Sample records for tactical weather avoidance

  1. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

  2. Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance

    E-print Network

    Bokadia, Sangeeta

    2002-01-01

    avoidance capability has increased. In this thesis, an intelligent weather agent is developed for general aviation aircraft. Using a radar image from an onboard weather radar, the intelligent weather agent determines the safest path around severe weather...

  3. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  4. High-energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) for mission planning and predictive avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Jarred L.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Randall, Robb M.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the development of a high energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) by the AFIT/CDE for mission planning High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon system engagements as well as centralized, decentralized, or hybrid predictive avoidance (CPA/DPA/HPA) assessments. Analyses of example HEL mission engagements are described as well as how mission planners are expected to employ the software. Example HEL engagement simulations are based on geographic location and recent/current atmospheric weather conditions. The atmospheric effects are defined through the AFIT/CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model or the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model upon which the HELTDA is based. These models enable the creation of vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer/winter) and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered to determine optimum efficiency in a specific environment. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on the propagating environment to and beyond the target. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are included. Numerical weather model forecasts are incorporated in the model to develop comprehensive understanding of HEL weapon system performance.

  5. Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance 

    E-print Network

    Bokadia, Sangeeta

    2002-01-01

    Severe weather conditions pose a large threat to the safety of aircraft, since they are responsible for a large percentage of aviation related accidents. With the advent of the free flight environment, the exigency for ...

  6. Multiple Aircraft Deconflicted Path Planning with Weather Avoidance Constraints

    E-print Network

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Multiple Aircraft Deconflicted Path Planning with Weather Avoidance Constraints Jessica J We present a model predictive control based algorithm for aircraft motion planning that will apply to converging flows of aircraft going through convective weather in the en route airspace. The cost function

  7. In the eye of the tiger: predator avoidance tactics differ among life-history stages of an ambystomatid salamander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Fronzuto; P. A. Verrell

    2007-01-01

    Loss of life to a predator obviously has a negative impact on an individual's fitness, and so selection is expected to favour tactics in prey that enable them to avoid encounters with predators (our focus here) and\\/or survive such encounters if they occur. While much is known about species differences in such tactics, ontogenetic changes within species have been less

  8. All weather collision avoidance for unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contarino, Mark

    2010-04-01

    For decades, military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a highly reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. The controlling agency, the Federal Aviation Administration, justifiably demands "no harm" to the safety of the NAS. To overcome the constraints imposed on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) use of the NAS, a new, complex, conformable collision avoidance system has been developed - one that will be effective in all flyable weather conditions, overcoming the shortfalls of other sensing systems, including radar, lidar, acoustic, EO/IR, etc., while meeting form factor and cost criteria suitable for Tier II UAS operations. The system also targets Tier I as an ultimate goal, understanding the operational limitations of the smallest UASs may require modification of the design that is suitable for Tier II and higher. The All Weather Sense and Avoid System (AWSAS) takes into account the FAA's plan to incorporate ADS-B (out) for all aircraft by 2020, and it is intended to make collision avoidance capability available for UAS entry into the NAS as early as 2013. When approved, UASs can fly mission or training flights in the NAS free of the constraints presently in place. Upon implementation this system will achieve collision avoidance capability for UASs deployed for national security purposes and will allow expansion of UAS usage for commercial or other civil purposes.

  9. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

  10. Evaluation of a Dispatcher's Route Optimization Decision Aid to Avoid Aviation Weather Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorneich, Michael C.; Olofinboba, Olu; Pratt, Steve; Osborne, Dannielle; Feyereisen, Thea; Latorella, Kara

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the results and analysis of the formal evaluation plan for the Honeywell software tool developed under the NASA AWIN (Aviation Weather Information) 'Weather Avoidance using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid' project. The software tool aims to provide airline dispatchers with a decision aid for selecting optimal routes that avoid weather and other hazards. This evaluation compares and contrasts route selection performance with the AWIN tool to that of subjects using a more traditional dispatcher environment. The evaluation assesses gains in safety, in fuel efficiency of planned routes, and in time efficiency in the pre-flight dispatch process through the use of the AWIN decision aid. In addition, we are interested in how this AWIN tool affects constructs that can be related to performance. The construct of Situation Awareness (SA), workload, trust in an information system, and operator acceptance are assessed using established scales, where these exist, as well as through the evaluation of questionnaire responses and subject comments. The intention of the experiment is to set up a simulated operations area for the dispatchers to work in. They will be given scenarios in which they are presented with stored company routes for a particular city-pair and aircraft type. A diverse set of external weather information sources is represented by a stand-alone display (MOCK), containing the actual historical weather data typically used by dispatchers. There is also the possibility of presenting selected weather data on the route visualization tool. The company routes have not been modified to avoid the weather except in the case of one additional route generated by the Honeywell prototype flight planning system. The dispatcher will be required to choose the most appropriate and efficient flight plan route in the displayed weather conditions. The route may be modified manually or may be chosen from those automatically displayed.

  11. Trajectory generation for aircraft subject to dynamic weather uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Kamgarpour; Vera Dadok; Claire Tomlin

    2010-01-01

    Determining safe aircraft trajectories that avoid hazardous weather regions and other aircraft while efficiently using the available airspace is an important problem. Although tactical weather forecast maps have been available, their use in automated aircraft trajectory generation has not been fully explored or implemented. We consider aircraft trajectory generation using forecast data available from the Corridor Integrated Weather System product.

  12. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. LAi

    2007-02-08

    This project will help you understand the weather and investigate weather interactively. What are the components of weather? How do you measure weather? Investigate the WeatherScholastic: Weather WatchWeatherWeather Center for Our 4th Grade ...

  13. Super-resolution technologies for all-weather sense and avoidance (SAA) radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Wang, Shang; Pan, Yu; Suarez, Hernan

    2011-06-01

    The sense and avoidance (SAA) and due-regard radar systems have strict requirements on size, weight and power (SWaP) and target localization accuracies. Also, the multi-mission capabilities with both weather and hard targets are critical to the survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the next generation national airspace. The aperture limitations of the aircraft sensor installation, however, have prevented large antennas/arrays to be used. The tradeoffs among frequencies, resolutions and detection range/accuracies have not been fully addressed. Innovative concepts of overcoming the aperture limitation by using a special type of super-resolution technology are introduced. The first technique is based on a combination of thinned antenna array, an extension to the traditional Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique, and applying a two-dimensional sidelobe mitigation technique. To overcome the degradation of MUSIC-type of approach due to coherent radar signals, a special waveform optimization procedure is used. The techniques for mitigating artifacts due to "thinned" array are also introduced. Simulated results of super-resolution techniques are discussed and evaluated, and the capability of separating multiple targets within aperture-constrained beamwidth is demonstrated. Moreover, the potential capabilities of autonomous weather hazard avoidance are also analyzed.

  14. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Stearns

    2008-10-25

    This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

  15. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachelle Tuttle

    2005-10-25

    Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. After a while, you\\'ll notice the weather patterns that allow meteorologists to forecast the weather. Tasks: 1. As a group you will build a weather station outside. 2. Your group will build instruments to measure the weather. 3. Each person will record the data in personal weather journals. Process: 1.Since weather happens outside, you\\'ll need to make ...

  16. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hendricks

    2007-12-06

    Introduction: How much do you know about weather? What kinds of weather do we have surrounding us? What is the weather like today? You may know a lot about weather already, you may not. Either way, you will learn more now as we take a look into what causes our weather and the methods we use to record and predict it. We will all become meteorologists, which are scientists who study the atmosphere and can predict weather. Put on your raincoats, and lets started! Task: You are the resident meteorologist at a local news station. It is your job to record and predict the weather each day, and then present it that night on the evening news. Not only should you be able to show the weather that we will be experiencing right ...

  17. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.

  18. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Jennie

    2009-10-22

    What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

  19. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps. Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. Teachers looking to incorporate this site in their classroom can check out the "Teacher's Guide" for helpful hints on using the site with students.

  20. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Caitlin

    2009-10-21

    In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

  1. Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather.

    PubMed

    Pochron, S T

    2000-09-01

    Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90 degrees between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season. PMID:11049003

  2. Information Search Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcia J.

    1979-01-01

    As part of the study of human information search strategy the concept of the search tactic, or move made to further a search, is introduced. Twenty-nine tactics are named, defined, and discussed, and implications of search tactics for research in search strategy are considered. (Author/MBR)

  3. Improving tactical plans with genetic algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan C. Schultz; John J. Grefenstette

    1990-01-01

    The problem of learning decision rules for sequential tasks is addressed, focusing on the problem of learning tactical plans from a simple flight simulator where a plane must avoid a missile. The learning method relies on the notion of competition and uses genetic algorithms to search the space of decision policies. In the research presented here, the use of available

  4. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows surrounding the airport where coarse verification data were available as well as where airport scale datasets were available.

  5. Tactical Sensor Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hagee; L. Gordon

    2003-01-01

    For detection, tracking and identification of time sensitive targets (TST) i.e to find, fix, track, target, and kill an enemy vehicle within minutes, Tactical Sensor Models (TSM) are utilized in the targeting phase of this process. A Tactical Sensor Model is a math model that takes known errors in a sensor and corrects for them to get a better idea

  6. Tactical training reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Telfair, W.D.; Moul, D.A.; Klingelhoefer, J.W.; Jurjevich, K.M.; Leonard, W.R.

    1989-04-01

    This Manual provides training information for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees to assist in implementation of the Tactical Response Team (TRT) training and exercise requirements of the revised portions of 10 CFR Part 73, which requires that licensees possessing formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material establish TRTs and conduct tactical response exercises to enhance the capabilities of security forces in protecting NRC licensed fuel facilities from potential adversaries postulated in the design basis threat. Step-by-step illustrated instructional material is provided concerning both individual and team tactics and skills appropriate to meeting these requirements. The Manual consists of two parts. Part One addresses adversary attributes and essential tactical skills that each TRT member should master to assure personal safety and effective response to adversary actions. Part Two discusses more advanced tactics, command, control, and orders. 30 refs., 281 figs.

  7. Tactical visualization module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

    1999-07-01

    The Tactical Visualization Module (TVM) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable, tactical information system to enhance the situational awareness of individual warfighters and small military units by providing real-time access to manned and unmanned aircraft, tactically mobile robots, and unattended sensors. TVM consists of a family of portable and hand-held devices being advanced into a next- generation, embedded capability. It enables warfighters to visualize the tactical situation by providing real-time video, imagery, maps, floor plans, and 'fly-through' video on demand. When combined with unattended ground sensors, such as Combat- Q, TVM permits warfighters to validate and verify tactical targets. The use of TVM results in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduction of the potential for fratricide. TVM technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea, and air warfighting operations. As a PCMCIA card, TVM can be embedded in portable, hand-held, and wearable PCs. Thus, it leverages emerging tactical displays including flat-panel, head-mounted displays. The end result of the program will be the demonstration of the system with U.S. Army and USMC personnel in an operational environment. Raytheon Systems Company, the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command -- Natick RDE Center (SSCOM- NRDEC) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are partners in developing and demonstrating the TVM technology.

  8. Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

  9. Tactical military communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Brendler

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of Army tactical communications systems, starting with the formation of the Signal Corps in 1856, is outlined. The use of mobile subscriber equipment (MSE), the single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS), and the maneuver control system (MCS), among others, to support American troops in Operation Desert Storm is described, and a representative sample of signal unit

  10. Tactical ring laser gyro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Yahalom

    1995-01-01

    I.A.I.'s Precision Instrument Industry division (TAMAM) has developed a tactical grade ring laser gyro (RLG). The gyro, which is only 3 cm long per leg, triangular shaped, has been developed for application of moderate performance (stabilization, control, low\\/medium accuracy navigational systems), where small size and weight are of a particular importance. The gyro is characterized by a bias of better

  11. Tactical force protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockel, Eugene; Moneyhun, Jon C.

    2004-09-01

    The need for enhanced tactical force protection capabilities is evidenced from our recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan and occurs wherever U.S. Forces maintain a forward presence in a potentially hostile environment. Levels of force protection proficiency vary widely from combat units whose mission is to close with and destroy the enemy to combat support/combat service support units performing maintenance and logistics functions. We must provide force protection capabilities that are not only good enough to get the job done, but affordable for the entire force. Addressing the force protection challenge requires an investment in research and development to deliver affordable, scalable, modular and sustainable force protection equipment. This can be accomplished through an evolutionary acquisition strategy of capability upgrades in the near, mid and far-terms that leverage the Army's investments in unmanned ground sensors (UGS), unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) and surveillance radar and imaging technology. This approach addresses the field's immediate tactical force protection requirements, while working towards full integration with the Future Combat System. Futuristic Tactical Force Protection will consist of a fully integrated system of systems architecture that will include UGVs, UGS and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that are networked with the Future Force.

  12. Innovation and tactical missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comon, J. P.

    Examples of design developments of tactical missiles are given to illustrate the contribution of new ideas to the improvement of military missiles. These developments include placing forward the propulsion section of antitank missiles to improve efficiency by automatically providing a standoff distance; the modification of the Exocet antiship missile to a Mach 2 velocity; an improved guiding system and a main propulsion assured by ramjet engine; and an antimissile missile with a very short reaction time combining rocket engine and aerodynamic forces to provide a high precision guiding system. The design and test facilities required are also discussed.

  13. The Sport Education Tactical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla

    2009-01-01

    Two popular instructional models in middle and high school are the sport education model (SEM) and the tactical games model (TGM). The SEM prepares students to become competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons. The TGM prepares students to be able to play games using a tactical approach. Combining the models to form a sport education…

  14. Stereo Imaging Tactical Helper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, Nicholas T.

    2010-01-01

    The Stereo Imaging Tactical Helper (SITH) program displays left and right images in stereo using the display technology made available by the JADIS framework. An overlay of the surface described by the disparity map (generated from the left and right images) allows the map to be compared to the actual images. In addition, an interactive cursor, whose visual depth is controlled by the disparity map, is used to ensure the correlated surface matches the real surface. This enhances the ability of operations personnel to provide quality control for correlation results, as well as to greatly assist developers working on correlation improvements. While its primary purpose is as a quality control tool for inspecting correlation results, SITH is also straightforward for use as a basic stereo image viewer

  15. Geography & Weather. Weather Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Levine, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 35 activities that center around television and newspaper weather reports. Geography, weather, and other disciplines are included as well as various grade levels. Available resource materials are listed and their uses explained. Parent, administrator, and other faculty member involvement is emphasized. (KR)

  16. Thai tactics: "Act now and avoid future costs".

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The realization that AIDS would pose a large socioeconomic cost convinced the Thai government in 1988 to immediately implement AIDS prevention activities. It looked at estimates of lost income due to AIDS-related absenteeism and AIDS-related death and the burdens on health services, families, and society in general. Thailand is especially vulnerable to the spread of HIV/AIDS because of the large number of drug addicts, men visiting sex workers, an active sex industry, poverty, and the rising number of tourists. AIDS must not be ignored. One should be forthright and discuss AIDS at every opportunity. Everyone should be active in the fight against AIDS. The fight should not be just the responsibility of the government. In Thailand, Buddhist temples, family planning organizations, taxi drivers, bar workers, brothel owners, teachers, the police, and the army are all participating in the fight against AIDS. Tourist-related businesses were first reluctant to bring the AIDS fight into the open for fear of reducing the number of tourists coming to Thailand. When they understood that doing nothing would lead to no tourists at all, they joined the fight. Thailand does not put one at risk of HIV/AIDS, but one's behavior does. The Minister of Health advises tourists coming to Thailand for sex to stay home and take rat poison because it is cheaper. The government's commitment to be frank about the AIDS epidemic and to AIDS prevention efforts has been successful. Over the last 3 years, the incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has decreased 77%. Condom sales have increased markedly. Sales of antibiotics for STDs have fallen considerably. The government's openness has brought about adverse publicity about Thailand; yet, the conditions in Thailand which make it vulnerable to the spread of AIDS also exist in other Asian countries. PMID:12288381

  17. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher B. McCubbin; Christine D. Piatko; Adam V. Peterson; Creighton R. Donnald; David Cohen

    2005-01-01

    The JHU\\/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph

  18. New Tactics in Human Rights

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international human rights. The New Tactics in Human Rights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.

  19. Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics

    E-print Network

    Beaton, Jonathan Scott

    2006-01-01

    Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

  20. Avoiding Snakebites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snakebites Avoiding Snakebites How can I avoid snakebites? Snakes are most active in the spring, early summer ... warm and outdoor activities are popular. Although most snakes are not poisonous, there are several kinds of ...

  1. Tactical Services Providers: Wireless and SATCOM Integration for Tactical Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Bennett; Joseph Greeves; Pamela Hemmings; Michael Skowrunski

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is operating as the Lead Service in the FY07 Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD): Tactical Services Provider (TSP). TSP will evaluate the ability of mobile broadband technologies to provide global communication capabilities to support widely dispersed warfighters on mobile and fixed platforms. Utilizing a hybrid architecture of emerging, standards-based SATCOM and wireless technologies, TSP

  2. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is designed to give students an understanding of how to forecast weather and how to use weather reports for their personal benefit. They will be able to tell what weather is, read weather instruments, understand basic cloud formations in relation to the weather, and make forecasts for two days in advance.

  3. Multisensor tactical target acquisition analysis model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Kim; K. H. Dalton; S. H. Ames

    1990-01-01

    The multisensor tactical target acquisition analysis model (MTTAAM) was developed to support studies which involved the evaluation of tactical weapons systems. These studies required the evaluation of the integrated aircraft, sensors, and weapons performance. The authors discuss the model development and the integration of tactical target acquisition with the LOWTRAN6 model (TACLOW6) into the flight path generator model, BLUEMAX-II, with

  4. Second Language Acquisition Tactics and Language Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Waldemar

    1983-01-01

    Starting with H.W. Seliger's distinction between second language learning strategies (abstract cognitive functions used to acquire knowledge) and learning tactics (activities learner uses to acquire language), presents the most important tactics and comments on which learner characteristics and teaching methods take advantage of them. Tactics

  5. Intelligent Tools for Environmental Tactical Decision Aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Portia J. Harris; George W. Heburn

    1994-01-01

    Tactical decision makers use environmental support systems to determine tactical strategies for global operations. Premission and postmission analyses evaluate performance and provide new strategies for future mission effectiveness. High fidelity on-scene littoral environment descriptions must be available, accessible, and deliverable to mission analysts, combatant platforms, and other mission participants to make prevailing tactical decisions. Knowledge and understanding of dominant variabilities

  6. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  7. Weather Vane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fresno Community Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners build weather vanes using straws, paperclips, and cardstock. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes are used to understand and predict weather.

  8. Tactical Underlife: Understanding Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Joanne; Gatto, Lynn Astarita

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one urban classroom and the language and literacy practices jointly constructed by a veteran urban teacher, Lynn Gatto, and her 3rd grade students. Drawing from two ethnographic studies of Gattos 2nd-4th grade looped classroom, we argue that Gatto and her students use the interplay between strategies and tactics (De Certeau,…

  9. Tactics for Thinking in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lean; King, Rita

    1988-01-01

    Tactics for Thinking is a comprehensive staff development program that can be adapted to specific curriculum needs in local districts. San Diego County (California) is training teachers in three categories of cognitive strategies: learning to learn, content thinking skills, and reasoning skills. (TE)

  10. Future Air Force Tactical Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Brick; F. Ellersick

    1980-01-01

    During the 1980's, many improvements will be made in the Air Force's ability to communicate in a battlefield environment. Programs like JTIDS, SEEK TALK, TRI-TAC, and the Ground Mobile Forces satellite communications terminals will improve the security, jam resistance, connectivity, and capacity of today's Air Force tactical communications. Even after these programs have been implemented, however, some important problem areas

  11. Using antisubmarine warfare experience to enhance unattended ground sensor (UGS) employment tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Stephen M.

    2002-08-01

    Present employment tactics for acoustic sensors in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) networks bear no resemblance to similar broadband acoustic sensor tactics for anti-submarine warfare. The tactical thought processes for the employment of both networks do not explain the differences even taking into account the variance in speed of sound in water and other environmental factors. The use of sonobouy experience appears to be a valid source of information on which to base tactical theory for acoustic sensor placement in the land warfare scenario. The development of tactical scenarios for land sensor operations requires knowledge of a set of factors parallel to the at sea scenario. Reverberation characteristics of local terrain, foliage attenuation of sound, weather background noise and other environmental issues must be considered in the placement of sensors to maximize effectiveness. Land-based sensors are being deployed in a single formation for both search and for track of targets. Examination of the operational experience of at sea deployment of acoustic sensors can greatly accelerate the deployment success of land-based unattended ground sensors in tactical situations.

  12. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  13. UM Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

  14. Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

  15. BBC Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the BBC offers an array of materials dealing with weather. Meteorologists can discover employment opportunities. Individuals with spectacular photographs of weather phenomenon can submit their images to the photo gallery. Students and educators can find introductory materials on basic weather concepts, forecasting, extreme events, and broadcasting the weather. The website offers fun weather-related games and projects, a meteorology glossary, and links to other educational websites.

  16. Young Men’s Condom Use Resistance Tactics: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that many men have used a variety of tactics to avoid using a condom when having sex with a woman. Guided by previous work demonstrating that men’s use of coercive condom resistance tactics was predicted by negative attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, and sexual sensation seeking, the current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether similar constructs were associated with a variety of resistance tactics. A community sample of 313 moderate drinking men participated, of whom 80% reported employing at least one condom use resistance tactic since adolescence. The LPA revealed three classes of men. In general, men with the least negative beliefs about women, low levels of sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, and positive beliefs about condoms (Condom Positive/Low Hostility) reported less use of resistance tactics than men with moderate sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, negative beliefs about condoms, and moderate (Condom Negative/Moderate Hostility) or high (Condom Negative/High Hostility) negative attitudes about women. The classes also differed in terms of their sexual behaviors. This study demonstrated that sexual risk behavior interventions should not only address the tactics through which men resist using condoms but also tailor these efforts to men’s individual characteristics. PMID:23548069

  17. Avoiding Absurdity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen Staszewski

    2006-01-01

    American courts have always interpreted statutes contrary to their plain meaning to avoid absurd results. John Manning, a prominent new textualist scholar, has recently challenged the legitimacy of the \\

  18. Gunawardene et al.: Lubber Grasshopper Reproductive Tactics 119 ARE REPRODUCTIVE TACTICS DETERMINED BY LOCAL ECOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Juliano, Steven A.

    Gunawardene et al.: Lubber Grasshopper Reproductive Tactics 119 ARE REPRODUCTIVE TACTICS DETERMINED- tive season. We measured reproductive tactics and longevity for populations of the lubber grasshopper), and Athens, Georgia (GA; 224 days FFP). Differences in local climate led us to predict that GA grasshoppers

  19. Tactics and empathy: defences against projective identification.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Lesley

    2013-12-01

    In this paper the author argues that interpretations made when the analyst has not done the emotional work of recognising and bearing what kind of object she has become in the patient's psychic reality will be experienced as empty tactics - even lies - rather than interpretations of integrity. However, interpreting from a position of bearing the truth of the patient's perception will be technically difficult and indicate turmoil as the analyst struggles to take in the patient's view of her. If the analyst avoids integrating her own picture of herself with the patient's picture (despite giving voice to the patient's picture) the split inside the analyst will be felt and intensify the patient's need to split. Vignettes demonstrate how the analyst, believing she is trying to understand, may become a projective-identification-refusing object and the issue of the analyst's disclosure of her countertransference is examined. Ultimately, the author argues, a capacity to receive and bear projective identification requires empathy with both patient and analyst-as-patient's object, engaged in a process about which both are ambivalent. PMID:24372109

  20. Weather Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This printable weather report is designed to help students easily note a field site's important meteorological details. The one-page PDF form asks for the following information: date, temperature, precipitation, weather type, and wind speed (based on environmental clues).

  1. Winter Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  2. Weather Talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.

  3. TWVTHE ARMY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE STRATEGY INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;#12;#12;3 TWVTHE ARMY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE STRATEGY INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to provide the Army with a Tactical Wheeled Vehicle (TWV) Strategy that synchronizes the plans and actions of all Army agencies involved in TWV requirements, procurement, integration, sustainment

  4. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  5. World Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elias, Jaume Sanchez

    2014-02-20

    What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

  6. Weather Watcher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Singer, Mike

    As spring progresses, weather conditions can continue to fluctuate dramatically, something that may foil vacation plans or other outings. Keeping that in mind, visitors may do well to download the Weather Watcher application created by Mike Singer. With this application, users may automatically retrieve the current weather conditions, look through hourly forecasts, keep abreast of severe weather alerts, and take a look at weather maps for almost any city world-wide. This application is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and above.

  7. Tactical games & behavioral self-organization

    E-print Network

    Denis V. Juriev

    1999-11-19

    The interactive game theoretical approach to tactics and behavioral self-organization is developed. Though it uses the interactive game theoretical formalization of dialogues as psycholinguistic phenomena, the crucial role is played by the essentially new concept of a tactical game. Applications to the perception processes and related subjects (memory, recollection, image understanding, imagination) are discussed together with relations to the computer vision and pattern recognition (the dynamical formation of patterns and perception models during perception as a result of its self-organization) and computer games (modelling of the tactical behavior and self-organization, tactical RPG and elaboration of new tactical game techniques). The appendix is devoted to the operative computer games and the user programming of operative units in a multi-user online operative computer game.

  8. Advice for Older People on Staying Safe in Hot Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advice for older people on staying safe in hot weather Risk of heat-related health problems increases ... some tips to help avoid the hazards of hot weather. Hyperthermia is caused by a failure of ...

  9. Shade Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

  10. Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

  11. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

  12. Trauma Ultrasound in Civilian Tactical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Lori; Justice, William; Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Dixon, Jeff D.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    The term “tactical medicine” can be defined in more than one way, but in the nonmilitary setting the term tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) is often used to denote medical support operations for law enforcement. In supporting operations involving groups such as special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams, TEMS entail executing triage, diagnosis, stabilization, and evacuation decision-making in challenging settings. Ultrasound, now well entrenched as a part of trauma evaluation in the hospital setting, has been investigated in the prehospital arena and may have utility in TEMS. This paper addresses potential use of US in the tactical environment, with emphasis on the lessons of recent years' literature. Possible uses of US are discussed, in terms of both specific clinical applications and also with respect to informing triage and related decision making. PMID:23243509

  13. Initial radiations from tactical nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1985-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray free-field kermas and fluence spectra for ranges between 1 and 2 km are presented for three tactical nuclear weapons and are compared with nuclear radiations at Hiroshima. The three tactical weapons are modeled as near-surface bursts of a fusion explosive, a fission explosive, and a suppressed-neutron explosive represented by the Little Boy bomb used at Hiroshima.

  14. Boom! Headshot! (Building Neo-Tactics on Network-Level Anomalies in Online Tactical First-Person Shooters)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Bond

    This paper tries to de-mystify the urban legends and expose the secrets of success of those who excel at online tactical first-person shooters. It focuses specifically on the evolution of winning tactics, and postulates the existence of a special sort of tactic - the neo-tactic - which exploits the underlying low-level physics properties of the virtual environment. Such tactics may

  15. Training and Tactical Operationally Responsive Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, B.; Strunce, R., Jr.

    Current space assets managed by traditional space system control resources provide communication, navigation, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities using satellites that are designed for long life and high reliability. The next generation Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) systems are aimed at providing operational space capabilities which will provide flexibility and responsiveness to the tactical battlefield commander. These capabilities do not exist today. The ORS communication, navigation, and ISR satellites are being designed to replace or supplement existing systems in order to enhance the current space force. These systems are expected to rapidly meet near term space needs of the tactical forces. The ORS concept includes new tactical satellites specifically designed to support contingency operations such as increased communication bandwidth and ISR imagery over the theater for a limited period to support air, ground, and naval force mission. The Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that exists today specifies that in addition to operational control of the satellite, the tasking and scheduling of the ORS tactical satellite for mission data collection in support of the tactical warfighter will be accomplished within the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC). This is very similar to what is currently being accomplished in a fixed Mission Operations Center on existing traditional ISR satellites. The VMOC is merely a distributed environment and the CONOPS remain virtually the same. As a result, there is a significant drawback to the current ORS CONOPS that does not account for the full potential of the ORS paradigm for supporting tactical forces. Although the CONOPS approach may be appropriate for experimental Tactical Satellites (TacSat), it ignores the issues associated with the In-Theater Commander's need to own and operate his dedicated TacSat for most effective warfighting as well as the Warfighter specific CONOPS. What is needed to realize the full potential of the ORS approach to the support of in-theater tactical forces is the development of satellite tasking, interface, and data retrieval capabilities and mission operations approaches from a warfighter centered perspective, and the development of realistic training and simulation capabilities that will allow development, demonstration, and assessment of ORS tactical CONOPS. A system for Training and Tactical ORS Operations (TATOO) is currently being developed. This system will support development and evaluation of ORS specific CONOPS approaches, and training and evaluation of those CONOPS implementations through dedicated training capabilities, facilities, and exercises. TATOO will support the operational side of ORS and will merge with the revolutionary ORS spacecraft development and deployment processes to make the ORS paradigm a reality. TATOO's primary objective is to support the In-Theater Commander and Warfighter by developing, training, and assessing ORS mission CONOPS for In-Theater tasking, scheduling, interface, and data retrieval for TacSats owned by In-Theater Commanders. TATOO provides a laboratory/classroom environment for the development, test and evaluation of ORS Tactical Mission CONOPS for In-Theater ORS operations. The TATOO laboratory will also be used to develop, evaluate, and document ORS Mission CONOPS for tactical ISR and other ORS missions. Within this framework, the laboratory/classroom can be used to develop the necessary training materials and procedures, as well as conduct training exercises that emphasize the training of In-Theater personal with regard to: Tactical Ground Station Mission Operations; Tactical Operations for Mission Tasking and Scheduling; Tactical Mission Data Retrieval; and, Support for Warfighter Operations.

  16. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-09-01

    Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

  17. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1992-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70s and 80s will finally come of age in the 90s, just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding, and stereopsis are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used multifunction displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilot's life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper examines tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them, and recommends three generations of solutions.

  18. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1997-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processor advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used multifunction displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like. How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff. This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  19. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1995-05-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrated many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  20. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1992-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70''s and 80''s will finally come of age in the 90''s just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpit used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  1. Planetary Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  2. Weather Tools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes. Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature.

  3. Gravestone Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leanne Wiberg

    2000-01-01

    In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

  4. Exploring Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2010-01-29

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

  5. Weather Creator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KShumway

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

  6. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  7. X-31A Tactical Utility Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin

    1997-01-01

    The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.

  8. Verification and validation of the night vision goggle tactical decision aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrick, John R.

    1995-05-01

    The Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) was developed to support Army operations in situations requiring accurate predictions of light levels. Minimum thresholds of illumination are used by the Army to plan and execute missions during periods of darkness or near darkness. The NVG TDA is part of a suite of decision aids that will become part of the fielded Integrated Meteorological System (IMETS). The IMETS is a system designed to be operated by Air Force Staff Weather Officers supporting Army tactical operations in peacetime and in times of conflict. The verification and validation (V & V) effort discussed in this report is part of the Battlefield Environment Directorate configuration management plan to field physically correct and user-friendly software to Army units over the entire conflict spectrum. The V & V described is thorough and shows that the NVG TDA is physically correct and applicable for accreditation before use.

  9. Tactical medicine -- the Israeli revised protocol.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Maor; Richman, Aaron; Shapira, Shmuel C

    2012-01-01

    Limited conflicts and the war against terrorism, in particular, have changed the emphasis in the present trend from preparing to cope with full-scale wars to the need to combat in limited conflicts. This shift has affected significantly medical units' preparations. Law enforcement organizations have come together with medical first responders in a combined new model. This model is supposed to be adopted and utilized in combat and evolved from the civilian model toward a modus operandi that combines the tactical and medical protocols into a single algorithm, the "Tactical Combat Casualty Care" (TCCC). This TCCC model is believed to enhance the mutual understanding and cooperation of tactical and medical forces in combat and especially amongst special military units. Utilizing the model will be achieved by the development of well-matched standard operating procedures and sharing drills. All these acts are hoped to improve safety of the participating units and hopefully also the medical outcomes. PMID:22338980

  10. 78 FR 63279 - Third Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...meeting of the Tactical Operations Committee (TOC). The agenda will include the following...2013 Opening of Meeting/Introduction of TOC Members Official Statement of...

  11. Workshop on the Evaluation of a Tactical Decision Aid Display

    E-print Network

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Workshop on the Evaluation of a Tactical Decision Aid Display William D. Davis Robert Vettori Paul Workshop on the Evaluation of a Tactical Decision Aid Display William D. Davis Robert Vettori Paul Reneke

  12. Parking management tactics. Volume 3: reference guide. [Parking

    SciTech Connect

    DiRenzo, J.F.; Cima, B.; Barber, E.

    1981-06-01

    Information contained in this guide was formulated from parking management experiences of 20 cities previously investigated and documented. The guide provides information on the planning, implementation, and operation of six types of parking management tactics: on-street parking supply tactics, off-street parking supply tactics for activity centers, fringe and corridor parking facilities, pricing tactics, enforcement and adjudication tactics, and marketing tactics. The guide assesses the essential aspects of the tactics as well as presents some useful analysis procedures for evaluating parking management actions. The Reference Guide is a stand-alone document for use by transportation planners and traffic engineers. It is the third volume of a three-volume series of reports on parking management. The first volume, entitled Overview, is designed for management. The second volume, entitled Overview and Case Studies, is designed for technical staff or managers who want detailed city-by-city information on parking management tactics.

  13. Airborne Tactical Application Of The DCRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard W.

    1987-02-01

    Since the invention of the film camera system, airborne reconnaissance missions to support tactical operations have basically consisted of an over flight of the suspect territory, the taking of a picture or snapshot of that territory, and the safe return of the aircraft. Immediately after landing the film is retrieved from the aircraft and rushed off to the labs for development. When these pictures are ready they are given to interpreters who analyze the results. All of this is to allow military commanders to make tactical command decisions.

  14. The Weather Doctor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heidorn, Keith C.

    Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

  15. Tactical weapons algorithm development for unitary and fused systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talele, Sunjay E.; Watson, John S.; Williams, Bradford D.; Amphay, Sengvieng A.

    1996-06-01

    A much needed capability in today's tactical Air Force is weapons systems capable of precision guidance in all weather conditions against targets in high clutter backgrounds. To achieve this capability, the Armament Directorate of Wright Laboratory, WL/MN, has been exploring various seeker technologies, including multi-sensor fusion, that may yield cost effective systems capable of operating under these conditions. A critical component of these seeker systems is their autonomous acquisition and tracking algorithms. It is these algorithms which will enable the autonomous operation of the weapons systems in the battlefield. In the past, a majority of the tactical weapon algorithms were developed in a manner which resulted in codes that were not releasable to the community, either because they were considered company proprietary or competition sensitive. As a result, the knowledge gained from these efforts was not transitioning through the technical community, thereby inhibiting the evolution of their development. In order to overcome this limitation, WL/MN has embarked upon a program to develop non-proprietary multi-sensor acquisition and tracking algorithms. To facilitate this development, a testbed has been constructed consisting of the Irma signature prediction model, data analysis workstations, and the modular algorithm concept evaluation tool (MACET) algorithm. All three of these components have been enhanced to accommodate both multi-spectral sensor fusion systems and the there dimensional signal processing techniques characteristic of ladar. MACET is a graphical interface driven system for rapid prototyping and evaluation of both unitary and fused sensor algorithms. This paper describes the MACET system and specifically elaborates on the three-dimensional capabilities recently incorporated into it.

  16. Wild Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  17. Unisys Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

  18. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students will learn how to interpret weather patterns from satellite images, predict storm paths and forecast the weather for their area. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  19. Weather One

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    From the University of Illinois Extension comes the Weather One instructional Web site for kids. The lesson consists of six pages that cover various weather related topics including seasons, clouds, the atmosphere, wind, global warming, and storms. Each page describes the particular subject, provides related photographs, and contains several activities that reinforce the learning. For example, the clouds page shows how kids can make a cloud and create a collage out of simple material found around the house. The effective organization and clean look of the site will surely make it easy for students to follow and enjoy.

  20. Wonderful Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-11-06

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

  1. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

  2. ObsTac: Automated Execution of Dark Energy Survey Observing Tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, E.; Annis, J.

    2014-05-01

    The Dark Energy Survey is a multi-filter survey of the southern galactic cap with two components: a wide component which visits many fields, each ten times over the course of five years; and a time-domain component of ten fields revisited on a regular cadence in each of four filters through the survey. Optimal selection of an observation for any particular time depends on many factors, including weather (including seeing), moon position and phase, image quality of already collected exposures, and others. ObsTac is the component of the observing software system that automates selection of observations based on current conditions. It integrates with the observing software through an observing queue, supporting interactive intervention by observers. It has a modular structure that simplifies replacement of different components of the system, including the implementation of the tactics algorithms themselves and interfaces with data sources that supply, for example, weather and progress data. In addition to its use in observing, obsTac may also be used to run simulations to evaluate strategic and tactical algorithms based on archival weather data.

  3. Alternative reproductive tactics in male Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Scantlebury; J. M. Waterman; N. C. Bennett

    2008-01-01

    In some animal societies, males vary in the strategies and tactics that they use for reproduction. Explanations for the evolution of alternative tactics have usually focussed on extrinsic factors such as social status, the environment or population density and have rarely examined proximate differences between individuals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that two alternative reproductive tactics occur in cooperatively breeding male Cape

  4. Tactics of Re nement Marcel Oliveira and Ana Cavalcanti

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    based on inference rules that involve only terms of the logic. Therefore, Angel assumes that rules. Using tactics is not a novel idea, but apparently, in the context of re nement the only existing work Language), a language for the de nition of re nement tactics based on Angel 9]. This is a general tactic

  5. Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

  6. Designing 4-D trajectories for super-dense operations given weather constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmy Krozel; J. S. B. Mitchell; J. Prete; P. Smith; A. D. Andre

    2007-01-01

    For the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS), we present trajectory design guidelines focusing on dynamic weather avoidance routing in transition airspaces -within 200 nmi of an airport or a set of metroplex airports. Assuming a Net-Centric Operation (NCO) that provides a mechanism to inform all users of hazardous weather constraints and weather avoidance routing requirements, the NGATS can move

  7. Intelligent terrain avoidance agent for General Aviation Free Flight

    E-print Network

    Gesting, Paul

    2013-02-22

    the pilot handle this responsibility, a hierarchical agent system is under development. This system will take information from traffic, weather, and terrain to determine a safe and efficient flight path. The terrain agent in this system must avoid Controlled...

  8. Today's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

  9. Weather Stations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  10. Weather Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students discuss the characteristics of storms, including the relationship of weather fronts and storms. Using everyday materials, they develop models of basic lightning detection systems (similar to a Benjamin Franklin design) and analyze their models to determine their effectiveness as community storm warning systems.

  11. INTELLIGENT AGENT FOR AIRCRAFT COLLISION AVOIDANCE

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    authority lies with the air traffic controllers Enhancement of current Air Traffic Control (ATC) safety (GA) A new way of managing air traffic Departure from the highly structured system to a more flexible and avoid regions of severe weather Terrain Agent prevent Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) Traffic

  12. Applying host identity protocol to tactical networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Sarela; Pekka Nikander

    2004-01-01

    We describe the current status of the host identity protocol and discuss how it could be applied to tactical networks, including mobile ad hoc networks. The host identity protocol (HIP) is a protocol proposal at the IETF for separating the end-point identifier and locator nature of IP addresses. It introduces a new name space, consisting of public cryptographic keys, and

  13. Application of BLAST to tactical communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pidwerbetsky

    2004-01-01

    A breakthrough in wireless communications pioneered at Bell Labs, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radios, vastly expands the capacity and connectivity of communications in multipath propagation environments. MIMO offers a number of advantages for tactical communications including enhanced data rate, environmental adaptability, lowered probability of detection and interception. A number of experiments have verified the enhanced channel capacity offered by

  14. Title: Tactical Pilotage Charts Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    Title: Tactical Pilotage Charts Data Creator / Copyright Owner: National Geospatial-Intelligence and license agreement form. Contact: Map and GIS Librarian (gislib@yorku.ca) #12;Citation: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Publisher: Land Information Worldwide Mapping, LLC. Edition: N/A Versions: N/A Publication

  15. "TACTICS AND STRATEGY by Roger Flynn

    E-print Network

    achieve higher levels of performance at an earlier stage than otherwise might be achievable. The coach these tactics/reactions? ? How can we recreate the playing environment for the better/elite players to maintain it bounces twice and to hit the front wall. Very rapidly, this attitude changes to a more competitive, "I

  16. Cooperation creates selection for tactical deception

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Luke; Jackson, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Conditional social behaviours such as partner choice and reciprocity are held to be key mechanisms facilitating the evolution of cooperation, particularly in humans. Although how these mechanisms select for cooperation has been explored extensively, their potential to select simultaneously for complex cheating strategies has been largely overlooked. Tactical deception, the misrepresentation of the state of the world to another individual, may allow cheaters to exploit conditional cooperation by tactically misrepresenting their past actions and/or current intentions. Here we first use a simple game-theoretic model to show that the evolution of cooperation can create selection pressures favouring the evolution of tactical deception. This effect is driven by deception weakening cheater detection in conditional cooperators, allowing tactical deceivers to elicit cooperation at lower costs, while simple cheats are recognized and discriminated against. We then provide support for our theoretical predictions using a comparative analysis of deception across primate species. Our results suggest that the evolution of conditional strategies may, in addition to promoting cooperation, select for astute cheating and associated psychological abilities. Ultimately, our ability to convincingly lie to each other may have evolved as a direct result of our cooperative nature. PMID:23677345

  17. Graduating Tactics: Theorizing Plagiarism as Consumptive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing concern to educators in the tertiary sector, although currently its appearances in the higher education literature have predominantly been concerned with its prevention and management. This article draws on the poststructuralist theory of consumption developed by Michel de Certeau, to consider plagiarism as a tactic

  18. Precision dynamic SAR testbed for tactical missiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian I. Smith; W. Garner; Randal Cannon

    2004-01-01

    The United States Army is currently investigating the feasibility\\/utility of a high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode for the detection and subsequent engagement of targets by tactical missiles. A precision dynamic SAR testbed has been designed, constructed and installed by the United States Army Aviation and Missile Command's (AMCOM) Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) at

  19. Tactical planning of offshore petroleum production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Linn Ulstein; Bjørn Nygreen; Jan Richard Sagli

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a model for tactical planning of Norwegian petroleum production. The problem involves regulation of production levels from wells, splitting of production flows into oil and gas products, further processing of gas and transportation in a pipeline network. Blending and processing of gas is necessary to satisfy quality requirements in the markets. The problem is formulated with multi-component

  20. Weather Science Hotlist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.

  1. Weather Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mitchell

    2010-09-23

    We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

  2. Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

  3. Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

  4. The Close Combat Tactical Trainer Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Johnson; Thomas W. Mastaglio; Paul D. Peterson

    1993-01-01

    The Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) is the first full scale development of a Distributed Interactive Simulations @IS) training system. CClT is being developeti to support the training requirements of the U.S. Army's combined arms teams, however it i31W pro\\\\ides an entity-based battlefield which will be able to support hgher level training and development activities. This paper will provide an

  5. The close combat tactical trainer program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Johnson; Thomas W. Mastaglio; Paul D. Peterson

    1993-01-01

    The Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) is the first full scale development of a Distributed Interactive Simulations (DIS) training system. CCTT is being developed to support the training requirements of the U.S. Army’s combined arms teams. however it also provides an entity-based battlefield which will be able to support higher level training and development activities. This paper will provide an

  6. The Development of the Tobacco Tactics Website

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Karen E; Flanagan, Petra S; Ronis, David L; Ewing, Lee A; Waltje, Andrea H

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based cessation interventions have been shown to reduce tobacco use, be more efficacious than self-help booklets, be more efficacious if they provide tailored messages, and enhance quit rates in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to usability test and pilot test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. Methods Both formative and summative evaluations were used across three small successive studies to develop and test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans, which was based on a prior face-to-face smoking cessation intervention. Once the website was developed, the research team and Web developers usability tested the website with 5 veteran smokers and former smokers. Feedback from the veterans was collected as they navigated each webpage, then used to revise the website. In pilot study 1, 9 veteran smokers were provided access to the website, and given a baseline and 30-day follow-up survey. In pilot study 2, 18 veteran smokers, who were also motivated to quit smoking, were recruited and randomized to either the Tobacco Tactics website plus nicotine replacement therapy or to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line. Results As a result of usability testing, more than 27 modifications were made to improve the website. In pilot study 1, 50% (3/6) veterans who entered the website had cut down on the number of cigarettes and 83% (5/6) found the website enjoyable, easy to read, easy to navigate, and would recommend the website to others. In pilot study 2, which included only smokers motivated to quit and also offered nicotine replacement therapy, seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 30-day follow-up was 40% (4/10) in the intervention group compared to 13% (1/8) in the control group. Conclusions These preliminary results are promising and suggest the need for wider-scale testing of the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. PMID:23811612

  7. Weather Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

  8. Weather Tamers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna R. Sterling

    2007-03-01

    Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.

  9. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

  10. Weather Photography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

  11. Destructive Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    alizabethirwin

    2010-11-03

    What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

  12. Collision avoidance at sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Vincent

    The problem of collision avoidance between surface ships may be examined from the perspective of either macro or micro collision avoidance. In macro collision avoidance the pilot of a ship would try for maintaining a given mileage separation between his own ship and others. Micro collision avoidance would be concerned with manoeuvres between ships of less than a given separation

  13. The Weather Dude

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, Nick.

    2002-01-01

    The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

  14. Sexual strategies pursued and mate attraction tactics deployed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    April Bleske-Rechek; David M. Buss

    2006-01-01

    Two studies tested evolutionary hypotheses about the use and perceived effectiveness of specific mate attraction tactics as a function of sexual strategy pursued. Participants and a close same-sex friend of each participant reported on the participant’s sexual strategy and deployment of attraction tactics. In Study 1, participants’ mate attraction tactics differed predictably depending on whether they were pursuing a long-term

  15. Integration of planning and reactive obstacle avoidance in autonomous sensor-based navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Minguez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor-based navigation system to safely drive vehicles in realistic scenarios. Three modules with the following functionalities compose the system: model builder, tactical planning and obstacle avoidance. These modules are integrated within a planner-reactor architecture that supervises and coordinates them in order to carry out the motion task. The emphasis of the paper is in the planning

  16. An Antitrust Primer: How To Avoid Bid Rigging and Other Collusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Shows school business officials how to detect and avoid bid rigging, price fixing, and other types of unlawful collusion prohibited by the Sherman Antitrust Act. School administrators should expand the list of bidders, consolidate purchases as a defensive tactic, consider reletting the contract in tie-bid situations, recognize the elements of…

  17. From the laboratory to the soldier: providing tactical behaviors for Army robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knichel, David G.; Bruemmer, David J.

    2008-04-01

    The Army Future Combat System (FCS) Operational Requirement Document has identified a number of advanced robot tactical behavior requirements to enable the Future Brigade Combat Team (FBCT). The FBCT advanced tactical behaviors include Sentinel Behavior, Obstacle Avoidance Behavior, and Scaled Levels of Human-Machine control Behavior. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN) has also documented a number of robotic behavior requirements for the Army non FCS forces such as the Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT), Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT), and Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT). The general categories of useful robot tactical behaviors include Ground/Air Mobility behaviors, Tactical Mission behaviors, Manned-Unmanned Teaming behaviors, and Soldier-Robot Interface behaviors. Many DoD research and development centers are achieving the necessary components necessary for artificial tactical behaviors for ground and air robots to include the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center, US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and non DoD labs such as Department of Energy (DOL). With the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) through DoD and non DoD labs the Army Maneuver Support Center has recently concluded successful field trails of ground and air robots with specialized tactical behaviors and sensors to enable semi autonomous detection, reporting, and marking of explosive hazards to include Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and landmines. A specific goal of this effort was to assess how collaborative behaviors for multiple unmanned air and ground vehicles can reduce risks to Soldiers and increase efficiency for on and off route explosive hazard detection, reporting, and marking. This paper discusses experimental results achieved with a robotic countermine system that utilizes autonomous behaviors and a mixed-initiative control scheme to address the challenges of detecting and marking buried landmines. Emerging requirements for robotic countermine operations are outlined as are the technologies developed under this effort to address them. A first experiment shows that the resulting system was able to find and mark landmines with a very low level of human involvement. In addition, the data indicates that the robotic system is able to decrease the time to find mines and increase the detection accuracy and reliability. Finally, the paper presents current efforts to incorporate new countermine sensors and port the resulting behaviors to two fielded military systems for rigorous assessing.

  18. Coherent Distributed Techniques for Tactical Radio Networks: Enabling Long Range Communications

    E-print Network

    Brown III, Donald R.

    Coherent Distributed Techniques for Tactical Radio Networks: Enabling Long Range Communications of tactical radios to enable extended-range communications. Conventional tactical communication systems-- Communication equipment; Radio communication; Wireless Networks; Distributed algorithms; Time measurement; MIMO

  19. Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  20. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  1. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  2. Tactical air reconnaissance pod system: completely digital TARPS-CD and fast tactical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, John N.; Kruer, Melvin R.; Tourville, Robert; Henry, Daniel J.; Wada, Glen

    2001-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed and tested the Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod System-Completely Digital (TARPS-CD) System on the F-14 Tomcat aircraft. This system has been used in a risk reduction demonstration program extending from January 1999 to July 2001. The purpose of the program is to verify, validate and demonstrate the concept of realtime tactical reconnaissance using timely, high quality and broad coverage tactical imagery, thus expanding the reconnaissance capability of the U.S. navy. Additionally, the program was to identify potential technical risks associated with the Shared Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) Program, the Navy's future manned tactical reconnaissance capability. The TARPS-CD flight test program has demonstrated that near real-time, electro- optical, airborne reconnaissance, as planned for SHARP, is valid and feasible. The TARPS-CD system collects high quality imagery at high data rates with the capability of storing, displaying, and/or transmitting imagery in a timely manner, and represents a significant increase in operational capability over existing film type systems.

  3. Adaptation and improvement of ASW tactical decision aid design to mine warfare tactical decision aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Keiffer; K. B. Briggs; J. Novarini; P. A. Elmore; M. D. Richardson; C. S. Kennedy; G. R. Bower; P. J. Valent

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. In this presentation, the adaptation of a tactical decision aid (TDA) designed for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) to one used for Mine Warfare is discussed. Previous work at the Naval Research Laboratory established a TDA, namely GRASP for the ASW role. Recently at NRL work has been done to extend the TDA model to Mine Warfare.

  4. Adaptation and improvement of ASW tactical decision aid design to Mine Warfare tactical decision aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dubberley

    2003-01-01

    In this presentation, the adaptation of a tactical decision aid (TDA) designed for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) to one used for Mine Warfare is discussed. Previous work at the Naval Research Laboratory established a TDA, namely GRASP for the ASW role. Recently at NRL work has been done to extend the TDA model to Mine Warfare. Specifically this presentation examines

  5. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  6. The Weathering of Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ginneken, M.; Genge, M. J.; Folco, L.

    2014-09-01

    Despite the favorable conditions for their preservation, micrometeorites from Antarctica are affected by terrestrial weathering. Here we present a comprehensive work on the weathering of micrometeorites from Antarctica.

  7. A miniature tactical Rb frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, T. M.; Dagle, R.; Debley, W.; Dellamano, H.; Hahn, T.; Horste, J.; Lam, L. K.; Magnuson, R.; Mcclelland, T.

    1984-01-01

    Work on an innovative design for miniature rubidium frequency standards has reached the pre-production demonstration stage at Litton Guidance and Control Systems. Pre-production units were built and tested under contract to the Rome Air Development Center of the U.S. Air Force Systems Command. The units, which are designed for use in tactical military applications, feature fast warm-up, low power consumption, and vibration insensitivity. The output stability under vibration is maintained without the need for external shock-mounts. The design objectives and test results are discussed.

  8. Test and evaluation of the tactical missile

    SciTech Connect

    Eichblatt, E.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Practical test and evaluation (T E) methods for tactical missiles are described in chapters contributed by experts. Topics addressed include missile performance criteria; flight tests; laboratory and field tests; simulations; launchers; T E of insensitive munitions; T E of reliability; testing for EM-environment effects; logistics, missile tests, and suitability evaluation; and the evaluation of weapon-system integration. To demonstrate effective T E planning strategies, the phases of a typical missile program are outlined. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  9. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  10. Sperm investment and alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    Sperm investment and alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Bryan D tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Bluegill males are characterized by three alternative

  11. Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

  12. Motives to Study and Socialization Tactics among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study focused on the period following student admission to universities. Examines the effects of student motives for studying and socialization tactics on their academic achievement and academic satisfaction. Predicts that socialization tactics would mediate the relationship of motives to study to academic achievement and satisfaction.…

  13. Low cost quartz rate sensors applied to tactical guidance IMUs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Silva; G. W. Murray

    1994-01-01

    The military has shifted its emphasis from strategic weapons to tactical weapons. The challenge in meeting the needs of this shift is to develop a small, low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with sufficient accuracy to meet the needs of modern precision tactical weapons. New instruments, new digital signal processing techniques and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have redefined the cost

  14. Scrounging Tactics in Free-Ranging Ravens, Corvus corax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bugnyar; Kurt Kotrschal

    2002-01-01

    Social foraging allows individuals to scrounge, i.e. to exploit the food others have made available. The conditions promoting scrounging as an alternative foraging tactic have yet received limited attention. We presently examine whether ravens, as opportunistic scavengers, adjust their foraging tactics according to the potential costs involved in accessing a particular food source. We observed wild ravens foraging in a

  15. AIMS taking on roles to support tactical information dominance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Joseph Ceccio; Robert G. Hillman

    2007-01-01

    Military solutions to enable information sharing are being developed that will fundamentally change future concepts of operation. The development of sophisticated approaches to managing this information is a key element to reliably disseminate valued information to the tactical edge. This paper will describe the merging of two such systems to support these tactical edge users; the Air Force Research Laboratory

  16. IMPACT OF NATURALISTIC DECISION SUPPORT ON TACTICAL SITUATION AWARENESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey G. Morrison; Richard T. Kelly; Susan G. Hutchins

    Monterey, CA A prototype decision support system (DSS) was developed to enhance Navy tactical decision making based on naturalistic decision processes. Displays were developed to support critical decision making tasks through recognition-primed and explanation-based reasoning processes and cognitive analysis of the deci- sion making problems faced by Navy tactical officers in a shipboard Combat Information Center. Baseline testing in high

  17. Are Mating Strategies and Mating Tactics Independent Constructs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sabura Allen; Kent G. Bailey

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the constructs of mating tactics and mating strategies. These constructs are conceptually related but distinct. In current research, the measurement of one of these constructs often is viewed as being indicative of the other. Therefore, an exploration of these constructs will enhance understanding of study outcomes in this research area. Self-report measures of mating tactics and strategies

  18. Tactical skills of world-class youth soccer teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rianne Kannekens; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Chris Visscher

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18–20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18–23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of

  19. Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

  20. Trajectory based event tactics analysis in broadcast sports video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyu Zhu; Qingming Huang; Changsheng Xu; Yong Rui; Shuqiang Jiang; Wen Gao; Hongxun Yao

    2007-01-01

    Most of existing approaches on event detection in sports video are general audience oriented. The extracted events are then presented to the audience without further analysis. However, professionals, such as soccer coaches, are more interested in the tactics used in the events. In this paper, we present a novel approach to extract tactic information from the goal event in broadcast

  1. Intelligence dissemination using the three-channel Commanders' Tactical Terminal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Franke; B. Szelistowski; D. Murphy; G. Fortier

    1995-01-01

    The fielded Commanders' Tactical Terminal (CTT) provides the warfighter with seamless, near-real-time tactical intelligence and targeting information. It is the golden thread for the US Army's Integrated Battlefield Targeting Architecture and acts as a vital link in its modernization objectives. The terminal supplies the critical data link to battle managers, intelligence centers, air defense, fire support and aviation nodes across

  2. Training SWAT teams: implications for improving tactical units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna G. Clark; Mary S. Jackson; Peggy M. Schaefer; E. Gail Sharpe

    2000-01-01

    As terrorism and other forms of violence continue to increase in American society, there is a growing need for law enforcement agencies to utilize Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) or Tactical Teams. There is, however, very little research available on SWAT units, and even less information on the training needs of these specialized divisions. This article describes the results of

  3. U.S. tactical nuclear weapons: A European perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Sauer

    2010-01-01

    The debate over the removal of tactical weapons is not a simple one; linked with it are the debates over the utility of NATO and how to reach a global consensus on nuclear disarmament. Advocates of withdrawal view inaction regarding tactical nuclear weapons as just one example of general inertia within the alliance; the lack of a serious political discussion

  4. Heuristic automation for decluttering tactical displays.

    PubMed

    St John, Mark; Smallman, Harvey S; Manes, Daniel I; Feher, Bela A; Morrison, Jeffrey G

    2005-01-01

    Tactical displays can quickly become cluttered with large numbers of symbols that can compromise effective monitoring. Here, we studied how heuristic automation can aid users by intelligently "decluttering" the display. In a realistic simulated naval air defense task, 27 experienced U.S. Navy users monitored a cluttered airspace and executed defensive responses against significant threats. An algorithm continuously evaluated aircraft for their levels of threat and decluttered the less threatening ones by dimming their symbols. Users appropriately distrusted and spot-checked the automation's assessments, and decluttering had very little effect on which aircraft were judged as significantly threatening. Nonetheless, decluttering improved the timeliness of responses to threatening aircraft by 25% as compared with a baseline display with no decluttering; it was especially beneficial for threats in more peripheral locations, and 25 of 27 participants preferred decluttering. Heuristic automation, when properly designed to guide users' attention by decluttering less important objects, may prove valuable in many cluttered monitoring situations, including air traffic management, crisis team management, and tactical situation awareness in general. PMID:16435693

  5. AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.

  6. Impact of Probabilistic Weather on Flight Routing Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Flight delays in the United States have been found to increase year after year, along with the increase in air traffic. During the four-month period from May through August of 2005, weather related delays accounted for roughly 70% of all reported delays, The current weather prediction in tactical (within 2 hours) timeframe is at manageable levels, however, the state of forecasting weather for strategic (2-6 hours) timeframe is still not dependable for long-term planning. In the absence of reliable severe weather forecasts, the decision-making for flights longer than two hours is challenging. This paper deals with an approach of using probabilistic weather prediction for Traffic Flow Management use, and a general method using this prediction for estimating expected values of flight length and delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). The current state-of-the-art convective weather forecasting is employed to aid the decision makers in arriving at decisions for traffic flow and flight planing. The six-agency effort working on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) have considered weather-assimilated decision-making as one of the principal foci out of a list of eight. The weather Integrated Product Team has considered integrated weather information and improved aviation weather forecasts as two of the main efforts (Ref. 1, 2). Recently, research has focused on the concept of operations for strategic traffic flow management (Ref. 3) and how weather data can be integrated for improved decision-making for efficient traffic management initiatives (Ref. 4, 5). An overview of the weather data needs and benefits of various participants in the air traffic system along with available products can be found in Ref. 6. Previous work related to use of weather data in identifying and categorizing pilot intrusions into severe weather regions (Ref. 7, 8) has demonstrated a need for better forecasting in the strategic planning timeframes and moving towards a probabilistic description of weather (Ref. 9). This paper focuses on. specified probability in a local region for flight intrusion/deviation decision-making. The process uses a probabilistic weather description, implements that in a air traffic assessment system to study trajectories of aircraft crossing a cut-off probability contour. This value would be useful for meteorologists in creating optimum distribution profiles for severe weather, Once available, the expected values of flight path and aggregate delays are calculated for efficient operations. The current research, however, does not deal with the issue of multiple cell encounters, as well as echo tops, and will be a topic of future work.

  7. Backyard Weather Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students use their senses to describe what the weather is doing and predict what it might do next. After gaining a basic understanding of weather patterns, students act as state park engineers and design/build "backyard weather stations" to gather data to make actual weather forecasts.

  8. Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

  9. The Weather and Climate

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    The Weather and Climate Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades Shaun LovEjoy and DaniEL SChErTzEr #12;2/15/12 DRAFT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 DRAFT 1 The Weather And The Climate:2 Emergent Laws, weather, low frequency weather and the climate1 1.2.7 The scaling of the atmospheric boundary conditions2

  10. Weather Derivative Valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

    2005-04-01

    Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

  11. Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  12. Evolution of wildlife rabies control tactics.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The development of tactics for the control of rabies in wildlife species has evolved dramatically during the past few decades in part due to research advances. Historically, rabies control measures primarily involved the culling of target species. However, contemporary advances in the research and development of oral rabies vaccines and delivery systems for wildlife have now made it feasible to treat rabies outbreaks over thousands of square kilometers of habitat. Systems have been developed to control rabies in several of the primary wildlife vectors such as raccoon dogs, red foxes, and raccoons, and rabies has been eliminated from many jurisdictions. However, future research is needed to develop cost-effective and efficacious methods to control rabies in species such as striped skunks as well as in nonterrestrial vectors such as bats. As well, cost-effective rabies management techniques need to be adopted by developing nations so that wildlife rabies control is a realistic and achievable goal globally. PMID:21601057

  13. Sperm investment and alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan D. Neff; Peng Fu; Mart R. Grossb

    2003-01-01

    Although alternative mating tactics are found in males of many species, little is known about tactic-specific adaptations to sperm competition and the mechanism by which fertilization success is obtained. We now report on the sperm investment patterns of males that use alternative mating tactics in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Bluegill males are characterized by three alternative mating tactics: parentals, sneakers,

  14. Development of a tactical guidance research and evaluation system (TGRES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The ongoing development of a tool for tactical guidance research and the analysis of airplane system performance in a tactically significant environment are described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to high-performance airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic, and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying fighter agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and, thus, be of interest to a number of potential users.

  15. Development of a Tactical Guidance Research and Evaluation System (TGRES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a simulation tool for tactical guidance research and the evaluation of systems performance in a tactically significant environment is described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying airplane agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and thus be of interest to a number of potential users.

  16. Sound Exposure Calculations for Transient Events and Other Improvements to an Acoustical Tactical Decision Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. K.; Nguyen, V. A.; Srour, Nassy; Noble, John

    2002-08-01

    Recent enhancements to an acoustical tactical decision aid, called the Acoustic Battlefield Aid (ABFA), are described. ABFA predicts the effects of the atmosphere and local terrain on the performance of acoustical sensors, using advanced sound propagation models. Among the enhancements are: (1) sound-exposure and detection calculations for moving and transient sources, (2) new display capabilities including loading of vector-map features from CDs, (3) an interactive menu for entering and managing acoustical and meteorological ground properties, (4) initialization of runs from field trials stored in the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Automatic Target Recognition Acoustic Database, (5) a Java-based interface to numerical weather forecast data over the Internet, and (6) creation of a Windows executable version using the MATLAB compiler.

  17. The Weather Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Emma Grasser

    2012-09-27

    This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

  18. Science Sampler: Weather RATS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Taft

    2006-02-01

    Weather RATS, or Weather Research and Tracking Systems, is a collaborative effort among a national network of K-12 students, their teachers, wireless weather stations, internet data sharing, and professional engineers and meteorologists. Weather Rats is a new way to teach K-12 science and technology by tracking and comparing weather data from schools in Massachusetts, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Puerto Rico. In addition, it is hoped through this enriching project that Weather RATS will inspire many more students, especially girls and minorities, to pursue careers in science and engineering as a result of this project.

  19. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  20. Interactive Weather Information Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

  1. Weather and Precipitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Jones

    2012-04-12

    How are different types of weather common in our everyday life? How can we use what we know about weather to go about everyday activities? First, use the Weather Chart to write down what you learn from each website. Then, go to Weather Information Website #1 and click on "What's the Weather?" to dress the bear for the day. Make sure you write it down on your graphic organizer. Next, go to Weather Information Website #3 and explore at least 5(clouds, thunderstorms, winter storms, etc.) of ...

  2. Avoiding Statistical Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

  3. Internet Weather Links: Weather and Weather Related Lesson Plans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet Weather Links is a collection of lesson plans provided by the Utah Education Network's Weather Report Web site. The activities are organized by grade level from kindergarten to fourth grade and include such topics as Sunny Colors, Weather in a Box, Changes Due to Freezing, and Geological Features. Each lesson is well organized with explanations of its objectives, intended learning outcomes, and instructional procedures. Downloadable documents, related links, extensions to the lesson, and even rating systems for teachers are also provided, making it a great resource especially for use with younger students.

  4. Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  5. Do as we wish: Parental tactics of mate choice manipulation.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2013-01-01

    The mate choices of children do not always meet with the approval of their parents. As a consequence, the latter employ a battery of tactics that they use to manipulate the mating behavior of the former. This paper offers the first taxonomy of parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. In particular, in Study 1, 57 semi-structured interviews revealed 72 acts that parents employ to influence their children, and 27 that they employ to influence their children's partners. In Study 2, 405 parents rated how likely they were to use these acts to influence their daughters' and sons' mate choices. Factor analysis of participants' responses revealed 12 manipulation tactics that parents use on their children, and four manipulation tactics that they use on their children's partners. PMID:23906764

  6. 78 FR 40264 - First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...Administration First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S...Reference--Structure, Scope, Leadership Anticipated Issues for TOC consideration and action at the next meeting. Any Other...

  7. 78 FR 16757 - First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...Administration First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S...Discussion FAA Task Groups Discussion Anticipated Issues for TOC consideration and action at the next meeting. Any Other...

  8. Tactical emergency medical services: an emerging subspecialty of emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Heiskell, L E; Carmona, R H

    1994-04-01

    Law enforcement agencies are recognizing the need to have emergency medical care available at the scene of any incident involving tactical operations. The potentially volatile and dangerous atmosphere surrounding tactical operations is conducive to severe injury to officers, hostages, suspects, and bystanders. This mandates the immediate availability of basic and advanced life support services. However, a purely traditional approach to emergency medical services in the tactical environment may not be feasible and may expose prehospital personnel to greater danger. It also may disrupt the law enforcement mission. These factors mandate a different set of field assessment and treatment priorities. To meet these needs, selected prehospital personnel and emergency physicians train to work with and support special weapons and tactics teams. PMID:8161047

  9. On Observing the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Crane

    2004-05-01

    In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

  10. Winter Weather: Hypothermia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... be successfully resuscitated. More Information: Frostbite Disasters & Severe Weather ... Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  11. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Outdoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  12. In Depth Winter Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    Winter Weather is an In-Depth Special Report form the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It contains articles, images, activities, video clips, and interactive graphs to inform learners about meteorology and weather in the colder seasons.

  13. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  14. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  15. Alternative predatory tactics of an araneophagic assassin bug ( Stenolemus bituberus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Wignall; Phillip W. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    Predators of dangerous prey risk being injured or killed in counter-attacks and hence may use risk-reducing predatory tactics.\\u000a Spiders are often dangerous predators to insects, but for a few, including Stenolemus bituberus assassin bugs, web-building spiders are prey. Despite the dangers of counter-attack when hunting spiders, there has been\\u000a surprisingly little investigation of the predatory tactics used by araneophagic (spider-eating)

  16. Evaluation of atmospheric effects for operational tactical decision aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Tomiyama

    1988-01-01

    The Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) is an integrated target\\/atmosphere\\/sensor model that is used to estimate target acquisition ranges for infrared sensors. It employs an extensive 8000-plus line computer code, LOWTRAN-6, to evaluate the atmospheric extinction of infrared signals for various climatological conditions. The Operational Tactical Decision Aid (OTDA) is a simplified version of the TDA housed on an HP-41CX, a

  17. How's the Weather Today?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to think about the weather in their area and introduces them to weather and temperature trends in different latitudes of the United States. They will look at the current weather map and record the high temperatures for a few cities. They will conclude by drawing pictures of themselves outdoors in their hometown and in another place that has different weather.

  18. Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

  19. Stormfax Weather Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-06-10

    This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

  20. Method for detecting and avoiding flight hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Viebahn, Harro; Schiefele, Jens

    1997-06-01

    Today's aircraft equipment comprise several independent warning and hazard avoidance systems like GPWS, TCAS or weather radar. It is the pilot's task to monitor all these systems and take the appropriate action in case of an emerging hazardous situation. The developed method for detecting and avoiding flight hazards combines all potential external threats for an aircraft into a single system. It is based on an aircraft surrounding airspace model consisting of discrete volume elements. For each element of the volume the threat probability is derived or computed from sensor output, databases, or information provided via datalink. The position of the own aircraft is predicted by utilizing a probability distribution. This approach ensures that all potential positions of the aircraft within the near future are considered while weighting the most likely flight path. A conflict detection algorithm initiates an alarm in case the threat probability exceeds a threshold. An escape manoeuvre is generated taking into account all potential hazards in the vicinity, not only the one which caused the alarm. The pilot gets a visual information about the type, the locating, and severeness o the threat. The algorithm was implemented and tested in a flight simulator environment. The current version comprises traffic, terrain and obstacle hazards avoidance functions. Its general formulation allows an easy integration of e.g. weather information or airspace restrictions.

  1. Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

  2. Tactical skills of world-class youth soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Kannekens, Rianne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18-20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18-23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of variances and effect sizes were conducted to assess between- and within-team differences. There was a positive relationship between competitive standard and level of tactical skills: the higher-ranked (FIFA World Ranking 2005-2006; http://www.fifa.com) Dutch players outscored their Indonesian counterparts on the TACSIS subscales "knowing about ball actions" (F(1,36) = 10.58, P < 0.01), "knowing about others" (F(1,36) = 28.88, P < 0.01), and "positioning and deciding" (F(1,36) = 10.10, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no relationship between tactical skills and playing time (P > 0.05) in the Dutch team, whereas in the Indonesian team one procedural knowledge factor ("positioning and deciding") did show a positive association (effect size = 0.99). In conclusion, tactical skills are fundamental to high-level soccer performance. Ample, expert-led training and match experience at a high competitive standard, starting at a young age, and high-quality talent development programmes are suggested as key ingredients for the development of good tactical skills. PMID:19437183

  3. Space Weather Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Environment Center

    The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

  4. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  5. Weather Girl Goes Rogue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deep Rogue Ram

    This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

  6. Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic

    This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

  7. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  8. Weather Maps in Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Burrows

    In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

  9. METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa U.S.A. Yun-Ching Lin submitted to Weather and Forecasting July 05, 2010 Corresponding author: Dr. Mong-Ming Lu, Central Weather

  10. Spaceborne weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Meneghini; Toshiaki Kozu

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of

  11. Weather Data Gamification 

    E-print Network

    Gargate, Rohit

    2013-07-25

    . With the huge amount of weather data available, we have designed and developed a fantasy weather game. People manage a team of cities with the goal of predicting weather better than other players in their league, and in the process gain an understanding...

  12. Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies ( Leucorrhinia intacta ): plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Waltz; Larry L. Wolf

    1988-01-01

    Summary Alternative tactics used by males to obtain mates usually are associated with genetic and\\/or phenotypic differences between the behavioral morphs. This system of white-faced dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta) alternatives is characterized by plasticity of tactical options for individual males. Males may act either as territorials, and defend small perch-centered territories on the study pond, or they act as transients, spending

  13. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  14. Tactical cockpits: flat panel design imperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1995-06-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpit used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  15. Operational Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will describe the early days of the EOS Aqua and Aura operational collision avoidance process. It will highlight EOS debris avoidance maneuvers, EOS high interest event statistic and A-Train systematic conjunctions and conclude with future challenges. This is related to earlier e-DAA (tracking number 21692) that an abstract was submitted to a different conference. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved this presentation on May 6, 2015

  16. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of male alternative reproductive tactics in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Mank, Judith E; Avise, John C

    2006-06-01

    Using comparative phylogenetic analysis, we analyzed the evolution of male alternative reproductive tactics (MARTs) in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Numerous independent origins for each type of MART (involving sneaker males, female mimics, pirates, and satellite males) indicate that these behaviors have been highly labile across actinopterygiian evolution, consistent with a previous notion that convergent selection in fishes can readily mold the underlying suites of reproductive hormones into similar behaviors. The evolutionary appearance of MARTs was significantly correlated with the presence of sexually selected traits in bourgeois males (P = 0.001) but not with the presence of male parental care. This suggests that MARTs often arise from selection on some males to circumvent bourgeois male investment in mate monopolization, rather than to avoid male brood care per se. We found parsimony evidence for an evolutionary progression of MARTs wherein sneaking is usually the evolutionary precursor to the presumably more complex MARTs of female mimicry and cooperative satellite behavior. Nest piracy appears not to be part of this evolutionary progression, possibly because its late onset in the life cycle of most ray-finned fishes reduces the effects of selection on this reproductive tactic. PMID:16892981

  17. Weather affects us

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimmy

    2009-11-09

    2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

  18. Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2000-01-01

    In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.

  19. Systems and Techniques for Identifying and Avoiding Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John

    1995-01-01

    In-flight icing is one of the most difficult aviation weather hazards facing general aviation. Because most aircraft in the general aviation category are not certified for flight into known icing conditions, techniques for identifying and avoiding in-flight ice are important to maintain safety while increasing the utility and dispatch capability which is part of the AGATE vision. This report summarizes a brief study effort which: (1) Reviewed current ice identification, forecasting, and avoidance techniques; (2) Assessed feasibility of improved forecasting and ice avoidance procedures; and (3) Identified key issues for the development of improved capability with regard to in-flight icing.

  20. Time Saving Tactics: Preparation Is the Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoster, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes techniques to avoid the time crunch and safety hazards associated with fitting labs into 45-minute periods. The author presents information on organizing people and things, adapting labs, and cleanup management. The author cautions against rushing a science lab to the point of compromising safety or student understanding. (PR)

  1. Space Mission Analysis & design for tactical spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swaminathan Balaraman; J. Shanmugam; K. Harendranath; Kiran

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to avoid the financial hurdle imposed by the physical constraints on objects orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), it is preferred to use High Elliptical Orbit (HEO) for broader coverage. It takes a huge amount of energy to be put objects in HEO. To provide similar benefits at a very low cost, the dasiaSpecial Orbitpsila was offered

  2. Testing of tactical performance in youth elite soccer.

    PubMed

    Memmert, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is a twofold study with the goals of evaluating tactical oriented game test situations for 12-13-year old highly-talented soccer players and to analyze dynamic, intra-individual developments of the players. A cross-sectional design was carried in study 1, using game test situations to measure specific tactics and creative performance for 195 expert players. The results from five evaluation criteria show that both diagnostic instruments can be used for recording football-specific creativity and game intelligence in talented young players. They produced tactical indicators that can be described as objective and valid, exhibit a sufficient degree of differentiation and are easy to record. Study 2 uses a longitudinal design to present a dynamic performance diagnostic tool for analyzing intra-individual improvements of German Soccer Foundation talents according to football-specific creativity and game intelligence. The results with respect to divergent tactical thinking clearly show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players. Finally, the practical implications for the training process are discussed on the basis of both studies. Key pointsWith game test situations it is possible to assess tactical performance as game intelligence and creativity objective, valid, with a sufficient degree of differentiation, and economically.The results with respect to game intelligence and creativity show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players dependend on the bases (trainers).Current literature on tactics for school sports as well as for children's, youth and high performance soccer at the club level should place much more emphasis on individual and group-tactical requirements in soccer. PMID:24149686

  3. National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

  4. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  5. Microbial efflux pump inhibition: tactics and strategies.

    PubMed

    Tegos, George P; Haynes, Mark; Strouse, J Jacob; Khan, Mohiuddin Md T; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Sklar, Larry A

    2011-01-01

    Traditional antimicrobials are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. To overcome these deficiencies, a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections are under investigation as potential alternative treatments. Multidrug efflux is a key target of these efforts. Efflux mechanisms are broadly recognized as major components of resistance to many classes of chemotherapeutic agents as well as antimicrobials. Efflux occurs due to the activity of membrane transporter proteins widely known as Multidrug Efflux Systems (MES). They are implicated in a variety of physiological roles other than efflux and identifying natural substrates and inhibitors is an active and expanding research discipline. One plausible alternative is the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules that block MES known as multidrug efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). An array of approaches in academic and industrial research settings, varying from high-throughput screening (HTS) ventures to bioassay guided purification and determination, have yielded a number of promising EPIs in a series of pathogenic systems. This synergistic discovery platform has been exploited in translational directions beyond the potentiation of conventional antimicrobial treatments. This venture attempts to highlight different tactical elements of this platform, identifying the need for highly informative and comprehensive EPI-discovery strategies. Advances in assay development genomics, proteomics as well as the accumulation of bioactivity and structural information regarding MES facilitates the basis for a new discovery era. This platform is expanding drastically. A combination of chemogenomics and chemoinformatics approaches will integrate data mining with virtual and physical HTS ventures and populate the chemical-biological interface with a plethora of novel chemotypes. This comprehensive step will expedite the preclinical development of lead EPIs. PMID:21470111

  6. Flight Departure Delay and Rerouting Under Uncertainty in En Route Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, Avijit; Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar

    2011-01-01

    Delays caused by uncertainty in weather forecasts can be reduced by improving traffic flow management decisions. This paper presents a methodology for traffic flow management under uncertainty in convective weather forecasts. An algorithm for assigning departure delays and reroutes to aircraft is presented. Departure delay and route assignment are executed at multiple stages, during which, updated weather forecasts and flight schedules are used. At each stage, weather forecasts up to a certain look-ahead time are treated as deterministic and flight scheduling is done to mitigate the impact of weather on four-dimensional flight trajectories. Uncertainty in weather forecasts during departure scheduling results in tactical airborne holding of flights. The amount of airborne holding depends on the accuracy of forecasts as well as the look-ahead time included in the departure scheduling. The weather forecast look-ahead time is varied systematically within the experiments performed in this paper to analyze its effect on flight delays. Based on the results, longer look-ahead times cause higher departure delays and additional flying time due to reroutes. However, the amount of airborne holding necessary to prevent weather incursions reduces when the forecast look-ahead times are higher. For the chosen day of traffic and weather, setting the look-ahead time to 90 minutes yields the lowest total delay cost.

  7. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  8. The utilization of risk assessments in tactical command decisions.

    PubMed

    Jederberg, Warren W; Still, Kenneth R; Briggs, G Bruce

    2002-04-01

    Traditional risk assessments (as delineated by regulatory agencies) use health outcome endpoints of interest to society as a whole, and are based on broad assumptions about the demographics of the potentially exposed populations and the routes of exposure. Immediacy of impact is not normally a major consideration. In tactical situations, the commander must balance considerations of short-term health effects against mission accomplishment. Often the commander will decide to accept a risk that would not be considered under other circumstances. The traditional tools of human-health and environmental risk assessment may be used, but the risk levels and projected consequences must be adapted to the tactical scenario (i.e. the performance decrement associated with a short-term exposure tactical operation vs. the long-term health out-come for an exposed population under 'normal conditions'). Risk assessors and health professionals must learn to articulate risk in terms that the tactical commander can place in his operational risk management (ORM) process. The process may require that the commander weigh non-health related mission critical considerations against health outcome issues. This presentation is intended to begin a dialogue that will lead to a harmonization of the use of risk assessment tools and their application in ORM as seen by tactical commanders, and a clarification of the strengths and limits of their utility in such applications. PMID:12013539

  9. Collision Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Ames Research Center teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to study human performance factors associated with the use of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance system (TCAS II) in an operational environment. TCAS is designed to alert pilots of the presence of other aircraft in their vicinity, to identify and track those who could be a threat, and to recommend action to avoid a collision. Ames conducted three laboratory experiments. The first showed that pilots were able to use the TCAS II correctly in the allowable time. The second tested pilots' response to changes in the avoidance advisories, and the third examined pilots' reactions to alternative displays. After a 1989 congressional mandate, the FAA ruled that TCAS would be required on all passenger carrying aircraft (to be phased in completely by 1995).

  10. NOAA Daily Weather Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

    2011-01-01

    The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

  11. Survival tactics of Ranunculus species in river floodplains.

    PubMed

    He, J B; Bögemann, G M; van de Steeg, H M; Rijnders, J G; Voesenek, L A; Blom, C W

    1999-01-01

    The flooding resistance of four Ranunculus species was studied under controlled conditions and related to the tactics used by these species to survive in their natural habitat in river floodplains. R. bulbosus, a species from seldom-flooded river levées, was relatively intolerant of both waterlogging and complete submergence, due to a constitutively low level of aerenchyma in the root system. This lack of gas spaces resulted in high mortality rates during flooding treatments and an inability to use photosynthetically derived oxygen for root respiration during complete submergence. The pioneer R. sceleratus, predominantly abundant in low lying mudflats, was very resistant to waterlogging and shallow floods. Due to its constitutively high root porosity and its ability to greatly increase the elongation rate of petioles under water this species can ameliorate flooding stress. However, when leaf blades of R. sceleratus were unable to reach the water surface, this species died as quickly as the flooding-intolerant R. bulbosus. This indicates that fast elongation of petioles under water competes for energy and respirable reserves with maintenance processes. R. repens, a species from lower, frequently inundated floodplains, was very tolerant of prolonged waterlogging and submergence. Its high resistance to complete submergence under continuous darkness indicates that this species tolerates hypoxic and/or anoxic tissue conditions via metabolic adjustments. Lysigenous aerenchyma was also induced in the primary root system and in newly developed laterals, and it was able to use oxygen generated by underwater photosynthesis, for root respiration. R. acris, a species from less frequently flooded areas, was as resistant to waterlogging and submergence in the light as R. repens. However, it has a lower resistance than R. repens to complete submergence in the dark. A submergence pre-treatment increased the maximum net underwater photosynthetic rate in R. bulbosus, whereas a significant decrease of light compensation points was observed in R. repens when it had previously been submerged. This study shows that Ranunculus species exhibit various strategies to cope with different flooding conditions. R. repens responds to flooding by its tolerance mechanism and R. sceleratus by avoidance. R. acris ameliorates submergence and R. bulbosus was not able to adapt high water tables. PMID:20135154

  12. Space Weather Media Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.

  13. Everything Weather- Archived Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

  14. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  15. Weather and Climate Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

  16. Winter weather activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitney Frankovic

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

  17. The eyesafe visioceilometer - A tactical visibility and cloud height lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, E. S.; Lentz, W. J.

    A recent breakthrough in the mathematical solution to the lidar equation combined with state-of-the-art microelectronics has made it possible to produce the first portable ceiling, visibility, and rangefinding device suitable for tactical use by the U.S. Army. The signal processor of the former XE-2 (Nd:YAG) can be adapted to an eyesafe unit by making use of an erbium glass laser and a GaInAs PIN photodiode detector. It is pointed out that the XE-3 (Eyesafe Visioceilometer) provides tactical real-time data when and where the user needs it, with an accuracy superior to existing nonportable runway equipment. Attention is given to system evolution, lidar theory, the relationship of backscattering and extinction coefficients, a system description, the transient recorder, the analysis of data, and details regarding tactical applications.

  18. “Replacing” Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Tactical Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James M

    2006-01-01

    A number of textbooks and professional volumes in applied behavior analysis suggest that interventions designed primarily to decrease a problem behavior should routinely be accompanied by efforts to increase the frequency of at least one appropriate behavior. Some sources describe the objective of this tactic as “replacing” the problem behavior. This paper considers rationales that might underlie this advice, as well as reasons why a general rule to this effect is inappropriate. This review reveals that although there may well be good reasons for considering this tactic, their rationales are often not well articulated and may even be unsound. It is also the case that there are good reasons why this tactic may not always be necessary, thus conflicting with an argument for a general rule. PMID:22478450

  19. Weather assessment and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

  20. Net-Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Net-Weather presents a host of meteorological information for the UK at this website. Users can find out seasonal, monthly, 10-day, and additional relevant weather forecasts. The Charts and Data link offers live satellite images, links to numerous forecast models, and data on sea temperatures and anomalies. For people who like winter and snow, the website offers interesting stories about famous British winters as well as snow reports. The Net-Weather Forum is a great place to discuss any weather-related topic.

  1. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  2. Winter Storm (weather)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aubree Miller

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

  3. Living in the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-12-13

    What is weather? Is climate different from weather? It doesn't matter where you live or where you travel, weather patterns influence your daily life. In this guide, students will engage in exploring and predicting the conditions in the atmosphere that are responsible for weather patterns and climatic conditions, and investigate how extreme weather impacts humans and the environment. While many of the keywords embedded into the "Living in the Weather" themes will be familiar, do your students really understand them? This guide provides teacher-tested, reliable links that allow you and your students to "surf" the internet in a quest to better understand how atmospheric conditions directly relate to weather on Earth. Understanding weather and climate can be a great opportunity for you to engage students in topics and themes that connect Earth and space science, life science, and physical science in a real way. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) focus on the study of weather and climate and their impact on human life. This guide uses the ongoing work and technology of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (known to the public simply as NOAA). NOAA scientists study our planet Earth in a global way. Working together with scientists worldwide, NOAA scientists study the diversity of living organisms (including humans) and their impact on our environment--not only in our country but in every country and continent around the world.

  4. Washington Post Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

  5. Avoiding medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Omar, Y

    2013-03-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404

  6. Avoiding the "M" Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

  7. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  8. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times of the aircraft. Findings from these initial experiments indicate that it is possible to schedule arrivals into Anchorage with minimal delays under low-visibility conditions with less disruption to high-cost, international flights.

  9. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  10. Multilingual Weather Forecast Generation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianfang Yao; Dongmo Zhang; Qian Wang

    The MLWFA (Multilingual Weather Forecasts Assistant) system will be demonstrated. It is developed to generate the multilingual text of the weather forecasts automatically. The raw data from the weather observation can be used to generate the weather element chart. According to the weather change trend, the forecasters can directly modify the value Of the element on the chart, such as

  11. Integration of Emergency Medical Services and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Teams: The Emergence of the Tactically Trained Medic.

    PubMed

    McArdle, D Q; Rasumoff, D; Kolman, J

    1992-09-01

    The emphasis of training for paramedics that function in the civilian sector in the United States has focused on the management of blunt trauma. The personal risks they face generally are the result of accidents or public health threats. The management of penetrating trauma under the threat of intentional personal harm is a different matter.Law enforcement agencies have responded to the threat of apprehending heavily armed felons by forming special units highly trained in military-style, small-unit tactics. To provide care in this special environment, and support a special weapons and tactics (SWAT) team in fulfilling its mission, there is a requirment for a unique body of knowledge and special skills. (Prehospital care providers with at least emergency medical technician [EMT] skills and SWAT training will be referred to as tactical medics.). PMID:24246162

  12. A novel mobile approach to investigating mating tactics in male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Lidgard; D. J. Boness; W. D. Bowen

    2001-01-01

    Studies of the grey seal Halichoerus grypus mating system, using focal animal sampling constrained by study site location and size, limit the measurement of variation in male mating tactics and success. Using this method, the mating tactics of grey seal males have been classified as either 'tenured' or 'transient'. Preliminary evidence is presented of wider variation in male mating tactics

  13. Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning: Theoretical and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Griffin, Linda L.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning as valuable instructional models in physical education. Situated learning is used as a theoretical framework and connection between Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning. The structures of Sport Education, Tactical Games, and…

  14. Event tactic analysis based on player and ball trajectory in broadcast video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyu Zhu; Changsheng Xu; Yi Zhang; Qingming Huang; Hanqing Lu

    2008-01-01

    Most of existing approaches on sports video analysis are concentrated on semantic event detection which is general audience oriented and the extracted events are presented to the audience without further analysis from tactic perspective. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to extract the tactic information and recognize the tactic patterns from goal events in broadcast soccer video. We

  15. Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning: Theoretical and Pedagogical Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Dyson; Linda L. Griffin; Peter Hastie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning as valuable instructional models in physical education. Situated learning is used as a theoretical framework and connection between Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning. The structures of Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning allow for participation to occur in a student-centered learning curriculum

  16. LG based decision aid for naval tactical action officer's (TAO) workstation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Stilman; Vladimir Yakhnis; Oleg Umanskiy; Ron Boyd

    2005-01-01

    In the increasingly NetCentric battlespace of the 21st century, Stilman Advanced Strategies Linguistic Geometry software has the potential to revolutionize the way that the Navy fights in two key areas: as a Tactical Decision Aid and for creating a relevant Common Operating Picture. Incorporating STILMAN's software into a prototype Tactical Action Officers (TAO) workstation as a Tactical Decision Aid (TDA)

  17. DISRUPTION-TOLERANT CONTENT-DRIVEN INFORMATION DISSEMINATION IN PARTIALLY CONNECTED MILITARY TACTICAL RADIO NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    tactical radio network mobility or lacunar deployment of these units, shadow loss, spot jamming, or even TACTICAL RADIO NETWORKS Julien Haillot and Frédéric Guidec VALORIA, Université de Bretagne Sud Université of supporting communication in partially connected military tactical radio networks. In such networks

  18. Avoidance Learning TIAGO V. MAIA

    E-print Network

    in avoidance learning have been shown to generalize across species, and theories of avoidance learning for avoidance learning was based on Pavlov's stimulus-substitution theory. In Pavlov's experiments, a neutralAvoidance Learning TIAGO V. MAIA Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University and New York State

  19. Home Weatherization Visit

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  20. People and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  1. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  2. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  3. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  4. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  5. Weather Vane and Anemometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

  6. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  7. Northwest Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Palewicz

    This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

  8. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  9. Weather and radar interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Booth

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of weather on radar system performance. This discussion were based on computer simulations and climatological data. The relationships between frequency and range were explored as they interact with the weather. This effort is being conducted in the RF Technology Division of the Applied Sensors, Guidance, and Electronics Directorate, US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development,

  10. Advanced Aviation Weather Forecasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn M. Wolfson; David A. Clark

    2006-01-01

    n The U.S. air transportation system faces a continuously growing gap between the demand for air transportation and the capacity to meet that demand. Two key obstacles to bridging this gap are traffic delays due to en route severe- weather conditions and airport weather conditions. Lincoln Laboratory has been addressing these traffic delays and related safety problems under the Federal

  11. New weather forecasting aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new, computerized weather analysis and display system developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is being used to provide air traffic controllers in Colorado with up-to-date information on weather systems that could affect aircraft within their control areas. The system, called PROFS (Prototype Regional Observing and Forecasting Services), was under development for four years at NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories in Boulder, and is undergoing operational evaluation at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in Longmont, Colo. FAA officials see the new system as a first step in upgrading the weather support services for the nation's air traffic control system. Originally created to help National Weather Service personnel with their forecasting duties (Eos, April 13, 1982, p. 233), the PROFS system was specially tailored for aviation use before being installed at the Longmont center. The system uses computers to process weather data from satellites, regional radar, wind profilers, a network of automated weather stations in eastern Colorado, and other sources, some of which are not normally available to forecasters. When this information is collected and formatted, weather personnel at the center can choose from several types of visual display on their terminals, depending on what information they require. The forecasters can then make printed copies of any display and distribute them within moments to controllers who use the information to alert air traffic to storms, wind shifts, and other weather disturbances.

  12. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  13. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2011-06-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  14. Ruminative coping as avoidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Stroebe; Paul A. Boelen; Marcel van den Hout; Wolfgang Stroebe; Elske Salemink; Jan van den Bout

    2007-01-01

    The paper argues for a reconceptualization of ruminative coping with the death of a loved one as an avoidant rather than a\\u000a confrontational strategy. Ruminative coping has been characterized within the bereavement field as persistent, repetitive\\u000a and passive focus on negative emotions and symptoms. It has been theoretically described and empirically shown to be a maladaptive\\u000a process, being conceptually related

  15. Aircraft wake turbulence avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analytical studies and flight tests are used to describe the formation and severity of trailing vortices and the spatial extent of their influence. This information is then used to outline procedures for ready application by pilots, tower operators, and others concerned with the flow of traffic. The procedures provide the necessary appreciation of the physical attributes of trailing vortices, the potential hazards involved when encountering them, and how best to avoid the dangerous portions of the wake during flight operations.

  16. Predicting the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

  17. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  18. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  19. Weather Event Simulator Weather Event Simulator

    E-print Network

    Training Branch National Weather Service Norman, OK John Ferree Warning Decision Training Branch National for Applied Behavioral Science D iscus Audio/ Teac Le #12;Learn By DoingLearn By Doing #12;Simulations Improve ­ All Major Airlines ­ Flight Schools #12;Simulations Improve Job Performance Simulations Improve Job

  20. Cognitive information fusion of georeferenced data for tactical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Shi; Ken Barker; Reda Alhajj

    2005-01-01

    Georeferenced data from multiple autonomous sources for defined AOI (areas of interest) can be fused and analyzed in support of various decision-making processes such as risk assessment, emergency response, situation awareness and tactical planning. However, data from multiple heterogeneous sources may be in different formats, scales, qualities and coverage. All these characteristics of multi-source spatial data limit the use of

  1. Tactics and Factors That Increase Response Rates to Mailed Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillihunt, Vivian C.

    Research findings on identification of factors associated with increasing response rates to mailed questionnaires are presented. Several tactics which have been used to effect a greater response rate are presented and explained. Physical factors, such as typed correspondence, have been shown to yield higher response rates than duplicated…

  2. U-99 uninhabited tactical aircraft preliminary systems design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Smith

    2001-01-01

    The systems aspects of an uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) preliminary design are detailed. The study, performed at the post-graduate level at Cranfield University, looks to investigate the feasibility of unmanned combat aircraft in a number of roles to reduce the risk to pilots and reduce life cycle costs (LCC). The scope of the work includes stealth, vulnerability, mission effectiveness, avionics,

  3. Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

  4. Effectiveness of Relationship Marketing Tactics in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchia, Philip J.; Finney, R. Zachary; Finney, Treena Gillespie

    2013-01-01

    We test the correlation between student perception of three university relationship-building tactics--commercial friendships, preferential treatment, and tangible rewards--with university student satisfaction. We also test whether two student characteristics--enduring involvement with education and sense of entitlement--have a moderating effect on…

  5. Augmented Cognition for Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System Operators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Tremoulet; Joyce Barton; Patrick Craven; Adam Gifford; Nick Morizio; Nadya Belov; Kathleen Stibler; Susan Harkness Regli; Michael Thomas

    Twelve individuals took part in an experiment which investigated the feasibility of using physiological sensors to apply a pacing mitigation strategy to help prevent cognitive-overload-induced performance declines. The participants performed tasks using a simulated Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) while wearing electroencephalograph (EEG), electrocardiograph (EKG), and galvanic skin response (GSR) sensors. The tasks, retargeting missiles in response to emergent

  6. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance

    PubMed Central

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

  7. Safety Tactics for Software Architecture Design Weihang Wu Tim Kelly

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Tim

    Safety Tactics for Software Architecture Design Weihang Wu Tim Kelly Department of Computer Science of architecture in assurance of system safety is being increasingly recognised in mission-critical software to ensure safety of these systems. Moreover, many software safety standards fail to discuss the rationale

  8. Tactical Intelligence Tools for Distributed Agile Control of Air Operations

    E-print Network

    Gautam, Natarajan

    Tactical Intelligence Tools for Distributed Agile Control of Air Operations Shashi Phoha Applied to expected and unexpected changes. The intelligent control of the enterprise, then, consists of (i) continual intelligence tools which process necessary transient and situational information for the agents to execute

  9. Modelling Human Emotions for Tactical Decision-Making Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny

    2013-01-01

    The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…

  10. Situation assessment in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Paladin is a real-time tactical decision generator for air combat engagements. Paladin uses specialized knowledge-based systems and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to address the modern air combat environment and agile aircraft in a clear and concise manner. Paladin is designed to provide insight into both the tactical benefits and the costs of enhanced agility. The system was developed using the Lisp programming language on a specialized AI workstation. Paladin utilizes a set of air combat rules, an active throttle controller, and a situation assessment module that have been implemented as a set of highly specialized knowledge-based systems. The situation assessment module was developed to determine the tactical mode of operation (aggressive, defensive, neutral, evasive, or disengagement) used by Paladin at each decision point in the air combat engagement. Paladin uses the situation assessment module; the situationally dependent modes of operation to more accurately represent the complex decision-making process of human pilots. This allows Paladin to adapt its tactics to the current situation and improves system performance. Discussed here are the details of Paladin's situation assessment and modes of operation. The results of simulation testing showing the error introduced into the situation assessment module due to estimation errors in positional and geometric data for the opponent aircraft are presented. Implementation issues for real-time performance are discussed and several solutions are presented, including Paladin's use of an inference engine designed for real-time execution.

  11. Tactical Decision Competency of Preservice Physical Education Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margo M.; Henninger, Mary L.; Carlson, Kristin B.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent publication of the "National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education" (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2009) requires physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to demonstrate that teacher candidates display both tactical knowledge and physical competence.…

  12. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  13. A trust-based security architecture for tactical MANETS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannick Lacharité; Dang Quan Nguyen; Maoyu Wang; Louise Lamont

    2008-01-01

    Security is a main concern in the establishment of tactical MANETs. Literature is abundant in defining protocol extensions to provide more secure MANET communications. Also many techniques have been developed to identify different types of network attacks, such as the wormhole attack, for example. However, all these security solutions are designed for specific routing protocols. In the absence of a

  14. Behavioral tactics of subadult female floaters in the tree swallow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridget J. Stutchbury; Raleigh J. Robertson

    1987-01-01

    There are large numbers of reproductively mature female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) which do not breed due to limits of suitable nesting cavities. Many of these floaters are one-year-old females that have a distinctive subadult plumage. This study examines the behavioral tactics that these subadult female floaters use to obtain breeding opportunities. Early in the season, subadult floaters tended to

  15. Real-time Cooperative Behavior for Tactical Mobile Robot Teams

    E-print Network

    Real-time Cooperative Behavior for Tactical Mobile Robot Teams February 2000 Thomas R. Collins and Ronald C. Arkin Georgia Tech #12;Overview · Ft. Sam Houston results and lessons learned ­ additional-Time Advisor · Usability studies ­ test scenarios ­ procedures and plans · Linux 6.x port #12;Ft. Sam

  16. MARKETING HOSPICE MORE EFFECTIVELY: GRAND STRATEGY VERSUS TRIVIAL TACTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willard A. Sullivan

    Building on the work of Winston, Starnes & Self, and others, this article explores both tactical niche marketing ideas for smaller, independent hospices, and presents strategic options for larger, regional hospice providers and national hospice organizations. This article also provides justification for the extension of the marketing model to include and permit \\

  17. Career management tactical innovations and successful interorganizational transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally J. Power

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the major variables that should be studied when exploring the relationship of innovations in career management tactics and successful or unsuccessful interorganizational transitions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study takes a conceptual stance, using the careers and diffusion of innovation literature to identify the major variables. Findings – Two innovations and two

  18. Requirements and challenges for tactical free-space Lasercomm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santanu Das; H. Henniger; B. Epple; C. I. Moore; W. Rabinovich; R. Sova; D. Young

    2008-01-01

    Mobile free-space laser communications is the next frontier for net-centric connectivity, as bandwidth, spectrum and security issues drive its adoption as an adjunct to RF communications. However, key technology challenges must be addressed and mission requirements understood for it to emerge as a meaningful capability for dynamic tactical communications environments. We present a brief overview of the current military communication

  19. Male Sexual Polymorphism, Alternative Reproductive Tactics, and Androgens in

    E-print Network

    "sneaker" fertilizations (e.g., sneaker and satellite males). In combtooth blennies (Blenniidae) the co. Interestingly, while in the peacock blenny the alternative male morph adopts a sneaker tactic, in the rock and that the admin- istration of sex steroids should be effective in promoting the switch from the parasitic

  20. Ship signature measurements for tactical decision-aid input

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred W. Cooper; Edmund A. Milne; Eugene C. Crittenden; Philip L. Walker; E. Moore; William J. Lentz

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of evaluation and experimental validation of FLIR Tactical Decision Aid performance codes, a series of measurements has been made of ship radiance temperature distributions together with sea and sky backgrounds. The measurements have been made at ranges from one quarter to one mile off the coastline in Monterey Bay, using a land- mounted Agema

  1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) BASED TACTICAL GUIDANCE FOR FIGHTER AIRCRAFT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. McManus; Kenneth H. Goodrich

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is

  2. Identification of Non-Specific Tactical Tasks in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background and significance: The notion of transferability (i.e. sampling) has been put forward as one of four core pedagogical principles for games teaching. The sampling principle was based on the premise that it may be possible to show the existence of tactical similarities between apparently dissimilar games, leading to a much better overall…

  3. High value target modeling for tactical decision aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Weiss; L. E. Link

    1984-01-01

    As part of a program to select an optimal tactical weapon system for specified environmental conditions a procedure is presented for predicting the apparent infrared image of a target in a background that would be seen by an infrared sensor in a missile or airplane. Environmental effects are introduced through the exchange of energy between the target, atmosphere, and background

  4. Design and evaluation of a tactical decision aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Urban

    1990-01-01

    Design considerations and a part-task evaluation methodology for a submarine weapon-employment aid are discussed. The domain of SALVO is submarine torpedo attack, specifically engagements in which multiple torpedoes are fired against multiple targets. The aid provides assessment and planning features. These features are included as modules in a software toolbox, which the decision maker can call upon as the tactical

  5. Multi-facilities tactical planning robustness with experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Genin; S. Lamouri; A. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of tactical planning robustness of a three-level multi-facilities supply chain. Robustness to uncontrollable factors such as demand is an increasing concern because of the key role played in supply chain planning. This study aims at proposing an approach based on an experimental design and the use of signal to noise ratio as developed by Taguchi

  6. Supporting Threat Response Management in a Tactical Naval Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Chalmers

    In this paper, we describe some of the initial results from applying a Cognitive Systems Engineering approach to develop representational aids to support single-ship threat response management on a Canadian Navy HALIFAX Class Frigate. We focused on the integration of the warfare plans by the ship's tactical coordinator within and across the air, surface, and subsurface warfare areas. We conducted

  7. A predatorprey model with predators using hawk and dove tactics

    E-print Network

    Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    of the predators. A classical Lotka­Volterra model with self-limiting prey describes the predator­prey interaction on prey density. We assume that the demographic process, predator­prey interactions, acts at a slow timeA predator­prey model with predators using hawk and dove tactics Pierre Auger a,*, Rafael Bravo de

  8. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  9. The role of tactical emergency medical support in hostage and crisis negotiations.

    PubMed

    Greenstone, J L

    1998-01-01

    The use of tactical medics by members of hostage and crisis negotiations teams has not been examined in the literature or in the field. Usually, negotiations teams are deployed within the confines of the established inner perimeter along with the tactical team and tactical medics. While the likelihood of injuries or performance degrading medical problems for negotiators is less than that expected for Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team members, they may occur and need attention. Additionally, there are other roles that tactical medical personnel can play that are specific to the needs of police negotiators. This article will examine these possible roles. PMID:10346408

  10. Ringed seal post-moulting movement tactics and habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Kovacs, Kit M; Ims, Rolf A; Fedak, Michael A; Lydersen, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Intra-specific and intra-population variation in movement tactics have been observed in many species, sometimes in association with alternative foraging techniques or large-scale habitat selection. However, whether animals adjust their small-scale habitat selection according to their large-scale tactics has rarely been studied. This study identified two large-scale movement tactics in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) during their non-breeding, post-moulting period. First-passage times (FPT) were used to explore these large-scale patterns. Subsequently, habitat selection was quantified by modelling the FPTs as a function of habitat attributes using Cox proportional hazards models. Some seals moved far offshore into areas preferentially containing 40-80% ice coverage, while other individuals spread along the coasts of Svalbard concentrating their time near glacier fronts. Both tactics resulted in ringed seals being in highly productive areas where they had access to ice-platforms to rest. When offshore, habitat selection was influenced mainly by sea ice concentration and season. Late in the season (autumn), increased risk of leaving an area was identified, even when ice conditions were still favourable, reflecting their need to return to over-wintering/breeding areas before the fjords of the archipelago freeze. For ringed seals that remained inshore, habitat use intensities were influenced mainly by the distance to glacier fronts and season. These animals were already close to their over-wintering habitat and hence their risk of leaving an area decreased as winter approached. This study of ringed seals habitat selection reveals how they fulfil their biological requirements in this dynamic, heterogeneous habitat. Individuals within the same population employed two distinct large-scale movement tactics, adjusting their decisions for small-scale habitat selection accordingly. This flexibility in ringed seal spatial ecology during summer and fall is expected to result in increased population viability in this high Arctic environment. PMID:17990001

  11. Space Weather CD

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-10

    This is a software package about space weather: what it is and what it does in space and here on Earth. The disc includes software that displays movies and images of the aurora and of the Sun in various wavelengths from the ground and from orbiting NASA spacecraft; a tutorial about what space weather is and how the aurora is formed; and more. Users will also find real-time space weather conditions from current satellite missions and can download the latest data without leaving the Space Weather application. A TicTacToe game is also included that tests space weather knowledge. The disc contains many other Space Weather resources, programs, sounds, and games for use at home or school, and there are several educational websites included in full on the disc for offline viewing. In addition there is an exhaustive list of links to a variety of space weather resources available online. The disc is available for free from a number of sites if downloaded.

  12. Pareto Meta-heuristics for Generating Safe Flight Trajectories Under Weather Hazards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Alam; Lam Thu Bui; Hussein A. Abbass; Michael Barlow

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper compares ant colony optimization (ACO) and evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) for the weather avoidance in a free flight environment. The problem involves a number,of potentially conflicting objectives such as minimizing deviations, weather avoidance, minimizing distance traveled and hard constraints like aircraft performance. Therefore, we modeled the problem as a multi-objective problem with the aim of finding a

  13. Weather satellite launched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    NASA launched on 24 May the weather satellite GOES-N, the first of the new N series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The satellite, which becomes GOES-13 once it reaches its final orbit, joins the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collection of weather satellites that provide the agency with data for weather forecasts and warnings. The GOES-N series has several improvements over previous GOES satellites. A highly stable pointing platform will allow improved performance from the satellite's sounder-which gathers atmospheric data- and its imager. In addition, the satellite will enable NOAA to improve forecasts and warnings of solar disturbances.

  14. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  15. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

  16. Sun, weather, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships, that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown causal mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climatic trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments.

  17. Weather Observing Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2014-03-11

    "Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

  18. World Weather Information Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

  19. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features visual resources and supporting data that illustrate the relationship between weather and climate. Resources are divided by topic including climate resources, weather forecasting, warnings and data, and evidence for global warming. Visualizations and data sets include GIS-based animated maps, static maps, simple animations, and links to real-time stream gauge data. This site provides an array of visual resources that help demonstrate the difference between weather and climate and may be incorporated into lectures, labs, or other activities.

  20. Avoiding Death by Vacuum

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. Ivanov; R. Santos; Joao P. Silva

    2013-05-08

    The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

  1. Astonishing Judo, first contact tactics: A Biomechanical evaluation of tactics at start of high level competitions

    E-print Network

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focalized on the limit application of judo throws, by tactics at first contact time, with some astonishing information at a first seeing, but biomechanically grounded, not often applied or because against the sound common sense or out the old oral judo tradition. To do so we provide an appraisal of the grips concept and his consequences in the Olympic sport judo from a biomechanics perspective, we will try to deeper both the concept and the function of grips and define the potential application of some throws without grips. Broadening this situation we try to underline some specific throwing situation in which grips are or not at all applied or applied in non conventional way. We describe at first the problem from the theoretical point of view. And as second point we try to find practical application, original or already developed in high level competitions. The provocative words Judo without grips or throw without grips are connected to the limit application of some biomechanical tricks, ground...

  2. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

  3. Negative maternal or paternal effects on tactic inheritance under a conditional strategy.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Angeloni, Lisa M; Baylis, Jeffrey R; Newman, Steven P

    2004-07-01

    Alternative behavioral and life-history tactics are common in animal populations. The conditional strategy model provides a powerful explanation for the evolution and persistence of such tactics, as it allows alternative tactics to be perpetuated even if there is tactic inheritance and tactics yield unequal mean fitness. In many biological systems negative maternal or paternal effects complicate the inheritance of condition and, hence, the inheritance of alternative tactics. Indeed, the inheritance of condition may result in the alternation of tactics across generations. In this paper, we show that the conditional strategy is robust to these effects on progeny condition. There is a unique and stable proportion of tactics under standard inheritance and unequal tactic fitness, and these two important properties of the conditional strategy hold even if negative maternal or paternal effects on progeny condition cause tactics to alternate across generations. However, the dynamics of tactic proportions pursuant to a perturbation of the equilibrium tactic proportions depend on the form of tactic inheritance. An application of our theoretical results to data from a population of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in which negative paternal effects dictate progeny condition reveals that age at first reproduction in males alternates regularly across generations. Furthermore, the model indicates that the population would return rapidly to equilibrium if the proportions of males that mature early or late in life were perturbed from the equilibrium within the system. This example shows how the model of the conditional strategy can be used to gain insight into tactic dynamics in situations where some of the model parameters are difficult or impossible to measure empirically. PMID:15341155

  4. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  5. Rates of Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

  6. Sun, weather, and climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Herman; R. A. Goldberg

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather\\/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5)

  7. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This standards-based unit has been created for use by students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, students develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities. The lesson plans have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum, and to allow for flexibility in implementation.

  8. Weather Radar Network Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesc Junyent; V. Chandrasekar

    2008-01-01

    The Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) is investigating the use of dense networks of short-range radars for weather sensing. A first test-bed of this new paradigm is currently deployed in southwest Oklahoma. The potential benefits of closely deployed, overlapping, short-range weather radars are easy to see intuitively amounting to a greater ability to measure

  9. Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

  10. An Ocean of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

  11. Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

  12. 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

  13. Recall of Television Weather Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A Minneapolis/St. Paul telephone survey revealed that most people interviewed relied on radio weather reports for weather information, that the amount of weather information retained from radio and television forecasts was minimal, and that most people were satisfied with television weather reports. (GW)

  14. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  15. Foraging bats avoid noise.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Andrea; Ostwald, Joachim; Siemers, Björn M

    2008-10-01

    Ambient noise influences the availability and use of acoustic information in animals in many ways. While much research has focused on the effects of noise on acoustic communication, here, we present the first study concerned with anthropogenic noise and foraging behaviour. We chose the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) as a model species because it represents the especially vulnerable group of gleaning bats that rely on listening for prey rustling sounds to find food (i.e. 'passive listening'). In a choice experiment with two foraging compartments, we investigated the influence of background noise on foraging effort and foraging success. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) bats will avoid foraging areas with particularly loud background noise; and (2) the frequency-time structure of the noise will determine, in part, the degree to which it deters bats. We found a clear effect of the type of noise on the allocation of foraging effort to the compartments and on the distribution of prey capture events. When playing back silence, the bats made equal use of and were equally successful in both compartments. In the other three treatments (where a non-silent sound was played back), the bats avoided the playback compartment. The degree to which the background noise deterred bats from the compartment increased from traffic noise to vegetation movement noise to broadband computer-generated noise. Vegetation noise, set 12 dB below the traffic noise amplitude, had a larger repellent effect; presumably because of its acoustic similarity with prey sounds. Our experimental data suggest that foraging areas very close to highways and presumably also to other sources of intense, broadband noise are degraded in their suitability as foraging areas for such 'passive listening' bats. PMID:18805817

  16. Weather and The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Merritt

    2005-10-15

    Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...

  17. Energy Efficient and Reliable Target Monitoring in the Tactical Battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Xiao; Guan, Hua; Zhang, Yue-Ling

    In the tactical battlefield target monitoring it is crucial to take into account the energy efficiency and data reliability issues for the purpose of military decision making, especially in large scale sensor networks. However, due to the inherent nature of power constraint and wireless communication medium it is a challenging problem in the process of actual application. An efficient and reliable data aggregation scheme is proposed to enhance the performance of wireless sensor network used in the target monitoring. Firstly, the energy consumption model is presented and analyzed in the multihop WSNs. Then idea of mobile sinks, adaptive energy saving mechanism is introduced and the concept of multiple sinks cooperation is used to assure the reliability of the data aggregation. The simulation and the associated analysis show the improved results of the presented schema. At last the future discussion about the large scale tactical battlefield application is made to broaden the coming research scope.

  18. Flight test of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, P. (Northrop Corp., Aircraft Div., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the approach used in flight tests of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), the fighter which was conceived as a replacement for the F-1 Eagle and which combines stealth techologies with a supercruise capability while retaining the agility necessary in an air superiority fighter. Special attention is given to the flight test concept, flight test preparations, and test objectives. The test methods, the problems encountered, and the test results are described.

  19. Survival tactics of Ranunculus species in river floodplains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. He; G. M. Bögemann; H. M. van de Steeg; J. G. H. M. Rijnders; L. A. C. J. Voesenek; C. W. P. M. Blom

    1999-01-01

    The flooding resistance of four Ranunculus species was studied under controlled conditions and related to the tactics used by these species to survive in their natural\\u000a habitat in river floodplains. R. bulbosus, a species from seldom-flooded river levées, was relatively intolerant of both waterlogging and complete submergence, due\\u000a to a constitutively low level of aerenchyma in the root system. This

  20. Survival tactics of Ranunculus species in river floodplains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abstract The flooding,resistance of four Ranunculus species was studied under controlled conditions,and re- lated to the tactics used by these species to survive in their natural habitat in river floodplains. R. bulbosus ,a species from seldom-flooded river leve´ es, was relatively intolerant of both,waterlogging,and,complete,submer- gence, due to a constitutively low level of aerenchyma in the root system. This lack of

  1. Transitioning to Online Course Offerings: Tactical and Strategic Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Burke

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about the effectiveness of face-to-face (F2F) versus online (OL) courses, and comparisons of learning and retention across both media, but less has been targeted toward important tactical and strategic considerations. Having little formal guidance to manage the transition to offering a portion of their university courses and programs online, administrators and universities appear inadequately positioned to

  2. Psychological characteristics of successful SWAT\\/Tactical Response Team personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Super

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine if the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT), California Psychological Inventory\\u000a (CPI), and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Organization Behavior (FIRO-B) may be used to identify psychological characteristics\\u000a of successful SWAT\\/Tactical Response Team personnel. Thirty-four caucasian male subjects ranging in age between 26 to 45 years\\u000a served as subjects. Education levels ranged from high school

  3. Courtship tactics by male Ilyoplax pusilla (Brachyura, Dotillidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asami Kasatani; Keiji Wada; Yoichi Yusa; John H. Christy

    Mating in the dotillid crab Ilyoplax pusilla occurs after the female enters the male’s burrow in the tidal flat. Males use two tactics to cause females to enter their\\u000a burrows for mating: the male either directs claw waving to the female (courting-wave display), to which the females responds\\u000a by following the male to his burrow, or the male runs rapidly

  4. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  5. Decision Support for Tactical Decision Making Under Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan G. Hutchins; Richard T. Kelly; Jeffrey G. Morrison

    1996-01-01

    A decision support system was designed for naval shipboard command-level decision- makers to enhance decisionmaking in a lit- toral environment or in any short-fused, ambiguous, decisionmaking situation. De- sign of the prototype DSS was based on (1) an understanding of the cognitive strategies people bring to bear when dealing with the types of decisions requir-ed in tactical deci- sionmaking, (2)

  6. A concurrent distributed system for aircraft tactical decision generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. McManus

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a tactical decision generator (TDG) for within visual range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem-solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the computerized logic for air-to-air warfare simulations (CLAWS) program, a

  7. Tactical multisensor fusion (TMSF): an SAIC white paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert D.; Short, Robert; Stewart, Clayton V.

    1999-07-01

    A software application for correlating and fusion information products from multiple dissimilar sensors is presented. The Tactical Multi Sensor Fusion (TMSF) system is a C++ object oriented application implementing data correlation and fusion algorithms which provide decision aids for identifying, locating, and determining the status of processing equipment within suspected weapons of mass destruction sites. The TMSF system also provides valuable information for assessing weapon delivery accuracy and effectiveness.

  8. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 9: Ports and harbors case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to harbors and shipping industries through improved weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This case study and generalization quantify benefits made possible through improved weather forecasting resulting from the integration of SEASAT data into local weather forecasts. The major source of avoidable economic losses to shipping from inadequate weather forecasting data is shown to be dependent on local precipitation forecasting. The ports of Philadelphia and Boston were selected for study.

  9. Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz-Oca?a, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072

  10. Redefining Tactical Operations for MER Using Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) includes the twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which have been performing geological research and surface exploration since early 2004. The rovers' durability well beyond their original prime mission (90 sols or Martian days) has allowed them to be a valuable platform for scientific research for well over 2000 sols, but as a by-product it has produced new challenges in providing efficient and cost-effective tactical operational planning. An early stage process adaptation was the move to distributed operations as mission scientists returned to their places of work in the summer of 2004, but they would still came together via teleconference and connected software to plan rover activities a few times a week. This distributed model has worked well since, but it requires the purchase, operation, and maintenance of a dedicated infrastructure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This server infrastructure is costly to operate and the periodic nature of its usage (typically heavy usage for 8 hours every 2 days) has made moving to a cloud based tactical infrastructure an extremely tempting proposition. In this paper we will review both past and current implementations of the tactical planning application focusing on remote plan saving and discuss the unique challenges present with long-latency, distributed operations. We then detail the motivations behind our move to cloud based computing services and as well as our system design and implementation. We will discuss security and reliability concerns and how they were addressed

  11. Oceans, Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    2006-01-01

    What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  12. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  13. The Effect of NEXRAD Image Looping and National Convective Weather Forecast Product on Pilot Decision Making in the Use of a Cockpit Weather Information Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Malcolm A.; Thomas, Rickey P.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated improvements to cockpit weather displays to better support the hazardous weather avoidance decision-making of general aviation pilots. Forty-eight general aviation pilots were divided into three equal groups and presented with a simulated flight scenario involving embedded convective activity. The control group had access to conventional sources of pre-flight and in-flight weather products. The two treatment groups were provided with a weather display that presented NEXRAD mosaic images, graphic depiction of METARs, and text METARs. One treatment group used a NEXRAD image looping feature and the second group used the National Convective Weather Forecast (NCWF) product overlaid on the NEXRAD display. Both of the treatment displays provided a significant increase in situation awareness but, they provided incomplete information required to deal with hazardous convective weather conditions, and would require substantial pilot training to permit their safe and effective use.

  14. Tacticity control in the synthesis of poly(lactic acid) polymer stars with dipentaerythritol cores.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Michael P; Cameron, Donald J A

    2010-12-13

    The synthesis of a family of polymer stars with arms of varied tacticities is discussed. The effect of polymer tacticity on the physical properties of these polymer stars is presented. Dipentaerythritol cores support six poly(lactic acid) (PLA) arms. Lewis acidic tin and aluminum catalysts control the polymerization to afford polymer stars of variable tacticity. The analysis of these polymers by NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry reveals the effects of tacticity control on the physical properties of the polymer stars. Preliminary decomposition studies suggest that the biodegradation profile of a polymer star may also be tuned by stereochemical control. This is the first systematic altering of tacticity in PLA polymer stars, showing that polymer tacticity can have a great impact on star properties. PMID:21033736

  15. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  16. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  17. Titan's Methane Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.

    2012-05-01

    Conditions in Titan's troposphere are near the triple point of methane, the second most abundant component of its atmosphere. Our understanding of Titan's lower atmosphere has shifted considerably in the past decade. Ground-based observations, Hubble Space Telescope images, and data returned from the Cassini and Huygens spacecraft show that Titan's troposphere hosts a methane-based meteorology in direct analogy to the water-based meteorology of Earth. What once was thought to be a quiescent place, lacking in clouds or localized weather and changing only subtly on long seasonal timescales, is now understood to be a dynamic system with significant weather events regularly occurring against the backdrop of dramatic seasonal changes. Although the observational record of Titan's weather covers only a third of its 30-year seasonal cycle, Titan's atmospheric processes appear to be more closely analogous to those of Earth than to those of any other object in our solar system.

  18. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This background chapter reviews the basic principles of meteorology that educators need to guide inquiry activities in the classroom. Topics include structure of the atmosphere, Coriolis effect, water cycle, greenhouse effect, cyclones, anticyclones, and jet streams. This is chapter 2 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

  19. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

  20. Wisconsin Weather Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.

  1. Indigenous Weather Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

  2. Weather and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2008-11-25

    This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

  3. Tactical cross-domain solutions: Current status and the need for change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Plyler; Brian C. Tague; Roshan Thomas; Simon Tsang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid migration of system high information sharing to the tactical edge has made it imperative that the DoD reexamine tactical Cross Domain Solutions\\/Enterprise Services (CDS\\/ES). Prior to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), information sharing requirements at the tactical edge were relatively few in number and nominal in terms of data throughput, data types, and users. Cross Domain Solutions (CDS) deployed

  4. [Tactics of the patients management in continuing acute thrombosis of deep veins].

    PubMed

    Prasol, V A; Mishenina, E V; Okley, D V

    2015-03-01

    Experience of active tactics of treatment application in 18 patients, suffering an acute thrombosis in system of lower vena cava, is presented. Possibilities were estimated and efficacy of active surgical tactics proved in continuing deep vein thrombosis on early stage were estimated. Active tactics, using catheter--governed thrombolysis, permits to escape pulmonary thromboembolism and to reduce a severity of further chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:26072541

  5. A QOS framework design based on DiffServ and SNMP for tactical networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bong Chan Kim; Youngchul Bang; Yongi Kim; Jae Young Lee; Dong Gu Kwak; Hwang Soo Lee; Joong Soo Ma

    2008-01-01

    In the theater of war, mission-critical information is delivered over tactical networks, and a brigade dynamically conducts close combats and tactical operations on the basis of the military information. Therefore, the quality of service (QoS) of military information should be guaranteed to successfully perform tactical operations in the battle field. In this paper, the concern is a QoS framework design,

  6. Correlations for leaders' anticipation of targets' resistance and targets' ratings of leaders' influence tactics: a replication.

    PubMed

    Barbuto, John E; Goertzen, Brent J; Fritz, Susan M

    2002-12-01

    A sample of 553 leader-target dyads was used to replicate the 2001 work of Barbuto, Scholl, Hickox, and Boulmetis. The study examined the correlation between leaders' anticipation of targets' resistance and influence tactics used by leaders to persuade targets. The original study reported mixed findings of various hard and soft tactics used by leaders based on the different zones of resistance anticipated. Present results show no relation between leaders' anticipation of targets' anticipated resistance and the influence tactics used. PMID:12530713

  7. Weather Depot 1.21

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

  8. Collision avoidance sensor skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to totally eliminate the possibility of a robot (or any mechanism for that matter) inducing a collision in space operations. We were particularly concerned that human beings were safe under all circumstances. This was apparently accomplished, and it is shown that GSFC has a system that is ready for space qualification and flight. However, it soon became apparent that much more could be accomplished with this technology. Payloads could be made invulnerable to collision avoidance and the blind spots behind them eliminated. This could be accomplished by a simple, non-imaging set of 'Capaciflector' sensors on each payload. It also is evident that this system could be used to align and dock the system with a wide margin of safety. Throughout, lighting problems could be ignored, and unexpected events and modeling errors taken in stride. At the same time, computational requirements would be reduced. This can be done in a simple, rugged, reliable manner that will not disturb the form factor of space systems. It will be practical for space applications. The lab experiments indicate we are well on the way to accomplishing this. Still, the research trail goes deeper. It now appears that the sensors can be extended to end effectors to provide precontact information and make robot docking (or any docking connection) very smooth, with minimal loads impacted back into the mating structures. This type of ability would be a major step forward in basic control techniques in space. There are, however, baseline and restructuring issues to be tackled. The payloads must get power and signals to them from the robot or from the astronaut servicing tool. This requires a standard electromechanical interface. Any of several could be used. The GSFC prototype shown in this presentation is a good one. Sensors with their attendant electronics must be added to the payloads, end effectors, and robot arms and integrated into the system.

  9. Weatherization Works!: Weatherization Assistance Program Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    The United States demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  10. Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

  11. Affective decision-making and tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Adeilton dos Santos; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Greco, Pablo Juan; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a type of Executive Function related to cost benefit analysis in situations where gains and losses imply direct consequences for the subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the affective decision-making on tactical behavior in soccer players under the age of 15 years old. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to assess tactical behavior. To evaluate affective decision-making, we used the neuropsychological test called The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The values of the offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior of participants were used to create performance groups. The low (?25%) and high (?75%) groups, according to offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior, were compared and shown to be different. The values of the IGT net score of the participants with low and high tactical behavior were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for Defensive Tactical Behavior (Z?=?-3.133; p?=?0.002; r?=?-0.355) and Game Tactical Behavior (Z?=?-2.267; p?=?0.023; r?=?-0.260). According to these results, it is possible to state that affective decision-making can influence the tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players. PMID:24978030

  12. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  13. Weather automation studies at the Otis Weather Test Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chisholm

    1978-01-01

    A description of the Otis Weather Test Facility (WTF) is presented, taking into account the distribution of surface-based and tower-mounted instrumentation at the WTF, the automation of the rotating beam ceilometer, the present weather decision tree, and slant visual range techniques. A demonstration model of a Modular Automated Weather System (MAWS) is also considered. The versatility of MAWS results from

  14. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  15. Winter Storms Weather Quizzes

    E-print Network

    and report more exact measurements. As it comes closer to land, special weather radars track the hurricane, the sea may rise as high as 25 feet above normal high tide! That is taller than six kids standing on each up all the small things laying around your yard, like toys, tools and flower pots and bring them

  16. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  17. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  18. Winds, Weather, and Deserts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 17 questions on the topic of wind and weathering, which covers the Coriolis Effect and wind characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.

  19. Weather in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The ATS-111 weather satellite, launched on November 18, 1967, in a synchronous earth orbit 22,000 miles above the equator, is described in this folder. The description is divided into these topics: the satellite, the camera, the display, the picture information, and the beneficial use of the satellite. Photographs from the satellite are included.…

  20. Satellite Weather Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, R. Joe

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

  1. Sunspots and Space Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation for students in how sunspots impact space weather between the Sun and Earth. Students research solar maximum and minimum as well as recent sunspot numbers to determine a connection between the numbers and solar activity. This page is accompanied by a page of websites for further resources.

  2. METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado Submitted to Monthly Weather Review 9 September 2010 Corresponding Author Address: Angela K. Rowe Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State subsequent freezing to produce graupel. Similar features were also observed in an isolated cell over

  3. Blogging About the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Evans

    2010-04-01

    Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

  4. Weathering crusts on peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Kurt; Stober, Ingrid; Müller-Sigmund, Hiltrud

    2015-05-01

    Chemical weathering of dark-green massive peridotite, including partly serpentinized peridotite, produces a distinct and remarkable brown weathering rind when exposed to the atmosphere long enough. The structure and mineral composition of crusts on rocks from the Ronda peridotite, Spain, have been studied in some detail. The generic overall weathering reaction serpentinized peridotite + rainwater = weathering rind + runoff water describes the crust-forming process. This hydration reaction depends on water supply from the outcrop surface to the reaction front separating green peridotite from the brown crust. The reaction pauses after drying and resumes at the front after wetting. The overall net reaction transforms olivine to serpentine in a volume-conserving replacement reaction. The crust formation can be viewed as secondary serpentinization of peridotite that has been strongly altered by primary hydrothermal serpentinization. The reaction stoichiometry of the crust-related serpentinization is preserved and reflected by the composition of runoff waters in the peridotite massif. The brown color of the rind is caused by amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, a side product from the oxidation of Fe(II) released by the dissolution of fayalite component in olivine.

  5. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Padilha; Hisao Takahashi; Eurico de Paula; Hanumant Sawant; Haroldo de Campos Velho; Icaro Vitorello; Joaquim Costa; Jonas Souza; José Cecatto; Odim Mendes; Walter Demétrio Gonzalez Alarcon

    2008-01-01

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the

  6. Weather Specialist (AFSC 25120).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This correspondence course is designed for self-study to help military personnel to attain the rating of weather specialist. The course is organized in three volumes. The first volume, containing seven chapters, covers background knowledge, meteorology, and climatology. In the second volume, which also contains seven chapters, surface…

  7. Weather and the Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  8. The Weather Watchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Background information and six activities on predicting weather are provided. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also included are several ready-to-copy worksheets. (JN)

  9. Gulf of Maine: Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

  10. Paradata for 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

  11. A survey of of uses and value of space weather information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Rabanal, J.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze some 2,800 responses to a survey among subscribers of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center email services. Interest in, anticipated impacts from, and responses to solar flares, energetic particle events, and geomagnetic storms are quite uniform across societal sectors. Approximately 40% of the respondents expect serious to very serious impacts from space weather events if no action were taken to mitigate or in the absence of adequate space weather information. The impacts of space weather are deemed to be substantially reduced because of the availability of, and the response to, space-weather forecasts and alerts. Space weather information is primarily used as aid to understand anomalies, to implement mitigating strategies designed to avoid impacts on operations, and to prepare for potential contingencies related directly or indirectly to space weather. Current and near-future space-weather conditions are generally highly valued, considered useful, and generally, though not fully, adequate to avoid or mitigate societal impacts (related most frequently to human safety and reliability of operations). We conclude that even among those receiving space weather information, there is considerable uncertainty about how to act on the information provided.

  12. Space Weather: A Research Perspective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Research Council (NRC) sponsors the Space Weather: A Research Perspective Website. Space weather occurs due to the behavior of the sun, the "nature of Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, and our location in the solar system." Space weather research will be useful for space weather forecasting, satellite troubleshooting, and gaining a greater understanding of Earth's place in space. To further understand space weather, the user can browse through sections such as What is Space Weather, The Elements of Near-Earth Space, Practical Consequences of Space Weather, and Earth-Space Meteorology, among others. Each section provides images, diagrams, and descriptions. Weather links and resources, as well as a glossary, round out the site.

  13. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  14. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions. PMID:15721046

  15. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  16. Science Sampler: Clever with weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Crowder

    2011-02-01

    In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

  17. Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

  18. Making a Space Weather Script

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, learners write space weather reports using current data about the Sun and create a broadcast script to present the researched information to an audience. Several activities are related to this lesson, including "Understanding our Sun", "Sharing New Knowledge", and “Making Your Space Weather Action Center" in the Space Weather teacher's guide.

  19. Space weather activities in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cole

    2004-01-01

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network

  20. Weather impacts on space operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Madura; B. Boyd; W. Bauman; N. Wyse; M. Adams

    1992-01-01

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology

  1. US weather satellites and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The weather satellites and services of the National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are discussed. The economy and public safety of Washington State, monitoring of the extreme weather conditions around Mount St. Helens and search and rescue satellites are included.

  2. The depolarized fiber-optic gyro for future tactical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramson, Michael

    1991-02-01

    The requirements of fiber-optic gyros (FOGs) for the most demanding mission profiles of future weapon systems are examined. A concept of a high-performance depolarized FOG was developed that uses a standard single-mode fiber coil with a depolarized optical circuit including a multifunction integrated optic device, making it possible to achieve automated and reproducible production of high-performance tactical FOGs at low cost. The paper describes the optical configuration of this FOG and the gyro's electronics and presents the test data.

  3. Programmable modular joint tactical radio in a communications system environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Richard M.; Newman, Alfred V.; Noll, Bruce T.; Russell, Victor C.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a software programmable and modular communications system that will be interoperable with legacy waveforms. It will also be capable of satisfying new communication system requirements for a multitude of military and civilian land, air, and maritime platforms. A Systems Reference Model has been developed to guide a systems architecture design that will use families of common hardware and software configurations to support requirements of different users. The JTRS is a cost-effective approach that allows users to dynamically change capability by reinitializing application software.

  4. High value target modeling for tactical decision aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. A.; Link, L. E.

    1984-02-01

    As part of a program to select an optimal tactical weapon system for specified environmental conditions a procedure is presented for predicting the apparent infrared image of a target in a background that would be seen by an infrared sensor in a missile or airplane. Environmental effects are introduced through the exchange of energy between the target, atmosphere, and background by radiation, conduction, convection, and latent heat. The diurnal variation of the temperature and radiance of target and background surfaces are calculated including the effect of target orientation relative to the Sun. Numerical calculations are presented for temperatures and radiances of the facets of a petroleum storage tank.

  5. A Concurrent Distributed System for Aircraft Tactical Decision Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS) program, a second generation TDG, is presented. Concurrent computing environments and programming approaches are discussed and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  6. United States army tactical high-energy laser program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, John J.; Wilson, Gerald T.

    2013-02-01

    The tactical high energy laser (THEL) program, conducted from 1996 to 2005, successfully demonstrated the capability of a high-energy laser to counter rockets, artillery, and mortars. The program was a US/Israeli cooperative research and development effort that was designated by the Secretary of Defense as an advanced concept technology demonstration with Presidential interest. The THEL system was designed and built under an SMDC/ARSTART prime contract awarded to TRW (now, Northrop Grumman Corporation), jointly managed by the Israel Ministry of Defence Directorate of Defence Research & Development. We summarize the effort and highlight some of the "firsts" of the THEL program.

  7. Postcopulatory Behavior in Libellula pulchella Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae) and Female Tactics for Avoiding Male Interference with Oviposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria E. McMillan

    2000-01-01

    Postcopulatory behavior was studied in Libellula pulchella, a North American dragonfly in which ovipositing females face frequent harassment by unpaired males seeking matings. Although males performed noncontact guarding of their mates after copulation, females received minimal protection since their guarders tended to leave on extended chases of other males when harassment was intense. Ovipositions by unguarded females were even more

  8. Automatic data for applied railway management : passenger demand, service quality measurement, and tactical planning on the London Overground Network

    E-print Network

    Frumin, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    The broad goal of this thesis is to demonstrate the potential positive impacts of applying automatic data to the management and tactical planning of a modern urban railway. Tactical planning is taken here to mean the set ...

  9. Tactical urbanism, public policy reform, and 'innovation spotting' by government : from Park(ing) Day to San Francisco's parklet program

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Mariko Mura

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects and impacts of tactical urbanism (TU). While tactical urbanism remains primarily a subcultural movement, it is beginning to gain traction in popular culture in traditionally politically ...

  10. The effects of reproduction on courtship, fertility and longevity within and between alternative male mating tactics of the

    E-print Network

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    of the dung beetle Onthophagus binodis adopt alternative reproductive tactics in which major males fight male mating tactics of the horned beetle, Onthophagus binodis L. W. SIMMONS* & J. S. KOTIAHO* à *Centre

  11. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  12. ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU-MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU- MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL, Pfaffenwaldring 2b, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany frank.lehmann@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de ABSTRACT Salt weathering of salts and salt mixtures within the material re- quires adequate measures to avoid further deterioration

  13. Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser

    E-print Network

    Balser, Dana S.

    Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e

  14. A CONSTANT-INVENTORY TACTICAL PLANNING MODEL FOR A JOB SHOP

    E-print Network

    Graves, Stephen C.

    A CONSTANT-INVENTORY TACTICAL PLANNING MODEL FOR A JOB SHOP Stephen C. Graves Massachusetts a constant-inventory tactical planning model for a generic manufacturing system, such as a job shop assume that we can regulate the release of work to the shop to maintain the constant-inventory constraint

  15. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  16. Paper Number 2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    51 Paper Number 2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck: A Target Cascading Case is applied to the conceptual design of an advanced heavy tactical truck. Two levels are defined are determined in a consistent manner. Two different target sets and two different propulsion systems

  17. F2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    F2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck: A Target Cascading Case Study Nestor to the conceptual design of an advanced heavy tactical truck. Two levels are defined: an integrated truck model in a consistent manner. Two different target sets and two different propulsion systems are considered. Trade

  18. Male mating tactics in the American rubyspot damselfly: territoriality, nonterritoriality and switching behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Raihani; M. A. Serrano-Meneses; A. Córdoba-Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Odonates exhibit a wide range of territorial and nonterritorial mating tactics and are ideal for investigating alternative reproductive behaviours. We studied male mating tactics in the American rubyspot damselfly, Hetaerina americana, a species that exhibits red wing spots that have been suggested to have evolved as a consequence of maleemale contests. In this species mating success is enhanced by the

  19. Formulation of an integrated robust design and tactics optimization process for undersea weapon systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Frits

    2005-01-01

    In the current Navy environment of undersea weapons development, the engineering aspect of design is decoupled from the development of the tactics with which the weapon is employed. Tactics are developed by intelligence experts, warfighters, and wargamers, while torpedo design is handled by engineers and contractors. This dissertation examines methods by which the conceptual design process of undersea weapon systems,

  20. Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Kuhn, Brett R.

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The…

  1. Situational Intimacy as a Predictor of Compliance-Gaining Tactic Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Wheeless, Lawrence R.

    1997-01-01

    Examines impact of variations in perceived intimacy on subjects' responses to a reasonably comprehensive list of compliance-gaining tactics. Questions 544 undergraduate students using an experimental recall method. Shows that situational variation in intimacy is associated with significant, nontrivial cross-situational differences in tactic

  2. Study on visualization simulation of complex electromagnetic environment for tactics application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaoming Yang; Xiaoan Tang; Hong Chen; Huan Li

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a kind of visualization model for electromagnetic signals according to battle actualities and tactics needs. In modern battles, complex electromagnetic environment is difficult to control as its invisibility and variety. According with the requirement of tactics application, the proposed model provides a new way to simulate electromagnetic environment for acquiring information dominance. The key techniques are introduced

  3. PSFTRANSITION PLAN: TACTICS AND NEEDS AS WE TRANSITION FROM ONE FARM TO ANOTHER

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    PSFTRANSITION PLAN: TACTICS AND NEEDS AS WE TRANSITION FROM ONE FARM TO ANOTHER January 2013 Edited;PSFTRANSITION PLAN: TACTICS AND NEEDS AS WE TRANSITION FROM ONE FARM TO ANOTHER June 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................................................................................................................4 CURRENT STATUS OF THE IRON HORSE FARM

  4. A Distributed Virtual M&S Framework for Military Tactical Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SeongKee Lee; ChanGon Yoo; JaeHyun Park

    This paper shows a distributed simulation framework for tactical training in Networked Virtual Environment (NVE). These days the NVE technology for an operational tactical training system plays a significant role in military training courses. The existing military training simulation systems are mostly full simulated systems operating on single platform. They are to train individual's operation skill, but don't support team

  5. A continuum of life history tactics in a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population

    E-print Network

    Cucherousset, Julien

    A continuum of life history tactics in a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population Julien Cucherousset tactics of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) population of the Oir River (Normandy, France) were studied truite commune (Salmo trutta) de l'Oir (Normandie, France) ont été étudiées par le marquage individuel à

  6. A Model for Developing and Assessing Tactical Decision-Making Competency in Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnano-Richardson, Karen; Henninger, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    All teachers want their students to become better game players who are motivated to participate in and outside of class. Students need to learn how to make good tactical decisions, in addition to being skilled movers, in order to become competent game players. When students make better tactical decisions, they experience more success and therefore…

  7. The synergetic model of the controlling tactics to network financial information security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangzhao Huang; Hu Wan; Hongtao Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – To take relative actions to cope with the threat which network finance information security now encounters by constructing controlling tactical and synergetic model. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – It is practical to use the synergetic self-organization theory to calculate the effects that the force of synergetic system of controlling tactics to financial information security makes on network financial system, and it

  8. Mating tactics of male Cape ground squirrels, Xerus inauris : consequences of year-round breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANE M. WATERMAN

    1998-01-01

    The Cape ground squirrel is a highly social, tropical ground squirrel that does not hibernate, suggesting that female receptivity could be scattered throughout the year. Males in this species are very social, living in all-male bands. I studied the mating tactics of male Cape ground squirrels to examine the effects of year-round female receptivity and male grouping on these tactics

  9. Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics Quality of academic and campus life #1: Urs Gauchat Landscape master Plan Identify opportunities for physical improvement;Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics Launch experiments in using new

  10. Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics Quality of academic and campus life #1: Urs Gauchat Landscape master Plan Identify opporrtunities for physical improvement agencies #12;Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics Launch experiments

  11. Unifying strategies and tactics: A survivability framework for countering cyber attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanjun Zuo; Brajendra Panda

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to enhance a system's survivability to thwart malicious attacks and to continuously provide critical services to users. We focus on two key survivability elements: strategy and tactic. The latter further includes a set of activities and operations. We show how survivability activities are developed in light of tactics to implement the chosen survivability strategies in

  12. The use of genetic markers to estimate the frequency of successful alternative reproductive tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Westneat; Peter C. Frederick; R. Haven Wiley

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines a method for estimating rates of successful alternative reproductive tactics from parental exclusions known through the use of genetic markers. We review a method for calculating the probability of excluding a putative father when he is not the actual father. We adapt this method to model two mating tactics of concern to sociobiologists: extrapair copulations (EPCs) and

  13. Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819) mâles en fonction de deux tactiques d'accouplement, celles de l the fertilization dynamics of alternative mating tactics (cuckolders and parentals) of male bluegill (Lepomis

  14. Improving the Authoring of Foreign Language Interactive Lessons in the Tactical Language Training System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joram Meron; Andre Valente; W. Lewis Johnson

    The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) teaches foreign language and culture using a task-based approach. Four trainers have been developed so far, for Iraqi Arabic, Pashto, French and Levantine Arabic. The Tactical Iraqi system has been used to train thousands of users in the U.S. military. In this paper, we describe recent work we undertook to improve the

  15. Debugging strategies and tactics in a multi-representation software environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Romero; Benedict Du Boulay; Richard Cox; Rudi Lutz; Sallyann Bryant

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between high level debugging strategies and low level tactics in the context of a multi- representation software development environment (SDE). It investigates three questions. 1. How do programmers integrate debugging strategies and tactics when working with SDEs? 2. What is the relationship between verbal ability, level of graphical literacy and debugging (task) performance. 3. How

  16. Male Sexual Polymorphism, Alternative Reproductive Tactics, and Androgens in Combtooth Blennies (Pisces: Blenniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui F. Oliveira; Adelino V. M. Canario; Matthew S. Grober

    2001-01-01

    In species in which intense intermale competition for the access to females is present males of lower competitive ability may adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ART) to get access to mates. These ART translate in many cases into male sexual polymorphism, with individuals following distinctly different tactics. Usually two alternative male morphs can be recognized in species with ART: (1) bourgeois

  17. The Persuade Package Hypothesis: Further Evidence for an Influence Tactics Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinis, Herman; And Others

    Researchers interested in social power in organizational contexts have focused on investigating whether situational factors affect people's preferences for types of influence tactics. The persuade package is defined as a small standard set of methods (influence tactics) that leads to a particular goal (persuade the target to do something). The…

  18. A MULTICRITERIA HANDOFF DECISION SCHEME FOR THE NEXT GENERATION TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    A MULTICRITERIA HANDOFF DECISION SCHEME FOR THE NEXT GENERATION TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS communications systems is introduced. In this algorithm, handoff decision metrics are: received signal strength ABSTRACT In this paper a novel handoff decision algorithm for the mobile subsystem of tactical

  19. Geo-spatial Tactical Decision Aid systems: fuzzy logic for supporting decision making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Grasso; S. Giannecchini

    2006-01-01

    Tactical decision aid systems support the military or civilian operation planning process providing the decisional authorities with a simplified view of the environmental conditions over a theatre of operations. Methods for multi-source data fusion and support for disseminating and managing geospatial data are key factors for a successful system implementation. This paper describes a tactical decision aid system based on

  20. Factor similarity of the Conflict Tactics Scales across samples, spouses, and sites: Issues and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Barling; K. Daniel O'Leary; Ernest N. Jouriles; Dina Vivian; Karyl E. MacEwen

    1987-01-01

    Wide variations in prevalence estimates of marital aggression point to the absence of a uniform and adequate definition of marital aggression. To focus on the construct validity of Straus' (1979) Conflict Tactics Scales, the most frequently used measure of marital aggression, two studies were conducted. Based on responses to the Conflict Tactics Scales, two consistent factors (viz. Physical and Psychological

  1. Correlates of reproductive success within alternative mating tactics of the common shrew

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Stockley; Jeremy B. Searle; David W. Macdonald; Catherine S. Jones

    1996-01-01

    Male common shrews (Sorex araneus) adopt two discrete mating tactics. The most successful males, in terms of number of offspring fathered, are those that establish large overlapping home ranges in areas of high female density early in the breeding season. An alternative, less successful mating tactic is to travel long distances in search of mating opportunities. This study is an

  2. Alternative tactics and individual reproductive success in natural associations of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef K. Müller; Veronika Braunisch; Wenbe Hwang; Anne-Katrin Eggerta

    2007-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics can be maintained through different evolutionary avenues. They can be genetically or stochastically determined, in which case they must yield equal fitness, or their use can be conditional, in which case the fitness payoff of alternatives may differ. We attempted to assess the reproductive success of alternative reproductive tactics employed by wild male and female burying beetles

  3. Weather Crossword Puzzle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site features weather crossword puzzles. Topics include the Earth's atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, fronts, clouds, winds, hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, weather, lightning and thunder, how hurricanes form, and snow. Links at the bottom of the page allow users to reference other Windows to the Universe sites to help solve the puzzles. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  4. Terminal Doppler weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michelson; W. W. Shrader; J. G. Wieler

    1990-01-01

    The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver\\/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator\\/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the

  5. National Weather Service Glossary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

  6. Avoided crossings in driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, Benjamin P.; Reichl, Linda E. [Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    We characterize the avoided crossings in a two-parameter, time-periodic system which has been the basis for a wide variety of experiments. By studying these avoided crossings in the near-integrable regime, we are able to determine scaling laws for the dependence of their characteristic features on the nonintegrability parameter. As an application of these results, the influence of avoided crossings on dynamical tunneling is described and applied to the recent realization of multiple-state tunneling in an experimental system.

  7. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  8. An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

    2008-04-01

    We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

  9. Engineering a responsive, low cost, tactical satellite, TACSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, M.; Duffey, T.; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Clevland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe

    2004-11-01

    The Secretary of Defense's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experimental space capabilities for tactical forces. Components of the resulting tactical architecture include a highly automated small satellite bus, modular payloads, common launch and payload interfaces, tasking and data dissemination using the SIPRNET (Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network), and low cost, rapid response launches. The overall goal of TacSat-1 is to demonstrate the utility of a broader complementary business model and provide a catalyst for energizing DoD and industry in the operational space area. This paper first provides a brief overview of the TacSat- 1 experiment and then discusses the engineering designs and practices used to achieve the aggressive cost and schedule goals. Non-standard approaches and engineering philosophies that allowed the TacSat-1 spacecraft to be finished in twelve months are detailed and compared with "normal" satellite programs where applicable. Specific subsystem design, integration and test techniques, which contributed to the successful completion of the TacSat-1 spacecraft, are reviewed. Finally, lessons learned are discussed.

  10. Greasy tactics in the plant-pathogen molecular arms race.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Patrick C; Martin, Gregory B

    2015-03-01

    The modification of proteins by the attachment of fatty acids is a targeting tactic involved in mechanisms of both plant immunity and bacterial pathogenesis. The plant plasma membrane (PM) is a key battleground in the war against disease-causing microbes. This membrane is armed with an array of sensor proteins that function as a surveillance system to detect invading pathogens. Several of these sensor proteins are directed to the plasma membrane through the covalent addition of fatty acids, a process termed fatty acylation. Phytopathogens secrete effector proteins into the plant cell to subvert these surveillance mechanisms, rendering the host susceptible to infection. The targeting of effectors to specific locales within plant cells, particularly the internal face of the host PM, is critical for their virulence function. Several bacterial effectors hijack the host fatty acylation machinery to be modified and directed to this contested locale. To find and fight these fatty acylated effectors the plant leverages lipid-modified intracellular sensors. This review provides examples featuring how fatty acylation is a battle tactic used by both combatants in the molecular arms race between plants and pathogens. Also highlighted is the exploitation of a specific form of host-mediated fatty acid modification, which appears to be exclusively employed by phytopathogenic effector proteins. PMID:25725095

  11. Selection for alternative male reproductive tactics alters intralocus sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Plesnar Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Miler, Krzysztof; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) arises when fitness optima for a shared trait differ between the sexes; such conflict may help maintain genetic variation within populations. Sex-limited expression of sexually antagonistic traits may help resolve the conflict, but the extent of this resolution remains a subject of debate. In species with alternative male reproductive tactics, unresolved conflict should manifest more in a more sexually dimorphic male phenotype. We tested this prediction in the bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini), a species in which aggressive fighters coexist with benign scramblers. To do this, we established replicated lines in which we increased the proportion of each of the alternative male morphs using artificial selection. After approximately 40 generations, the proportion of fighters and scramblers stabilized at >0.9 in fighter- and scrambler-selected lines, respectively. We then measured several female fitness components. As predicted by IASC theory, female fecundity and longevity were lower in lines selected for fighters and higher in lines selected for scramblers. This finding indicates that sexually selected phenotypes are associated with an ontogenetic conflict that is not easily resolved. Furthermore, we suggest that IASC may be an important mechanism contributing to the maintenance of genetic variation in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics. PMID:24641007

  12. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%. PMID:24508904

  13. Evaluation of atmospheric effects for operational tactical decision aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Ken

    1988-02-01

    The Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) is an integrated target/atmosphere/sensor model that is used to estimate target acquisition ranges for infrared sensors. It employs an extensive 8000-plus line computer code, LOWTRAN-6, to evaluate the atmospheric extinction of infrared signals for various climatological conditions. The Operational Tactical Decision Aid (OTDA) is a simplified version of the TDA housed on an HP-41CX, a hand-held computer, and is intended for field use. Since LOWTRAN-6 is too voluminous to be employed for the OTDA, precomputed extinction data tables are currently in use. Manual input of data from the tables to the OTDA is cumbersome and is prone to erroneous readings. Therefore, compact atmospheric extinction models were developed for various types of atmospheric extinction which are significant for the TDA application. The models were developed based on the LOWTRAN-6 computation and were verified through extensive accuracy analysis. For automated generation of a database for accuracy analysis, an interactive driver for LOWTRAN-6, called DGU, was developed. The program can create input decks for LOWTRAN-6 from interactive sessions, run LOWTRAN-6, and post process the LOWTRAN-6 generated data. Finally, the obtained models were integrated into a program, called CTRAN, and coded onto a VAX computer in FORTRAN and in Reverse Polish Notation for the HP-41CX.

  14. Comparing child outcomes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larzelere, Robert E; Kuhn, Brett R

    2005-03-01

    This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The results indicated that effect sizes significantly favored conditional spanking over 10 of 13 alternative disciplinary tactics for reducing child noncompliance or antisocial behavior. Customary physical punishment yielded effect sizes equal to alternative tactics, except for one large study favoring physical punishment. Only overly severe or predominant use of physical punishment compared unfavorably with alternative disciplinary tactics. The discussion highlights the need for better discriminations between effective and counterproductive use of disciplinary punishment in general. PMID:15898303

  15. A FLIR case study using the Electro-Optical Tactical Decision Aid (EOTDA) Mark 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Charles P.

    1995-02-01

    This report compares measured forward-looking infrared (FLIR) system detection ranges of a target ship, the Research Vessel Point Sur, with predictions from the Electro-Optical Tactical Decision Aid (EOTDA) version 3.0. The EOTDA was primarily developed by the Air Force, with only minimal attention applied to the complexities of the marine environment. The objective of this case study was to evaluate the infrared EOTDA performance for a target in an open ocean background. Surface meteorological and navigation data were recorded aboard the Point Sur. Eight FLIR missions were flown making 57 detection range measurements. The meteorological and navigation data were input to the EOTDA, and the prediction ranges were tabulated and compared with the reported FLIR data. Results showed reasonable accuracy during the clear-weather portion of the tests, but the EOTDA grossly overpredicted detection ranges when a stratus cloud ceiling prevailed. Attempts to determine integrated target temperature from thermistors mounted on the surface of the ship structure were unsuccessful. Since calibrated target and background temperatures were unavailable at the times of the FLIR detection range measurements, it was not possible to isolate the portion of the EOTDA most responsible for the overpredictions. However, the transmission model, LOWTRAN 7, has been thoroughly exercised and is well accepted. The target model (TCM2) of the EOTDA performed well in another case study during the same field tests. This would make the water background model of the EOTDA most suspect. Further investigation of the water, sky, and cloud radiance models of the EOTDA is recommended, especially in the marine environment.

  16. All-weather perception for small autonomous UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian

    2008-04-01

    For the TARDEC-funded Daredevil Project, iRobot Corporation is developing capabilities that will allow small UGVs to navigate autonomously in adverse weather and in foliage. Our system will fuse sensor data from ultra wideband (UWB) radar, LIDAR, stereo vision, GPS, and INS to build maps of the environment showing which areas are passable (e.g. covered by tall grass) and which areas must be avoided (i.e. solid obstacles). In Phase I of this project, we demonstrated that UWB radar sensors can see through precipitation, smoke/fog, and foliage and detect solid obstacles. In Phase II, we are integrating all of these sensors with an iRobot PackBot. By the end of Phase II, we will demonstrate a fully-autonomous Daredevil PackBot that can avoid obstacles, build maps, and navigate to waypoints in all-weather conditions and through foliage.

  17. Encouragement Exchange: Avoiding Therapist Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Timothy D.; Villavisanis, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that therapists need to take care of their own mental health in order to avoid burnout. Discusses the encouragement exchange, a group setting where therapists help each other deal with stress. Provides a case example. (MKA)

  18. Avoiding character collisions in games 

    E-print Network

    Calderon, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    This thesis addresses an important current problem in the game industry, the problem of moving multiple characters along predefined paths in a two-dimensional plane while avoiding collisions between them. It demonstrates and describes a method...

  19. Automatic Multiagent Aircraft Collision Avoidance 

    E-print Network

    Sayahi, Shayan

    2014-09-22

    aircraft at any point during the flight, which proves to be a challenging task. This research seeks to find an optimized cooperative collision avoidance strategy to resolve conflicts in the horizontal and vertical planes by proposing maneuvers that involve...

  20. Medications Older Adults Should Avoid

    MedlinePLUS

    Medications Older Adults Should Avoid Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here to see our other tip sheets. Because older adults often experience chronic health conditions that require treatment ...

  1. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  2. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  3. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  4. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  5. WeatherPop 1.6.4

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Weather Pop is a small application that allows users to receive up-to-the-minute weather information for up to three US cities from the National Weather Service. WeatherPop is also fully customizable, as users can select weather update frequency, temperature display color, preferred weather information source, humidity, visibility, barometer, and other options. WeatherPop is fully compatible with all computers running Mac X operating system.

  6. Weather satellite deactivated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    NOAA 8, the polar-orbiting weather satellite that was revived last May after tumbling in its orbit for 11 months (Eos, July 2, 1985, p. 527), recently suffered additional setbacks and has been “deactivated” by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The satellite's only working oscillator faltered and caused episodes of tumbling in September, November, and December 1985, according to Gary K. Davis, manager of NOAA's satellite operations control center in Suitland, Md. In addition, the episode that began December 30 apparently was accompanied by the rupture of a damaged battery, sending what seem to be pieces of the battery's thermal blankets and shields into orbits near the satellite.

  7. The Origin of "Space Weather"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade, William B.; Chan-Park, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Although "space weather" is a fairly recent term, there is a rich history of similar terms being used beginning in the middle to late 1800s. "Solar meteorology," "magnetic weather," and "cosmic meteorology" all appeared during that time frame. The actual first appearance of space weather can be attributed to the publication Science News Letter in 1957 (with the first modern usage in 1959) and was possibly coined by the editor at the time, Watson Davis.

  8. Make Your Own Weather Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this OLogy activity, kids learn about climate and atmospheric conditions by making their own weather station. The activity begins with an overview that explains that weather happens in the atmosphere, where conditions are always changing. Students are given step-by-step, illustrated directions to make a wind vane, a rain gauge and a barometer. The activity includes a printable Weather Chart and wind vane cutouts.

  9. Climate signal and weather noise

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, C.E.

    1995-04-01

    A signal of small climate change in either the real atmosphere or numerical simulation of it tends to be obscured by chaotic weather fluctuations. Time-lagged covariances of such weather processes are used to estimate the sampling errors of time average estimates of climate parameters. Climate sensitivity to changing external influences may also be estimated using the fluctuation dissipation relation of statistical mechanics. Answers to many climate questions could be provided by a realistic stochastic model of weather and climate.

  10. Science Shorts: Organizing Weather Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly J. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Often in schools, children collect weather data as part of their morning meeting or calendar time. These common primary level activities lend themselves nicely to introducing the importance of organizing data. In this lesson, children and teacher work together to find a structure for recording precipitation, temperature, and other weather information. Older children compare how using different types of graphs changes what is communicated about their weather data.

  11. Effects of lake warming on behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a cold-water stenothermic fish.

    PubMed

    Goyer, Katerine; Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Magnan, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii) to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time. PMID:24663489

  12. Human mate poaching: tactics and tempations for infiltrating existing mateships.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P; Buss, D M

    2001-06-01

    The authors explored the psychology of romantically attracting someone who is already in a relationship--what can be called the process of human mate poaching. In Study 1 (N = 236), they found that attempts at poaching were relatively common and were linked with distinctive personality dispositions. Study 2 (N = 220) documented that the perceived costs and benefits of poaching differed somewhat for men and women and depended on whether short-term or long-term poaching outcomes were targeted. Study 3 (N = 453) found support for 5 evolution-based hypotheses about the perceived effectiveness of poaching tactics. Study 4 (N = 333) found that poaching effectiveness was influenced by the type of relationship being encroached on-marital, dating, long distance, highly committed, just beginning, or about to end. Discussion focuses on the importance of placing mate poaching within the broader context of human sexual strategies. PMID:11414373

  13. [Surgical treatment tactics for acute varicothrombophlebitis atypical forms].

    PubMed

    Rusyn, V I; Riashko, M I; Sirchak, S S; Lopit, V M; Krasnopol's'ka, O S

    2014-06-01

    Changes of phlebohemodynamics under control of ultrasonographic investigation were registered in 237 patients, suffering an acute varicothrombophlebitis (AVTH) of superficial veins of lower extremities (LE). In 21 patients atypical forms of AVTH were revealed, including reflux toward a big subcutaneous vein (BSV) of the leg and/or small subcutaneous vein (SSV); reflux toward insufficient indirect veins on hip and shin; reflux toward insufficient direct perforant veins. For atypical forms of AVTH the urgent operations on hip and shin were performed: crossectomy, short or long stripping, phlebectomy and/or scleroobliteration of tributaries; open subfascial resection (mini-Linton); deferred operations: phlebectomy of the BSV/SSV tributaries, open scleroobliteration, subfascial resection (mini-Linton). Systematization of the AVTH forms in accordance to the LE segments have permitted to determine strategy and tactics of the patients treatment, what have important practical significance. PMID:25252552

  14. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples. PMID:9107005

  15. Multiple Application Propfan Study (MAPS): Advanced tactical transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, F. C.; Liebeck, R. H.; Mitchell, G. H.; Mooiweer, A.; Platte, M. M.; Toogood, T. L.; Wright, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain potential benefits of a propfan propulsion system application to a blended wing/body military tactical transport. Based on a design cruise Mach no. of 0.75 for the design mission, the results indicate a significant advantage in various figures of merit for the propfan over those of a comparable technology turbofan. Although the propfan has a 1.6 percent greater takeoff gross weight, its life cycle cost is 5.3 percent smaller, partly because of a 27 percent smaller specific fuel consumption. When employed on alternate missions, the propfan configuration offers significantly improved flexibility and capability: an increase in sea level penetration distance of more than 100 percent, or in time-on-station of 24 percent, or in deployment payload of 38 percent.

  16. Tactical STOL moment balance through innovative configuration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckard, G. J.; Sutton, R. C.; Poth, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    Innovative and conventional thrust vectoring moment balance mechanisms, as applied to advanced tactical fighters, are examined. The innovative mechanisms include thrust line translation, life line translation, and auxiliary power control; the conventional mechanisms under investigation are horizontal tails, canards, and variable sweep wings. These mechanisms are tested for their ability to provide negative static margins for landing approach or relocation of the vectored thrust line nearer the aircraft's center of gravity. The net pitching moment due to wing, flaps, and vectored thrust lift would then be small, making possible beneficial trim forces from small trimming devices. These innovative mechanisms are, however, possibly heavy and must be evaluated on their complexity, reliability, maintainability, and STOL capabilities. Several candidate fighter configurations are compared and evaluated.

  17. Financial management and dental school equity, Part II: Tactics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W; Bergstrom, Roy

    2004-04-01

    Financial management includes all processes that build organizations' equity through accumulating assets in strategically important areas. The tactical aspects of financial management are budget deployment and monitoring. Budget deployment is the process of making sure that costs are fairly allocated. Budget monitoring addresses issues of effective uses and outcomes of resources. This article describes contemporary deployment and monitoring mechanisms, including revenue positive and marginal analysis, present value, program phases, options logic, activity-based costing, economic value added, cost of quality, variance reconciliation, and balanced scorecards. The way financial decisions are framed affects comparative decision-making and even influences the arithmetic of accounting. Familiarity with these concepts should make it possible for dental educators to more fully participate in discussions about the relationships between budgeting and program strategy. PMID:15112921

  18. Laser weapons. I - Tactical lasers: Moving toward lethality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J.

    1982-06-01

    The uses and advantages of lasers as tactical weapon systems are discussed. The primary characteristics of military lasers are the propagation of destructive force toward the target at the speed of light, obviating the present need for targeting systems to lead their target, and the ease with which new targets may be acquired by redirection of the laser's orienting mirror. Two basic types of mission are considered: (1) the destruction of sensing systems which direct missiles to their targets, and (2) the mechanical damage of the target through the rapid deposition of large quantities of energy on a small area. Attention is given to the thermal blooming effect which results from atmospheric absorption of infrared laser beams. Missions under consideration are tank-mounted antimissile and anti-aircraft Army operations, naval ship defense against cruise missiles, and air and antisatellite warfare operations of the Air Force.

  19. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  20. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  1. Jetstream: An Online Weather School

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Jetstream is an online weather school from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service. Materials featured here include a selection of modules on weather on the web, the atmosphere, global weather, synoptic meteorology and other topics. A certificate of completion for each module can be printed by students who successfully complete their work. A topic matrix provides access to the sections for each module, beginning with an introduction and ending with review questions. In addition, an appendix for teachers features a glossary, list of acronyms, downloading instructions, answers to review questions, and overviews of the lesson plans within each module.

  2. Avoided cost standard under PURPA

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Holmlund, I.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1983-04-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) (P.L. 95-617) was passed to encourage electricity conservation through a variety of regulatory and rate reforms. Information is provided on the controversy surrounding the avoided cost standard established under PURPA. Promulgated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) in February 1980, the avoided cost standard sets a minimum rate for utilities purchasing power from a qualified facility (QF) at the utilities full avoided cost. Recent court cases have challenged this standard and FERC is currently appealing to the Supreme Court. The impact of these court cases may have little effect on the actual rates set by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), which can require rates higher than the minimums established by FERC, since many PUCs appear in favor of requiring full avoided costs. The arguments for and against requiring utilities to pay full avoided costs come down to balancing between incentives for QFs on the one hand and fairness to utilities and their non-QF customers on the other.

  3. Harm Avoidance and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Levine, Steven R.; Yu, Lei; Hoganson, George M.; Buchman, Aron S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Harm avoidance, a trait indicative of behavioral inhibition, is associated with disability and dementia in old age, but the basis of these associations is uncertain. We test the hypothesis that higher level of harm avoidance is associated with increased likelihood of cerebral infarction. Methods Older persons without dementia completed a standard measure of harm avoidance. During a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up, 257 (of 1,082) individuals died of whom 206 (80%) underwent brain autopsy. Number of chronic cerebral infarcts (microscopic plus gross; expressed as 0,1, or >1) was assessed on neuropathologic examination, completed in 192 individuals at the time of analyses. Results On postmortem examination, chronic cerebral infarcts were found in 89 (42 with 1, 47 with >1). Higher harm avoidance was associated with higher likelihood of infarcts (odds ratio = 1.083, 95% confidence interval 1.040–1.128). A moderately high level of the trait (score=17, 75th percentile) was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the likelihood of infarction compared to a moderately low level of the trait (score = 6, 25th percentile). These associations persisted in models that controlled for other cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Higher level of the harm avoidance trait may be a risk factor for cerebral infarction. PMID:24364391

  4. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  5. Using Forecasting to Teach Weather Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-09-01

    Weather affects our lives and hence, is a popular topic in daily conversations and in the media. Therefore, it is not only important to teach weather, but is also a good idea to use 'weather' as a topic in science teaching. Science education has two main objectives: to acquire scientific concepts and methods. Weather forecasting is an adequate theme to teach scientific methods because it is dependent on observation. However, it is not easy to forecast weather using only temporal observation. We need to know the tendency of 'weather change' via consecutive and/or continuous weather observation. Students will acquire scientific-observation skills through weather observation. Data-processing skills would be enhanced through a weather-forecasting contest. A contest should be announced within 5 days of school events, such as a school excursion and field day. Students submit their own weather forecast by gathering weather information through the internet, news paper and so on. A weather-forecasting contest compels the student to observe the weather more often. We currently have some different weather forecasts. For example, American weather-related companies such as ACCU weather and Weather Channel provide weather forecast for the many locations all over the world. Comparing these weather forecasting with actual weather, participants such as students could evaluate the differences between forecasted and actual temperatures. Participants will judge the best weather forecast based on the magnitude of the difference. Also, participants evaluate the 'hitting ratio' of each weather forecast. Students can learn elementary statistics by comparing various weather forecasts. We have developed our weather web-site that provides our own weather forecasting and observation. Students acquire science skills using our weather web-site. We will report our lessen plans and explain our weather web-site.

  6. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74...Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) [Reserved] ...as may be necessary to avoid mutual interference, including consultation...

  7. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74...Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) [Reserved] ...as may be necessary to avoid mutual interference, including consultation...

  8. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74...Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) [Reserved] ...as may be necessary to avoid mutual interference, including consultation...

  9. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74...Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) [Reserved] ...as may be necessary to avoid mutual interference, including consultation...

  10. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74...Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) [Reserved] ...as may be necessary to avoid mutual interference, including consultation...

  11. Avoiding Lexical Ambiguities: Does Prior Experience Help? 

    E-print Network

    Burns, Rebecca

    2008-06-27

    This study examined whether speakers avoid lexical ambiguities in a communication task by avoiding ambiguous descriptions when two interpretations are plausible and, furthermore, whether this avoidance is increased after ...

  12. Distribution System Reliability Assessment Incorporating Weather Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Billinton; J. Acharya

    2006-01-01

    Electrical distribution systems usually exist in outdoor environments. The weather creates varying degrees of physical stress on system components exposed to fluctuating weather conditions. The failure rate of an element is greatly enhanced in bad weather situations and the likelihood of multiple line failures is much higher in bad weather than in normal weather. The phenomenon of coincident failures of

  13. National Severe Storms Laboratory's Weather Room

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational website from NOAA has: facts on tornadoes, hurricanes, lightning and thunderstorms; lessons on weather symbols, maps and systems; an extensive list of weather and climate resources for teachers; information on careers in weather; and a list of weather links including weather data. Additionally, the site includes all the latest meteorological research including tornado genesis and lightning.

  14. Constructing design weather data for future climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SE Belcher; JN Hacker; DS Powell

    2005-01-01

    We develop a method, here called ‘morphing’, to produce design weather data for building thermal simulations that accounts for future changes to climate. Morphing combines present-day observed weather data with results from climate models. The procedure yields weather time series that encapsulate the average weather conditions of future climate scenarios, whilst preserving realistic weather sequences. In this sense the method

  15. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, ?, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter to compare weathering advance rates at varying scales. Given that, w=10^{-3.7}D^{0.23} we can use the fractal dimension of basalt weathering to define the roughness factor for basalt weathering as, ?=wD1/wD2=(D1/D2)^{0.23}.

  16. THE WEATHER AND CLIMATE TOOLKIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Ansari; Chad Hutchins; Stephen Del Greco; Mark Phillips

    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including NEXRAD Radar, GOES Satellite, NOMADS Model and surface in-situ data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and

  17. Dressing according to the weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Holland

    2011-04-06

    What should I wear so that I am comfortable outside? Get this Organizer 1. Go here Song for Telling the weather 2. Then here The weather today is? 3. Next play this Dressing Teddy Bear Game 4. Then play this game Dressing for the seasons! 5. Last play this game Dressing Caillou ...

  18. Internet Geography: Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on the topics of weather and climate, covering world climate zones, factors affecting climate, precipitation, pressure systems and weather hazards (tropical storms and tornadoes).

  19. Doing Something About the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Charles J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an exercise that familiarizes students with the language of German weather reports, so that they will know what kinds of information to listen for. The exercise also helps students expand their vocabulary. The article includes transcriptions of actual German weather reports. (SED)

  20. Classification algorithms for weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Yanovsky; Vitaly Marchuk; Yaroslav Ostrovsky; Yulia Averyanova

    2008-01-01

    Theory, measurements, and signal processing applying to the radar remote sensing of weather objects are considered. Algorithms for hydrometeor type and turbulence intensity recognition are developed and analyzed. Particularly, fuzzy logic and neural network approaches are applied for weather radar signal processing.