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1

Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers that start far ahead of encountering a weather cell when rerouting around weather.

Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

2011-01-01

2

Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

2009-01-01

3

Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance  

E-print Network

avoidance capability has increased. In this thesis, an intelligent weather agent is developed for general aviation aircraft. Using a radar image from an onboard weather radar, the intelligent weather agent determines the safest path around severe weather...

Bokadia, Sangeeta

2012-06-07

4

Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

2011-01-01

5

Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

2013-01-01

6

In the eye of the tiger: predator avoidance tactics differ among life-history stages of an ambystomatid salamander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of life to a predator obviously has a negative impact on an individual's fitness, and so selection is expected to favour tactics in prey that enable them to avoid encounters with predators (our focus here) and\\/or survive such encounters if they occur. While much is known about species differences in such tactics, ontogenetic changes within species have been less

J. A. Fronzuto; P. A. Verrell

2007-01-01

7

All weather collision avoidance for unmanned aircraft systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a highly reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. The controlling agency, the Federal Aviation Administration, justifiably demands "no harm" to the safety of the NAS. To overcome the constraints imposed on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) use of the NAS, a new, complex, conformable collision avoidance system has been developed - one that will be effective in all flyable weather conditions, overcoming the shortfalls of other sensing systems, including radar, lidar, acoustic, EO/IR, etc., while meeting form factor and cost criteria suitable for Tier II UAS operations. The system also targets Tier I as an ultimate goal, understanding the operational limitations of the smallest UASs may require modification of the design that is suitable for Tier II and higher. The All Weather Sense and Avoid System (AWSAS) takes into account the FAA's plan to incorporate ADS-B (out) for all aircraft by 2020, and it is intended to make collision avoidance capability available for UAS entry into the NAS as early as 2013. When approved, UASs can fly mission or training flights in the NAS free of the constraints presently in place. Upon implementation this system will achieve collision avoidance capability for UASs deployed for national security purposes and will allow expansion of UAS usage for commercial or other civil purposes.

Contarino, Mark

2010-04-01

8

Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

2010-01-01

9

Analysis of Automated Aircraft Conflict Resolution and Weather Avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an analysis of using trajectory-based automation to resolve both aircraft and weather constraints for near-term air traffic management decision making. The auto resolution algorithm developed and tested at NASA-Ames to resolve aircraft to aircraft conflicts has been modified to mitigate convective weather constraints. Modifications include adding information about the size of a gap between weather constraints to the routing solution. Routes that traverse gaps that are smaller than a specific size are not used. An evaluation of the performance of the modified autoresolver to resolve both conflicts with aircraft and weather was performed. Integration with the Center-TRACON Traffic Management System was completed to evaluate the effect of weather routing on schedule delays.

Love, John F.; Chan, William N.; Lee, Chu Han

2009-01-01

10

Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

11

Tactics, effectiveness and avoidance of mate guarding in the blue-footed booby ( Sula nebouxii )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the dynamics and avoidance of mate guarding, by males and females, in the blue-footed booby, in which the two social mates are usually simultaneously present on the territory but each of them is unmonitored by the other for one-quarter of its time. Both sexes were promiscuous and liable to switch mates. Cuckolded individuals did not increase their overall

Diana Pérez-Staples; Hugh Drummond

2005-01-01

12

All weather collision avoidance for unmanned aircraft systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a highly reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. The controlling agency, the Federal Aviation Administration, justifiably demands \\

Mark Contarino

2010-01-01

13

Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid: An AWIN Topical Study. Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aviation community is faced with reducing the fatal aircraft accident rate by 80 percent within 10 years. This must be achieved even with ever increasing, traffic and a changing National Airspace System. This is not just an altruistic goal, but a real necessity, if our growing level of commerce is to continue. Honeywell Technology Center's topical study, "Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid", addresses these pressing needs. The goal of this program is to use route optimization and user interface technologies to develop a prototype decision aid for dispatchers and pilots. This decision aid will suggest possible diversions through single or multiple weather hazards and present weather information with a human-centered design. At the conclusion of the program, we will have a laptop prototype decision aid that will be used to demonstrate concepts to industry for integration into commercialized products for dispatchers and/or pilots. With weather a factor in 30% of aircraft accidents, our program will prevent accidents by strategically avoiding weather hazards in flight. By supplying more relevant weather information in a human-centered format along with the tools to generate flight plans around weather, aircraft exposure to weather hazards can be reduced. Our program directly addresses the NASA's five year investment areas of Strategic Weather Information and Weather Operations (simulation/hazard characterization and crew/dispatch/ATChazard monitoring, display, and decision support) (NASA Aeronautics Safety Investment Strategy: Weather Investment Recommendations, April 15, 1997). This program is comprised of two phases, Phase I concluded December 31, 1998. This first phase defined weather data requirements, lateral routing algorithms, an conceptual displays for a user-centered design. Phase II runs from January 1999 through September 1999. The second phase integrates vertical routing into the lateral optimizer and combines the user interface into a prototype software testbed. Phase II concludes with a dispatcher and pilot evaluation of the route optimizer decision aid. This document describes work completed in Phase I in contract with NASA Langley August 1998 - December 1998. This report includes: (1) Discuss how weather hazards were identified in partnership with experts, and how weather hazards were prioritized; (2) Static representations of display layouts for integrated planning function (3) Cost function for the 2D route optimizer; (4) Discussion of the method for obtaining, access to raw data of, and the results of the flight deck user information requirements definition; (5) Itemized display format requirements identified for representing weather hazards in a route planning aid.

1998-01-01

14

All weather sense and avoid system (AWSAS) for all UAS and manned platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. To overcome the constraints imposed on UASs use of the NAS, a new, conformable collision avoidance system has been developed - one that will be effective in all flyable weather conditions, overcoming the shortfalls of other sensing systems. Upon implementation this system will achieve collision avoidance capability for UASs deployed for national security purposes and will allow expansion of UAS usage for commercial or other civil purposes.

Contarino, V. M.; Healing, R.; Contarino, R.; Contarino, M. R.; Molchanov, P.; Curran, T.; Keck, T.; Keck, J.; Allen, S.; Shubert, S.; Wienmann, R.

2011-05-01

15

Trajectory generation for aircraft subject to dynamic weather uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining safe aircraft trajectories that avoid hazardous weather regions and other aircraft while efficiently using the available airspace is an important problem. Although tactical weather forecast maps have been available, their use in automated aircraft trajectory generation has not been fully explored or implemented. We consider aircraft trajectory generation using forecast data available from the Corridor Integrated Weather System product.

Maryam Kamgarpour; Vera Dadok; Claire Tomlin

2010-01-01

16

Super-resolution technologies for all-weather sense and avoidance (SAA) radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sense and avoidance (SAA) and due-regard radar systems have strict requirements on size, weight and power (SWaP) and target localization accuracies. Also, the multi-mission capabilities with both weather and hard targets are critical to the survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the next generation national airspace. The aperture limitations of the aircraft sensor installation, however, have prevented large antennas/arrays to be used. The tradeoffs among frequencies, resolutions and detection range/accuracies have not been fully addressed. Innovative concepts of overcoming the aperture limitation by using a special type of super-resolution technology are introduced. The first technique is based on a combination of thinned antenna array, an extension to the traditional Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique, and applying a two-dimensional sidelobe mitigation technique. To overcome the degradation of MUSIC-type of approach due to coherent radar signals, a special waveform optimization procedure is used. The techniques for mitigating artifacts due to "thinned" array are also introduced. Simulated results of super-resolution techniques are discussed and evaluated, and the capability of separating multiple targets within aperture-constrained beamwidth is demonstrated. Moreover, the potential capabilities of autonomous weather hazard avoidance are also analyzed.

Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Wang, Shang; Pan, Yu; Suarez, Hernan

2011-06-01

17

Wolf spider predator avoidance tactics and survival in the presence of diet-associated predator cues (Araneae: Lycosidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some prey can distinguish between chemical cues from predators fed different diets. Here we document the first evidence of diet-based chemical discrimination of predators in a terrestrial arthropod and measure the survival value of behavioural responses to predator chemical cues. We tested activity level and avoidance behaviour of the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, to faeces and silk associated with the

M. H. Persons; S. E. Walker; A. L. Rypstra; S. D. Marshall

2001-01-01

18

Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude UAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA operates two Global Hawk unmanned aircraft systems for Earth Science research projects. In particular, they are used in the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) project during 2012, 2013, and 2014 to take measurements from the environment around tropical cyclones, and from directly above tropical cyclones. There is concern that strict adherence to the weather avoidance rules used in 2012 may sacrifice the ability to observe important science targets. We have proposed modifications to these weather avoidance rules that we believe will improve the ability to observe science targets without compromising aircraft safety. The previous guidelines, used in 2012, specified: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. When flying above FL500: Do not approach reported lightning within 25NM in areas where cloud tops are reported at FL500 or higher. Aircraft should maintain at least 10000 ft vertical separation from reported lightning if cloud tops are below FL500. No over-flight of cumulus tops higher than FL500. No flight into forecast or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecast or reported moderate or severe turbulence Based on past experience with high-altitude flights over tropical cyclones, we have recommended changing this guidance to: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. Aircraft should maintain at least 5000 ft vertical separation from significant convective cloud tops except: a) When cloud tops above FL500: In the event of reported significant lightning activity or indicators of significant overshooting tops, do not approach within 10-25 nm, depending on pilot discretion and advice from Mission Scientist. b) When cloud tops are below FL500, maintain 10000 ft separation from reported significant lightning or indicators of significant overshooting tops. No flight into forecasted or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecasted or reported moderate or severe turbulence The key changes have to do with overflight of high convective cloud tops and those producing lightning. Experience shows that most tropical oceanic convection (including that in tropical cyclones) is relatively gentle even if the cloud tops are quite high, and can be safely overflown. Exceptions are convective elements producing elevated lightning flash rates (more than just the occasional flash, which would trigger avoidance under the previous rules) and significant overshooting cloud tops.

Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris; Monette, Sarah; Heymsfield, Gerry; Braun, Scott; Newman, Paul; Black, Pete; Black, Michael; Dunion, Jason

2014-01-01

19

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

20

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

Bullough, Ms.

2010-06-24

21

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Williams, Ms.

2005-10-25

22

Evaluation of High Density Air Traffic Operations with Automation for Separation Assurance, Weather Avoidance and Schedule Conformance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we discuss the development and evaluation of our prototype technologies and procedures for far-term air traffic control operations with automation for separation assurance, weather avoidance and schedule conformance. Controller-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center in 2010 have shown very promising results. We found the operations to provide high airspace throughput, excellent efficiency and schedule conformance. The simulation also highlighted areas for improvements: Short-term conflict situations sometimes resulted in separation violations, particularly for transitioning aircraft in complex traffic flows. The combination of heavy metering and growing weather resulted in an increased number of aircraft penetrating convective weather cells. To address these shortcomings technologies and procedures have been improved and the operations are being re-evaluated with the same scenarios. In this paper we will first describe the concept and technologies for automating separation assurance, weather avoidance, and schedule conformance. Second, the results from the 2010 simulation will be reviewed. We report human-systems integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. Next, improvements will be discussed that were made to address identified shortcomings. We conclude that, with further refinements, air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can routinely provide currently unachievable levels of traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey S.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Brasil, Connie L.

2011-01-01

23

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

24

Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Programming Flight Routing Algorithm Using the Convective Weather Avoidance Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.

Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit

2010-01-01

25

Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6) "Seasonal Jobs"; (7) "Fiction: Winter Courage"; (8) "Stayin'…

Ruth, Amy, Ed.

1996-01-01

26

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction: How much do you know about weather? What kinds of weather do we have surrounding us? What is the weather like today? You may know a lot about weather already, you may not. Either way, you will learn more now as we take a look into what causes our weather and the methods we use to record and predict it. We will all become meteorologists, which are scientists who study the atmosphere and can predict weather. Put on your raincoats, and lets started! Task: You are the resident meteorologist at a local news station. It is your job to record and predict the weather each day, and then present it that night on the evening news. Not only should you be able to show the weather that we will be experiencing right ...

Hendricks, Ms.

2007-12-06

27

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Jennie, Miss

2009-10-22

28

Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Global Hawk flight rules would probably not have been effective in the single event of greatest concern (the Emily encounter). The cloud top had not reached 50,000 ft until minutes before the encounter. The TOT and lightning data would not have been available until near the overflight time since this was a rapidly growing cell. This case would have required a last-minute diversion when lightning became frequent. Avoiding such a cell probably requires continual monitoring of the forward camera and storm scope, whether or not cloud tops have been exceeding specific limits. However, the current overflight rules as strictly interpreted would have prohibited significant fractions of the successful Global Hawk overpasses of Karl and Matthew that proved not to be hazardous. Many other high altitude aircraft (ER-2 and Global Hawk) flights in NASA tropical cyclone field programs have successfully overflown deep convective clouds without incident.The convective cell that caused serious concern about the safety of the ER-2 in Emily was especially strong for a tropical cyclone environment, probably as strong or stronger than any that was overflown by the ER-2 in 20 previous flights over tropical cyclones. Specifically, what made that cell a safety concern was the magnitude of the vertical velocity of the updraft, at least 20 m/s (4000 ft/minute) at the time the ER-2 overflew it. Such a strong updraft can generate strong gravity waves at and above the tropopause, posing a potential danger to aircraft far above the maximum altitude of the updraft itself or its associated cloud top. Indeed, the ER-2 was probably at least 9000 ft above that cloud top. Cloud-top height, by itself, is not an especially good indicator of the intensity of convection and the likelihood of turbulence. Nor is overflying high cloud tops (i.e. > 50,000 ft) of particular concern unless there is other evidence of very strong convective updrafts beneath those tops in the path of the aircraft. center dot Lightning, especially lightning with a high flash rate, is well correlated with convective intensity. Lightning with a minimal flash rate (say 1-3 flashes per minute) is indicative of updraft speeds of about 10 m/s in the mixed phase region where charge is being separated, generally at altitudes about 20-25 kft in a hurricane. That is still stronger than typical updrafts (more like 5 m/s). An unresolved issue is whether there is a high and instantaneous correlation between vertical velocity in the middle troposphere (necessary for lightning generation) and near cloud top (more direct concern for overflights).

Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris S.; Monette, Sarah A.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Braun, Scott A.; Newman, Paul A.; Black, Peter G.; Black, Michael L.; Dunion, Jason P.

2014-01-01

29

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

30

New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bougue, Rodney K.

2005-01-01

31

Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90° between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

Pochron, Sharon T.

32

TACTICAL VOTING AND TACTICAL NON-VOTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turnout and tactical voting are driven by remarkably similar processes. Using British Election Study data from 1997, both are shown to depend on the strategic situation in the constituency and on the relative strength of preference between parties. Also both are influenced by party campaigning and the level of political interest, knowledge and trust. Tactical non-voting creates the potential for

STEPHEN D. FISHER

2001-01-01

33

Self-Management Tactics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of self-management tactics is intended for teachers to use in helping secondary school students acquire and improve their self-management skills. The tactics are subdivided into sections devoted to self-recording, self-evaluating, self-selecting, using combinations of individual self-management tactics, and training. The following…

Lovitt, Thomas C.; Ballew, Constance

34

Tactics of Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation is one means by which environments are altered to correspond to characteristics of individuals. We conducted two studies to identify the manipulation tactics that people use to elicit and terminate the actions of others. Factor analyses of four instruments revealed six types of tactics: charm, silent treatment, coercion, reason, regression, and debasement. Tactics of manipulation showed strong individual difference

David M. Buss; Mary Gomes; Dolly S. Higgins; Karen Lauterbach

1987-01-01

35

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

36

Tactics of hierarchy negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since resources flow to those at the top of the hierarchy in all known groups, “getting ahead” is assumed to be one of the central human motivations. The present research project was designed to assess tactics of hierarchy negotiation, identify the robustness of their factor structure, and relate tactics use with personality traits, values, and salary. The participants were 315

Ole Christer H. Lund; Christian K. Tamnes; Cathrine Moestue; David M. Buss; Margarete Vollrath

2007-01-01

37

Tactical training reference manual  

SciTech Connect

This Manual provides training information for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees to assist in implementation of the Tactical Response Team (TRT) training and exercise requirements of the revised portions of 10 CFR Part 73, which requires that licensees possessing formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material establish TRTs and conduct tactical response exercises to enhance the capabilities of security forces in protecting NRC licensed fuel facilities from potential adversaries postulated in the design basis threat. Step-by-step illustrated instructional material is provided concerning both individual and team tactics and skills appropriate to meeting these requirements. The Manual consists of two parts. Part One addresses adversary attributes and essential tactical skills that each TRT member should master to assure personal safety and effective response to adversary actions. Part Two discusses more advanced tactics, command, control, and orders. 30 refs., 281 figs.

Telfair, W.D.; Moul, D.A.; Klingelhoefer, J.W.; Jurjevich, K.M.; Leonard, W.R.

1989-04-01

38

Tactical Maneuvering Using Immunized Sequence Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a tactical maneuvering system that uses an artificial immune system based approach for selecting maneuver sequences. This approach combines the problem solving abilities of genetic algorithms with the memory retention characteristics of an immune system. Of significant importance here is the fact that the tactical maneuvering system can make time-critical decisions to accomplish near-term objectives within a dynamic environment. These objectives can be received from a human operator, autonomous executive, or various flight planning specialists. Simulation tests were performed using a high performance military aircraft model. Results demonstrate the potential of using immunized sequence selection in order to accomplish tactical maneuvering objectives ranging from flying to a location while avoiding unforeseen obstacles, to performing relative positioning in support of air combat maneuvering.

Kaneshige, John; KrishnaKumar, K.; Shung, Felix

2003-01-01

39

Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

Schutte, Paul C.

2004-01-01

40

Tobacco industry tactics.  

PubMed

The tobacco industry's strong-arm tactics have been used consistently over many years. These tactics include: using the industry's size, wealth, and legal resources to intimidate individuals and local governmental bodies; setting up 'front groups' to make it appear that it has more allies than it really does; spending large sums of money to frame the public debate about smoking regulations around 'rights and liberty' rather than health and portraying its tobacco company adversaries as extremists; 'investing' thousands of dollars in campaign contributions to politicians; and using financial resources to influence science. These tactics are designed to produce delay, giving the nicotine cartel more time to collect even more profits at the direct expense of millions of lives around the world. PMID:8746306

Sweda, E L; Daynard, R A

1996-01-01

41

Tactics for promoting sexual encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through empirical studies we explored the perceived effectiveness and reported usage of tactics to promote sexual encounters. In the first study (N = 58) we identified 122 acts and 34 tactics for promoting sexual encounters. In the second study (N = 50) we examined the perceived effectiveness of each tactic when used by a man and when used by a

Arlette E. Greer; David M. Buss

1994-01-01

42

Handbook of Diffusion Tactics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the second of three products designed to assess the interim performance of the U.S. Office of Education's National Diffusion Network, this booklet contains over 160 descriptions of tactics, techniques, and ideas related to innovative education. The descriptions are one-sentence portraitures of various terminal and ongoing educational projects.…

Network of Innovative Schools, Inc., Andover, MA.

43

Negotiation Tactics and Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These three articles, one by Vid Mohan-Ram and two by Constanza Villalba, were originally published in Science magazine, and offer suggestions on negotiation tactics and strategies for academic positions. They are provided here as a special Science feature on negotiation. Researchers considering changing jobs, or graduate students/ post-docs about to pursue academic positions may find useful advice in these pages.

44

Advances in content transformation in heterogeneous tactical wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content transformation is a viable technique for managing information delivered to tactical MANET nodes interconnected via a quasi-static network (QSN), especially during the period when available bandwidth is limited due to mobility, terrain, weather, jamming, etc. In previous work, we proposed Heterogeneous Intelligent Filtering (HIF) in multi-domain heterogeneous networks, for intelligent active data filtering and transformation to match network capacity

Ta Chen; Andrzej Cichocki; Sharanya Eswaran; Vikram Kaul; Yow-Jian Lin; Sunil Samtani; David Shur; Jeff Bowcock

2011-01-01

45

Process and Procedure: The Tactical Decision-Making Process and Decision Point Tactics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis addresses the tactical decision-making process to determine if decision point tactics is a function within the procedure of tactical decision making, which satisfies the tactical decision-making process by providing a suboptimized plan. The su...

C. A. Alex

2000-01-01

46

Tactical Imaging System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to send photographic information to command centers is a vital element in performing effective near real-time reconnaissance and surveillance operations. This imagery, in conjunction with other battlefield data, provides the battlefield commander with up-to-date intelligence for making decisions. Until recently, the ability to provide this real-time information was severely restricted by the logistics of physically moving, developing, and then disseminating the film. This time delay resulted in out-of-date, stale intelligence. This problem situation has eased recently due to technological developments that have been instrumental in facilitating the dissemination of near real-time information to forward operating areas and behind enemy lines. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has capitalized on these developments and established the Tactical Imaging System (TIS). This miniaturized, man-pack, SATCOM/HF transmitting system provides near real-time tactical imagery. It consists of an image sensor, image intensifier, zoom lens, and image transmission processor. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications. The TIS will have potential application in areas such as identification (friend or foe), reconnaissance, surveillance, and battlefield assessment. Under the TIS program, NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed hands-on experience in still video images and related technologies, including fleet satellite communications, HF transmission, image compression algorithms, VSLI integrated circuitry design, and day/night imagery techniques. NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed a complete, miniaturized system to conduct operational demonstrations, and to demonstrate operational tactics and utilization concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications.

Mocenter, Michael M.

1990-02-01

47

The Sport Education Tactical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two popular instructional models in middle and high school are the sport education model (SEM) and the tactical games model (TGM). The SEM prepares students to become competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons. The TGM prepares students to be able to play games using a tactical approach. Combining the models to form a sport education…

Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla

2009-01-01

48

[Surgical tactics in acute paraproctitis].  

PubMed

Individualized tactics of radical surgical treatment, applied in 100 patients, suffering an acute paraproctitis, was presented. Performing comparative estimation of the treatment results in 110 patients, in whom the conventional surgical approaches were applied, there was established, that an active surgical tactics secures essential reduction of the patients stationary treatment duration, the rate of the disease recurrence occurrence and transformation into the chronic illness. PMID:21698928

Bo?ko, V V; Babich, V A; Ivanova, Iu V; Lykhman, V N

2011-04-01

49

Optimal path planning for unmanned air vehicles with kinematic and tactical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of 2D optimal path-planning problems for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with kinematic and tactical constraints. The existence of an optimal path class satisfying the UAV kinematic constraints and vector calculus are exploited to reduce this class of optimal path-planning problems to a parameter optimization problem. Illustrative tactical constraints arising in target touring and obstacle avoidance problems

Guang Yang; Vikram Kapila

2002-01-01

50

Polyandry and alternative mating tactics  

PubMed Central

Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. PMID:23339236

Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

2013-01-01

51

An Autoethnographic Tale of Image-Generation Tactics on Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an autoethnographic approach, this paper presents the impacts of image-generation programs and policies with a government\\u000a organization. Based on three years’ experience with The Government, I offer autoethnographic observations of three themes\\u000a that have emerged: general confusion, avoiding conformity and brand bewilderment. The research brings attention to internal\\u000a marketing, public relations and image-generation tactics, including human resources policies, practices

Staci M. Zavattaro

2011-01-01

52

Panoramic cockpit displays for tactical military cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) incorporates the latest technology for aerial warfighting. To support this aircraft's mission and to provide the pilot with the increased situational awareness needed in today's battlespace, a panoramic AMLCD was developed and is being deployed for the first time. This 20" by 8" display is the largest fielded to date in a tactical fighter. Key system innovations had to be employed to allow this technology to function in this demanding environment. Certain older generation aircraft are now considering incorporating a panoramic display to provide their crews with this level of increased capability. Key design issues that had to be overcome dealt with sunlight readability, vibration resistance, touchscreen operation, and reliability concerns to avoid single-point failures. A completely dual redundant system design had to be employed to ensure that the pilot would always have access to critical mission and flight data.

Fletcher, Mark; Huffman, David

2010-04-01

53

Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics  

E-print Network

Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

Beaton, Jonathan Scott

2006-01-01

54

Tactical Underlife: Understanding Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes one urban classroom and the language and literacy practices jointly constructed by a veteran urban teacher, Lynn Gatto, and her 3rd grade students. Drawing from two ethnographic studies of Gattos 2nd-4th grade looped classroom, we argue that Gatto and her students use the interplay between strategies and tactics (De Certeau,…

Larson, Joanne; Gatto, Lynn Astarita

2004-01-01

55

Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

2004-01-01

56

Internetting tactical security sensor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multipurpose Surveillance and Security Mission Platform (MSSMP) is a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations, designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of military security operations and other tactical missions. The baseline MSSMP sensor suite consists of a pan\\/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder. With an

Douglas W. Gage; W. Dale Bryan; Hoa G. Nguyen

57

Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

Wedan, R. W.

1983-01-01

58

Strategy for tactical cellular connectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a strategy to unify four disparate networks under an Internet Protocol (IP) umbrella. The first network is the Army Warfighter Information Network - Tactical (WIN-T) area common user system. The second network is an extension to the area common user system using the Mobile Ad Hoc Interoperability Networking Gateway (MAINGATE) system. The third network is the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) based wireless access network and the forth network is the 802.11 WiFi Network. It is the intent of this paper to propose a skeletal wireless strategy that at its core will create everything over IP (EoIP) and "Everything over IEEE" ("EoIEEE") standards at the tactical level of the battlefield.

Carlson, Frederick R.

2011-06-01

59

Issue 394 November 2012 Adverse Weather Planning and Tactics  

E-print Network

building thunderstorms ASRS Report #1 "I Came Close to Being a Statistic" Even with good preflight planning from an area of fast-building thunderstorms. The all-too-close encounter highlights a critical factor, it became necessary to deviate due to existing and building thunderstorms. ATC had advised me of the largest

60

Winter Weather Tips for Cardiac Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... workload on the heart. People outdoors in cold weather should avoid sudden exertion, like lifting a heavy ... with your doctor prior to exercising in cold weather. Be aware of the dangers of hypothermia. Heart ...

61

Weather Vane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this meteorology activity, learners build weather vanes using straws, paperclips, and cardstock. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes are used to understand and predict weather.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2011-01-01

62

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

63

Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

2004-01-01

64

Meniere's disease: A surgeon's tactics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surgical procedures for treating Meniere's disease are discussed. Based on the results of 250 operations, it is concluded that interventions are sufficiently effective not only with vestibular dysfunction, but also with hearing disorders. In surgical treatment of Meniere's disease, it is expedient to adhere to by-stage tactics: to start with the simplest and least traumatic interventions - operations on the nerves of the tympanic cavity, and if these are ineffective to use more complex methods, including drainage or shunting of the endolymphatic sac.

Soldatov, I.

1980-01-01

65

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

66

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

67

MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND  

E-print Network

TECHINT MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS FM-Service tactics, techniques, and procedures (MTTP) for technical intelligence (TECHINT) operations. It serves of captured material of intelligence value. · Assists in planning and conducting TECHINT operations

US Army Corps of Engineers

68

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

1994-01-01

69

Recent consideration in tactical medicine.  

PubMed

A philosophical approach to tactical and remote medicine should be reflected in the gear (e.g., equipment and technology) chosen as well as the protocols used. The gear needs to be lightweight and small volume. Asmuch as possible, it should have multiple uses, and there should be no redundancy with other items. When modern technology (e.g., hemostatic gauze, pulse oximeters, etc.) allows it to have unique applications, it should be used. Otherwise, if simple basic gear works, it should remain a staple (e.g., cravats). Protocols should reflect the goal to provide thorough care in an efficient manner. They should be straightforward and scaleable and be capable of being trained in a fashion that will allow them to become automatic under duress. These guiding principles establish a basis from which the Special Operations Forces/Tactical Medic or PJ can operate to maximal effectiveness. This article will describe current thinking in Pararescue as it relates to gear and protocols. PMID:23817879

Rush, Stephen

2013-01-01

70

Tactical games & behavioral self-organization  

E-print Network

The interactive game theoretical approach to tactics and behavioral self-organization is developed. Though it uses the interactive game theoretical formalization of dialogues as psycholinguistic phenomena, the crucial role is played by the essentially new concept of a tactical game. Applications to the perception processes and related subjects (memory, recollection, image understanding, imagination) are discussed together with relations to the computer vision and pattern recognition (the dynamical formation of patterns and perception models during perception as a result of its self-organization) and computer games (modelling of the tactical behavior and self-organization, tactical RPG and elaboration of new tactical game techniques). The appendix is devoted to the operative computer games and the user programming of operative units in a multi-user online operative computer game.

Denis V. Juriev

1999-11-19

71

Shade avoidance.  

PubMed

The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

Casal, Jorge J

2012-01-01

72

Shade Avoidance  

PubMed Central

The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

Casal, Jorge J.

2012-01-01

73

Image fusion for tactical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral sensors are increasingly being employed in military applications. Just as in satellite imagery of the earth, multispectral data is required in order to extract the maximum amount of information from a scene. The advantages of image fusion have been postulated for navigation, surveillance, fire control, and missile guidance to improve accuracy and contribute to mission success. The fusion process is a critical element of each of these applications. Imagery from various sensors must be calibrated, enhanced and spatially registered in order to achieve the desired 'fusion' of information into a single 'picture' for rapid assessment. In a tactical military environment this fusion of data must be presented to the end user in a timely and ergonomical fashion. The end user (e.g., a combat pilot) may already be operating at maximum sensory input capacity. Does he or she really need another cockpit display?

McDaniel, Robert V.; Scribner, Dean A.; Krebs, William K.; Warren, Penny R.; Ockman, Norman; McCarley, Jason

1998-10-01

74

In situ weathering rind erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cosmogenic nuclide dating methods place in doubt the long-term future of weathering rinds (WRs) as a chronometric tool. Why estimate ages when radiometric control is possible? This paper presents evidence that WRs can provide invaluable clues about what particular sample would provide the most accurate cosmogenic age by avoiding binheritanceQ of cosmogenic nuclides and by avoiding boulders

Steven J. Gordon; Ronald I. Dorn

75

General practitioners' strategies and tactics of communication with the terminally ill.  

PubMed

Interviews with 22 randomly selected general practitioners (GPs) investigated their communication with terminally ill patients. In interview analysis a conceptual distinction was drawn between objectives, strategies and tactics. When treating terminal patients, GPs expressed the objectives of keeping the patient comfortable, painfree, happy and maintaining dignity. A strategy is a plan and mode of approaching patients existing over an extended time period. Three strategies were described by GPs for use when interacting with terminally ill patients. These are characterized as 'try to disclose', 'let the patient decide' and 'avoid disclosing'. Tactics refer to behaviours used within a single consultation, as part of a strategy. Six tactics are described: evasion, denial, uncertainty, hints and prompts, euphemism and reassurance. Different strategies imply quite different forms of consultation. Thus to understand a consultation we must place it into the context of the series. PMID:7506681

Todd, C; Still, A

1993-09-01

76

Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.

77

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

78

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

2008-03-27

79

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

80

Strategies to avoid arrest: crack sellers’ response to intensified policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews over 120 sellers and low-level distributors of the drug “crack” in New York City. Documents seller strategies to counter police tactics. Finds that crack sellers and distributors have developed several important strategies to limit vulnerability to arrest, but that success in avoiding arrest diminishes considerably once they are detected by police. Suggests that problem-oriented approaches are better than crackdowns,

Bruce D. Johnson; Mangai Natarajan

1995-01-01

81

Trauma Ultrasound in Civilian Tactical Medicine  

PubMed Central

The term “tactical medicine” can be defined in more than one way, but in the nonmilitary setting the term tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) is often used to denote medical support operations for law enforcement. In supporting operations involving groups such as special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams, TEMS entail executing triage, diagnosis, stabilization, and evacuation decision-making in challenging settings. Ultrasound, now well entrenched as a part of trauma evaluation in the hospital setting, has been investigated in the prehospital arena and may have utility in TEMS. This paper addresses potential use of US in the tactical environment, with emphasis on the lessons of recent years' literature. Possible uses of US are discussed, in terms of both specific clinical applications and also with respect to informing triage and related decision making. PMID:23243509

Whelan, Lori; Justice, William; Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Dixon, Jeff D.; Thomas, Stephen H.

2012-01-01

82

Unmanned tactical reconnaissance in real time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of unmanned tactical reconnaissance aircraft are designed to coniplement manned reconnaissance aircraft in meeting the needs for high resolution tactical imagery in a high threat environment. The unmanned recce aircraft is well suited for applications in which the target area is well known and heavily defended. These targets are often located in rear areas well beyond the FEBA and outside of radio line-of-sight (LOS). The UAV must operate autonomously to record reconnaissance information and transmit this imagery in near- real-time when data link coiununications can be established with the controlling ground processing facility. This paper describes current concepts which improve the timeliness of data and provide additional synergism between manned and unmanned tactical reconnaissance systems. The UAV significantly extends the operational range and enhances versatility of tactical reconnaissance at low risk and low cost.

Hansen, Bertel J.

1990-11-01

83

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

84

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

2008-03-28

85

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

86

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

87

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

88

Space Weather  

E-print Network

Space Weather :: Printer Friendly Version of Article 2004SW000119 http://www.agu magnetic Faraday cages, to designing artificial magnetospheres around the spacecraft, to employing into nature. Louis J. Lanzerotti is Editor of Space Weather, Distinguished Research Professor at the New

Shepherd, Simon

89

Wacky Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

90

The Role Of Mission Planning In Mission Data Management For Tactical Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern tactical aircraft commanders face increasing threats on the battlefield of the 1990s, forcing their aircrews to fly at low altitudes and/or in night and adverse weather conditions. The dynamic nature of these threat and weather conditions requires responsive mission data management both on board the aircraft and on the ground during the mission planning process. Obviously the need exists for timely exploitation of intelligence data collected on previous missions, especially for tactical reconnaissance mission planning. In response to this need, Fairchild Communications & Electronics Company has developed an all digital mission planning system, known as the MAPS 300, which eliminates the manual cutting and pasting of paper charts and manual flight log calculations from the mission planning process. In addition, the MAPS 300 recommends minimum threat exposure routes and generates visual perspective views, permitting the aircrews to concentrate on selecting the mission tactics. The MAPS 300 is now in production for the U.S. Air Force as part of the Mission Support Systems II (MSS II) currently being procured for the F-4 NWDS, F-15E and F-111 aircraft. The MAPS technology has future applications for Strike Recce and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) programs.

Cooper, Brian G.

1989-02-01

91

Certification of tactics and strategies in aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper suggests that the 'tactics and strategies' notion is a highly suitable paradigm to describe the cognitive involvement of human operators in advanced aviation systems (far more suitable than classical functional analysis), and that the workload and situational awareness of operators are intimately associated with the planning and execution of their tactics and strategies. If system designers have muddled views about the collective tactics and strategies to be used during operation, they will produce sub-optimum designs. If operators use unproven and/or inappropriate tactics and strategies, the system may fail. The author wants to make a point that, beyond certification of people or system designs, there may be a need to go into more detail and examine (certify?) the set of tactics and strategies (i.e., the Operational Concept) which makes the people and systems perform as expected. The collective tactics and strategies determine the information flows and situational awareness which exists in organizations and composite human-machine systems. The available infrastructure and equipment (automation) enable these information flows and situational awareness, but are at the same time the constraining factor. Frequently, the tactics and strategies are driven by technology, whereas we would rather like to see a system designed to support an optimized Operational Concept, i.e., to support a sufficiently coherent, cooperative and modular set of anticipation and planning mechanisms. Again, in line with the view of MacLeod and Taylor (1993), this technology driven situation may be caused by the system designer's and operator job designer's over-emphasis on functional analysis (a mechanistic engineering concept), at the expense of a subject which does not seem to be well understood today: the role of the (human cognitive and/or automated) tactics and strategies which are embedded in composite human-machine systems. Research would be needed to arrive at a generally accepted 'planning theory' which can elevate the analysis, description and design of tactics and strategies from today's cottage industry methods to an engineering discipline. The available infrastructure and equipment (automation) enable these information flows and situational awareness, but are at the same time the constraining factor. Frequently, the tactics and strategies are driven by technology, whereas we would rather like to see a system designed to support an optimized Operational Concept, i.e., to support a sufficiently coherent, cooperative and modular set of anticipation and planning mechanisms. Again, in line with the view of MacLeod and Taylor (1993), this technology driven situation may be caused by the system designer's and operator job designer's over-emphasis on functional analysis (a mechanistic engineering concept), at the expense of a subject which does not seem to be well understood today: the role of the (human cognitive and/or automated) tactics and strategies which are embedded in composite human-machine systems. Research would be needed to arrive at a generally accepted 'planning theory' which can evaluate the analysis, description and design of tactics and strategies from today's cottage industry methods to an engineering discipline.

Koelman, Hartmut

1994-01-01

92

Tactical Automated Security System (TASS) RF communications  

SciTech Connect

The Tactical Automated Security System (TASS) spearheads a new way of performing security for the US Air Force: a portable, relocatable security system that deploys and moves with the troops. TASS applications will range from temporary assets located in remote areas to performing traditional, semipermanent roles on main operating bases. In addition, the system is designed for tactical and covert applications. The main elements of TASS include tactical and relocatable sensors, thermal imagers and assessment devices, data communications, alarm annunciation and power. A primary requirement for the TASS system is to utilize wireless communications links to the maximum extent possible. Current wireless technology best supports TASS with radio frequency (RF) based links, but other techniques may eventually be used. This paper addresses the TASS data communications requirements, actions taken to fulfill these requirements, and continuing challenges to operating in the RF mode.

Thurber, J. [AVJG, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States). Electronic Systems Center; Dumais, B. [Horizons Technology, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Kenyon, D. [Analytical Systems Engineering Corp., Bedford, MA (United States); Harrington, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-31

93

Fluctuating asymmetry, sociosexuality, and intrasexual competitive tactics.  

PubMed

Heterosexual men and women were told they were competing with another same-sex individual for a date with an attractive opposite-sex interviewer. After answering 6 questions, participants were asked to tell the competitor why the interviewer should choose them over the competitor. Participants' videotaped behavior was coded for different behavioral tactics. Men who were more symmetrical and who had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation were more likely to use direct competition tactics than were less symmetrical and restricted men. Restricted men accentuated their positive personal qualities, presenting themselves as "nice guys." Structural equation modeling revealed that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was directly associated with the use of direct competition tactics. However, the link between FA and presenting oneself as a nice guy was mediated through sociosexuality. No effects were found for women. PMID:9972561

Simpson, J A; Gangestad, S W; Christensen, P N; Leck, K

1999-01-01

94

78 FR 63279 - Third Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...meeting of the Tactical Operations Committee (TOC). The agenda will include the following...2013 Opening of Meeting/Introduction of TOC Members Official Statement of...

2013-10-23

95

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

96

Planetary Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

97

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

98

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Friend, Duane

99

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

100

Tactical Space: Beyond Line of Sight Alternatives for the Army and Marine Corps Ground Tactical Warfighter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States Army and Marine Corps ground tactical warfighters find themselves conducting operations across greater distances and with more autonomy from their higher commands than ever before. As their areas of operations become larger in modern conflic...

A. B. Luck, A. G. Knight

2007-01-01

101

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

Kshumway

2009-09-28

102

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Emily, Miss

2010-01-29

103

Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

104

The Strategy and Tactics of Information Warfare  

E-print Network

of military forces during the American Civil War and Wars of German Unification.' The introduction of wireless of information and intelligence at the tactical and operational levels that led him to emphasize, in On War the Clausewitzian industrial-era model of destructive war with an information-era model promising greater efficiency

Bishop, Matt

105

Precision dynamic SAR testbed for tactical missiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Army is currently investigating the feasibility\\/utility of a high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode for the detection and subsequent engagement of targets by tactical missiles. A precision dynamic SAR testbed has been designed, constructed and installed by the United States Army Aviation and Missile Command's (AMCOM) Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) at

Brian I. Smith; W. Garner; Randal Cannon

2004-01-01

106

Licensee use of tactical exercise results  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 10, 1988 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its physical security requirements in 10 CFR Part 73 for fuel facilities possessing formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material. The amendments to 10 CFR 73.46(b) require, among other things, that licensees carry out performance evaluations through tactical response exercises. The exercises are intended to demonstrate the guard force state

C. Sawyer; C. Brown

1990-01-01

107

Synthesis of Tactical Plans for Robotic Excavation  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Tactical Plans for Robotic Excavation Sanjiv Singh Submitted in partial fulfillment an approach to synthesizing plans for robotic excavators. Excava- tion tasks range from loading a pile of soil to cutting a geometrically described volume of earth-- for a trench or foundation footing. The excavation

Singh, Sanjiv

108

Attitudes towards questionable negotiation tactics in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of individualism-collectivism, trust, and ethical ideology on ethically questionable negotiation tactics, such as pretending, deceiving and lying, in Turkey. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey questionnaires translated from English to Turkish were administered to 400 respondents, of whom 379 fully completed the questionnaires. Findings – The research empirically corroborated a classification

Ahmet Erku?; Moshe Banai

2011-01-01

109

Conservation: Tactics for a Constant Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of the biological and social contexts of conservation action, particularly in how both biogeography and political geography dictate different conservation tactics in different situations, is discussed. The biospatial hierarchy, the six classes of interference, the seven sources of biotic degradation, and the eight paths to biotic…

Soule, Michael E.

1991-01-01

110

Progress report of the National Weatherization Assistance Program  

SciTech Connect

The National Weatherization Evaluation of the 1989 Program Year and the Metaevaluation of 1996 are described in two ways in this summary document. The text pages summarize the results of the two evaluations conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The photographs and explanations illustrate weatherization operations and tactics. An overview and history of the program is provided, followed by the scope of weatherization, metaevaluation methods and results for 1996, national evaluation methods and results for 1989, response to evaluation findings, remaining opportunities, and next steps. Conclusions and significant findings are then given.

Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States)

1997-09-01

111

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

112

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

113

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

Broadhead, Ms.

2007-11-06

114

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

115

Unisys Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

116

INTELLIGENT AGENT FOR AIRCRAFT COLLISION AVOIDANCE  

E-print Network

authority lies with the air traffic controllers Enhancement of current Air Traffic Control (ATC) safety (GA) A new way of managing air traffic Departure from the highly structured system to a more flexible and avoid regions of severe weather Terrain Agent prevent Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) Traffic

Valasek, John

117

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

118

Licensee use of tactical exercise results  

SciTech Connect

On November 10, 1988 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its physical security requirements in 10 CFR Part 73 for fuel facilities possessing formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material. The amendments to 10 CFR 73.46(b) require, among other things, that licensees carry out performance evaluations through tactical response exercises. The exercises are intended to demonstrate the guard force state of readiness and to test the effectiveness of delay mechanisms, alarm and communication systems, response times, deployment of response forces, firing skills (simulated), tactical maneuvers, etc. The purpose of this document is to set forth criteria, acceptable to the NRC staff, which will enable a licensee to use the results of an exercise to determine whether additional training or security improvements are needed.

Sawyer, C.; Brown, C.

1990-04-01

119

Using tactical intelligence to help inform strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to show how operationally specific, “down in the trenches” competitive intelligence can help inform and contribute to a much higher-level view of the competitive arena that can inform company strategy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article presents a practical application based on various tactical intelligence methodologies, such as win\\/loss analysis, primary intelligence collection, etc.

Martha Culver

2006-01-01

120

Tactical and atmospheric coherent laser radar technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 laser radar systems operating in the infrared region are discussed as regards their tactical and remote sensing applications. Coherent and incoherent detection methods for lidar echoes are compared, and the increased sensitivity offered by heterodyne (coherent) detection is demonstrated through an analysis of signal-to-noise ratios. A CO2 TEA laser rangefinder and a small, tripod-mounted CO2 imaging lidar are then

A. V. Jelalian; W. H. Keene; E. F. Pearson

1983-01-01

121

The Development of the Tobacco Tactics Website  

PubMed Central

Background Web-based cessation interventions have been shown to reduce tobacco use, be more efficacious than self-help booklets, be more efficacious if they provide tailored messages, and enhance quit rates in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to usability test and pilot test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. Methods Both formative and summative evaluations were used across three small successive studies to develop and test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans, which was based on a prior face-to-face smoking cessation intervention. Once the website was developed, the research team and Web developers usability tested the website with 5 veteran smokers and former smokers. Feedback from the veterans was collected as they navigated each webpage, then used to revise the website. In pilot study 1, 9 veteran smokers were provided access to the website, and given a baseline and 30-day follow-up survey. In pilot study 2, 18 veteran smokers, who were also motivated to quit smoking, were recruited and randomized to either the Tobacco Tactics website plus nicotine replacement therapy or to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line. Results As a result of usability testing, more than 27 modifications were made to improve the website. In pilot study 1, 50% (3/6) veterans who entered the website had cut down on the number of cigarettes and 83% (5/6) found the website enjoyable, easy to read, easy to navigate, and would recommend the website to others. In pilot study 2, which included only smokers motivated to quit and also offered nicotine replacement therapy, seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 30-day follow-up was 40% (4/10) in the intervention group compared to 13% (1/8) in the control group. Conclusions These preliminary results are promising and suggest the need for wider-scale testing of the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. PMID:23811612

Fowler, Karen E; Flanagan, Petra S; Ronis, David L; Ewing, Lee A; Waltje, Andrea H

2013-01-01

122

Weathering Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

123

Weather control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to

Leepson

1980-01-01

124

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

125

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

126

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

2002-01-01

127

Tacoma Power Weatherization  

E-print Network

Tacoma Power Weatherization Specifications August 2009 KnowYourPower.com | #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition Page 2 #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition

128

Weather Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Mitchell, Mrs.

2010-09-23

129

Weather control  

SciTech Connect

Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to produce rain are the most successful weather modification techniques. Both are used extensively and with varying degrees of success in the United States and around the world. Cloud seeding, though, is not effective in easing the harshness of a drought, such as the one that hit the Southwest, Midwest and Great Plains this summer.

Leepson, M.

1980-09-05

130

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

131

National Weather Service  

MedlinePLUS

HOME FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range Forecasts Climate Prediction PAST WEATHER Past Weather Heating/Cooling Days Monthly ...

132

Weather Forecasting for Weather Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We take a nonstructural time-series approach to modeling and forecasting daily average temperature in ten U.S. cities, and we inquire systematically as to whether it may prove useful from the vantage point of participants in the weather derivatives market. The answer is, perhaps surprisingly, yes. Time series modeling reveals both strong conditional mean dynamics,and conditional variance dynamics in daily

Sean D. Campbell; Francis X. Diebold

2005-01-01

133

[Assisted reproductive technology in the treatment of male infertility: potential risks and tactics].  

PubMed

Assisted reproductive technology (ART), developed in the end of last century, has been playing an irreplaceable role in the treatment of male infertility, though it does have its potential risks, including the induction of monozygotic twins, premature delivery, high incidence of birth defects, etc. How to avoid these risks has posed a challenge and demands earnest attention from andrologists. This article summarizes the main potential risks of ART and proposes some tactics concerning patient evaluation, health education and treatment standardization, so as to optimize the outcomes and minimize the risks. Meanwhile, emphasis is placed on the importance of etiological and anti-oxidant strategies in the treatment of male infertility. PMID:21837944

Dai, Ji-can

2011-05-01

134

A miniature tactical Rb frequency standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on an innovative design for miniature rubidium frequency standards has reached the pre-production demonstration stage at Litton Guidance and Control Systems. Pre-production units were built and tested under contract to the Rome Air Development Center of the U.S. Air Force Systems Command. The units, which are designed for use in tactical military applications, feature fast warm-up, low power consumption, and vibration insensitivity. The output stability under vibration is maintained without the need for external shock-mounts. The design objectives and test results are discussed.

Kwon, T. M.; Dagle, R.; Debley, W.; Dellamano, H.; Hahn, T.; Horste, J.; Lam, L. K.; Magnuson, R.; Mcclelland, T.

1984-01-01

135

The Patriot radar in tactical air defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Patriot radar is a C-band, phased-array, multifunction radar that, under the control of the weapon control computer in the engagement control station, performs target search and track; missile search, track, and communications during midcourse guidance; and target-via-missile terminal guidance. This paper describes the functions the radar performs and provides descriptions of the subsystems. The use of a multichannel, multifunction receiver and digital signal processor is emphasized to demonstrate the control and processing for multiple radar actions required to support the tactical air defense mission. A summary of results of an extensive test program at the White Sands Missile Range is presented.

Carey, David R.; Evans, William

1988-05-01

136

An Antitrust Primer: How To Avoid Bid Rigging and Other Collusions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows school business officials how to detect and avoid bid rigging, price fixing, and other types of unlawful collusion prohibited by the Sherman Antitrust Act. School administrators should expand the list of bidders, consolidate purchases as a defensive tactic, consider reletting the contract in tie-bid situations, recognize the elements of…

Connolly, Robert E.

1997-01-01

137

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

138

Approach and Avoidance Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we introduce this special issue by establishing a conceptual foundation for the distinction between approach and avoidance motivation. We do so primarily by explicating several reasons why the approach–avoidance distinction should be viewed as fundamental and basic to the study of human behavior. In addition, we compare and contrast the approach–avoidance designation with other designations that have

Andrew J. Elliot; Martin V. Covington

2001-01-01

139

The evolution of human intrasexual competition: Tactics of mate attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin's theory of sexual selection suggests that individuals compete with members of their own sex for reproductively relevant resources held by members of the opposite sex. Four empirical studies were conducted to identify tactics of intrasexual mate competition and to test four evolution-based hypotheses. A preliminary study yielded a taxonomy of tactics. Study 1 used close-friend observers to report performance

David M. Buss

1988-01-01

140

The Evolution of Human Intrasexual Competition: Tactics of Mate Attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin's theory of sexual selection suggests that individuals compete with members of their own sex for reproductively relevant resources held by members of the opposite sex. Four empirical studies were conducted to identify tactics of intrasexual mate competition and to test four evolution-based hypotheses. A preliminary study yielded a taxonomy of tactics. Study 1 used close-friend observers to report performance

David M. Buss

1988-01-01

141

Skill and tactic analysis for table tennis matches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to complexity, multiplicity and randomness of table tennis matches, it is necessary to develop some skill and tactic diagnostic models especially an efficient scoring model to get some skill and tactics data for table tennis matches. A scoring model is developed for table tennis matches based on video image processing technology. An input match video is used to analysis

Ye-peng Guan; Yong Ye; Jing-jing Li; Jing Si; Hui Zhang

2011-01-01

142

Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

1998-01-01

143

Intercultural communication patterns and tactics: Nordic expatriates in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a Nordic expatriate perspective on intercultural communication patterns and tactics in Japan. Interviews with 30 Nordic expatriates reveal that divergent communication styles, the cultural values of verticality and collectivism, and the lack of shared language have a negative impact on intercultural communication. The interviews reveal that rather than remaining passive bystanders, expatriates adopt various tactics to increase

Vesa Peltokorpi

2007-01-01

144

Tactics and technology: How do they affect each other  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of new, revolutionary technologies have been extensive. The resulting military applications will drastically change the tactical nature of the battlefield. To cover every technology currently under consideration would be lengthy and beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is the intent of this paper to detail selected technological innovations and their tactical implications. Technological advances in

Boyle

1991-01-01

145

Image transmission in tactical radio frequency shared network propagation environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to transmit images across tactical radio frequency (rf) links has been identified in army digitization applications. For example, military doctrine requires that tactical functions like identification of battlefield entities as potential targets and battle damage assessment be performed by the soldier. Currently, a key input to these processes is imagery. Therefore, the quality and timeliness of the image

Kent H. White; Kerry A. Wagner; Scott O'Hanian

1997-01-01

146

Behavioural Thermoregulatory Tactics in Lacustrine Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis  

PubMed Central

The need to vary body temperature to optimize physiological processes can lead to thermoregulatory behaviours, particularly in ectotherms. Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. The main objective of this study was to determine whether different thermal tactics exist among individuals of the same population. We studied the behavioural thermoregulation of 33 adult brook charr in a stratified lake using thermo-sensitive radio transmitters that measured hourly individual temperature over one month. The observed behavioural thermoregulatory patterns were consistent between years and suggest the existence of four tactics: two “warm” tactics with both crepuscular and finer periodicities, with or without a diel periodicity, and two “cool” tactics, with or without a diel periodicity. Telemetry data support the above findings by showing that the different tactics are associated with different patterns of diel horizontal movements. Taken together, our results show a clear spatio-temporal segregation of individuals displaying different tactics, suggesting a reduction of niche overlap. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a vertebrate. PMID:21490935

Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Adams, Julie; Magnan, Pierre

2011-01-01

147

Toward a Systematic Understanding of Suggestion Tactics in Persuasive Technologies  

E-print Network

persuasive technologies, particularly suggestion technologies. We then explore how this design space of suggestion tactics can be used to evaluate, compare, and inform the design of new persuasive technologiesToward a Systematic Understanding of Suggestion Tactics in Persuasive Technologies Adrienne Andrew

Anderson, Richard

148

Sonic boom focal zones due to tactical aircraft maneuvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been conducted of the focal zone 'superbooms' associated with tactical maneuvers of military supersonic aircraft. Focal zone footprints were computed for 21 tactical maneuvers: two for the SR-71 and 19 for fighters engaged in air combat maneuver (ACM) training. These footprints provide quantitative results which may be used for environmental planning. A key finding of this study

Kenneth J. Plotkin

1990-01-01

149

Modeling and simulation of military tactical logistics distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military tactical logistics planning problem addresses the issue of distributing heterogeneous commodities in a theater of operations using a combination of heterogeneous transportation assets such as logistics trucks and tactical helicopters. The Canadian Forces requires a decision support tool to examine the trade-off between the cost of the support and its effectiveness during sustainment operations. In this study, a

Samir Sebbah; Ahmed Ghanmi; Abdeslem Boukhtouta

2011-01-01

150

AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.

Huntsberger, Terrance L.

2013-01-01

151

The root causes of the ``Black pad'' phenomenon and avoidance tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “black pad” phenomenon of Ni-P electroless plating has been one of the serious electronics failures in the market although this plating is known to be a useful barrier coating against oxidation. To understand the mechanism of this phenomenon, the weak interfaces of Ni-P plating soldered with leaded and lead-free solders have been analyzed with the aid of transmission-electron microscopy. Two causes of degradation are described in this paper. One is the initial degraded Ni-P plating covered with gold thin plating. In this case, the surface of the Ni-P plating was locally corroded to form a sparse amorphous oxide structure beneath the gold plating. The other is the extreme interface reaction between the Ni-P plating and solders. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the quality of the Au/Ni-P plating and the process conditions of soldering are to be carefully controlled.

Suganuma, Katsuaki; Kim, Kuen-Soo

2008-06-01

152

Multiple Aircraft Deconflicted Path Planning with Weather Avoidance Constraints  

E-print Network

Aircraft velocity, (units: meters/second) h Aircraft altitude, (units: meters) P Atmospheric pressure centralized at the sector level are applied by Air Traffic Controllers to aircraft for conflict resolution.1 aircraft at a time, due to flow management techniques applied at the Air Route Traffic Control Center

Sastry, S. Shankar

153

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

154

Tactics as units of analysis in personality psychology: An illustration using tactics of hierarchy negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important recent trends in personality psychology have been a resurgence of traditional trait research (e.g. five factor model) and the emergence of personal goal-based approaches (e.g. life tasks, personal projects, and personal strivings). We propose that tactics are useful units of analysis that can provide a bridge between these two research movements. To illustrate this approach, we examined the

Liisa M. Kyl-Heku; David M. Buss

1996-01-01

155

Evolution of wildlife rabies control tactics.  

PubMed

The development of tactics for the control of rabies in wildlife species has evolved dramatically during the past few decades in part due to research advances. Historically, rabies control measures primarily involved the culling of target species. However, contemporary advances in the research and development of oral rabies vaccines and delivery systems for wildlife have now made it feasible to treat rabies outbreaks over thousands of square kilometers of habitat. Systems have been developed to control rabies in several of the primary wildlife vectors such as raccoon dogs, red foxes, and raccoons, and rabies has been eliminated from many jurisdictions. However, future research is needed to develop cost-effective and efficacious methods to control rabies in species such as striped skunks as well as in nonterrestrial vectors such as bats. As well, cost-effective rabies management techniques need to be adopted by developing nations so that wildlife rabies control is a realistic and achievable goal globally. PMID:21601057

Rosatte, Rick

2011-01-01

156

Enabling information management systems in tactical network environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net-Centric Information Management (IM) and sharing in tactical environments promises to revolutionize forward command and control capabilities by providing ubiquitous shared situational awareness to the warfighter. This vision can be realized by leveraging the tactical and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) which provide the underlying communications infrastructure, but, significant technical challenges remain. Enabling information management in these highly dynamic environments will require multiple support services and protocols which are affected by, and highly dependent on, the underlying capabilities and dynamics of the tactical network infrastructure. In this paper we investigate, discuss, and evaluate the effects of realistic tactical and mobile communications network environments on mission-critical information management systems. We motivate our discussion by introducing the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) which is targeted for deployment in tactical sensor systems. We present some operational requirements for AIMS and highlight how critical IM support services such as discovery, transport, federation, and Quality of Service (QoS) management are necessary to meet these requirements. Our goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of the impact of underlying assumptions of availability and performance of some of the critical services supporting tactical information management. We will also propose and describe a number of technologies and capabilities that have been developed to address these challenges, providing alternative approaches for transport, service discovery, and federation services for tactical networks.

Carvalho, Marco; Uszok, Andrzej; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Ceccio, Philip J.; Hanna, James P.; Sinclair, Asher

2009-05-01

157

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

158

Development of a Tactical Guidance Research and Evaluation System (TGRES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a simulation tool for tactical guidance research and the evaluation of systems performance in a tactically significant environment is described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying airplane agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and thus be of interest to a number of potential users.

Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.

1989-01-01

159

Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death accounted for 54%, and preventable, 46% of avoidable mortality. Time trends showed that general mortality and mortality from avoidable causes of death in this age group were almost stable between 1970 and 1990. Mortality from treatable causes of death fell, while deaths from preventable causes increased. The results in the preventable group were greatly affected by deaths from malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Differences were noted between the sexes in total mortality as well as in avoidable mortality. CONCLUSIONS--Avoidable causes of death are relatively common and, consequently, they are of practical importance for public health and studies of the health care quality in Lithuania. Reorganisation of health care is to be carried out and considerable emphasis will be placed on health education, promotion, and prevention, as primary prevention measures have not been effective thus far. PMID:7629464

Gaizauskiene, A; Gurevicius, R

1995-01-01

160

The synergistic roles of test and simulation in the life cycle of the Army Tactical Missile System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) has been fielded with the US Army for almost 20 years as a deep strike precision weapon, capable of engaging time critical targets at high precision under all weather conditions. This paper will describe the use of the HWIL simulation in the design of the missile, validation of the simulation, the role of the simulation in the production and test process, how the simulation is used to support system shelf life and obsolescence issues and how the simulation is used to answer critical user questions on the performance of the system.

Curry, David M.; Ricks, Gayle; Thomas, Tony L.

2010-04-01

161

Benefits Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM) software tool was developed to provide air traffic flow managers and supervisors with recommendations for airport configuration changes and runway usage. The objective for this study is to conduct a bene...

G. Lohr, J. W. Fenbert, N. Phojanamongkolkij, R. Oseguera-Lohr

2013-01-01

162

Physical tactics of female partners against male batterer program participants.  

PubMed

Descriptive and predictive analyses were conducted using a multisite database of batterer program participants to assess the nature and extent of their female partner's violence, and implications for batterer program outcome (N = 563). Approximately 40% of the women reported ever using "severe" conflict tactics on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; 17% used severe tactics in the arrest incident). Approximately 20% of the women reported using any type of physical tactic during a 15-month follow-up, and nearly all of these women were with men who physically attacked them during that period. These women were also highly likely to report acting out of fear or self-defense, and having sought a variety of services to deal with the men's violence. Their male partners, furthermore, showed evidence of antisocial tendencies and alcohol problems. Overall, the findings suggest women's "violent resistance" rather than "mutuality and symmetry." Batterer programs appear more appropriate in this regard than couples counseling. PMID:22996628

Gondolf, Edward W

2012-09-01

163

Crest: Computer Routine for Evaluation of Simulated Tactics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CREST, Computer Routine for Evaluation of Simulated Tactics, is a computer simulation primarily designed to study the interactions between various naval forces. The development of the model stemmed from the need to study the role of a CVA (aircraft carrie...

1965-01-01

164

On investigating social dynamics in tactical opportunistic mobile networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of military mobile network operations at the tactical edge is challenging due to the practical Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) environments at the tactical edge which make it hard to maintain persistent end-to-end wireless network connectivity. Opportunistic mobile networks are hence devised to depict such tactical networking scenarios. Social relations among warfighters in tactical opportunistic mobile networks are implicitly represented by their opportunistic contacts via short-range radios, but were inappropriately considered as stationary over time by the conventional wisdom. In this paper, we develop analytical models to probabilistically investigate the temporal dynamics of this social relationship, which is critical to efficient mobile communication in the battlespace. We propose to formulate such dynamics by developing various sociological metrics, including centrality and community, with respect to the opportunistic mobile network contexts. These metrics investigate social dynamics based on the experimentally validated skewness of users' transient contact distributions over time.

Gao, Wei; Li, Yong

2014-06-01

165

78 FR 16757 - First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S...Discussion FAA Task Groups Discussion Anticipated Issues for TOC consideration and action at the next meeting. Any Other...

2013-03-18

166

78 FR 40264 - First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S...Reference--Structure, Scope, Leadership Anticipated Issues for TOC consideration and action at the next meeting. Any Other...

2013-07-03

167

Negotiating at the Lower Tactical Level in Peace Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines a void in current peace operations doctrine--negotiating at the lower tactical level. Current United Nations and military doctrine presents a checklist for conducting meetings but neither explains the theory behind negotiating concepts...

T. A. Harmanson

1996-01-01

168

Knowledge-based search tactics for an intelligent intermediary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the nature of knowledge-based systems for bibliographic information retrieval is summarized. Knowledge-based search tactics are then considered in terms of their role in the functioning of a semantically based search system for bibliographic information retrieval, EP-X. This system uses such tactics to actively assist users in defining or refining their topics of interest. It does so by applying

Philip J. Smith; Steven J. Shute; Beb Galdes; Mark H. Chignell

1989-01-01

169

Behavioral tactics, dominance, and copulatory success among male fox squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral tactics and mating behavior of male fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) were studied in a small population of uniquely marked, free-ranging individuals during the winter breeding season in 1986 to 1990. Twelve mating bouts were observed with an average of 5.83 males. Two alternative male reproductive tactics were active pursuit and satellite. Active-pursuit males were the most dominant squirrels

John L. Koprowski

1993-01-01

170

Tactical assessment in a squad of intelligent bots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the problem of communication and coordination in a team of intelligent game bots (aka embodied agents). It presents a tactical decision making system controlling the behavior of an autonomous bot followed by the concept of a team tactical decision making system controlling the team of intelligent bots. The algorithms to be introduced have been implemented in the Java language by means of Pogamut 2 framework, interfacing the bot logic with Unreal Tournament 2004 virtual environment.

Go?u?ski, Marcel; Wasiewicz, Piotr

2010-09-01

171

Alternative predatory tactics of an araneophagic assassin bug ( Stenolemus bituberus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predators of dangerous prey risk being injured or killed in counter-attacks and hence may use risk-reducing predatory tactics.\\u000a Spiders are often dangerous predators to insects, but for a few, including Stenolemus bituberus assassin bugs, web-building spiders are prey. Despite the dangers of counter-attack when hunting spiders, there has been\\u000a surprisingly little investigation of the predatory tactics used by araneophagic (spider-eating)

Anne E. Wignall; Phillip W. Taylor

2009-01-01

172

Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

2013-05-01

173

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

174

Corridor Integrated Weather System  

Microsoft Academic Search

n Flight delays are now a major problem in the U.S. National Airspace System. A significant fraction of these delays are caused by reductions in en route capacity due to severe convective weather. The Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) is a fully automated weather analysis and forecasting system designed to support the development and execution of convective weather impact mitigation

James E. Evans; Elizabeth R. Ducot

2006-01-01

175

Weather in Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

176

Avoiding Computer Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

Rowe, Joyce; And Others

1989-01-01

177

Avoidant personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Without treatment, a person with avoidant personality disorder may lead a life of near or total isolation. They may go on to develop a second mental health disorder such as substance abuse or a mood disorder such as depression.

178

Training for emergency management: tactical decision games.  

PubMed

Training of the non-technical skills that are crucial to effective management of emergency situations is an issue that is currently receiving increasing emphasis in the petrochemical sector. A case study is presented of the explosion and fires at the Texaco Refinery, Milford Haven, UK, which occurred in July 1994 (HSE, The explosion and fires at the Texaco Refinery, Milford Haven, 24 July 1994. HSE: London, 1997), with particular focus on the human factors aspects of the event. A key issue identified by the official report into this incident was the importance of emergency management training. This paper outlines a novel, low-fidelity training intervention, the tactical decision game (TDG), which is designed to enhance the non-technical skills (decision making, situation awareness, communication and co-ordination, teamwork, and stress management) required for emergency management. It is proposed that enhanced learning of these non-technical skills, through experience and directed practice following repeated exposure to TDGs, will lead to more efficient emergency management, particularly when dealing with hazardous materials. PMID:11679197

Crichton, M; Flin, R

2001-12-14

179

Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.  

PubMed

The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility. PMID:7647184

Haas, M W

1995-05-01

180

Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

2005-01-01

181

Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies ( Leucorrhinia intacta ): plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alternative tactics used by males to obtain mates usually are associated with genetic and\\/or phenotypic differences between the behavioral morphs. This system of white-faced dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta) alternatives is characterized by plasticity of tactical options for individual males. Males may act either as territorials, and defend small perch-centered territories on the study pond, or they act as transients, spending

Edward C. Waltz; Larry L. Wolf

1988-01-01

182

Avoidable mortality in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age

A Gaizauskiene; R Gurevicius

1995-01-01

183

Impact of Probabilistic Weather on Flight Routing Decisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight delays in the United States have been found to increase year after year, along with the increase in air traffic. During the four-month period from May through August of 2005, weather related delays accounted for roughly 70% of all reported delays, The current weather prediction in tactical (within 2 hours) timeframe is at manageable levels, however, the state of forecasting weather for strategic (2-6 hours) timeframe is still not dependable for long-term planning. In the absence of reliable severe weather forecasts, the decision-making for flights longer than two hours is challenging. This paper deals with an approach of using probabilistic weather prediction for Traffic Flow Management use, and a general method using this prediction for estimating expected values of flight length and delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). The current state-of-the-art convective weather forecasting is employed to aid the decision makers in arriving at decisions for traffic flow and flight planing. The six-agency effort working on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) have considered weather-assimilated decision-making as one of the principal foci out of a list of eight. The weather Integrated Product Team has considered integrated weather information and improved aviation weather forecasts as two of the main efforts (Ref. 1, 2). Recently, research has focused on the concept of operations for strategic traffic flow management (Ref. 3) and how weather data can be integrated for improved decision-making for efficient traffic management initiatives (Ref. 4, 5). An overview of the weather data needs and benefits of various participants in the air traffic system along with available products can be found in Ref. 6. Previous work related to use of weather data in identifying and categorizing pilot intrusions into severe weather regions (Ref. 7, 8) has demonstrated a need for better forecasting in the strategic planning timeframes and moving towards a probabilistic description of weather (Ref. 9). This paper focuses on. specified probability in a local region for flight intrusion/deviation decision-making. The process uses a probabilistic weather description, implements that in a air traffic assessment system to study trajectories of aircraft crossing a cut-off probability contour. This value would be useful for meteorologists in creating optimum distribution profiles for severe weather, Once available, the expected values of flight path and aggregate delays are calculated for efficient operations. The current research, however, does not deal with the issue of multiple cell encounters, as well as echo tops, and will be a topic of future work.

Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Mulfinger, Daniel

2006-01-01

184

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

185

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

2005-01-01

186

Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

2012-01-01

187

Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify

C. Hyun; T. Roh; M. Choi

2009-01-01

188

Terminal weather information management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

Lee, Alfred T.

1990-01-01

189

It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system  

PubMed Central

Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods. PMID:22764112

Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P.; Williamson, Jane E.

2012-01-01

190

Comparative phylogenetic analysis of male alternative reproductive tactics in ray-finned fishes.  

PubMed

Using comparative phylogenetic analysis, we analyzed the evolution of male alternative reproductive tactics (MARTs) in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Numerous independent origins for each type of MART (involving sneaker males, female mimics, pirates, and satellite males) indicate that these behaviors have been highly labile across actinopterygiian evolution, consistent with a previous notion that convergent selection in fishes can readily mold the underlying suites of reproductive hormones into similar behaviors. The evolutionary appearance of MARTs was significantly correlated with the presence of sexually selected traits in bourgeois males (P = 0.001) but not with the presence of male parental care. This suggests that MARTs often arise from selection on some males to circumvent bourgeois male investment in mate monopolization, rather than to avoid male brood care per se. We found parsimony evidence for an evolutionary progression of MARTs wherein sneaking is usually the evolutionary precursor to the presumably more complex MARTs of female mimicry and cooperative satellite behavior. Nest piracy appears not to be part of this evolutionary progression, possibly because its late onset in the life cycle of most ray-finned fishes reduces the effects of selection on this reproductive tactic. PMID:16892981

Mank, Judith E; Avise, John C

2006-06-01

191

Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on-line. The optimal avoidance trajectory is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive control law. Therefore, at each time step, the optimal avoidance trajectory is found and the first time step of its acceleration is applied. At the next time step of the control computer, the problem is re-solved and the new first time step is again applied. This continual updating allows the RCA algorithm to adapt to a colliding spacecraft that is making erratic course changes.

Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

2010-01-01

192

Situation Awareness for Tactical Driving Rahul Sukthankar  

E-print Network

of the automobile, most forms of human transporta­ tion were, in some sense, intelligent. For example, a rider could rely on a horse's self­preservation instincts to avoid obstacles, or its sense of direc­ tion to find), the intelligent vehicle passively observes the traffic situation to issue warnings or recommendations

Guestrin, Carlos

193

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

194

Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

2010-01-01

195

Interactive Weather Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

2002-01-01

196

Pilot weather advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

1992-01-01

197

Edheads: Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

2010-01-01

198

Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

2008-01-01

199

Avoiding Sophomore Jinx.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the first year, new superintendents should take care to avoid the "sophomore jinx" by communicating effectively with the board president every week and with board members before meetings. Public engagement is also an integral part of a superintendent's job. (MLF)

Fitzpatrick, James

2002-01-01

200

Relative Complexity: Beyond Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses two influential studies on relative clauses (RC), and addresses the development of relative clauses in the interlanguage of advanced Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language speakers in light of the theory of Accessibility Hierarchy (AH). As the two theories predict, avoidance of RCs is typically found with oblique and genitive…

Yip, Virginia; Matthews, Stephen

1991-01-01

201

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Crane, Peter

2004-05-01

202

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Francek, Mark

2002-10-01

203

Owlie Skywarn's Weather Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity book from the National Weather Service that teaches about hazardous weather. The site also includes links to kids sites for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA).

Garcia, Cris; Davis, Steve

2001-06-22

204

Weather in Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homepage includes information about the weather in Antarctica and links to pages on the climate, wind chill, clouds, snow and ice, and pressure and storms of Antarctica. The current weather conditions updated automatically at various stations are also provided.

Hutchings, Thomas

1998-01-01

205

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

206

The eyesafe visioceilometer - A tactical visibility and cloud height lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent breakthrough in the mathematical solution to the lidar equation combined with state-of-the-art microelectronics has made it possible to produce the first portable ceiling, visibility, and rangefinding device suitable for tactical use by the U.S. Army. The signal processor of the former XE-2 (Nd:YAG) can be adapted to an eyesafe unit by making use of an erbium glass laser and a GaInAs PIN photodiode detector. It is pointed out that the XE-3 (Eyesafe Visioceilometer) provides tactical real-time data when and where the user needs it, with an accuracy superior to existing nonportable runway equipment. Attention is given to system evolution, lidar theory, the relationship of backscattering and extinction coefficients, a system description, the transient recorder, the analysis of data, and details regarding tactical applications.

Barnes, E. S.; Lentz, W. J.

207

Survival tactics of Ranunculus species in river floodplains.  

PubMed

The flooding resistance of four Ranunculus species was studied under controlled conditions and related to the tactics used by these species to survive in their natural habitat in river floodplains. R. bulbosus, a species from seldom-flooded river levées, was relatively intolerant of both waterlogging and complete submergence, due to a constitutively low level of aerenchyma in the root system. This lack of gas spaces resulted in high mortality rates during flooding treatments and an inability to use photosynthetically derived oxygen for root respiration during complete submergence. The pioneer R. sceleratus, predominantly abundant in low lying mudflats, was very resistant to waterlogging and shallow floods. Due to its constitutively high root porosity and its ability to greatly increase the elongation rate of petioles under water this species can ameliorate flooding stress. However, when leaf blades of R. sceleratus were unable to reach the water surface, this species died as quickly as the flooding-intolerant R. bulbosus. This indicates that fast elongation of petioles under water competes for energy and respirable reserves with maintenance processes. R. repens, a species from lower, frequently inundated floodplains, was very tolerant of prolonged waterlogging and submergence. Its high resistance to complete submergence under continuous darkness indicates that this species tolerates hypoxic and/or anoxic tissue conditions via metabolic adjustments. Lysigenous aerenchyma was also induced in the primary root system and in newly developed laterals, and it was able to use oxygen generated by underwater photosynthesis, for root respiration. R. acris, a species from less frequently flooded areas, was as resistant to waterlogging and submergence in the light as R. repens. However, it has a lower resistance than R. repens to complete submergence in the dark. A submergence pre-treatment increased the maximum net underwater photosynthetic rate in R. bulbosus, whereas a significant decrease of light compensation points was observed in R. repens when it had previously been submerged. This study shows that Ranunculus species exhibit various strategies to cope with different flooding conditions. R. repens responds to flooding by its tolerance mechanism and R. sceleratus by avoidance. R. acris ameliorates submergence and R. bulbosus was not able to adapt high water tables. PMID:20135154

He, J B; Bögemann, G M; van de Steeg, H M; Rijnders, J G; Voesenek, L A; Blom, C W

1999-01-01

208

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

209

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

Comet

2008-07-21

210

Stormfax Weather Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

2002-06-10

211

Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

2007-12-12

212

Fire Weather Climatology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The âFire Weather Climatologyâ module provides a comprehensive look at fire regions across the United States and characteristics of typical fire seasons in each region. In addition, critical fire weather patterns are described in terms of their development, duration and impact on fire weather. Numerous case studies provide examples and opportunities to practice recognizing these critical patterns and how they can affect fire ignition and spread. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

Comet

2008-04-28

213

Weather Theory Introduction  

E-print Network

11-1 Weather Theory Chapter 11 Introduction Weather is an important factor that influences aircraft), visibility (clearness or cloudiness), and barometric pressure (high or low). The term weather can also apply of the atmosphere. Atmosphere The atmosphere is a blanket of air made up of a mixture of gases that surrounds

214

American Weather Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

Hughes, Patrick

215

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is about a new method of predicting seasonal weather. The site describes the effects of El Nino on global weather and the accuracy of the new model. It includes links to classroom resources for a variety of weather-based units.

Dybas, Cheryl

2008-12-07

216

Extreme Weather on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.

Mika, Anna; Education, National G.

217

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

Center, Space E.; Service, National O.

218

Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

Geographic, National

219

METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary and interpretation of information from National Weather Service watches and warnings by10 decision makers such an outlier to the regional severe weather climatology. An analysis of the synoptic and13 mesoscale

220

Winter Weather Introduction  

E-print Network

Winter Weather Management #12;Introduction · Campus Facilities Staff · Other Campus Organizations #12;Purpose · Organize and coordinate the campus response to winter weather events to maintain campus for use by 7 AM. · Response will be modified depending upon forecast and current weather conditions. #12

Taylor, Jerry

221

Alternative mating tactics and the law of Diminishing Returns: The Satellite Threshold Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating systems of many species comprise at least 2 alternative male mating tactics — broadly termed “Dominant” and “Satellite” tactics here. But, there exists no satisfactory conceptual framework in which to explain their co-occurrence and persistence.

Edward C. Waltz

1982-01-01

222

Systems and Techniques for Identifying and Avoiding Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight icing is one of the most difficult aviation weather hazards facing general aviation. Because most aircraft in the general aviation category are not certified for flight into known icing conditions, techniques for identifying and avoiding in-flight ice are important to maintain safety while increasing the utility and dispatch capability which is part of the AGATE vision. This report summarizes a brief study effort which: (1) Reviewed current ice identification, forecasting, and avoidance techniques; (2) Assessed feasibility of improved forecasting and ice avoidance procedures; and (3) Identified key issues for the development of improved capability with regard to in-flight icing.

Hansman, R. John

1995-01-01

223

Sonic boom focal zones due to tactical aircraft maneuvers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been conducted of the focal zone 'superbooms' associated with tactical maneuvers of military supersonic aircraft. Focal zone footprints were computed for 21 tactical maneuvers: two for the SR-71 and 19 for fighters engaged in air combat maneuver (ACM) training. These footprints provide quantitative results which may be used for environmental planning. A key finding of this study is that focus factors and footprint areas for high-g fighter maneuvers are substantially smaller than those for gentle maneuvers associated with larger aircraft.

Plotkin, Kenneth J.

1990-10-01

224

Avoiding Predation Two Ways to Avoid Getting Eaten  

E-print Network

, and black. #12;3 Avoiding Attack Once Detected Animals that are not dangerous may exhibit mimicry of other animals that are There are two individuals/species Model is always toxic, noxious or dangerous Mimic may1 Avoiding Predation Two Ways to Avoid Getting Eaten Predator avoidance behaviors remove animals

Brown, Christopher A.

225

ECONOMICS OF AVOIDING DEFORESTATION  

E-print Network

Deforestation is estimated to cause about one quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions. Only late, in 2005, Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change decided to start exploring approaches to reduce emissions from this major source. We carried out a global analysis of the potential effects of financial mechanisms to avoid deforestation. Avoiding deforestation is a low cost option that could have considerable leverage in mitigating climate change. Our model results indicate that a 50 % reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation over the next 20 years would require financial resources of some US$33 bn per year. Expectations that financial flows through international climate policy mechanisms would provide a golden opportunity to turn around a 20 year history of gridlock and indecision in international fora addressing deforestation, however, appear inflated.

unknown authors

2006-01-01

226

Avoiding manuscript mistakes.  

PubMed

Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry-level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors. PMID:23091784

Grindstaff, Terry L; Saliba, Susan A

2012-10-01

227

External Resource: Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

1900-01-01

228

Differential Effects of Value Consciousness and Coupon Proneness on Consumers’ Persuasion Knowledge of Pricing Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pricing tactics persuasion knowledge (PTPK) is a relatively new concept that seeks to extend the research on persuasion knowledge to the pricing domain. Pricing tactics persuasion knowledge refers to the persuasion knowledge of consumers about marketers’ pricing tactics. Employing an acquisition–transaction utility theoretic perspective, this study examines the differential effects of value consciousness and coupon proneness on the accuracy, confidence,

Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai; V. Kumar

229

Comparison of Three Instructional Approaches to Enhance Tactical Knowledge in Volleyball among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the decision-making process of three instructional groups (i.e., teacher-centered, student-centered with tactical questioning and student-centered without tactical questioning) in practical courses in volleyball among university students. All students (N = 122) performed a Tactical Awareness task on the correctness of the…

Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip; Claessens, Manu; Feys, Jos; Ceux, Tanja

2011-01-01

230

Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics Resources  

E-print Network

Strategic Plan 2010-2015 Strategy Task Force Objective(s) Tactics Metrics Resources Be recognized of retention tactics development Directed effort Assess recruitment and marketing materials and web site recruiting tactics Status of assessment Directed effort Analyze prospective student demographics to recommend

Bieber, Michael

231

Combining Tactical Search and Monte-Carlo in the Game of Go  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a way to integrate search and Monte-Carlo methods in the game of Go. Our program uses search to find the status of tactical goals, builds groups, selects interesting goals, and computes statistics on the realization of tactical goals during the random games. The mean score of the random games where a se- lected tactical goal has been reached

Tristan Cazenave; Bernard Helmstetter

2005-01-01

232

Marketing Tactics and Parents' Loyalty: The Mediating Role of School Image  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to investigate how marketing tactics can enhance parents' loyalty in the educational context. Building on extant research, it proposes an integrated framework in which perceived marketing tactics are related to school image, which in turn is related to parents' loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: Five marketing tactics

Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

2009-01-01

233

Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning: Theoretical and Pedagogical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to present Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning as valuable instructional models in physical education. Situated learning is used as a theoretical framework and connection between Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning. The structures of Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning allow for participation to occur in a student-centered learning curriculum

Ben Dyson; Linda L. Griffin; Peter Hastie

2004-01-01

234

Paper Number 2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck  

E-print Network

51 Paper Number 2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck: A Target Cascading Case is applied to the conceptual design of an advanced heavy tactical truck. Two levels are defined target cascading methodology is applied to the design of an advanced heavy tactical truck. Novel

Peng, Huei

235

In Country with Tactical Iraqi: Trust, Identity, and Language Learning in a Military Video Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses Tactical Iraqi, a video game developed at the University of Southern California with funding from the U.S. military that is designed to accelerate a learner's acquisition of spoken Arabic to assist in the rapid deployment of soldiers into volatile tactical situations. This paper analyzes three distinct aspects of the Tactical Iraqi mission game: how \\

Elizabeth Losh

236

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

237

Avalanche Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

Comet

2010-09-30

238

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

239

Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify weathering grade conventionally. Rocks and minerals absorb some particular wavelength ranges of electromagnetic energy by electronic process and vibrational process of composing elements and these phenomena produce intrinsic diagnostic spectral reflectance curve. Non-destructive technique for weathering degree assessment measures those diagnostic absorption features of weathering products and converts the depths of features related to abundance of the materials to relative weathering degree. We selected granite outcrop to apply conventional six folded weathering grade classification method using Schmidt hammer rebound teste. The correlations between Schmidt hammer rebound values and absorption depths of iron oxides such as ferric oxide in the vicinity of 0.9 micrometer wavelength and clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite in the vicinity of 2.2 micrometer wavelength, representative weathering products of granite, were analyzed. The Schmidt hammer rebound value decreased according to increase of absorption depths induced from those weathering products. Weathering grade classification on the granite stone monument was conducted by using absorption depths of weathering products This research is supported from National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and we appreciate for this.

Hyun, C.; Roh, T.; Choi, M.; Park, H.

2009-05-01

240

Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.  

PubMed

Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

2013-03-22

241

From Vigilance to Violence: Mate Retention Tactics in Married Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following:

David M. Buss; Todd K. Shackelford

1997-01-01

242

From vigilance to violence: Mate retention tactics in married couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following:

David M. Buss; Todd K. Shackelford

1997-01-01

243

Tactical nuclear weapons responsibility: Ordnance versus field artillery. Study project  

SciTech Connect

There has existed and still exists an operational dichotomy in the area of the provision of tactical nuclear weapons to United States Army forces versus those allied forces in a combined theater of operations. Specifically, within the NATO environment and to a very small degree within Combined Forces Korea, there exists a condition where tactical nuclear weapons are supplied to the U.S. firing unit by an organization under the proponency of the Ordnance Corps. On the other hand, within the same theater, the non-U.S. force receives their tactical nuclear weapons by an organization under the proponency of the Field Artillery. This paper will examine the functions performed by this duplication of supply organizations and briefly list the supporting structure. It will then explore any possible purpose for the duplication which would justify this apparent mission replication. Discussion will then follow which will list the pros and cons of staying with the status quo or the possible assignment of the supply function to a single branch proponency. Conclusions are then drawn and recommendations made for improving the current system of tactical nuclear weapon support.

Fields, J.A.

1990-03-08

244

Some Useful Design Tactics for Mining ITS Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining data logged by intelligent tutoring systems has the potential to reveal valuable discoveries. What characteristics make such data conducive to mining? What variables are informative to compute? Based on our experience in mining data from Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor, we discuss how to collect machine- analyzable data and formulate it into experimental trials. The resulting concepts and tactics mark

Jack Mostow

245

Using Tactics to Reformulate Formulae for Resolution Theorem Proving  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article we show that tactics are also suitable as a basis for the problemtransformation process outlined above. They give a human user of a resolutiontheorem prover the possibility to optimize problem formulations by performingpreprocessing steps.Our point of departure is the observation that almost all problem formulationsmust be reformulated in order to be solved automatically by resolution theoremprovers. Take for

Manfred Kerber; Axel Präcklein

1996-01-01

246

Tactical Intelligence Tools for Distributed Agile Control of Air Operations  

E-print Network

Tactical Intelligence Tools for Distributed Agile Control of Air Operations Shashi Phoha Applied to expected and unexpected changes. The intelligent control of the enterprise, then, consists of (i) continual intelligence tools which process necessary transient and situational information for the agents to execute

Gautam, Natarajan

247

Atmospheric propagation for tactical directed-energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a corollary to the USAF strategic Airborne Laser program, Boeing has been analyzing the use of the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser for tactical scenarios. These include its use in an airborne platform operating against low flying cruise missiles and miscellaneous ground targets, as well as on a mobile ground platform providing support defense against shorter-range rocket attack. Practical design

Alan J. MacGovern; David A. Nahrstedt; Michael M. Johnson

2000-01-01

248

Modelling Human Emotions for Tactical Decision-Making Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…

Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny

2013-01-01

249

Tactics and Motives of Sexually Aggressive College Women and Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research findings were used in this study to develop and compare categories of the commonly used tactics and motives of sexually aggressive college women and men. In the collaborative work, 43% of the men and 26% of the women said they had perpetrated at least one act of sexual persistence. Based upon the reports of sexual targets,…

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Anderson, Peter B.; Struckman-Johnson, David

250

The Application of Holonic Control to Tactical Sensor Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the project initiated by Defense R&D Canada -Valcartier that is intended as a vehicle to assess holonic control as a means of improving tactical sensor management for distributed military surveillance operations. Three levels of sensor management are considered: sensor, platform, and group. The general holonic architecture and the individual holons at each level are

P. McGuire; G. Liggins; A. Benaskeur; R. W. Brennan; P. Wojcik

2006-01-01

251

Situation assessment in the Paladin tactical decision generation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paladin is a real-time tactical decision generator for air combat engagements. Paladin uses specialized knowledge-based systems and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to address the modern air combat environment and agile aircraft in a clear and concise manner. Paladin is designed to provide insight into both the tactical benefits and the costs of enhanced agility. The system was developed using the Lisp programming language on a specialized AI workstation. Paladin utilizes a set of air combat rules, an active throttle controller, and a situation assessment module that have been implemented as a set of highly specialized knowledge-based systems. The situation assessment module was developed to determine the tactical mode of operation (aggressive, defensive, neutral, evasive, or disengagement) used by Paladin at each decision point in the air combat engagement. Paladin uses the situation assessment module; the situationally dependent modes of operation to more accurately represent the complex decision-making process of human pilots. This allows Paladin to adapt its tactics to the current situation and improves system performance. Discussed here are the details of Paladin's situation assessment and modes of operation. The results of simulation testing showing the error introduced into the situation assessment module due to estimation errors in positional and geometric data for the opponent aircraft are presented. Implementation issues for real-time performance are discussed and several solutions are presented, including Paladin's use of an inference engine designed for real-time execution.

Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas

1992-01-01

252

Coq Tacticals and PVS Strategies: A Small Step Semantics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a small step semantics and more generally for a thorough documentation and understanding of Coq's tacticals and PVS's strategies arise with their growing use and the progressive uncovering of their subtleties. The purpose of the following study is to provide a simple and clear formal framework to describe their detailed semantics, and highlight their differences and similarities.

Kirchner, Florent

2003-01-01

253

Tactic Theorem Proving with RefinementTree Proofs and Metavariables ?  

E-print Network

AT&T Bell Laboratories, 600 Mountain Ave., Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA Abstract. This paper describes and derived rules that are computed by tactic programs. The proof structure encapsulates the top and matching constraints. 1 Introduction Interactive proof construction typically proceeds top­down, starting

Felty, Amy

254

Evolving Agent-Based Team Tactics for Combative Computer Games  

E-print Network

. Goal Driven Agent Behaviour: Character AI in computer games can also be defined through a collectionEvolving Agent-Based Team Tactics for Combative Computer Games Darren Doherty and Colm O One of the main roles of AI in computer games is to make the artificial agents in the game appear

Fernandez, Thomas

255

Evolving Tactical Teams for Shooter Games using Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

years, there has been an emergence of squad-based shooter computer games. For a team to be tactically) as a technique to automatically de- velop effective team behaviours for shooter games. Previous experiments have an emergence of more squad-based shooter computer games. The non-playable characters1 (NPCs) in these games

Fernandez, Thomas

256

Playing Creative Soccer: Randomized Behavioral Kinodynamic Planning of Robot Tactics  

E-print Network

soccer as a physics-based planning problem, we are able to automatically gen- erate control sequencesPlaying Creative Soccer: Randomized Behavioral Kinodynamic Planning of Robot Tactics Stefan Zickler {szickler,veloso}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract. Modern robot soccer control architectures tend to separate higher

Veloso, Manuela M.

257

Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

Boughton, Marla

2011-01-01

258

Natural Language Processing Applied to Navy Tactical Messages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) was investigated as a possible solution to the problem of automating the fusion of multisource data, and it was found that if there is a solution to the problem of timely use of text-like data in the Naval tactical messag...

D. M. Keirsey

1980-01-01

259

Influence tactics and salary attainment: A gender-specific analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the linkages between upward influence tactics and salary attainment were studied within the context of observed salary differences between men and women. The data for this field study were gathered from 212 male and 82 female business school graduates. Annual salary was regressed on a set of control variables and six dimensions of upward influence. Separate salary

George F. Dreher; Thomas W. Dougherty; William Whitely

1989-01-01

260

Image transmission in tactical radio frequency shared network propagation environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to transmit images across tactical radio frequency (rf) links has been identified in army digitization applications. For example, military doctrine requires that tactical functions like identification of battlefield entities as potential targets and battle damage assessment be performed by the soldier. Currently, a key input to these processes is imagery. Therefore, the quality and timeliness of the image directly impact tactical performance. The military is investigating the employment of remote sensors and advanced communications systems to meet this requirement as part of its digitization effort. Army communications systems exist that partially meet this requirement. However, many existing solutions employ these legacy systems in the context of a point-to-point communications architecture. Solutions to the problem of transmitting images across a rf network have not been fully explored. The term network implies that the rf transmission media is common to and shared by multiple subscribers. It is a suite of capabilities that collectively manage media access and information transfer for its subscribers thus providing substantial improvements in effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness. This paper discusses the challenges of transmitting images using one army legacy communications system in a tactical rf network, presents a conceptual framework for attacking the problem, and discusses one solution.

White, Kent H.; Wagner, Kerry A.; O'Hanian, Scott

1997-06-01

261

Tactical Decision Competency of Preservice Physical Education Teacher Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most recent publication of the "National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education" (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2009) requires physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to demonstrate that teacher candidates display both tactical knowledge and physical competence.…

Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margo M.; Henninger, Mary L.; Carlson, Kristin B.

2013-01-01

262

THE TACTICAL BERTH ALLOCATION PROBLEM WITH QUAY CRANE ASSIGNMENT AND  

E-print Network

THE TACTICAL BERTH ALLOCATION PROBLEM WITH QUAY CRANE ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSSHIPMENT of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the quay crane assign- ment problem, which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift

Bierlaire, Michel

263

Eavesdropping as Rhetorical Tactic: History, Whiteness, and Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims "rhetorical eavesdropping" may make possible moments of convergence in order to effect personal and cultural change. Redefines eavesdropping as an ethical rhetorical tactic and argues that within the United States the dysfunctions of whiteness have remade rhetorical theory in ways that circumscribe available agencies. (NH)

Ratcliffe, Krista

2000-01-01

264

Identification of Non-Specific Tactical Tasks in Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and significance: The notion of transferability (i.e. sampling) has been put forward as one of four core pedagogical principles for games teaching. The sampling principle was based on the premise that it may be possible to show the existence of tactical similarities between apparently dissimilar games, leading to a much better overall…

Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen

2010-01-01

265

A novel impulse radio network for tactical military wireless communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the major concerns in tactical military wireless communication networks are covertness and throughput. Impulse radio is an ultra-wideband code division multiple access (UWB-CDMA) technique being considered as the physical layer for future networks. Impulse radio exhibits low power spectral density and relatively high immunity to fading but suffers from relatively long acquisition times. In traditional packet radio networks

Santosh S. Kolenchery; J. K. Townsend; J. A. Freebersyser

1998-01-01

266

Employee attitudes toward questionable negotiation tactics: empirical evidence from Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the influence of three theoretically valid independent variables – horizontal and vertical individualism–collectivism, ethical idealism and trust propensity – on employees' attitudes toward ethically questionable negotiation tactics in Peru. A total of 233 usable responses were collected from participants employed in various industries in the capital area, Lima. The results empirically corroborated a classification of three groups

Abraham Stefanidis; Moshe Banai; Ulf Henning Richter

2012-01-01

267

Implementing a Tactical Games Approach with Sport Education: A Chronicle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the challenges encountered by a middle school practitioner over a five-year period when implementing the tactical games approach within the sport education model. Included are genuine quotes (extracted from video tapes and written records) from the students, the principal at the practitioner's school, a guidance counselor,…

Gubacs-Collins, Klara; Olsen, Edward B.

2010-01-01

268

CONTEXTUAL AND TACTICAL CHANGES IN STANDARDS WARS: WHAT CONSEQUENCES FOR \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades, battles for technological dominance between competing technologies have had a significant impact on many industries. In this paper, we investigate how the fast-moving technology environment influences the tactical choices of companies trying to establish their products as de facto standards. We analyze contextual changes in the evolution of standards wars using a literature survey supported by

ARNAUD X. VARÉ; RALF W. SEIFERT

2008-01-01

269

Principals' Encounters with Conflict: Tactics They and Others Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen principals in urban Canadian elementary and secondary schools described nonroutine conflicts. Most frequent strategies for managing conflict were improving the shared information base, censuring dysfunctional behaviors, and managing organizational climate, suggesting principals' ability to switch between collaboration and forcing tactics.…

Fris, Joe

1992-01-01

270

Speedminton: Using the Tactical Games Model in Secondary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching and learning of sport and sports-related games dominates the curriculum in most secondary physical education programs in America. For many secondary school students, playing games can be exciting and lead to a lifetime of participation in sport-related activities. Using the Tactical Games Model (TGM) (Mitchell et al., 2006) to teach the…

Oh, Hyun-Ju; Bullard, Susan; Hovatter, Rhonda

2011-01-01

271

Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

2007-01-01

272

Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

2006-01-01

273

Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.

2013-01-01

274

Weather and Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

275

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

276

Avoidable waste management costs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01

277

Real-time Cooperative Behavior for Tactical Mobile Robot Teams: Skills Impact Study for Tactical Mobile Robot Operational Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a detailed study of the design of feasible human-robot interfaces for near-term deployment in a robot unit, defined as a tightly coupled group of humans using a multiplicity of robots as tactical tools. There is a strong relationship ...

2000-01-01

278

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

279

Weather and Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

280

Space Weather Media Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.

2011-01-01

281

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

282

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

Comet

2012-03-21

283

RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

2012-12-01

284

WWW - Wonderful Web Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web quest for students to research weather forecasting using the Internet. Students work in groups to study how accurate weather forecasts are by tracking the weather for 3 days in several locations. Using graphs students then compare how each location scored in accuracy and present their findings to the class. This site contains links for students to use for more background information, a process for the students to follow, and evaluation rubrics for the student-produced graphs and presentation.

Parrish, Jason

2007-12-12

285

Weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

1975-01-01

286

Flight Departure Delay and Rerouting Under Uncertainty in En Route Convective Weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delays caused by uncertainty in weather forecasts can be reduced by improving traffic flow management decisions. This paper presents a methodology for traffic flow management under uncertainty in convective weather forecasts. An algorithm for assigning departure delays and reroutes to aircraft is presented. Departure delay and route assignment are executed at multiple stages, during which, updated weather forecasts and flight schedules are used. At each stage, weather forecasts up to a certain look-ahead time are treated as deterministic and flight scheduling is done to mitigate the impact of weather on four-dimensional flight trajectories. Uncertainty in weather forecasts during departure scheduling results in tactical airborne holding of flights. The amount of airborne holding depends on the accuracy of forecasts as well as the look-ahead time included in the departure scheduling. The weather forecast look-ahead time is varied systematically within the experiments performed in this paper to analyze its effect on flight delays. Based on the results, longer look-ahead times cause higher departure delays and additional flying time due to reroutes. However, the amount of airborne holding necessary to prevent weather incursions reduces when the forecast look-ahead times are higher. For the chosen day of traffic and weather, setting the look-ahead time to 90 minutes yields the lowest total delay cost.

Mukherjee, Avijit; Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar

2011-01-01

287

Pilot Weather Advisor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

2006-01-01

288

Weather assessment and forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

1977-01-01

289

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

290

Washington Post Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

1997-01-01

291

Space Weather: Welcome, SEC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video presentation welcomes the Space Weather Prediction Center, formerly known as the Space Environment Center or SEC to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SWPC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

Comet

2005-01-11

292

Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

2010-01-01

293

Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate  

E-print Network

1 Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate Large Scale Weather SystemsLarge--scale Weather Systemsscale Weather Systems Tropical cyclones (1-2) Location, Structure, Life-cycle Formation and modification, airmasses that effect the British Isles Airmasses affecting the British Isles

294

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

295

Tax evasion and avoidance typologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore tax evasion and avoidance typologies with a view to understanding how they work and the implications for those who handle the wealth of others. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – American, Canadian and UK cases of tax avoidance and tax evasion are studied. Findings – Structuring transactions to avoid or minimize taxes is highly

Jeffrey Simser

2008-01-01

296

Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple and direct control scheme enables redundant robot to avoid obstacles in workspace. In proposed scheme, called "configuration control", degrees of freedom used to configure robot to satisfy set of inequality constraints representing avoidance of obstacles, while simultaneously making end effector follow desired trajectory. Provides capability to avoid obstacles in dynamically varying environment where apriori planning of tasks not feasible.

Homayoun, Seraji; Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin

1991-01-01

297

Avoidance Learning TIAGO V. MAIA  

E-print Network

Avoidance Learning TIAGO V. MAIA Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Learning to avoid aversive outcomes Definition Learning that would otherwise occur. Avoidance learning in that context consists of learning to perform

298

Designing a Weather Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

299

Mild and Wild Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

300

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

301

Weather Cardboard Carpentry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are instructions and diagrams for building weather instruments (wind vane, Celsius temperature scale, and anemometer) from simple tools and Tri-Wall, a triple-thick corrugated cardboard. Ordering sources for Tri-Wall are listed. Additional weather instruments that can be constructed are suggested. (CS)

DeBruin, Jerome E.

1977-01-01

302

Home Weatherization Visit  

SciTech Connect

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

Chu, Steven

2009-01-01

303

Weathering warming in Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the results of a field experiment heating patches of a subalpine meadow in the Rocky Mountains to determine what will weather and what will weather under projected global warming. The problems with actually measuring the feedback is discussed, along with the changes which come as the meadow is heated.

Gillis, A.M.

1996-03-01

304

Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

Konvicka, Tom

305

Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering and erosion work together as natural forces, removing and transporting material. Sediments, the by-products of these processes, are subsequently deposited to produce characteristic landforms such as dunes, deltas, and glacial moraines. This slide show presents images of landforms that result from erosion and weathering, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects.

306

Critical Fire Weather Patterns  

E-print Network

-- 1.1 Typical Summer Weather Cycle PDT -- 1.1 Dry Thunderstorms PHX -- 1.1 North Winds PHX -- 2 Thunderstorms RNO -- 1.1 Washoe Zephyr RNO -- 2.1 Winds & Thunderstorms SAC -- 1.1 Pre--Frontal Winds SLC -- 1 days. Normally the pacific weather front will have enough instability for a few dry thunderstorms

Clements, Craig

307

What Is Space Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

308

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the U.S. military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly non-existent. This study examin...

B. E. Coble

1996-01-01

309

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the United States (US) military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly nonexistent. This...

B. B. Coble

1997-01-01

310

Weathering Database Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

Snyder, Robert

2005-01-01

311

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

312

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

313

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

314

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

315

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

316

Modified backward error propagation for tactical target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores a new approach to the classification of tactical targets using a new biologically-based neural network. The targets of interest were generated from Doppler imagery and forward looking infrared imagery, and consisted of tanks, trucks, armored personnel carriers, jeeps and petroleum, oil, and lubricant tankers. Each target was described by feature vectors, such as normalized moment invariants. The features were generated from the imagery using a segmenting process. These feature vectors were used as the input to a neural network classifier for tactical target recognition. The neural network consisted of a multilayer perceptron architecture, employing a backward error propagation learning algorithm. The minimization technique used was an approximation to Newton's method. This second order algorithm is a generalized version of well known first order techniques, i.e., gradient of steepest descent and momentum methods. Classification using both first and second order techniques was performed, with comparisons drawn.

Piazza, Charles C.

1988-12-01

317

Research on Digitized Scenario for Tactical Internet Simulative Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scenario of Tactical Internet simulative training can't be realized directly through the scenario systems and methods in existence. For solving this problem, firstly this paper introduced the new concept called digitized scenario, which can describe the meaning of scenario more exactly than the old simulation scenario. Secondly, this paper constructed the framework of digitized scenario, and it settled such issues as composition of digitized scenario system, scenario generating flow and data architecture. Thirdly, this paper built up the general data model for script situation, and it settled the problem of situation setting. Finally, this paper proposed the method of describing scenario files based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), and it settled such problems as generation, verification and distribution of scenario files. The paper's work has been applied in the Tactical Internet simulative training system, and it also has good directive value to the developing of other communication network simulative training system.

Shen, Jian-Jun; Tian, Hua; Gan, Zhi-Chun

318

Predicting the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

319

Atmospheric propagation for tactical directed-energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a corollary to the USAF strategic Airborne Laser program, Boeing has been analyzing the use of the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser for tactical scenarios. These include its use in an airborne platform operating against low flying cruise missiles and miscellaneous ground targets, as well as on a mobile ground platform providing support defense against shorter-range rocket attack. Practical design concepts yielding high target lethality at significant ranges have been developed.

MacGovern, Alan J.; Nahrstedt, David A.; Johnson, Michael M.

2000-07-01

320

Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

Knipling, E. F.

1979-01-01

321

Tactical audio and acoustic rendering in biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexity of biomedical data requires novel so- phisticated analysis and presentation methods. Sonification is used as a new information display in augmented reality systems to overcome problems of existing human-computer interface (e.g., opaque or heavy head-mounted displays, slow computer graphics, etc.). A novel taxonomy of sonification methods and techniques is introduced. We present our experience with tactical audio and acoustic

Emil Jovanov; Kristen Wegner; Vlada Radivojevic; Dusan Starcevic; M. S. Quinn; Daniel B. Karron

1999-01-01

322

Research on Digitized Scenario for Tactical Internet Simulative Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The scenario of Tactical Internet simulative training can’t be realized directly through the scenario systems and methods\\u000a in existence. For solving this problem, firstly this paper introduced the new concept called digitized scenario, which can\\u000a describe the meaning of scenario more exactly than the old simulation scenario. Secondly, this paper constructed the framework\\u000a of digitized scenario, and it settled such

Jian-Jun Shen; Hua Tian; Zhi-Chun Gan

2011-01-01

323

Survival tactics of Ranunculus species in river floodplains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The flooding,resistance of four Ranunculus species was studied under controlled conditions,and re- lated to the tactics used by these species to survive in their natural habitat in river floodplains. R. bulbosus ,a species from seldom-flooded river leve´ es, was relatively intolerant of both,waterlogging,and,complete,submer- gence, due to a constitutively low level of aerenchyma in the root system. This lack of

324

Survival tactics of Ranunculus species in river floodplains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flooding resistance of four Ranunculus species was studied under controlled conditions and related to the tactics used by these species to survive in their natural\\u000a habitat in river floodplains. R. bulbosus, a species from seldom-flooded river levées, was relatively intolerant of both waterlogging and complete submergence, due\\u000a to a constitutively low level of aerenchyma in the root system. This

J. B. He; G. M. Bögemann; H. M. van de Steeg; J. G. H. M. Rijnders; L. A. C. J. Voesenek; C. W. P. M. Blom

1999-01-01

325

[Selection of foraging tactics in leaf Warblers (phylloscopus)].  

PubMed

Aviary observations revealed particularities of foraging behavior in seven species of leaf warblers of the genus Phylloscopus, which sympatrically inhabit the middle-taiga Yenisei. The differences consist in the ratio of the tactics of each type, including the flight, frequency of using them, and selectivity with respect to maneuvers. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of particularities of the external morphology of the species. PMID:21789995

Batova, O N

2011-01-01

326

Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics  

PubMed Central

In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072

Wirtz-Ocana, Sabine; Schutz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

2013-01-01

327

Limb replantation after avulsion injuries: techniques and tactics for success  

PubMed Central

Objectives Retrospective evaluation of cases of limb replantation after avulsion injuries. Evaluation of the techniques and tactics used, that contributed to success and good functional results. Methods Forty-three patients' records were assessed. All the cases had been submitted to limb replantation after avulsion injuries. Results The majority of the cases were young men. The most common injury was to the thumbs. The surgical techniques and tactics used were: nerve grafting, vein grafting, transposition of the digital vessels, limb shortening, and heterotopic replantation. The most commonly used technique was vein graft. The limb survival rate was high (93%), as was patient satisfaction. Conclusion Replantation after avulsion injury depends on the correct diagnosis of the limb viability and the use of appropriate surgical techniques and tactics for each case. The experience of the team of surgeons and a good hospital structure are essential for good results. There are few articles in medical literature about the indications, techniques and results of limb replantation after avulsion injuries. We believe that this retrospective evaluation can bring new information and contributions to the correct management of this highly complex situation. Level of evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453590

Paulos, Renata Gregorio; Simao, Danielle Tiemi; Mattar Junior, Rames; Wei, Marcelo Rosa de Rezende Teng Hsiang; Torres, Luciano Ruiz

2012-01-01

328

Redefining Tactical Operations for MER Using Cloud Computing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) includes the twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which have been performing geological research and surface exploration since early 2004. The rovers' durability well beyond their original prime mission (90 sols or Martian days) has allowed them to be a valuable platform for scientific research for well over 2000 sols, but as a by-product it has produced new challenges in providing efficient and cost-effective tactical operational planning. An early stage process adaptation was the move to distributed operations as mission scientists returned to their places of work in the summer of 2004, but they would still came together via teleconference and connected software to plan rover activities a few times a week. This distributed model has worked well since, but it requires the purchase, operation, and maintenance of a dedicated infrastructure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This server infrastructure is costly to operate and the periodic nature of its usage (typically heavy usage for 8 hours every 2 days) has made moving to a cloud based tactical infrastructure an extremely tempting proposition. In this paper we will review both past and current implementations of the tactical planning application focusing on remote plan saving and discuss the unique challenges present with long-latency, distributed operations. We then detail the motivations behind our move to cloud based computing services and as well as our system design and implementation. We will discuss security and reliability concerns and how they were addressed

Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.

2011-01-01

329

Tactical Defenses Against Systematic Variation in Wind Tunnel Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the role of unexplained systematic variation on the reproducibility of wind tunnel test results. Sample means and variances estimated in the presence of systematic variations are shown to be susceptible to bias errors that are generally non-reproducible functions of those variations. Unless certain precautions are taken to defend against the effects of systematic variation, it is shown that experimental results can be difficult to duplicate and of dubious value for predicting system response with the highest precision or accuracy that could otherwise be achieved. Results are reported from an experiment designed to estimate how frequently systematic variations are in play in a representative wind tunnel experiment. These results suggest that significant systematic variation occurs frequently enough to cast doubts on the common assumption that sample observations can be reliably assumed to be independent. The consequences of ignoring correlation among observations induced by systematic variation are considered in some detail. Experimental tactics are described that defend against systematic variation. The effectiveness of these tactics is illustrated through computational experiments and real wind tunnel experimental results. Some tutorial information describes how to analyze experimental results that have been obtained using such quality assurance tactics.

DeLoach, Richard

2002-01-01

330

Technical-tactical analysis of youth olympic taekwondo combat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to define the technical and tactical profiles of official youth taekwondo competitions played under the most recent rules of the International Taekwondo Federation. Tactical actions (i.e., attack, defense, and block), technical executions (from 1- to 4-point scores), kicking legs (i.e., front/rear and right/left), and overall technical effectiveness were investigated in relation to match outcome of semifinal and final competitions (n = 50) of youth (aged 13-14 years) black belt athletes during the Italian Taekwondo Cadet Championship. Differences (p < 0.001) were found among all action typologies (Attack: 50.9 ± 2.2%; Defense: 27.7 ± 1.5%; Block: 21.3 ± 1.6%), with winners showing fewer (p = 0.005) offensive actions and more (p = 0.001) defensive actions with respect to non-winners. Independently from match outcome, technical exchanges showed differences (p < 0.001) for technical executions. Winners resulted more efficient (p < 0.001) for both technical and tactical variables. In general, these findings showed that Cadets tend to adopt an offensive strategy. In considering that the adoption of the new electronic system requires athletes to execute correct technical actions to have a score assigned, coaches should emphasize the effectiveness of scoring techniques and help athletes to effectively improve their defense and counterattack capabilities. PMID:24077373

Tornello, Francesco; Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Chiodo, Salvatore; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio

2014-04-01

331

Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

2012-06-01

332

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

333

Weather and Fire  

E-print Network

Recent cooler temperatures and rain showers have moderated fire behavior across Alaska. “The fires are taking a breather, but our firefighters are not, ” said Pete Buist, Fire Information Officer. When the weather provides a break like this, firefighters take advantage of it by redoubling their efforts and maximizing progress towards completing fire management objectives. Yesterday’s weather included over 3,000 lightning strikes across the state and scattered showers from inch to nearly an inch in some locations. Mild temperatures and scattered showers are expected to continue into the weekend. A thermal Weather is one of the most significant factors in determining the severity of wildland fires. The intensity of fires and the rate with which they spread is directly related to the wind speed, temperature and relative humidity. Accurate and timely weather information is vital to the planning and execution of strategies for suppressing wildfires. trough is moving northward across Alaska, but thunderstorms will decrease and temperatures will increase over the next few days. A high pressure ridge is attempting to move westward into the Interior, and if successful, warm weather could return next week. For additional details on fire weather see the AICC weather page at

unknown authors

2010-01-01

334

Fire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The âFire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communicationsâ distance learning module offers best practices for Fire Weather Forecasters needing to communicate weather information when deployed in the field. The 30-minute module defines strategies for communicating with Weather Forecast Offices and with customers. Examples include writing a useful fire weather forecast discussion and undertaking proper planning to quickly and accurately disseminate information. This distance learning module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

Comet

2008-03-05

335

World Weather Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

336

Weather Map Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I gave this assignment so that students could relate real-time weather changes to mid-latitude cyclones and air mass movement. Basically, by the time I assigned the project, we have discussed all the necessary weather phenomena and this project gives the students a way to apply what we have discussed to "reality" by explaining why the weather occurred the way it did over a short time period. It also provides me with a way to assess how well they are able to tie all the major concepts together, which is one of the goals of the course.

Brueseke, Matt

337

Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

Comet

2014-03-11

338

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses weather conditions and their contribution to weathering and erosion. Students learn to explain the process of physical and chemical weathering. They also learn to compare and contrast erosion resulting from wind, ice and water. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

339

WeatherTracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

340

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

2006-01-01

341

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Space Weather Now website provides non-technical information and an assortment of images detailing current space weather. Visitors can find summaries describing auroras, plots of current auroral ovals on the poles, and viewing information for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Real-Time Solar Wind Pages furnish dynamic plots of data, geomagnetic activity test product information, and resources about the four instruments used to collect data on geomagnetic storms. The website features Space Weather Scales to help the public understand the severity of environmental disturbances due to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Visitors can find the latest news, alerts, advisory bulletins, and much more.

342

Instantiation of the TADIL-A waveform into a software programmable tactical intelligence terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tactical digital information link-A (TADIL-A) is used for situational awareness dissemination to the warfighter at both HF and UHF. With the addition of TADIL-A to the joint tactical terminal (JTT) operational requirements document (ORD), it served as a test for demonstrating the ability to instantiate a legacy broadcast waveform into a software re-programmable, digital tactical intelligence terminal. Software resident

E. Franke

1999-01-01

343

Weathering in a Cup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

Stadum, Carol J.

1991-01-01

344

Weathering of Martian Evaporites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

2001-01-01

345

Tombstone Weathering Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups in a cemetery to collect a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the extent of weathering of tombstones and their ages. The data are shared between all students, graphed as scatter plots, and the rate of weathering is estimated. Students write about and then discuss the results, the difference between the quantitative and qualitative measures, and speculate on factors in addition to time that may be important for weathering rate. The exercise ends with each students writing a hypothesis about a factor that influences weathering rate and describing a research project that could test that hypothesis. This activity is aimed at developing an understanding of the scatter in "real data", allowing for practice of team work, and hypothesis generation and testing. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Anders, Alison

346

Weather Information Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

1991-01-01

347

Microbial Weathering of Olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature.

Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.; McKay, D. S.

2002-03-01

348

Weather and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...

1975-01-01

349

Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... a two-wave radio, waterproof matches and paraffin fire starters with you. Do not use alcohol and ...

350

Winter Weather: Hypothermia  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

351

Winter Weather: Indoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... 3 feet of anything that may catch on fire, such as drapes, furniture, or bedding. Never cover ...

352

Palmer Automatic Weather Station  

NSF Publications Database

... EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 06, 1991 File : opp93040 DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF ... Palmer Automatic Weather Station) To: Files (S.7 - Environment) This Environmental Action Memorandum ...

353

Cold-Weather Sports  

MedlinePLUS

Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular fitness, and strengthen muscles. Activities that are ...

354

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based unit has been created for use by students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, students develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities. The lesson plans have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum, and to allow for flexibility in implementation.

2011-01-01

355

Weathering of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

Van Norden, Wendy

356

Weather Here and There  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Education Project of the Resource for Science Education Program offers the Weather Here and There educational unit. The Web site consists of six lessons geared for students in grades four through six that cover everything from characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere to forecasting the weather. Each lesson contains the objectives, materials, background information, vocabulary, evaluation, etc. needed to easily prepare and complete each.

1995-01-01

357

TypoWeather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-03-13

358

Google Earth Weather Bundle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Google Earth Weather Bundle, from the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Illinois, gives the user a suite of automatically updating weather products that can be overlaid in any fashion he or she desires. It can be downloaded from the department's web site at the University of Illinois, and is meant for worldwide use by a wide range of audiences, from the general public to meteorologists.

359

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

Whitfield, Lise

2010-01-01

360

Mating Tactics and Reproductive Success in Male Columbian Ground Squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus).  

E-print Network

??The widespread discovery of multiple mating tactics, particularly among males, highlights the diverse ways sexual selection may operate within a population. In polygynandrous populations, multiple… (more)

Balmer, Adele

2010-01-01

361

Ethical considerations in embedding a surgeon in a military or civilian tactical team.  

PubMed

Tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) bring immediate medical support to the inner perimeter of special weapons and tactics team activations. While initially envisioned as a role for an individual dually trained as a police officer and paramedic, TEMS is increasingly undertaken by physicians and paramedics who are not police officers. This report explores the ethical underpinnings of embedding a surgeon within a military or civilian tactical team with regard to identity, ethically acceptable actions, triage, responsibility set, training, certification, and potential future refinements of the role of the tactical police surgeon. PMID:22985714

Kaplan, Lewis J; Siegel, Mark D; Eastman, Alexander L; Flynn, Lisa M; Rosenbaum, Stanley H; Cone, David C; Blake, David P; Mulhern, Jonathan

2012-12-01

362

Utility weatherization programs  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions (PUCs) have recently ordered or approved an increasing number of programs that install weatherization measures in residences. These programs tend to install only low-cost weatherization measures (e.g., caulking, weatherstripping, plastic storm windows, door sweeps) or major weatherization measures (e.g., insulation, storm windows, storm doors). When a program does not have income restrictions for eligibility, part of the costs are paid by the participating customer. For programs that install low-cost measures, the participant usually pays at the time of installation for the measures chosen. To require payment for major weatherization measures at the time of installation could deter participation, so these programs usually provide loans with the interest subsidized by the sponsor. Low-income customers, who have little or no disposable income, tend to shun Residential Conservation Service, loan, and other utility conservation programs that have costs to participants. Therefore PUCs have turned to programs that install weatherization measures without charge in order to reach low-income customers. This paper discusses some of the regulatory issues raised by these programs and how they have been justified by PUCs. It also gives information on cost and energy savings for 10 weatherization programs, both utility-sponsored and non-utility-sponsored, and attempts to interpret this information.

Kier, P.H.

1984-01-01

363

Cockpit weather information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

2000-01-01

364

Postcopulatory Behavior in Libellula pulchella Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae) and Female Tactics for Avoiding Male Interference with Oviposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postcopulatory behavior was studied in Libellula pulchella, a North American dragonfly in which ovipositing females face frequent harassment by unpaired males seeking matings. Although males performed noncontact guarding of their mates after copulation, females received minimal protection since their guarders tended to leave on extended chases of other males when harassment was intense. Ovipositions by unguarded females were even more

Victoria E. McMillan

2000-01-01

365

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

366

Social Aspects of Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated

J. Eugene Haas

1973-01-01

367

2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide  

E-print Network

Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

Meyers, Steven D.

368

AIMS taking on roles to support tactical information dominance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military solutions to enable information sharing are being developed that will fundamentally change future concepts of operation. The development of sophisticated approaches to managing this information is a key element to reliably disseminate valued information to the tactical edge. This paper will describe the merging of two such systems to support these tactical edge users; the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Joint Battlespace Infosphere Reference Implementation (JBI/RI) and the Northrop Grumman Advanced Information Architecture (AIA TM). The newly formed system is called the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS). The resulting technology, rooted in a service oriented approach, provides a managed information dissemination approach through the use of publish, subscribe, and query services. Information can be collected and shared among Communities of Interest (COI) without specific involvement from the tactical users. Persistence (via archiving to repositories), is a new capability added to the existing AIA TM. Extreme care is taken to effectively manage the information within this dynamic environment. For example, Information resulting from queries and subscriptions is cached to mitigate potential bandwidth challenges at critical location within the system. AIMS improves security by allowing the establishment of roles for retrieval/publishing of information. The access to information is controlled not only at the message level but also by specified elements within the metadata tags. Lastly, the fortification of AIMS with Web Services allows for a highly cohesive loosely coupled design. AIMS utilizes of a Universal Description, Definition, and Integration (UDDI) [2] registry to describe and register services within the architecture. The UDDI allows implementations outside of AIMS (3rd party) to invoke any of the registered services for use within their own applications.

Ceccio, Philip Joseph; Hillman, Robert G.

2007-04-01

369

Avoidance learning in phenylketonuric monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared 16 rhesus monkeys fed damagingly high levels of phenylalanine when young (phenylketonuric monkeys-PKUs) with 16 controls on shuttle-box shock avoidance. Results demonstrate that punishing intertrial crosses (ITCs) early in acquisition produced in PKUs subsequent deterioration in avoiding the shock both of the CS and of the ITC. CS errors tended to follow other errors, suggesting increased emotionality in the

Arnold S. Chamove; Harry F. Harlow

1973-01-01

370

A Concurrent Distributed System for Aircraft Tactical Decision Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS) program, a second generation TDG, is presented. Concurrent computing environments and programming approaches are discussed and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

McManus, John W.

1990-01-01

371

Small molecule unlocks key prostate cancer survival tactic  

Cancer.gov

The most recent in a series of studies from a team at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center has shown that a single molecule is at the heart of one of the most basic survival tactics of prostate cancer cells. A paper published by the Public Library of Science identifies a microRNA called miR-125b as a potential target for treatments designed to stop the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, particularly in patients who have developed a late-stage form of the disease resistant to androgen deprivation therapy.

372

S-290 Unit 9: Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webcast covers procedures for taking accurate weather observations using belt weather kits and descriptions of other common weather observing equipment used in fire weather. In addition, maintenance of the primary components of the belt weather kit are demonstrated.

Comet

2009-04-22

373

Weather conditions and daily television use in the Netherlands, 1996–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily television use in the Netherlands for the\\u000a period 1996–2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory.\\u000a It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions are associated with lower human mood, and that watching\\u000a entertainment and avoiding informational

Rob Eisinga; Philip Hans Franses; Maurice Vergeer

2011-01-01

374

Myocardial infarction and weather.  

PubMed

The association of meterological factors with acute myocardial infarction was studied within a one-year period in Helsinki. Seasonal variation was found with the lowest incidence in summer and the highest in late autumn. Environmental temperature was not significantly correlated with the incidence of myocardial infarction but the case fatality rate was higher on coldest days. Atmospheric pressure turned out to be the meteorological variable with the highest correlation with the occurrence of myocardial infarction. Rapid decrease in atmospheric pressure was also associated with increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction. Relative humidity had little independent effect. The weather types with highest and lowest risk of heart attack were determined by the combined use of factor and cluster analysis. The most unfavourable turned out to be a relatively cold and moist weather with low atmospheric pressure, common in Helsinki during early winter and late autumn. The incidence of infarction did not increase on typical cold and dry winter days. The most favourable weather was warm, dry and stable summer weather. The difference in incidences between most and least favourable weather types was three-fold. PMID:616207

Sarna, S; Romo, M; Siltanen, P

1977-08-01

375

Weather from the Stratosphere?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

2006-01-01

376

Oceans, Climate, and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-10-01

377

Spaceborne weather radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

1990-01-01

378

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the National Science Foundation has developed a number of Flash-enabled features that showcase the latest research done under their general direction. Many of these features deal directly with a host of pragmatic issues, and some are quite delightful in their overall execution and visual appeal. One such feature highlighted on this site deals with predicting seasonal weather. Of course, predicting such trends in weather are both important to the general public, and to those businesses that are sensitive to the weather conditions. In a series of brief essays, replete with illustrative diagrams, visitors can learn about a new proposed seasonal forecast model. The site is rounded out by a link to a number of classroom resources, thematically organized for convenience.

2005-01-01

379

Jet Streams and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about jet streams and explore the effects the polar-front jet stream has on weather conditions in North America. They begin by doing an interactive activity that highlights the atmospheric conditions and phenomena that create jet streams. They then look at a model that illustrates the relationships between latitude and variations in air temperature, wind speed, and altitude and begin to make generalizations about these relationships. In the second part of this lesson, they use the knowledge gained in the first part to interpret weather maps, helping them to make direct connections between the behavior of the polar-front jet stream and seasonal weather patterns in North America. As a final exercise, they will use real data to deepen their understanding of the relationships between pressure, altitude, and the wind speed of jet streams.

2005-01-01

380

New weather radar coming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

Maggs, William Ward

381

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

382

Tactical urbanism, public policy reform, and 'innovation spotting' by government : from Park(ing) Day to San Francisco's parklet program  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the prospects and impacts of tactical urbanism (TU). While tactical urbanism remains primarily a subcultural movement, it is beginning to gain traction in popular culture in traditionally politically ...

Davidson, Mariko Mura

2013-01-01

383

Automatic data for applied railway management : passenger demand, service quality measurement, and tactical planning on the London Overground Network  

E-print Network

The broad goal of this thesis is to demonstrate the potential positive impacts of applying automatic data to the management and tactical planning of a modern urban railway. Tactical planning is taken here to mean the set ...

Frumin, Michael S

2010-01-01

384

Children's Responses to Mothers' and Fathers' Emotionality and Tactics in Marital Conflict in the Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing a gap in methodological approaches to the study of links between marital conflict and children, 51 couples were trained to complete home diary reports on everyday marital conflicts and children's responses. Parental negative emotionality and destructive conflict tactics related to children's insecure emotional and behavioral responses. Parental positive emotionality and constructive conflict tactics were linked with children's secure emotional

E. Mark Cummings; Marcie C. Goeke-Morey; Lauren M. Papp; Tammy L. Dukewich

2002-01-01

385

A continuum of life history tactics in a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population  

E-print Network

A continuum of life history tactics in a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population Julien Cucherousset tactics of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) population of the Oir River (Normandy, France) were studied truite commune (Salmo trutta) de l'Oir (Normandie, France) ont été étudiées par le marquage individuel à

Cucherousset, Julien

386

Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The results indicated that effect sizes significantly favored conditional spanking over 10 of 13 alternative disciplinary

Robert E. Larzelere; Brett R. Kuhn

2005-01-01

387

A Software Framework for Mobile Ad hoc Data Communications Using Legacy Voice-Centric Tactical Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, small ground units such as those operating in Iraq have very limited data communication capabilities between soldiers. Tactical chat or file transfer is available only at the battalion level or higher. To address this problem, we have developed a software application, which can leverage existing voice-centric radios to provide data services including tactical chat and file transfer capabilities to

Steven R. Brand; Geoffrey G. Xie; John H. Gibson

388

Foraging time of rutting bighorn rams varies with individual behavior, not mating tactic  

E-print Network

polygynous ungulates (bison, Bison bison: Komers et al., 1992; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis: Hogg, 1984 individual effort than on the particular tactic adopted. Key words: bighorn sheep, feeding constraint, Ovis canadensis, rut. [Behav Ecol] Mate guarding is the primary mating tactic used by dominant males in several

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

389

Relationship of Managerial Work Roles to Tactics Used to Influence Subordinates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship between self-reported managerial work roles and successful influence strategies with subordinates. Finds that in the role of motivator, managers can obtain more commitment and effort from subordinates by relying less on coalition and exchange tactics and more on use of ingratiating and inspirational appeals tactics. (SR)

Lamude, Kevin G.; Scudder, Joseph

1995-01-01

390

The Use and Acceptance of Sexually Aggressive Tactics in College Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extended the findings of Cleveland, Koss, and Lyon's (1999) research on rape tactics to a sample of college men by examining the use and acceptance of sexually aggressive tactics. Participants included 297 male undergraduate students who filled out instruments assessing for a history of sexual aggression and other personality…

Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Gidycz, Christine A.

2007-01-01

391

Fight tactics in wood ants: individuals in smaller groups fight harder but die faster  

E-print Network

Fight tactics in wood ants: individuals in smaller groups fight harder but die faster Tim P of large individuals. Thus, fight tactics in F. rufa seem to vary with both aspects of group RHP, group to fighting ants. Keywords: Formica rufa; aggression; resource-holding potential; body size; group size

Sorenson, Michael

392

The use of genetic markers to estimate the frequency of successful alternative reproductive tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a method for estimating rates of successful alternative reproductive tactics from parental exclusions known through the use of genetic markers. We review a method for calculating the probability of excluding a putative father when he is not the actual father. We adapt this method to model two mating tactics of concern to sociobiologists: extrapair copulations (EPCs) and

David F. Westneat; Peter C. Frederick; R. Haven Wiley

1987-01-01

393

Integrating Directional Links with Omni-Directional Tactical MANET Stack: An Experimental Analysis  

E-print Network

Integrating Directional Links with Omni-Directional Tactical MANET Stack: An Experimental Analysis of OMNI directional tactical MANET with directional links Integration approach of directional capability MANET nodes operate over multiple frequency channels CNL routing: Operate OSPF and flooding link state

Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun

394

Male tactics and reproductive success in the harem polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative tactics in reproductive behavior enable individuals to maximize their fitness in relation to competitors in the same population. In many taxa, territoriality is a common tactic of males to increase their reproductive success. In the bat Saccopteryx bilineata, territorial males defend roosting areas for females against other males and court females throughout the year. Peripheral males in the same

Gerald Heckel; Otto von Helversen

2002-01-01

395

Tactics of parasitic American coots: host choice and the pattern of egg dispersion among host nests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary I examined the tactics adopted by a conspecific brood parasite, the American coot (Fulica americana), and the degree to which these tactics reflect sources of mortality for parasitic eggs. Only 8% of parasitic eggs produced independent offspring, compared to a 35% success rate for non-parasitic eggs, and most mortality was due to egg-rejection by hosts or the consequences of

Bruce E. Lyon

1993-01-01

396

Do reproductive tactics vary with habitat heterogeneity in the intertidal sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cnidarians display a diverse range of reproductive tactics including sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. Although few studies have looked for intraspecific variation in reproductive tactics, flexible expression of such life-history traits may be favoured in species that occupy a range of habitats. We tested this in the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa by comparing cycles of reproductive activity and the

Craig D. H. Sherman; Amanda J. Peucker; David J. Ayre

2007-01-01

397

Offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in Arab countries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making of Arab basketball players, and to determine if there are differences in the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making within the various disability classifications of Arab basketball players. A twenty-question survey was formulated to assess decision-making in offensive tactical situations in wheelchair basketball players. Participants in the present study were 108 athletes from 10 Arab national teams participating in wheelchair basketball. The mean offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in the 20 different situations in the Arab countries ranged between 1.38-2.84, and the standard deviations for these 20 means ranged from 0.41 to 0.90. The total mean of all tactical situations was 2.33, which is moderate thinking level. The influence of the disability classification on the offensive tactical thinking of wheelchair basketball players was addressed by examining the data via a one-way ANOVA. The ANOVA revealed no significant differences among disability classifications/categories in tactical thinking (F(3, 104)=1.12, p=0.34). This study represents the first attempt to identify why Arab nations have not consistently qualified for the Paralympics or World Championships. These findings indicate that the moderate offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players on Arab national teams may be part of the reason that performances of these teams have not been as strong as they would like. PMID:23578258

Hindawi, Omar S; Orabi, Samira; Al Arjan, Jafar; Judge, Lawrence W; Cottingham, Michael; Bellar, David Michael

2013-01-01

398

Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM) Subsystem Model in a Simulated Tactical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an airborne electronic warfare support measures (ESM) subsystem model in a simulated tactical environment and the used algorithms and techniques in this model are described. The software is developed as a subcomponent of an extensively simulated tactical environment. The simulation includes the modeling of the motion of the air, land and maritime vehicles and modeling of the

E. H. Kok; L. E. Turkmen; S. Unsal

2006-01-01

399

Tactics and Strategies of Relationship-Based Practice: Reassessing the Institutionalization of Community Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay revises Paula Mathieu's call for relationship-based tactics of engagement over institution-based strategies. Because engaged scholars operate within institutional contexts, they should utilize both tactics and strategies to make the academic institutional paradigm more conducive to relationship-based engagement. In supporting this…

Feigenbaum, Paul

2011-01-01

400

The development of skill and tactical competencies during a season of badminton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the development of skill competence and tactical knowledge of 41 eighth-grade students (mean age 13.6 years) as they completed a season of badminton conducted following the features of Sport Education. Using data from students’ performance on badminton skills tests, their competence in game play, and their tactical knowledge, it was determined that these students made

Peter A. Hastie; Oleg A. Sinelnikov; A. J. Guarino

2009-01-01

401

Motivation Basic models Optimization model A real world problem Outlook Tactical Ambulance Location and Relocation  

E-print Network

Motivation Basic models Optimization model A real world problem Outlook Tactical Ambulance Location / 28 #12;Motivation Basic models Optimization model A real world problem Outlook Outline 1. Motivation) Tactical Ambulance Location and Relocation November 22, 2013 2 / 28 #12;Motivation Basic models

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

402

Schools as Tactical Targets in Conflict: What the Case of Nepal Can Teach Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

That school grounds, students, and staff can become tactical targets for parties in conflict is widely accepted as a fact by analysts of education and conflict. However, our understanding of the motivations for such targeting remains limited, as does our ability to engage with this matter through policy. In this article we explore tactical

van Wessel, Margit; van Hirtum, Ruud

2013-01-01

403

Two vs. One Keep Away: A Simple Game of Beginning Tactics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade or so, there has been a shift toward small-sided games played in smaller spaces, with limited rules and an emphasis on tactics. The goal of the current instruction is to use less complex game settings to develop players who then learn to make more appropriate and quicker tactical decisions. In this article, the author presents…

Belka, David E.

2005-01-01

404

An experimental approach to altering mating tactics in male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative reproductive tactics are often correlated with phenotype, density, environment, or social context. Male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have two mating tactics that are associated with phenotype. Males in good condition arrive at the nesting beach and spawn while attached to females, whereas those in poorer condition come ashore unattached and crowd around the nesting couples as satellites, fertilizing eggs

H. Jane Brockmann

2002-01-01

405

F2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck  

E-print Network

is applied to the design of an advanced heavy tactical truck. Novel technologies (e.g., series hybrid with the intention of improving both civilian and military design attributes within the framework of a dualF2001-01-2793 Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck: A Target Cascading Case Study Nestor

Papalambros, Panos

406

Relationships of Employment Status, Gender Role, Insult, and Gender with Use of Influence Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that men and womenuse different tactics to influence others. This paperexamines the worth of using personality andenvironmental variables to study phenomena that havebeen previously studied with gender as a variable.Study One examined the relationship between gender roleand choice of influence tactics for 31 male and 103female, mostly Caucasian college students. Study Two examined the role of traditional

Bobbi J. Carothers; James B. Allen

1999-01-01

407

The sequential patterning of tactics : Activism in the global sports apparel industry, 1988-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Activist groups apply a range of tactics in order to improve labour conditions in the global sports and apparel industry. The accumulation of these tactics leads to the build-up of pressure on firms within this industry (brands, retailers) to change their policies and activities on labour issues in their supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to

Frank den Hond; Frank G. A. de Bakker; Patricia de Haan

2010-01-01

408

The impact of prospect theory based framing tactics on advertising effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most important decisions managers make is the determination of the most effective advertising strategies (and their associated tactics) and the determination of the market segments for which each strategy will be effective. Little research has explored the application of prospect theory based framing tactics (described in the text) to advertising. In this research we empirically test three framing

Paul D Berger; Gerald E Smith

1998-01-01

409

Male Sexual Polymorphism, Alternative Reproductive Tactics, and Androgens in Combtooth Blennies (Pisces: Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species in which intense intermale competition for the access to females is present males of lower competitive ability may adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ART) to get access to mates. These ART translate in many cases into male sexual polymorphism, with individuals following distinctly different tactics. Usually two alternative male morphs can be recognized in species with ART: (1) bourgeois

Rui F. Oliveira; Adelino V. M. Canario; Matthew S. Grober

2001-01-01

410

Improving the Authoring of Foreign Language Interactive Lessons in the Tactical Language Training System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) teaches foreign language and culture using a task-based approach. Four trainers have been developed so far, for Iraqi Arabic, Pashto, French and Levantine Arabic. The Tactical Iraqi system has been used to train thousands of users in the U.S. military. In this paper, we describe recent work we undertook to improve the

Joram Meron; Andre Valente; W. Lewis Johnson

411

Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics  

E-print Network

Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics Ramona Flatz of territoriality and the potential for alternative mating tactics in this species. Citation: Flatz R, Gonza, 2012; Published March 14, 2012 Copyright: Ã? 2012 Flatz et al. This is an open-access article

Gerber, Leah R.

412

Tactical image parameter adjustment for stereo pair correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern warfare, timely extraction of coordinates from tactical reconnaissance images remains a critical restriction in the targeting loop. Often, a warfighter has immediate access to real time sensor images. However, extracting the true coordinates of a target can be time consuming and difficult. Usually, the sensor will provide basic parameters such as range, heading, and depression angle, which can be used to correlate the image with an on-line database of stereo images. However, these parameters are often in error. This paper documents a research project conducted at the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, California which solves this problem for range and heading values within the Digital Precision Strike Suite correlation (scene matching) and targeting software also developed at this facility. Stereo templates are built using the stereo images and then projected onto the tactical image plane using the sensor"s position parameters such as range and heading. Three values from the results of the correlation attempt are fed to a neural network which will determine whether the parameter is too small or too large. This information is used to adjust the given parameter, perform the correlation again and feed the new values to the neural network. The results obtained are very promising.

Carlson, Benjamin P.; Ditzler, W. Rodney; Havlin, Michael R.

2005-02-01

413

Airborne Tactical Intent-Based Conflict Resolution Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory-based operations with self-separation involve the aircraft taking the primary role in the management of its own trajectory in the presence of other traffic. In this role, the flight crew assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the aircraft remains separated from all other aircraft by at least a minimum separation standard. These operations are enabled by cooperative airborne surveillance and by airborne automation systems that provide essential monitoring and decision support functions for the flight crew. An airborne automation system developed and used by NASA for research investigations of required functionality is the Autonomous Operations Planner. It supports the flight crew in managing their trajectory when responsible for self-separation by providing monitoring and decision support functions for both strategic and tactical flight modes. The paper focuses on the latter of these modes by describing a capability for tactical intent-based conflict resolution and its role in a comprehensive suite of automation functions supporting trajectory-based operations with self-separation.

Wing, David J.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.

2009-01-01

414

Littoral environmental reconnaissance using tactical imagery from unmanned aircraft systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic nature of littoral regions requires a reconnaissance approach that can rapidly quantify environmental conditions. Inadequate estimation of these conditions can have substantial impacts on the performance of Naval systems. Given that expeditionary warfare operations can occur over timescales on the order of hours, exploitation of video imagery from tactical vehicles such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has proved to be a reliable and adaptive solution. Tactical littoral products that can be created by exploiting UAS imagery include estimates of surf conditions, dominant wave period, wave direction, nearshore currents, and bathymetry. These vehicles can fly for durations of 1-2 hours at altitudes of less than 1000 m (beneath typical cloud cover) to obtain imagery at pixel resolutions better than 1 m. The main advantage of using imaging sensors carried by these vehicles is that the data is available in the region of operational interest where other data collection approaches would be difficult or impossible to employ. The through-the-sensor exploitation technique we have developed operates in two phases. The first step is to align individual image frames to a common reference and then georegister the alignment into a mapped image sequence. The second phase involves signal processing of pixel intensity time series (virtual sensors) to determine spatial relationships over time. Geophysical relationships, such as linear wave dispersion, can then be applied to these processed data to invert for environmental parameters such as bathymetry.

Holland, K. Todd; Lalejini, David M.; Spansel, Steven D.; Holman, Robert A.

2010-04-01

415

An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

2008-04-01

416

Weather Scope : An Investigative Study of Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the course of this project, students will learn how to build instruments to measure weather, access online weather observations, collect weather data for an extended period, analyze weather data to reveal trends, and make predictions. They will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The module contains five lessons relating to weather, five relating to climate, and three enrichment activities. Project information, a teacher guide, reference materials, and an ask an expert feature are also provided.

2007-12-12

417

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

2003-01-01

418

Weather and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

Comet

2008-11-25

419

Olympian weather forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique public-private partnership will provide detailed weather information at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Utah, 8-24 February About 50 meteorologists with the National Weather Service (NWS) and several private groups will work in the background to provide accurate forecasts.This is the first time that U.S. government and private meteorologists will share forecasting responsibilities for the Olympics, according to the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. The partnership includes meteorologists with the University of Utah and KSL-TV in Salt Lake City.

Showstack, Randy

420

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This background chapter reviews the basic principles of meteorology that educators need to guide inquiry activities in the classroom. Topics include structure of the atmosphere, Coriolis effect, water cycle, greenhouse effect, cyclones, anticyclones, and jet streams. This is chapter 2 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

421

Children's responses to mothers' and fathers' emotionality and tactics in marital conflict in the home.  

PubMed

Addressing a gap in methodological approaches to the study of links between marital conflict and children, 51 couples were trained to complete home diary reports on everyday marital conflicts and children's responses. Parental negative emotionality and destructive conflict tactics related to children's insecure emotional and behavioral responses. Parental positive emotionality and constructive conflict tactics were linked with children's secure emotional responding. When parents' emotions and tactics were considered in the same model, negative emotionality was more consistently related to children's negative reactions than were destructive conflict tactics, whereas constructive conflict tactics were more consistently related to children's positive reactions than parents' positive emotionality. Differences in children's responding as a function of specific parental negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear) and parent gender were identified. PMID:12561293

Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M; Dukewich, Tammy L

2002-12-01

422

Mate retention tactics in Spain: personality, sex differences, and relationship status.  

PubMed

Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. PMID:21534964

de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M

2011-06-01

423

Avoiding character collisions in games  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses an important current problem in the game industry, the problem of moving multiple characters along predefined paths in a two-dimensional plane while avoiding collisions between them. It demonstrates and describes a method...

Calderon, Manuel

2012-06-07

424

Repetition avoidance in human language  

E-print Network

Repetition is avoided in countless human languages and at a variety of grammatical levels. In this dissertation I ask what it is that makes repetition so bad. I propose that at least three distinct biases against repetition ...

Walter, Mary Ann, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

425

Health Tip: Avoiding Computer Strain  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Avoiding Computer Strain Relax, and sit up straight (*this news ... If you aren't positioned correctly at the computer, you may be left with some serious strains, ...

426

Vision-based obstacle avoidance  

DOEpatents

A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

Galbraith, John (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-07-18

427

The Effect of Applicant Influence Tactics on Recruiter Perceptions of Fit and Hiring Recommendations: A Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effect of applicant influence-tactic use on recruiter perceptions of fit. Two tactics, ingratiation and self-promotion, were expected to have positive effects on recruiter perceptions of fit and on recruiter hiring recommendations. In addition, the authors expected recruiter fit perceptions to mediate the relationship between applicant influence tactics and recruiter hiring recommendations. Results suggested that ingratiation

Chad A. Higgins; Timothy A. Judge

2004-01-01

428

Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish  

PubMed Central

Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rudiger; Plath, Martin

2013-01-01

429

Blogging About the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

Evans, Kyle; Frazier, Wendy

2010-04-01

430

Rainy Weather Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

Reynolds, Karen

1996-01-01

431

What Makes the Weather?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides (1) background information showing how the sun, earth, air, and water work together to create weather; (2) six activities on this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy coloring page on the water cycle. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

432

Weather and Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

Wiley, Scott

2007-01-01

433

Weather Stations: Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test how cornstarch and glitter in water move when disturbed. Learners compare their observations with videos of Jupiter's and Earth's storm movements. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

434

Space Weather Action Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Weather Action Center is a computer-based activity that allows students to track, from their classroom, the development and progress of solar storms. The activity incorporates online NASA data and addresses national education standards in science, technology and math. Students rotate through four space weather learning stations and are challenged to answer the following questions: Do sunspot regions exist today that could be a source of solar storms?; Have radio signals been recorded today from a flare or coronal mass ejection that could affect Earth?; Has there been a measurable disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field?; and Have auroras been seen within the last 24 hours because of a solar storm? A setup guide is provided to show how to create a Space Weather Action Center in the classroom, including recommendations, diagrams, and the necessary list of materials. The instructional guide features background and evaluation materials, alignments to national standards, extension activities, and instructions on how to read, analyze and record space weather data.

435

Weather or Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning activity, teams of students will be asked to forecast the weather up to 48 hours in advance of an outdoor event that is special to them. It may be a local or distant event. The activity is part of Exploring the Environment.

436

Rocks and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, weathering, erosion and transport, and the rock cycle are explained in this resource for students through written content, interactive content, audio, video and games. A multiple choice test is included. Students may score their tests and the correct responses will be given.

437

Microbial Weathering of Olivine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

2002-01-01

438

Weathering the Double Whammy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the institution's…

Wellman, Jane V.

2002-01-01

439

Dress for the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson,

Smetana, Lara K.; Glen, Nicole J.

2010-04-01

440

Weather and Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will research, discuss, and write reports on the relationship between climate and agriculture. They will pretend that they have just purchased farms in specific parts of the United States and will investigate the weather and climate of that region in order to maximize the chances that their farms will succeed.

441

Pigeons and Weather Warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the Standard of the 5th instant is an account of a pigeon race from Penzance to London, a distance of 270 miles, which was done by one bird in 5 hours 34 minutes, and by another in 5 hours and 59 minutes. Might not the carrier-pigeon be employed to bring accounts of the weather 300, 400, or even 500

1879-01-01

442

Small-Scale Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts covered so far that pertain to the Earth's weather will finally be applied in this chapter. A number of basic mechanisms that govern small-scale things such as cloud formation, rain, fog, dew point, and humidity, will be addressed.

Robertson, William C.

2005-01-01

443

Crop Conditions Weather Update  

E-print Network

1 Crop Conditions Weather Update Eastern Flower Thrips on Strawberries Stopping Spread of Apple Scab Fire Blight Strawberry Diseases Chemical thinning Important Grape Sprays Cluster Thinning on Strawberries: High numbers of Eastern Flower Thrips have been reported on late blooming strawberry varieties

Ginzel, Matthew

444

Weather and the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

445

Accessing Space Weather Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

2009-12-01

446

Satellite Weather Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

Summers, R. Joe

1982-01-01

447

METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary.d.williams@reading.ac.uk #12;2 Abstract In a recent study, Williams (2009) introduced a simple modification to the widely used. In the present paper, the effects of the modification are comprehensively evaluated in the SPEEDY atmospheric

Kalnay, Eugenia

448

Paintball Summer Weather  

E-print Network

Highlights · Paintball · Summer Weather · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Paintball! Come out and have some fun! This Saturday, September 6th, we are going to play Paintball! Paintball is a popular. The origin of the word "tip" is something that is not 100% certain, but the most common story

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

449

Weather, Climate, and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

450

Dress for the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

2010-01-01

451

Salt Weathering on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement,

E. Jagoutz

2006-01-01

452

Salt weathering on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement,

E. Jagoutz

2004-01-01

453

Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1993-11-01

454

Towards Weather Ethics: From Chance to Choice with Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of weather and climate ethics is a novel branch of applied ethics, based on environmental sciences and philosophy. Due to recent scientific findings concerning climate change, intentional weather and climate modification schemes have become even more relevant to finding feasible ways to moderate climate change and therefore are in need of careful analysis. When, if ever, can weather

Sanna Joronen; Markku Oksanen; Timo Vuorisalo

2011-01-01

455

The Effect of NEXRAD Image Looping and National Convective Weather Forecast Product on Pilot Decision Making in the Use of a Cockpit Weather Information Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This experiment investigated improvements to cockpit weather displays to better support the hazardous weather avoidance decision-making of general aviation pilots. Forty-eight general aviation pilots were divided into three equal groups and presented with a simulated flight scenario involving embedded convective activity. The control group had access to conventional sources of pre-flight and in-flight weather products. The two treatment groups were provided with a weather display that presented NEXRAD mosaic images, graphic depiction of METARs, and text METARs. One treatment group used a NEXRAD image looping feature and the second group used the National Convective Weather Forecast (NCWF) product overlaid on the NEXRAD display. Both of the treatment displays provided a significant increase in situation awareness but, they provided incomplete information required to deal with hazardous convective weather conditions, and would require substantial pilot training to permit their safe and effective use.

Burgess, Malcolm A.; Thomas, Rickey P.

2004-01-01

456

External Resource: Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci

1900-01-01

457

Food Safety for Warmer Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who ... they produce,” says Dr. Alison O’Brien, a food safety expert at the Uniformed Services University of the ...

458

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Oct 28,2014 Th is winter season will bring cooler temperatures and ice ... for some. It’s important to know how cold weather can affect your heart, especially if you have ...

459

Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

2007-01-01

460

TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

461

Power system modelling for a tactical railgun demonstrator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes several of the results from a pre- feasibility study of electromagnetic launchers for a tactical applications demonstrator. The object of this work was to study the power system requirements for a 12 MJ (kinetic energy) railgun system which would be used to demonstrate the accuracy and lethality of hypervelocity projectiles (up to 3.5 km/s) fired from a railgun. Some theoretical work is presented as a basis for scoping calculations to determine the required pulse energies for a railgun power system, as a function of the required projectile peak to mean acceleration ratio; this shows that the introduction of a requirement for a low peak to mean ratio increases the barrel energy demand for a given total muzzle energy.

Putley, D.; Spikings, C.R. (AEA Technology Culham Lab., Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (GB))

1991-01-01

462

Precision delivery of unguided submunitions from a tactical standoff missile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of a low cost tactical weapon to missions involving area targets requires the accurate dispensing of unguided submunitions. For a terminally guided weapon, proportional navigation can no longer be used, since it cannot compensate for the ballistics of the submunition. A terminal guidance algorithm was developed to control the weapon trajectory between the midcourse flight path and the point of dispense. The algorithm incorporates submunition drag characteristics to assure high accuracy. The algorithm also assures adequate arming time for the submunitions and adequate time for the pattern to develop. The second element of accurate submunition delivery is the dispensing or expulsion mechanism, which ejects the payload out of the canister. The ejection mechanism must provide the desired pattern size, shape, and density. Air bag technology is employed to assure satisfactory ejection forces with adequate repeatability. The current study is theoretical in nature, relying on digital simulation to substantiate conclusions on patterns and accuracy.

Ehrich, R. D.; Beaty, J. R.

1986-06-01

463

Multiple Application Propfan Study (MAPS): Advanced tactical transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted to ascertain potential benefits of a propfan propulsion system application to a blended wing/body military tactical transport. Based on a design cruise Mach no. of 0.75 for the design mission, the results indicate a significant advantage in various figures of merit for the propfan over those of a comparable technology turbofan. Although the propfan has a 1.6 percent greater takeoff gross weight, its life cycle cost is 5.3 percent smaller, partly because of a 27 percent smaller specific fuel consumption. When employed on alternate missions, the propfan configuration offers significantly improved flexibility and capability: an increase in sea level penetration distance of more than 100 percent, or in time-on-station of 24 percent, or in deployment payload of 38 percent.

Newton, F. C.; Liebeck, R. H.; Mitchell, G. H.; Mooiweer, A.; Platte, M. M.; Toogood, T. L.; Wright, R. A.

1986-01-01

464

Summary of the psychological effects of tactical nuclear warfare  

SciTech Connect

The psychological component of the response of combat troops to tactical nuclear warfare is a troublesome variable which plagues military planners and commanders responsible for the preparation of the armed forces for the eventuality that nuclear weapons might one day be used in armed conflict. The devastating physical effects of nuclear weapons have been extensively documented and the biological response of animals and humans to radiation has also been well studied, but very little is known concerning the probable effects of experiencing a nuclear attack, upon the emotional stability, morale, and motivation of soldiers to perform their assigned duties. The literature addressing this topic has been reviewed and evaluated as part of the Defense Nuclear Agency's Intermediate Dose Program. A summary of the report resulting from this effort is presented herein. The full literature review and accompanying bibliography are available from the author upon request.

Sessions, G.R.

1984-04-01

465

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The module builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.

Comet

2012-06-12

466

A Weathering Scale for the Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering categories A, B, and C are used by the Meteorite Working Group at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston for Antarctic meteorite finds, denoting minor, moderate, and severe rustiness of hand specimens. A different scale can be set up from the weathering effects seen in polished sections with the microscope. These weathering effects finally lead to the disintegration of the meteorite; they are important in connection with its terrestrial age and an estimate of the true fall rate of meteorites. In order to avoid confusion with the hand specimen classification A, B, C, the weathering grades determined on polished sections were named W1 to W6. Weathering affects first the metal grains, later troilite, and finally the silicates. The following progressive stages can be distinguished: W0: No visible oxidation of metal or sulfide. A limonitic staining may already be noticeable in transmitted light. Fresh falls are usually of this grade, although some are already W1. W1: Minor oxide rims around metal and troilite, minor oxide veins. W2: Moderate oxidation of metal, about 20-60% being affected. W3: Heavy oxidation of metal and troilite, 60-95% being replaced. W4: Complete (>95%) oxidation of metal and troilite, but no alteration of silicates. W5: Beginning alteration of mafic silicates, mainly along cracks. W6: Massive replacement of silicates by clay minerals and oxides. More or less massive veining with iron oxides can already be found in stage W2. These veins develop independently from the weathering grade, apparently in cracks that form through mechanical forces. Broad cracks are often filled with carbonates. Grades W5 and W6 are rare. The silicate alteration affects first the olivines; it starts inside the grains, not from the rim. In stage W6 intact chondrules were found, where olivines were completely replaced by a mixture of clay minerals and iron oxides, the feldspathic mesostasis being unaffected. A correlation between these weathering grades and the terrestrial ages was shown for meteorite finds from Roosevelt County, New Mexico [1]. In these climatic conditions the weathering grades W2 to W6 develop in the following times: W2, 5000 to 15,000 yr; W3, 15,000 to 30,000 yr; W4, 20,000 to 35,000 yr; W5 and W6, 30,000 to >45,000 yr. Similar terrestrial ages were found for chondrites of these weathering grades from the Lybian and Algerian Sahara [2,3]. Antarctic meteorite finds weather much more slowly. A check of 53 Antarctic ordinary chondrites (of hand specimen weathering categories A to C) showed only 9 of grade W2, the rest being W1. Among the W1s is ALHA77278 (category A) with a terrestrial age of 320,000 yr [4]. References: [1] Jull A. J. T. et al. (1991) LPSC XXII, 665. [2] Jull A. J. T. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 2895. [3] Jull A. J. T. et al. (1993), this volume. [4] Nishiizumi K. et al. (1989) EPSL, 93, 299.

Wlotzka, F.

1993-07-01

467

Combining tactics to exploit Allee effects for eradication of alien insect populations.  

PubMed

Invasive species increasingly threaten ecosystems, food production, and human welfare worldwide. Hundreds of eradication programs have targeted a wide range of nonnative insect species to mitigate the economic and ecological impacts of biological invasions. Many such programs used multiple tactics to achieve this goal, but interactions between tactics have received little formal consideration, specifically as they interact with Allee dynamics. If a population can be driven below an Allee threshold, extinction becomes more probable because of factors such as the failure to find mates, satiate natural enemies, or successfully exploit food resources, as well as demographic and environmental stochasticity. A key implication of an Allee threshold is that the population can be eradicated without the need and expense of killing the last individuals. Some combinations of control tactics could interact with Allee dynamics to increase the probability of successful eradication. Combinations of tactics can be considered to have synergistic (greater efficiency in achieving extinction from the combination), additive (no improvement over single tactics alone), or antagonistic (reduced efficiency from the combination) effects on Allee dynamics. We highlight examples of combinations of tactics likely to act synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on pest populations. By exploiting the interacting effects of multiple tactics on Allee dynamics, the success and cost-effectiveness of eradication programs can be enhanced. PMID:22420248

Suckling, David Maxwell; Tobin, Patrick C; McCullough, Deborah G; Herms, Daniel A

2012-02-01

468

Effects Of Lake Warming On Behavioural Thermoregulatory Tactics In A Cold-Water Stenothermic Fish  

PubMed Central

Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii) to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time. PMID:24663489

Goyer, Katerine; Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Magnan, Pierre

2014-01-01

469

Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.  

PubMed

Summary.-Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity. PMID:25202998

Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

2014-10-01

470

Spring Break-Weathering Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to photograph something that shows either physical or chemical weathering. They must be in the photograph for purposes of scale. They must then write up their description of the weathering feature and explain the actual weathering processes. This assignment can also be expanded to include mass wasting and mass wasting prevention.

Farthing, Dori

471

Differences Between Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students collect weather data over several days or weeks, graph temperature data, and compare the temperature data collected with long-term climate averages from where they live. Understanding the difference between weather and climate and interpreting local weather data are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes.

Research, National C.

472

Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

2005-01-01

473

Science Sampler: Clever with weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

Crowder, David; Hoenigman, Rhonda

2011-02-01

474

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

Groppi, Christopher

475

Severe Weather Planning for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

2008-01-01

476

Whether weather affects music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

2012-09-01

477

National Weather Service Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

478

National Weather Service Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

2010-09-03

479

Salt Weathering on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974). However, irrespectively of the climatic environment a liquid brine is a necessity for salt induced fragmentation of rocks.M. C. Malin (1974) JGR Vol 79,26 p 3888-3894

Jagoutz, E.

2006-12-01

480

Pipelines and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long conductors of all types on Earth's surface are subject to disturbance and disruption by telluric currents (currents that flow within the Earth or on its surface) induced by space weather events. Attention is most often paid to the effects that these currents can produce in electric grids. After all, if an electric power system is disrupted, many other modern infrastructures that depend on the secure and continuous supply of electrical power will also be affected. A recent technical paper in Space Weather by R. A. Marshall and colleagues draws needed attention to the effects of telluric currents on long pipelines. This is a space weather topic that often does not receive the attention it warrants in terms of its critical relevance to modern-day life. Pipelines have long used cathodic protection systems to mitigate the corrosion of the pipes that can arise from potential differences between the ground and the pipes. These potential differences occur because telluric currents flow more readily in the pipes than in the ground. While pipeline engineers have long worked hard on this problem, it was the design and installation in the mid-1970s of the Alaska pipeline directly under the auroral zone that drew enhanced attention to this topic.

Lanzerotti, Louis J.

2010-05-01

481

Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

2012-01-01

482

Salt weathering on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974). However, irrespectively of the climatic environment a liquid brine is a necessity for salt induced fragmentation of rocks. If salt weathering is responsible for the fragmented rocks on the Martian surface it implies a temporary present of liquid H_2O. However, due to the present dry atmosphere on Mars brines can only be present in restricted places without being in equilibrium with the atmosphere (Clark and van Hart 1980). M. C. Malin (1974) JGR Vol 79,26 p 3888-3894 B. C. Clark and D. C. vanHart (1980) ICARUS 45, 370-378

Jagoutz, E.

483

How Jews Avoid Alcohol Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that four social processes protect against alcoholism in American Jews: (1) association of alcohol abuse with non-Jews; (2) integration of moderate drinking norms, practices, and symbolism during childhood through religious and secular ritual; (3) restriction of adult relationships to other moderate drinkers; and (4) techniques to avoid

Glassner, Barry; Berg, Bruce

1980-01-01

484

Deadlock avoidance for systolic communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the systolic communication model, each cell (or processor) in a parallel processing system can operate directly on data residing at the cell's input queues and move computed results directly to the cell's output queues. Incoming and outgoing messages need not be stored in the cell's local memory, if not required by the computation. By avoiding these local memory accesses,

H. T. Kung

1988-01-01

485

Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction  

PubMed Central

The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved. PMID:24501475

Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

2013-01-01

486

Aging in Utah: Avoid Crisis  

E-print Network

Aging in Utah: Avoid Crisis Maximize Opportunity UTAH COMMISSION ON AGING Annual Report 2010-2011 #12;Page 1Utah Commission on Aging 2010-2011 Interim Report The Commission's statutory purpose is to: a. increase public and government understanding of the current and future needs of the state's aging

Tipple, Brett

487

Avoiding Recomputation in Linkage Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe four improvements we have implemented in a version of the genetic linkage analysis programs in the LINKAGE package: subdivision of recombination classes, better handling of loops, better coordination between the optimization and output routines, and a checkpointing facility. The unifying theme for all the improvements is to store a small amount of data to avoid expensive recomputation of

Alejandro A. Schäffer; Sandeep K. Gupta; K. Shriram

1994-01-01

488

A one night stand? Reproductive excursions of female roe deer as a breeding dispersal tactic.  

PubMed

Breeding dispersal, defined as the net movement between successive breeding sites, remains a poorly understood and seldom reported phenomenon in mammals, despite its importance for population dynamics and genetics. In large herbivores, females may be more mobile during the breeding season, undertaking short-term trips (excursions) outside their normal home range. If fertilisation occurs, leading to gene flow of the male genome, this behaviour could be considered a form of breeding dispersal from a genetic point of view. Here, we investigated ranging behaviour of 235 adult roe deer using intensive GPS monitoring in six populations across Europe within the EURODEER initiative. We show that excursions are common from June to August among females, with 41.8 % (vs. 18.1 % of males) making at least one excursion. Most individuals performed only one excursion per season and departure dates for females were concentrated in time, centred on the rutting period, suggesting a link with reproduction. The distance females travelled during excursions was significantly greater than the site-specific average diameter of a male home range, while travel speed decreased once they progressed beyond this diameter, indicating search behaviour or interaction with other male(s) outside the resident male's territory. Because adults are normally highly sedentary, the potential for mating with relatives is substantial; hence, we conclude that rut excursions could be an alternative tactic enabling females to avoid mating with a closely related male. To understand better the ultimate drivers at play, it will be crucial to explore the genetic causes and consequences of this behaviour. PMID:25027183

Debeffe, Lucie; Focardi, Stefano; Bonenfant, Christophe; Hewison, A J Mark; Morellet, Nicolas; Vanpé, Cécile; Heurich, Marco; Kjellander, Petter; Linnell, John D C; Mysterud, Atle; Pellerin, Maryline; Sustr, Pavel; Urbano, Ferdinando; Cagnacci, Francesca

2014-10-01

489

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser  

E-print Network

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e

Balser, Dana S.

490

Dynamic strategic and tactical air traffic flow control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the problem of dynamically controlling the flow of aircraft heading toward an airport for which a reduction in capacity is expected due to unfavorable weather conditions. They use a stochastic programming formulation corresponding to a minimization of delay costs based on a probabilistic forecast of the capacity of the destination airport. Two types of control actions are

Mostafa Terrab; Saaju Paulose

1992-01-01

491

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

492

Concept of Operation for Tactical Separation Assurance in Super-Density Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airspace Systems Program is committed to supporting the Next Generation Air Transportation System through research and development in select areas. One such area, referred to as Super Density Operations, is conducting research to develop technologies that will safely increase the throughput in busy terminal area environments. The purpose of this document is to develop a Concept of Operations for the Tactical Separation Assurance function, one of the functions included in Super Density Operations. A functional description of the technologies required for Super Density Operations is presented followed by a more detail description of the Tactical Separation Assurance function. Two story boards are presented to illustrate the operational use of the Tactical Separation Assurance function under different situations. The last section proposes a pathway to implementing the Tactical Separation Assurance function.

Denery, Dallas G.; Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.

2010-01-01

493

Three essays on strategic and tactical issues in product design by Matthew Selove.  

E-print Network

This dissertation consists of three essays on strategic and tactical issues in product design. The first essay presents a dynamic investment game in which firms that are initially identical develop assets which are specialized ...

Selove, Matthew McCloud

2010-01-01

494

Essays on supply chain contracting and tactical decisions for inter-generational product transitions  

E-print Network

In this dissertation, we explore problems in two areas of Supply Chain Management. The first relates to strategic supplier management. The second focuses on tactical decisions on inventory and pricing during inter-generational ...

Li, Hongmin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

495

Prejudicial Counsel: A Multidimensional Study of Tactical Airpower Between the Korean and Vietnam Wars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyzes the Air Force's decisions made concerning the advancement of tactical conventional airpower from 1953 to 1961, This thesis evaluates the decision- making process at three distinct levels using Graham T, Allison's three decision-making ...

R. L. Banks

2001-01-01

496

Proposed Network Security Policy for Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack assessment (ITW/AA) system is a networked system of systems that collects, processes, and produces information, including classified data, in support of missile, air, and space attack warning missions. As with an...

L. J. LaPadula

1993-01-01

497

Architectural considerations for a family of multi-functional tactical intelligence terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warfighters across the military operations continuum require timely and accurate information to successfully execute their missions. They employ intelligence data in direct support of command and control, weapons and sensors. As tactical intelligence terminals migrate toward a multi-band, multi-channel and multi-mission architecture, a dilemma exists when trying to satisfy jointly the conflicting intelligence broadcast needs of the small, highly-mobile, tactical

E. Franke

1998-01-01

498

A Tactical Intelligence Production Model of Computer Network Self-Organizing Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we define the concepts of target’s information and intelligence activities for Computer Network Self-organizing\\u000a Operations, propose a tactical intelligence production model of computer network self-organization operation and prove its\\u000a reachability. In order to verify the model, we present the evaluating, analysis and interpreting algorithm based on rule-based\\u000a reasoning. Then, we design and implement the tactical intelligence production

Shan Yao; Jian Jiao; Chunhe Xia; Xiaojian Li

2010-01-01

499

Dynamic mate-searching tactic allows female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus to reduce searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females can maximize the bene¢ts of mate choice by ¢nding high-quality mates while using search tactics that limit the costs of searching for mates. Mate-searching models indicate that speci¢c search tactics would best optimize this trade-o¡ under di¡erent conditions. These models do not, however, consider that females may use information from previous years to improve mate searching and reduce search

J. A. C. Uy; G. L. Patricelli; G. Borgia

2000-01-01

500

DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS AND HERITABILITY OF ALTERNATIVE REPRODUCTIVE TACTICS IN WILD ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A critical step in understanding,the evolution and maintenance,of alternative reproductive,tactics is to obtain accurate comparisons of their fitness and to determine factors influencing individual status. In this study, we first used individual multilocus genotypic,information,to compare,reproductive success between,two,alternative re- productive tactics of anadromous,Atlantic salmon,(Salmo salar L.) in their natural environments. We also documented the effects of the quality of the

Dany Garant; Julian J. Dodson; Louis Bernatchez

2003-01-01