shown to be important for DNA binding and repression activities of VSX2. The second mutation, c.249delG (p.Leu84SerfsX57), was identified in an Iranian family with microphthalmia; this mutation has been previously reported and is predicted to generate a severely truncated mutant protein completely lacking the VSX2 homeodomain, CVC domain and COOH-terminal regions. Conclusions Mutations in VSX2 represent an important cause of autosomal recessive microphthalmia in consanguineous pedigrees. Identification of a second missense mutation in the CVC motif emphasizes the importance of this region for normal VSX2 function. PMID:21976963

Reis, Linda M.; Khan, Ayesha; Kariminejad, Ariana; Ebadi, Farhad; Tyler, Rebecca C.

2011-01-01

248

Mutational analysis of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with OPTN mutations in Japanese population.  

PubMed

Our objective was to elucidate the genetic epidemiology of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) and sporadic ALS (SALS) with OPTN mutations in the Japanese population. Mutational analysis of OPTN was conducted in 18 FALS pedigrees in whom mutations in other causative genes have been excluded and in 218 SALS patients by direct nucleotide sequence analysis. Novel non-synonymous variants identified in ALS patients were further screened in 271 controls. Results showed that although no mutations were identified in the FALS pedigrees, a novel heterozygous non-synonymous variant c.481G > A (p.V161M) was identified in one SALS patient, who originated from the southernmost part of the Kii Peninsula. The mutation was not present in 271 controls. As the clinical feature, the patient carrying V161M showed predominantly upper motor neuron signs with slow progression. This study suggests that mutations in OPTN are not the main cause of ALS in the Japanese population. PMID:22708870

Naruse, Hiroya; Takahashi, Yuji; Kihira, Tameko; Yoshida, Sohei; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Kuzuhara, Shigeki; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Amagasa, Masaharu; Murayama, Shigeo; Tsuji, Shoji; Goto, Jun

2012-10-01

249

Rearrangements and point mutations of P450c21 genes are distinguished by five restriction endonuclease haplotypes identified by a new probing strategy in 57 families with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by disorders of the P450c21B gene, which, with the P450c21A pseudogene, lies in the HLA locus on chromosome 6. The near identity of nucleotide sequences and endonuclease cleavage sites in these A and B loci makes genetic analysis of this disease difficult. We used a genomic DNA probe that detects the P450c21 genes (A pseudogene, 3.2 kb; B gene, 3.7 kb in Taq I digests) and the 3' flanking DNA not detected with cDNA probes (A pseudogene, 2.4 kb; B gene, 2.5 kb) to examine Southern blots of genomic DNA from 68 patients and 165 unaffected family members in 57 families with CAH. Of 116 CAH-bearing chromosomes, 114 could be sorted into five easily distinguished haplotypes based on blots of DNA digested with Taq I and Bgl II. Haplotype I (76 of 116, 65.6%) was indistinguishable from normal and therefore bore very small lesions, presumably point mutations. Haplotype II (4 of 116, 3.4%) and haplotype III (8 of 116, 6.9%) had deletions and duplications of the P450c21A pseudogene but had structurally intact P450c21B genes presumably bearing point mutations; point mutation thus was the genetic defect in 88 of 116 chromosomes (75.9%). Haplotypes IV and V lack the 3.7-kb Taq I band normally associated with the P450c21B gene. Haplotype IV (13 of 116, 11.2%) retains all other bands, indicating that the P450c21B gene has undergone a gene conversion event, so that it is now also associated with a 3.2-kb band. Haplotype V (13 of 116, 11.2%) lacks the 2.4-kb Taq I fragment and the 12-kb Bgl II fragments normally associated with the P450c21A pseudogene, as well as lacking the 3.7-kb Taq I fragment, indicating deletion of approximately 30 kb of DNA, resulting in a single hybrid P450c21A/B gene. Most (114 of 116, 98%) CAH alleles thus can easily be classified with this new probing strategy, eliminating many ambiguities resulting from probing with cDNA. Images PMID:2913051

Morel, Y; André, J; Uring-Lambert, B; Hauptmann, G; Bétuel, H; Tossi, M; Forest, M G; David, M; Bertrand, J; Miller, W L

1989-01-01

250

OXPHOS mutations and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) sustains organelle function and plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism. The OXPHOS system consists of 5 multisubunit complexes (CI–CV) that are built up of 92 different structural proteins encoded by the nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Biogenesis of a functional OXPHOS system further requires the assistance of nDNA-encoded OXPHOS assembly factors, of which 35 are currently identified. In humans, mutations in both structural and assembly genes and in genes involved in mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, and translation induce ‘primary' OXPHOS disorders that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Leigh syndrome (LS), which is probably the most classical OXPHOS disease during early childhood. Here, we present the current insights regarding function, biogenesis, regulation, and supramolecular architecture of the OXPHOS system, as well as its genetic origin. Next, we provide an inventory of OXPHOS structural and assembly genes which, when mutated, induce human neurodegenerative disorders. Finally, we discuss the consequences of mutations in OXPHOS structural and assembly genes at the single cell level and how this information has advanced our understanding of the role of OXPHOS dysfunction in neurodegeneration. PMID:23149385

Koopman, Werner J H; Distelmaier, Felix; Smeitink, Jan AM; Willems, Peter HGM

2013-01-01

251

Glucocerebrosidase mutations in primary parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mutations in the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene increase the risk of Parkinson's Disease (PD). We determined the frequency and relative risk of major GBA mutations in a large series of Italian patients with primary parkinsonism. Methods We studied 2766 unrelated consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of primary degenerative parkinsonism (including 2350 PD), and 1111 controls. The entire cohort was screened for mutations in GBA exons 9 and 10, covering approximately 70% of mutations, including the two most frequent defects, p.N370S and p.L444P. Results Four known mutations were identified in heterozygous state: 3 missense mutations (p.N370S, p.L444P, and p.D443N), and the splicing mutation IVS10+1G>T, which results in the in-frame exon-10 skipping. Molecular characterization of 2 additional rare variants, potentially interfering with splicing, suggested a neutral effect. GBA mutations were more frequent in PD (4.5%, RR = 7.2, CI = 3.3–15.3) and in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) (13.8%, RR = 21.9, CI = 6.8–70.7) than in controls (0.63%). but not in the other forms of parkinsonism such as Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP, 2%), and Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD, 0%). Considering only the PD group, GBA-carriers were younger at onset (52 ± 10 vs. 57 ± 10 years, P < 0.0001) and were more likely to have a positive family history of PD (34% vs. 20%, P < 0.001). Conclusion GBA dysfunction is relevant for synucleinopathies, such as PD and DLB, except for MSA, in which pathology involves oligodendrocytes, and the tauopathies PSP and CBD. The risk of developing DLB is three-fold higher than PD, suggesting a more aggressive phenotype. PMID:25249066

Asselta, Rosanna; Rimoldi, Valeria; Siri, Chiara; Cilia, Roberto; Guella, Ilaria; Tesei, Silvana; Soldà, Giulia; Pezzoli, Gianni; Duga, Stefano; Goldwurm, Stefano

2014-01-01

252

SOS mutator DNA polymerase IV functions in adaptive mutation and not adaptive amplification.  

PubMed

Adaptive point mutation and amplification are induced responses to environmental stress, promoting genetic changes that can enhance survival. A specialized adaptive mutation mechanism has been documented in one Escherichia coli assay, but its enzymatic basis remained unclear. We report that the SOS-inducible, error-prone DNA polymerase (pol) IV, encoded by dinB, is required for adaptive point mutation in the E. coli lac operon. A nonpolar dinB mutation reduces adaptive mutation frequencies by 85% but does not affect adaptive amplification, growth-dependent mutation, or survival after oxidative or UV damage. We show that pol IV, together with the major replicase, pol III, can account for all adaptive point mutations at lac. The results identify a role for pol IV in inducible genetic change. PMID:11463382

McKenzie, G J; Lee, P L; Lombardo, M J; Hastings, P J; Rosenberg, S M

2001-03-01

253

High Frequency of FGFR3 Mutations in Adenoid Seborrheic Keratoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

FGFR3 germline mutations cause autosomal dominant skeletal disorders including achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans, and Crouzon syndrome. Somatic mutations of FGFR3 have been identified in bladder cancer, multiple myeloma, and other neoplasms. FGFR3 mutations have also been detected in 40% of seborrheic keratoses (SKs) of the hyperkeratotic and acanthotic subtype, which are very common

Christian Hafner; Johanna M M van Oers; Arndt Hartmann; Michael Landthaler; Robert Stoehr; Hagen Blaszyk; Ferdinand Hofstaedter; Ellen C Zwarthoff; Thomas Vogt

2006-01-01

254

SOX10 mutations mimic isolated hearing loss.  

PubMed

Ninety genes have been identified to date that are involved in non-syndromic hearing loss, and more than 300 different forms of syndromic hearing impairment have been described. Mutations in SOX10, one of the genes contributing to syndromic hearing loss, induce a large range of phenotypes, including several subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome and Kallmann syndrome with deafness. In addition, rare mutations have been identified in patients with isolated signs of these diseases. We used the recent characterization of temporal bone imaging aspects in patients with SOX10 mutations to identify possible patients with isolated hearing loss due to SOX10 mutation. We selected 21 patients with isolated deafness and temporal bone morphological defects for mutational screening. We identified two SOX10 mutations and found that both resulted in a non-functional protein in vitro. Re-evaluation of the two affected patients showed that both had previously undiagnosed olfactory defects. Diagnosis of anosmia or hyposmia in young children is challenging, and particularly in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SOX10 mutations can mimic non-syndromic hearing impairment. MRI should complete temporal bones computed tomographic scan in the management of congenital deafness as it can detect brain anomalies, cochlear nerve defects, and olfactory bulb malformation in addition to inner ear malformations. PMID:25256313

Pingault, V; Faubert, E; Baral, V; Gherbi, S; Loundon, N; Couloigner, V; Denoyelle, F; Noël-Pétroff, N; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Bondurand, N; Marlin, S

2014-09-25

255

Molecular analyses of novel ASAH1 mutations causing Farber lipogranulomatosis: analyses of exonic splicing enhancer inactivating mutation.  

PubMed

Farber lipogranulomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the ASAH1 gene. In the largest ever study, we identified and characterized ASAH1 mutations from 11 independent Farber disease (FD) families. A total of 13 different mutations were identified including 1 splice, 1 polypyrimidine tract (PPT) deletion and 11 missense mutations. Eleven mutations were exclusive to the Indian population. The IVS6+4A>G splice and IVS5-16delTTTTC PPT deletion mutations resulted in skipping of exon 6 precluding thereby the region responsible for cleavage of enzyme precursor. A missense mutation (p.V198A) resulted in skipping of exon 8 due to inactivation of an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) element. This is the first report of mutations affecting PPT and ESE in the ASAH1 gene resulting in FD. PMID:24355074

Bashyam, M D; Chaudhary, A K; Kiran, M; Reddy, V; Nagarajaram, H A; Dalal, A; Bashyam, L; Suri, D; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Kabra, M; Puri, R D; RamaDevi, R; Kapoor, S; Danda, S

2014-12-01

256

Fluorescent oligonucleotide ligation technology for identification of ras oncogene mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutation detection strategy based on multiplex PCR followed by multiplex allele-specific oligonucleotide probe ligation\\u000a was developed to detect single nucleotide substitutions in ras oncogenes, a common genetic abnormality in many human cancers. Mutation-specific probes are synthesized for each possible\\u000a single-base, nonsilent mutation in codons 12, 13, and 61 of H-, K-, and N-ras oncogenes. Mutations are identified by competitive

Faye A. Eggerding

2000-01-01

257

Frequent lack of GNAS mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma associated with GNAS-mutated villous adenoma.  

PubMed

Colorectal villous adenoma is thought to be associated with a high risk of progression to adenocarcinoma. To better characterize the genetic alterations involved in colorectal carcinogenesis related to villous adenoma, we analyzed mutations in APC, BRAF, KRAS, TP53, and GNAS in 12 colorectal adenocarcinomas associated with villous adenomas. APC, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were identified in five, 11, and one lesion, respectively, and most of these mutations were shared between the villous adenoma and the adenocarcinoma components in the respective lesions, except in one lesion with APC mutations and in two lesions with KRAS mutations. TP53 mutations were observed exclusively in four adenocarcinoma components, consistent with their role in the progression from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Activating GNAS mutations were found in nine villous adenomas; however, unexpectedly, these mutations were shared only in three associated adenocarcinomas. Notably, all six adenocarcinomas with discordant GNAS mutation statuses were nonmucinous type, whereas all the other adenocarcinomas, including three adenocarcinomas associated with GNAS wild-type villous adenomas, were mucinous type. The current study suggests that GNAS-mutated villous adenomas may not necessarily be direct precursors of associated adenocarcinomas. At the same time, our observations support the role of activating GNAS mutations in increased mucin production in colorectal neoplasms. PMID:24470207

Sekine, Shigeki; Ogawa, Reiko; Oshiro, Taihei; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kushima, Ryoji; Kanai, Yae

2014-04-01

258

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

259

Spectrum of small mutations in the dystrophin coding region  

SciTech Connect

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are caused by defects in the dystrophin gene. About two-thirds of the affected patients have large deletions or duplications, which occur in the 5` and central portion of the gene. The nondeletion/duplication cases are most likely the result of smaller mutations that cannot be identified by current diagnostic screening strategies. We screened {approximately} 80% of the dystrophin coding sequence for small mutations in 158 patients without deletions or duplications and identified 29 mutations. The study indicates that many of the DMD and the majority of the BMD small mutations lie in noncoding regions of the gene. All of the mutations identified were unique to single patients, and most of the mutations resulted in protein truncation. We did not find a clustering of small mutations similar to the deletion distribution but found > 40% of the small mutations 3` of exon 55. The extent of protein truncation caused by the 3` mutations did not determine the phenotype, since even the exon 76 nonsense mutation resulted in the severe DMD phenotype. Our study confirms that the dystrophin gene is subject to a high rate of mutation in CpG sequences. As a consequence of not finding any hotspots or prevalent small mutations, we conclude that it is presently not possible to perform direct carrier and prenatal diagnostics for many families without deletions or duplications. 71 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Prior, T.W.; Bartolo, C.; Pearl, D.K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-07-01

260

THAP1 Mutations and Dystonia Phenotypes: Genotype Phenotype Correlations  

PubMed Central

THAP1 mutations have been shown to be the cause of DYT6. A number of different mutation types and locations in the THAP1 gene have been associated with a range of severity and dystonia phenotypes, but, as yet, it has been difficult to identify clear genotype phenotype patterns. Here, we screened the THAP1 gene in a further series of dystonia cases and evaluated the mutation pathogenicity in this series as well as previously reported mutations to investigate possible phenotype-genotype correlations. THAP1 mutations have been identified throughout the coding region of the gene, with the greatest concentration of variants localized to the THAP1 domain. In the additional cases analyzed here, a further two mutations were found. No obvious, indisputable genotype-phenotype correlation emerged from these data. However, we managed to find a correlation between the pathogenicity of mutations, distribution, and age of onset of dystonia. THAP1 mutations are an important cause of dystonia, but, as yet, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified. Greater mutation numbers in different populations will be important and mutation-specific functional studies will be essential to identify the pathogenicity of the various THAP1 mutations. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society PMID:22903657

Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Houlden, Henry; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Stamelou, Maria; Kara, Eleanna; Hardy, John; Lees, Andrew J; Korlipara, Prasad; Limousin, Patricia; Paudel, Reema; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Bhatia, Kailash P

2012-01-01

261

Two missense mutations, E123Q and K151E, identified in the ERG11 allele of an azole-resistant isolate of Candida kefyr recovered from a stem cell transplant patient for acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

We report on the first cloning and nucleotide sequencing of an ERG11 allele from a clinical isolate of Candida kefyr cross-resistant to azole antifungals. It was recovered from a stem cell transplant patient, in an oncohematology unit exhibiting unexpected high prevalence of C. kefyr. Two amino acid substitutions were identified: K151E, whose role in fluconazole resistance was already demonstrated in Candida albicans, and E123Q, a new substitution never described so far in azole-resistant Candida yeast. PMID:24936404

Couzigou, Célia; Gabriel, Frédéric; Biteau, Nicolas; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

2014-01-01

262

Mutational analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays  

PubMed Central

The development of inexpensive high throughput methods to identify individual DNA sequence differences is important to the future growth of medical genetics. This has become increasingly apparent as epidemiologists, pathologists, and clinical geneticists focus more attention on the molecular basis of complex multifactorial diseases. Such undertakings will rely upon genetic maps based upon newly discovered, common, single nucleotide polymorphisms. Furthermore, candidate gene approaches used in identifying disease associated genes necessitate screening large sequence blocks for changes tracking with the disease state. Even after such genes are isolated, large scale mutational analyses will often be needed for risk assessment studies to define the likely medical consequences of carrying a mutated gene.?This review concentrates on the use of oligonucleotide arrays for hybridisation based comparative sequence analysis. Technological advances within the past decade have made it possible to apply this technology to many different aspects of medical genetics. These applications range from the detection and scoring of single nucleotide polymorphisms to mutational analysis of large genes. Although we discuss published scientific reports, unpublished work from the private sector12 could also significantly affect the future of this technology.???Keywords: mutational analysis; oligonucleotide microarrays; DNA chips PMID:10528850

Hacia, J.; Collins, F.

1999-01-01

263

Mutation screening of the RYR1 gene in malignant hyperthermia: Detection of a novel Tyr to ser mutation in a pedigree with associated centrl cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) has been shown to be mutated in a small number of malignant hyperthermia (MH) predigrees. Missense mutations in this gene have also been identified in two families with central core disease (CCD), a rare myopathy closely associated with MH. In an effort to identify other RYR1 mutations responsible for MH and CCD, we used a

K. A. Quane; K. E. Keating; J. M. S. Healy

1994-01-01

264

Multiple mutations and mutation combinations in the sodium channel of permethrin resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous study identified 3 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous mutations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus, the prevalence of which were strongly correlated with levels of resistance and increased dramatically following insecticide selection. However, it is unclear whether this is unique to this specific resistant population or is a common mechanism in field mosquito populations in response to insecticide pressure. The current study therefore further characterized these mutations and their combinations in other field and permethrin selected Culex mosquitoes, finding that the co-existence of all 9 mutations was indeed correlated with the high levels of permethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Comparison of mutation combinations revealed several common mutation combinations presented across different field and permethrin selected populations in response to high levels of insecticide resistance, demonstrating that the co-existence of multiple mutations is a common event in response to insecticide resistance across different Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito populations.

Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Reid, William R.; Xu, Qiang; Dong, Ke; Liu, Nannan

2012-10-01

265

Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Iranian high risk breast cancer families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Germline mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. At present, over thousand distinct BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been identified. Specific mutations are found to be common within particular populations, resulting from genetic founder effects. To investigate the contribution of germline mutations in these two genes to inherited

Andrea Pietschmann; Parvin Mehdipour; Morteza Atri; Wera Hofmann; S. Said Hosseini-Asl; Siegfried Scherneck; Stefan Mundlos; Hartmut Peters

2005-01-01

266

?-Tubulin mutations that cause severe neuropathies disrupt axonal transport  

PubMed Central

Microtubules are fundamental to neuronal morphogenesis and function. Mutations in tubulin, the major constituent of microtubules, result in neuronal diseases. Here, we have analysed ?-tubulin mutations that cause neuronal diseases and we have identified mutations that strongly inhibit axonal transport of vesicles and mitochondria. These mutations are in the H12 helix of ?-tubulin and change the negative charge on the surface of the microtubule. This surface is the interface between microtubules and kinesin superfamily motor proteins (KIF). The binding of axonal transport KIFs to microtubules is dominant negatively disrupted by these mutations, which alters the localization of KIFs in neurons and inhibits axon elongation in vivo. In humans, these mutations induce broad neurological symptoms, such as loss of axons in the central nervous system and peripheral neuropathy. Thus, our data identified the critical region of ?-tubulin required for axonal transport and suggest a molecular mechanism for human neuronal diseases caused by tubulin mutations. PMID:23503589

Niwa, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Hironori; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

2013-01-01

267

Weaver syndrome and EZH2 mutations: Clarifying the clinical phenotype.  

PubMed

Weaver syndrome, first described in 1974, is characterized by tall stature, a typical facial appearance, and variable intellectual disability. In 2011, mutations in the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, were shown to cause Weaver syndrome. To date, we have identified 48 individuals with EZH2 mutations. The mutations were primarily missense mutations occurring throughout the gene, with some clustering in the SET domain (12/48). Truncating mutations were uncommon (4/48) and only identified in the final exon, after the SET domain. Through analyses of clinical data and facial photographs of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals, we have shown that the facial features can be subtle and the clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome is thus challenging, especially in older individuals. However, tall stature is very common, reported in >90% of affected individuals. Intellectual disability is also common, present in ~80%, but is highly variable and frequently mild. Additional clinical features which may help in stratifying individuals to EZH2 mutation testing include camptodactyly, soft, doughy skin, umbilical hernia, and a low, hoarse cry. Considerable phenotypic overlap between Sotos and Weaver syndromes is also evident. The identification of an EZH2 mutation can therefore provide an objective means of confirming a subtle presentation of Weaver syndrome and/or distinguishing Weaver and Sotos syndromes. As mutation testing becomes increasingly accessible and larger numbers of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals are identified, knowledge of the clinical spectrum and prognostic implications of EZH2 mutations should improve. PMID:24214728

Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Murray, Anne; Hanks, Sandra; Douglas, Jenny; Armstrong, Ruth; Banka, Siddharth; Bird, Lynne M; Clericuzio, Carol L; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Cushing, Tom; Flinter, Frances; Jacquemont, Marie-Line; Joss, Shelagh; Kinning, Esther; Lynch, Sally Ann; Magee, Alex; McConnell, Vivienne; Medeira, Ana; Ozono, Keiichi; Patton, Michael; Rankin, Julia; Shears, Debbie; Simon, Marleen; Splitt, Miranda; Strenger, Volker; Stuurman, Kyra; Taylor, Clare; Titheradge, Hannah; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Temple, I Karen; Cole, Trevor; Seal, Sheila; Rahman, Nazneen

2013-12-01

268

Reverse mutations in fragile X syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. Yet new mutations have not been described and no affected child has been born to a carrier mother having less than 60 FMR-1 CGG triplet repeats. Reverse mutations also appear to be very rare. We have previously identified the daughter of a premutation mother (95 CGGs) who inherited a normal repeat size of 35 as a reverse mutation. In the process of carrier testing by PCR, we have now identified two additional females with reverse mutations. All three of these reverse mutation women were previously tested by linkage as part of known fragile X families (subsequently confirmed by direct analysis), and assigned a > 99% risk as a carrier. In the second family, the mother carries a premutation allele of 95 repeats and the daughter inherited a 43 repeat allele. Prior to direct DNA testing, she had a positive prenatal diagnosis by linkage (> 99% risk) and cytogenetics with 3/450 cells apparently positive. Subsequent retesting of the products of conception by PCR now reveals a 43 repeat allele from her carrier mother with an 82 repeat allele. Testing with close CA markers (FRAXAC1 and DXS548) confirmed that these women inherited the same chromosome and their full mutation brothers. Further analysis is pending. These examples of reverse mutations are the only ones we have identified in our study of offspring of more than 200 carriers (400+ meioses) examined to date. Therefore, we conclude the frequency of fragile X back mutations is likely to be less than 1%. Retesting of linkage positive carriers is recommended to detect reverse mutations and assure accurate genetic counseling.

Brown, W.T.; Nolin, S.; Houck, G.E. [and others

1994-09-01

269

The mutational landscape of adenoid cystic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary gland cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole-genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor-normal pairs. These analyses identified a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent events per megabase) and wide mutational diversity. Notably, we found mutations in genes encoding chromatin-state regulators, such as SMARCA2, CREBBP and KDM6A, suggesting that there is aberrant epigenetic regulation in ACC oncogenesis. Mutations in genes central to the DNA damage response and protein kinase A signaling also implicate these processes. We observed MYB-NFIB translocations and somatic mutations in MYB-associated genes, solidifying the role of these aberrations as critical events in ACC. Lastly, we identified recurrent mutations in the FGF-IGF-PI3K pathway (30% of tumors) that might represent new avenues for therapy. Collectively, our observations establish a molecular foundation for understanding and exploring new treatments for ACC. PMID:23685749

Ho, Allen S; Kannan, Kasthuri; Roy, David M; Morris, Luc G T; Ganly, Ian; Katabi, Nora; Ramaswami, Deepa; Walsh, Logan A; Eng, Stephanie; Huse, Jason T; Zhang, Jianan; Dolgalev, Igor; Huberman, Kety; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Drobnjak, Marija; Leversha, Margaret A; Rice, Christine E; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Leemans, C Rene; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Ferris, Robert L; Seethala, Raja R; Gross, Benjamin E; Liang, Yupu; Sinha, Rileen; Peng, Luke; Raphael, Benjamin J; Turcan, Sevin; Gong, Yongxing; Schultz, Nikolaus; Kim, Seungwon; Chiosea, Simion; Shah, Jatin P; Sander, Chris; Lee, William; Chan, Timothy A

2013-07-01

270

Somatic mutations in cancer development  

PubMed Central

The transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell takes place through a sequence of a small number of discrete genetic events, somatic mutations: thus, cancer can be regarded properly as a genetic disease of somatic cells. The analogy between evolution of organisms and evolution of cell populations is compelling: in both cases what drives change is mutation, but it is Darwinian selection that enables clones that have a growth advantage to expand, thus providing a larger target size for the next mutation to hit. The search for molecular lesions in tumors has taken on a new dimension thanks to two powerful technologies: the micro-arrays for quantitative analysis of global gene expresssion (the transcriptome); and ‘deep’ sequencing for the global analysis of the entire genome (or at least the exome). The former offers the most complete phenotypic characterization of a tumor we could ever hope for – we could call this the ultimate phenotype; the latter can identify all the somatic mutations in an individual tumor – we could call this the somatic genotype. However, there is definitely the risk that while we are ‘drowned by data, we remain thirsty for knowledge’. If we want to heed the teachings of Lorenzo Tomatis, I think the message is clear: we ought to take advantage of the new powerful technologies – not by becoming their slaves, but remaining their masters. Identifying somatic mutations in a tumor is important not because it qualifies for ‘oncogenomics’, but because through a deeper understanding of the nature of that particular tumor it can help us to optimize therapy or to design new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21489208

2011-01-01

271

Somatic mutations in cancer development.  

PubMed

The transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell takes place through a sequence of a small number of discrete genetic events, somatic mutations: thus, cancer can be regarded properly as a genetic disease of somatic cells. The analogy between evolution of organisms and evolution of cell populations is compelling: in both cases what drives change is mutation, but it is Darwinian selection that enables clones that have a growth advantage to expand, thus providing a larger target size for the next mutation to hit. The search for molecular lesions in tumors has taken on a new dimension thanks to two powerful technologies: the micro-arrays for quantitative analysis of global gene expresssion (the transcriptome); and 'deep' sequencing for the global analysis of the entire genome (or at least the exome). The former offers the most complete phenotypic characterization of a tumor we could ever hope for--we could call this the ultimate phenotype; the latter can identify all the somatic mutations in an individual tumor--we could call this the somatic genotype. However, there is definitely the risk that while we are 'drowned by data, we remain thirsty for knowledge'. If we want to heed the teachings of Lorenzo Tomatis, I think the message is clear: we ought to take advantage of the new powerful technologies--not by becoming their slaves, but remaining their masters. Identifying somatic mutations in a tumor is important not because it qualifies for 'oncogenomics', but because through a deeper understanding of the nature of that particular tumor it can help us to optimize therapy or to design new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21489208

Luzzatto, Lucio

2011-01-01

272

Mutation Clustering Shamaila Hussain  

E-print Network

Mutation Clustering Shamaila Hussain shamaila.2.hussain@kcl.ac.uk Student Number: 0425528/2008 Department of Computer Science September 5, 2008 #12;Abstract Mutation testing, a type of white box testing quality. This form of testing deals with mutating parts of the program intentionally and then detecting

Singer, Jeremy

273

Mutation accumulation in Tetrahymena  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rate and fitness effects of mutations are key in understanding the evolution of every species. Traditionally, these parameters are estimated in mutation accumulation experiments where replicate lines are propagated in conditions that allow mutations to randomly accumulate without the purging effect of natural selection. These experiments have been performed with many model organisms but we still lack empirical

Patrícia H Brito; Elsa Guilherme; Helena Soares; Isabel Gordo

2010-01-01

274

The mutational landscape of adenoid cystic carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary gland cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole-genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor-normal pairs. These analyses identified a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent

A. S. Ho; K. Kannan; D. M. Roy; L. G. Morris; I. Ganly; N. Katabi; D. Ramaswami; L. A. Walsh; S. Eng; J. T. Huse; J. Zhang; I. Dolgalev; K. Huberman; A. Heguy; A. Viale; M. Drobnjak; M. A. Leversha; C. E. Rice; B. Singh; N. G. Iyer; C. R. Leemans; E. Bloemena; R. L. Ferris; R. R. Seethala; B. E. Gross; Y. Liang; R. Sinha; L. Peng; B. J. Raphael; S. Turcan; Y. Gong; N. Schultz; S. Kim; S. Chiosea; J. P. Shah; C. Sander; W. Lee; T. A. Chan

2013-01-01

275

Mining mutation chains in biological sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing infectious disease outbreaks has led to a need for new research to better understand the disease's origins, epidemiological features and pathogenicity caused by fast-mutating, fast-spreading viruses. Traditional sequence anal- ysis methods do not take into account the spatio-temporal dynamics of rapidly evolving and spreading viral species. They are also focused on identifying single-point mutations. In this paper, we

Chang Sheng; Wynne Hsu; Mong-Li Lee; Joo Chuan Tong; See-Kiong Ng

2010-01-01

276

Mutational landscape of yeast mutator strains  

PubMed Central

The acquisition of mutations is relevant to every aspect of genetics, including cancer and evolution of species on Darwinian selection. Genome variations arise from rare stochastic imperfections of cellular metabolism and deficiencies in maintenance genes. Here, we established the genome-wide spectrum of mutations that accumulate in a WT and in nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutator strains deficient for distinct genome maintenance processes: pol32? and rad27? (replication), msh2? (mismatch repair), tsa1? (oxidative stress), mre11? (recombination), mec1? tel1? (DNA damage/S-phase checkpoints), pif1? (maintenance of mitochondrial genome and telomere length), cac1? cac3? (nucleosome deposition), and clb5? (cell cycle progression). This study reveals the diversity, complexity, and ultimate unique nature of each mutational spectrum, composed of punctual mutations, chromosomal structural variations, and/or aneuploidies. The mutations produced in clb5?/CCNB1, mec1?/ATR, tel1?/ATM, and rad27?/FEN1 strains extensively reshape the genome, following a trajectory dependent on previous events. It comprises the transmission of unstable genomes that lead to colony mosaicisms. This comprehensive analytical approach of mutator defects provides a model to understand how genome variations might accumulate during clonal evolution of somatic cell populations, including tumor cells. PMID:24449905

Serero, Alexandre; Jubin, Claire; Loeillet, Sophie; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Nicolas, Alain G.

2014-01-01

277

NMNAT1 mutations cause Leber congenital amaurosis  

PubMed Central

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an infantile-onset form of inherited retinal degeneration characterized by severe vision loss1, 2. Two-thirds of LCA cases are caused by mutations in 17 known disease genes3 (RetNet Retinal Information Network). Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.25G>A, p.Val9Met) in NMNAT1 as likely disease-causing in two siblings of a consanguineous Pakistani kindred affected by LCA. This mutation segregated with disease in their kindred, including in three other children with LCA. NMNAT1 resides in the previously identified LCA9 locus and encodes the nuclear isoform of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis4, 5. Functional studies showed the p.Val9Met mutation decreased NMNAT1 enzyme activity. Sequencing NMNAT1 in 284 unrelated LCA families identified 14 rare mutations in 13 additional affected individuals. These results are the first to link an NMNAT isoform to disease and indicate that NMNAT1 mutations cause LCA. PMID:22842227

Falk, Marni J; Zhang, Qi; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kannabiran, Chitra; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoe; Chakarova, Christina; Audo, Isabelle; Mackay, Donna S; Zeitz, Christina; Borman, Arundhati Dev; Staniszewska, Magdalena; Shukla, Rachna; Palavalli, Lakshmi; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Waseem, Naushin H; Jalali, Subhadra; Perin, Juan C; Place, Emily; Ostrovsky, Julian; Xiao, Rui; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Consugar, Mark; Webster, Andrew R; Sahel, José-Alain; Moore, Anthony T; Berson, Eliot L; Liu, Qin; Gai, Xiaowu; Pierce, Eric A.

2012-01-01

278

Calpainopathy-a survey of mutations and polymorphisms.  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by symmetrical and selective atrophy of the proximal limb muscles. It derives from defects in the human CAPN3 gene, which encodes the skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family. This report represents a compilation of the mutations and variants identified so far in this gene. To date, 97 distinct pathogenic calpain 3 mutations have been identified (4 nonsense mutations, 32 deletions/insertions, 8 splice-site mutations, and 53 missense mutations), 56 of which have not been described previously, together with 12 polymorphisms and 5 nonclassified variants. The mutations are distributed along the entire length of the CAPN3 gene. Thus far, most mutations identified represent private variants, although particular mutations have been found more frequently. Knowledge of the mutation spectrum occurring in the CAPN3 gene may contribute significantly to structure/function and pathogenesis studies. It may also help in the design of efficient mutation-screening strategies for calpainopathies. PMID:10330340

Richard, I; Roudaut, C; Saenz, A; Pogue, R; Grimbergen, J E; Anderson, L V; Beley, C; Cobo, A M; de Diego, C; Eymard, B; Gallano, P; Ginjaar, H B; Lasa, A; Pollitt, C; Topaloglu, H; Urtizberea, J A; de Visser, M; van der Kooi, A; Bushby, K; Bakker, E; Lopez de Munain, A; Fardeau, M; Beckmann, J S

1999-01-01

279

Functional characterization of missense mutations in ATP7B: Wilson disease mutation or normal variant?  

PubMed Central

Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport that causes hepatic and/or neurological disease resulting from copper accumulation in the liver and brain. The protein defective in this disorder is a putative copper-transporting P-type ATPase, ATP7B. More than 100 mutations have been identified in the ATP7B gene of patients with Wilson disease. To determine the effect of Wilson disease missense mutations on ATP7B function, we have developed a yeast complementation assay based on the ability of ATP7B to complement the high-affinity iron-uptake deficiency of the yeast mutant ccc2. We characterized missense mutations found in the predicted membrane-spanning segments of ATP7B. Ten mutations have been made in the ATP7B cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis: five Wilson disease missense mutations, two mutations originally classified as possible disease-causing mutations, two putative ATP7B normal variants, and mutation of the cysteine-proline-cysteine (CPC) motif conserved in heavy-metal-transporting P-type ATPases. All seven putative Wilson disease mutants tested were able to at least partially complement ccc2 mutant yeast, indicating that they retain some ability to transport copper. One mutation was a temperature-sensitive mutation that was able to complement ccc2 mutant yeast at 30 degreesC but was unable to complement at 37 degreesC. Mutation of the CPC motif resulted in a nonfunctional protein, which demonstrates that this motif is essential for copper transport by ATP7B. Of the two putative ATP7B normal variants tested, one resulted in a nonfunctional protein, which suggests that it is a disease-causing mutation. PMID:9837819

Forbes, J R; Cox, D W

1998-01-01

280

Mutations in GNAL cause primary torsion dystonia.  

PubMed

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by repetitive twisting muscle contractions and postures. Its molecular pathophysiology is poorly understood, in part owing to limited knowledge of the genetic basis of the disorder. Only three genes for primary torsion dystonia (PTD), TOR1A (DYT1), THAP1 (DYT6) and CIZ1 (ref. 5), have been identified. Using exome sequencing in two families with PTD, we identified a new causative gene, GNAL, with a nonsense mutation encoding p.Ser293* resulting in a premature stop codon in one family and a missense mutation encoding p.Val137Met in the other. Screening of GNAL in 39 families with PTD identified 6 additional new mutations in this gene. Impaired function of several of the mutants was shown by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays. PMID:23222958

Fuchs, Tania; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Masuho, Ikuo; Luciano, Marta San; Raymond, Deborah; Factor, Stewart; Lang, Anthony E; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Trosch, Richard M; White, Sierra; Ainehsazan, Edmond; Hervé, Denis; Sharma, Nutan; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Martemyanov, Kirill A; Bressman, Susan B; Ozelius, Laurie J

2013-01-01

281

Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma.  

PubMed

Germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene were recently shown to predispose to the dominantly inherited syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). HLRCC is characterized by benign leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus, renal cell carcinoma, and uterine leiomyosarcoma. The aim of this study was to identify new families with FH mutations, and to further examine the tumor spectrum associated with FH mutations. FH germline mutations were screened from 89 patients with RCC, skin leiomyomas or ovarian tumors. Subsequently, 13 ovarian and 48 bladder carcinomas were analyzed for somatic FH mutations. Two patients diagnosed with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (two out of 33, 6%) were found to be FH germline mutation carriers. One of the changes was a novel mutation (Ala231Thr) and the other one (435insAAA) was previously described in FH deficiency families. These results suggest that benign ovarian tumors may be associated with HLRCC. PMID:16639410

Ylisaukko-oja, Sanna K; Cybulski, Cezary; Lehtonen, Rainer; Kiuru, Maija; Matyjasik, Joanna; Szymañska, Anna; Szymañska-Pasternak, Jolanta; Dyrskjot, Lars; Butzow, Ralf; Orntoft, Torben F; Launonen, Virpi; Lubiñski, Jan; Aaltonen, Lauri A

2006-07-01

282

Telomerase mutations in smokers with severe emphysema.  

PubMed

Mutations in the essential telomerase genes TERT and TR cause familial pulmonary fibrosis; however, in telomerase-null mice, short telomeres predispose to emphysema after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we tested whether telomerase mutations are a risk factor for human emphysema by examining their frequency in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Across two independent cohorts, we found 3 of 292 severe COPD cases carried deleterious mutations in TERT (1%). This prevalence is comparable to the frequency of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency documented in this population. The TERT mutations compromised telomerase catalytic activity, and mutation carriers had short telomeres. Telomerase mutation carriers with emphysema were predominantly female and had an increased incidence of pneumothorax. In families, emphysema showed an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, along with pulmonary fibrosis and other telomere syndrome features, but manifested only in smokers. Our findings identify germline mutations in telomerase as a Mendelian risk factor for COPD susceptibility that clusters in autosomal dominant families with telomere-mediated disease including pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25562321

Stanley, Susan E; Chen, Julian J L; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Alder, Jonathan K; Hansel, Nadia N; Mathias, Rasika A; Qi, Xiaodong; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Wise, Robert A; Silverman, Edwin K; Barnes, Kathleen C; Armanios, Mary

2015-02-01

283

The Mutational Landscape of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most enigmatic of human malignancies. These aggressive salivary cancers frequently recur and metastasize despite definitive treatment, with no known effective chemotherapy regimen. Here, we determined the ACC mutational landscape and report the exome or whole genome sequences of 60 ACC tumor/normal pairs. These analyses revealed a low exonic somatic mutation rate (0.31 non-silent events/megabase) and wide mutational diversity. Interestingly, mutations selectively involved chromatin state regulators, such as SMARCA2, CREBBP, and KDM6A, suggesting aberrant epigenetic regulation in ACC oncogenesis. Mutations in genes central to DNA damage and protein kinase A signaling also implicate these processes. We observed MYB-NFIB translocations and somatic mutations in MYB-associated genes, solidifying these aberrations as critical events. Lastly, we identified recurrent mutations in the FGF/IGF/PI3K pathway that may potentially offer new avenues for therapy (30%). Collectively, our observations establish a molecular foundation for understanding and exploring new treatments for ACC. PMID:23685749

Ho, Allen S.; Kannan, Kasthuri; Roy, David M.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Ganly, Ian; Katabi, Nora; Ramaswami, Deepa; Walsh, Logan A.; Eng, Stephanie; Huse, Jason T.; Zhang, Jianan; Dolgalev, Igor; Huberman, Kety; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Drobnjak, Marija; Leversha, Margaret A.; Rice, Christine E.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Leemans, C. Rene; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Ferris, Robert L.; Seethala, Raja R.; Gross, Benjamin E.; Liang, Yupu; Sinha, Rileen; Peng, Luke; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Turcan, Sevin; Gong, Yongxing; Schultz, Nikolaus; Kim, Seungwon; Chiosea, Simion; Shah, Jatin P.; Sander, Chris; Lee, William; Chan, Timothy A.

2013-01-01

284

Screening for Germ-Line Rearrangements and Regulatory Mutations in BRCA1 Led to the Identification of Four New Deletions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous BRCA1 mutation screening studies conducted on breast cancer families were aimed at identifying mutations in the coding se- quence and splice sites. Mutations in the promoter and untranslated regions, and large rearrangements are missed by standard mutation detection strategies. To look specifically for such germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 gene, we have analyzed a series of 27 American

Nadine Puget; Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet; Olga M. Sinilnikova; Sabine Pages; Henry T. Lynch; Gilbert M. Lenoir; Sylvie Mazoyer

1999-01-01

285

Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Methods Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. Results We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. Conclusions COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change. PMID:19390655

Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita

2009-01-01

286

Prevalence of rare mitochondrial DNA mutations in mitochondrial disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases are rare disorders whose prevalence is estimated around 1 in 5000. Patients are usually tested only for deletions and for common mutations of mtDNA which account for 5–40% of cases, depending on the study. However, the prevalence of rare mtDNA mutations is not known. Methods We analysed the whole mtDNA in a cohort of 743 patients suspected of manifesting a mitochondrial disease, after excluding deletions and common mutations. Both heteroplasmic and homoplasmic variants were identified using two complementary strategies (Surveyor and MitoChip). Multiple correspondence analyses followed by hierarchical ascendant cluster process were used to explore relationships between clinical spectrum, age at onset and localisation of mutations. Results 7.4% of deleterious mutations and 22.4% of novel putative mutations were identified. Pathogenic heteroplasmic mutations were more frequent than homoplasmic mutations (4.6% vs 2.8%). Patients carrying deleterious mutations showed symptoms before 16?years of age in 67% of cases. Early onset disease (<1?year) was significantly associated with mutations in protein coding genes (mainly in complex I) while late onset disorders (>16?years) were associated with mutations in tRNA genes. MTND5 and MTND6 genes were identified as ‘hotspots’ of mutations, with Leigh syndrome accounting for the large majority of associated phenotypes. Conclusions Rare mitochondrial DNA mutations probably account for more than 7.4% of patients with respiratory chain deficiency. This study shows that a comprehensive analysis of mtDNA is essential, and should include young children, for an accurate diagnosis that is now accessible with the development of next generation sequencing technology. PMID:23847141

Bannwarth, Sylvie; Procaccio, Vincent; Lebre, Anne Sophie; Jardel, Claude; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Hoarau, Claire; Maoulida, Hassani; Charrier, Nathanaël; Gai, Xiaowu; Xie, Hongbo M; Ferre, Marc; Fragaki, Konstantina; Hardy, Gaëlle; Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Marlin, Sandrine; Dhaenens, Claire Marie; Slama, Abdelhamid; Rocher, Christophe; Paul Bonnefont, Jean; Rötig, Agnès; Aoutil, Nadia; Gilleron, Mylène; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Reynier, Pascal; Ceresuela, Jennifer; Jonard, Laurence; Devos, Aurore; Espil-Taris, Caroline; Martinez, Delphine; Gaignard, Pauline; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Falk, Marni J; Florentz, Catherine; Chabrol, Brigitte; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

2013-01-01

287

Distinct clinical characteristics of myeloproliferative neoplasms with calreticulin mutations  

PubMed Central

Somatic insertions/deletions in the calreticulin gene have recently been discovered to be causative alterations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. A combination of qualitative and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, fragment-sizing, high resolution melting and Sanger-sequencing was applied for the detection of three driver mutations (in Janus kinase 2, calreticulin and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene genes) in 289 cases of essential thrombocythemia and 99 cases of primary myelofibrosis. In essential thrombocythemia, 154 (53%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 96 (33%) calreticulin, 9 (3%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 30 triple-negative (11%) cases were identified, while in primary myelofibrosis 56 (57%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 25 (25%) calreticulin, 7 (7%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 11 (11%) triple-negative cases were identified. Patients positive for the calreticulin mutation were younger and had higher platelet counts compared to Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive counterparts. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with essential thrombocythemia showed a lower risk of developing venous thrombosis, but no difference in overall survival. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with primary myelofibrosis had a better overall survival compared to that of the Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive (P=0.04) or triple-negative cases (P=0.01). Type 2 calreticulin mutation occurred more frequently in essential thrombocythemia than in primary myelofibrosis (P=0.049). In essential thrombocythemia, the calreticulin mutational load was higher than the Janus kinase 2 mutational load (P<0.001), and increased gradually in advanced stages. Calreticulin mutational load influenced blood counts even at the time point of diagnosis in essential thrombocythemia. We confirm that calreticulin mutation is associated with distinct clinical characteristics and explored relationships between mutation type, load and clinical outcome. PMID:24895336

Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Krahling, Tunde; Balassa, Katalin; Halm, Gabriella; Bors, Andras; Koszarska, Magdalena; Batai, Arpad; Dolgos, Janos; Csomor, Judit; Egyed, Miklos; Sipos, Andrea; Remenyi, Peter; Tordai, Attila; Masszi, Tamas

2014-01-01

288

Emerging patterns of somatic mutations in cancer  

PubMed Central

The advance in technological tools for massively parallel, high-throughput sequencing of DNA has enabled the comprehensive characterization of somatic mutations in large number of tumor samples. Here, we review recent cancer genomic studies that have assembled emerging views of the landscapes of somatic mutations through deep sequencing analyses of the coding exomes and whole genomes in various cancer types. We discuss the comparative genomics of different cancers, including mutation rates, spectrums, and roles of environmental insults that influence these processes. We highlight the developing statistical approaches used to identify significantly mutated genes, and discuss the emerging biological and clinical insights from such analyses as well as the challenges ahead translating these genomic data into clinical impacts. PMID:24022702

Watson, Ian R.; Takahashi, Koichi; Futreal, P. Andrew; Chin, Lynda

2014-01-01

289

Identification of new mutations in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease due to motor neuron death in the cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. Ten percent of ALS cases are familial (FALS). Previously a subset of FALS families have been mapped to chromosome 21 and mutations in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase gene have been identified in those families. Nineteen different mutations at 16 distinct codons have been documented, of which 12 different mutations were identified in our 29 FALS families. These mutations account for about twenty percent of all FALS families screened. The mutations identified in our FALS families are A4V, A4T, G37R, G41D, H43R, G85R, G93A, E100G, L106V, I113T, L144F, and V148G. Mutation A4V is the most frequent one which occurred in 14 out of our 29 FALS families. In further screening of our FALS families, two new mutations, V14M and L84V, have been identified. Thus a total of 21 different mutations at 18 distinct codon sites have been identified in SOD1.

Siddique, T.; Deng, H.X.; Hentati, A. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

290

The mutational spectrum in Treacher Collins syndrome reveals a predominance of mutations that create a premature-termination codon  

SciTech Connect

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. The TCS locus has been mapped to human chromosome 5q31.3-32 and the mutated gene identified. In the current investigation, 25 previously undescribed mutations, which are spread throughout the gene, are presented. This brings the total reported to date to 35, which represents a detection rate of 60%. Of the mutations that have been reported to date, all but one result in the introduction of a premature-termination codon into the predicted protein, treacle. Moreover, the mutations are largely family specific, although a common 5-bp deletion in exon 24 (seven different families) and a recurrent splicing mutation in intron 3 (two different families) have been identified. This mutational spectrum supports the hypothesis that TCS results from haploin-sufficiency. 49 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Edwards, S.J.; Gladwin, A.J.; Dixon, M.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

1997-03-01

291

Screening of VCP mutations in Chinese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene have been recently found in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To define the frequency of VCP mutations in ALS patients in Chinese population, we sequenced all 17 exons of the VCP gene in a cohort of both familial and sporadic ALS patients of Chinese origin. No nonsynonymous coding variants were identified. This indicates that VCP mutations are not a common cause of familial or sporadic ALS in Chinese population. PMID:23102936

Zou, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Guang; Cui, Li-Ying

2013-05-01

292

Fen1 mutations result in autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional deficiency of the FEN1 gene has been suggested to cause genomic instability and cancer predisposition. We have identified a group of FEN1 mutations in human cancer specimens. Most of these mutations abrogated two of three nuclease activities of flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). To demonstrate the etiological significance of these somatic mutations, we inbred a mouse line harboring the E160D

Li Zheng; Huifang Dai; Mian Zhou; Mei Li; Purnima Singh; Junzhuan Qiu; Walter Tsark; Qin Huang; Kemp Kernstine; Xuemei Zhang; Dongxin Lin; Binghui Shen

2007-01-01

293

The spectrum of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is the prototype of a group of inherited inflammatory disorders. The gene (MEFV) responsible for this disease, comprises 10 exons and 781 codons. Twenty-nine mutations, most located in the last exon, have been identified so far. It is unclear whether all are true disease-causing mutations. Five founder mutations, V726A, M694V, M694I, M680I and E148Q account for

Isabelle Touitou

2001-01-01

294

Human somatic mutation assays as biomarkers of carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes four assays that detect somatic gene mutations in humans: the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase assay, the glycophorin A assay, the HLA-A assay, and the sickle cell hemoglobin assay. Somatic gene mutations can be considered a biomarker of carcinogenesis, and assays for somatic mutation may assist epidemiologists in studies that attempt to identify factors associated with increased risks of cancer. Practical aspects of the use of these assays are discussed.

Compton, P.J.E.; Smith, M.T. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Hooper, K. (California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

1991-08-01

295

PALB2 mutations in familial breast and pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PALB2 (Partner And Localizer of BRCA2) binds to and co-localizes with BRCA2 in DNA repair. Germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1–2% of familial breast cancer and 3–4% of familial pancreatic cancer cases. The goal\\u000a of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in women with breast cancer without BRCA1\\/2 mutations who also had

Erin W. Hofstatter; Susan M. Domchek; Alexander Miron; Judy Garber; Molin Wang; Kathryn Componeschi; Leigh Boghossian; Penelope L. Miron; Katherine L. Nathanson; Nadine Tung

2011-01-01

296

BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation analysis among Indian women from south India: identification of four novel mutations and high-frequency occurrence of 185delAG mutation.  

PubMed

Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes profoundly increase the risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer among women. To explore the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the development of hereditary breast cancer among Indian women, we carried out mutation analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 61 breast or ovarian cancer patients from south India with a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Mutation analysis was carried out using conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) followed by sequencing. Mutations were identified in 17 patients (28.0%); 15 (24.6%) had BRCA1 mutations and two (3.28%) had BRCA2 mutations. While no specific association between BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations with cancer type was seen, mutations were more often seen in families with ovarian cancer. While 40% (4/10) and 30.8% (4/12) of families with ovarian or breast and ovarian cancer had mutations, only 23.1% (9/39) of families with breast cancer carried mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In addition, while BRCA1 mutations were found in all age groups, BRCA2 mutations were found only in the age group of < or =40 years. Of the BRCA1 mutations, there were three novel mutations (295delCA; 4213T-->A; 5267T-->G) and three mutations that have been reported earlier. Interestingly, 185delAG, a BRCA1 mutation which occurs at a very high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews, was found at a frequency of 16.4% (10/61). There was one novel mutation (4866insT) and one reported mutation in BRCA2. Thus, our study emphasizes the importance of mutation screening in familial breast and/or ovarian cancers, and the potential implications of these findings in genetic counselling and preventive therapy. PMID:19805903

Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Lakhotia, Smita; Ravishankar, H M; Tabassum, Umaira; Mukherjee, Geetashree; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

2009-09-01

297

Mutational analysis of genes coding for cell surface proteins in colorectal cancer cell lines reveal novel altered pathways, druggable mutations and mutated epitopes for targeted therapy.  

PubMed

We carried out a mutational analysis of 3,594 genes coding for cell surface proteins (Surfaceome) in 23 colorectal cancer cell lines, searching for new altered pathways, druggable mutations and mutated epitopes for targeted therapy in colorectal cancer. A total of 3,944 somatic non-synonymous substitutions and 595 InDels, occurring in 2,061 (57%) Surfaceome genes were catalogued. We identified 48 genes not previously described as mutated in colorectal tumors in the TCGA database, including genes that are mutated and expressed in >10% of the cell lines (SEMA4C, FGFRL1, PKD1, FAM38A, WDR81, TMEM136, SLC36A1, SLC26A6, IGFLR1). Analysis of these genes uncovered important roles for FGF and SEMA4 signaling in colorectal cancer with possible therapeutic implications. We also found that cell lines express on average 11 druggable mutations, including frequent mutations (>20%) in the receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and EPHA2, which have not been previously considered as potential targets for colorectal cancer. Finally, we identified 82 cell surface mutated epitopes, however expression of only 30% of these epitopes was detected in our cell lines. Notwithstanding, 92% of these epitopes were expressed in cell lines with the mutator phenotype, opening new venues for the use of "general" immune checkpoint drugs in this subset of patients. PMID:25193853

Donnard, Elisa; Asprino, Paula F; Correa, Bruna R; Bettoni, Fabiana; Koyama, Fernanda C; Navarro, Fabio C P; Perez, Rodrigo O; Mariadason, John; Sieber, Oliver M; Strausberg, Robert L; Simpson, Andrew J G; Jardim, Denis L F; Reis, Luiz Fernando L; Parmigiani, Raphael B; Galante, Pedro A F; Camargo, Anamaria A

2014-10-15

298

Mutation profiles of phenylketonuria in Quebec populations: evidence of stratification and novel mutations.  

PubMed Central

Independent phenylketonuria (PKU) chromosomes (n = 109) representing 80% of a proband cohort in Quebec province carry 18 different identified mutations in 20 different mutation/haplotype combinations. The study reported here, the third in a series on Quebec populations, was done in the Montreal region and predominantly on French Canadians. It has identified three novel mutations (A309D, D338Y, and 1054/1055delG[352fs]) and one unusual mutation/RFLP haplotype combination (E280K on Hp 2). The relative frequencies and distribution of PKU mutations were then compared in three regions and population subsets (eastern Quebec, French Canadian; western Quebec, French Canadian; and Montreal, non-French Canadian). The distributions of the prevalent and rare mutations are nonrandom and provide evidence for genetic stratification. The latter and the presence of eight unusual mutation/haplotype combinations in Quebec families with European ancestries (the aforementioned four and M1V, I65T, S349P, and R408W on Hp 1) corroborate demographic and anthropologic evidence, from elsewhere, for different origins of French Canadians in eastern and western Quebec. Images Figure 1 PMID:7913581

Rozen, R.; Mascisch, A.; Lambert, M.; Laframboise, R.; Scriver, C. R.

1994-01-01

299

Mutation profiles of phenylketonuria in Quebec populations: Evidence of stratification and novel mutations  

SciTech Connect

Independent phenylketonuria (PKU) chromosomes (n=109) representing 80% of a proband cohort in Quebec province carry 18 different identified mutations in 20 different mutation/haplotype combinations. The study reported here, the third in a series on Quebec populations, was done in the Montreal region and predominantly on French Canadians. It has identified three novel mutations (A309D, D338Y, and 1054/1055delG [352fs]) and one unusual mutation/RFLP haplotype combination (E280K on Hp 2). The relative frequencies and distribution of PKU mutations were then compared in three regions and population subsets (eastern Quebec, French Canadian; western Quebec, French Canadian; and Montreal, non-French Canadian). The distributions of the prevalent and rare mutations are nonrandom and provide evidence for genetic stratification. The latter and the presence of eight unusual mutation/haplotype combinations in Quebec families with European ancestries (the aforementioned four and M1V, 165T, S349P, and R408W on Hp 1) corroborate demographic and anthropologic evidence, from elsewhere, for different origins of French Canadians in eastern and western Quebec. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Rozen, R.; Mascisch, A.; Scriver, C.R. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)); Lambert, M. (Hopital Ste-Justine, Montreal (Canada)); Laframboise, R. (Centre Hospitalier Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada))

1994-08-01

300

Spontaneous Mutation Accumulation Studies in  

E-print Network

Spontaneous Mutation Accumulation Studies in Evolutionary Genetics Daniel L. Halligan and Peter D of mutation effects, dominance, epistasis, genotype-environment interaction, mutation rate Abstract Mutation accumulation (MA) experiments, in which mutations are allowed to drift to fixation in inbred lines, have been

Keightley, Peter

301

Mutation at the Human D1S80 Minisatellite Locus  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the general biology of minisatellites. The purpose of this study is to examine repeat mutations from the D1S80 minisatellite locus by sequence analysis to elucidate the mutational process at this locus. This is a highly polymorphic minisatellite locus, located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 1. We have analyzed 90,000 human germline transmission events and found seven (7) mutations at this locus. The D1S80 alleles of the parentage trio, the child, mother, and the alleged father were sequenced and the origin of the mutation was determined. Using American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) guidelines, we found a male mutation rate of 1.04 × 10?4 and a female mutation rate of 5.18 × 10?5 with an overall mutation rate of approximately 7.77 × 10?5. Also, in this study, we found that the identified mutations are in close proximity to the center of the repeat array rather than at the ends of the repeat array. Several studies have examined the mutational mechanisms of the minisatellites according to infinite allele model (IAM) and the one-step stepwise mutation model (SMM). In this study, we found that this locus fits into the one-step mutation model (SMM) mechanism in six out of seven instances similar to STR loci. PMID:22645469

Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Tracey, Martin L.; Heine, Uwe; Maha, George C.; Duncan, George T.

2012-01-01

302

Mutation at the human D1S80 minisatellite locus.  

PubMed

Little is known about the general biology of minisatellites. The purpose of this study is to examine repeat mutations from the D1S80 minisatellite locus by sequence analysis to elucidate the mutational process at this locus. This is a highly polymorphic minisatellite locus, located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 1. We have analyzed 90,000 human germline transmission events and found seven (7) mutations at this locus. The D1S80 alleles of the parentage trio, the child, mother, and the alleged father were sequenced and the origin of the mutation was determined. Using American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) guidelines, we found a male mutation rate of 1.04 × 10(-4) and a female mutation rate of 5.18 × 10(-5) with an overall mutation rate of approximately 7.77 × 10(-5). Also, in this study, we found that the identified mutations are in close proximity to the center of the repeat array rather than at the ends of the repeat array. Several studies have examined the mutational mechanisms of the minisatellites according to infinite allele model (IAM) and the one-step stepwise mutation model (SMM). In this study, we found that this locus fits into the one-step mutation model (SMM) mechanism in six out of seven instances similar to STR loci. PMID:22645469

Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Tracey, Martin L; Heine, Uwe; Maha, George C; Duncan, George T

2012-01-01

303

Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome Is Caused by IFIH1 Mutations  

PubMed Central

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare, genetically determined early-onset progressive encephalopathy. To date, mutations in six genes have been identified as etiologic for AGS. Our Japanese nationwide AGS survey identified six AGS-affected individuals without a molecular diagnosis; we performed whole-exome sequencing on three of these individuals. After removal of the common polymorphisms found in SNP databases, we were able to identify IFIH1 heterozygous missense mutations in all three. In vitro functional analysis revealed that IFIH1 mutations increased type I interferon production, and the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes were elevated. IFIH1 encodes MDA5, and mutant MDA5 lacked ligand-specific responsiveness, similarly to the dominant Ifih1 mutation responsible for the SLE mouse model that results in type I interferon overproduction. This study suggests that the IFIH1 mutations are responsible for the AGS phenotype due to an excessive production of type I interferon. PMID:24995871

Oda, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Kenji; Abe, Junya; Awaya, Tomonari; Funabiki, Masahide; Hijikata, Atsushi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Funatsuka, Makoto; Ohshima, Yusei; Sugawara, Yuji; Yasumi, Takahiro; Kato, Hiroki; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ohara, Osamu; Fujita, Takashi; Heike, Toshio

2014-01-01

304

Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system. Methods We compiled data from publications and hereditary cancer registries to characterize the Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum in South America. In total, data from 267 families that fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria and/or the Bethesda guidelines from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Uruguay were included. Results Disease-predisposing mutations were identified in 37% of the families and affected MLH1 in 60% and MSH2 in 40%. Half of the mutations have not previously been reported and potential founder effects were identified in Brazil and in Colombia. Conclusion The South American Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum includes multiple new mutations, identifies potential founder effects and is useful for future development of genetic testing in this continent. PMID:24344984

2013-01-01

305

Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: Single-base deletion in exon 7 is the predominant mutation in Caribbean Hispanic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, three different structural gene mutations have been identified in patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification). These include a missense mutation (H107Y) in two families, a splice junction mutation in intron 5 in one of these families, and a splice junction mutation in intron 2 for which many Arabic patients are

P. Y. Hu; A. R. Ernst; W. S. Sly; P. J. Venta; L. A. Skaggs; R. E. Tashian

1994-01-01

306

MUTATION IN BRIEF HUMAN MUTATION Mutation in Brief #259 (1999) Online  

E-print Network

MUTATION IN BRIEF ERRATUM HUMAN MUTATION Mutation in Brief #259 (1999) Online © 1999 WILEY and Germline HPRT1 Mutations Promote Use of a Common, Cryptic Intron 1 Splice Site Publisher's Note: An incorrect version of this article was published as Mutation in Brief #246, 1999. This is the corrected

Monnat, Ray

307

Mutation of Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the mutation of chromosomes. A permanent structural alteration in DNA. In most cases, such DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally a mutation can improve an organism's chance of surviving and passing the beneficial change on to its descendants.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

2005-03-12

308

The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains and losses, including ETS gene family fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, which drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, less is known about the role of mutations. Here we sequenced the exomes of 50 lethal, heavily pre-treated metastatic CRPCs obtained at rapid autopsy (including three different foci from the same patient) and 11 treatment-naive, high-grade localized prostate cancers. We identified low overall mutation rates even in heavily treated CRPCs (2.00 per megabase) and confirmed the monoclonal origin of lethal CRPC. Integrating exome copy number analysis identified disruptions of CHD1 that define a subtype of ETS gene family fusion-negative prostate cancer. Similarly, we demonstrate that ETS2, which is deleted in approximately one-third of CRPCs (commonly through TMPRSS2:ERG fusions), is also deregulated through mutation. Furthermore, we identified recurrent mutations in multiple chromatin- and histone-modifying genes, including MLL2 (mutated in 8.6% of prostate cancers), and demonstrate interaction of the MLL complex with the AR, which is required for AR-mediated signalling. We also identified novel recurrent mutations in the AR collaborating factor FOXA1, which is mutated in 5 of 147 (3.4%) prostate cancers (both untreated localized prostate cancer and CRPC), and showed that mutated FOXA1 represses androgen signalling and increases tumour growth. Proteins that physically interact with the AR, such as the ERG gene fusion product, FOXA1, MLL2, UTX (also known as KDM6A) and ASXL1 were found to be mutated in CRPC. In summary, we describe the mutational landscape of a heavily treated metastatic cancer, identify novel mechanisms of AR signalling deregulated in prostate cancer, and prioritize candidates for future study. PMID:22722839

Grasso, Catherine S; Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan R; Cao, Xuhong; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Khan, Amjad P; Quist, Michael J; Jing, Xiaojun; Lonigro, Robert J; Brenner, J Chad; Asangani, Irfan A; Ateeq, Bushra; Chun, Sang Y; Siddiqui, Javed; Sam, Lee; Anstett, Matt; Mehra, Rohit; Prensner, John R; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Ryslik, Gregory A; Vandin, Fabio; Raphael, Benjamin J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Rhodes, Daniel R; Pienta, Kenneth J; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Tomlins, Scott A

2012-07-12

309

DISCOVERY OF MUTATED SUBNETWORKS ASSOCIATED WITH CLINICAL DATA IN CANCER  

E-print Network

DISCOVERY OF MUTATED SUBNETWORKS ASSOCIATED WITH CLINICAL DATA IN CANCER FABIO VANDIN, PATRICK CLAY,pclay,eli,braphael}@cs.brown.edu A major goal of cancer sequencing projects is to identify genetic alterations that determine clinical phenotypes, such as survival time or drug response. Somatic mutations in cancer are typically very diverse

Raphael, Ben J.

310

Mayo Clinic breast cancer study finds new type of mutation  

Cancer.gov

Mayo Clinic researchers have discovered a new class of molecular mutation in various forms of breast cancer, a finding that may shed new light on development and growth of different types of breast tumors. Called fusion transcripts, the mutated forms of RNA may also provide a way to identify tumor subtypes and offer new strategies to treat them, investigators say.

311

Spectrum of rhodopsin mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the spectrum and frequency of rhodopsin gene (RHO) mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to characterize genotype–phenotype correlations in patients with mutations. Methods The RHO mutations were screened by direct sequencing, and mutation prevalence was measured in patients and controls. The impact of missense mutations to RP was predicted by segregation analysis, peptide sequence alignment, and in silico analysis. The severity of disease in patients with the missense mutations was compared by visual acuity, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and kinetic visual field testing. Results Five heterozygous mutations were identified in six of 302 probands with RP, including a novel mutation (c.893C>A, p.A298D) and four known mutations (c.50C>T, p.T17M; c.533A>G, p.Y178C; c.888G>T, p.K296N; and c.1040C>T, p.P347L). The allele frequency of missense mutations was measured in 114 ethnically matched controls. p.A298D, newly identified in a sporadic patient, had never been found in controls and was predicted to be pathogenic. Among the patients with the missense mutations, we observed the most severe phenotype in patients with p.P347L, less severe phenotypes in patients with p.Y178C or p.A298D, and a relatively moderate phenotype in a patient with p.T17M. Conclusions The results reveal the spectrum of RHO mutations in Korean RP patients and clinical features that vary according to mutations. Our findings will be useful for understanding these genetic spectra and the genotype–phenotype correlations and will therefore help with predicting disease prognosis and facilitating the development of gene therapy. PMID:21677794

Kim, Kwang Joong; Kim, Cinoo; Bok, Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Seon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Sung Pyo; Chung, Hum; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kimm, Kuchan; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2011-01-01

312

Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of samples obtained from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls. We established phylogenetic trees using hematopoietic colonies. We assessed calreticulin subcellular localization using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. RESULTS Exome sequencing identified 1498 mutations in 151 patients, with medians of 6.5, 6.5, and 13.0 mutations per patient in samples of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, respectively. Somatic CALR mutations were found in 70 to 84% of samples of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2, in 8% of myelodysplasia samples, in occasional samples of other myeloid cancers, and in none of the other cancers. A total of 148 CALR mutations were identified with 19 distinct variants. Mutations were located in exon 9 and generated a +1 base-pair frameshift, which would result in a mutant protein with a novel C-terminal. Mutant calreticulin was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum without increased cell-surface or Golgi accumulation. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels than patients with mutated JAK2. Mutation of CALR was detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Clonal analyses showed CALR mutations in the earliest phylogenetic node, a finding consistent with its role as an initiating mutation in some patients. CONCLUSIONS Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone CALR were found in a majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2. (Funded by the Kay Kendall Leukaemia Fund and others.) PMID:24325359

Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Van Loo, P.; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O’Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.-Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.P.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.P.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

2014-01-01

313

Mutation and premating isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

2002-01-01

314

Benchmarking mutation effect prediction algorithms using functionally validated cancer-related missense mutations.  

PubMed

BackgroundMassively parallel sequencing studies have led to the identification of a large number of mutations present in a minority of cancers of a given site. Hence, methods to identify the likely pathogenic mutations that are worth exploring experimentally and clinically are required. We sought to compare the performance of 15 mutation effect prediction algorithms and their agreement. As a hypothesis-generating aim, we sought to define whether combinations of prediction algorithms would improve the functional effect predictions of specific mutations.ResultsLiterature and database mining of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) affecting 15 cancer genes was performed to identify mutations supported by functional evidence or hereditary disease association to be classified either as non-neutral (n¿=¿849) or neutral (n¿=¿140) with respect to their impact on protein function. These SNVs were employed to test the performance of 15 mutation effect prediction algorithms. The accuracy of the prediction algorithms varies considerably. Although all algorithms perform consistently well in terms of positive predictive value, their negative predictive value varies substantially. Cancer-specific mutation effect predictors display no-to-almost perfect agreement in their predictions of these SNVs, whereas the non-cancer-specific predictors showed no-to-moderate agreement. Combinations of predictors modestly improve accuracy and significantly improve negative predictive values.ConclusionsThe information provided by mutation effect predictors is not equivalent. No algorithm is able to predict sufficiently accurately SNVs that should be taken forward for experimental or clinical testing. Combining algorithms aggregates orthogonal information and may result in improvements in the negative predictive value of mutation effect predictions. PMID:25348012

Martelotto, Luciano G; Ng, Charlotte; De Filippo, Maria R; Zhang, Yan; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Lim, Raymond; Shen, Ronglai; Norton, Larry; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

2014-10-28

315

Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome.  

PubMed Central

To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), we analyzed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. We amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71 + 1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, we determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations we identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. We conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8488849

Berg, M A; Argente, J; Chernausek, S; Gracia, R; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hopp, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Rosenbloom, A; Toledo, S P; Francke, U

1993-01-01

316

Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), the authors analysed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. They amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). They identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71+1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, they determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. The authors conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Berg, M.A.; Francke, U. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)); Gracia, R.; Rosenbloom, A.; Toledo, S.P.A. (Univ. Autonoma, Madrid (Spain)); Chernausek, S. (Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Guevara-Aguirre, J. (Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Reproduction, Quito (Ecuador)); Hopp, M. (Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Rosenbloom, A.; Argente, J. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States)); Toledo, S.P.A. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1993-05-01

317

Frequent activating FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinomas parallel germline mutations associated with craniosynostosis and skeletal dysplasia syndromes  

PubMed Central

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy in the United States. Although most women present with early disease confined to the uterus, the majority of persistent or recurrent tumors are refractory to current chemotherapies. We have identified a total of 11 different FGFR2 mutations in 3/10 (30%) of endometrial cell lines and 19/187 (10%) of primary uterine tumors. Mutations were seen primarily in tumors of the endometrioid histologic subtype (18/115 cases investigated, 16%). The majority of the somatic mutations identified were identical to germline activating mutations in FGFR2 and FGFR3 that cause Apert Syndrome, Beare–Stevenson Syndrome, hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia and SADDAN syndrome. The two most common somatic mutations identified were S252W (in eight tumors) and N550K (in five samples). Four novel mutations were identified, three of which are also likely to result in receptor gain-of-function. Extensive functional analyses have already been performed on many of these mutations, demonstrating they result in receptor activation through a variety of mechanisms. The discovery of activating FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinoma raises the possibility of employing anti-FGFR molecularly targeted therapies in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. PMID:17525745

Pollock, PM; Gartside, MG; Dejeza, LC; Powell, MA; Mallon, MA; Davies, H; Mohammadi, M; Futreal, PA; Stratton, MR; Trent, JM; Goodfellow, PJ

2010-01-01

318

Somatic SETBP1 mutations in myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed

Here we report whole-exome sequencing of individuals with various myeloid malignancies and identify recurrent somatic mutations in SETBP1, consistent with a recent report on atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Closely positioned somatic SETBP1 mutations encoding changes in Asp868, Ser869, Gly870, Ile871 and Asp880, which match germline mutations in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS), were detected in 17% of secondary acute myeloid leukemias (sAML) and 15% of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cases. These results from deep sequencing demonstrate a higher mutational detection rate than reported with conventional sequencing methodology. Mutant cases were associated with advanced age and monosomy 7/deletion 7q (-7/del(7q)) constituting poor prognostic factors. Analysis of serially collected samples indicated that SETBP1 mutations were acquired during leukemic evolution. Transduction with mutant Setbp1 led to the immortalization of mouse myeloid progenitors that showed enhanced proliferative capacity compared to cells transduced with wild-type Setbp1. Somatic mutations of SETBP1 seem to cause gain of function, are associated with myeloid leukemic transformation and convey poor prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and CMML. PMID:23832012

Makishima, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nguyen, Nhu; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Sanada, Masashi; Okuno, Yusuke; Ng, Kwok Peng; Gudmundsson, Kristbjorn O; Vishwakarma, Bandana A; Jerez, Andres; Gomez-Segui, Ines; Takahashi, Mariko; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Nagata, Yasunobu; Guinta, Kathryn; Mori, Hiraku; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Paquette, Ronald L; McDevitt, Michael A; Kojima, Seiji; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Miyano, Satoru; Shih, Lee-Yung; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P

2013-08-01

319

Cystic fibrosis mutations in the Hutterite Brethren.  

PubMed Central

The presence or absence of the major cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation, delta F508, in the general patient population was determined by Kerem et al. using allele-specific oligonucleotides for the mutant and normal sequences in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). delta F508 was identified by Riordan et al., and it is a 3-bp deletion of the phenylalanine codon at position 508. The Hutterite Brethren are an inbred North American population who have three different DNA marker haplotypes of CF chromosomes. Genomic DNA from both a CF child and one parent from each of 10 Hutterite families was analyzed for the presence or absence of the deletion mutation. delta F508 is associated with one of the three CF haplotypes in the Hutterite population, and this is the most common haplotype in a subset of the linkage family data of Kerem et al. The other two Hutterite CF haplotypes are generally rate in Caucasian populations. Since these two CF haplotypes do not carry the deletion mutation, they must carry a different CF mutation(s). The results of the PCR analysis for the deletion mutation lend additional support to our previous conclusion that there were at least three original carriers of CF mutations among the founders of the Hutterite population and that all copies of the same CF haplotype were identical by descent. One Hutterite CF patient has both of the haplotypes which do not carry delta F508. Analysis of this individual's DNA should allow identification of two additional CF mutations in this population. PMID:2339696

Klinger, K; Horn, G T; Stanislovitis, P; Schwartz, R H; Fujiwara, T M; Morgan, K

1990-01-01

320

Mutations in ANTXR1 cause GAPO syndrome.  

PubMed

The genetic cause of GAPO syndrome, a condition characterized by growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and progressive visual impairment, has not previously been identified. We studied four ethnically unrelated affected individuals and identified homozygous nonsense mutations (c.262C>T [p.Arg88*] and c.505C>T [p.Arg169*]) or splicing mutations (c.1435-12A>G [p.Gly479Phefs*119]) in ANTXR1, which encodes anthrax toxin receptor 1. The nonsense mutations predictably trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, resulting in the loss of ANTXR1. The transcript with the splicing mutation theoretically encodes a truncated ANTXR1 containing a neopeptide composed of 118 unique amino acids in its C terminus. GAPO syndrome's major phenotypic features, which include dental abnormalities and the accumulation of extracellular matrix, recapitulate those found in Antxr1-mutant mice and point toward an underlying defect in extracellular-matrix regulation. Thus, we propose that mutations affecting ANTXR1 function are responsible for this disease's characteristic generalized defect in extracellular-matrix homeostasis. PMID:23602711

Stránecký, Viktor; Hoischen, Alexander; Hartmannová, Hana; Zaki, Maha S; Chaudhary, Amit; Zudaire, Enrique; Nosková, Lenka; Barešová, Veronika; P?istoupilová, Anna; Hoda?ová, Kate?ina; Sovová, Jana; H?lková, Helena; Piherová, Lenka; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; de Silva, Deepthi; Senanayake, Manouri P; Farrag, Sameh; Zeman, Ji?í; Martásek, Pavel; Baxová, Alice; Afifi, Hanan H; St Croix, Brad; Brunner, Han G; Temtamy, Samia; Kmoch, Stanislav

2013-05-01

321

Mutations in ANTXR1 Cause GAPO Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The genetic cause of GAPO syndrome, a condition characterized by growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and progressive visual impairment, has not previously been identified. We studied four ethnically unrelated affected individuals and identified homozygous nonsense mutations (c.262C>T [p.Arg88*] and c.505C>T [p.Arg169*]) or splicing mutations (c.1435–12A>G [p.Gly479Phefs*119]) in ANTXR1, which encodes anthrax toxin receptor 1. The nonsense mutations predictably trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, resulting in the loss of ANTXR1. The transcript with the splicing mutation theoretically encodes a truncated ANTXR1 containing a neopeptide composed of 118 unique amino acids in its C terminus. GAPO syndrome’s major phenotypic features, which include dental abnormalities and the accumulation of extracellular matrix, recapitulate those found in Antxr1-mutant mice and point toward an underlying defect in extracellular-matrix regulation. Thus, we propose that mutations affecting ANTXR1 function are responsible for this disease’s characteristic generalized defect in extracellular-matrix homeostasis. PMID:23602711

Stránecký, Viktor; Hoischen, Alexander; Hartmannová, Hana; Zaki, Maha S.; Chaudhary, Amit; Zudaire, Enrique; Nosková, Lenka; Barešová, Veronika; P?istoupilová, Anna; Hoda?ová, Kate?ina; Sovová, Jana; H?lková, Helena; Piherová, Lenka; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; de Silva, Deepthi; Senanayake, Manouri P.; Farrag, Sameh; Zeman, Ji?í; Martásek, Pavel; Baxová, Alice; Afifi, Hanan H.; St. Croix, Brad; Brunner, Han G.; Temtamy, Samia; Kmoch, Stanislav

2013-01-01

322

Novel mutations target distinct subgroups of medulloblastoma.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour comprising four discrete subgroups. Here, to identify mutations that drive medulloblastoma, we sequenced the entire genomes of 37 tumours and matched normal blood. One-hundred and thirty-six genes harbouring somatic mutations in this discovery set were sequenced in an additional 56 medulloblastomas. Recurrent mutations were detected in 41 genes not yet implicated in medulloblastoma; several target distinct components of the epigenetic machinery in different disease subgroups, such as regulators of H3K27 and H3K4 trimethylation in subgroups 3 and 4 (for example, KDM6A and ZMYM3), and CTNNB1-associated chromatin re-modellers in WNT-subgroup tumours (for example, SMARCA4 and CREBBP). Modelling of mutations in mouse lower rhombic lip progenitors that generate WNT-subgroup tumours identified genes that maintain this cell lineage (DDX3X), as well as mutated genes that initiate (CDH1) or cooperate (PIK3CA) in tumorigenesis. These data provide important new insights into the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma subgroups and highlight targets for therapeutic development. PMID:22722829

Robinson, Giles; Parker, Matthew; Kranenburg, Tanya A; Lu, Charles; Chen, Xiang; Ding, Li; Phoenix, Timothy N; Hedlund, Erin; Wei, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Chalhoub, Nader; Baker, Suzanne J; Huether, Robert; Kriwacki, Richard; Curley, Natasha; Thiruvenkatam, Radhika; Wang, Jianmin; Wu, Gang; Rusch, Michael; Hong, Xin; Becksfort, Jared; Gupta, Pankaj; Ma, Jing; Easton, John; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Lin, Tong; Li, Shaoyi; Pounds, Stanley; Paugh, Steven; Zhao, David; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Roussel, Martine F; Finkelstein, David; Ellison, David W; Lau, Ching C; Bouffet, Eric; Hassall, Tim; Gururangan, Sridharan; Cohn, Richard; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Ochoa, Kerri; Gajjar, Amar; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Zhang, Jinghui; Gilbertson, Richard J

2012-08-01

323

MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important causal or modifying role in HCM. The MT-CYB gene was sequenced from DNA isolated from blood from 91 Danish HCM probands. Nonsynonymous variants were analyzed by bioinformatics, molecular modeling and simulation. Two germline-inherited, putative disease-causing, nonsynonymous variants: m.15024G>A; p.C93Y and m.15482T>C; p.S246P were identified. Modeling showed that the p.C93Y mutation leads to disruption of the tertiary structure of Cytb by helix displacement, interfering with protein–heme interaction. The p.S246P mutation induces a diproline structure, which alters local secondary structure and induces a kink in the protein backbone, interfering with macromolecular interactions. These molecular effects are compatible with a leaky phenotype, that is, limited but progressive mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, we find that rare, putative leaky mtDNA variants in MT-CYB can be identified in a cohort of HCM patients. We propose that further patients with HCM should be examined for mutations in MT-CYB in order to clarify the role of these variants. PMID:24498601

Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole; Hedley, Paula L; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Jensen, Morten; Kanters, Jørgen K; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C; Møller, Daniel V; Bundgaard, Henning; Christiansen, Michael

2013-01-01

324

Novel LMNA mutations in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and functional characterization of four LMNA mutations.  

PubMed

Mutations in LMNA cause a variety of diseases affecting striated muscle including autosomal Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), LMNA-associated congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD), and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B). Here, we describe novel and recurrent LMNA mutations identified in 50 patients from the United States and Canada, which is the first report of the distribution of LMNA mutations from a large cohort outside Europe. This augments the number of LMNA mutations known to cause EDMD by 16.5%, equating to an increase of 5.9% in the total known LMNA mutations. Eight patients presented with either p.R249W/Q or p.E358K mutations and an early onset EDMD phenotype: two mutations recently associated with L-CMD. Importantly, 15 mutations are novel and include eight missense mutations (p.R189P, p.F206L, p.S268P, p.S295P, p.E361K, p.G449D, p.L454P, and p.W467R), three splice site mutations (c.IVS4 + 1G>A, c.IVS6 - 2A>G, and c.IVS8 + 1G>A), one duplication/in frame insertion (p.R190dup), one deletion (p.Q355del), and two silent mutations (p.R119R and p.K270K). Analysis of 4 of our lamin A mutations showed that some caused nuclear deformations and lamin B redistribution in a mutation specific manner. Together, this study significantly augments the number of EDMD patients on the database and describes 15 novel mutations that underlie EDMD, which will contribute to establishing genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:20848652

Scharner, Juergen; Brown, Charlotte A; Bower, Matthew; Iannaccone, Susan T; Khatri, Ismail A; Escolar, Diana; Gordon, Erynn; Felice, Kevin; Crowe, Carol A; Grosmann, Carla; Meriggioli, Matthew N; Asamoah, Alexander; Gordon, Ora; Gnocchi, Viola F; Ellis, Juliet A; Mendell, Jerry R; Zammit, Peter S

2011-02-01

325

Phenylketonuria mutation analysis in Northern Ireland: A rapid stepwise approach  

SciTech Connect

We present a multistep approach for the rapid analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations. In the first step, three common mutations and a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) system are rapidly analyzed with a fluorescent multiplex assay. In the second step, minihaplotypes combining STR and VNTR data are used to determine rare mutations likely to be present in an investigated patient, which are then confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. The remaining mutations are analyzed with denaturant gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The first two steps together identify both mutations in 90%-95% of PKU patients, and results can be obtained within 2 d. We have investigated 121 Northern Irish families with hyperphenylalaninemia, including virtually all patients born since 1972, and have found 34 different mutations on 241 of the 242 mutant alleles. Three mutations (R408W, 165T, and F39L) account for 57.5% of mutations, while 14 mutations occur with a frequency of 1%-6%. The present analysis system is efficient and inexpensive and is particularly well suited to routine mutation analysis in a diagnostic setting. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

Zschocke, J.; Graham, C.A.; Nevin, N.C. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast (Australia)] [and others

1995-12-01

326

Computational Method Uncovers Mutations That Drive Cancer | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Cancer gene sequencing initiatives, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas project, are finding thousands of gene mutations in cancer cells, and making sense of all these genetic alterations is proving to be as big a challenge as identifying them. In an attempt to identify the most important of these mutations, researchers at Columbia University and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have developed a computation method that can identify so-called driver mutations in human melanomas.

327

Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the

K. Kamino; L. Anderson; S. Odahl; E. Nemens; T. D. Bird; G. D. Schellenberg; E. M. Wijsman; W. Kukall; E. Larson; L. L. Heston

1992-01-01

328

Ligand-and mutation-induced conformational selection in the CCR5 chemokine G  

E-print Network

Ligand- and mutation-induced conformational selection in the CCR5 chemokine G protein show that a sin- gle-point mutation in a GPCR can dramatically alter the available low different binding site pharmacophore. To validate our predictions, we identified 11 singly mutated CCR5

Goddard III, William A.

329

Blood . Author manuscript IDH2 mutations are frequent in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma  

E-print Network

Blood . Author manuscript Page /1 5 IDH2 mutations are frequent in angioimmunoblastic T-cell T-cell lymphomas (PTCL). IDH2 mutations were identified in approximately 20 of angioimmunoblastic T-cell Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) occur in most grade 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Disheveled Hair and Ear (Dhe), a Spontaneous Mouse Lmna Mutation Modeling Human Laminopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInvestigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous,

Paul R. Odgren; Craig H. Pratt; Carole A. MacKay; April Mason-Savas; Michelle Curtain; Lindsay Shopland; Tsutomu Ichicki; John P. Sundberg; Leah Rae Donahue

2010-01-01

331

Brief Report:MECP2 Mutations in People without Rett Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutations in "Methyl-CpG-Binding protein 2" ("MECP2") are commonly associated with the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). However, some people with RTT do not have mutations in "MECP2," and interestingly there have been people identified with "MECP2" mutations that do not have the clinical…

Suter, Bernhard; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

2014-01-01

332

Galactosialidosis: review and analysis of CTSA gene mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the CTSA gene, that encodes the protective protein/cathepsin A or PPCA, lead to the secondary deficiency of ?-galactosidase (GLB1) and neuraminidase 1 (NEU1), causing the lysosomal storage disorder galactosialidosis (GS). Few clinical cases of GS have been reported in the literature, the majority of them belonging to the juvenile/adult group of patients. Methods The correct nomenclature of mutations for this gene is discussed through the analysis of the three PPCA/CTSA isoforms available in the GenBank database. Phenotype-genotype correlation has been assessed by computational analysis and review of previously reported single amino acid substitutions. Results We report the clinical and mutational analyses of four cases with the rare infantile form of GS. We identified three novel nucleotide changes, two of them resulting in the missense mutations, c.347A>G (p.His116Arg), c.775T>C (p.Cys259Arg), and the third, c.1216C>T, resulting in the p.Gln406* stop codon, a type of mutation identified for the first time in GS. An Italian founder effect of the c.114delG mutation can be suggested according to the origin of the only three patients carrying this mutation reported here and in the literature. Conclusions In early reports mutations nomenclature was selected according to all CTSA isoforms (three different isoforms), thus generating a lot of confusion. In order to assist physicians in the interpretation of detected mutations, we mark the correct nomenclature for CTSA mutations. The complexity of pathology caused by the multifunctions of CTSA, and the very low numbers of mutations (only 23 overall) in relation to the length of the CTSA gene are discussed. In addition, the in silico functional predictions of all reported missense mutations allowed us to closely predict the early infantile, late infantile and juvenile phenotypes, also disclosing different degrees of severity in the juvenile phenotype. PMID:23915561

2013-01-01

333

GATA2 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia-paired samples analyses show that the mutation is unstable during disease evolution.  

PubMed

Recently, mutations of the GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) gene were identified in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with CEBPA double mutations (CEBPA (double-mut)), but the interaction of this mutation with other genetic alterations and its dynamic changes during disease progression remain to be determined. In this study, 14 different missense GATA2 mutations, which were all clustered in the highly conserved N-terminal zinc finger 1 domain, were identified in 27.4, 6.7, and 1 % of patients with CEBPA (double-mut), CEBPA (single-mut), and CEBPA wild type, respectively. All but one patient with GATA2 mutation had concurrent CEBPA mutation. GATA2 mutations were closely associated with younger age, FAB M1 subtype, intermediate-risk cytogenetics, expression of HLA-DR, CD7, CD15, or CD34 on leukemic cells, and CEBPA mutation, but negatively associated with FAB M4 subtype, favorable-risk cytogenetics, and NPM1 mutation. Patients with GATA2 mutation had significantly better overall survival and relapse-free survival than those without GATA2 mutation. Sequential analysis showed that the original GATA2 mutations might be lost during disease progression in GATA2-mutated patients, while novel GATA2 mutations might be acquired at relapse in GATA2-wild patients. In conclusion, AML patients with GATA2 mutations had distinct clinic-biological features and a favorable prognosis. GATA2 mutations might be lost or acquired at disease progression, implying that it was a second hit in the leukemogenesis of AML, especially those with CEBPA mutation. PMID:25241285

Hou, Hsin-An; Lin, Yun-Chu; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Chou, Wen-Chien; Lin, Chien-Chin; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Liang-In; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Huang, Chi-Fei; Chiang, Ying-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Tang, Jih-Luh; Yao, Ming; Huang, Shang-Yi; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Shang-Ju; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tien, Hwei-Fang

2015-02-01

334

Mutation analysis of LMX1B gene in nail-patella syndrome patients.  

PubMed Central

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS), a pleiotropic disorder exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance, has been studied for >100 years. Recent evidence shows that NPS is the result of mutations in the LIM-homeodomain gene LMX1B. To determine whether specific LMX1B mutations are associated with different aspects of the NPS phenotype, we screened a cohort of 41 NPS families for LMX1B mutations. A total of 25 mutations were identified in 37 families. The nature of the mutations supports the hypothesis that NPS is the result of haploinsufficiency for LMX1B. There was no evidence of correlation between aspects of the NPS phenotype and specific mutations. PMID:9837817

McIntosh, I; Dreyer, S D; Clough, M V; Dunston, J A; Eyaid, W; Roig, C M; Montgomery, T; Ala-Mello, S; Kaitila, I; Winterpacht, A; Zabel, B; Frydman, M; Cole, W G; Francomano, C A; Lee, B

1998-01-01

335

Founder mutation(s) in the RSPH9 gene leading to primary ciliary dyskinesia in two inbred Bedouin families.  

PubMed

A rare mutation in the RSPH9 gene leading to primary ciliary dyskinesia was previously identified in two Bedouin families, one from Israel and one from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Herein we analyse mutation segregation in the Israeli family, present the clinical disease spectrum, and estimate mutation age in the two families. Mutation segregation was studied by restriction fragment length analysis. Mutation ages were estimated using a model of the decrease in the length of ancestral haplotypes. The mutations in each of the two families had a common ancestor less than 95 and less than 17 generations in the past. If the mutations in the two families are descended from a common ancestor, that mutation would have to have arisen at least 150 generations ago. If the Bedouin population has been roughly constant in size for at least 6000 years, it is possible that the mutations in the two families are identical by descent. If there were substantial fluctuations in the size of the Bedouin population, it is more likely that there were two independent mutations. Based on the available data, the population genetic analysis does not strongly favour one conclusion over the other. PMID:20070851

Reish, Orit; Slatkin, Montgomery; Chapman-Shimshoni, Daphne; Elizur, Arnon; Chioza, Barry; Castleman, Victoria; Mitchison, Hannah M

2010-03-01

336

Founder mutation(s) in the RSPH9 gene leading to primary ciliary dyskinesia in two inbred Bedouin families  

PubMed Central

A rare mutation in the RSPH9 gene leading to Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia was previously identified in two Bedouin families, one from Israel and one from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Herein we analyze mutation segregation in the Israeli family, present the clinical disease spectrum, and estimate mutation age in the two families. Mutation segregation was studied by restriction fragment length analysis. Mutation ages were estimated using a model of the decrease in the length of ancestral haplotypes. The mutations in each of the two families had a common ancestor less than 95 and 17 generations in the past. If the mutations in the two families are descended from a common ancestor, that mutation would have to have arisen at least 150 generations ago. If the Bedouin population has been roughly constant in size for at least 6000 years, it is possible that the mutations in the two families are identical by descent. If there were substantial fluctuations in the size of the Bedouin population, it is more likely that there were two independent mutations. Based on the available data, the population genetic analysis does not strongly favor one conclusion over the other. PMID:20070851

Reish, Orit; Slatkin, Montgomery; Chapman-Shimshoni, Daphne; Elizur, Arnon; Chioza, Barry; Castleman, Victoria; Mitchison, Hannah M.

2010-01-01

337

Integrated analysis of recurrent properties of cancer genes to identify novel drivers  

PubMed Central

The heterogeneity of cancer genomes in terms of acquired mutations complicates the identification of genes whose modification may exert a driver role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we present a novel method that integrates expression profiles, mutation effects, and systemic properties of mutated genes to identify novel cancer drivers. We applied our method to ovarian cancer samples and were able to identify putative drivers in the majority of carcinomas without mutations in known cancer genes, thus suggesting that it can be used as a complementary approach to find rare driver mutations that cannot be detected using frequency-based approaches. PMID:23718799

2013-01-01

338

Splicing mutation analysis reveals previously unrecognized pathways in lymph node-invasive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Somatic mutations reported in large-scale breast cancer (BC) sequencing studies primarily consist of protein coding mutations. mRNA splicing mutation analyses have been limited in scope, despite their prevalence in Mendelian genetic disorders. We predicted splicing mutations in 442 BC tumour and matched normal exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA). These splicing defects were validated by abnormal expression changes in these tumours. Of the 5,206 putative mutations identified, exon skipping, leaky or cryptic splicing was confirmed for 988 variants. Pathway enrichment analysis of the mutated genes revealed mutations in 9 NCAM1-related pathways, which were significantly increased in samples with evidence of lymph node metastasis, but not in lymph node-negative tumours. We suggest that comprehensive reporting of DNA sequencing data should include non-trivial splicing analyses to avoid missing clinically-significant deleterious splicing mutations, which may reveal novel mutated pathways present in genetic disorders. PMID:25394353

Dorman, Stephanie N.; Viner, Coby; Rogan, Peter K.

2014-01-01

339

Novel Compound Heterozygous Nonsense PRX Mutations in a Korean Dejerine-Sottas Neuropathy Family  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the gene encoding periaxin (PRX) are known to cause autosomal recessive Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy (DSN) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4F. However, there have been no reports describing Korean patients with these mutations. Case Report We examined a Korean DSN patient with an early-onset, slowly progressive, demyelinating neuropathy with prominent sensory involvement. Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent capillary sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations (p.R392X and p.R679X) in PRX. One mutation was transmitted from each of the patient's parents. No unaffected family member had both mutations, and the mutations were not found in healthy controls. Conclusions We believe that these novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations are the underlying cause of DSN. The clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic phenotypes in this family were similar to those described previously for patients with PRX mutations. We have identified the first PRX mutation in a Korean patient with DSN.

Choi, Ye Ji; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Soo Hyun; Koo, Heasoo; Hong, Young Bin

2015-01-01

340

The 2588G-->C mutation in the ABCR gene is a mild frequent founder mutation in the Western European population and allows the classification of ABCR mutations in patients with Stargardt disease.  

PubMed Central

In 40 western European patients with Stargardt disease (STGD), we found 19 novel mutations in the retina-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCR) gene, illustrating STGD's high allelic heterogeneity. One mutation, 2588G-->C, identified in 15 (37.5%) patients, shows linkage disequilibrium with a rare polymorphism (2828G-->A) in exon 19, suggesting a founder effect. The guanine at position 2588 is part of the 3' splice site of exon 17. Analysis of the lymphoblastoid cell mRNA of two STGD patients with the 2588G-->C mutation shows that the resulting mutant ABCR proteins either lack Gly863 or contain the missense mutation Gly863Ala. We hypothesize that the 2588G-->C alteration is a mild mutation that causes STGD only in combination with a severe ABCR mutation. This is supported in that the accompanying ABCR mutations in at least five of eight STGD patients are null (severe) and that a combination of two mild mutations has not been observed among 68 STGD patients. The 2588G-->C mutation is present in 1 of every 35 western Europeans, a rate higher than that of the most frequent severe autosomal recessive mutation, the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator gene mutation DeltaPhe508. Given an STGD incidence of 1/10,000, homozygosity for the 2588G-->C mutation or compound heterozygosity for this and other mild ABCR mutations probably does not result in an STGD phenotype. PMID:10090887

Maugeri, A; van Driel, M A; van de Pol, D J; Klevering, B J; van Haren, F J; Tijmes, N; Bergen, A A; Rohrschneider, K; Blankenagel, A; Pinckers, A J; Dahl, N; Brunner, H G; Deutman, A F; Hoyng, C B; Cremers, F P

1999-01-01

341

Mutation Testing of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A go-back (GB) function for canceling recent user or system operations and going back to and resuming of previous state(s) is very often used regardless of the application domain. Therefore, faulty handling of them can cause severe damages in those applications. This paper proposes a mutation-based approach to testing GB functions modeled by pushdown automata. Novel mutation operators, recent coverage

Fevzi Belli; Mutlu Beyazit; Tomohiko Takagi; Zengo Furukawa

2011-01-01

342

Comprehensive screening for mutations associated with colorectal cancer in unselected cases reveals penetrant and nonpenetrant mutations.  

PubMed

Germline mutation testing in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is offered only to a subset of patients with a clinical presentation or tumor histology suggestive of familial CRC syndromes, probably underestimating familial CRC predisposition. The aim of our study was to determine whether unbiased screening of newly diagnosed CRC cases with next generation sequencing (NGS) increases the overall detection rate of germline mutations. We analyzed 152 consecutive CRC patients for germline mutations in 18 CRC-associated genes using NGS. All patients were also evaluated for Bethesda criteria and all tumors were investigated for microsatellite instability, immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins and the BRAF*V600E somatic mutation. NGS based sequencing identified 27 variants in 9 genes in 23 out of 152 patients studied (18%). Three of them were already reported as pathogenic and 12 were class 3 germline variants with an uncertain prediction of pathogenicity. Only 1 of these patients fulfilled Bethesda criteria and had a microsatellite instable tumor and an MLH1 germline mutation. The others would have been missed with current approaches: 2 with a MSH6 premature termination mutation and 12 uncertain, potentially pathogenic class 3 variants in APC, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MSH3 and MLH3. The higher NGS mutation detection rate compared with current testing strategies based on clinicopathological criteria is probably due to the large genetic heterogeneity and overlapping clinical presentation of the various CRC syndromes. It can also identify apparently nonpenetrant germline mutations complicating the clinical management of the patients and their families. PMID:25142776

Kraus, Cornelia; Rau, Tilman T; Lux, Philipp; Erlenbach-Wünsch, Katharina; Löhr, Sabine; Krumbiegel, Mandy; Thiel, Christian T; Stöhr, Robert; Agaimy, Abbas; Croner, Roland S; Stürzl, Michael; Hohenberger, Werner; Hartmann, Arndt; Reis, André

2015-03-15

343

Viral Mutation Rates ?  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimates of virus mutation rates are important to understand the evolution of the viruses and to combat them. However, methods of estimation are varied and often complex. Here, we critically review over 40 original studies and establish criteria to facilitate comparative analyses. The mutation rates of 23 viruses are presented as substitutions per nucleotide per cell infection (s/n/c) and corrected for selection bias where necessary, using a new statistical method. The resulting rates range from 10?8 to10?6 s/n/c for DNA viruses and from 10?6 to 10?4 s/n/c for RNA viruses. Similar to what has been shown previously for DNA viruses, there appears to be a negative correlation between mutation rate and genome size among RNA viruses, but this result requires further experimental testing. Contrary to some suggestions, the mutation rate of retroviruses is not lower than that of other RNA viruses. We also show that nucleotide substitutions are on average four times more common than insertions/deletions (indels). Finally, we provide estimates of the mutation rate per nucleotide per strand copying, which tends to be lower than that per cell infection because some viruses undergo several rounds of copying per cell, particularly double-stranded DNA viruses. A regularly updated virus mutation rate data set will be available at www.uv.es/rsanjuan/virmut. PMID:20660197

Sanjuán, Rafael; Nebot, Miguel R.; Chirico, Nicola; Mansky, Louis M.; Belshaw, Robert

2010-01-01

344

Genomic sequencing of colorectal adenocarcinomas identifies a recurrent VTI1A-TCF7L2 fusion  

E-print Network

Prior studies have identified recurrent oncogenic mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma and have surveyed exons of protein-coding genes for mutations in 11 affected individuals. Here we report whole-genome sequencing from ...

Lander, Eric S.

345

Mutational Profiling of Second Primary Lung Cancers in Patients Who Have Received Radiation for the Treatment of Hodgkin's Disease.  

PubMed

Lung cancer (LC) represents the most common solid tumor in survivors of Hodgkin's disease (HD), and the assessment of the mutational status of oncogenic driver mutations in LC is now standard. We compiled clinical and mutation data (EGFR, KRAS, and ALK) from the medical records of patients with LC and a remote history of HD. 13 cases of LC following HD were seen, including seven with mutational data. Two had EGFR mutations, none had KRAS mutations or ALK translocations. Our conclusions are limited by the small sample size, however this report reinforces the need to identify driver mutations in lung cancers. PMID:25615851

Bond, David Alan; Dunavin, Neil; Otterson, Gregory Alan

2015-03-01

346

A novel mutation in FGFR2.  

PubMed

Craniosynostosis is a congenital anomaly that can occur as an isolated condition or as part of a syndrome. Although several genes are known to cause syndromic craniosynostosis, only 24% can be attributed to known genes. Therefore, it is likely that more mutations and other genes are involved. We present the identification of a novel point mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), c.812G>T, p.(Gly271Val) or c.1851G>C, p.(Leu617Phe). Furthermore, we describe a mutation that has been identified just recently, c.812G>T, (p.Gly271Val) or c.1851G>C, (p.Leu617Phe). In addition, we describe findings from a sequence analysis of all coding exons and exon/intron boundaries of FGFR2 performed on 124 patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:25425289

Goos, Jacqueline A C; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; Verkerk, Annemieke J M H; Hoogeboom, A Jeannette M; van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Mathijssen, Irene M J; van der Spek, Peter J

2015-01-01

347

Identification of aneuploidy-tolerating mutations.  

PubMed

Aneuploidy causes a proliferative disadvantage in all normal cells analyzed to date, yet this condition is associated with a disease characterized by unabated proliferative potential, cancer. The mechanisms that allow cancer cells to tolerate the adverse effects of aneuploidy are not known. To probe this question, we identified aneuploid yeast strains with improved proliferative abilities. Their molecular characterization revealed strain-specific genetic alterations as well as mutations shared between different aneuploid strains. Among the latter, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp6 improves growth rates in four different aneuploid yeast strains by attenuating the changes in intracellular protein composition caused by aneuploidy. Our results demonstrate the existence of aneuploidy-tolerating mutations that improve the fitness of multiple different aneuploidies and highlight the importance of ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation in suppressing the adverse effects of aneuploidy. PMID:20850176

Torres, Eduardo M; Dephoure, Noah; Panneerselvam, Amudha; Tucker, Cheryl M; Whittaker, Charles A; Gygi, Steven P; Dunham, Maitreya J; Amon, Angelika

2010-10-01

348

Low incidence of oncogenic EGFR, HRAS, and KRAS mutations in seborrheic keratosis.  

PubMed

Seborrheic keratosis (SK) represents a frequent epidermal skin tumor. Although lacking a malignant potential, these tumors reveal multiple oncogenic mutations. A previous study identified activating mutations in 89% of SK, particularly in FGFR3 and PIK3CA genes. The aim of this study was to identify further oncogenic mutations in human SK. Therefore, we screened for mutations in EGFR, FGFR2, PIK3R1, HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS genes using both Sanger sequencing of selected exons and a multiplex SNaPshot assay in 58 SK of 14 patients. We identified a somatic EGFR p.L858R mutation in 1 SK. Furthermore, the HRAS mutations p.G13R (2/58 SK) and p.Q61L (2/58 SK) were found. These mutations have not been described in human SK yet. In addition, 1 SK revealed the KRAS p.G12V mutation, which has already been reported in SK. No mutations were detected in FGFR2, PIK3R1, and NRAS genes. The results of this study suggest that activating mutations of EGFR, HRAS, and KRAS contribute to the pathogenesis of human SK, although at a lower frequency than FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations. FGFR2, PIK3R1, and NRAS mutations obviously do not have a significant role in the development of SK. PMID:23739246

Georgieva, Ivelina A; Mauerer, Andreas; Groesser, Leopold; Herschberger, Eva; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Landthaler, Michael; Hafner, Christian

2014-08-01

349

DNAJC13 mutations in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

A Saskatchewan multi-incident family was clinically characterized with Parkinson disease (PD) and Lewy body pathology. PD segregates as an autosomal-dominant trait, which could not be ascribed to any known mutation. DNA from three affected members was subjected to exome sequencing. Genome alignment, variant annotation and comparative analyses were used to identify shared coding mutations. Sanger sequencing was performed within the extended family and ethnically matched controls. Subsequent genotyping was performed in a multi-ethnic case-control series consisting of 2928 patients and 2676 control subjects from Canada, Norway, Taiwan, Tunisia, and the USA. A novel mutation in receptor-mediated endocytosis 8/RME-8 (DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser) was found to segregate with disease. Screening of cases and controls identified four additional patients with the mutation, of which two had familial parkinsonism. All carriers shared an ancestral DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser haplotype and claimed Dutch-German-Russian Mennonite heritage. DNAJC13 regulates the dynamics of clathrin coats on early endosomes. Cellular analysis shows that the mutation confers a toxic gain-of-function and impairs endosomal transport. DNAJC13 immunoreactivity was also noted within Lewy body inclusions. In late-onset disease which is most reminiscent of idiopathic PD subtle deficits in endosomal receptor-sorting/recycling are highlighted by the discovery of pathogenic mutations VPS35, LRRK2 and now DNAJC13. With this latest discovery, and from a neuronal perspective, a temporal and functional ecology is emerging that connects synaptic exo- and endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, endosomal recycling and the endo-lysosomal degradative pathway. Molecular deficits in these processes are genetically linked to the phenotypic spectrum of parkinsonism associated with Lewy body pathology. PMID:24218364

Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Rajput, Alex; Milnerwood, Austen J; Shah, Brinda; Szu-Tu, Chelsea; Trinh, Joanne; Yu, Irene; Encarnacion, Mary; Munsie, Lise N; Tapia, Lucia; Gustavsson, Emil K; Chou, Patrick; Tatarnikov, Igor; Evans, Daniel M; Pishotta, Frederick T; Volta, Mattia; Beccano-Kelly, Dayne; Thompson, Christina; Lin, Michelle K; Sherman, Holly E; Han, Heather J; Guenther, Bruce L; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Bernard, Virginie; Ross, Colin J; Appel-Cresswell, Silke; Stoessl, A Jon; Robinson, Christopher A; Dickson, Dennis W; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Aasly, Jan O; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Hentati, Faycal; Gibson, Rachel A; McPherson, Peter S; Girard, Martine; Rajput, Michele; Rajput, Ali H; Farrer, Matthew J

2014-04-01

350

Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection  

SciTech Connect

A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

351

Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection  

SciTech Connect

A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments generated by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); and others

1996-10-01

352

A highly accurate, low cost test for BRCA1 mutations  

PubMed Central

The hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is associated with a high frequency of BRCA1 mutations. However, the widespread use of BRCA1 testing has been limited to date by three principal concerns: the fear of loss of health and life insurance, the uncertain clinical value of a positive test result, and the current lack of an inexpensive and sensitive screening test for BRCA1 mutations. We have developed an inexpensive system for gene mutational scanning, based on a combination of extensive multiplex PCR amplification and two dimensional electrophoresis. The efficiency of this system, as a screening test for BRCA1 mutations, was evaluated in a panel of 60 samples from high risk women, 14 of which contained a previously identified mutation in BRCA1. All 14 mutations were identified, as well as an additional five that had previously escaped detection. In addition to the 19 mutations, a total of 15 different polymorphic variants were scored, most of which were recurring. All were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. The cost of screening per sample was calculated to be approximately US$70 for the manual technique used in this study, and may be reduced to approximately US$10 with the introduction of commercially available PCR robotics and fluorescent imaging. Implementation of this method of mutation screening in the research and clinical setting should permit rapid accrual of quantitative data on genotype-phenotype associations for the evaluation of diagnostic testing.???Keywords: genetic testing; two dimensional gene scanning (TDGS) PMID:10528853

van Orsouw, N. J; Dhanda, R.; Elhaji, Y.; Narod, S.; Li, F.; Eng, C.; Vijg, J.

1999-01-01

353

FGFR1 and FGFR2 mutations in Pfeiffer syndrome.  

PubMed

Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) (MIM 101600) is one of the most common syndromic forms of craniosynostosis. It is characterized by craniosysnostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad and medially deviated thumbs, and great toes with partial syndactyly of the digits. Here, we described clinical and genetic features of 12 unrelated Thai individuals with PS. All 12 patients were sporadic, and advanced paternal age was found in 50% of the cases. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing of FGFR1 exon 5 and FGFR2 exons 8, 10, 15, 16, and 17 was performed in all PS patients and revealed 9 recurrent mutations in all patients. Most of the mutations clustered in exons 8 and 10 (9/12) accounting for 75% of PS cases. The most frequently detected mutation, p.S351C, was associated with the severe form of PS in the Thai population. Less frequent mutations in exons 16 (p.K641R) and 17 (p.G663E) were also identified. In addition, the p.P252R mutation in FGFR1 was detected in 1 PS patient with unilateral coronal craniosynostosis expanding the phenotypic spectrum of PS with this particular mutation. Knowing the mutation spectrum of the responsible genes could lead to the most effective strategy in identifying mutations causing Pfeiffer syndrome in the Thai population. PMID:23348274

Chokdeemboon, Chayanin; Mahatumarat, Charan; Rojvachiranonda, Nond; Tongkobpetch, Siraprapa; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

2013-01-01

354

Clinical and biological implications of driver mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of chronic hematological malignancies characterized by dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis and a variable risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Sequencing of MDS genomes has identified mutations in genes implicated in RNA splicing, DNA modification, chromatin regulation, and cell signaling. We sequenced 111 genes across 738 patients with MDS or closely related neoplasms (including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and MDS-myeloproliferative neoplasms) to explore the role of acquired mutations in MDS biology and clinical phenotype. Seventy-eight percent of patients had 1 or more oncogenic mutations. We identify complex patterns of pairwise association between genes, indicative of epistatic interactions involving components of the spliceosome machinery and epigenetic modifiers. Coupled with inferences on subclonal mutations, these data suggest a hypothesis of genetic "predestination," in which early driver mutations, typically affecting genes involved in RNA splicing, dictate future trajectories of disease evolution with distinct clinical phenotypes. Driver mutations had equivalent prognostic significance, whether clonal or subclonal, and leukemia-free survival deteriorated steadily as numbers of driver mutations increased. Thus, analysis of oncogenic mutations in large, well-characterized cohorts of patients illustrates the interconnections between the cancer genome and disease biology, with considerable potential for clinical application. PMID:24030381

Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gerstung, Moritz; Malcovati, Luca; Tauro, Sudhir; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Yoon, Chris J; Ellis, Peter; Wedge, David C; Pellagatti, Andrea; Shlien, Adam; Groves, Michael John; Forbes, Simon A; Raine, Keiran; Hinton, Jon; Mudie, Laura J; McLaren, Stuart; Hardy, Claire; Latimer, Calli; Della Porta, Matteo G; O'Meara, Sarah; Ambaglio, Ilaria; Galli, Anna; Butler, Adam P; Walldin, Gunilla; Teague, Jon W; Quek, Lynn; Sternberg, Alex; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Cross, Nicholas C P; Green, Anthony R; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Vyas, Paresh; Hellstrom-Lindberg, Eva; Bowen, David; Cazzola, Mario; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

2013-11-21

355

Rare structural variants in schizophrenia: one disorder, multiple mutations; one mutation, multiple disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have established an important role for rare genomic deletions and duplications in the etiology of schizophrenia. This research suggests that the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders includes a constellation of rare mutations in many different genes. Mutations that confer substantial risk for schizophrenia have been identified at several loci, most of which have also been implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Genetic heterogeneity is a characteristic of schizophrenia; conversely, phenotypic heterogeneity is a characteristic of all schizophrenia-associated mutations. Both kinds of heterogeneity probably reflect the complexity of neurodevelopment. Research strategies must account for both genetic and clinical heterogeneity to identify the genes and pathways crucial for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19883952

Sebat, Jonathan; Levy, Deborah L.; McCarthy, Shane E.

2009-01-01

356

CFTR gene mutations in isolated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

SciTech Connect

In order to identify a possible hereditary predisposition to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have looked for the presence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene DNA sequence modifications in 28 unrelated patients with no signs of cystic fibrosis. The known mutations in Italian CF patients, as well as the most frequent worldwide CF mutations, were investigated. In addition, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of about half of the coding sequence of the gene in 56 chromosomes from the patients and in 102 chromosomes from control individuals affected by other pulmonary diseases and from normal controls was performed. Nine different CFTR gene mutations and polymorphisms were found in seven patients, a highly significant increase over controls. Two of the patients were compound heterozygotes. Two frequent CF mutations were detected: deletion F508 and R117H; two rare CF mutations: R1066C and 3667ins4; and five CF sequence variants: R75Q (which was also described as a disease-causing mutation in male sterility cases due to the absence of the vasa deferentia), G576A, 2736 A{r_arrow}G, L997F, and 3271+18C{r_arrow}T. Seven (78%) of the mutations are localized in transmembrane domains. Six (86%) of the patients with defined mutations and polymorphisms had bronchiectasis. These results indicate that CFTR gene mutations and sequence alterations may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of COPD.

Pignatti, P.F.; Bombien, C.; Marigo, C. [and others

1994-09-01

357

FMS mutations in myelodysplastic, leukemic, and normal subjects  

SciTech Connect

The FMS gene encodes the functional cell surface receptor for colony-stimulating factor 1, the macrophage-and monocyte-specific growth factor. Codons 969 and 301 have been identified as potentially involved in promoting the transforming activity of FMS. Mutations at codon 301 are believed to lead to neoplastic transformation by ligand independence and constitutive tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor. The tyrosine residue at codon 969 has been shown to be involved in a negative regulatory activity, which is disrupted by amino acid substitutions. This study reports on the frequency of point mutations at these codons, in vivo, in human myeloid malignancies and in normal subjects. We studied 110 patients (67 with myelodysplasia (MDS) and 48 with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML)), 5 patients being studied at the MDS and the later AML stage of the disease. There was a total incidence of 12.7% (14/110) with mutations in codon 969 and 1.8% (2/110) with mutations in codon 301. Two patients had mutations in the AML stage of the disease but not in the preceding MDS and one had a mutation in the MDS stage but not upon transformation of AML. This is consistent with the somatic origin of these mutations. FMS mutations were most prevalent (20%) in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and AML type M4 (23%), both of which are characterized by monocytic differentiation. One of 51 normal subjects had a constitutional codon 969 mutation, which may represent a marker for predisposition to myeloid malignancy.

Ridge, S.A.; Worwood, M.; Jacobs, A.; Padua, R.A. (Univ. of Wales College of Medicine (England)); Oscier, D. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Bournemouth (England))

1990-02-01

358

SMAD4 mutations found in unselected HHT patients  

PubMed Central

Background Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disease exhibiting multifocal vascular telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in either the endoglin (ENG) or activin receptor?like kinase 1 (ALK1, ACVRL1) genes; both members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)?? pathway. Mutations in SMAD4, another TGF?? pathway member, are seen in patients with the combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis (JP) and HHT (JP?HHT). Methods We sought to determine if HHT patients without any apparent history of JP, who were undergoing routine diagnostic testing, would have mutations in SMAD4. We tested 30 unrelated HHT patients, all of whom had been referred for DNA based testing for HHT and were found to be negative for mutations in ENG and ALK1. Results Three of these people harboured mutations in SMAD4, a rate of 10% (3/30). The SMAD4 mutations were similar to those found in other patients with the JP?HHT syndrome. Conclusions The identification of SMAD4 mutations in HHT patients without prior diagnosis of JP has significant and immediate clinical implications, as these people are likely to be at risk of having JP?HHT with the associated increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. We propose that routine DNA based testing for HHT should include SMAD4 for samples in which mutations in neither ENG nor ALK1 are identified. HHT patients with SMAD4 mutations should be screened for colonic and gastric polyps associated with JP. PMID:16613914

Gallione, C J; Richards, J A; Letteboer, T G W; Rushlow, D; Prigoda, N L; Leedom, T P; Ganguly, A; Castells, A; van Amstel, J K Ploos; Westermann, C J J; Pyeritz, R E; Marchuk, D A

2006-01-01

359

Cystic fibrosis in Jews: frequency and mutation distribution.  

PubMed

The incidence of cystic fibrosis and the frequency of disease causing mutations varies among different ethnic groups and geographical regions around the world. The Jewish population is comprised of two major ethnic groups. Ashkenazi and Non-Ashkenazi. The latter is further classified according to country of origin. An extreme variability in the disease frequency (from 1:2400-1:39,000) was found among the different Jewish ethnic groups. In the entire Jewish CF population, only 12 mutations were identified that altogether enable the identification of 91% of the CF chromosomes. However, in each Jewish ethnic group, the disease is caused by a different repertoire of a small number of mutations. In several ethnic groups, there is a major CFTR mutation that accounts for at least 48% of the CF chromosomes. High proportion of the CF chromosomes can be identified in Ashkenazi Jews (95%), Jews originating from Tunisia (100%), Libya (91%), Turkey (90%), and Georgia (88%). High frequencies of CFTR mutations were found among infertile males with CBAVD who might not have additional CF clinical characteristics. Of the Jewish males with CBAVD, 77% carried at least one CFTR mutation. The 5T mutation is the major mutation in Jewish CBAVD affecteds accounting for 32% of the chromosomes among Ashkenazi Jews and 36% among the non-Ashkenazi Jews. Five additional CFTR mutations, W1282X (12%), delta F508 (9%), N1303K (3%), D1152H, (5%)), and R117H (1%) were identified among Ashkenazi Jews with CBAVD. Only two mutations, delta F508 and R117H, were found among non-Ashkenazi males with CBAVD. An increased frequency of the 5T allele was also found among Jewish patients with atypical CF presentation, 18% in Ashkenazi, and 10% in non-Ashkenazi Jews. In summary, we present the required information for genetic counseling of Jewish families with typical and atypical CF and for carrier screening of healthy Jewish individuals. PMID:10464623

Kerem, B; Chiba-Falek, O; Kerem, E

1997-01-01

360

Familial Mediterranean Fever Associated with MEFV Mutations in a Large Cohort of Cypriot Patients.  

PubMed

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene and the spectrum of mutations among Greek-Cypriots with FMF-related symptoms was examined. Sequence analysis for exons 2, 3, 5, and 10 of the MEFV gene was performed in a cohort of 593 patients. A total of 70 patients carried mutations in the homozygote or compound heterozygote state, 128 were identified with one MEFV mutation and 395 had no mutations. Of the 268 identified alleles, p.Val726Ala (27.61%) was the most frequent followed by p.Met694Val (19.40%). The missense mutations p.Arg761His (3.73%) and p.Ala744Ser (2.24%) were identified as the rarest. An interesting finding is the high frequency (18.28%) of the complex p.Phe479Leu-p.Glu167Asp that was identified in 49 of the mutated alleles. The MEFV genotypes did not follow a binomial distribution and proved not to satisfy the HWE (P < 0.001). The high percentage (66.61%) of patients with unidentified mutations could be due to mutations in the rest of the coding or noncoding MEFV gene or due to mutations in other genes that are also causing Hereditary Recurrent Fevers. Results from this work indicate the high incidence of FMF in Cyprus and describe the spectrum of the mutations which occur in the country. PMID:25393764

Neocleous, Vassos; Costi, Constantina; Kyriakou, Christina; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Shammas, Christos; Skordis, Nicos; Toumba, Meropi; Kyriakou, Sophia; Koliou, Maria; Kousparou, Marianna; Onoufriou, Margarita; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Iasonides, Michalis; Atamyan, Vick N; Pierides, Alkis; Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Violetta; Tanteles, George A; Phylactou, Leonidas A

2015-01-01

361

Cancer Missense Mutations Alter Binding Properties of Proteins and Their Interaction Networks  

PubMed Central

Many studies have shown that missense mutations might play an important role in carcinogenesis. However, the extent to which cancer mutations might affect biomolecular interactions remains unclear. Here, we map glioblastoma missense mutations on the human protein interactome, model the structures of affected protein complexes and decipher the effect of mutations on protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid and protein-ion binding interfaces. Although some missense mutations over-stabilize protein complexes, we found that the overall effect of mutations is destabilizing, mostly affecting the electrostatic component of binding energy. We also showed that mutations on interfaces resulted in more drastic changes of amino acid physico-chemical properties than mutations occurring outside the interfaces. Analysis of glioblastoma mutations on interfaces allowed us to stratify cancer-related interactions, identify potential driver genes, and propose two dozen additional cancer biomarkers, including those specific to functions of the nervous system. Such an analysis also offered insight into the molecular mechanism of the phenotypic outcomes of mutations, including effects on complex stability, activity, binding and turnover rate. As a result of mutated protein and gene network analysis, we observed that interactions of proteins with mutations mapped on interfaces had higher bottleneck properties compared to interactions with mutations elsewhere on the protein or unaffected interactions. Such observations suggest that genes with mutations directly affecting protein binding properties are preferably located in central network positions and may influence critical nodes and edges in signal transduction networks. PMID:23799087

Nishi, Hafumi; Tyagi, Manoj; Teng, Shaolei; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Hashimoto, Kosuke; Alexov, Emil; Wuchty, Stefan; Panchenko, Anna R.

2013-01-01

362

Identification of deleterious mutations within three human genomes  

PubMed Central

Each human carries a large number of deleterious mutations. Together, these mutations make a significant contribution to human disease. Identification of deleterious mutations within individual genome sequences could substantially impact an individual's health through personalized prevention and treatment of disease. Yet, distinguishing deleterious mutations from the massive number of nonfunctional variants that occur within a single genome is a considerable challenge. Using a comparative genomics data set of 32 vertebrate species we show that a likelihood ratio test (LRT) can accurately identify a subset of deleterious mutations that disrupt highly conserved amino acids within protein-coding sequences, which are likely to be unconditionally deleterious. The LRT is also able to identify known human disease alleles and performs as well as two commonly used heuristic methods, SIFT and PolyPhen. Application of the LRT to three human genomes reveals 796–837 deleterious mutations per individual, ?40% of which are estimated to be at <5% allele frequency. However, the overlap between predictions made by the LRT, SIFT, and PolyPhen, is low; 76% of predictions are unique to one of the three methods, and only 5% of predictions are shared across all three methods. Our results indicate that only a small subset of deleterious mutations can be reliably identified, but that this subset provides the raw material for personalized medicine. PMID:19602639

Chun, Sung; Fay, Justin C.

2009-01-01

363

Ordering of mutations in preinvasive disease stages of esophageal carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Cancer genome sequencing studies have identified numerous driver genes, but the relative timing of mutations in carcinogenesis remains unclear. The gradual progression from premalignant Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) provides an ideal model to study the ordering of somatic mutations. We identified recurrently mutated genes and assessed clonal structure using whole-genome sequencing and amplicon resequencing of 112 EACs. We next screened a cohort of 109 biopsies from 2 key transition points in the development of malignancy: benign metaplastic never-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (NDBE; n=66) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD; n=43). Unexpectedly, the majority of recurrently mutated genes in EAC were also mutated in NDBE. Only TP53 and SMAD4 mutations occurred in a stage-specific manner, confined to HGD and EAC, respectively. Finally, we applied this knowledge to identify high-risk Barrett's esophagus in a new non-endoscopic test. In conclusion, mutations in EAC driver genes generally occur exceptionally early in disease development with profound implications for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24952744

Weaver, Jamie M J; Ross-Innes, Caryn S; Shannon, Nicholas; Lynch, Andy G; Forshew, Tim; Barbera, Mariagnese; Murtaza, Muhammed; Ong, Chin-Ann J; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Dunning, Mark J; Smith, Laura; Smith, Mike L; Anderson, Charlotte L; Carvalho, Benilton; O'Donovan, Maria; Underwood, Timothy J; May, Andrew P; Grehan, Nicola; Hardwick, Richard; Davies, Jim; Oloumi, Arusha; Aparicio, Sam; Caldas, Carlos; Eldridge, Matthew D; Edwards, Paul A W; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Tavaré, Simon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

2014-08-01

364

Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) mutations in the Asian population.  

PubMed

Mutation of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gives rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, which is characterized by hyperuricemia, severe motor disability, and self-injurious behavior, or HPRT-related gout (Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome). The marked heterogeneity of HPRT deficiency is well known, with more than 300 mutations at the HPRT gene locus having been reported (deletions, insertions, duplications, abnormal splicing, and point mutations at different sites of the coding region from exons 1 to 9). We have identified mutations in Asian families with patients manifesting different clinical phenotypes, including rare cases of female subjects, by analyzing all nine exons of the HPRT gene (HPRT1) from genomic DNA and reverse-transcribed mRNA using the polymerase chain reaction technique coupled with direct sequencing. We developed suitable methods to detect the mutations identified from respective families with HPRT deficiency. Then, prenatal genetic diagnoses in HPRT-deficient families were carried out using both mRNA and genomic DNA from chorionic villi or amniotic fluid cells. As shown here in the heterogeneity of HPRT mutations, the spectrum of 70 mutations identified in the Asian population fits the four main conclusions that emerged previously from worldwide analysis. PMID:22132982