Sample records for tactical weather avoidance

  1. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers that start far ahead of encountering a weather cell when rerouting around weather.

  2. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

  3. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  4. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2002-01-01

    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  5. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  6. High-energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) for mission planning and predictive avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Jarred L.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Randall, Robb M.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the development of a high energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) by the AFIT/CDE for mission planning High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon system engagements as well as centralized, decentralized, or hybrid predictive avoidance (CPA/DPA/HPA) assessments. Analyses of example HEL mission engagements are described as well as how mission planners are expected to employ the software. Example HEL engagement simulations are based on geographic location and recent/current atmospheric weather conditions. The atmospheric effects are defined through the AFIT/CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model or the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model upon which the HELTDA is based. These models enable the creation of vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer/winter) and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered to determine optimum efficiency in a specific environment. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on the propagating environment to and beyond the target. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are included. Numerical weather model forecasts are incorporated in the model to develop comprehensive understanding of HEL weapon system performance.

  7. In the eye of the tiger: predator avoidance tactics differ among life-history stages of an ambystomatid salamander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Fronzuto; P. A. Verrell

    2007-01-01

    Loss of life to a predator obviously has a negative impact on an individual's fitness, and so selection is expected to favour tactics in prey that enable them to avoid encounters with predators (our focus here) and\\/or survive such encounters if they occur. While much is known about species differences in such tactics, ontogenetic changes within species have been less

  8. Fertilized female quail avoid conspecific males: female tactics when potential benefits of new sexual encounters are reduced

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Fertilized female quail avoid conspecific males: female tactics when potential benefits of new recently fertilized Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, with less to gain from new sexual encounters than that after copulating with a male, female quail that were laying fertilized eggs spent less time near males

  9. Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

  10. Analysis of Automated Aircraft Conflict Resolution and Weather Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, John F.; Chan, William N.; Lee, Chu Han

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of using trajectory-based automation to resolve both aircraft and weather constraints for near-term air traffic management decision making. The auto resolution algorithm developed and tested at NASA-Ames to resolve aircraft to aircraft conflicts has been modified to mitigate convective weather constraints. Modifications include adding information about the size of a gap between weather constraints to the routing solution. Routes that traverse gaps that are smaller than a specific size are not used. An evaluation of the performance of the modified autoresolver to resolve both conflicts with aircraft and weather was performed. Integration with the Center-TRACON Traffic Management System was completed to evaluate the effect of weather routing on schedule delays.

  11. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

  12. Tactics, effectiveness and avoidance of mate guarding in the blue-footed booby ( Sula nebouxii )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Pérez-Staples; Hugh Drummond

    2005-01-01

    We examined the dynamics and avoidance of mate guarding, by males and females, in the blue-footed booby, in which the two social mates are usually simultaneously present on the territory but each of them is unmonitored by the other for one-quarter of its time. Both sexes were promiscuous and liable to switch mates. Cuckolded individuals did not increase their overall

  13. All weather sense and avoid system (AWSAS) for all UAS and manned platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Contarino; R. Healing; R. Contarino; M. R. Contarino; P. Molchanov; T. Curran; T. Keck; J. Keck; S. Allen; S. Shubert; R. Wienmann

    2011-01-01

    Military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. To overcome the constraints imposed on UASs use of the NAS, a new, conformable collision avoidance system has been developed - one that will be effective in all flyable weather conditions,

  14. All weather collision avoidance for unmanned aircraft systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Contarino

    2010-01-01

    For decades, military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a highly reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. The controlling agency, the Federal Aviation Administration, justifiably demands \\

  15. Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid: An AWIN Topical Study. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The aviation community is faced with reducing the fatal aircraft accident rate by 80 percent within 10 years. This must be achieved even with ever increasing, traffic and a changing National Airspace System. This is not just an altruistic goal, but a real necessity, if our growing level of commerce is to continue. Honeywell Technology Center's topical study, "Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid", addresses these pressing needs. The goal of this program is to use route optimization and user interface technologies to develop a prototype decision aid for dispatchers and pilots. This decision aid will suggest possible diversions through single or multiple weather hazards and present weather information with a human-centered design. At the conclusion of the program, we will have a laptop prototype decision aid that will be used to demonstrate concepts to industry for integration into commercialized products for dispatchers and/or pilots. With weather a factor in 30% of aircraft accidents, our program will prevent accidents by strategically avoiding weather hazards in flight. By supplying more relevant weather information in a human-centered format along with the tools to generate flight plans around weather, aircraft exposure to weather hazards can be reduced. Our program directly addresses the NASA's five year investment areas of Strategic Weather Information and Weather Operations (simulation/hazard characterization and crew/dispatch/ATChazard monitoring, display, and decision support) (NASA Aeronautics Safety Investment Strategy: Weather Investment Recommendations, April 15, 1997). This program is comprised of two phases, Phase I concluded December 31, 1998. This first phase defined weather data requirements, lateral routing algorithms, an conceptual displays for a user-centered design. Phase II runs from January 1999 through September 1999. The second phase integrates vertical routing into the lateral optimizer and combines the user interface into a prototype software testbed. Phase II concludes with a dispatcher and pilot evaluation of the route optimizer decision aid. This document describes work completed in Phase I in contract with NASA Langley August 1998 - December 1998. This report includes: (1) Discuss how weather hazards were identified in partnership with experts, and how weather hazards were prioritized; (2) Static representations of display layouts for integrated planning function (3) Cost function for the 2D route optimizer; (4) Discussion of the method for obtaining, access to raw data of, and the results of the flight deck user information requirements definition; (5) Itemized display format requirements identified for representing weather hazards in a route planning aid.

  16. Evaluation of a Dispatcher's Route Optimization Decision Aid to Avoid Aviation Weather Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorneich, Michael C.; Olofinboba, Olu; Pratt, Steve; Osborne, Dannielle; Feyereisen, Thea; Latorella, Kara

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the results and analysis of the formal evaluation plan for the Honeywell software tool developed under the NASA AWIN (Aviation Weather Information) 'Weather Avoidance using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid' project. The software tool aims to provide airline dispatchers with a decision aid for selecting optimal routes that avoid weather and other hazards. This evaluation compares and contrasts route selection performance with the AWIN tool to that of subjects using a more traditional dispatcher environment. The evaluation assesses gains in safety, in fuel efficiency of planned routes, and in time efficiency in the pre-flight dispatch process through the use of the AWIN decision aid. In addition, we are interested in how this AWIN tool affects constructs that can be related to performance. The construct of Situation Awareness (SA), workload, trust in an information system, and operator acceptance are assessed using established scales, where these exist, as well as through the evaluation of questionnaire responses and subject comments. The intention of the experiment is to set up a simulated operations area for the dispatchers to work in. They will be given scenarios in which they are presented with stored company routes for a particular city-pair and aircraft type. A diverse set of external weather information sources is represented by a stand-alone display (MOCK), containing the actual historical weather data typically used by dispatchers. There is also the possibility of presenting selected weather data on the route visualization tool. The company routes have not been modified to avoid the weather except in the case of one additional route generated by the Honeywell prototype flight planning system. The dispatcher will be required to choose the most appropriate and efficient flight plan route in the displayed weather conditions. The route may be modified manually or may be chosen from those automatically displayed.

  17. Super-resolution technologies for all-weather sense and avoidance (SAA) radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Rockee Zhang; Zhengzheng Li; Shang Wang; Yu Pan; Hernan Suarez

    2011-01-01

    The sense and avoidance (SAA) and due-regard radar systems have strict requirements on size, weight and power (SWaP) and target localization accuracies. Also, the multi-mission capabilities with both weather and hard targets are critical to the survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the next generation national airspace. The aperture limitations of the aircraft sensor installation, however, have prevented large

  18. Super-resolution technologies for all-weather sense and avoidance (SAA) radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Wang, Shang; Pan, Yu; Suarez, Hernan

    2011-06-01

    The sense and avoidance (SAA) and due-regard radar systems have strict requirements on size, weight and power (SWaP) and target localization accuracies. Also, the multi-mission capabilities with both weather and hard targets are critical to the survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the next generation national airspace. The aperture limitations of the aircraft sensor installation, however, have prevented large antennas/arrays to be used. The tradeoffs among frequencies, resolutions and detection range/accuracies have not been fully addressed. Innovative concepts of overcoming the aperture limitation by using a special type of super-resolution technology are introduced. The first technique is based on a combination of thinned antenna array, an extension to the traditional Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique, and applying a two-dimensional sidelobe mitigation technique. To overcome the degradation of MUSIC-type of approach due to coherent radar signals, a special waveform optimization procedure is used. The techniques for mitigating artifacts due to "thinned" array are also introduced. Simulated results of super-resolution techniques are discussed and evaluated, and the capability of separating multiple targets within aperture-constrained beamwidth is demonstrated. Moreover, the potential capabilities of autonomous weather hazard avoidance are also analyzed.

  19. Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris; Monette, Sarah; Heymsfield, Gerry; Braun, Scott; Newman, Paul; Black, Pete; Black, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    NASA operates two Global Hawk unmanned aircraft systems for Earth Science research projects. In particular, they are used in the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) project during 2012, 2013, and 2014 to take measurements from the environment around tropical cyclones, and from directly above tropical cyclones. There is concern that strict adherence to the weather avoidance rules used in 2012 may sacrifice the ability to observe important science targets. We have proposed modifications to these weather avoidance rules that we believe will improve the ability to observe science targets without compromising aircraft safety. The previous guidelines, used in 2012, specified: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. When flying above FL500: Do not approach reported lightning within 25NM in areas where cloud tops are reported at FL500 or higher. Aircraft should maintain at least 10000 ft vertical separation from reported lightning if cloud tops are below FL500. No over-flight of cumulus tops higher than FL500. No flight into forecast or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecast or reported moderate or severe turbulence Based on past experience with high-altitude flights over tropical cyclones, we have recommended changing this guidance to: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. Aircraft should maintain at least 5000 ft vertical separation from significant convective cloud tops except: a) When cloud tops above FL500: In the event of reported significant lightning activity or indicators of significant overshooting tops, do not approach within 10-25 nm, depending on pilot discretion and advice from Mission Scientist. b) When cloud tops are below FL500, maintain 10000 ft separation from reported significant lightning or indicators of significant overshooting tops. No flight into forecasted or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecasted or reported moderate or severe turbulence The key changes have to do with overflight of high convective cloud tops and those producing lightning. Experience shows that most tropical oceanic convection (including that in tropical cyclones) is relatively gentle even if the cloud tops are quite high, and can be safely overflown. Exceptions are convective elements producing elevated lightning flash rates (more than just the occasional flash, which would trigger avoidance under the previous rules) and significant overshooting cloud tops.

  20. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bullough

    2010-06-24

    This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

  1. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Stearns

    2008-10-25

    This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

  2. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hyde

    2007-02-08

    Learn all about the aspects of weather that effect us every day. Click here to see a weather forecast for anywhere in the world World Wide Weather Watch See what happens to weather when you change conditions at your house Weather Maker Weather Games ...

  3. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Williams

    2005-10-25

    Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

  4. Evaluation of High Density Air Traffic Operations with Automation for Separation Assurance, Weather Avoidance and Schedule Conformance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey S.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Brasil, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and evaluation of our prototype technologies and procedures for far-term air traffic control operations with automation for separation assurance, weather avoidance and schedule conformance. Controller-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center in 2010 have shown very promising results. We found the operations to provide high airspace throughput, excellent efficiency and schedule conformance. The simulation also highlighted areas for improvements: Short-term conflict situations sometimes resulted in separation violations, particularly for transitioning aircraft in complex traffic flows. The combination of heavy metering and growing weather resulted in an increased number of aircraft penetrating convective weather cells. To address these shortcomings technologies and procedures have been improved and the operations are being re-evaluated with the same scenarios. In this paper we will first describe the concept and technologies for automating separation assurance, weather avoidance, and schedule conformance. Second, the results from the 2010 simulation will be reviewed. We report human-systems integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. Next, improvements will be discussed that were made to address identified shortcomings. We conclude that, with further refinements, air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can routinely provide currently unachievable levels of traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  5. Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    1995-08-29

    This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Programming Flight Routing Algorithm Using the Convective Weather Avoidance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.

  7. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Jennie

    2009-10-22

    What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

  8. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bougue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  9. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Lauren

    2010-11-17

    You will learn how to describe and observe changes in weather patterns by completing the following activities. The students will record and report changes in weather on their data sheet. The Process: Read the information on How Air Pressure Affects You. In this article you will see the term barometer. Write its definition. Now look over Weather Facts. Now go to Investigate Climate Conditions and use the weather maker to observe the effects of certain changes. Answer the questions: How much of a change in temperature is needed to make it ...

  10. Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

  11. Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris S.; Monette, Sarah A.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Braun, Scott A.; Newman, Paul A.; Black, Peter G.; Black, Michael L.; Dunion, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    The current Global Hawk flight rules would probably not have been effective in the single event of greatest concern (the Emily encounter). The cloud top had not reached 50,000 ft until minutes before the encounter. The TOT and lightning data would not have been available until near the overflight time since this was a rapidly growing cell. This case would have required a last-minute diversion when lightning became frequent. Avoiding such a cell probably requires continual monitoring of the forward camera and storm scope, whether or not cloud tops have been exceeding specific limits. However, the current overflight rules as strictly interpreted would have prohibited significant fractions of the successful Global Hawk overpasses of Karl and Matthew that proved not to be hazardous. Many other high altitude aircraft (ER-2 and Global Hawk) flights in NASA tropical cyclone field programs have successfully overflown deep convective clouds without incident.The convective cell that caused serious concern about the safety of the ER-2 in Emily was especially strong for a tropical cyclone environment, probably as strong or stronger than any that was overflown by the ER-2 in 20 previous flights over tropical cyclones. Specifically, what made that cell a safety concern was the magnitude of the vertical velocity of the updraft, at least 20 m/s (4000 ft/minute) at the time the ER-2 overflew it. Such a strong updraft can generate strong gravity waves at and above the tropopause, posing a potential danger to aircraft far above the maximum altitude of the updraft itself or its associated cloud top. Indeed, the ER-2 was probably at least 9000 ft above that cloud top. Cloud-top height, by itself, is not an especially good indicator of the intensity of convection and the likelihood of turbulence. Nor is overflying high cloud tops (i.e. > 50,000 ft) of particular concern unless there is other evidence of very strong convective updrafts beneath those tops in the path of the aircraft. center dot Lightning, especially lightning with a high flash rate, is well correlated with convective intensity. Lightning with a minimal flash rate (say 1-3 flashes per minute) is indicative of updraft speeds of about 10 m/s in the mixed phase region where charge is being separated, generally at altitudes about 20-25 kft in a hurricane. That is still stronger than typical updrafts (more like 5 m/s). An unresolved issue is whether there is a high and instantaneous correlation between vertical velocity in the middle troposphere (necessary for lightning generation) and near cloud top (more direct concern for overflights).

  12. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Caitlin

    2009-10-21

    In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

  13. Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochron, Sharon T.

    Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90° between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

  14. TACTICAL RADIO OPERATIONS August 2009

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FM 6-02.53 TACTICAL RADIO OPERATIONS August 2009 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public August 2009 TACTICAL RADIO OPERATIONS Contents Page PREFACE ...........................................................................................................viii Chapter 1 APPLICATIONS FOR TACTICAL RADIO DEPLOYMENT.............................. 1-1 Modularity

  15. Tactical Maneuvering Using Immunized Sequence Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; KrishnaKumar, K.; Shung, Felix

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a tactical maneuvering system that uses an artificial immune system based approach for selecting maneuver sequences. This approach combines the problem solving abilities of genetic algorithms with the memory retention characteristics of an immune system. Of significant importance here is the fact that the tactical maneuvering system can make time-critical decisions to accomplish near-term objectives within a dynamic environment. These objectives can be received from a human operator, autonomous executive, or various flight planning specialists. Simulation tests were performed using a high performance military aircraft model. Results demonstrate the potential of using immunized sequence selection in order to accomplish tactical maneuvering objectives ranging from flying to a location while avoiding unforeseen obstacles, to performing relative positioning in support of air combat maneuvering.

  16. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows surrounding the airport where coarse verification data were available as well as where airport scale datasets were available.

  17. Tactical visualization module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

    1999-07-01

    The Tactical Visualization Module (TVM) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable, tactical information system to enhance the situational awareness of individual warfighters and small military units by providing real-time access to manned and unmanned aircraft, tactically mobile robots, and unattended sensors. TVM consists of a family of portable and hand-held devices being advanced into a next- generation, embedded capability. It enables warfighters to visualize the tactical situation by providing real-time video, imagery, maps, floor plans, and 'fly-through' video on demand. When combined with unattended ground sensors, such as Combat- Q, TVM permits warfighters to validate and verify tactical targets. The use of TVM results in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduction of the potential for fratricide. TVM technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea, and air warfighting operations. As a PCMCIA card, TVM can be embedded in portable, hand-held, and wearable PCs. Thus, it leverages emerging tactical displays including flat-panel, head-mounted displays. The end result of the program will be the demonstration of the system with U.S. Army and USMC personnel in an operational environment. Raytheon Systems Company, the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command -- Natick RDE Center (SSCOM- NRDEC) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are partners in developing and demonstrating the TVM technology.

  18. Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

  19. Joint Tactical Radio System: Tactical Network Planning and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Maher

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is the tactical edge communications system and a key enabler for the Department of Defense's (DoD)'s migration toward a Net-Centric Warfare vision. JTRS provides a family of next generation, software-defined military radios that will support future battlefield tactical communications for all services. JTRS is the tactical edge supporting the GiG's net-centric environment; therefore the

  20. mm-wave component tradeoffs for tactical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seashore, C. R.; Singh, D. R.

    1982-06-01

    Future warfare scenarios include land and sea attacks occurring during weather conditions which will place defensive air support at a maximum disadvantage. In adverse weather, tactical air strike effectiveness can be severely reduced when the visual meteorological range falls below 2000 meters. Continuing research and development of the millimeter wavelength region, 30 to 300 GHz, is being carried out for new nonelectrooptical air-to-surface guidance solutions. The selection of this wavelength region is partly related to comparatively low propagation losses in selected atmospheric windows. Reasonable resolution can be obtained from small diameter apertures, and tactical targets have significant radar cross sections at millimeter-wave frequencies. Attention is given to tactical systems, component requirements, and integrated circuit technology. It is found that a new generation of components is needed in order to meet system requirements and satisfy the key factors of low cost and producibility.

  1. Negotiation Tactics and Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These three articles, one by Vid Mohan-Ram and two by Constanza Villalba, were originally published in Science magazine, and offer suggestions on negotiation tactics and strategies for academic positions. They are provided here as a special Science feature on negotiation. Researchers considering changing jobs, or graduate students/ post-docs about to pursue academic positions may find useful advice in these pages.

  2. From the laboratory to the soldier: providing tactical behaviors for Army robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Knichel; David J. Bruemmer

    2008-01-01

    The Army Future Combat System (FCS) Operational Requirement Document has identified a number of advanced robot tactical behavior requirements to enable the Future Brigade Combat Team (FBCT). The FBCT advanced tactical behaviors include Sentinel Behavior, Obstacle Avoidance Behavior, and Scaled Levels of Human-Machine control Behavior. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN) has also documented

  3. Population avoidance in aimpoint selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great

  4. Young men's condom use resistance tactics: a latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that many men have used a variety of tactics to avoid using condoms when having sex with women. Guided by previous work demonstrating that men's use of coercive condom resistance tactics was predicted by negative attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, and sexual sensation seeking, the current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether similar constructs were associated with a variety of resistance tactics. A community sample of 313 moderate-drinking men participated, of whom 80% reported employing at least one condom use resistance tactic since adolescence. The LPA revealed three classes of men. In general, men with the least negative beliefs about women, low levels of sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, and positive beliefs about condoms (Condom Positive/Low Hostility) reported less use of resistance tactics than men with moderate sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, negative beliefs about condoms, and moderate (Condom Negative/Moderate Hostility) or high (Condom Negative/High Hostility) negative attitudes about women. The classes also differed in terms of their sexual behaviors. This study demonstrated that sexual risk behavior interventions should not only address the tactics through which men resist using condoms but also tailor these efforts to men's individual characteristics. PMID:23548069

  5. Innovation and tactical missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comon, J. P.

    Examples of design developments of tactical missiles are given to illustrate the contribution of new ideas to the improvement of military missiles. These developments include placing forward the propulsion section of antitank missiles to improve efficiency by automatically providing a standoff distance; the modification of the Exocet antiship missile to a Mach 2 velocity; an improved guiding system and a main propulsion assured by ramjet engine; and an antimissile missile with a very short reaction time combining rocket engine and aerodynamic forces to provide a high precision guiding system. The design and test facilities required are also discussed.

  6. The Sport Education Tactical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla

    2009-01-01

    Two popular instructional models in middle and high school are the sport education model (SEM) and the tactical games model (TGM). The SEM prepares students to become competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons. The TGM prepares students to be able to play games using a tactical approach. Combining the models to form a sport education…

  7. Situation Awareness for Tactical Driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Sukthankar

    1997-01-01

    A primary challenge to creating an intelligent vehicle that can competently drivein traffic is the task of tactical reasoning: deciding which maneuvers to performin a particular driving situation, in real-time, given incomplete information aboutthe rapidly changing traffic configuration. Human expertise in tactical driving isattributed to situation awareness, a task-specific understanding of the dynamicentities in the environment, and their projected impact

  8. [Surgical tactics in acute paraproctitis].

    PubMed

    Bo?ko, V V; Babich, V A; Ivanova, Iu V; Lykhman, V N

    2011-04-01

    Individualized tactics of radical surgical treatment, applied in 100 patients, suffering an acute paraproctitis, was presented. Performing comparative estimation of the treatment results in 110 patients, in whom the conventional surgical approaches were applied, there was established, that an active surgical tactics secures essential reduction of the patients stationary treatment duration, the rate of the disease recurrence occurrence and transformation into the chronic illness. PMID:21698928

  9. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2013-01-01

    Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. PMID:23339236

  10. [Vertigo: patient management tactics].

    PubMed

    Vasyl'chuk, I S; Kozlova, O O; Trinus, K F; Holovchenko, Iu I; Slobodin, T M

    2012-01-01

    To avoid serious causes of dizziness and establishing preliminary diagnosis is usually enough sighting history taking and physical examination of the patient. Great importance is self-presenting patients with complaints of dizziness. In recent years, for treatment of various types vestybulopatiy, but also for the prevention of attacks, successfully used betahistyn hydrochloride, which improves the quality of care and well-being of the patient. PMID:23350121

  11. New Tactics in Human Rights

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international human rights. The New Tactics in Human Rights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.

  12. Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics

    E-print Network

    Beaton, Jonathan Scott

    2006-01-01

    Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

  13. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  14. Yellowstone Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yellowstone National Park

    Yellowstone National Park's high altitude and mountainous terrain makes weather prediction very difficult. This website provides seasonal weather information, average temperature and precipitation data, links to weather forecasts, and other weather links.

  15. Tales of future weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Petersen, A. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L. A.

    2015-02-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot be tested, and it faces in-principle challenges. Alternatively, numerical weather prediction models in a hypothetical climate setting can provide tailored narratives for high-resolution simulations of high-impact weather in a future climate. This 'tales of future weather' approach will aid in the interpretation of lower-resolution simulations. Arguably, it potentially provides complementary, more realistic and more physically consistent pictures of what future weather might look like.

  16. Strategy for tactical cellular connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Frederick R.

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a strategy to unify four disparate networks under an Internet Protocol (IP) umbrella. The first network is the Army Warfighter Information Network - Tactical (WIN-T) area common user system. The second network is an extension to the area common user system using the Mobile Ad Hoc Interoperability Networking Gateway (MAINGATE) system. The third network is the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) based wireless access network and the forth network is the 802.11 WiFi Network. It is the intent of this paper to propose a skeletal wireless strategy that at its core will create everything over IP (EoIP) and "Everything over IEEE" ("EoIEEE") standards at the tactical level of the battlefield.

  17. Issue 394 November 2012 Adverse Weather Planning and Tactics

    E-print Network

    from an area of fast-building thunderstorms. The all-too-close encounter highlights a critical factor went IMC momentarily and when I broke out there was a large buildup at my twelve o'clock position. The main storm was still off to my right. I could see several breaks around the buildup and requested

  18. Avoid Scams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to do if you think your email or social networking account has been hacked. Text Message Spam Text message spam is to your cell phone what email spam is to your personal computer. Avoiding Online Scams Ten steps you can take to avoid ...

  19. Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance

    E-print Network

    Bokadia, Sangeeta

    2002-01-01

    with the existing Simplified Flight Management System and coupled with the heading command and hold autopilot of the nonlinear, non-real-time, six degrees-of-freedom Engineering Flight Simulator. Test cases consisting of stationary and moving thunderstorms are used...

  20. Winter Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Winter Weather Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  2. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  3. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  4. Meniere's disease: A surgeon's tactics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soldatov, I.

    1980-01-01

    Surgical procedures for treating Meniere's disease are discussed. Based on the results of 250 operations, it is concluded that interventions are sufficiently effective not only with vestibular dysfunction, but also with hearing disorders. In surgical treatment of Meniere's disease, it is expedient to adhere to by-stage tactics: to start with the simplest and least traumatic interventions - operations on the nerves of the tympanic cavity, and if these are ineffective to use more complex methods, including drainage or shunting of the endolymphatic sac.

  5. Avoidable Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez

    \\u000a This chapter reviews the most relevant papers related to the concept of avoidable mortality since its origin in the late 1970s.\\u000a However, for the presentation of empirical results, I concentrate on research published after 2005; for earlier years, there\\u000a is a review of the literature by Nolte and McKee covering about 200 articles related to avoidable mortality. I searched PubMed

  6. Allergen avoidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Euan R. Tovey

    2008-01-01

    The systematic avoidance of indoor allergens by modification of houses, furnishings, or hygiene practices has long been advocated\\u000a to reduce both the incidence of allergic diseases in at-risk infants and exacerbations or symptoms in those previously sensitized\\u000a with such a disease. However, such advocacy is now under challenge, due to both a lack of evidence of clinical efficacy of\\u000a avoidance

  7. The relative impact 1 Organizational socialization tactics

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    is that organizational socialization facilitates the transmission of an organization's culture and provides newcomersThe relative impact 1 Organizational socialization tactics: Determining the relative impact the relationships between organizational socialization tactics and perceived fit. Using the same database, we made

  8. Automated Operator Instruction in Team Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, R. W.; And Others

    The report discusses the applicability of available advanced training technologies to the training of Navy tactical teams. An experiment was conducted to test whether there is sufficient commonality in team tasks performed in existing team tactics trainers to warrant development of a team training system for specific advanced technologies. Data…

  9. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  10. Terrorist targeting: Tactics, trends, and potentialities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Hoffman

    1993-01-01

    This article analyzes recent trends in international terrorism in the context of tactical and technological innovation. It argues that, while terrorists were undeniably more active and considerably more lethal during the 1980s compared to the 1970s, the targets they chose, the weapons they used, and the tactics they employed remained remarkably consistent. Thus radical in their politics, the vast majority

  11. Measuring tactical behaviour in football.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, J; Maçãs, V

    2012-05-01

    The present study explored how football players' dynamic positional data can be used to assess tactical behaviour by measuring movement patterns and inter-player coordination. A pre post-test design was used to assess the effects of a 13-week constructivist and cognitivist training program by measuring behaviour in a 5 × 5 football small-sided game, played on a 60 × 40 m outdoor natural turf pitch. Data was captured at 5 Hz by GPS devices (SPI Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods. Approximate entropy values were lower in post-test situations suggesting that these time series became more regular with increasing expertise in football. Relative phase post-test values showed frequent periods with a clear trend to moving in anti-phase, as measured by players' distance to the centre of the team. These advances may open new research topics under the tactical scope and allow narrowing the gap between sports sciences and sports coaching. PMID:22377947

  12. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  13. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  14. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting — from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment — and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

  15. UM Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

  16. BBC Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the BBC offers an array of materials dealing with weather. Meteorologists can discover employment opportunities. Individuals with spectacular photographs of weather phenomenon can submit their images to the photo gallery. Students and educators can find introductory materials on basic weather concepts, forecasting, extreme events, and broadcasting the weather. The website offers fun weather-related games and projects, a meteorology glossary, and links to other educational websites.

  17. Winter Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Bellows

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather affects our everyday lives. Some days it's sunny and some days its not. The years weather is split up into seasons. 1. What are the four seasons? 2. What kind of weather do you see in the summer? 3. What kind of weather is unique to winter? 4. ...

  18. Image fusion for tactical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Robert V.; Scribner, Dean A.; Krebs, William K.; Warren, Penny R.; Ockman, Norman; McCarley, Jason

    1998-10-01

    Multispectral sensors are increasingly being employed in military applications. Just as in satellite imagery of the earth, multispectral data is required in order to extract the maximum amount of information from a scene. The advantages of image fusion have been postulated for navigation, surveillance, fire control, and missile guidance to improve accuracy and contribute to mission success. The fusion process is a critical element of each of these applications. Imagery from various sensors must be calibrated, enhanced and spatially registered in order to achieve the desired 'fusion' of information into a single 'picture' for rapid assessment. In a tactical military environment this fusion of data must be presented to the end user in a timely and ergonomical fashion. The end user (e.g., a combat pilot) may already be operating at maximum sensory input capacity. Does he or she really need another cockpit display?

  19. Weather Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This printable weather report is designed to help students easily note a field site's important meteorological details. The one-page PDF form asks for the following information: date, temperature, precipitation, weather type, and wind speed (based on environmental clues).

  20. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

  1. Trauma Ultrasound in Civilian Tactical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Lori; Justice, William; Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Dixon, Jeff D.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    The term “tactical medicine” can be defined in more than one way, but in the nonmilitary setting the term tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) is often used to denote medical support operations for law enforcement. In supporting operations involving groups such as special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams, TEMS entail executing triage, diagnosis, stabilization, and evacuation decision-making in challenging settings. Ultrasound, now well entrenched as a part of trauma evaluation in the hospital setting, has been investigated in the prehospital arena and may have utility in TEMS. This paper addresses potential use of US in the tactical environment, with emphasis on the lessons of recent years' literature. Possible uses of US are discussed, in terms of both specific clinical applications and also with respect to informing triage and related decision making. PMID:23243509

  2. Antarctic Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

  3. Antarctic Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Antarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

  4. World Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elias, Jaume Sanchez

    2014-02-20

    What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

  5. Training and Tactical Operationally Responsive Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, B.; Strunce, R., Jr.

    Current space assets managed by traditional space system control resources provide communication, navigation, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities using satellites that are designed for long life and high reliability. The next generation Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) systems are aimed at providing operational space capabilities which will provide flexibility and responsiveness to the tactical battlefield commander. These capabilities do not exist today. The ORS communication, navigation, and ISR satellites are being designed to replace or supplement existing systems in order to enhance the current space force. These systems are expected to rapidly meet near term space needs of the tactical forces. The ORS concept includes new tactical satellites specifically designed to support contingency operations such as increased communication bandwidth and ISR imagery over the theater for a limited period to support air, ground, and naval force mission. The Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that exists today specifies that in addition to operational control of the satellite, the tasking and scheduling of the ORS tactical satellite for mission data collection in support of the tactical warfighter will be accomplished within the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC). This is very similar to what is currently being accomplished in a fixed Mission Operations Center on existing traditional ISR satellites. The VMOC is merely a distributed environment and the CONOPS remain virtually the same. As a result, there is a significant drawback to the current ORS CONOPS that does not account for the full potential of the ORS paradigm for supporting tactical forces. Although the CONOPS approach may be appropriate for experimental Tactical Satellites (TacSat), it ignores the issues associated with the In-Theater Commander's need to own and operate his dedicated TacSat for most effective warfighting as well as the Warfighter specific CONOPS. What is needed to realize the full potential of the ORS approach to the support of in-theater tactical forces is the development of satellite tasking, interface, and data retrieval capabilities and mission operations approaches from a warfighter centered perspective, and the development of realistic training and simulation capabilities that will allow development, demonstration, and assessment of ORS tactical CONOPS. A system for Training and Tactical ORS Operations (TATOO) is currently being developed. This system will support development and evaluation of ORS specific CONOPS approaches, and training and evaluation of those CONOPS implementations through dedicated training capabilities, facilities, and exercises. TATOO will support the operational side of ORS and will merge with the revolutionary ORS spacecraft development and deployment processes to make the ORS paradigm a reality. TATOO's primary objective is to support the In-Theater Commander and Warfighter by developing, training, and assessing ORS mission CONOPS for In-Theater tasking, scheduling, interface, and data retrieval for TacSats owned by In-Theater Commanders. TATOO provides a laboratory/classroom environment for the development, test and evaluation of ORS Tactical Mission CONOPS for In-Theater ORS operations. The TATOO laboratory will also be used to develop, evaluate, and document ORS Mission CONOPS for tactical ISR and other ORS missions. Within this framework, the laboratory/classroom can be used to develop the necessary training materials and procedures, as well as conduct training exercises that emphasize the training of In-Theater personal with regard to: Tactical Ground Station Mission Operations; Tactical Operations for Mission Tasking and Scheduling; Tactical Mission Data Retrieval; and, Support for Warfighter Operations.

  6. Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Evan B. Forde

    2004-04-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

  7. Wilderness search strategy and tactics.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ken; Longden, Maura J; Vandergraff, Bil; Smith, William R; Weber, David C; McIntosh, Scott E; Wheeler, Albert R

    2014-06-01

    Reports of overdue persons are common for search and rescue personnel. Search incidents for missing persons are conducted following established industry standard practices, which are continuously refined through experience and the analysis of previous search operations. Throughout this process, elements of uncertainty exist, and the knowledge and experience of the searchers and search managers may influence the outcome significantly. A sound knowledge of current search tactics will help search and rescue medical providers function more effectively during search operations. Initial actions during a search incident include 3 primary tasks that must be accomplished on any search: investigation, containment, and then hasty search efforts. Concurrent with these initial actions are the establishment of the search area and a formal US National Incident Management System incident command system. That is essential for an efficient operation and will lay the groundwork for expanding the operation past the initial operational period. The goal of applying these standard search management practices is to allow searchers to maximize their efforts, reduce some of the inherent uncertainty, and most importantly, place searchers in a position to detect the missing person. PMID:24792134

  8. Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kira Lawrence

    This tombstone weathering lab is designed to provide students with tangible understanding of chemical weathering and weathering rates. To prepare for this lab, students will have learned in previous labs to identify common minerals and rocks and will have attended lectures about the process of chemical weathering. During the first part of the lab we travel to the city cemetery to collect data on the age and extent of chemical weathering of tombstones that are made of limestone and igneous rocks. After collecting data for ~1 hour, we return to the computer lab where students use Microsoft Excel to analyze and interpret their data. Their task is to calculate a chemical weathering rate for limestone for our region and compare that rate to those from other regions. This activity gives students experience in the process of scientific inquiry: data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. Students develop Microsoft Excel skills: writing formulas, producing charts, understanding trendlines and R2 values.

  9. Weather Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Harris

    2011-01-24

    The listed websites are recommended safe kid friendly sites that may be used when gathering data for the at home data project. Use the websites listed to learn more about daily weather patterns in different cities around the world. After you have collected and organized your data, create a graph representing the different weather patterns in that city. Use this site to record the daily high temperature for your assigned city. The Weather Channel Use this ...

  10. Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

  11. Predicting Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

  12. Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. Hopson

    The weather watch activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect weather data from on-line databases. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to look up weather conditions for any city in North America, know what radar maps are used for and how to access them, and know how to access satellite images and make estimated guesses on cloud conditions for their area from them.

  13. Weather Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

  14. X-31A Tactical Utility Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin

    1997-01-01

    The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.

  15. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  16. Certification of tactics and strategies in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelman, Hartmut

    1994-01-01

    The paper suggests that the 'tactics and strategies' notion is a highly suitable paradigm to describe the cognitive involvement of human operators in advanced aviation systems (far more suitable than classical functional analysis), and that the workload and situational awareness of operators are intimately associated with the planning and execution of their tactics and strategies. If system designers have muddled views about the collective tactics and strategies to be used during operation, they will produce sub-optimum designs. If operators use unproven and/or inappropriate tactics and strategies, the system may fail. The author wants to make a point that, beyond certification of people or system designs, there may be a need to go into more detail and examine (certify?) the set of tactics and strategies (i.e., the Operational Concept) which makes the people and systems perform as expected. The collective tactics and strategies determine the information flows and situational awareness which exists in organizations and composite human-machine systems. The available infrastructure and equipment (automation) enable these information flows and situational awareness, but are at the same time the constraining factor. Frequently, the tactics and strategies are driven by technology, whereas we would rather like to see a system designed to support an optimized Operational Concept, i.e., to support a sufficiently coherent, cooperative and modular set of anticipation and planning mechanisms. Again, in line with the view of MacLeod and Taylor (1993), this technology driven situation may be caused by the system designer's and operator job designer's over-emphasis on functional analysis (a mechanistic engineering concept), at the expense of a subject which does not seem to be well understood today: the role of the (human cognitive and/or automated) tactics and strategies which are embedded in composite human-machine systems. Research would be needed to arrive at a generally accepted 'planning theory' which can elevate the analysis, description and design of tactics and strategies from today's cottage industry methods to an engineering discipline. The available infrastructure and equipment (automation) enable these information flows and situational awareness, but are at the same time the constraining factor. Frequently, the tactics and strategies are driven by technology, whereas we would rather like to see a system designed to support an optimized Operational Concept, i.e., to support a sufficiently coherent, cooperative and modular set of anticipation and planning mechanisms. Again, in line with the view of MacLeod and Taylor (1993), this technology driven situation may be caused by the system designer's and operator job designer's over-emphasis on functional analysis (a mechanistic engineering concept), at the expense of a subject which does not seem to be well understood today: the role of the (human cognitive and/or automated) tactics and strategies which are embedded in composite human-machine systems. Research would be needed to arrive at a generally accepted 'planning theory' which can evaluate the analysis, description and design of tactics and strategies from today's cottage industry methods to an engineering discipline.

  17. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  18. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  19. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

  20. Sex, Power, and Influence Tactics in Intimate Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A. Howard; Philip Blumstein; Pepper Schwartz

    1986-01-01

    We examined the relative influence of sex, sex role orientation, structural power, and interpersonal dependence on the use of influence tactics in 235 naturally occurring same-sex and cross-sex intimate relationships. Six dimensions of influence tactics were identified: manipulation, supplication, bullying, autocracy, disengagement, and bargaining. We found several patterns of the effect of interpersonal power on influence tactics. First, positions of

  1. Patterns for Tactical VoIPoW Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan C. Pelaez

    2008-01-01

    In a tactical environment, the rapid, secure, and reliable transmission of data can mean the difference between life and death. Tactical networking technology is useful not only to the military, but also to law enforcement and emergency services. Voice over Internet protocol over wireless (VoIPoW) has had a strong effect on tactical internetworking by allowing human voice and video to

  2. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-09-01

    Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

  3. Progress report of the National Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation of the 1989 Program Year and the Metaevaluation of 1996 are described in two ways in this summary document. The text pages summarize the results of the two evaluations conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The photographs and explanations illustrate weatherization operations and tactics. An overview and history of the program is provided, followed by the scope of weatherization, metaevaluation methods and results for 1996, national evaluation methods and results for 1989, response to evaluation findings, remaining opportunities, and next steps. Conclusions and significant findings are then given.

  4. Planetary Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  5. Tactical Language Training System: An Interim Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lewis Johnson; Carole R. Beal; Anna Fowles-winkler; Ursula Lauper; Stacy Marsella; Shrikanth Narayanan; Dimitra Papachristou; Hannes Högni Vilhjálmsson

    2004-01-01

    Tactical Language Training System helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. Learners practice their communication skills in a simulated village, where they must develop rapport with the local people, who in turn will help them accomplish missions such as post-war reconstruction. Each learner is accompanied by a virtual aide who can provide assistance and guidance if

  6. Conservation: Tactics for a Constant Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of the biological and social contexts of conservation action, particularly in how both biogeography and political geography dictate different conservation tactics in different situations, is discussed. The biospatial hierarchy, the six classes of interference, the seven sources of biotic degradation, and the eight paths to biotic…

  7. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Whitney; George Neil

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  8. Survival Tactics for the Warrior Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    In spite of nationwide budget cuts, the potential of school libraries to positively impact student achievement has never been higher. Schools cannot afford to do without strong school library programs. It is the professional responsibility of librarians to fight for their programs, using warrior tactics to survive and thrive through tough economic…

  9. Euthanasia tactics: patterns of injustice and outrage.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Struggles over euthanasia can be examined in terms of tactics used by players on each side of the issue to reduce outrage from actions potentially perceived as unjust. From one perspective, the key injustice is euthanasia itself, especially when the person or relatives oppose death. From a different perspective, the key injustice is denial of euthanasia, seen as a person's right to die. Five types of methods are commonly used to reduce outrage from something potentially seen as unjust: covering up the action; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the action, including using lying, minimising consequences, blaming others and benign framing; using official channels to give an appearance of justice; and using intimidation. Case studies considered include the Nazi T4 programme, euthanasia in contemporary jurisdictions in which it is legal, and censorship of Exit International by the Australian government. By examining euthanasia struggles for evidence of the five types of tactics, it is possible to judge whether one or both sides use tactics characteristic of perpetrators of injustice. This analysis provides a framework for examining tactics used in controversial health issues. PMID:23807915

  10. A profitability model for tactical planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Eilon; GP Cosmetatos

    1977-01-01

    Simple models reflecting changes in aggregate company behaviour in response to changes imposed by management decisions and\\/or factors outside the direct control of management provide useful tools for tactical planning purposes. One such model is discussed in this paper. The model enables management to assess explicitly and quantitatively the effect on the rate of return on capital employed of primary

  11. Tactical Stealth Visby as a Case Study

    E-print Network

    Tactical Stealth Visby as a Case Study Dr. Philip A. Dur President Northrop Grumman Ship Systems 19 ­ "Integration of full spectrum signature reduction, active and passive self defense systems, and physical ship (IR) Acoustic signature (hydroacoustic and airborne noise) Magnetic signature Underwater electrical

  12. Tactical Decision Making and Decision Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Joel I.

    1986-01-01

    The use of computerized decision support systems in higher education for making tactical institutional decisions is reviewed, with attention to the kind of administrative problems that lie somewhere between programmed to nonprogrammed decisions and require a combination of computer support and administrative judgment. (MSE)

  13. The Strategy and Tactics of Information Warfare

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    , · The Strategy and Tactics of Information Warfare MATT BISHOP and EMILY O. GOLDMAN Over the last operations and warfare. Information technology, military leaders and intellectuals argue, can supplant' technologies. Just as the nuclear age elevated the logic of deterrence over destruction, in the information age

  14. Synthesis of Tactical Plans for Robotic Excavation

    E-print Network

    Singh, Sanjiv

    . The testbed robot has a hydraulically manipulated shovel and sensors that measure both contact forcesSynthesis of Tactical Plans for Robotic Excavation Sanjiv Singh Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Robotics The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon

  15. Weather One

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duane Friend

    This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

  16. Winter Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weather presents hazards including slippery roads/surfaces, strong winds and environmental cold. Employers must prevent illnesses, injuries, ... from surfaces) Use extreme caution when working near power lines Prevent harmful exposure to cold temperatures and ...

  17. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

    2013-05-29

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  18. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  19. Weather Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  20. Weather Creator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KShumway

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

  1. Exploring Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2010-01-29

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

  2. Weathering Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pete Stelling

    After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

  3. Gravestone Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

  4. Impact of dissolved organic matter on bacterial tactic motility, attachment, and transport.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Sanchez, Celia; Wick, Lukas Y; Cantos, Manuel; Ortega-Calvo, José-Julio

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial dispersal is a key driver of the ecology of microbial contaminant degradation in soils. This work investigated the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the motility, attachment, and transport of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida G7 in saturated porous media. The study is based on the hypothesis that DOM quality is critical to triggering tactic motility and, consequently, affects bacterial transport and dispersal. Sunflower root exudates, humic acids (HA), and the synthetic oleophilic fertilizer S-200 were used as representatives of fresh, weathered, and artificially processed DOM with high nitrogen and phosphorus contents, respectively. We studied DOM levels of 16-130 mg L(-1), which are representative of DOM concentrations typically found in agricultural soil pore water. In contrast to its responses to HA and S-200, strain G7 exhibited a tactic behavior toward root exudates, as quantified by chemotaxis assays and single-cell motility observations. All DOM types promoted bacterial transport through sand at high concentrations (?130 mg L(-1)). At low DOM concentrations (?16 mg L(-1)), the enhancement occurred only in the presence of sunflower root exudates, and this enhancement did not occur with G7 bacteria devoid of flagella. Our results suggest that tactic DOM effectors strongly influence bacterial transport and the interception probability of motile bacteria by collector surfaces. PMID:25734420

  5. Operational space support to tactical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Owen E.

    The use of military spacecraft for supporting strategic forces is discussed emphasizing the requirements of ground mobile forces and the availability of space-based resources. Specific attention is given to the incompatibility of the Milsatcom communications network and military needs for combat situations. The need for assured access to tactical communications free of electronic jammers is identified, and the characteristics of tactical user equipment are set forth. The idea of a 'Space Hummer' is proposed which receives and processes multifrequency data in a high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle. The proposed vehicle is described in terms of existing and deficient technologies required for its implementation, and scenarios for its use in covert and other operations are reviewed. Important technological challenges for the use of space support include reduced antenna sizes, data fusion, and wideband connectivity, and some of these areas are currently being investigated.

  6. Microcryocooler for tactical and space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J. R.; Champagne, P.; Roth, E.; Nast, T.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.; Kenton, A. C.; Dobbins, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center has developed a very lightweight cryocooler for tactical and space cooling applications. A prototype pulse tube cryocooler was built and tested, utilizing a new microcompressor with a mass of less than 200 grams. The "Oxford type" compressor uses the same long-life features of Lockheed Martin's larger compressors: long-life flexure-bearing clearance-seal technology, with a simple moving magnet configuration designed both for low-cost tactical applications and for long-life space applications. The compressor operated flawlessly with electrical input power as high as 25 W. Test data will be presented for the prototype single-stage pulse tube cooler. Predictions for the cooling capability of optimized coldheads under a variety of cold tip temperatures and heat loads will also be presented. A first-article microcryocooler with an optimized coldhead is slated to be integrated into a high-performance infrared (IR) camera system by the end of 2013.

  7. INTELLIGENT AGENT FOR AIRCRAFT COLLISION AVOIDANCE

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    authority lies with the air traffic controllers Enhancement of current Air Traffic Control (ATC) safety (GA) A new way of managing air traffic Departure from the highly structured system to a more flexible and avoid regions of severe weather Terrain Agent prevent Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) Traffic

  8. The Development of the Tobacco Tactics Website

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Karen E; Flanagan, Petra S; Ronis, David L; Ewing, Lee A; Waltje, Andrea H

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based cessation interventions have been shown to reduce tobacco use, be more efficacious than self-help booklets, be more efficacious if they provide tailored messages, and enhance quit rates in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to usability test and pilot test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. Methods Both formative and summative evaluations were used across three small successive studies to develop and test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans, which was based on a prior face-to-face smoking cessation intervention. Once the website was developed, the research team and Web developers usability tested the website with 5 veteran smokers and former smokers. Feedback from the veterans was collected as they navigated each webpage, then used to revise the website. In pilot study 1, 9 veteran smokers were provided access to the website, and given a baseline and 30-day follow-up survey. In pilot study 2, 18 veteran smokers, who were also motivated to quit smoking, were recruited and randomized to either the Tobacco Tactics website plus nicotine replacement therapy or to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line. Results As a result of usability testing, more than 27 modifications were made to improve the website. In pilot study 1, 50% (3/6) veterans who entered the website had cut down on the number of cigarettes and 83% (5/6) found the website enjoyable, easy to read, easy to navigate, and would recommend the website to others. In pilot study 2, which included only smokers motivated to quit and also offered nicotine replacement therapy, seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 30-day follow-up was 40% (4/10) in the intervention group compared to 13% (1/8) in the control group. Conclusions These preliminary results are promising and suggest the need for wider-scale testing of the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. PMID:23811612

  9. Automatically Generating Game Tactics via Evolutionary Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Ponsen; Hector Munoz-Avila; Pieter Spronck; David W. Aha

    The decision-making process of computer-controlled opponents in video games is called game AI. Adaptive game AI can improve the entertainment value of games by allowing computer-controlled opponents to fix weaknesses automatically in the game AI, and to respond to changes in human-player tactics. Dynamic scripting is a reinforcement learning approach to adap- tive game AI that learns, during gameplay, which

  10. The Weather Doctor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heidorn, Keith.

    Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

  11. Space Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-02-06

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

  12. Wonderful Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-11-06

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

  13. Wild Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  14. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students will learn how to interpret weather patterns from satellite images, predict storm paths and forecast the weather for their area. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  15. Weather Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    missy.jones@gmail.com

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. Why does the wind blow? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What happens when the temperature is the same? 4. What happens when there is high relative humidity? 5. What ...

  16. Space Weather

    E-print Network

    Shepherd, Simon

    Space Weather :: Printer Friendly Version of Article 2005SW000176 http://www.agu.org/journals/sw/swa/feature/article/print.php?id=2005S... 1 of 5 07/07/2006 12:22 PM Shielding Space Explorers From Cosmic Rays Expert opinions-inducing radiation in space. Eugene N. Parker 18 August 2005 Any space traveler far removed from the protective

  17. Weathering Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

  18. Weather Stations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  19. Wacky Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Chichetti

    2002-01-01

    This 5-lesson unit gives students practice in using calculating, graphing and modeling skills to analyze varoius aspects of weather. Students calculate fractions of a set of rainfall data, graph damage costs of selected hurricanes, and make Venn diagrams to compare droughts and hurricanes. Visuals and student handouts are provided.

  20. Weather Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students discuss the characteristics of storms, including the relationship of weather fronts and storms. Using everyday materials, they develop models of basic lightning detection systems (similar to a Benjamin Franklin design) and analyze their models to determine their effectiveness as community storm warning systems.

  1. Wonderful Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

  2. Today's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

  3. Tactical operation of rice irrigation systems during water shortages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. REES

    Various tactics.are examined for use on tropical, small-holder rice irrigation schemes during drought periods. Emphasis is placed on the suitability of particular tactics in droughts of different severity and on relationships between tactics and aspects of the irrigation system. These aspects include operator-user relationships, farm conditions, and the state of the distribution network. Technique d'exploitation des réseaux d'irrigation du riz

  4. National Weather Service

    MedlinePLUS

    HOME FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range Forecasts Climate Prediction PAST WEATHER Past Weather Heating/Cooling Days Monthly ...

  5. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  6. From the laboratory to the soldier: providing tactical behaviors for Army robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knichel, David G.; Bruemmer, David J.

    2008-04-01

    The Army Future Combat System (FCS) Operational Requirement Document has identified a number of advanced robot tactical behavior requirements to enable the Future Brigade Combat Team (FBCT). The FBCT advanced tactical behaviors include Sentinel Behavior, Obstacle Avoidance Behavior, and Scaled Levels of Human-Machine control Behavior. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN) has also documented a number of robotic behavior requirements for the Army non FCS forces such as the Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT), Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT), and Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT). The general categories of useful robot tactical behaviors include Ground/Air Mobility behaviors, Tactical Mission behaviors, Manned-Unmanned Teaming behaviors, and Soldier-Robot Interface behaviors. Many DoD research and development centers are achieving the necessary components necessary for artificial tactical behaviors for ground and air robots to include the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center, US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and non DoD labs such as Department of Energy (DOL). With the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) through DoD and non DoD labs the Army Maneuver Support Center has recently concluded successful field trails of ground and air robots with specialized tactical behaviors and sensors to enable semi autonomous detection, reporting, and marking of explosive hazards to include Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and landmines. A specific goal of this effort was to assess how collaborative behaviors for multiple unmanned air and ground vehicles can reduce risks to Soldiers and increase efficiency for on and off route explosive hazard detection, reporting, and marking. This paper discusses experimental results achieved with a robotic countermine system that utilizes autonomous behaviors and a mixed-initiative control scheme to address the challenges of detecting and marking buried landmines. Emerging requirements for robotic countermine operations are outlined as are the technologies developed under this effort to address them. A first experiment shows that the resulting system was able to find and mark landmines with a very low level of human involvement. In addition, the data indicates that the robotic system is able to decrease the time to find mines and increase the detection accuracy and reliability. Finally, the paper presents current efforts to incorporate new countermine sensors and port the resulting behaviors to two fielded military systems for rigorous assessing.

  7. Weather Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mitchell

    2010-09-23

    We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

  8. Weather Watchers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

  9. Sperm investment and alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    Sperm investment and alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Bryan D tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Bluegill males are characterized by three alternative

  10. Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

  11. Scrounging Tactics in Free-Ranging Ravens, Corvus corax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bugnyar; Kurt Kotrschal

    2002-01-01

    Social foraging allows individuals to scrounge, i.e. to exploit the food others have made available. The conditions promoting scrounging as an alternative foraging tactic have yet received limited attention. We presently examine whether ravens, as opportunistic scavengers, adjust their foraging tactics according to the potential costs involved in accessing a particular food source. We observed wild ravens foraging in a

  12. Tactical nuclear weapons responsibility: Ordnance versus field artillery. Study project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    There has existed and still exists an operational dichotomy in the area of the provision of tactical nuclear weapons to United States Army forces versus those allied forces in a combined theater of operations. Specifically, within the NATO environment and to a very small degree within Combined Forces Korea, there exists a condition where tactical nuclear weapons are supplied to

  13. Behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in lacustrine brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Adams, Julie; Magnan, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The need to vary body temperature to optimize physiological processes can lead to thermoregulatory behaviours, particularly in ectotherms. Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. The main objective of this study was to determine whether different thermal tactics exist among individuals of the same population. We studied the behavioural thermoregulation of 33 adult brook charr in a stratified lake using thermo-sensitive radio transmitters that measured hourly individual temperature over one month. The observed behavioural thermoregulatory patterns were consistent between years and suggest the existence of four tactics: two "warm" tactics with both crepuscular and finer periodicities, with or without a diel periodicity, and two "cool" tactics, with or without a diel periodicity. Telemetry data support the above findings by showing that the different tactics are associated with different patterns of diel horizontal movements. Taken together, our results show a clear spatio-temporal segregation of individuals displaying different tactics, suggesting a reduction of niche overlap. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a vertebrate. PMID:21490935

  14. The evolution of human intrasexual competition: Tactics of mate attraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Buss

    1988-01-01

    Darwin's theory of sexual selection suggests that individuals compete with members of their own sex for reproductively relevant resources held by members of the opposite sex. Four empirical studies were conducted to identify tactics of intrasexual mate competition and to test four evolution-based hypotheses. A preliminary study yielded a taxonomy of tactics. Study 1 used close-friend observers to report performance

  15. Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) Ramesh L. Shrestha

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) Ramesh L. Shrestha University of Florida Department, low power consumption Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) that can operate from an unmanned the time and costs of developing a first generation CATS sensor head, and devote the largest possible

  16. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  17. Tactics for the Educational Change Agent. A Preliminary Analyisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenau, Fred S.

    This prototype of a guide for educational change agents focuses on the roles and tactics of personnel employed in nonprofit educational research and development organizations and in state and intermediate education agencies. Included is a compilation of reports from recent users of three classes of tactics: information, demonstration, and field…

  18. Skill and tactic analysis for table tennis matches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye-peng Guan; Yong Ye; Jing-jing Li; Jing Si; Hui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Due to complexity, multiplicity and randomness of table tennis matches, it is necessary to develop some skill and tactic diagnostic models especially an efficient scoring model to get some skill and tactics data for table tennis matches. A scoring model is developed for table tennis matches based on video image processing technology. An input match video is used to analysis

  19. Time for Europeans to Debate the Presence of Tactical Nukes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Jorma K.

    1976-01-01

    The superpowers are making decisions about tactical and nuclear weapons which may be immutable for Europe for the next 20 years. The maintenance of arsenals for tactical and nuclear weapons should be discussed by more than just the closed circle of professional strategists-by journalists, politicians, philosophers and thoughtful citizens. (BT)

  20. Behavioural Thermoregulatory Tactics in Lacustrine Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Adams, Julie; Magnan, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The need to vary body temperature to optimize physiological processes can lead to thermoregulatory behaviours, particularly in ectotherms. Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. The main objective of this study was to determine whether different thermal tactics exist among individuals of the same population. We studied the behavioural thermoregulation of 33 adult brook charr in a stratified lake using thermo-sensitive radio transmitters that measured hourly individual temperature over one month. The observed behavioural thermoregulatory patterns were consistent between years and suggest the existence of four tactics: two “warm” tactics with both crepuscular and finer periodicities, with or without a diel periodicity, and two “cool” tactics, with or without a diel periodicity. Telemetry data support the above findings by showing that the different tactics are associated with different patterns of diel horizontal movements. Taken together, our results show a clear spatio-temporal segregation of individuals displaying different tactics, suggesting a reduction of niche overlap. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a vertebrate. PMID:21490935

  1. AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.

  2. Destructive Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    alizabethirwin

    2010-11-03

    What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

  3. Weather Photography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

  4. Weather Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

  5. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

  6. Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety

    E-print Network

    Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety NOAA/NWS Winter Weather Safety Seasonal Campaign www.weather.gov #12;Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Hazards Winter Weather Safety www.weather.gov · Snow/Ice · Blizzards · Flooding · Cold Temperatures #12;Building a Weather

  7. Enabling information management systems in tactical network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Marco; Uszok, Andrzej; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Ceccio, Philip J.; Hanna, James P.; Sinclair, Asher

    2009-05-01

    Net-Centric Information Management (IM) and sharing in tactical environments promises to revolutionize forward command and control capabilities by providing ubiquitous shared situational awareness to the warfighter. This vision can be realized by leveraging the tactical and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) which provide the underlying communications infrastructure, but, significant technical challenges remain. Enabling information management in these highly dynamic environments will require multiple support services and protocols which are affected by, and highly dependent on, the underlying capabilities and dynamics of the tactical network infrastructure. In this paper we investigate, discuss, and evaluate the effects of realistic tactical and mobile communications network environments on mission-critical information management systems. We motivate our discussion by introducing the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) which is targeted for deployment in tactical sensor systems. We present some operational requirements for AIMS and highlight how critical IM support services such as discovery, transport, federation, and Quality of Service (QoS) management are necessary to meet these requirements. Our goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of the impact of underlying assumptions of availability and performance of some of the critical services supporting tactical information management. We will also propose and describe a number of technologies and capabilities that have been developed to address these challenges, providing alternative approaches for transport, service discovery, and federation services for tactical networks.

  8. Characterization of Tactical Departure Scheduling in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses and analyzes current day utilization and performance of the tactical departure scheduling process in the National Airspace System (NAS) to understand the benefits in improving this process. The analysis used operational air traffic data from over 1,082,000 flights during the month of January, 2011. Specific metrics included the frequency of tactical departure scheduling, site specific variances in the technology's utilization, departure time prediction compliance used in the tactical scheduling process and the performance with which the current system can predict the airborne slot that aircraft are being scheduled into from the airport surface. Operational data analysis described in this paper indicates significant room for improvement exists in the current system primarily in the area of reduced departure time prediction uncertainty. Results indicate that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft did not meet their scheduled departure slot due to departure time uncertainty. In addition to missed slots, the operational data analysis identified increased controller workload associated with tactical departures which were subject to traffic management manual re-scheduling or controller swaps. An analysis of achievable levels of departure time prediction accuracy as obtained by a new integrated surface and tactical scheduling tool is provided to assess the benefit it may provide as a solution to the identified shortfalls. A list of NAS facilities which are likely to receive the greatest benefit from the integrated surface and tactical scheduling technology are provided.

  9. Evolution of wildlife rabies control tactics.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The development of tactics for the control of rabies in wildlife species has evolved dramatically during the past few decades in part due to research advances. Historically, rabies control measures primarily involved the culling of target species. However, contemporary advances in the research and development of oral rabies vaccines and delivery systems for wildlife have now made it feasible to treat rabies outbreaks over thousands of square kilometers of habitat. Systems have been developed to control rabies in several of the primary wildlife vectors such as raccoon dogs, red foxes, and raccoons, and rabies has been eliminated from many jurisdictions. However, future research is needed to develop cost-effective and efficacious methods to control rabies in species such as striped skunks as well as in nonterrestrial vectors such as bats. As well, cost-effective rabies management techniques need to be adopted by developing nations so that wildlife rabies control is a realistic and achievable goal globally. PMID:21601057

  10. Reinforcement Learning-based Feature Selection For Developing Pedagogically Effective Tutorial Dialogue Tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Chi; Pamela Jordan; Kurt VanLehn; Moses Hall

    Given the subtlety of tutorial tactics, identifying effective pedagogical tactical rules from human tutoring dialogues and implementing them for dialogue tutoring systems is not trivial. In this work, we used reinforcement learning (RL) to automatically derive pedagogical tutoring dialog tactics. Past research has shown that the choice of the features significantly affects the effectiveness of the learned tactics. We defined

  11. Sperm investment and alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan D. Neff; Peng Fu; Mart R. Grossb

    2003-01-01

    Although alternative mating tactics are found in males of many species, little is known about tactic-specific adaptations to sperm competition and the mechanism by which fertilization success is obtained. We now report on the sperm investment patterns of males that use alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Bluegill males are characterized by three alternative mating tactics: parentals, sneakers,

  12. Controlling The Global Weather.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Ross N.

    2002-02-01

    the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and ethical questions. The nation that controls its own weather will perforce control the weather of other nations. Weather "wars" are conceivable. An international treaty may be required, limiting the use of weather control technology.

  13. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  14. On investigating social dynamics in tactical opportunistic mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of military mobile network operations at the tactical edge is challenging due to the practical Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) environments at the tactical edge which make it hard to maintain persistent end-to-end wireless network connectivity. Opportunistic mobile networks are hence devised to depict such tactical networking scenarios. Social relations among warfighters in tactical opportunistic mobile networks are implicitly represented by their opportunistic contacts via short-range radios, but were inappropriately considered as stationary over time by the conventional wisdom. In this paper, we develop analytical models to probabilistically investigate the temporal dynamics of this social relationship, which is critical to efficient mobile communication in the battlespace. We propose to formulate such dynamics by developing various sociological metrics, including centrality and community, with respect to the opportunistic mobile network contexts. These metrics investigate social dynamics based on the experimentally validated skewness of users' transient contact distributions over time.

  15. Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongrui

    1993-07-01

    This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

  16. Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongrui Wang

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency\\/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

  17. Behavioral tactics, dominance, and copulatory success among male fox squirrels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Koprowski

    1993-01-01

    The behavioral tactics and mating behavior of male fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) were studied in a small population of uniquely marked, free-ranging individuals during the winter breeding season in 1986 to 1990. Twelve mating bouts were observed with an average of 5.83 males. Two alternative male reproductive tactics were active pursuit and satellite. Active-pursuit males were the most dominant squirrels

  18. Advocates and critics for tactical behaviors in UGV navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Talib S.; Vidaver, Gordon; Berliner, Jeffrey

    2005-05-01

    Critical to the development of unmanned ground vehicle platforms is the incorporation of adaptive tactical behaviors for the planning of high-level navigation and tactical actions. BBN Technologies recently completed a simulation-based project for the Army Research Lab (ARL) in which we applied an evolutionary computation approach to navigating through a terrain to capture flag objectives while faced with one or more mobile enemies. Our Advocates and Critics for Tactical Behaviors (ACTB) system evolves plans for the vehicle that control its movement goals (in the form of waypoints), and its future actions (e.g., pointing cameras). We apply domain-specific, state-dependent genetic operators called advocates that promote specific tactical behaviors (e.g., adapt a plan to stay closer to walls). We define the fitness function as a weighted sum of a number of independent, domain-specific, state-dependent evaluation components called critics. Critics reward plans based upon specific tactical criteria, such as minimizing risk of exposure or time to the flags. Additionally, the ACTB system provides the capability for a human commander to specify the "rules of engagement" under which the vehicle will operate. The rules of engagement determine the planning emphasis required under different tactical situations (e.g., discovery of an enemy), and provide a mechanism for automatically adapting the relative selection probabilities of the advocates, the weights of the critics, and the depth of planning in response to tactical events. The ACTB system demonstrated highly effective performance in a head-to-head testing event, held by ARL, against two competing tactical behavior systems.

  19. Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

  20. Pattern Avoidability with Involution

    E-print Network

    Bischoff, Bastian; 10.4204/EPTCS.63.10

    2011-01-01

    An infinte word w avoids a pattern p with the involution t if there is no substitution for the variables in p and no involution t such that the resulting word is a factor of w. We investigate the avoidance of patterns with respect to the size of the alphabet. For example, it is shown that the pattern a t(a) a can be avoided over three letters but not two letters, whereas it is well known that a a a is avoidable over two letters.

  1. Impact of Probabilistic Weather on Flight Routing Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Flight delays in the United States have been found to increase year after year, along with the increase in air traffic. During the four-month period from May through August of 2005, weather related delays accounted for roughly 70% of all reported delays, The current weather prediction in tactical (within 2 hours) timeframe is at manageable levels, however, the state of forecasting weather for strategic (2-6 hours) timeframe is still not dependable for long-term planning. In the absence of reliable severe weather forecasts, the decision-making for flights longer than two hours is challenging. This paper deals with an approach of using probabilistic weather prediction for Traffic Flow Management use, and a general method using this prediction for estimating expected values of flight length and delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). The current state-of-the-art convective weather forecasting is employed to aid the decision makers in arriving at decisions for traffic flow and flight planing. The six-agency effort working on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) have considered weather-assimilated decision-making as one of the principal foci out of a list of eight. The weather Integrated Product Team has considered integrated weather information and improved aviation weather forecasts as two of the main efforts (Ref. 1, 2). Recently, research has focused on the concept of operations for strategic traffic flow management (Ref. 3) and how weather data can be integrated for improved decision-making for efficient traffic management initiatives (Ref. 4, 5). An overview of the weather data needs and benefits of various participants in the air traffic system along with available products can be found in Ref. 6. Previous work related to use of weather data in identifying and categorizing pilot intrusions into severe weather regions (Ref. 7, 8) has demonstrated a need for better forecasting in the strategic planning timeframes and moving towards a probabilistic description of weather (Ref. 9). This paper focuses on. specified probability in a local region for flight intrusion/deviation decision-making. The process uses a probabilistic weather description, implements that in a air traffic assessment system to study trajectories of aircraft crossing a cut-off probability contour. This value would be useful for meteorologists in creating optimum distribution profiles for severe weather, Once available, the expected values of flight path and aggregate delays are calculated for efficient operations. The current research, however, does not deal with the issue of multiple cell encounters, as well as echo tops, and will be a topic of future work.

  2. Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

  3. Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

  4. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  5. Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies ( Leucorrhinia intacta ): plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Waltz; Larry L. Wolf

    1988-01-01

    Summary Alternative tactics used by males to obtain mates usually are associated with genetic and\\/or phenotypic differences between the behavioral morphs. This system of white-faced dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta) alternatives is characterized by plasticity of tactical options for individual males. Males may act either as territorials, and defend small perch-centered territories on the study pond, or they act as transients, spending

  6. Operational Concepts for Uninhabited Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Purifoy, Dana

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experiences with five remotely piloted flight research vehicle projects in the developmental flight test phase. These projects include the Pathfinder, Perseus B, Altus, and X-36 aircraft and the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT). Each of these flight projects was flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With the exception of the HiMAT, these projects are a part of the Flight Research Base Research and Technology (R&T) Program of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Enterprise. Particularly with respect to operational interfaces between the ground-based pilot or operator, this paper draws from those experiences, then provides some rationale for extending the lessons learned during developmental flight research to the possible situations involved in the developmental flights proceeding deployed uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) operations. Two types of UTA control approaches are considered: autonomous and remotely piloted. In each of these cases, some level of human operator or pilot control blending is recommended. Additionally, "best practices" acquired over years of piloted aircraft experience are drawn from and presented as they apply to operational UTA.

  7. What's the Weather?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

  8. Australian Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

  9. Terminal weather information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  10. It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods. PMID:22764112

  11. Autocalibrating vision guided navigation of unmanned air vehicles via tactical monocular cameras in GPS denied environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Koray

    This thesis presents a novel robotic navigation strategy by using a conventional tactical monocular camera, proving the feasibility of using a monocular camera as the sole proximity sensing, object avoidance, mapping, and path-planning mechanism to fly and navigate small to medium scale unmanned rotary-wing aircraft in an autonomous manner. The range measurement strategy is scalable, self-calibrating, indoor-outdoor capable, and has been biologically inspired by the key adaptive mechanisms for depth perception and pattern recognition found in humans and intelligent animals (particularly bats), designed to assume operations in previously unknown, GPS-denied environments. It proposes novel electronics, aircraft, aircraft systems, systems, and procedures and algorithms that come together to form airborne systems which measure absolute ranges from a monocular camera via passive photometry, mimicking that of a human-pilot like judgement. The research is intended to bridge the gap between practical GPS coverage and precision localization and mapping problem in a small aircraft. In the context of this study, several robotic platforms, airborne and ground alike, have been developed, some of which have been integrated in real-life field trials, for experimental validation. Albeit the emphasis on miniature robotic aircraft this research has been tested and found compatible with tactical vests and helmets, and it can be used to augment the reliability of many other types of proximity sensors.

  12. Testing of Tactical Performance in Youth Elite Soccer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This is a twofold study with the goals of evaluating tactical oriented game test situations for 12-13-year old highly-talented soccer players and to analyze dynamic, intra-individual developments of the players. A cross-sectional design was carried in study 1, using game test situations to measure specific tactics and creative performance for 195 expert players. The results from five evaluation criteria show that both diagnostic instruments can be used for recording football-specific creativity and game intelligence in talented young players. They produced tactical indicators that can be described as objective and valid, exhibit a sufficient degree of differentiation and are easy to record. Study 2 uses a longitudinal design to present a dynamic performance diagnostic tool for analyzing intra-individual improvements of German Soccer Foundation talents according to football-specific creativity and game intelligence. The results with respect to divergent tactical thinking clearly show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players. Finally, the practical implications for the training process are discussed on the basis of both studies. Key points With game test situations it is possible to assess tactical performance as game intelligence and creativity objective, valid, with a sufficient degree of differentiation, and economically. The results with respect to game intelligence and creativity show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players dependend on the bases (trainers). Current literature on tactics for school sports as well as for children’s, youth and high performance soccer at the club level should place much more emphasis on individual and group-tactical requirements in soccer. PMID:24149686

  13. Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  14. Microbial Efflux Pump Inhibition: Tactics and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tegos, George P.; Haynes, Mark; Strouse, J. Jacob; Khan, Mohiuddin Md. T.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Sklar, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional antimicrobials are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. To overcome these deficiencies, a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections are under investigation as potential alternative treatments. Multidrug efflux is a key target of these efforts. Efflux mechanisms are broadly recognized as major components of resistance to many classes of chemotherapeutic agents as well as antimicrobials. Efflux occurs due to the activity of membrane transporter proteins widely known as Multidrug Efflux Systems (MES). They are implicated in a variety of physiological roles other than efflux and identifying natural substrates and inhibitors is an active and expanding research discipline. One plausible alternative is the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules that block MES known as multidrug efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). An array of approaches in academic and industrial research settings, varying from high-throughput screening (HTS) ventures to bioassay guided purification and determination, have yielded a number of promising EPIs in a series of pathogenic systems. This synergistic discovery platform has been exploited in translational directions beyond the potentiation of conventional antimicrobial treatments. This venture attempts to highlight different tactical elements of this platform, identifying the need for highly informative and comprehensive EPI-discovery strategies. Advances in assay development genomics, proteomics as well as the accumulation of bioactivity and structural information regarding MES facilitates the basis for a new discovery era. This platform is expanding drastically. A combination of chemogenomics and chemoinformatics approaches will integrate data mining with virtual and physical HTS ventures and populate the chemical-biological interface with a plethora of novel chemotypes. This comprehensive step will expedite the preclinical development of lead EPIs. PMID:21470111

  15. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  16. Avoiding Household Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vehicle Safety En Español Injury Prevention Avoiding Household Burns On average, in the U.S., someone dies in ... minutes. There were 40,000 hospitalizations related to burn injury, including 30,000 at hospital burn centers. " ...

  17. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  18. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  19. Food Buyer Avoidance Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Alreck; Robert B. Settle

    1999-01-01

    A consumer's survey of self-reported eating behavior identified six food consumer types-Snack Eaters, Three Meals, Chief Cook, Lunch and Dinner, Pre-Made Food, and Brown Baggersand four avoidance groups-Healthy-Eaters, Cardio-Conscions, Weight-Watchers and Mood-Minders. While these four groups cut across demographic categories, the six consumer types were significantly related to demographic segments. Food ingredient avoidance proved to be an important issue tor

  20. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  1. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  2. Space Weather FX

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Weather FX is a vodcast (video podcast) series that explores the science of space weather and how it can impact our every day lives. Episodes include Space Weather and its Effects, Connecting the Sun and Earth, When Space Weather Attacks, Stratospheric Sudden Warming, A Tour of Haystack's Radars, GPS and Space Weather, It Came from the Sun, and The Big Picture. The site also contain links to space weather information and educational materials. The episodes will run on one of four free video players.

  3. The Weather Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Emma Grasser

    2012-09-27

    This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

  4. Edheads: Weather Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

  5. Science Sampler: Weather RATS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Taft

    2006-02-01

    Weather RATS, or Weather Research and Tracking Systems, is a collaborative effort among a national network of K-12 students, their teachers, wireless weather stations, internet data sharing, and professional engineers and meteorologists. Weather Rats is a new way to teach K-12 science and technology by tracking and comparing weather data from schools in Massachusetts, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Puerto Rico. In addition, it is hoped through this enriching project that Weather RATS will inspire many more students, especially girls and minorities, to pursue careers in science and engineering as a result of this project.

  6. Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  7. Changing first responder tactics through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, William E.; Trotter, Stephen

    1998-12-01

    The authors will first analyze current tactics used by emergency personnel when responding to 'standard' emergencies involving transportation systems. Next, the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system. Next the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system in which weapons of mass destruction are employed will be explored. The unique problems associated with the site of an emergency where chemical, nuclear, or biological agents have been employed will be investigated. The use of available or next-ready technologies in the areas of detection devices, personal protective clothing, and decontamination equipment will be examined. Combining this information, we will seek to prove the hypothesis that without the use of new technologies a change in first responder tactics is impossible. However, with the use of advanced technologies we will illustrate how new tactics can produce safe, more effective emergency responses.

  8. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... related health problems. More Information: Hypothermia Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  9. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  10. Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Francek

    2002-10-01

    In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

  11. Owlie Skywarn's Weather Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cris Garcia

    2001-06-22

    This is an online activity book from the National Weather Service that teaches about hazardous weather. The site also includes links to kids sites for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA).

  12. On Observing the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Crane

    2004-05-01

    In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

  13. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on-line. The optimal avoidance trajectory is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive control law. Therefore, at each time step, the optimal avoidance trajectory is found and the first time step of its acceleration is applied. At the next time step of the control computer, the problem is re-solved and the new first time step is again applied. This continual updating allows the RCA algorithm to adapt to a colliding spacecraft that is making erratic course changes.

  14. Fire Weather Climatology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2008-04-28

    The “Fire Weather Climatology” module provides a comprehensive look at fire regions across the United States and characteristics of typical fire seasons in each region. In addition, critical fire weather patterns are described in terms of their development, duration and impact on fire weather. Numerous case studies provide examples and opportunities to practice recognizing these critical patterns and how they can affect fire ignition and spread. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

  15. Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

  16. Weather and Road Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

  17. Stormfax Weather Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-06-10

    This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

  18. Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit provides an introduction for younger students to the concepts of weathering and erosion. Topics include types of weathering (physical versus chemical), rates of weathering, and weathering products (soil). The section on erosion explains the importance of water and gravity in the process, and discusses some of the more important erosional agents such as wind, water and ice, streams and glaciers. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  19. Survival tactics for managing the hospital marketing effort.

    PubMed

    Schaupp, D L; Ponzurick, T G; Schaupp, F W

    1994-01-01

    Hospital marketing is an intricate and complex process. Especially difficult is the transition the hospital marketer must make from designing marketing strategies to implementing those strategies. This transition usually causes the marketer to call upon a different set of skills. These skills involve managing the personnel needed to implement the designed marketing strategy. Unfortunately, little in the way of formal training is provided the marketer for developing these management skills. Therefore, the authors have comprised a series of tactical procedures designed to assist the hospital marketer to survive this transition. Using these tactics for decision-making guidelines may help to improve the management of the hospital's marketing effort. PMID:10137161

  20. Extreme Weather on Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anna Mika

    In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.

  1. METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting

    E-print Network

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary and interpretation of information from National Weather Service watches and warnings by10 decision makers such an outlier to the regional severe weather climatology. An analysis of the synoptic and13 mesoscale

  2. Predicting Seasonal Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cheryl Dybas

    2008-12-07

    This module is about a new method of predicting seasonal weather. The site describes the effects of El Nino on global weather and the accuracy of the new model. It includes links to classroom resources for a variety of weather-based units.

  3. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  4. Severe Weather Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Karol

    Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

  5. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Form - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  6. Weather Maps in Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Burrows

    In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

  7. Weather Girl Goes Rogue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deep Rogue Ram

    This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

  8. American Weather Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  9. Space Weather Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Environment Center

    The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

  10. Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic

    This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

  11. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  12. Personality and impression management: Mapping the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire onto 12 self-presentation tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Sadler; Jeffrey M. Hunger; Christopher J. Miller

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between Tellegen’s three-factor personality model, using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and 12 self-presentation tactics operationalized in the self-presentation tactics scale (SPT). Differential correlations of the MPQ higher-order domains and primary scales were predicted based on a review of the literature pertaining to each self-presentation tactic and the dimensional classifications of tactics. Joint exploratory factor

  13. Collision Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Ames Research Center teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to study human performance factors associated with the use of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance system (TCAS II) in an operational environment. TCAS is designed to alert pilots of the presence of other aircraft in their vicinity, to identify and track those who could be a threat, and to recommend action to avoid a collision. Ames conducted three laboratory experiments. The first showed that pilots were able to use the TCAS II correctly in the allowable time. The second tested pilots' response to changes in the avoidance advisories, and the third examined pilots' reactions to alternative displays. After a 1989 congressional mandate, the FAA ruled that TCAS would be required on all passenger carrying aircraft (to be phased in completely by 1995).

  14. External Resource: Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

  15. Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning: Theoretical and Pedagogical Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Dyson; Linda L. Griffin; Peter Hastie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning as valuable instructional models in physical education. Situated learning is used as a theoretical framework and connection between Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning. The structures of Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning allow for participation to occur in a student-centered learning curriculum

  16. Marketing Tactics and Parents' Loyalty: The Mediating Role of School Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate how marketing tactics can enhance parents' loyalty in the educational context. Building on extant research, it proposes an integrated framework in which perceived marketing tactics are related to school image, which in turn is related to parents' loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: Five marketing tactics

  17. Comparison of Three Instructional Approaches to Enhance Tactical Knowledge in Volleyball among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip; Claessens, Manu; Feys, Jos; Ceux, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the decision-making process of three instructional groups (i.e., teacher-centered, student-centered with tactical questioning and student-centered without tactical questioning) in practical courses in volleyball among university students. All students (N = 122) performed a Tactical Awareness task on the correctness of the…

  18. Mate-guarding courtship behaviour: tactics in a changing world Damian O. Elias a, *

    E-print Network

    Elias, Damian Octavio

    Mate-guarding courtship behaviour: tactics in a changing world Damian O. Elias a, * , Senthurran Published online MS. number: A14-00327R Keywords: jumping spider mate guarding mating tactic multiple vibratory signalling Mate guarding is one of the most common tactics in sperm competition. Males

  19. Event tactic analysis based on player and ball trajectory in broadcast video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyu Zhu; Changsheng Xu; Yi Zhang; Qingming Huang; Hanqing Lu

    2008-01-01

    Most of existing approaches on sports video analysis are concentrated on semantic event detection which is general audience oriented and the extracted events are presented to the audience without further analysis from tactic perspective. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to extract the tactic information and recognize the tactic patterns from goal events in broadcast soccer video. We

  20. WeatherHawk Weather Station Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a WeatherHawk weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

  1. Fabulous Weather Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Candice Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

  2. Avalanche Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2010-09-30

    Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

  3. Plymouth State Weather Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

  4. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  5. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  6. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  7. Avoiding the "M" Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

  8. Avoiding medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Omar, Y

    2013-03-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404

  9. Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2000-01-01

    In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.

  10. Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Amy Bruno

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

  11. National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

  12. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance

    PubMed Central

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

  13. New Genetic Tactics to Model Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Mouse

    E-print Network

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    New Genetic Tactics to Model Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Mouse Charles Keller 1 and Mario R alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) that is driven by the chromosomal translocation product, Pax3:Fkhr. Tumors of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and illustrates the utility of Cre-loxP technology for studying otherwise

  14. Luminescent ecstasy tablets. Authentication tool or cunning marketing tactic?

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Cook, M

    2015-04-01

    Forensic Science SA (FSSA) in combination with South Australia Police (SAPOL) has detected luminescent ecstasy tablets. This paper examines the emergence of luminescent ecstasy tablets and their potential role as an extra level of authentication for the user and/or as a marketing tactic aligned with their use at glow parties. PMID:25701154

  15. Identification of Non-Specific Tactical Tasks in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background and significance: The notion of transferability (i.e. sampling) has been put forward as one of four core pedagogical principles for games teaching. The sampling principle was based on the premise that it may be possible to show the existence of tactical similarities between apparently dissimilar games, leading to a much better overall…

  16. The Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System: Interface Design Project

    E-print Network

    Virginia, University of

    Tomahawk cruise missile. The goals of this project were to: Design, develop and test interface conceptsThe Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System: Interface Design Project Student Team: Julie, and Alan Thomas Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren, VA E-mail HarmanWL@nswc.navy.mil KEYWORDS: Cruise

  17. Airborne tactical information management system synthetic environment demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Reibling; R. Logan; D. Churchman; M. Storer

    1997-01-01

    The Airborne Tactical Information Management System (ATIMS) project has previously demonstrated the potential benefits of exploiting advance onboard processing capabilities and the sharing of data and imagery between command and control elements and shooter aircraft. Capabilities to digitize the battle space and send data to the cockpit raised interest in the aircrews capabilities to effectively use the available information. The

  18. Effectiveness of Relationship Marketing Tactics in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchia, Philip J.; Finney, R. Zachary; Finney, Treena Gillespie

    2013-01-01

    We test the correlation between student perception of three university relationship-building tactics--commercial friendships, preferential treatment, and tangible rewards--with university student satisfaction. We also test whether two student characteristics--enduring involvement with education and sense of entitlement--have a moderating effect on…

  19. The Inquisitive Sensor: A Tactical Tool for System Survivability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Lindqvist

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes methods by which traditionally pas- sive intrusion detection sensors can be instrumented to take certain tactical actions in order to increase the certainty by which they can make decisions. Examples show how a sen- sor can request injection of additional data into the event data stream it is monitoring, as a reaction to its observa- tion of

  20. What's different about the hardware in tactical military systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Svendsen; Donald L. Ream

    1973-01-01

    A recent special issue of the Proceedings of the IEEE on computer communications' provides an excellent state-of-the-art report on the burgeoning field of digital telecommunications and computer networks. Included are papers on terminals, modems, errors and error control, multiplexing, processors and computer communication networks. Many of the system elements and system concepts in Tactical Military data processing systems are similar

  1. Coq Tacticals and PVS Strategies: A Small Step Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, Florent

    2003-01-01

    The need for a small step semantics and more generally for a thorough documentation and understanding of Coq's tacticals and PVS's strategies arise with their growing use and the progressive uncovering of their subtleties. The purpose of the following study is to provide a simple and clear formal framework to describe their detailed semantics, and highlight their differences and similarities.

  2. Laser weapons. I - Tactical lasers: Moving toward lethality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hecht

    1982-01-01

    The uses and advantages of lasers as tactical weapon systems are discussed. The primary characteristics of military lasers are the propagation of destructive force toward the target at the speed of light, obviating the present need for targeting systems to lead their target, and the ease with which new targets may be acquired by redirection of the laser's orienting mirror.

  3. Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    training, such as: Joint Terminal Attack Controller Qualification Course, Airborne, Pathfinder, Air AssaultAir LiAison officer Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) operations. Provides Command and Control, and Execution of Air, Space, and Cyber power. Primary advisor

  4. Implementing a Tactical Games Approach with Sport Education: A Chronicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubacs-Collins, Klara; Olsen, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges encountered by a middle school practitioner over a five-year period when implementing the tactical games approach within the sport education model. Included are genuine quotes (extracted from video tapes and written records) from the students, the principal at the practitioner's school, a guidance counselor,…

  5. Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) Ramesh L. Shrestha

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) Ramesh L. Shrestha University of Florida Department-TERM GOALS The long-term goals of the CATS project are (1) to improve detection and identification of anti The overarching objective of the CATS project is to design, build, and demonstrate a low-power scanning airborne

  6. Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) Ramesh L. Shrestha

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) Ramesh L. Shrestha University of Florida Department-TERM GOALS The long-term goals of the CATS project are: (1) to improve detection and identification of anti foliage. OBJECTIVES The overarching objective of the CATS project is to design, build, and demonstrate

  7. Employee attitudes toward questionable negotiation tactics: empirical evidence from Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Stefanidis; Moshe Banai; Ulf Henning Richter

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of three theoretically valid independent variables – horizontal and vertical individualism–collectivism, ethical idealism and trust propensity – on employees' attitudes toward ethically questionable negotiation tactics in Peru. A total of 233 usable responses were collected from participants employed in various industries in the capital area, Lima. The results empirically corroborated a classification of three groups

  8. Behavioral tactics of subadult female floaters in the tree swallow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridget J. Stutchbury; Raleigh J. Robertson

    1987-01-01

    There are large numbers of reproductively mature female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) which do not breed due to limits of suitable nesting cavities. Many of these floaters are one-year-old females that have a distinctive subadult plumage. This study examines the behavioral tactics that these subadult female floaters use to obtain breeding opportunities. Early in the season, subadult floaters tended to

  9. Tactical Decision Competency of Preservice Physical Education Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margo M.; Henninger, Mary L.; Carlson, Kristin B.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent publication of the "National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education" (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2009) requires physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to demonstrate that teacher candidates display both tactical knowledge and physical competence.…

  10. Attention Manipulation for Naval Tactical Picture Compilation Tibor Bosse1

    E-print Network

    Bosse, Tibor

    Attention Manipulation for Naval Tactical Picture Compilation Tibor Bosse1 , Rianne van Lambalgen1-paul.vanmaanen@tno.nl Abstract This paper discusses and evaluates an agent model that is able to manipulate the visual attention is manipulated by adjusting luminance, based on assessment of the subject's attention. These first evaluations

  11. Attention Manipulation for Naval Tactical Picture Compilation Tibor Bosse1

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    Attention Manipulation for Naval Tactical Picture Compilation Tibor Bosse1 , Rianne van Lambalgen1-paul.vanmaanen@tno.nl Abstract This paper presents an agent model that is able to manipulate the visual attention of a human checking tools. Results show how a human subject's attention is manipulated by adjusting luminance, based

  12. Tactical Intelligence Tools for Distributed Agile Control of Air Operations

    E-print Network

    Gautam, Natarajan

    Tactical Intelligence Tools for Distributed Agile Control of Air Operations Shashi Phoha Applied to expected and unexpected changes. The intelligent control of the enterprise, then, consists of (i) continual intelligence tools which process necessary transient and situational information for the agents to execute

  13. Digging in the deep: killer whales' advanced hunting tactic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Nøttestad; Anders Fernö; Bjørn E. Axelsen

    2002-01-01

    We document one of the most spectacular predator-prey interactions observed in a marine ecosystem, in which groups of killer whales force tens of tons of herrring out of their safe deep-water habitat to the surface where the whales are superior. Killer whales performing this hunting tactic congregate in large groups, dive to the limit of their capacity, lift herring vertically

  14. Modelling Human Emotions for Tactical Decision-Making Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny

    2013-01-01

    The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…

  15. Innovative Tactic in Submandibular Salivary Gland Partial Resection

    PubMed Central

    Auersvald, André

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Adequate neck contour is one of the goals in facial rejuvenation. In some patients, treating the submandibular salivary gland (SMSG) ensures a satisfying result. Hematoma, sialoma, and paralysis of the depressors of the lower lip may occur when the deep neck is approached. The objective of this work is to present a new tactic to prevent the aforementioned complications. Two hundred forty consecutive neck lift patients with partial resection of the SMSG were studied. The tactic consisted of placing sutures to facilitate the retraction of the platysma muscle and the accompanying marginal mandibular and cervical branches of the facial nerve during the resection of the SMSG. It also included stitches that bring the platysma muscle in contact with the remaining SMSG, sealing the dissected area. The first 25 (control) subjects did not undergo the tactic; the remaining 215 (study group) did. The occurrence of paralysis of the depressors of the lower lip and of hematoma and sialoma originating from the SMSG resection was observed. When comparing the control group with the study group, the rates of hematoma (8% vs 0%) and sialoma (24% vs 0%) were significantly higher in the former. Paralysis of the depressors of the lower lip also had a higher rate in the control group (4% vs 0.9%) although this difference was not statistically significant. The surgical tactic described is efficient in preventing the occurrence of hematoma, sialoma, and paralysis of the depressors of the lower lip in neck lift with partial resection of the SMSG. PMID:25587508

  16. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Tyson

    1999-01-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery

  17. Sea Stories: A Collaborative Tool for Articulating Tactical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtke, Paul H.; Frey, Paul R.

    Having subject matter experts (SMEs) identify the skills and knowledge to be taught is among the more difficult and time-consuming steps in the training development process. A procedure has been developed for identifying specific tactical decision-making knowledge requirements and translating SME knowledge into appropriate multimedia…

  18. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    PubMed

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

  19. Summary of the psychological effects of tactical nuclear warfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sessions

    1984-01-01

    The psychological component of the response of combat troops to tactical nuclear warfare is a troublesome variable which plagues military planners and commanders responsible for the preparation of the armed forces for the eventuality that nuclear weapons might one day be used in armed conflict. The devastating physical effects of nuclear weapons have been extensively documented and the biological response

  20. Weather: What Forces Affect Our Weather?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-06-11

    This website provides an easy-to-understand look at our weather system. Topics covered include the atmosphere, the water cycle, storms, ice and snow, weather forecasting and Earth's changing climate. There are features on ozone depletion, global warming, El Nino and La Nina. An activity allows users to identify cloud formations associated with tornadoes, complete with photographs. There is also a wind chill calculator.

  1. Flight Departure Delay and Rerouting Under Uncertainty in En Route Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, Avijit; Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar

    2011-01-01

    Delays caused by uncertainty in weather forecasts can be reduced by improving traffic flow management decisions. This paper presents a methodology for traffic flow management under uncertainty in convective weather forecasts. An algorithm for assigning departure delays and reroutes to aircraft is presented. Departure delay and route assignment are executed at multiple stages, during which, updated weather forecasts and flight schedules are used. At each stage, weather forecasts up to a certain look-ahead time are treated as deterministic and flight scheduling is done to mitigate the impact of weather on four-dimensional flight trajectories. Uncertainty in weather forecasts during departure scheduling results in tactical airborne holding of flights. The amount of airborne holding depends on the accuracy of forecasts as well as the look-ahead time included in the departure scheduling. The weather forecast look-ahead time is varied systematically within the experiments performed in this paper to analyze its effect on flight delays. Based on the results, longer look-ahead times cause higher departure delays and additional flying time due to reroutes. However, the amount of airborne holding necessary to prevent weather incursions reduces when the forecast look-ahead times are higher. For the chosen day of traffic and weather, setting the look-ahead time to 90 minutes yields the lowest total delay cost.

  2. Weather and Atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

  3. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  4. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Emily C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowberry, Ariana N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  5. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times of the aircraft. Findings from these initial experiments indicate that it is possible to schedule arrivals into Anchorage with minimal delays under low-visibility conditions with less disruption to high-cost, international flights.

  6. Collision Avoidance System Synchronization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Jaycox

    1968-01-01

    The collision avoidance synchronization system provides a method by which over 1000 aircraft can be accommodated in a 250-mile radius. Information is exchanged at a data rate of once every 3 seconds. Master-time synchronization permits one-way ranging between aircraft with an rms range error of less than 120 feet (36.6 meters) when both use the same master. A maximum error

  7. Negative maternal or paternal effects on tactic inheritance under a conditional strategy.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Angeloni, Lisa M; Baylis, Jeffrey R; Newman, Steven P

    2004-07-01

    Alternative behavioral and life-history tactics are common in animal populations. The conditional strategy model provides a powerful explanation for the evolution and persistence of such tactics, as it allows alternative tactics to be perpetuated even if there is tactic inheritance and tactics yield unequal mean fitness. In many biological systems negative maternal or paternal effects complicate the inheritance of condition and, hence, the inheritance of alternative tactics. Indeed, the inheritance of condition may result in the alternation of tactics across generations. In this paper, we show that the conditional strategy is robust to these effects on progeny condition. There is a unique and stable proportion of tactics under standard inheritance and unequal tactic fitness, and these two important properties of the conditional strategy hold even if negative maternal or paternal effects on progeny condition cause tactics to alternate across generations. However, the dynamics of tactic proportions pursuant to a perturbation of the equilibrium tactic proportions depend on the form of tactic inheritance. An application of our theoretical results to data from a population of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in which negative paternal effects dictate progeny condition reveals that age at first reproduction in males alternates regularly across generations. Furthermore, the model indicates that the population would return rapidly to equilibrium if the proportions of males that mature early or late in life were perturbed from the equilibrium within the system. This example shows how the model of the conditional strategy can be used to gain insight into tactic dynamics in situations where some of the model parameters are difficult or impossible to measure empirically. PMID:15341155

  8. Weather Radar Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

  9. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  10. WWW - Wonderful Web Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jason Parrish

    2007-12-12

    This is a web quest for students to research weather forecasting using the Internet. Students work in groups to study how accurate weather forecasts are by tracking the weather for 3 days in several locations. Using graphs students then compare how each location scored in accuracy and present their findings to the class. This site contains links for students to use for more background information, a process for the students to follow, and evaluation rubrics for the student-produced graphs and presentation.

  11. Winter weather activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitney Frankovic

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

  12. Cosmic weather and cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdiushin, Sergei Ivanovich; Danilov, Aleksei Dmitrievich; Dlikman, Fishel'l'vovich

    1987-09-01

    The use of computer techniques to study cosmic weather (i.e., manifestations of solar activity in near-earth space, the ionosphere, and the lower atmosphere) is examined. A scheme of observational facilities for the acquisition of data on cosmic weather is described; the basic types of observations that yield information on the state of the ionosphere at different altitudes are considered; and the role of computers in the prediction of cosmic weather is assessed.

  13. Everything Weather- Archived Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

  14. National Weather Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

  15. Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate

    E-print Network

    1 Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate Large Scale Weather SystemsLarge--scale Weather Systemsscale Weather Systems Tropical cyclones (1-2) Location, Structure, Life-cycle Formation and modification, airmasses that effect the British Isles Airmasses affecting the British Isles

  16. Space Weather: Welcome, SEC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2005-01-11

    This video presentation welcomes the Space Weather Prediction Center, formerly known as the Space Environment Center or SEC to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SWPC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

  17. Winter Storm (weather)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aubree Miller

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

  18. Living in the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-12-13

    What is weather? Is climate different from weather? It doesn't matter where you live or where you travel, weather patterns influence your daily life. In this guide, students will engage in exploring and predicting the conditions in the atmosphere that are responsible for weather patterns and climatic conditions, and investigate how extreme weather impacts humans and the environment. While many of the keywords embedded into the "Living in the Weather" themes will be familiar, do your students really understand them? This guide provides teacher-tested, reliable links that allow you and your students to "surf" the internet in a quest to better understand how atmospheric conditions directly relate to weather on Earth. Understanding weather and climate can be a great opportunity for you to engage students in topics and themes that connect Earth and space science, life science, and physical science in a real way. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) focus on the study of weather and climate and their impact on human life. This guide uses the ongoing work and technology of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (known to the public simply as NOAA). NOAA scientists study our planet Earth in a global way. Working together with scientists worldwide, NOAA scientists study the diversity of living organisms (including humans) and their impact on our environment--not only in our country but in every country and continent around the world.

  19. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along the route can be accomplished prior to pilot acceptance of the clearance. An ongoing multiphase test series is planned for testing and modifying the graphical weather system. Preliminary data shows that the nine test subjects considered the graphical presentation to be much better than their current weather information source for situation awareness, flight safety, and reroute decision making.

  20. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  1. Washington Post Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

  2. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in intensity and location for center forecast are relatively low. For example, 1-hour forecast intensity and horizontal location errors for ZDC center were about 0.12 and 0.13. However, the correlation between sector 1-hour forecast and actual weather coverage was weak, for sector ZDC32, about 32% of the total variation of observation weather intensity was unexplained by forecast; the sector horizontal location error was about 0.10. The paper also introduces an approach to estimate the sector three-dimensional actual weather coverage by using multiple sector forecasts, which turned out to produce better predictions. Using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model for this approach, the correlations between actual observation and the multiple sector forecast model prediction improved by several percents at 95% confidence level in comparison with single sector forecast.

  3. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

  4. Migration costs drive convergence of threshold traits for migratory tactics

    PubMed Central

    Sahashi, Genki; Morita, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Partial migration of some, but not all, members of a population is a common form of migration. We evaluated how migration costs influence which members migrate in 10 populations of two salmonid species. The migratory patterns of both species were evaluated based on the size at maturity for resident males, which is the threshold trait that determines the migratory tactics used within a population. In both species, this size was smaller in males located further from the sea, where migration costs are presumably higher. Moreover, the threshold sizes at maturity in males were correlated between both species. Our results suggest that migration costs are a significant convergent selective force on migratory tactics and life-history traits in nature. PMID:24197418

  5. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  6. Modified backward error propagation for tactical target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Charles C.

    1988-12-01

    This thesis explores a new approach to the classification of tactical targets using a new biologically-based neural network. The targets of interest were generated from Doppler imagery and forward looking infrared imagery, and consisted of tanks, trucks, armored personnel carriers, jeeps and petroleum, oil, and lubricant tankers. Each target was described by feature vectors, such as normalized moment invariants. The features were generated from the imagery using a segmenting process. These feature vectors were used as the input to a neural network classifier for tactical target recognition. The neural network consisted of a multilayer perceptron architecture, employing a backward error propagation learning algorithm. The minimization technique used was an approximation to Newton's method. This second order algorithm is a generalized version of well known first order techniques, i.e., gradient of steepest descent and momentum methods. Classification using both first and second order techniques was performed, with comparisons drawn.

  7. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  8. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  9. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  10. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  11. Northwest Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Palewicz

    This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

  12. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  13. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  14. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  15. Winter Storms Weather Quizzes

    E-print Network

    Quizzes pg 3 pg 22 pg 7 pg 29 pg 13 pg 17 #12;Weather can be calm and peaceful. It also can be violent and the news media. We will tell you what is happening. Stay tuned! Hurricane Warning When the National Weather

  16. Sedimentary Rocks and Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 42 questions on the topic of sedimentary rocks and weathering including clast sizes, depositional environments, and products of weathering. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

  17. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  18. Next Generation Weather Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website. This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States. Types of data include plotting maps, contoured images, soundings, and cross sections.

  19. Weather Data Gamification

    E-print Network

    Gargate, Rohit

    2013-07-25

    of the weather patterns and climate change trends for those cities. We do a user-study to evaluate our application and prove its feasibility. An evaluation of the fantasy weather game indicates that the game had the desired effect of causing players to explore...

  20. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  1. Weather Theory Introduction

    E-print Network

    protects life on Earth from high energy radiation and the frigid vacuum of space. Composition a Flight Service Station (FSS) weather specialist and other aviation weather services. Be it a local flight, and waves that travel for great distances. Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy

  2. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  3. Mild and Wild Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

  4. Weather Vane and Anemometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

  5. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  6. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  7. EMERGENCY, DISASTER, & WEATHER INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    EMERGENCY, DISASTER, & WEATHER INFORMATION University · Campus Emergency and Inclement Weather.umaryland.edu/health · Dental Care: 6-7102 or 6-7063 www.dental.umaryland.edu/ patientinfo · Student Counseling Center: 8.parking.umaryland.edu Police and Public Safety 6-6882, 711 (emergency) www.umaryland.edu/police Recreation and Fitness 6-PLAY

  8. What Is Space Weather?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

  9. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  10. [Selection of foraging tactics in leaf Warblers (phylloscopus)].

    PubMed

    Batova, O N

    2011-01-01

    Aviary observations revealed particularities of foraging behavior in seven species of leaf warblers of the genus Phylloscopus, which sympatrically inhabit the middle-taiga Yenisei. The differences consist in the ratio of the tactics of each type, including the flight, frequency of using them, and selectivity with respect to maneuvers. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of particularities of the external morphology of the species. PMID:21789995

  11. Flight test of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, P. (Northrop Corp., Aircraft Div., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the approach used in flight tests of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), the fighter which was conceived as a replacement for the F-1 Eagle and which combines stealth techologies with a supercruise capability while retaining the agility necessary in an air superiority fighter. Special attention is given to the flight test concept, flight test preparations, and test objectives. The test methods, the problems encountered, and the test results are described.

  12. Tactical multisensor fusion (TMSF): an SAIC white paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert D.; Short, Robert; Stewart, Clayton V.

    1999-07-01

    A software application for correlating and fusion information products from multiple dissimilar sensors is presented. The Tactical Multi Sensor Fusion (TMSF) system is a C++ object oriented application implementing data correlation and fusion algorithms which provide decision aids for identifying, locating, and determining the status of processing equipment within suspected weapons of mass destruction sites. The TMSF system also provides valuable information for assessing weapon delivery accuracy and effectiveness.

  13. KA102A real-time tactical reconnaissance system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Abrams; W. K. Hull

    1978-01-01

    A real-time reconnaissance system for tactical application based on the KA-102A pod-mounted LOROP (long-range oblique photography) camera is under development. The 66-inch focal length, f\\/4 lens provides 4-degree field coverage for a linear CCD sensor array operating in the pushbroom mode with cross-track pointing elevation angles from 65 to 90 degrees. Image data from the sensor arrays are digitized in

  14. Scholastic: Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

  15. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2011-06-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  16. Generation of realistic IR images of tactical targets in obscured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenleaf, William G.; Siniard, Sheri M.; Tait, Mary B.

    1991-07-01

    The Battlefield Environment Weapon System Simulation (BEWSS) includes battlefield obscurant transport and diffusion models and adverse weather models which can predict transmission over a specified range in the presence of specified meteorological (MET) conditions, obscurant conditions, and scenario geometry. These models are used to generate transmission maps applicable for a particular sensor boresight, resolution, field-of-view (FOV), and spectral bandwidth. In addition, a three-dimensional IR target/background scene is modeled, and perspective views of the target are generated from any viewing geometry. By combining the BEWSS obscurant models with the target/background model, realistic synthetic imagery of an obscured tactical target is generated for use in analyzing night sights and IR seeker/trackers. The unique feature of these images is that they are correlatable to a particular set of assumptions about the target/background temperature, the MET conditions, the obscurant conditions and the IR sensor characteristics. The imagery is displayed on an IRIS 4D-GT Silicon Graphics workstation, and the high-resolution thermal maps are stored for future analysis. The imagery has been animated and stored in video format for use in evaluating seeker/tracker terminal homing performance. This paper presents the BEWSS models employed in developing the computational algorithm, and displays examples of the generated imagery.

  17. Defense and security of a wireless tactical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younger, Michael; Young, Stuart H.

    2001-08-01

    Recall the adage `a chain is as strong as its weakest link'- -a phrase that could serve as the official mantra of computer security. Operating Systems are difficult system to administer because it is not only complex and cantankerous but also hard to secure. They are enormous configurability, the fact that vendors don't ship secure systems, and that it requires significant amounts of time, resources, and expertise to safeguard a host are only some of the reasons that so many systems are insecure any type of network commercial or tactical. To compound the problem, like all modern operating systems it not only becomes less secure as time goes on (simply due to usage), but with the rapidly changing security field, it also requires considerably effort to stay abreast of the latest information. Army Research Labs is trying to address the security of the operating system in a tactical wireless environment. Through the use of public domain and/or commercial mans. ARL is evaluating monitoring, deployment, and auditing techniques to the wire commercial domain. By evaluating the wire domain ARL will determine what works and how they work in the tactical area. There are numerous ways to protect the wire/wireless network via public domain or commercial software.

  18. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  19. Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Wirtz-Oca?a, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072

  20. Technical-tactical analysis of youth olympic taekwondo combat.

    PubMed

    Tornello, Francesco; Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Chiodo, Salvatore; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the technical and tactical profiles of official youth taekwondo competitions played under the most recent rules of the International Taekwondo Federation. Tactical actions (i.e., attack, defense, and block), technical executions (from 1- to 4-point scores), kicking legs (i.e., front/rear and right/left), and overall technical effectiveness were investigated in relation to match outcome of semifinal and final competitions (n = 50) of youth (aged 13-14 years) black belt athletes during the Italian Taekwondo Cadet Championship. Differences (p < 0.001) were found among all action typologies (Attack: 50.9 ± 2.2%; Defense: 27.7 ± 1.5%; Block: 21.3 ± 1.6%), with winners showing fewer (p = 0.005) offensive actions and more (p = 0.001) defensive actions with respect to non-winners. Independently from match outcome, technical exchanges showed differences (p < 0.001) for technical executions. Winners resulted more efficient (p < 0.001) for both technical and tactical variables. In general, these findings showed that Cadets tend to adopt an offensive strategy. In considering that the adoption of the new electronic system requires athletes to execute correct technical actions to have a score assigned, coaches should emphasize the effectiveness of scoring techniques and help athletes to effectively improve their defense and counterattack capabilities. PMID:24077373

  1. Tactical strategies for improving accuracy in optical targeting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshizaki, Takayuki

    2003-07-01

    This thesis proposes and studies a tightly coupled Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS)/Electro Optical imaging system (EO) in which aircraft states, sensor biases, and ground target coordinates are simultaneously estimated using a single Kalman filter. The performance of the tightly coupled INS/GPS/EO system is analyzed by comparing navigation and targeting accuracy for various levels of INS and CPS subsystem accuracy. The first benefits come from tightly coupling INS/GPS navigation and EO targeting to track an unknown stationary target, resulting in improved navigation and targeting accuracy when compared to the commonly used separate INS/GPS navigation and EO targeting systems. Secondly, we investigate tactical strategies to use several navigation aids for orientation calibration in the INS/GPS/EO targeting system, resulting in further improvements in targeting accuracy when compared to without using tactical strategies. Tactical strategies include tracking control points, choosing favorable aircraft-target geometries, sun tracking, and executing aircraft S-turn maneuvers.

  2. Tactical Defenses Against Systematic Variation in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of unexplained systematic variation on the reproducibility of wind tunnel test results. Sample means and variances estimated in the presence of systematic variations are shown to be susceptible to bias errors that are generally non-reproducible functions of those variations. Unless certain precautions are taken to defend against the effects of systematic variation, it is shown that experimental results can be difficult to duplicate and of dubious value for predicting system response with the highest precision or accuracy that could otherwise be achieved. Results are reported from an experiment designed to estimate how frequently systematic variations are in play in a representative wind tunnel experiment. These results suggest that significant systematic variation occurs frequently enough to cast doubts on the common assumption that sample observations can be reliably assumed to be independent. The consequences of ignoring correlation among observations induced by systematic variation are considered in some detail. Experimental tactics are described that defend against systematic variation. The effectiveness of these tactics is illustrated through computational experiments and real wind tunnel experimental results. Some tutorial information describes how to analyze experimental results that have been obtained using such quality assurance tactics.

  3. Redefining Tactical Operations for MER Using Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) includes the twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which have been performing geological research and surface exploration since early 2004. The rovers' durability well beyond their original prime mission (90 sols or Martian days) has allowed them to be a valuable platform for scientific research for well over 2000 sols, but as a by-product it has produced new challenges in providing efficient and cost-effective tactical operational planning. An early stage process adaptation was the move to distributed operations as mission scientists returned to their places of work in the summer of 2004, but they would still came together via teleconference and connected software to plan rover activities a few times a week. This distributed model has worked well since, but it requires the purchase, operation, and maintenance of a dedicated infrastructure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This server infrastructure is costly to operate and the periodic nature of its usage (typically heavy usage for 8 hours every 2 days) has made moving to a cloud based tactical infrastructure an extremely tempting proposition. In this paper we will review both past and current implementations of the tactical planning application focusing on remote plan saving and discuss the unique challenges present with long-latency, distributed operations. We then detail the motivations behind our move to cloud based computing services and as well as our system design and implementation. We will discuss security and reliability concerns and how they were addressed

  4. Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz-Oca?a, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072

  5. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  6. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  7. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  8. Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cold air. But, not everyone knows that cold weather can also lower the temperature inside your body. ... cold it is where you are. Check the weather forecasts for windy and cold weather. Try to ...

  9. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  10. Fire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    The “Fire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communications” distance learning module offers best practices for Fire Weather Forecasters needing to communicate weather information when deployed in the field. The 30-minute module defines strategies for communicating with Weather Forecast Offices and with customers. Examples include writing a useful fire weather forecast discussion and undertaking proper planning to quickly and accurately disseminate information. This distance learning module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

  11. Obstacle avoidance and path planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Cameron

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the state-of-the-art in obstacle avoidance and path planning for industrial robots that is practical on the current generation of computer hardware. Describes practical vehicle planners and planning for manipulators. Summarizes that obstacle avoidance and path planning are techniques with differing goals. Sonar is the standard method of obstacle avoidance systems which is largely limited by the reliability of the

  12. Solar structure and terrestrial weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility that solar activity has discernible effects on terrestrial weather is considered. Research involving correlation of weather conditions with solar and geomagnetic activity is discussed.

  13. Mating in bighorn sheep: frequent male reproduction via a high-risk “unconventional” tactic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Hogg; Stephen H. Forbes

    1997-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bighorn rams use three distinct tactics in competition for mates. Two tactics (tending and blocking) feature\\u000a defense and cooperative mating over a relatively prolonged consort period (up to 3 days). In the coursing tactic, subordinate\\u000a rams fight dominants for temporary copulatory access (lasting seconds) to defended ewes. By combining population-wide genetic\\u000a (microsatellite) exclusion of paternity, behavioral data and

  14. Lidar windshear detection and avoidance: Performance and technical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate competing lidars for use in an airborne forward-looking system to enable aircraft to avoid the hazards of low altitude wind shear. Information is presented in vugraph form on lidar general requirements, tentative technical requirements, comparison of velocity errors and signal to noise ratios in clear weather for 2.1 and 10.6 micron lidars, a wind shear display, and preliminary results.

  15. Weather Observing Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    "Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

  16. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

  17. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  18. Space Weather Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The NOAA Space Weather Now website provides non-technical information and an assortment of images detailing current space weather. Visitors can find summaries describing auroras, plots of current auroral ovals on the poles, and viewing information for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Real-Time Solar Wind Pages furnish dynamic plots of data, geomagnetic activity test product information, and resources about the four instruments used to collect data on geomagnetic storms. The website features Space Weather Scales to help the public understand the severity of environmental disturbances due to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Visitors can find the latest news, alerts, advisory bulletins, and much more.

  19. Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

  20. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This standards-based Real Time Data Module was created by the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) for use by students in the elementary grades to allow them to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The site features a Teacher Area containing lesson plans, curriculum standards, guidelines for data collection, and a list of children's books with weather-related themes.

  1. WeatherTracker

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

  2. Pareto Meta-heuristics for Generating Safe Flight Trajectories Under Weather Hazards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Alam; Lam Thu Bui; Hussein A. Abbass; Michael Barlow

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper compares ant colony optimization (ACO) and evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) for the weather avoidance in a free flight environment. The problem involves a number,of potentially conflicting objectives such as minimizing deviations, weather avoidance, minimizing distance traveled and hard constraints like aircraft performance. Therefore, we modeled the problem as a multi-objective problem with the aim of finding a

  3. Applicants' preference for impression management tactic in employment interviews by Transportation Security Administration.

    PubMed

    Scudder, Joseph N; Lamude, Kevin G

    2009-04-01

    Following past findings on employment interviews, this study hypothesized applicants would have a preference for using self-promoting tactics of impression management over other focuses. Self-reports of impression management tactics were collected from 124 applicants who had interviews for screener positions with the Transportation Security Administration. Contrary to the hypothesis, analysis indicated participants reported they used more ingratiation tactics attempting to praise the interviewer than self-promotion tactics which focused on their own accomplishments. Special qualifications for security jobs which required well-developed perceptual abilities and the controlling structure of the interview context were perhaps responsible for present results differing from prior findings. PMID:19610468

  4. Affective Decision-Making and Tactical Behavior of Under-15 Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Adeilton dos Santos; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Greco, Pablo Juan; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a type of Executive Function related to cost benefit analysis in situations where gains and losses imply direct consequences for the subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the affective decision-making on tactical behavior in soccer players under the age of 15 years old. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to assess tactical behavior. To evaluate affective decision-making, we used the neuropsychological test called The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The values of the offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior of participants were used to create performance groups. The low (?25%) and high (?75%) groups, according to offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior, were compared and shown to be different. The values of the IGT net score of the participants with low and high tactical behavior were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for Defensive Tactical Behavior (Z?=??3.133; p?=?0.002; r?=??0.355) and Game Tactical Behavior (Z?=??2.267; p?=?0.023; r?=??0.260). According to these results, it is possible to state that affective decision-making can influence the tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players. PMID:24978030

  5. Weather conditions and daily television use in the Netherlands, 1996–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Eisinga; Philip Hans Franses; Maurice Vergeer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily television use in the Netherlands for the\\u000a period 1996–2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory.\\u000a It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions are associated with lower human mood, and that watching\\u000a entertainment and avoiding informational

  6. Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

  7. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  8. Cold-Weather Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular fitness, and strengthen muscles. Activities that are ...

  9. How does weather change?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Anderson, Taylors Falls Elementary, Taylors Falls, MN based on an activity from Houghton Mifflin Science Grade 2 Weather Patterns, p. D6.

    This activity is a field investigation where students gather temperature and weather data in the a.m and p.m. and develop a new, experimental question to predict temperature over the course of the year.

  10. Waste glass weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

  11. The Weather Calculator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of conversion tools helps convert units and values for weather data, including temperature, moisture, atmospheric pressure, wind, and other parameters. Formulas are also provided for the conversions.

  12. Predicting Seasonal Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Large-scale weather patterns which occur in various locations around the Earth play a significant part in controlling the weather on a seasonal time scale. A National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded collaborative research effort between Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has led to a new understanding of the relationship between fall snow cover and winter climate variability. This research has led to the development of a new seasonal forecast model.

  13. TypoWeather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-03-13

    The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

  14. Rates of Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

  15. Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

  16. Weathering of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Van Norden

    Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

  17. Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lise Whitfield

    2010-01-01

    In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

  18. Vol. 43, No. 2 August 1999 Mariners Weather Log

    E-print Network

    weather both in the United States and Europe. Along the United States east coast, a class of storms American continent meets the Gulf Stream warm air. Development of these storms can sometimes be explosive Log Table of Contents Hurricane Avoidance Using the "34-Knot Wind Radius" and "1-2-3" Rules

  19. Cockpit weather information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  20. Utility weatherization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Public utility commissions (PUCs) have recently ordered or approved an increasing number of programs that install weatherization measures in residences. These programs tend to install only low-cost weatherization measures (e.g., caulking, weatherstripping, plastic storm windows, door sweeps) or major weatherization measures (e.g., insulation, storm windows, storm doors). When a program does not have income restrictions for eligibility, part of the costs are paid by the participating customer. For programs that install low-cost measures, the participant usually pays at the time of installation for the measures chosen. To require payment for major weatherization measures at the time of installation could deter participation, so these programs usually provide loans with the interest subsidized by the sponsor. Low-income customers, who have little or no disposable income, tend to shun Residential Conservation Service, loan, and other utility conservation programs that have costs to participants. Therefore PUCs have turned to programs that install weatherization measures without charge in order to reach low-income customers. This paper discusses some of the regulatory issues raised by these programs and how they have been justified by PUCs. It also gives information on cost and energy savings for 10 weatherization programs, both utility-sponsored and non-utility-sponsored, and attempts to interpret this information.

  1. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  2. S-290 Unit 9: Observing the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    This webcast covers procedures for taking accurate weather observations using belt weather kits and descriptions of other common weather observing equipment used in fire weather. In addition, maintenance of the primary components of the belt weather kit are demonstrated.

  3. 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

  4. Social Aspects of Weather Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Eugene Haas

    1973-01-01

    A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated

  5. Fracture characteristics in weathered granites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Ehlen

    1999-01-01

    The variability of weathered materials is an important factor in the geotechnical characterization of rock for engineering purposes. Most engineering rock mass classifications include weathering schemes that separate the weathering profile into zones or grades that depend upon the engineering and geological properties of the rock. Many geotechnical characteristics, including weathering, are controlled by the density and arrangement of fractures

  6. A Concurrent Distributed System for Aircraft Tactical Decision Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS) program, a second generation TDG, is presented. Concurrent computing environments and programming approaches are discussed and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  7. United States army tactical high-energy laser program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, John J.; Wilson, Gerald T.

    2013-02-01

    The tactical high energy laser (THEL) program, conducted from 1996 to 2005, successfully demonstrated the capability of a high-energy laser to counter rockets, artillery, and mortars. The program was a US/Israeli cooperative research and development effort that was designated by the Secretary of Defense as an advanced concept technology demonstration with Presidential interest. The THEL system was designed and built under an SMDC/ARSTART prime contract awarded to TRW (now, Northrop Grumman Corporation), jointly managed by the Israel Ministry of Defence Directorate of Defence Research & Development. We summarize the effort and highlight some of the "firsts" of the THEL program.

  8. Small molecule unlocks key prostate cancer survival tactic

    Cancer.gov

    The most recent in a series of studies from a team at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center has shown that a single molecule is at the heart of one of the most basic survival tactics of prostate cancer cells. A paper published by the Public Library of Science identifies a microRNA called miR-125b as a potential target for treatments designed to stop the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, particularly in patients who have developed a late-stage form of the disease resistant to androgen deprivation therapy.

  9. Avoiding character collisions in games

    E-print Network

    Calderon, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    geometric paths to avoid collision with static obstacles and trajectory planning determines how fast each robot must move along its geometric path to avoid collision with other moving robots" [12]. Shin and Zheng [12] suggest modifying the robot... on how to prioritize which robots to move first. This is not as important as how to move the robots so that they do not collide and they still reach their destination. To avoid cofiisions between two robots, Shin and Zheng [12] suggest delaying one...

  10. Weather and The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Merritt

    2005-10-15

    Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...

  11. Disorientation-avoidant and Despair-avoidant Cultures

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Daniel Luc

    2013-08-31

    ________________________________ Christian S. Crandall ________________________________ John M. Janzen Date Defended: June 26, 2013 ii The Dissertation Committee for Daniel Luc Sullivan certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation...: Disorientation-Avoidant and Despair-Avoidant Cultures ________________________________ Chairperson Mark J. Landau Date approved: June 26, 2013 iii Abstract Cultural-existential psychology draws on the insights and methods...

  12. Postcopulatory Behavior in Libellula pulchella Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae) and Female Tactics for Avoiding Male Interference with Oviposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria E. McMillan

    2000-01-01

    Postcopulatory behavior was studied in Libellula pulchella, a North American dragonfly in which ovipositing females face frequent harassment by unpaired males seeking matings. Although males performed noncontact guarding of their mates after copulation, females received minimal protection since their guarders tended to leave on extended chases of other males when harassment was intense. Ovipositions by unguarded females were even more

  13. Automatic data for applied railway management : passenger demand, service quality measurement, and tactical planning on the London Overground Network

    E-print Network

    Frumin, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    The broad goal of this thesis is to demonstrate the potential positive impacts of applying automatic data to the management and tactical planning of a modern urban railway. Tactical planning is taken here to mean the set ...

  14. Tactical urbanism, public policy reform, and 'innovation spotting' by government : from Park(ing) Day to San Francisco's parklet program

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Mariko Mura

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects and impacts of tactical urbanism (TU). While tactical urbanism remains primarily a subcultural movement, it is beginning to gain traction in popular culture in traditionally politically ...

  15. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  16. 11 . Alternative reproductive tactics In amphibians KELLY R . ZAMUDIO AND LAURE

    E-print Network

    Zamudio, Kelly R.

    11 . Alternative reproductive tactics In amphibians KELLY R . ZAMUDIO AND LAURE CHAPTER SUMMARY Frogs and salamanders, the two most diverse lin~agcs of amphibians, differ significantly in reproductive of alternative reproductive tactics. However, OUf understanding of the evolution of amphibian alternative

  17. Achieving Communication Goals in Superior-Subordinate Relationships: The Multi-Functionality of Upward Maintenance Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Vincent R.

    1991-01-01

    Identifies upward maintenance tactics reportedly used by subordinates in maintaining an acceptable relational state with their supervisor. Concludes that in high quality supervisory relationships, upward maintenance tactics may be multifunctional, simultaneously preserving relational stability and the capacity for negotiation and change. (SR)

  18. MissionEngine: Multi-system integration using Python in the Tactical Language Project

    E-print Network

    Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni

    pronunciation (assessed using a speech recognition interface) and history. Learners must then practiceMissionEngine: Multi-system integration using Python in the Tactical Language Project Hannes California ­ Information Sciences Institute {hannes, samtani}@isi.edu ABSTRACT The Tactical Language Training

  19. Do reproductive tactics vary with habitat heterogeneity in the intertidal sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig D. H. Sherman; Amanda J. Peucker; David J. Ayre

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians display a diverse range of reproductive tactics including sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. Although few studies have looked for intraspecific variation in reproductive tactics, flexible expression of such life-history traits may be favoured in species that occupy a range of habitats. We tested this in the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa by comparing cycles of reproductive activity and the

  20. Tactics of parasitic American coots: host choice and the pattern of egg dispersion among host nests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce E. Lyon

    1993-01-01

    Summary I examined the tactics adopted by a conspecific brood parasite, the American coot (Fulica americana), and the degree to which these tactics reflect sources of mortality for parasitic eggs. Only 8% of parasitic eggs produced independent offspring, compared to a 35% success rate for non-parasitic eggs, and most mortality was due to egg-rejection by hosts or the consequences of

  1. A Model for Developing and Assessing Tactical Decision-Making Competency in Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnano-Richardson, Karen; Henninger, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    All teachers want their students to become better game players who are motivated to participate in and outside of class. Students need to learn how to make good tactical decisions, in addition to being skilled movers, in order to become competent game players. When students make better tactical decisions, they experience more success and therefore…

  2. Offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Hindawi, Omar S; Orabi, Samira; Al Arjan, Jafar; Judge, Lawrence W; Cottingham, Michael; Bellar, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making of Arab basketball players, and to determine if there are differences in the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making within the various disability classifications of Arab basketball players. A twenty-question survey was formulated to assess decision-making in offensive tactical situations in wheelchair basketball players. Participants in the present study were 108 athletes from 10 Arab national teams participating in wheelchair basketball. The mean offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in the 20 different situations in the Arab countries ranged between 1.38-2.84, and the standard deviations for these 20 means ranged from 0.41 to 0.90. The total mean of all tactical situations was 2.33, which is moderate thinking level. The influence of the disability classification on the offensive tactical thinking of wheelchair basketball players was addressed by examining the data via a one-way ANOVA. The ANOVA revealed no significant differences among disability classifications/categories in tactical thinking (F(3, 104)=1.12, p=0.34). This study represents the first attempt to identify why Arab nations have not consistently qualified for the Paralympics or World Championships. These findings indicate that the moderate offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players on Arab national teams may be part of the reason that performances of these teams have not been as strong as they would like. PMID:23578258

  3. The Application of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Basketball Technique and Tactics Teaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo Tang

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the existing problem and the characteristics of teaching basketball technique and tactics, this paper presents a reasonable method of applying Computer-Assisted Instruction to the process of teaching basketball. Through teaching experiments, it has been found that this method can accelerate the students' comprehension of basketball technique and tactics, boost their interest in learning them and improve the teaching

  4. Evaluating Technologies for Tactical Information Management in Net-Centric Systems

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    Evaluating Technologies for Tactical Information Management in Net-Centric Systems Ming Xiong, Jeff. INTRODUCTION Mission-critical tactical information management systems run increasingly often in net-centric Service for Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) is a SOA middleware platform that is not well

  5. Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Kuhn, Brett R.

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The…

  6. Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819) mâles en fonction de deux tactiques d'accouplement, celles de l the fertilization dynamics of alternative mating tactics (cuckolders and parentals) of male bluegill (Lepomis

  7. The use of genetic markers to estimate the frequency of successful alternative reproductive tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Westneat; Peter C. Frederick; R. Haven Wiley

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines a method for estimating rates of successful alternative reproductive tactics from parental exclusions known through the use of genetic markers. We review a method for calculating the probability of excluding a putative father when he is not the actual father. We adapt this method to model two mating tactics of concern to sociobiologists: extrapair copulations (EPCs) and

  8. Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred B. Bercovitch; Meredith J. Bashaw; Susan M. del Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Female distribution exerts a major impact on male mating tactics. Giraffe cows have a reproductive cycle, and a social system, that should favor a male roaming reproductive tactic. We conducted a 2-year study of female Rothschild's giraffe (G. c. rothschildi) reproductive endocrinology in order to characterize attributes of the reproductive cycle and investigate how female endocrine and behavioral cues influence

  9. Oceans, Climate, and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  10. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  11. Oceans, Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    2006-01-01

    What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  12. RF-5E Tactical Reconnaissance Standoff Photography Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Ronald M.

    1980-12-01

    Standoff oblique photography should become an increasingly important requirement for tactical reconnaissance systems in any future conflict. Strongly defended targets and limited command resources may make over-flights undesirable, with the result that intelligence data may be obtained from standoff imagery. Rapidly changing scenarios and new hardware development make it mandatory that tactical recon systems provide full-flight envelope data acquisition capability. Photography is a very efficient and cost-effective data collection system and is compatible with many of the world's air forces' resource capabilities. The RF-5E reconnaissance aircraft has been developed to meet the standoff oblique photography requirements in addition to the standard vertical photo and infrared reconnaissance requirements. The RF-5E incorporates prism type panoramic cameras, combined with aircraft primary V-type windows to permit in-flight selection by the pilot of vertical or wide angle, left or right, standoff photos. In addition, the RF-5E incorporates a pallet concept which permits mission reconfiguration from a 24-inch focal length pan camera to a 66-inch focal length multiframe camera. This paper describes the develop-ment history, concepts and capabilities of the RF-5E aircraft relative to standoff photography.

  13. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  14. Graphical user interface concepts for tactical augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenta, Chris; Murphy, Anne; Hinton, Jeremy; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Steve

    2010-04-01

    Applied Research Associates and BAE Systems are working together to develop a wearable augmented reality system under the DARPA ULTRA-Vis program†. Our approach to achieve the objectives of ULTRAVis, called iLeader, incorporates a full color 40° field of view (FOV) see-thru holographic waveguide integrated with sensors for full position and head tracking to provide an unobtrusive information system for operational maneuvers. iLeader will enable warfighters to mark-up the 3D battle-space with symbologic identification of graphical control measures, friendly force positions and enemy/target locations. Our augmented reality display provides dynamic real-time painting of symbols on real objects, a pose-sensitive 360° representation of relevant object positions, and visual feedback for a variety of system activities. The iLeader user interface and situational awareness graphical representations are highly intuitive, nondisruptive, and always tactically relevant. We used best human-factors practices, system engineering expertise, and cognitive task analysis to design effective strategies for presenting real-time situational awareness to the military user without distorting their natural senses and perception. We present requirements identified for presenting information within a see-through display in combat environments, challenges in designing suitable visualization capabilities, and solutions that enable us to bring real-time iconic command and control to the tactical user community.

  15. An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

    2008-04-01

    We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

  16. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%. PMID:24508904

  17. Airborne Tactical Intent-Based Conflict Resolution Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Trajectory-based operations with self-separation involve the aircraft taking the primary role in the management of its own trajectory in the presence of other traffic. In this role, the flight crew assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the aircraft remains separated from all other aircraft by at least a minimum separation standard. These operations are enabled by cooperative airborne surveillance and by airborne automation systems that provide essential monitoring and decision support functions for the flight crew. An airborne automation system developed and used by NASA for research investigations of required functionality is the Autonomous Operations Planner. It supports the flight crew in managing their trajectory when responsible for self-separation by providing monitoring and decision support functions for both strategic and tactical flight modes. The paper focuses on the latter of these modes by describing a capability for tactical intent-based conflict resolution and its role in a comprehensive suite of automation functions supporting trajectory-based operations with self-separation.

  18. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 9: Ports and harbors case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to harbors and shipping industries through improved weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This case study and generalization quantify benefits made possible through improved weather forecasting resulting from the integration of SEASAT data into local weather forecasts. The major source of avoidable economic losses to shipping from inadequate weather forecasting data is shown to be dependent on local precipitation forecasting. The ports of Philadelphia and Boston were selected for study.

  19. Comparing child outcomes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larzelere, Robert E; Kuhn, Brett R

    2005-03-01

    This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The results indicated that effect sizes significantly favored conditional spanking over 10 of 13 alternative disciplinary tactics for reducing child noncompliance or antisocial behavior. Customary physical punishment yielded effect sizes equal to alternative tactics, except for one large study favoring physical punishment. Only overly severe or predominant use of physical punishment compared unfavorably with alternative disciplinary tactics. The discussion highlights the need for better discriminations between effective and counterproductive use of disciplinary punishment in general. PMID:15898303

  20. Weather Scope : An Investigative Study of Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    During the course of this project, students will learn how to build instruments to measure weather, access online weather observations, collect weather data for an extended period, analyze weather data to reveal trends, and make predictions. They will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The module contains five lessons relating to weather, five relating to climate, and three enrichment activities. Project information, a teacher guide, reference materials, and an ask an expert feature are also provided.

  1. The Effect of NEXRAD Image Looping and National Convective Weather Forecast Product on Pilot Decision Making in the Use of a Cockpit Weather Information Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Malcolm A.; Thomas, Rickey P.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated improvements to cockpit weather displays to better support the hazardous weather avoidance decision-making of general aviation pilots. Forty-eight general aviation pilots were divided into three equal groups and presented with a simulated flight scenario involving embedded convective activity. The control group had access to conventional sources of pre-flight and in-flight weather products. The two treatment groups were provided with a weather display that presented NEXRAD mosaic images, graphic depiction of METARs, and text METARs. One treatment group used a NEXRAD image looping feature and the second group used the National Convective Weather Forecast (NCWF) product overlaid on the NEXRAD display. Both of the treatment displays provided a significant increase in situation awareness but, they provided incomplete information required to deal with hazardous convective weather conditions, and would require substantial pilot training to permit their safe and effective use.

  2. Obstacle avoidance with ultrasonic sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHANN BORENSTEIN; YORAM KOREN

    1988-01-01

    A mobile robot system, capable of performing various tasks for the physically disabled, has been developed. To avoid collision with unexpected obstacles, the mobile robot uses ultrasonic range finders for detection and mapping. The obstacle avoidance strategy used for this robot is described. Since this strategy depends heavily on the performance of the ultrasonic range finders, these sensors and the

  3. Collision Avoidance Radar for UAV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young K Kwag; Min S Choi; Chul H Jung; Kwang Y Hwang

    2006-01-01

    A critical sensor characteristic for obstacle awareness and avoidance for UAV is assessed with the compliance of the equivalent level of safety regulation. Based on the assessment of the obstacle awareness and collision avoidance sensor, the small-sized, light-weighted radar sensor is proposed for the suitable candidate in meeting with the system requirement as well as operational requirement of smart unmanned

  4. Avoided cost standard under PURPA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Cole; I. Holmlund; S. A. Smith; T. A. Williams

    1983-01-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power

  5. Space weather center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    2005-01-01

    Five tutorials about space weather topics make up this web site. Plasma, the sun, Earth's magnetic field, magnetic storms, and the research and modeling of space weather are the topics, respectively, of the five tutorials. The tutorials use numerous enlargeable graphics, some animations and games, and additional special features like sound recordings of space weather phenomena to complement their textual content. In addition, the games and activities from all the tutorials are available together on a page accessible from the homepage. Within the tutorials, students learn about topics such as sunspots and the solar wind in the sun tutorial and space-based and Earth-based research tools in the research and modeling tutorial. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  6. Jet Streams and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students learn about jet streams and explore the effects the polar-front jet stream has on weather conditions in North America. They begin by doing an interactive activity that highlights the atmospheric conditions and phenomena that create jet streams. They then look at a model that illustrates the relationships between latitude and variations in air temperature, wind speed, and altitude and begin to make generalizations about these relationships. In the second part of this lesson, they use the knowledge gained in the first part to interpret weather maps, helping them to make direct connections between the behavior of the polar-front jet stream and seasonal weather patterns in North America. As a final exercise, they will use real data to deepen their understanding of the relationships between pressure, altitude, and the wind speed of jet streams.

  7. Delicious Differential Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Gorte

    Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

  8. Extreme Weather Sourcebook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report presents a summary of damage caused by hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, hail, thunderstorms, and windstorms in the United States and its territories. Information was collected from as far back as 1900 (for hurricanes) and as recently as 1999 (for most categories). For each weather category, there is statistical information on monetary damages (in millions of dollars), sorted by rank and by alphabetic listing. There is also a summary table for composite damage from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods; tables and graphs for damage and casualties caused by lightning; and summary information for other types of extreme weather (hail, thunderstorms, winter storms). Links are provided to information on data sources and methodology and on the societal impacts of weather.

  9. Web Weather for Kids!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Foster

    Web Weather for Kids offers hands-on classroom activities for students to learn about selected severe weather phenomena. Each activity has step-by-step instructions, materials lists, and guiding questions for students. A Teacher Tips page offers implementation strategies for teachers. Phenomena covered include the formation of thunderstorms, lightning, and tornados. Students explore the concepts of convection currents, precipitation, static electricity, wind shear and supercell updraft. Estimating the distance to a storm using the time delay between a flash of lightning and the sound of thunder is explained, as is what to do if caught near an electrical storm. Short videos of students involved in the activities enhance the site, as do links to more extensive information on the science of severe weather.

  10. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

  11. Weather Station Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson instructs students on how to read station models, the symbols used on weather maps to show data (temperature, wind speed and direction, barometeric pressure, etc.) for a given reporting station. It includes a diagram of a station model, an explanation of the data conveyed by the numbers and symbols, and a table of definitions for the graphic symbols used with models. There is also a set of interactive station models students can use for practice at interpretation, and an interactive exercise in which students use real-time weather data to interpret models.

  12. Davis Weather Station Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a Davis weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

  13. Weather and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2008-11-25

    This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

  14. Indigenous Weather Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

  15. Space Weather Action Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    2013-07-30

    In this interdisciplinary activity, learners create a Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) to monitor solar storms and develop real SWAC news reports. Learners work in teams to first investigate sunspot regions, storm signals, a magnetosphere, and auroras and share their research with their peers. Then, learners assemble an instructional flip chart, data collection clipboards/notebook, and display board for their SWAC. Learners conclude the activity by writing their own weather reports, which can be filmed or broadcast if equipment is available. Once learners create a SWAC, solar storm research and reporting can become an ongoing activity.

  16. Weather and The Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Maxwell

    2012-02-07

    This project will allow students to see the different weather conditions that are apart of the different seasons. It will also help students to identify the characterisitics that go along with each of the different seasons, For example, what weather conditions are present in each season and how we dress for each season. With a partner watch the video: Observing Clouds On piece of paper write your answers to the following questions: 1). What types of changes in the clouds did you observe? 2). What do you think caused the changes in the clouds? (Ex: teperature, morning to night, etc) Next, with your partner, please watch the second video: Observing Precipitation On ...

  17. Space Weather Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop will focus on what space weather is about and its impact on society. An overall picture will be "painted" describing the Sun's influence through the solar wind on the near-Earth space environment, including the aurora, killer electrons at geosynchronous orbit, million ampere electric currents through the ionosphere and along magnetic field lines, and the generation of giga-Watts of natural radio waves. Reference material in the form of Internet sites will be provided so that teachers can discuss space weather in the classroom and enable students to learn more about this topic.

  18. Weather impacts on space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, J.; Boyd, B.; Bauman, W.; Wyse, N.; Adams, M.

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group for landing forecasts. Attention is given to prelaunch processing weather, launch support weather, Shuttle launch commit criteria, and range safety weather restrictions. Upper level wind requirements are examined. The frequency of hourly surface observations with thunderstorms at the Shuttle landing facility, and lightning downtime at the Titan launch complexes are illustrated.

  19. Weather Depot 1.21

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

  20. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  1. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wound Care After a Disaster Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage Preventing Tetanus After a ... stoves indoors. The fumes are deadly. Avoid using candles as these can lead to house fires. If ...

  2. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... him/her with a warm, solid shelter against wind. Make sure that they have unlimited access to ... the shelter should be positioned away from prevailing winds. Space heaters and heat lamps should be avoided ...

  3. Introduction to Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    Adverse space weather is one of the principal threats to modern human technology. Solar coronal mass ejections, large solar flares, and high-speed solar wind streams often lead to sequences of damaging disturbances within the Earth's magnetosphere, in the atmosphere, and even on the Earth's surface. Powerful and long-lasting geomagnetic storms can develop following solar disturbances and enhancements of the highly relativistic electron populations throughout the outer terrestrial radiation zone can also result. High-energy protons and heavier ions arriving in near-earth space - or trapped in the magnetosphere and having clearest effect in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) - can damage satellite solar power panels, confuse optical trackers, and deposit harmful charges into sensitive electronic components. Recent international space science programs have made a concerted effort to study activity on the Sun, the propagation of energy bursts from the Sun to near-Earth space, energy coupling into the magnetosphere, and its redistribution and deposition in the upper and middle atmosphere. Extreme solar, geomagnetic and solar wind conditions can be observed by a large array of international satellites and ground-based sensors. Many types of space weather-related problems have been identified in recent years. This chapter presents examples of space weather-induced anomalies and failures and discusses community efforts to propose technical and operational solutions to space weather problems now and in the future.

  4. Dress for the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

  5. METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review

    E-print Network

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary.d.williams@reading.ac.uk #12;2 Abstract In a recent study, Williams (2009) introduced a simple modification to the widely used. In the present paper, the effects of the modification are comprehensively evaluated in the SPEEDY atmospheric

  6. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  7. Weathering and mass wasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jordan Clayton

    This class exercise is an opportunity for students to apply textbook information about weathering and mass wasting to local and nationally-recognized surface features, such as Stone Mountain (GA), Half Dome (CA), and others. It also serves as an introduction to the use of Google Earth as an analytical tool for calculating distances, slopes, and evaluating landforms. Designed for a geomorphology course

  8. Gulf of Maine: Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

  9. Satellite Weather Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, R. Joe

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

  10. Weather Stations: Storms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lunar and Planetary Institute

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners test how cornstarch and glitter in water move when disturbed. Learners compare their observations with videos of Jupiter's and Earth's storm movements. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

  11. Winter Weather Introduction

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Jerry

    equipment. · Organize and implement CF-FO operational plans. · Review all procedures with CF-FO Managers the labor and equipment hours. #12;Campus Facilities-Energy Management · Clear the coal road and interiorWinter Weather Management #12;Introduction · Campus Facilities Staff · Other Campus Organizations

  12. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  13. Wind, waves and weather

    SciTech Connect

    Dykas, J.D.; Firstenberg, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this second edition covers basic meteorology, oceanography, and the observation and reporting of environmental conditions. The second section discusses offshore platforms, regulating agencies, the effect of the environment on offshore drilling and production, and safety procedures for severe weather and sea conditions.

  14. METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review

    E-print Network

    Randall, David A.

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary-mail: toy@atmos.colostate.edu #12;2 Abstract The isentropic system of equations has particular advantages is simply the pressure drag acting on isentropic coordinate surfaces under frictionless, adiabatic

  15. Crop Conditions Weather Update

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    1 Crop Conditions Weather Update Apple Diseases: What To Do? Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight Pesticide Use) fire blight - immediately cut out blighted twigs 10 to 12 inches below any sign of infection, being any longer. -Pecknold Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight: Growers should be especially alert for fire blight

  16. Crop Conditions Weather Update

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    1 Crop Conditions Weather Update Extension Director Search at Purdue University Fire Blight Apple something to announce in a few weeks time. Fire Blight: Do not become complacent about fire blight! Even though fire blight has been at a low level the past few years you never want to let your guard down

  17. Weather or Not?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this problem-based learning activity, teams of students will be asked to forecast the weather up to 48 hours in advance of an outdoor event that is special to them. It may be a local or distant event. The activity is part of Exploring the Environment.

  18. Weather: Global Awareness Tour

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this problem-based learning scenario, students are challenged to plan concert locations for their favorite musical artists, using TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite data and other resources to locate regions at risk for extreme weather. A math extension activity is included, along with a glossary, teacher notes, student worksheets, assessment rubrics, and an appendix about problem-based learning.

  19. Dress for the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lara K. Smetana

    2010-04-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson,

  20. Space Weather Action Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Space Weather Action Center is a computer-based activity that allows students to track, from their classroom, the development and progress of solar storms. The activity incorporates online NASA data and addresses national education standards in science, technology and math. Students rotate through four space weather learning stations and are challenged to answer the following questions: Do sunspot regions exist today that could be a source of solar storms?; Have radio signals been recorded today from a flare or coronal mass ejection that could affect Earth?; Has there been a measurable disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field?; and Have auroras been seen within the last 24 hours because of a solar storm? A setup guide is provided to show how to create a Space Weather Action Center in the classroom, including recommendations, diagrams, and the necessary list of materials. The instructional guide features background and evaluation materials, alignments to national standards, extension activities, and instructions on how to read, analyze and record space weather data.

  1. Rainy Weather Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  2. Blogging About the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Evans

    2010-04-01

    Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

  3. Weather and the Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  4. Sunspots and Space Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation for students in how sunspots impact space weather between the Sun and Earth. Students research solar maximum and minimum as well as recent sunspot numbers to determine a connection between the numbers and solar activity. This page is accompanied by a page of websites for further resources.

  5. Weather automation studies at the Otis Weather Test Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chisholm

    1978-01-01

    A description of the Otis Weather Test Facility (WTF) is presented, taking into account the distribution of surface-based and tower-mounted instrumentation at the WTF, the automation of the rotating beam ceilometer, the present weather decision tree, and slant visual range techniques. A demonstration model of a Modular Automated Weather System (MAWS) is also considered. The versatility of MAWS results from

  6. External Resource: Erosion and Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci

  7. Paradata for 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

  8. Effects Of Lake Warming On Behavioural Thermoregulatory Tactics In A Cold-Water Stenothermic Fish

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, Katerine; Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Magnan, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii) to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time. PMID:24663489

  9. Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity. PMID:25202998

  10. Effects of lake warming on behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a cold-water stenothermic fish.

    PubMed

    Goyer, Katerine; Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Magnan, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii) to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time. PMID:24663489

  11. Power system modelling for a tactical railgun demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putley, D.; Spikings, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a prefeasibility study of electromagnetic launchers for a tactical applications demonstrator are described. The object of this work was to study the power system requirements for a 12 MJ (kinetic energy) railgun system which would be used to demonstrate the accuracy and lethality of hypervelocity projectiles (up to 3.5 km/s) fired from a railgun. Theoretical work is presented as a basis for scoping calculations to determine the required pulse energies for a railgun power system, as a function of the required projectile peak-to-mean-acceleration ratio; this shows that the introduction of a requirement for a low peak-to-mean ratio increases the barrel energy demand for a given total muzzle energy. Results are also presented from the numerical analysis of both capacitor and homopolar generator systems.

  12. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  13. Multiple Application Propfan Study (MAPS): Advanced tactical transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, F. C.; Liebeck, R. H.; Mitchell, G. H.; Mooiweer, A.; Platte, M. M.; Toogood, T. L.; Wright, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain potential benefits of a propfan propulsion system application to a blended wing/body military tactical transport. Based on a design cruise Mach no. of 0.75 for the design mission, the results indicate a significant advantage in various figures of merit for the propfan over those of a comparable technology turbofan. Although the propfan has a 1.6 percent greater takeoff gross weight, its life cycle cost is 5.3 percent smaller, partly because of a 27 percent smaller specific fuel consumption. When employed on alternate missions, the propfan configuration offers significantly improved flexibility and capability: an increase in sea level penetration distance of more than 100 percent, or in time-on-station of 24 percent, or in deployment payload of 38 percent.

  14. Tactical STOL moment balance through innovative configuration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckard, G. J.; Sutton, R. C.; Poth, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    Innovative and conventional thrust vectoring moment balance mechanisms, as applied to advanced tactical fighters, are examined. The innovative mechanisms include thrust line translation, life line translation, and auxiliary power control; the conventional mechanisms under investigation are horizontal tails, canards, and variable sweep wings. These mechanisms are tested for their ability to provide negative static margins for landing approach or relocation of the vectored thrust line nearer the aircraft's center of gravity. The net pitching moment due to wing, flaps, and vectored thrust lift would then be small, making possible beneficial trim forces from small trimming devices. These innovative mechanisms are, however, possibly heavy and must be evaluated on their complexity, reliability, maintainability, and STOL capabilities. Several candidate fighter configurations are compared and evaluated.

  15. Jitter control for an initially stablized tactical rifle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alejandro; Lindner, Douglas K.; LaVigna, Chris; Brei, Diann

    2007-04-01

    While good marksmanship is the key to the effectiveness of the infantry mission, all soldiers experience a decrease in accuracy due to combat stress that generates detrimental physiological effects. INSTAR is a tactical rifle designed to address these effects by decoupling unwanted shooter-induced disturbances from the barrel via an active suspension system. Previous papers have addressed the design of the active suspension system: the actuation, driving electronics and power supply. In this paper we consider the development of the jitter control system. Beginning with an analytical model of the gun that includes the shooter, we develop the appropriate model for the design of the control system. We investigate two designs. The first design is based on lead compensation. The second design is based on LQG. Both designs show that the control system can effectively reduce the jitter to acceptable levels. The classical compensator demonstrates better transient performance.

  16. Space Weather Impacts on Aviation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Space Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The module builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.

  17. Make Your Own Weather Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    This three-part activity shows learners how to build three meteorology tools: a wind vane, a rain gauge, and a barometer. Then, they can use their tools to build their own weather station to record data about the weather, study the data to detect patterns, and use the patterns to predict the weather. This lesson also includes information about the difference between weather and climate.

  18. Technical and tactical analysis of youth taekwondo performance.

    PubMed

    Casolino, Erika; Lupo, Corrado; Cortis, Cristina; Chiodo, Salvatore; Minganti, Carlo; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of young athletes during official taekwondo competitions. Fifty-nine youth taekwondo athletes (43 boys and 16 girls; age range: 10-12 years; weight category range: <24 to >59 kg) with at least 2 years of taekwondo training consisting of three 90-minute training sessions for 3 d·wk?¹ participated in this study. Thirty-seven matches (three 1-minute rounds, with 1-minute rest in between) were analyzed to verify the differences (p ? 0.05) in offensive and defensive actions in relation to gender (male, female), match outcome (winners, nonwinners), kicking leg (front, rear), and round (first, second, third). No difference emerged for gender and match outcome. With respect to defensive actions (8.4 ± 12.0%), youth athletes engaged more frequently (p < 0.0001) in offensive actions (91.6 ± 12.0%), which showed a significant decrease (p < 0.016) from the first round (42.3 ± 21.8%) to the second (33.1 ± 14.8%) and third (24.5 ± 16.0%) ones. Kicks performed with the rear leg (94.4 ± 7.8%) occurred more frequently (p < 0.0001) than those performed with the front leg (5.6 ± 7.8%). In considering that a high level of coordination is required to perform front-leg kicks and defensive actions necessitate a high level of tactical skills, these findings might indicate a not-yet complete attainment of fundamental coordinative capabilities in 10- to 12-year-old athletes, independently of match outcome. To enhance coordination capabilities in youth athletes, coaches are recommended to structure their training including skill-ability and sport-ability drills. PMID:22614139

  19. Encouragement Exchange: Avoiding Therapist Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Timothy D.; Villavisanis, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that therapists need to take care of their own mental health in order to avoid burnout. Discusses the encouragement exchange, a group setting where therapists help each other deal with stress. Provides a case example. (MKA)

  20. Avoiding collisions: the Spaceguard Foundation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Tate

    2000-01-01

    The Earth has a long and violent history of collisions with extraterrestrial bodies such as asteroids and comet nuclei. Several of these impacts have been large enough to produce major environmental changes, causing mass extinctions and severe alterations to weather patterns and geography. There is no reason to suppose that the likelihood of such collisions will be any less in

  1. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, John (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  2. Severe Weather Planning for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

  3. Road Weather and Transportation Systems

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Road Weather and Transportation Systems Rhonda Young, P.E., PhD Associate Professor Dept. of Civil & Arch. Engineering Portland State University April 18, 2014 #12;Engineering Perspective of Road Weather · How does weather impact transportation systems? · As engineers, is there anything we can do

  4. Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

  5. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

    2005-01-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

  6. Making a Space Weather Script

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, learners write space weather reports using current data about the Sun and create a broadcast script to present the researched information to an audience. Several activities are related to this lesson, including "Understanding our Sun", "Sharing New Knowledge", and “Making Your Space Weather Action Center" in the Space Weather teacher's guide.

  7. Differences Between Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Center for Atmospheric Research

    In this activity, students collect weather data over several days or weeks, graph temperature data, and compare the temperature data collected with long-term climate averages from where they live. Understanding the difference between weather and climate and interpreting local weather data are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes.

  8. Improved weather information and aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.

    1973-01-01

    The major impacts of weather forecasts on aviation are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American aviation, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for aviation, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by aviators, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.

  9. Science Sampler: Clever with weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Crowder

    2011-02-01

    In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

  10. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  11. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  12. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  13. Weather Crossword Puzzle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site features weather crossword puzzles. Topics include the Earth's atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, fronts, clouds, winds, hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, weather, lightning and thunder, how hurricanes form, and snow. Links at the bottom of the page allow users to reference other Windows to the Universe sites to help solve the puzzles. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  14. Whether weather affects music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  15. Weather Stations: Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lunar and Planetary Institute

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners use a toaster to generate wind and compare the appliance's heat source to Jupiter's own hot interior. Learners discover that convection drives wind on Jupiter and on Earth. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

    For safety reasons, this activity should be facilitated by an adult or used as a demonstration only.

  16. National Weather Service Glossary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

  17. A one night stand? Reproductive excursions of female roe deer as a breeding dispersal tactic.

    PubMed

    Debeffe, Lucie; Focardi, Stefano; Bonenfant, Christophe; Hewison, A J Mark; Morellet, Nicolas; Vanpé, Cécile; Heurich, Marco; Kjellander, Petter; Linnell, John D C; Mysterud, Atle; Pellerin, Maryline; Sustr, Pavel; Urbano, Ferdinando; Cagnacci, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Breeding dispersal, defined as the net movement between successive breeding sites, remains a poorly understood and seldom reported phenomenon in mammals, despite its importance for population dynamics and genetics. In large herbivores, females may be more mobile during the breeding season, undertaking short-term trips (excursions) outside their normal home range. If fertilisation occurs, leading to gene flow of the male genome, this behaviour could be considered a form of breeding dispersal from a genetic point of view. Here, we investigated ranging behaviour of 235 adult roe deer using intensive GPS monitoring in six populations across Europe within the EURODEER initiative. We show that excursions are common from June to August among females, with 41.8% (vs. 18.1% of males) making at least one excursion. Most individuals performed only one excursion per season and departure dates for females were concentrated in time, centred on the rutting period, suggesting a link with reproduction. The distance females travelled during excursions was significantly greater than the site-specific average diameter of a male home range, while travel speed decreased once they progressed beyond this diameter, indicating search behaviour or interaction with other male(s) outside the resident male's territory. Because adults are normally highly sedentary, the potential for mating with relatives is substantial; hence, we conclude that rut excursions could be an alternative tactic enabling females to avoid mating with a closely related male. To understand better the ultimate drivers at play, it will be crucial to explore the genetic causes and consequences of this behaviour. PMID:25027183

  18. Dynamic routing control in heterogeneous tactical networks with multiple traffic priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Mariusz A.; Wong, Larry; Kang, Jaewong; Cichocki, Andrzej; Kaul, Vikram; Samtani, Sunil

    2012-05-01

    To efficiently use alternate paths during periods of congestion, we have devised prioritized Dynamic Routing Control Agent (pDRCA) that (1) selects best links to meet the bandwidth and delay requirements of traffic, (2) provides load-balancing and traffic prioritization when multiple topologies are available, and (3) handles changes in link quality and traffic demand, and link outages. pDRCA provides multiplatform load balancing to maximize SATCOM (both P2P and multi-point) and airborne links utilization. It influences link selection by configuring the cost metrics on a router's interface, which does not require any changes to the routing protocol itself. It supports service differentiation of multiple traffic priorities by providing more network resources to the highest priority flows. pDRCA does so by solving an optimization problem to find optimal links weights that increase throughput and decrease E2E delay; avoid congested, low quality, and long delay links; and exploit path diversity in the network. These optimal link weights are sent to the local agents to be configured on individual routers per traffic priority. The pDRCA optimization algorithm has been proven effective in improving application performance. We created a variety of different test scenarios by varying traffic profile and link behavior (stable links, varying capacity, and link outages). In the scenarios where high priority traffic experienced significant loss without pDRCA, the average loss was reduced from 49.5% to 13% and in some cases dropped to 0%. Currently, pDRCA is integrated with an open-source software router and priority queues on Linux as a component of Open Tactical Router (OTR), which is being developed by ONR DTCN program.

  19. ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU-MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU- MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL, Pfaffenwaldring 2b, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany frank.lehmann@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de ABSTRACT Salt weathering of salts and salt mixtures within the material re- quires adequate measures to avoid further deterioration

  20. Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser

    E-print Network

    Balser, Dana S.

    Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e