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The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm ...
The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tacticalweather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert system developed to predict severe thunderstorms in the Great Plains Regions of the United States, as a po...
Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, it is little is known as to what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N=289) were recruited nationally through online advertisements. Aggressive tactics to avoid condom use was measured using an adapted version of the revised Sexual Experiences Survey (Abbey et al., 2005) and assessed a variety of aggressive behaviors spanning coercion to physical force. 100 participants (35.3%) reported at least one instance of coercion or aggression to avoid using a condom. Structural equation modeling indicated that, attitudes towards women, inconsistent condom use, and number of sexual partners were significant predictors of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. A better understanding of the attitudinal and behavioral pathways through which men avoid condom use through aggressive and coercive means will ultimately result in improved education and prevention efforts for at-risk men and women. PMID:23139623
Free flight air traffic management is a paradigm shift to move the decision making process for route choices from air traffic controllers to the cockpit. It provides a unique opportunity to optimize flight routes in the presence of hazardous weather. However, the process of maximizing airspace capacity requires robust and safe weatheravoidance algorithms. The problem involves a number of
Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…
|Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…
This work resulted in the test and evaluation of a hybrid statistical neural net program called Goal-Oriented Pattern Detection (GOPAD) and the development of a cloud tracking program that uses weather satellite imagery as input. Both technologies show gr...
K. C. Young L. A. Atkinson M. Perrone P. D. Lampru
This project will help you understand the weather and investigate weather interactively. What are the components of weather? How do you measure weather? Investigate the WeatherScholastic: Weather WatchWeatherWeather Center for Our 4th Grade ...
In this paper we present a first order classical metatheory, called MT, with the following properties: (1) tactics are terms of the language of MT (we call these tactics,Logic Tactics); (2) there exists a mapping between Logic Tactics and the tactics developed as programs within the GETFOL theorem prover (we call these tactics,Program Tactics). MT is expressive enough to represent
The continuing growth of air traffic worldwide motivates the need for new approaches to air traffic management that are more flexible both in terms of traffic volume and weather. Free Flight is one such approach seriously considered by the aviation community. However the benefits of Free Flight are severely curtailed in the convective weather season when weather is highly active, leading aircrafts to deviate from their optimal trajectories. This paper investigates the use of ant colony optimization in generating optimal weatheravoidance trajectories in Free Flight airspace. The problem is motivated by the need to take full advantage of the airspace capacity in a Free Flight environment, while maintaining safe separation between aircrafts and hazardous weather. The experiments described herein were run on a high fidelity Free Flight air traffic simulation system which allows for a variety of constraints on the computed routes and accurate measurement of environments dynamics. This permits us to estimate the desired behavior of an aircraft, including avoidance of changing hazardous weather patterns, turn and curvature constraints, and the horizontal separation standard and required time of arrival at a pre determined point, and to analyze the performance of our algorithm in various weather scenarios. The proposed Ant Colony Optimization based weatheravoidance algorithm was able to find optimum weather free routes every time if they exist. In case of highly complex scenarios the algorithm comes out with the route which requires the aircraft to fly through the weather cells with least disturbances. All the solutions generated were within flight parameters and upon integration with the flight management system of the aircraft in a Free Flight air traffic simulator, successfully negotiated the bad weather.
Alam, Sameer; Abbass, Hussein A.; Barlow, Michael; Lindsay, Peter
Learn all about the aspects of weather that effect us every day. Click here to see a weather forecast for anywhere in the world World Wide Weather Watch See what happens to weather when you change conditions at your house Weather Maker Weather Games ...
This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...
This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...
Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...
Some prey can distinguish between chemical cues from predators fed different diets. Here we document the first evidence of diet-based chemical discrimination of predators in a terrestrial arthropod and measure the survival value of behavioural responses to predator chemical cues. We tested activity level and avoidance behaviour of the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, to faeces and silk associated with the
M. H. Persons; S. E. Walker; A. L. Rypstra; S. D. Marshall
This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.
Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. After a while, you\\'ll notice the weather patterns that allow meteorologists to forecast the weather. Tasks: 1. As a group you will build a weather station outside. 2. Your group will build instruments to measure the weather. 3. Each person will record the data in personal weather journals. Process: 1.Since weather happens outside, you\\'ll need to make ...
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.
This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.
In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...
A matrix scheme for evaluating complex tactical nuclear systems is proposed. Advantages resulting from consideration of system characteristics in peace and crisis as well as war include avoidance of scenario-dependent conclusions, ease of maintaining awar...
Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90° between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.
Tactical battlefield radars are employed in surveillance and target acquisition roles at ranges of approximately 1 to 20 km, their main targets being enemy ground vehicles and personnel. As with all types of radar the operating environment has a significant effect on the design and performance of these systems and propagation considerations are an important factor. The major propagation factors which limit the performance of tactical radars are the availability of line of sight, ground clutter, and effects of the weather. The ways in which propagation factors affect the choice of such radar parameters as frequency, polarisation, and RF waveform are discussed, and the ways in which propagation constraints can be minimised by the design of the signal processing system are considered. In an EW environment an important operational requirement is to minimize the probability of the location of the position of the radar by the enemy. Propagation effects such as multipath and diffraction are considered in broad terms in this context.
A project is introduced which aims at (a) providing timely, tailored and concise meteorological information especially for adverse weather as precisely as possible for air traffic control and management, airline operating centres, pilots, and airports, and (b) building automated flight control systems and evasion-manoeuvre methods to minimise the impact of adverse wind and wake conditions on the flight performance of an aircraft. Today ATM and ATC most of the time only react on adverse weather when the disruption has already happened or is just about to happen. A future air traffic management should pro-actively anticipate disruptive weather elements and their time scales well in advance to avoid or to mitigate the impact upon the traffic flow. But "weather” is not a technical problem that can be simply solved. Predicting the weather is a difficult and complex task and only possible within certain limits. It is therefore necessary to observe and forecast the changing state of the atmosphere as precisely and as rapidly as possible. Measures must be taken to minimise the impact of adverse weather or changing weather conditions on air traffic management and tactical manoeuvring, both on ground and onboard the aircraft. Weather and meteorological information (MET in short) is to be considered as an integral part of air traffic management. In 2008, DLR has initiated a major project "Wetter & Fliegen” (German for "Weather and Flying”) to address this inter¬disciplinary challenge. Its goal is to augment safety and efficiency of air transportation, thereby focusing on the two German hub airports in Frankfurt and München. This high-level goal shall be reached by two strands of work: a) The development of an Integrated Terminal Weather Systems (ITWS) for the air¬¬ports at Frankfurt and München to improve the detection and forecast of weather phenomena adversely affecting airport operations, including deep convection (thunderstorms, hail, wind), wake vortex, and winter weather conditions, and b) The development of on-board systems for automated control, surveillance and information and the specification of requirements for on-board sensors, to improve the behaviour of the aircraft when confronted with wind gusts, wake vortices and thunderstorms. The project design and first results will be presented.
In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually f...
Turnout and tactical voting are driven by remarkably similar processes. Using British Election Study data from 1997, both are shown to depend on the strategic situation in the constituency and on the relative strength of preference between parties. Also both are influenced by party campaigning and the level of political interest, knowledge and trust. Tactical non-voting creates the potential for
Establishing the nature of tactics has been a pastime of professional soldiers for centuries. Analyses of tactics have delved into the question of the exact nature of tactics; they have included examinations of historical experience or events in war; and ...
This monograph discusses the intricacies of liquidating tactical encirclements and bypassed pockets of enemy resistance. Operational employment of U.S. Army doctrine will lead to tactical encirclements in most instances. Contemporary doctrine, however, fails to acknowledge the probability of encirclement. Additionally, doctrine fails to address methods of dealing with enemy pockets. History argues that encircled enemy units often refuse to capitulate
This Manual provides training information for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees to assist in implementation of the Tactical Response Team (TRT) training and exercise requirements of the revised portions of 10 CFR Part 73, which requires that licensees possessing formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material establish TRTs and conduct tactical response exercises to enhance the capabilities of security forces in protecting NRC licensed fuel facilities from potential adversaries postulated in the design basis threat. Step-by-step illustrated instructional material is provided concerning both individual and team tactics and skills appropriate to meeting these requirements. The Manual consists of two parts. Part One addresses adversary attributes and essential tactical skills that each TRT member should master to assure personal safety and effective response to adversary actions. Part Two discusses more advanced tactics, command, control, and orders. 30 refs., 281 figs.
Various naval tactical decision aids (TDAs) are reviewed as to nature of inputs, outputs, and, in most cases, underlying models. The primary purpose is graduate instruction in operations research applied to development of TDAs. The principal categories of...
We describe the key features of the proof description language of Declare, an experimental theorem prover for higher orderlogic. We take a somewhat radical approach to proof description: proofsare not described with tactics but by using just three expressive outlining constructs. The language is declarative because each step specifiesits logical consequences, i.e. the constants and formulae that are introduced,independently of
|In this article, the author provides an intimate glimpse into the writing work that Joe Cytrynbaum did with students from Manley Career Academy High School in Chicago. The author's discussion of Joe's "tactics of hope" is layered and brought to life by Joe's poetry and the poetry of his students. The author presents Joe's poems and the insights…
This article is devoted to the tactical game theoretical interpretation of dialectics. Dialectical games are considered as abstractly as well as models of the internal dialogue and reflection. The models related to the representation theory (representative dynamics) are specially investigated in detail, they correlate with the hypothesis on the dialectical features of human thinking in general and mathematical thought (the
This thesis addresses the tactical decision-making process to determine if decision point tactics is a function within the procedure of tactical decision making, which satisfies the tactical decision-making process by providing a suboptimized plan. The su...
The need for enhanced tactical force protection capabilities is evidenced from our recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan and occurs wherever U.S. Forces maintain a forward presence in a potentially hostile environment. Levels of force protection proficiency vary widely from combat units whose mission is to close with and destroy the enemy to combat support/combat service support units performing maintenance and logistics functions. We must provide force protection capabilities that are not only good enough to get the job done, but affordable for the entire force. Addressing the force protection challenge requires an investment in research and development to deliver affordable, scalable, modular and sustainable force protection equipment. This can be accomplished through an evolutionary acquisition strategy of capability upgrades in the near, mid and far-terms that leverage the Army's investments in unmanned ground sensors (UGS), unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) and surveillance radar and imaging technology. This approach addresses the field's immediate tactical force protection requirements, while working towards full integration with the Future Combat System. Futuristic Tactical Force Protection will consist of a fully integrated system of systems architecture that will include UGVs, UGS and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that are networked with the Future Force.
This monograph examines the scavenger logistics concept of tactical sustainment in an effort to determine whether it can be a viable alternative or supplement to future U.S. Army tactical sustainment operations. By the author's definition, tactical scaven...
Yellowstone National Park's high altitude and mountainous terrain makes weather prediction very difficult. This website provides seasonal weather information, average temperature and precipitation data, links to weather forecasts, and other weather links.
A tactical entry tool for creating an entry point through a building structure is provided. The tool includes a shaft portion including a shaft, and a head portion attached to a first end of the shaft. The head portion includes two heads, with each head including a head shaft extending from the shaft to form a `Y` shaped structure and a break head portion attached to the head shaft at an opposite end from which the head shaft is connected to the shaft. Each break head portion includes a plurality of teeth surrounding the perimeter of the break head portion and a plurality of breaker tips extending from the break head portion.
Strategic communication is a relatively new and currently evolving concept in the U.S. military, and it is currently not widely understood what role, if any, leaders at the tactical level have in it. In order to determine what role tactical-level leaders ...
... At Play > Avoiding Bullying Safety & Prevention Listen Avoiding Bullying Article Body How can we help our child avoid being bullied? Whether on the school playground or in the neighborhood park, children sometimes ...
The United States (US) Army Communications-Electronics Research Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) has been tasked by the Army's Product Manager for Heavy Tactical Vehicles (PM HTV) and the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) to develop and ...
... workload on the heart. People outdoors in cold weather should avoid sudden exertion, like lifting a heavy ... with your doctor prior to exercising in cold weather. Be aware of the dangers of hypothermia. Heart ...
Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)
Survivability has been a key operative word for the commanders of today's Air Force. Today's technology offers a substantial threat which challenges mission success, mission equipment, and platform survivability. In particular, the transition from photographic to electro-optical (E-O) tactical reconnaissance presents survivability issues that must be addressed today to properly plan and train for near-term deployment. In addition, the declining defense budget environment mandates that the USAF optimize its modern reconnaissance mission equipment to enhance tactical survivability. This paper discusses current, nonclassified, tactical reconnaissance mission tactics as taught at the Air National Guard Reconnaissance Weapons School. It examines the advantages and disadvantages of E-O technology in terms of mission, aircrew, and platform survivability and draws conclusions supporting the need for reconnaissance mission equipment which enhances survivability.
An emerging concept is the convergence of 'green practices' such as systemic sustainability and renewable resources with military operational needs. Tactical biorefineries leverage biotechnology and thermochemical processes for energy production and are d...
A system of mobile domes which have a minimal shadowing effect, is proposed for the TACTIC telescope being set up at Gurushikar, Mt. Abu. The important design considerations and the salient features of the proposed concept are discussed.
Karkera, B. N.; Puri, I. K.; Bhat, C. L.; Koul, R.; Murthy, G. S. K.; Suthar, R. L.; Kamble, S. H.
This report documents two experiments which were conducted to determine the training required to improve tactical night terrain flight aircrew performance. These experiments sought, specifically, to identify critical factors which should be included in a ...
... Snakebites Avoiding Snakebites How can I avoid snakebites? Snakes are most active in the spring, early summer ... warm and outdoor activities are popular. Although most snakes are not poisonous, there are several kinds of ...
The actual collection of data, such as digital imagery, using the multitude of sensors available today and in the near future, requires a high data rate digital recorder. The amount of memory, data rates, environmental factors and affordability are important issues when selecting the type of recording system. This paper will discuss two types of systems, tape and solid state. Emphasis will be placed on operational factors and specific mission profiles that are associated with a tactical reconnaissance mission. The current and projected costs of the digital tape recorder and soli state recorder will be examined. The logistics of moving the data from the aircraft to a Ground Exploitation System will be discussed. Once the data is collected it needs to be stored in non-volatile memory with easy access. One of the major problems encountered during Desert Storm was the inability to locate and retrieve reconnaissance images. A data base that can store terabytes of data and have the ability to recall this information from off-site locations should be a requirement for a Desert Storm scenario.
We consider a class of 2D optimal path-planning problems for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with kinematic and tactical constraints. The existence of an optimal path class satisfying the UAV kinematic constraints and vector calculus are exploited to reduce this class of optimal path-planning problems to a parameter optimization problem. Illustrative tactical constraints arising in target touring and obstacle avoidance problems
Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…
Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting â from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment â and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.
Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…
|Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…
|Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted…
Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.
Students will use the internet to learn about weather and play games enhancing their knowledge and interest. Using the knowledge they learned students will write out their prediction of their next 5 days of weather. Intro Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Intro Look at the current weather forecast-Click here Current Weather-CNN Task Search for information about what causes different kinds of weather and what instruments people use to predict weather. What is a person called who predicts weather? Resources Resource 1 Resource 2 Resource 3 Resource 4 Resource 5 Resource 6 Evaluation Rubric Conclusion After researching, create your ...
Using an autoethnographic approach, this paper presents the impacts of image-generation programs and policies with a government\\u000a organization. Based on three years’ experience with The Government, I offer autoethnographic observations of three themes\\u000a that have emerged: general confusion, avoiding conformity and brand bewilderment. The research brings attention to internal\\u000a marketing, public relations and image-generation tactics, including human resources policies, practices
A new tactical airborne multicolor missile warning testbed was developed and fielded as part of an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiative focusing on clutter and missile signature measurements for algorithm development. Multicolor discrimination is one of the most effective ways of improving the performance of infrared missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in fielded scanning sensors. Normally, multicolor discrimination is performed in the mid-infrared, 3-5 micrometers band, where the molecular emission of CO and CO2 characteristic of a combustion process is readily distinguished from the continuum of a black body radiator. Current infrared warning sensor development is focused on staring mosaic detector arrays that provide much higher frame rates than scanning systems in a more compact and mechanically simpler package. This, in turn, has required that multicolor clutter data be collected for both analysis and algorithm development. The developed sensor test bed is a 256x256 InSb sensor with an optimized two color filter wheel integrated with the optics. The collection portion includes a ruggedized parallel array processor and fast disk array capable of real-time processing and collection of up to 350 full frames per second. This configuration allowed the collection and real- time processing of temporally correlated, radiometrically calibrated data in two spectral bands that was compared to background and target imagery taken previously. The current data collections were taken from a modified Piper light aircraft at medium and low altitudes of background, battlefield clutter, and shoulder-fired missile signatures during August 1999.
Montgomery, Joel B.; Sanderson, Richard B.; Baxley, Frank O.
The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) incorporates the latest technology for aerial warfighting. To support this aircraft's mission and to provide the pilot with the increased situational awareness needed in today's battlespace, a panoramic AMLCD was developed and is being deployed for the first time. This 20" by 8" display is the largest fielded to date in a tactical fighter. Key system innovations had to be employed to allow this technology to function in this demanding environment. Certain older generation aircraft are now considering incorporating a panoramic display to provide their crews with this level of increased capability. Key design issues that had to be overcome dealt with sunlight readability, vibration resistance, touchscreen operation, and reliability concerns to avoid single-point failures. A completely dual redundant system design had to be employed to ensure that the pilot would always have access to critical mission and flight data.
This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)
As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international human rights. The New Tactics in Human Rights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.
A field experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of REALTRAIN engagement simulation training and to identify tactical team performances associated with mission accomplishment. Eight armor/anti-armor units received a pretraining tactical t...
The variability in weather many times influences significantly the decisions made in military tactical planning and operations affecting the utilization of Army weapons systems, smoke deployment for both offensive and defensive purposes, and air and groun...
Tactical decision makers use environmental support systems to determine tactical strategies for global operations. Premission and postmission analyses evaluate performance and provide new strategies for future mission effectiveness. High fidelity on-scene littoral environment descriptions must be available, accessible, and deliverable to mission analysts, combatant platforms, and other mission participants to make prevailing tactical decisions. Knowledge and understanding of dominant variabilities
Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.
In this lesson, students learn how meteorologists measure the weather by examining some online, real-time data resources and collaborating to create an in-class weather station that tracks local weather patterns for one week. Students compare this information to weather patterns in two other locations. After completing this lesson, students should be able to explain ways that meteorologists measure and predict weather and use the Internet to research information about weather conditions in various locations in the United States, including their hometown. Students will also collaborate on creating some weather-measurement instruments and keep a weather journal for one week. This site provides an overview of the lesson, detailed procedures for the teacher, including a list of research sites, and an organizational path for students.
This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.
Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.
|Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…
|Tactics for Thinking is a comprehensive staff development program that can be adapted to specific curriculum needs in local districts. San Diego County (California) is training teachers in three categories of cognitive strategies: learning to learn, content thinking skills, and reasoning skills. (TE)|
During the 1980's, many improvements will be made in the Air Force's ability to communicate in a battlefield environment. Programs like JTIDS, SEEK TALK, TRI-TAC, and the Ground Mobile Forces satellite communications terminals will improve the security, jam resistance, connectivity, and capacity of today's Air Force tactical communications. Even after these programs have been implemented, however, some important problem areas
The report contains the studies performed and the systems analysis used to provide design data necessary for construction of a tactically-oriented digital-to-video converter. This study was conducted in two parts: the first was an investigation into the v...
New tactics for teaching the disadvantaged must be developed which are significantly different from traditional approaches which have been used with advantaged children. Creative strategies in teaching must be developed which utilize sound teaching and learning theories and which, at the same time, are able to be continuously evaluated in a…
Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.
Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.
This paper proposes a strategy to unify four disparate networks under an Internet Protocol (IP) umbrella. The first network is the Army Warfighter Information Network - Tactical (WIN-T) area common user system. The second network is an extension to the area common user system using the Mobile Ad Hoc Interoperability Networking Gateway (MAINGATE) system. The third network is the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) based wireless access network and the forth network is the 802.11 WiFi Network. It is the intent of this paper to propose a skeletal wireless strategy that at its core will create everything over IP (EoIP) and "Everything over IEEE" ("EoIEEE") standards at the tactical level of the battlefield.
This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.
Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.
The listed websites are recommended safe kid friendly sites that may be used when gathering data for the at home data project. Use the websites listed to learn more about daily weather patterns in different cities around the world. After you have collected and organized your data, create a graph representing the different weather patterns in that city. Use this site to record the daily high temperature for your assigned city. The Weather Channel Use this ...
For over four decades the Head Up Display (HUD) has been a critical instrument in tactical aircraft, as well as in an increasing number of commercial air transports. HUDs provide a unique means to present vital information to the pilot, precisely overlaid on the real world, without the need to look down or refocus onto the instrument panel displays. HUD imaging technology, using high brightness CRTs, has remained largely unchanged during this period, despite dramatic advances in display technology across the remainder of the avionics spectrum. As reliability improvements have reduced life cycle costs for other avionics systems, the relative cost of ownership for CRT-based HUDs has become increasingly unacceptable. Further, as special-purpose CRTs have steadily been replaced by digital display alternatives the number of potential sources has dwindled, raising growing parts obsolescence issues. These issues can be resolved by replacing the CRT and its associated electronics with a solid-state digital image engine. Such "digital" HUDs (DHUDs) have been certified for use in a number of commercial air transports, and are gaining wide acceptance in the user community. The operational and environmental requirements for DHUDs for tactical aircraft are more demanding than for transports, however the core technologies are in place to meet these needs. The stage is set to achieve excellent performance, dramatic life cycle cost reductions and low cost, for both legacy and new tactical aircraft. This paper describes digital HUD development efforts to date and summarizes key performance parameters and design issues.
A low cost midcourse guidance technique suitable for standoff tactical weapons uses the launch aircraft navigation system and Kalman filtering to align and calibrate a weapon contained, low cost strapdown navigation system. Post launch, the strapdown system provides unaided inertial guidance along the midcourse trajectory. The strapdown sensor chosen to implement this form of guidance is the low cost inertial guidance subsystem (LCIGS), a modular strapdown package which uses embedded microprocessors, single degree of freedom gyroscopes, and pendulous mass accelerometers. Designed and built for use in tactical weapons, LCIGS features digital torque loops for the gyros and temperature compensation of all six sensors. Studies were conducted to project system performance, and the results indicate that through the alignment and calibration process the predominant LCIGS sensor errors can be reduced by an order of magnitude. A flight test program was structured to demonstrate performance. The unaided tactical guidance concept, the system hardware and software to be tested, the LCIGS and the preflight calibration features incorporated into its support equipment, unique laboratory testing to be performed on the system, and the planned flight tests are described.
Background: High rates of victimisation have raised concerns about the ability of adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) to avoid and escape from harmful situations and to make decisions in their own best interest. The present study was designed to assess the impact of specific coercive tactics on the decision-making of adolescents with…
Khemka, I.; Hickson, L.; Casella, M.; Accetturi, N.; Rooney, M. E.
Intersecting pedestrian flows with distinct intended directions are modeled by a macroscopic model based on a multiphase approach with a convection-diffusion equation. The intersection and the separation of the streams after an intersection is modeled by strategical and tactical components avoiding jams. In particular, we introduce a redirection strategy using dynamic potentials for guiding the pedestrians to their originally intended destination.
|Discusses tactics for surviving as a trainer in an unfriendly organizational atmosphere. Offers a method for demonstrating to managers the connection between quality assurance and employee empowerment. (JOW)|
This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.
|This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…
Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.
An ongoing need exists in the Army to enhance combat leaders' tactical thinking skills. In conjunction, measurement techniques must be developed to assess tactical thinking skills. This research product is a user's guide for the Tactical Thinking Behavior...
The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.
Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.
The report discusses the applicability of available advanced training technologies to the training of Navy tactical teams. An experiment was conducted to test whether there is sufficient commonality in team tasks performed in existing team tactics trainers to warrant development of a team training system for specific advanced technologies. Data…
This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes a prediction model that forecasts quarterly excess returns on the S&PSOO, an optimization model that adjusts a user-specified
Naval commanders must have a current and accurate summary of the tactical situation. They typically obtain it by sifting through volumes of intelligence. The Tactical Intelligence Processing System (TIPS) is an experiment in utilizing expert systems technology to automate the handling and evaluation of intelligence reports. It utilizes the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) for encoding the knowledge base and inference
For the behavior of computer controlled characters to become more sophisticated, efficient algorithms are required for generating intelligent tactical decisions. Non-player characters (or NPCs) commonly use waypoints for navigation through their virtual world. This article will demonstrate how pre-processing the relationships between these waypoints can be used to dynamically generate combat tactics for NPCs in a first person shooter or
|Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…
The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a core transformational program within the Department of Defense (DoD), critical to extending the Global Information Grid (GIG) to the tactical edge. The Joint Program Executive Office (JPEO) was established in 2005 to manage the development of JTRS. One of the JPEO's assigned responsibilities was to expand the approach to systems engineering across
The interactive game theoretical approach to tactics and behavioral self-organization is developed. Though it uses the interactive game theoretical formalization of dialogues as psycholinguistic phenomena, the crucial role is played by the essentially new concept of a tactical game. Applications to the perception processes and related subjects (memory, recollection, image understanding, imagination) are discussed together with relations to the computer
The effect of tranquilizers on the motivation components and tactics of operator's activities was investigated, using a model of discrete tracking of a moving object. The correlation-matrix method was applied to determine the region of no error correction. It was shown that specific changes in the tactics of operator's activities developing in response to tranquilizers and reduced motivation were identical. It appears probable that decreased motivation of failure avoidance forms the phenomenon of preparedness of risk taking and optimization of operator's activities when tranquilizers are used under psychological conflict conditions. PMID:6876721
Glod, G D; Morozov, I S; Sytnik, S I; Morosanova, V I; Ivanov, E R
This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.
Following James Van Allen's discovery of Earth's radiation belts (1958), it was immediately recognized that the space environment would be hostile to the communications satellites that had been envision by Arthur Clark (1945) and John Pierce (1955). Van Allen's discovery set off a burst of "space weather" research and engineering that continues to today, paralleling "space weather" research that had, prior to 1958, been directed toward understanding environment effects on cable and early wireless communications, electric power distribution, and pipelines. Van Allen's discovery also meant that the flight of humans above the sensible atmosphere would be fraught with more peril than mere weightlessness. This Van Allen lecture will discuss the space weather considerations that arose from Van Allen's discovery as well as space weather effects that occur from numerous other physical processes in the complex sun-heliosphere-magnetosphere environmental system.
In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.
The National Weather Service's Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services has a strong outreach component. This "Education" page offers a range of materials for educators and young people which includes lesson plans, brochures, satellite image collections and career information for the fields of meteorology and climatology. The site doesn't have a search engine, but visitors can scroll through eight topical sections, including "Classroom Materials", "Careers in Weather", and "Graphics, Photos, Images". Science teachers won't want to miss the "Classroom Materials", as they can find materials on the "One Sky, Many Voices" project designed to bring together meteorology projects from around the United States together in a collaborative learning environment. Moving on, the "Graphics, Photos, Images" area contains a range of lightning photos and satellite images organized into categories like "Ocean Events", "Severe Weather", and "Tropical Cyclones".
Interviews with 22 randomly selected general practitioners (GPs) investigated their communication with terminally ill patients. In interview analysis a conceptual distinction was drawn between objectives, strategies and tactics. When treating terminal patients, GPs expressed the objectives of keeping the patient comfortable, painfree, happy and maintaining dignity. A strategy is a plan and mode of approaching patients existing over an extended time period. Three strategies were described by GPs for use when interacting with terminally ill patients. These are characterized as 'try to disclose', 'let the patient decide' and 'avoid disclosing'. Tactics refer to behaviours used within a single consultation, as part of a strategy. Six tactics are described: evasion, denial, uncertainty, hints and prompts, euphemism and reassurance. Different strategies imply quite different forms of consultation. Thus to understand a consultation we must place it into the context of the series. PMID:7506681
Multispectral sensors are increasingly being employed in military applications. Just as in satellite imagery of the earth, multispectral data is required in order to extract the maximum amount of information from a scene. The advantages of image fusion have been postulated for navigation, surveillance, fire control, and missile guidance to improve accuracy and contribute to mission success. The fusion process is a critical element of each of these applications. Imagery from various sensors must be calibrated, enhanced and spatially registered in order to achieve the desired 'fusion' of information into a single 'picture' for rapid assessment. In a tactical military environment this fusion of data must be presented to the end user in a timely and ergonomical fashion. The end user (e.g., a combat pilot) may already be operating at maximum sensory input capacity. Does he or she really need another cockpit display?
McDaniel, Robert V.; Scribner, Dean A.; Krebs, William K.; Warren, Penny; Ockman, Norman; McCarley, Jason
How often will elections end in landslides? What is the probability for a head-to-head race? Analyzing ballot results from several large countries rather anomalous and yet unexplained distributions have been observed. We identify tactical voting as the driving ingredient for the anomalies and introduce a model to study its effect on plurality elections, characterized by the relative strength of the feedback from polls and the pairwise interaction between individuals in the society. With this model it becomes possible to explain the polarization of votes between two candidates, understand the small margin of victories frequently observed for different elections, and analyze the polls' impact in American, Canadian, and Brazilian ballots. Moreover, the model reproduces, quantitatively, the distribution of votes obtained in the Brazilian mayor elections with two, three, and four candidates. PMID:20856800
Araújo, Nuno A M; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J
The Navy has identified loss of tactical situational awareness (SA) as being associated with the largest contributing factors for Class A flight mishaps while developing next generation tactical combat aircraft. In order to significantly increase tactical SA, the Navy is integrating sophisticated enabling technologies and intelligent agent technology into the next generation cockpit for tactical combat aircraft. These technologies will
Michael A. Szczepkowski; James H. Hicinbothom; Bruce G. Coury; Norman W. Warner; Harold D. Warner
Unlike traditional audience oriented semantic analysis in sports video, tactic analysis aims to assist the professionals to improve their training performance and adopt proper tactics in the game. Trajectories of ball and players contain temporal and spatial motion information, which is a representative feature for tactic analysis. We propose a generic scheme to discover tactics in classified trajectories in the
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of our current observational knowledge, theoretical understanding, and numerical capability with regard to the phenomena known as space weather. Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems, and can endanger human life or health. The rapid advance in these technologies has provided us with unprecedented capability and convenience, and we have come to rely on them more and more. Technology has reduced society's risk to many kinds of natural disasters, but through its own vulnerability, it has actually increased society's risk to space weather. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socioeconomic losses.
The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.
Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.
Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.
This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.
Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to
The plan provides a guideline for fuel and energy efforts in the tactical environment from now to the 2016-2028 future force timeframe. The plan establishes timelines, identifies tasks, assigns responsibilities, and establishes metrics to measure progress...
Canada spans about 90 degrees of longitude and has requirements for tactical command and control communications as far north as to at least 84 degrees north latitude. These facts create unique problems when considering requirements for communication by sa...
The term "tactical medicine" can be defined in more than one way, but in the nonmilitary setting the term tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) is often used to denote medical support operations for law enforcement. In supporting operations involving groups such as special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams, TEMS entail executing triage, diagnosis, stabilization, and evacuation decision-making in challenging settings. Ultrasound, now well entrenched as a part of trauma evaluation in the hospital setting, has been investigated in the prehospital arena and may have utility in TEMS. This paper addresses potential use of US in the tactical environment, with emphasis on the lessons of recent years' literature. Possible uses of US are discussed, in terms of both specific clinical applications and also with respect to informing triage and related decision making. PMID:23243509
Whelan, Lori; Justice, William; Goodloe, Jeffrey M; Dixon, Jeff D; Thomas, Stephen H
The document contains inertial load tables and air load tables relative to the development and the results of a study of the feasibility of designing a standard tactical missile launcher which is capable of carrying and launching hypothetical stores, weig...
This monograph discusses the importance of cohesion to build an effective tactical unit. Historically, armies that have done well in combat have been cohesive units. This monograph investigates the components that produce effective cohesive units among th...
The term “tactical medicine” can be defined in more than one way, but in the nonmilitary setting the term tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) is often used to denote medical support operations for law enforcement. In supporting operations involving groups such as special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams, TEMS entail executing triage, diagnosis, stabilization, and evacuation decision-making in challenging settings. Ultrasound, now well entrenched as a part of trauma evaluation in the hospital setting, has been investigated in the prehospital arena and may have utility in TEMS. This paper addresses potential use of US in the tactical environment, with emphasis on the lessons of recent years' literature. Possible uses of US are discussed, in terms of both specific clinical applications and also with respect to informing triage and related decision making.
Whelan, Lori; Justice, William; Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Dixon, Jeff D.; Thomas, Stephen H.
This article advocates parallel track tactics for night attack. The need for this technique is established, and a short historical development is given. Procedures for planning and flight operations are discussed, and the advantages over current night tac...
Registration is central to Image Processing problems which use Tactical Imagery. Any application, which involves comparing two or more images, requires some type of Registration algorithm. These algorithms have evolved over the years and are generally gro...
The authors present the concept of a network resource manager for tactical military computer networks based on the Internet Protocol Version 6. This manager is a security gateway with a number of enhanced functionalities. In particular, the gateway suppor...
Star Technologies Corporation is developing a 'Training and Tactical ORS Operations' (TATOO) Classroom/Laboratory under the direction of the Air Force Research Laboratory / Human Effectiveness (AFRL/HE) Division. This paper will discuss the laboratory har...
This thesis examines the impact that weather had on armies during the American War of Independence. It argues that weather affected the operations of both American and British armies in three areas: strategy, influencing the planning of campaigns; tactics, affecting the course of battles; and administration, adding to the daily work of maintaining armies in the field and keeping them
Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.
This completely updated edition explores in detail the unresolved debate on the existence of weather cycles. It provides a different perspective on one of the most difficult questions in the current global warming debate: how much of the recent temperature rise can be attributed to natural causes? The book examines the complex analysis required to assess the evidence for cycles with a minimum of mathematics. First Edition Hb (1992): 0-521-38178-9 First Edition Pb (1995): 0-521-47869-3
The Federal Aviation Administration has established three ground-based weather radar programs. The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) and weather system processor (WSP) provide wind shear detection capability for air traffic controllers in the terminal area. These systems also reduce weather related delays. The next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) is used by the FAA to improve safety and reduce weather related
The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.
In independent vehicle concepts for the Automated Highway System (AHS), the ability to make competent tactical-level decisions in real-time is crucial. Traditional approaches to tactical reasoning typically involve the implementation of large monolithic systems, such as decision trees or finite state machines. However, as the complexity of the environment grows, the unforeseen interactions between components can make modifications to such systems very challenging. For example, changing an overtaking behavior may require several, non-local changes to car-following, lane changing and gap acceptance rules. This paper presents a distributed solution to the problem. PolySAPIENT consists of a collection of autonomous modules, each specializing in a particular aspect of the driving task - classified by traffic entities rather than tactical behavior. Thus, the influence of the vehicle ahead on the available actions is managed by one reasoning object, while the implications of an approaching exit are managed by another. The independent recommendations form these reasoning objects are expressed in the form of votes and vetos over a 'tactical action space', and are resolved by a voting arbiter. This local independence enables PolySAPIENT reasoning objects to be developed independently, using a heterogenous implementation. PolySAPIENT vehicles are implemented in the SHIVA tactical highway simulator, whose vehicles are based on the Carnegie Mellon Navlab robots.
Sukthankar, Rahul; Pomerleau, Dean A.; Thorpe, Charles E.
What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...
Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.
Medical support provided by physicians in police tactical teams has been firmly embraced by the medical community. Our study revisited the 1995 study inquiring into injury patterns in police tactical teams. A national survey was completed by 209 members of tactical teams throughout the country over a 6-week period. An electronic survey was submitted to the National Tactical Officers Association, the International Tactical Emergency Medical Support Association, and state tactical associations. Teams reporting physician utilization were 47% of the whole (69% were presenttactical teams and a need for extensive involvement in all aspects of team health, with special attention to daily health and physical fitness. PMID:18385001
The object of the Tactical SOA project is to develop, assess and understand the application of technologies and protocols to bring the benefits of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to tactical environments, and investigate and quantify the network burde...
The complexity of tactical weapon delivery has been greatly increased by the advent of new weapons, the enormity of enemy air defenses and the awesome capability of new digital technology. However, careful assessment of the tactical requirements becomes e...
This research examines the tactics and strategies used most frequently by 138 Army negotiators randomly selected from throughout the continental United States. Respondents selected from 32 tactics those which they used most often, and those which they fel...
The tactical interoperable communications scorecard assesses the maturity of tactical interoperable communications capabilities in 75 urban/metropolitan areas. These scorecards were developed by subject matter expert panels that reviewed documentation on ...
The Tactical Action Officer on board a U.S. Navy Cruiser, Destroyer, or Frigate is responsible for the operation of the entire watch team manning the ship's command center. Responsibilities include tactical decision making, console operation, communicatio...
It looks as though the United States will avoid the crisis situation of a gap in weather data resulting from the aging GOES-7 satellite and technical problems with the next generation of weather satellites (GOESNEXT). Officials at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which oversees the National Weather Service, recently announced their decision to borrow at least one and possibly several European satellites until the GOES-NEXT program gets off the ground.The GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) series is currently 3 years behind schedule and $500 million over budget. Problems with its complex design, program management by both NOAA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and poor performance by the contractor led Department of Commerce Secretary Robert Mosbacher to slow down the GOES-NEXT series to ensure that it is built right.
The authors focused on the period following students' admission to university and examined the effects of students' motives to study and socialization tactics on their academic achievement and academic satisfaction. The authors hypothesized that socialization tactics would mediate the relation of motives to study to academic achievement and satisfaction. The findings confirmed the hypotheses and highlighted the importance of students' socialization tactics in the university setting. In addition, the research provided a typology to distinguish different types of socialization tactics. PMID:11999874
Most existing approaches on sports video analysis have concentrated on semantic event detection. Sports profes- sionals, however, are more interested in tactic analysis to help improve their performance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to extract tactic information from the attack events in broadcast soccer video and present the events in a tactic mode to the coaches and
This work considers current models for understanding tactical interaction among social movement actors and finds them insufficient for making sense of the tactical work required of the Irish women's movement. Analysis of Irish feminist efforts to expand reproductive freedom calls into question the idea that tactical innovations are solely responses to countermovements or state repression. In this case, feminist activists
The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.
Home > Health & Education Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by extreme social inhibition (shyness), feelings of inadequacy, and acute sensitivity to actual or perceived ...
Tactical Language Training System helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. Learners practice their communication skills in a simulated village, where they must develop rapport with the local people, who in turn will help them accomplish missions such as post-war reconstruction. Each learner is accompanied by a virtual aide who can provide assistance and guidance if
W. Lewis Johnson; Carole R. Beal; Anna Fowles-winkler; Ursula Lauper; Stacy Marsella; Shrikanth Narayanan; Dimitra Papachristou; Hannes Högni Vilhjálmsson
The DARWARS Tactical Language Training System (TLTS) helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. Learners practice their communication skills in a simulated village, where they must develop rapport with the local people, who in term will help them accomplish missions such as post-war reconstruction. Each learner is accompanied by a virtual aide who can provide assistance
Mobile tactical MANETs are interconnected via a quasi-static backbone network (QSN) that is relatively stationary and has substantial radio bandwidth capability. Because of high mobility and terrain sensitivity, the bandwidth available to mobile nodes within the MANET may vary significantly over time. During the periods where the bandwidth available is reduced, MANET nodes may be unable to handle the information
Francesco Caruso; Ta Chen; M. Fiuk; V. Kaul; I. Hokelek; K. Parmeswaran; F. Sultan; S. Samtani; D. Shur; J. Bowcock; S. Thomas
Mobile tactical MANETs are subject to periods of intermittent connectivity and transient events of significant packet loss. Because of such disruptions, protocols and technologies have been proposed that are disruption and delay tolerant. One class of such systems works by storing messages\\/packets in the network. If connectivity to neighbors is lost, missing messages may be delivered when connectivity to neighbors
Ta Chen; Vikram Kaul; Florin Sultan; K. Parmeswaran; S. Samtani; D. Shur; T. Kiernan; S. Thomas; W. Zimmerman
|Discusses motivation-based tactics and contrasts them with instruction based on student's assumed state of knowledge. Describes an intelligent tutoring system, MORE (MOtivational REactive plan), which combines motivational planning and knowledge domain issues, and a formative evaluation of the tutor teaching Prolog debugging. (Author/JKP)|
We present techniques for automating many of the tedious aspects of hardwareverification in a higher order logic theorem proving environment. We employ two complementaryapproaches. The first involves intelligent tactics which incorporate many ofthe smaller steps currently applied by the user. The second uses hardware combinatorsto partially automate inductive proofs for iterated hardware structures. We envision asystem that captures most of
Mark D. Aagaard; Miriam E. Leeser; Phillip J. Windley
An advanced tactical radar network which is under conceptual development by the Air Force, with an anticipated installation date in the late 1980s, is described and some of the primary design choices are evaluated. The proposed radar network would provide...
A five degree-of-freedom simulation has been constructed for each of four candidate tactical weapons for use in a program to develop/evaluate new techniques for emitter homing. The vehicle types include a powered missile, a projectile, a minidrone, and a ...
Conditional social behaviours such as partner choice and reciprocity are held to be key mechanisms facilitating the evolution of cooperation, particularly in humans. Although how these mechanisms select for cooperation has been explored extensively, their potential to select simultaneously for complex cheating strategies has been largely overlooked. Tactical deception, the misrepresentation of the state of the world to another individual, may allow cheaters to exploit conditional cooperation by tactically misrepresenting their past actions and/or current intentions. Here we first use a simple game-theoretic model to show that the evolution of cooperation can create selection pressures favouring the evolution of tactical deception. This effect is driven by deception weakening cheater detection in conditional cooperators, allowing tactical deceivers to elicit cooperation at lower costs, while simple cheats are recognized and discriminated against. We then provide support for our theoretical predictions using a comparative analysis of deception across primate species. Our results suggest that the evolution of conditional strategies may, in addition to promoting cooperation, select for astute cheating and associated psychological abilities. Ultimately, our ability to convincingly lie to each other may have evolved as a direct result of our cooperative nature.
In spite of nationwide budget cuts, the potential of school libraries to positively impact student achievement has never been higher. Schools cannot afford to do without strong school library programs. It is the professional responsibility of librarians to fight for their programs, using warrior tactics to survive and thrive through tough economic…
My presentation describes a video disc based system which was developed to demonstrate potential applications as a tactical decision aid. It covers the creation of the video disc containing data for the Fluda Gap area of Germany, the system for exploitati...
The document describes the development and the results of a study of the feasibility of designing a standard tactical missile launcher which is capable of carrying and launching hypothetical stores, weighing form 500 to 3,000 pounds, from the F100, F101, ...
In April 2007, the Joint Program Executive Office (JPEO) Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) released 15 Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to the Software Communications Architecture (SCA) website L. The release of these APls will allow for the public distribution, implementation, and collaboration with commercial software vendors, universities, and international programs. The APIs contained in this first release provide common API
Cinly Magsombol; Chalena Jimenez; Donald R. Stephens
A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to tactical aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits, including increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability from redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics
Various aspects of canned speech generation were examined. In this approach, brief tactical messages are generated by concatenating the speech waveforms corresponding to the individual words. According to the tests conducted, listeners unanimously preferred canned speech over synthetic speech generated by a text-to-speech converter. They selected canned speech not only for its higher intelligibility, but they also felt that canned
|In spite of nationwide budget cuts, the potential of school libraries to positively impact student achievement has never been higher. Schools cannot afford to do without strong school library programs. It is the professional responsibility of librarians to fight for their programs, using warrior tactics to survive and thrive through tough…
A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the
The authors write about US tactical nuclear weapons in Europe, and how NATO's new Strategic Concept, adopted in November 2010, places less importance on these weapons. Though the current Europe-based arsenal is only a fraction of what it was at its peak in 1971, 150-200 bombs are currently deployed in Europe and stored at six bases in five countries: Belgium,
Current space assets managed by traditional space system control resources provide communication, navigation, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities using satellites that are designed for long life and high reliability. The next generation Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) systems are aimed at providing operational space capabilities which will provide flexibility and responsiveness to the tactical battlefield commander. These capabilities do not
Tactical mobile mesh systems are wireless communication networks characterized by: harsh propagation channels and interference, frequent and rapid changes in the network topology, the requirement for very robust, low latency multimedia information decimation, and no centralized network control. In this paper we describe a technology testbed designed to address these challenges. The testbed is based on advanced waveform technologies, modern
Adam Blair; Thomas Brown; Keith M. Chugg; Mark Johnson
Advances in technology allow Computer Simulation Models (CSM) to be used as a powerful tool to aid military decision makers. This thesis explores the usefulness of one of these models, the Joint Tactical Simulation (JTS). First, this thesis outlines the i...
Some tactical aspects of pursuit and evasion are studied. The emphasis is on the analysis of the conceptual framework and on the construction of analytic models. In order that these models be able to describe real pursuit situations, an attempt is made to...
Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of senatorial seniority on aggregate third party vote totals. The main focus of this paper is to illustrate that voters will vote for a third party candidate as a senator gains seniority by winning reelections due to the theory called Inverse Tactical Voting or ITV. ITV occurs when a
|Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)|
Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.
The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weat...
... CURRENT CONDITIONS Radar Climate Monitoring River Levels Observed Precipitation Surface Weather Upper Air Marine and Buoy Reports ... Weather Current Outlook Maps Drought Fire Weather Fronts/Precipitation Maps Current Graphical Forecast Maps Rivers Marine Offshore ...
In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. Students also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives.
A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc
This field-based study analyzed effects of a deliberate-play training program in basketball on tactical game intelligence and tactical creativity. 22 youth basketball players, ages 10 to 12 years, completed basketball training in one of two equal-sized groups. The deliberate-play training program contained unstructured game forms in basketball. The placebo group played in traditional structured basketball game forms. Tactical intelligence and creativity was assessed before and after an 18-lesson intervention. Analysis showed significant training improvement only for the deliberate-play group. In addition, this outperformance of the placebo group was not only observed for tactical creativity but also for tactical intelligence. PMID:20681337
Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods.
Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P.; Williamson, Jane E.
In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.
|Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…
the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and
Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.
The use of military spacecraft for supporting strategic forces is discussed emphasizing the requirements of ground mobile forces and the availability of space-based resources. Specific attention is given to the incompatibility of the Milsatcom communications network and military needs for combat situations. The need for assured access to tactical communications free of electronic jammers is identified, and the characteristics of tactical user equipment are set forth. The idea of a 'Space Hummer' is proposed which receives and processes multifrequency data in a high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle. The proposed vehicle is described in terms of existing and deficient technologies required for its implementation, and scenarios for its use in covert and other operations are reviewed. Important technological challenges for the use of space support include reduced antenna sizes, data fusion, and wideband connectivity, and some of these areas are currently being investigated.
Intelligent vehicles must make real-time tactical level decisions to drive in mixed traffic environments. SAPIENT is a reasoning system that combines high-level task goals with low-level sensor constraints to control simulated and (ultimately) real vehicles like the Carnegie Mellon Navlab robot vans. SAPIENT consists of a number of reasoning modules whose outputs are combined using a voting scheme. The behavior
Rahul Sukthankar; John Hancock; Shumeet Baluja; Dean Pomerleau; Charles Thorpe
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to show how operationally specific, “down in the trenches” competitive intelligence can help inform and contribute to a much higher-level view of the competitive arena that can inform company strategy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article presents a practical application based on various tactical intelligence methodologies, such as win\\/loss analysis, primary intelligence collection, etc.
CO2 laser radar systems operating in the infrared region are discussed as regards their tactical and remote sensing applications. Coherent and incoherent detection methods for lidar echoes are compared, and the increased sensitivity offered by heterodyne (coherent) detection is demonstrated through an analysis of signal-to-noise ratios. A CO2 TEA laser rangefinder and a small, tripod-mounted CO2 imaging lidar are then
The Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) is the first full scale development of a Distributed Interactive Simulations @IS) training system. CClT is being developeti to support the training requirements of the U.S. Army's combined arms teams, however it i31W pro\\\\ides an entity-based battlefield which will be able to support hgher level training and development activities. This paper will provide an
William R. Johnson; Thomas W. Mastaglio; Paul D. Peterson
Registration is central to Image Processing problems which use Tactical Imagery. Any application, which involves comparing two or more images, requires some type of Registration algorithm. These algorithms have evolved over the years and are generally grouped into three categories: 2D, 3D, and the reasonably unusual combination of 2D\\/3D. An updated classification (or taxonomy) for the diverse collection of algorithms
This paper explores recent trends and problems in small combat unit tactical training, examining the development of military field-testing of a family of simulation techniques designed to improve the proficiency of small infantry and armor units. The Army Research Institute developed two field experiments: an impact analysis of REALTRAIN on rifle squads, and one for armor\\/anti-armor teams. This article provides
This paper addresses the development of training in team-level decision making to lead to improvements in safety and performance. A one-day Workshop was developed around tactical decision games (TDGs) for use by action teams, i.e. involving a team of multi-disciplinary experts, in the oil and gas drilling industry. Three TDGs were conducted to help team members to rehearse how they
Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.
The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.
A casual review of the research literature on coping strategies suggests that strategies involving avoidanttactics are effective in reducing pain, stress, and anxiety in some cases, whereas nonavoidant strategies (called here attention), appear to be more effective in others. This article reports the results of a series of meta-analyses to ascertain whether there are systematic patterns in the empirical
Conditions for establishing stimuli which inhibit conditioned fear reactions are demonstrated in 3 experiments. Dogs, trained in a shuttle box to avoid shock on a Sidman avoidance schedule, received Pavlovian fear conditioning involving the presentation of tones and shock in various temporal relations. Subsequently, these tones were presented while S performed the avoidance response. Stimuli preceding shock in conditioning increased
A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted that examined off-nominal and tactical conflict situations in an advanced next generation air transportation system (NextGen) environment. Traffic levels were set at two times (2X) and three times (3X) current day levels and the handling of tactical conflict situations was done either with or without support from tactical separation assisted flight environment (TSAFE) automation. Strategic
Jeffrey Homola; Thomas Prevot; Joey Mercer; Matthew Mainini; Christopher Cabrall
This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.
Space Weather FX is a vodcast (video podcast) series that explores the science of space weather and how it can impact our every day lives. Episodes include Space Weather and its Effects, Connecting the Sun and Earth, When Space Weather Attacks, Stratospheric Sudden Warming, A Tour of Haystack's Radars, GPS and Space Weather, It Came from the Sun, and The Big Picture. The site also contain links to space weather information and educational materials. The episodes will run on one of four free video players.
This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...
The Army Future Combat System (FCS) Operational Requirement Document has identified a number of advanced robot tactical behavior requirements to enable the Future Brigade Combat Team (FBCT). The FBCT advanced tactical behaviors include Sentinel Behavior, Obstacle Avoidance Behavior, and Scaled Levels of Human-Machine control Behavior. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN) has also documented a number of robotic behavior requirements for the Army non FCS forces such as the Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT), Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT), and Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT). The general categories of useful robot tactical behaviors include Ground/Air Mobility behaviors, Tactical Mission behaviors, Manned-Unmanned Teaming behaviors, and Soldier-Robot Interface behaviors. Many DoD research and development centers are achieving the necessary components necessary for artificial tactical behaviors for ground and air robots to include the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center, US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and non DoD labs such as Department of Energy (DOL). With the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) through DoD and non DoD labs the Army Maneuver Support Center has recently concluded successful field trails of ground and air robots with specialized tactical behaviors and sensors to enable semi autonomous detection, reporting, and marking of explosive hazards to include Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and landmines. A specific goal of this effort was to assess how collaborative behaviors for multiple unmanned air and ground vehicles can reduce risks to Soldiers and increase efficiency for on and off route explosive hazard detection, reporting, and marking. This paper discusses experimental results achieved with a robotic countermine system that utilizes autonomous behaviors and a mixed-initiative control scheme to address the challenges of detecting and marking buried landmines. Emerging requirements for robotic countermine operations are outlined as are the technologies developed under this effort to address them. A first experiment shows that the resulting system was able to find and mark landmines with a very low level of human involvement. In addition, the data indicates that the robotic system is able to decrease the time to find mines and increase the detection accuracy and reliability. Finally, the paper presents current efforts to incorporate new countermine sensors and port the resulting behaviors to two fielded military systems for rigorous assessing.
The Internet Weather Links is a collection of lesson plans provided by the Utah Education Network's Weather Report Web site. The activities are organized by grade level from kindergarten to fourth grade and include such topics as Sunny Colors, Weather in a Box, Changes Due to Freezing, and Geological Features. Each lesson is well organized with explanations of its objectives, intended learning outcomes, and instructional procedures. Downloadable documents, related links, extensions to the lesson, and even rating systems for teachers are also provided, making it a great resource especially for use with younger students.
The Air Weather Service has recently inaugurated a program to field test those weather-modification techniques within the scientific state-of-the-art and of potential value to the Air Force in order to bring them to a state of operational readiness. The f...
The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is one of the Department of Defense's (DoD) core transformational programs. The Joint Program Executive Office (JPEO) JTRS manages the acquisition of this critical new capability. The mission of the JPEO JTRS is to develop and produce a family of interoperable, affordable software defined radios at moderate risk which provide secure, wireless networking communications
Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)
In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.
This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.
In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.
In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.
The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…
The Doppler weather radar and its signals are examined from elementary considerations to show the origin and development of useful weather echo properties such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), range correlation, signal statistics, etc. We present a form of the weather radar equation which explicitly shows the echo power loss due to finite receiver bandwidth and how it is related to
RICHARD J. DOVIAK; DUSAN S. ZRNIC; DALE S. SIRMANS
|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…
The severe weather primer from the National Severe Storms Laboratory of the NOAA provides text and graphic explanations of how severe weather phenomena form. Basics on thunderstorms, tornadoes, floods, hail, lightning, winter weather, and winds are provided in a question-oriented format including answers to frequently asked questions.
This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.
This primer from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) defines weather and climate, and explains related concepts such as the atmosphere, natural hazards, rising sea level, and modeling. Users explore how dynamic forces within the atmosphere change our weather and climate. They learn what causes weather events and climate change and how NCAR scientists are exploring our atmosphere through scientific research.
|Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…
The importance of space weather to society is in a continuous increase since we are more and more dependent on reliable spaceborne and ground-based technological systems. Physical processes involved in space weather constitute a complicated chain from the Sun to the Earth's surface, so the management of space weather risks requires expertise in many disciplines of science and technology. In
Risto Pirjola; Kirsti Kauristie; Hanna Lappalainen; Ari Viljanen; Antti Pulkkinen
This memo compares the AURORA environment with that expected in an actual tactical source region environment. The primary interest in making the comparison is to evaluate the role that AURORA can play as a source region simulator for tactical systems of i...
This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization
The fielded Commanders' Tactical Terminal (CTT) provides the warfighter with seamless, near-real-time tactical intelligence and targeting information. It is the golden thread for the US Army's Integrated Battlefield Targeting Architecture and acts as a vital link in its modernization objectives. The terminal supplies the critical data link to battle managers, intelligence centers, air defense, fire support and aviation nodes across
In this paper we present our work on the Manycast Architecture for Service-Oriented Tactical Operations, or MASCOT, a project between the University of Masschusetts, Dartmouth and the United States Marine Corps (USMC). MASCOT is a service that can be used by the Combat Operation Centers (COCs) to efficiently allocate tactical field resources given a task request, or mission, and set
Neal Charbonneau; Vinod M. Vokkarane; Ramprasad Balasubramanian
A longitudinal study of middle school students examined adolescents' skepticism toward advertising and their beliefs about the persuasive tactics advertisers employ. Comparisons across grade levels and over the course of the school year indicated that knowledge about advertiser tactics developed in the direction of adult understanding. Skeptical attitudes toward advertisers' motives showed no differences across grade levels; however, students generally
"Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…
Mobility of forces, increased range between formations and advances in data processing technologies call for new technical solutions for tactical communication networks. Access to fast, secure and reliable communications is more than ever before the key to success. Different services and different applications should be supported. This paper outlines developments in data transport capabilities, functionality and performance of tactical wireless
D. D. Vergados; C. Gizelis; A. D. Liveris; E. Verentziotis; G. I. Stassinopoulos
Considering that management constitutes one of the most important pieces of the overall military puzzle, this paper discusses various management approaches applied in tactical military networks. Specifically, the paper refers to 3G wireless military management systems, presenting management\\/control operations, tasks and schemes that can guarantee battlefield supremacy. Also, the paper discusses several issues concerning the migration of current tactical management
D. D. Vergados; G. Kormentzas; C. Lykou; C. Anagnostopoulos; N. Protopsaltis; F. Lazarakis; G. I. Stassinopoulos
This paper presents a quantitative (with students of a local middle school) and a qualitative evaluation (with teachers) of a lifelike and emotional pedagogical agent, called Pat. Pat has the goal of inferring students' emotions and applying affective tactics in order to adapt the learning environment. These tactics aim at motivating students and making them increase their efforts and their
The superpowers are making decisions about tactical and nuclear weapons which may be immutable for Europe for the next 20 years. The maintenance of arsenals for tactical and nuclear weapons should be discussed by more than just the closed circle of professional strategists-by journalists, politicians, philosophers and thoughtful citizens. (BT)
Most of existing approaches on event detection in sports video are general audience oriented. The extracted events are then presented to the audience without further analysis. However, professionals, such as soccer coaches, are more interested in the tactics used in the events. In this paper, we present a novel approach to extract tactic information from the goal event in broadcast
This study examines the need to change the field artillery's four standard tactical missions because of the U.S. Army's evolution to Force XXI operations. Currently the field artillery organizes field artillery for combat and assigns a tactical mission (d...
Purpose – The main purpose is to describe and analyse the impact that the implementation of an advanced planning system (APS) has on the tactical planning level at a steel processing company. This is done in terms of analysing changes in the tactical planning processes, effects on company performance, and how the APS is used in a practical planning context.
|This prototype of a guide for educational change agents focuses on the roles and tactics of personnel employed in nonprofit educational research and development organizations and in state and intermediate education agencies. Included is a compilation of reports from recent users of three classes of tactics: information, demonstration, and field…
This study provides a Nordic expatriate perspective on intercultural communication patterns and tactics in Japan. Interviews with 30 Nordic expatriates reveal that divergent communication styles, the cultural values of verticality and collectivism, and the lack of shared language have a negative impact on intercultural communication. The interviews reveal that rather than remaining passive bystanders, expatriates adopt various tactics to increase
|The superpowers are making decisions about tactical and nuclear weapons which may be immutable for Europe for the next 20 years. The maintenance of arsenals for tactical and nuclear weapons should be discussed by more than just the closed circle of professional strategists-by journalists, politicians, philosophers and thoughtful citizens. (BT)|
In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18–20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18–23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of
Rianne Kannekens; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Chris Visscher
We evolve tactical control for entity groups in a naval real-time strategy game. Since tactical maneuvering involves spatial reasoning, our evolutionary algorithm evolves a set of influence maps that help specify an entity's spatial objectives. The entity then uses the A* route finding algorithm to generate waypoints according to the influence map, and follows them to achieve spatial objectives. Using
The fire indexes and the optimal distribution strategies in a tactical game are treated simultaneously. The normal fire pattern is defined, pointing out the basic condition the fire indexes and the optimal distribution strategies must obey. The existence of the normal fighting pattern is proved. The above theories are applied to tactical combat. Notions of fighting strength and shielding strength
Avoiding Cross-Contact Understanding the difference between Cross-Contamination vs. Cross-Contact When dining at a restaurant, you will need to ... explain the difference to them. Examples of Cross-Contact and How to Avoid It A knife that ...
Tactical displays can quickly become cluttered with large numbers of symbols that can compromise effective monitoring. Here, we studied how heuristic automation can aid users by intelligently "decluttering" the display. In a realistic simulated naval air defense task, 27 experienced U.S. Navy users monitored a cluttered airspace and executed defensive responses against significant threats. An algorithm continuously evaluated aircraft for their levels of threat and decluttered the less threatening ones by dimming their symbols. Users appropriately distrusted and spot-checked the automation's assessments, and decluttering had very little effect on which aircraft were judged as significantly threatening. Nonetheless, decluttering improved the timeliness of responses to threatening aircraft by 25% as compared with a baseline display with no decluttering; it was especially beneficial for threats in more peripheral locations, and 25 of 27 participants preferred decluttering. Heuristic automation, when properly designed to guide users' attention by decluttering less important objects, may prove valuable in many cluttered monitoring situations, including air traffic management, crisis team management, and tactical situation awareness in general. PMID:16435693
St John, Mark; Smallman, Harvey S; Manes, Daniel I; Feher, Bela A; Morrison, Jeffrey G
Polystyrenes (PS) with a similar molecular weight and distribution but different tacticities, i. e. syndiotactic (s-PS), atactic (a-PS), and isotactic (i-PS), have been used in this study for a fair comparison to reveal their differences in the viscoelastic properties. Our attention was focused on the influence of the PS tacticity on the rheological properties, especially the plateau shear modulus GN^0 and entanglement molecular weight Me. Based on the time-temperature superposition principle, the master curves of dynamic storage modulus G'(?), dynamic loss modulus G?(?), and tan? at a reference temperature of 280^oC were constructed. The feasibility of conventional approaches for determining GN^0 , i. e. minimum tan?criterion, the integration method, and an empirical equation derived by Wu, has been discussed and compared; the corresponding Me is then derived by the classical relation: Me=?RT/GN^o . Our results show that the measured Me and activation energy for flow are similar for s-PS and a-PS, but the highest for i-PS. In addition, the zero shear viscosity of i-PS is ca. one order larger than that of s-PS and a-PS.
In this paper, we consider a problem related to service management and deployment in tactical military networks. Tactical networks are typically hybrid wireless networks in which there are both static and mobile nodes with several wireless interfaces, such as 802.11, 3G, satellite, etc. In tactical networks, performance degradation in services could prove fatal, so it must be diagnosed quickly. This degradation could be due to mobility or bottlenecks in capacity at network layer. We provide a cross-layer framework to detect and diagnose these causes of performance degradation as part of service management; it includes a monitoring model of services and a network model for hybrid wireless networks. In addition, we give a working example in tactical military networks to illustrate our framework. We provide an experimental setup to simulate our hybrid wireless tactical network scenario along with preliminary results.
Tati, Srikar; Novotny, Petr; Ko, Bong Jun; Wolf, Alexander; Swami, Ananthram; La Porta, Thomas
This study examined the linkage between organizational socialization tactics and person-organization (P-O) fit and examined the moderating influence of employees' proactivity behaviors. Results from a sample of 279 employee-supervisor pairs from 7 organizations in South Korea revealed a positive relationship between institutionalized socialization tactics and P-O fit perceptions. However, the association between firms' socialization tactics and P-O fit was facilitated or negated by several proactive behaviors that employees used to gain control over their environment. For example, employees' positive framing harmonized with institutional tactics to create higher P-O fit, whereas employees who proactively developed strong relationships with their supervisors essentially replaced institutionalized socialization tactics. PMID:15769234
Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.
Downloading application software from online app stores created by companies such as Apple has radically transformed the market for goods and services around the world. Now Joint and Coalition tactical networking for our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Mari...
We present an analysis of the users of space weather information based on 2783 responses to an online survey among subscribers of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center e-mail services. The survey requested information focused on the three NOAA space weather scales: geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Space weather information is most commonly obtained for reasons of human safety and continuity or reliability of operations. The information is primarily used for situational awareness, as aid to understand anomalies, to avoid impacts on current and near-future operations by implementing mitigating strategies, and to prepare for potential near-future impacts that might occur in conjunction with contingencies that include electric power outages or GPS perturbations. Interest in, anticipated impacts from, and responses to the three main categories of space weather are quite uniform across societal sectors. Approximately 40% of the respondents expect serious to very serious impacts from space weather events if no action were taken to mitigate or in the absence of adequate space weather information. The impacts of space weather are deemed to be substantially reduced because of the availability of, and their response to, space weather forecasts and alerts. Current and near-future space weather conditions are generally highly valued, considered useful, and generally, though not fully, adequate to avoid or mitigate societal impacts. We conclude that even among those receiving space weather information, there is considerable uncertainty about the possible impacts of space weather and thus about how to act on the space weather information that is provided.
Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.
Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)
|Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)|
This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.
In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.
An operational concept is presented for collision avoidance services which will be in place upon implementation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Airspace System (NAS) Plan. This operational concept only discusses the ground-base porti...
Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide a representation of spatial tactics with group behaviour. Often tactics will involve using groups of entities to attack from different directions and at different times of the game, using coordinated techniques. Our goal in this research is to learn tactics which are challenging for human players. The method we apply to learn these tactics,
The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.
At a time of growing concern about the impact of pollution on the global climate, weather satellites will play an increasingly crucial role in monitoring how changes such as the ozone hole and global warming will affect the world's climate. The complexities of the global weather machine on every scale are attractively revealed through spectacular images of satellite photography. Anyone interested in how the weather satellite works now and in the future should buy this book.
This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.
The Plymouth State Weather Center offers the latest observations and forecasts for the United States and Southern Canada. By simply selecting a state, individuals can find data on the temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud cover, and other weather information for stations throughout the selected region. The website provides a state forecast as well. The map on the homepage allows users to observe the overall weather patterns throughout the continental United States and Southern Canada.
Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.
This video presentation welcomes the Space Environment Center (SEC) to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SEC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.
Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."
The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.
This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...
Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.
In this paper, the author discusses the organization, equipment, capabilities, and missions of Soviet airborne forces and examines the nature of Soviet airborne tactics in defensive training operations against armor. Particular attention is directed to a ...
The project examined the necessity, and value in assigning knowledge management officers to Army tactical units. Ancillary, supporting research, focused on decision-making, battle command and Army knowledge management. A qualitative methodology, with quan...
Ultra High Frequency tactical force data links can provide accurate relative navigation utilizing signal propagation delays, transformed into corrections to dead-reckoned relative position estimates by a decentralized extended kalman filter. The accuracy ...
The mate choices of children do not always meet with the approval of their parents. As a consequence, the latter employ a battery of tactics that they use to manipulate the mating behavior of the former. This paper offers the first taxonomy of parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. In particular, in Study 1, 57 semi-structured interviews revealed 72 acts that parents employ to influence their children, and 27 that they employ to influence their children's partners. In Study 2, 405 parents rated how likely they were to use these acts to influence their daughters' and sons' mate choices. Factor analysis of participants' responses revealed 12 manipulation tactics that parents use on their children, and four manipulation tactics that they use on their children's partners. PMID:23906764
Terrorist groups have repeatedly used suicide attacks in an attempt to achieve their strategic objectives. There is minimal argument that these groups demonstrate a profound understanding of both the strategic and tactical levels of war, however there is ...
Sixty-nine Infantry small unit leaders attending the Basic Non- Commissioned Officer Course (BNCOC) at Fort Benning, Georgia, participated in an experiment that investigated the impact of instructor-facilitated versus stand-alone game training on tactical...
This study determines if an optimum role for tactical fighters exists in Contingency Operations, (formerly known as Peacetime Contingency Operations) a form of Low Intensity Conflict (LIC). This report traces the historical development of the terminology ...
The U.S. Army relies on tactical-level leaders not for their physical warfighting skills, but for their ability to employ cognitive thought during stressful situations. Cognitive tasks include sensing patterns, deciphering complex environments, creating n...
This is a historical study of the contributions to the development of strategic bombardment in American airpower by the Air Corps Tactical School. The study follows strategic though from the foundation laid by Brigadier General William Mitchell through it...
The clinical-records rack for tactical aeromedical airlift was developed to provide medical crewmembers with a convenient, orderly, effective, and safe means of transporting patient medical records. A clinical-records rack that most nearly met the design ...
This report summarizes the Visual Knowledge in Tactical Planning project. The report details the process and the results of Phase III which focused on prototype development. The purpose of the software prototype was to demonstrate the interaction between ...
This paper presents preliminary results of ongoing research into tactical decision making under stress (TADMUS). A description will be given of (1) the general methodological approach; (2) the development of the performance measures and issues related to ...
Four types of electrosensitive recording paper, Admiralty Pattern A-1266, Alfax Type E, Alfax Type S, and Sangamo Fluorescent Chart Paper were comparatively tested in order to determine the optimum paper to use with the Tactical Range Recorders. Papers we...
The notion of a cross-layer communications substrate for tactical battlefield environments described in this work proposes to address the problem by enabling a two-way interface between higher-level applications, middleware or decision architectures, and ...
The Battles of Antietam and Gettysburg are widely recognized as tactical victories for the Union's Army of the Potomac. Following both battles, however, the respective commanding generals, General McClellan and General Meade, were sharply criticized for h...
Our technical approach to achieving intelligent tactical behaviors for TMR robots is described in this section. We have specific technical approaches in three research areas: Fault-tolerant multi-robot behaviors, Mission specification and user interface, ...
As part of an effort to provide improved techniques and methods for planning the collection and analysis of intelligence information, an experiment was replicated which showed that tactical intelligence indications, as currently used, are of doubtful effe...
As in many lekking anurans, Italian treefrog males use two mating tactics: they can attract females by calling vigorously\\u000a or be satellites, that is, they can remain silent in proximity of a calling male and try to intercept females attracted by\\u000a their neighbour. We investigated the factors that affected the expression of this mating tactic. Consistent with the conditional\\u000a mating
In this paper we explore the problem of communication and coordination in a team of intelligent game bots (aka embodied agents). It presents a tactical decision making system controlling the behavior of an autonomous bot followed by the concept of a team tactical decision making system controlling the team of intelligent bots. The algorithms to be introduced have been implemented in the Java language by means of Pogamut 2 framework, interfacing the bot logic with Unreal Tournament 2004 virtual environment.
Assesses the political and technical dimensions of anti-tactical ballistic missile (ATBM) development in the United States since the early 1950s. Also examines Soviet ATBM developments and the Soviet tactical missile threat and evaluates US ATBM options in the immediate future. Contents: ATBM origins; The current ATBM surge; European perspectives; The threat and ATBM options; A proposed approach to ATBM; Glossary of acronyms.
Research on the nature of knowledge-based systems for bibliographic information retrieval is summarized. Knowledge-based search tactics are then considered in terms of their role in the functioning of a semantically based search system for bibliographic information retrieval, EP-X. This system uses such tactics to actively assist users in defining or refining their topics of interest. It does so by applying
Philip J. Smith; Steven J. Shute; Beb Galdes; Mark H. Chignell
A framework for analyzing the determinants of state labor relations policies is developed using the notion of tactics. Unions\\u000a and management have various tactical options, at both the state and local levels, for influencing employment outcomes. The\\u000a framework explicitly recognizes those options, and thus incorporates actions, such as bringing cases to courts, which have\\u000a received little attention in previous research.
Previous personality measures examining individuals' propensity to engage in self-presentation (e.g. self-monitoring, social desirability) often dealt only with positive forms of self-presentation and have not measured individuals' proclivity to use specific self-presentation tactics. In order to overcome these problems, 4 studies were carried out to (a) develop a self-presentation tactics scale (SPT) measuring individual differences in proclivity for using 12
Suk-Jae Lee; Brian M Quigley; Mitchell S Nesler; Amy B Corbett; James T Tedeschi
Creation of “seamless” integrated strategic-tactical networks to provide global communication is a high priority for the DOD. The military services are currently expanding their tactical IP data networks into mobile environments, for example through TRI-TAC and MSE-based networks, and beyond via radio network extensions. Simultaneously, ATM networks, providing economical high-bandwidth-on-demand service, are being tested with great success. Military planners are
|Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…
|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…
Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…
Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…
|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible…
Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)
n The U.S. air transportation system faces a continuously growing gap between the demand for air transportation and the capacity to meet that demand. Two key obstacles to bridging this gap are traffic delays due to en route severe- weather conditions and airport weather conditions. Lincoln Laboratory has been addressing these traffic delays and related safety problems under the Federal
|This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the…
|Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…
|Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)|
This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.
This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.
|Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)|
This paper investigates the influence of weather on happiness. While previous studies have examined climatic influence by comparing the well-being of people living in different regions, this paper focuses on how daily changes in weather affect individuals living in a single location. Our data set consists of 516 days of data on 75 students from Osaka University. Daily information on
The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared
|The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…
Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…
Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.
Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.
Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.
The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.
This monograph examines battalion commander and staff performance in conducting the tactical decision making process. The National Training Center and the Joint Readiness Training Center continue to report battalion commanders and staff have difficulty in...
Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…
Strategies for increasing predictive accuracy through selective pruning have been widely adopted by researchers in decision tree induction. It is easy to get the impression from research reports that there are statistical reasons for believing that theseoverfitting avoidance strategies do increase accuracy and that, as a research community, we are making progress toward developing powerful, general methods for guarding against
Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404
The first priority for the use of space weather information for improving spacecraft performance is in the diagnosis of anomalies so that designs and procedures may be optimised to limit their occurrence. The association of certain spacecraft anomalies with the space environment is well established on the basis of statistical correlations with space weather indicators. However, the global indicators commonly used are frequently only an indirect measure of the aspects of the environment that causes the anomaly. Better diagnosis of anomalies should be possible by processing raw data to extract physically relevant parameters. Spacecraft operators can rapidly diagnose anomalies and even anticipate or avoid them if provided with now-casts and short-term forecasts of relevant hazard indicators. This is the goal of space weather applications like GEOSHAFT, part of ESA's network of space weather prototype services. The space weather indices currently available need to be supplemented by data that is more directly related to the way the space environment interacts with electronic equipment, e.g. for the outer belt, charging current is preferred to electron flux; and for solar particle events LET is preferred to energy. Instruments such as Merlin are focussed on collecting data which will aid anomaly diagnosis.
Rodgers, D.; Dyer, C.; Clucas, S.; Hunter, K.; Ryden, K.
The briefcase Joint Tactical Terminal, JTT(B), was added to the JTT family of terminals as a man-portable turn-key, tactical intelligence (INTEL) system, thereby validating the hardware and software modularity and re-usability of JTT Common Integrated Broadcast Service Modules (CIBS-M). JTT(B) is a software radio that can be re-programmed to readily adapt to changes in the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS). JTT(B)'s
|Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)|
Weather is often cited as a factor in general aviation (GA) accidents and mishaps. The type of weather information requested from, or provided by, automated flight service station (AFSS) specialists is dependent on weather conditions at the time the prefl...
Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)
Recent behavioral research has suggested that delayed incentives are discounted in a highly concave curve, which should produce temporary preference for the poorer of two alternatives when that alternative is available earlier than the better one. Unlike the psychoanalytic model of impulsiveness, the temporary preference model implies a rational need for people to forestall impulses by committing their choices in advance. A questionnaire elicited college students' and prisoners' self-reports of approval of four basic kinds of precommitting tactics as applied to 14 commonplace temptations. Endorsement of private rules as a precommitting device was correlated with self-reported compulsive personality traits and negatively correlated with endorsement of extra-psychic (social or physical) devices; the latter endorsement was correlated with self-reported oral/paranoid traits. Female subjects endorsed attention control as a precommitting device more than males, and male subjects endorsed extrapsychic devices more than females. The ego psychology of conflict may be practical at the conscious level. PMID:3570571
The trade-offs that must be considered when selecting a cryocooler for infrared detector cooling are complex. When split- Stirling cryocoolers are used, the designer can select the expander separately from the compressor. However, there will be performance implications. Larger systems provide benefits in terms of performance margin and operating lifetime, but may not meet size and mass goals. Larger cryocoolers tend to generate more heat, albeit over a larger surface area, and generate higher vibration forces. The expander coldfinger must be stiff enough to achieve image plane motion requirements. The transfer tube should be as short and with as few bends as possible, while the path available for the transfer tube may be affected by the geometry of the expander and compressor. Several characteristics of tactical cryocoolers are considered in this paper in such a way that trends can be identified and design choices can be clarified. A step-by-step approach is recommended that will lead to a design solution in the most direct manner. This is accomplished by starting with "show-stopper" choices, then progressing to choices where concessions can be more easily made. The implications of the interfaces to the cryocooler will also be briefly discussed. Cryocooler developments at RVS that will expand the available design space are described. This enabling technology provides more options in terms of cryocooler size and performance, and continues the trend toward longer operating lifetime and higher reliability.
The communication requirements for continuous MILSATCOM service can be met by augmenting the current and planned MILSATCOM systems with a functionally simple, low-cost, maneuverable, user-dedicated satellite constellation for tactical applications (TACSAT) whose payloads are under direct control of the theater Commander in Chief (CINC). A perspective on moderately hardened, low-cost SHF and EHF satellites that have minimal impact on the ground infrastructure to satisfy such missions is presented. The communication and coverage requirements of the theater CINCs are discussed, followed by an SHF versus EHF comparison. Four different SHF payloads (including an enhanced DSCS replenishment) and two EHF payloads are evaluated. The spacecraft systems to integrate these payload options, including the spacecraft, launch vehicles, and ground segment, are addressed. Parametric trade studies of communication capacity and satellite life/maneuverability are presented. Ground segment operational scenarios based on a computer simulation of ground mobile forces (GMF) network for a given connectivity are presented. The various architectures proposed are analyzed and compared by generating a figure-of-merit unit per 1 MHz transponder capacity for each option.
Vaddiparty, S. V.; Monte, P. A.; Pidgeon, D. J.; Louie, M.
Applications resident on tactical wireless networks are levying increasing offered loads. Tradeoffs can be made between range and throughput, but the wireless network is destined to be considered a limitation in information transfer. If managed correctly, the network can be an intelligent aid in ensuring the right information gets to the right place at the right time. Over the last 5 years, SAIC has worked with Natick Soldier Center (NSRDEC) to provide reliable communication with guaranteed service quality for the dismounted soldier. The effort utilizes a series of tools to mark, shape, condense, fragment and persist information for congestion and corruption control. The critical aspect of the congestion control solution is accomplished by adaptively throttling lower priority information at the sending node before it gets pushed to the wireless realm. Of note is that the solution adapts through passive processes without control messages. The solution also implements compression of messages and images, along with fragmentation techniques to alleviate congestion. Information corruption is purely a radio phenomenon and cannot be overcome through cognitive solutions. However, the solution mitigates corruption through information persistence and reliable retransmission. The implemented solution, unlike Transport Control Protocol, is optimized for wireless networks and demonstrates reduction of added signaling traffic. Combined congestion and corruption techniques have demonstrated how soldiers can get the right information at the right time during high traffic loads or network segmentation.
The objective of this project is to generate a complete 11 year space weather representation using physically consistent data-driven space weather models. The project will create a consistent, integrated historical record of the near Earth space environment by coupling observational data from space environmental monitoring systems archived at NGDC with data-driven, physically based numerical models. The resulting product will be an enhanced look at the space environment on consistent grids, time resolution, coordinate systems and containing key fields allowing an interested user to quickly and easily incorporate the impact of the near-Earth space climate in environmentally sensitive models. Currently there are no easily accessible long term climate archives available for the space-weather environment. Just as with terrestrial weather it is crucial to understand both daily weather forecasts as well as long term climate changes, so this project will demonstrate the ability to generate a meaningful and physically derived space weather climatology. The results of this project strongly support the DOD's Environmental Scenario Generator (ESG) project. The ESG project provides tools for intellegent data mining, classification and event detection which could be applied to a historical space-weather database. The two projects together provide a suite of tools for the user interested in modeling the effect of the near-earth space environment. We will present results and methodologies developed during the first two years of effort in the project.
Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods. PMID:22764112
Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P; Williamson, Jane E
Using comparative phylogenetic analysis, we analyzed the evolution of male alternative reproductive tactics (MARTs) in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Numerous independent origins for each type of MART (involving sneaker males, female mimics, pirates, and satellite males) indicate that these behaviors have been highly labile across actinopterygiian evolution, consistent with a previous notion that convergent selection in fishes can readily mold the underlying suites of reproductive hormones into similar behaviors. The evolutionary appearance of MARTs was significantly correlated with the presence of sexually selected traits in bourgeois males (P = 0.001) but not with the presence of male parental care. This suggests that MARTs often arise from selection on some males to circumvent bourgeois male investment in mate monopolization, rather than to avoid male brood care per se. We found parsimony evidence for an evolutionary progression of MARTs wherein sneaking is usually the evolutionary precursor to the presumably more complex MARTs of female mimicry and cooperative satellite behavior. Nest piracy appears not to be part of this evolutionary progression, possibly because its late onset in the life cycle of most ray-finned fishes reduces the effects of selection on this reproductive tactic. PMID:16892981
This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.
The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.
Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.
WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.
The paper argues for a reconceptualization of ruminative coping with the death of a loved one as an avoidant rather than a\\u000a confrontational strategy. Ruminative coping has been characterized within the bereavement field as persistent, repetitive\\u000a and passive focus on negative emotions and symptoms. It has been theoretically described and empirically shown to be a maladaptive\\u000a process, being conceptually related
Margaret Stroebe; Paul A. Boelen; Marcel van den Hout; Wolfgang Stroebe; Elske Salemink; Jan van den Bout
The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.
McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David
This is a twofold study with the goals of evaluating tactical oriented game test situations for 12-13-year old highly-talented soccer players and to analyze dynamic, intra-individual developments of the players. A cross-sectional design was carried in study 1, using game test situations to measure specific tactics and creative performance for 195 expert players. The results from five evaluation criteria show that both diagnostic instruments can be used for recording football-specific creativity and game intelligence in talented young players. They produced tactical indicators that can be described as objective and valid, exhibit a sufficient degree of differentiation and are easy to record. Study 2 uses a longitudinal design to present a dynamic performance diagnostic tool for analyzing intra-individual improvements of German Soccer Foundation talents according to football-specific creativity and game intelligence. The results with respect to divergent tactical thinking clearly show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players. Finally, the practical implications for the training process are discussed on the basis of both studies. Key pointsWith game test situations it is possible to assess tactical performance as game intelligence and creativity objective, valid, with a sufficient degree of differentiation, and economically.The results with respect to game intelligence and creativity show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players dependend on the bases (trainers).Current literature on tactics for school sports as well as for children's, youth and high performance soccer at the club level should place much more emphasis on individual and group-tactical requirements in soccer. PMID:24149686
Cyber-attackers are becoming more aware of honeypots. They generally want to avoid honeypots since it is hard to spread attacks from them, attacks are thoroughly monitored on them, and some honeypots contain planted false information. This suggests that it could be useful for a computer system to pretend it is a honeypot, to scare away smarter attackers. We examine here
This activity is a field investigation where students gather temperature and weather data in the a.m and p.m. and develop a new, experimental question to predict temperature over the course of the year.
Susan Anderson, Taylors Falls Elementary, Taylors Falls, MN based on an activity from Houghton Mifflin Science Grade 2 Weather Patterns, p. D6.
This set of conversion tools helps convert units and values for weather data, including temperature, moisture, atmospheric pressure, wind, and other parameters. Formulas are also provided for the conversions.
Students work in groups in a cemetery to collect a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the extent of weathering of tombstones and their ages. The data are shared between all students, graphed as scatter plots, and the rate of weathering is estimated. Students write about and then discuss the results, the difference between the quantitative and qualitative measures, and speculate on factors in addition to time that may be important for weathering rate. The exercise ends with each students writing a hypothesis about a factor that influences weathering rate and describing a research project that could test that hypothesis. This activity is aimed at developing an understanding of the scatter in "real data", allowing for practice of team work, and hypothesis generation and testing. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component
Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...
... lower your body temperature. What is the best clothing for cold weather? Adults and children should wear: ... coat and shoes several layers of loose-fitting clothing Be sure the outer layer of your clothing ...
This handbook provides information on purchasing weatherization products, and is intended for use by Community Action Agencies and other community-based organizations in their energy conservation programs. Product information is given for insulation, stor...
Contents: Brief historical sketch (woes of citizens as a source of inspiration for, and a cause of difficulties in, weather control experimentation); Three consecutive hail-prevention experiments in Switzerland. Reports of the U.S. National Academy of Sci...
... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The goals of this project were to develop a methodology to map winter severity from a winter maintenance perspective, and to create electronic maps and associated geospatial data depicting winter weather severity across the country. Work performed under t...
In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.
Large-scale weather patterns which occur in various locations around the Earth play a significant part in controlling the weather on a seasonal time scale. A National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded collaborative research effort between Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has led to a new understanding of the relationship between fall snow cover and winter climate variability. This research has led to the development of a new seasonal forecast model.
The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.
University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.
We study pattern avoiding doubly alternating (DA) permutations, i.e., alternating (or zigzag) permutations whose inverse is also alternating. We exhibit a bijection between the 1234-avoiding permuta- tions and the 1234-avoiding DA permutations of twice the size using the Robinson-Schensted correspondence. Further, we present a bijection between the 1234- and 2134-avoiding DA permutations and we prove that the 2413-avoiding DA permutations
Contents: The prescientific era. Perception of weather; Establishment of the science of weather. Recording the weather in numbers; Extension of the science of weather. Representation of weather: climatic charts and weather charts; Meteorology up to the be...
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.
The authors will first analyze current tactics used by emergency personnel when responding to 'standard' emergencies involving transportation systems. Next, the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system. Next the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system in which weapons of mass destruction are employed will be explored. The unique problems associated with the site of an emergency where chemical, nuclear, or biological agents have been employed will be investigated. The use of available or next-ready technologies in the areas of detection devices, personal protective clothing, and decontamination equipment will be examined. Combining this information, we will seek to prove the hypothesis that without the use of new technologies a change in first responder tactics is impossible. However, with the use of advanced technologies we will illustrate how new tactics can produce safe, more effective emergency responses.
An ongoing need exists in the Army to enhance combat leaders' tactical thinking skills. In conjunction, measurement techniques must be developed to assess tactical thinking skills. This report documents an effort to develop a standardized and reliable ass...
J. K. Phillips J. Shafer K. G. Ross D. A. Cox S. B. Shadrick
Since the advent of Naval Warfare, Tactical Knowledge Management (KM) has been critical to the success of the On Scene Commander. Today's Tactical Knowledge Manager typically operates in a high stressed environment with a multitude of knowledge sources in...
Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...
This study examined the relations between Tellegen’s three-factor personality model, using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and 12 self-presentation tactics operationalized in the self-presentation tactics scale (SPT). Differential correlations of the MPQ higher-order domains and primary scales were predicted based on a review of the literature pertaining to each self-presentation tactic and the dimensional classifications of tactics. Joint exploratory factor
Michael E. Sadler; Jeffrey M. Hunger; Christopher J. Miller
Weathering of silicate minerals impacts many geological and ecological processes. For example, the weathering of basalt contributes significantly to consumption of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) and must be included in global calculations of such consumption over geological timeframes. Here we compare weathering advance rates for basalt ( wD?), where D and ? indicate the scale at which the rate is determined and surface area measured, respectively, from the laboratory to the watershed scales. Data collected at the laboratory, weathering rind, soil profile and watershed scales show that weathering advance rate of basalt is a fractal property that can be described by a fractal dimension ( dr ? 2.3). By combining the fractal description of rates with an Arrhenius relationship for basalt weathering, we derive the following equation to predict weathering advance rates at any spatial scale from weathering advance rates measured at the BET scale: wD?=k(e. Here, k0 is the pre-exponential factor (1.29 × 10 7 mm 3 mm - 2 yr - 1 ), Ea is the activation energy (70 kj mol - 1 ), and a is a spatial constant related to the scale of measurement of BET surface area (10 - 7 mm). The term, (, is the roughness. The roughness fractal dimension can be conceptualized as a factor related to both the thickness of the reaction front and the specific surface area within the reaction front. However, the above equation can also be written in terms of a surface fractal dimension and the hypothetical average grain radius. These fractal dimensions provide insight into reaction front geometry and should vary with lithology. Once the surface area discrepancy has been accounted for using this method, we find a one to two order of magnitude range in weathering advance rates measured at any scale or temperature that can be attributed to factors such as changes in erosional regime, parent lithology, mechanism, climate, composition of reacting fluid, and biological activity. Our scaled equation, when used to predict global basalt CO 2 consumption based upon global lithologic maps, yields an uptake flux (1.75 × 1013 mol CO 2 yr - 1 ) within the predicted error of fluxes estimated based upon riverine measurements.
This study examines the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily television use in the Netherlands for the\\u000a period 1996–2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory.\\u000a It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions are associated with lower human mood, and that watching\\u000a entertainment and avoiding informational
What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.
The notion of complex influence of atmospheric conditions on modem human population, especially the relationship between weather, climate and human healths, has actuated the World Meteorological Organisation to commemorate the coming into force, on March 23, 1950, of the Convention of WMO and this year to celebrate this day by focusing on theme of current interest--"Weather, climate and health". In the light of this, the authors of this paper reveal the results of recent studies dealing with influence of sudden and short-term changes in weather and climate on human health, and future expected climate changes due to "greenhouse" effect, increase in global temperature and tropospheric ozone depletion, as well. Special attention is given to climate shifts due to ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) phenomenon because of its great impact on human society and epidemics of certain infectious diseases. The results of biometeorological studies dealing with complex influence of daily weather changes on incidence of certain diseases in Croatia have also been presented. In addition, the authors have stated their own view and opinion in regard to future biometeorlogical studies in Croatia in order to achieve better understanding of influence of climate and weather changes on human health, and help prevention of mortality and morbidity related to chronic noninfectious diseases. PMID:19658377
In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.
Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)
Abstract This paper compares ant colony optimization (ACO) and evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) for the weatheravoidance in a free flight environment. The problem involves a number,of potentially conflicting objectives such as minimizing deviations, weatheravoidance, minimizing distance traveled and hard constraints like aircraft performance. Therefore, we modeled the problem as a multi-objective problem with the aim of finding a
Sameer Alam; Lam Thu Bui; Hussein A. Abbass; Michael Barlow
This paper discusses Tactical Iraqi, a video game developed at the University of Southern California with funding from the U.S. military that is designed to accelerate a learner's acquisition of spoken Arabic to assist in the rapid deployment of soldiers into volatile tactical situations. This paper analyzes three distinct aspects of the Tactical Iraqi mission game: how \\
In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding
Emily C. Saunders; Ariana N. Rowberry; Bryan L. Fearey
Only a few studies have examined the relationship between influence tactics and objectives, and the results were inconsistent. The present study employed two different research methods to determine how often people use nine influence tactics to attain five influence objectives with subordinates, peers, and superiors. One method was a survey on which managers reported their use of each tactic for
The purpose of this article is to present Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning as valuable instructional models in physical education. Situated learning is used as a theoretical framework and connection between Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning. The structures of Sport Education, Tactical Games, and Cooperative Learning allow for participation to occur in a student-centered learning curriculum
|Investigators' increased interest in teaching game tactics requires generalizable assessment instruments that are appropriate to whatever is needed by the tactic. This literature review aims to provide information about the instruments most frequently used to assess tactics in youth sports. We found that very few studies used instruments that…
The tactical edge network emulation tool (TENET) hardware integration system (THIS) is designed to characterize higher layer responses to the dynamic physical layer topology of a tactical network utilizing directional communication links. THIS emulates the mobile, tactical, network environment using the hardware in a static infrastructure. MATLAB-based tools implement the TENET emulation to simulate mobility induced link fragility, and the
William M. Turner; Daniel J. Tebben; Jason R. Madsen; Anurag Dwivedi
Interspecific sneak male mating tactics between paired lamprey species are described for the first time. Although alternative mating tactics among petromyzontids have been described previously, including intraspecific sneak males, the presence of sneak male tactics between parasitic and non-parasitic forms suggests that high levels of gene flow between putative lamprey species could remain high, despite large body size discrepancies. PMID:23464566
This quantitative study was developed to determine the influence tactic used most often by teachers in a small college classroom. It was hypothesized that the rational persuasion tactic, which is defined as "using logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade the target". (Fu & Yukl, 2000, p. 252) would be the most commonly employed tactic by…
Most of existing approaches on sports video analysis are concentrated on semantic event detection which is general audience oriented and the extracted events are presented to the audience without further analysis from tactic perspective. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to extract the tactic information and recognize the tactic patterns from goal events in broadcast soccer video. We
Guangyu Zhu; Changsheng Xu; Yi Zhang; Qingming Huang; Hanqing Lu
This study investigated impression management tactic use during structured interviews containing both experience-based and situational questions. Specifically, the authors examined whether applicants' use of impression management tactics depended on question type. Results from 119 structured interviews indicated that almost all of the applicants used some form of impression management. Significantly more assertive than defensive impression management tactics were used, and
Aleksander P. J. Ellis; Bradley J. West; Ann Marie Ryan; Richard P. DeShon
This study investigated impression management tactic use during structured interviews containing both experience-based and situational questions. Specifically, the authors examined whether applicants' use of impression management tactics depended on question type. Results from 119 structured interviews indicated that almost all of the applicants used some form of impression management. Significantly more assertive than defensive impression management tactics were used, and
Aleksander P. J. Ellis; Bradley J. West; Ann Marie Ryan; Richard P. DeShon
This paper reports two studies that assessed whether the six factors of assertiveness, bargaining, coalition, friendliness, higher authority, and reasoning best represent the domain of influence tactics in India. Data was collected from 281 graduate business students on their lateral influence tactics and value systems, and from 280 managers on their upward influence tactics, their value systems, and perceived value
Presents two studies: a qualitative study that uncovered the tactics used by high customer-contact service workers to deal with perceived role conflict and stress; and a quantitative study that looked at the relationship between role conflict, job satisfaction, and the coping tactics used by these workers. The tactics used are based on (1) the use of (more) effort to satisfy
|Purpose: This paper aims to investigate how marketing tactics can enhance parents' loyalty in the educational context. Building on extant research, it proposes an integrated framework in which perceived marketing tactics are related to school image, which in turn is related to parents' loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: Five marketing tactics…
Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.
This report presents a summary of damage caused by hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, hail, thunderstorms, and windstorms in the United States and its territories. Information was collected from as far back as 1900 (for hurricanes) and as recently as 1999 (for most categories). For each weather category, there is statistical information on monetary damages (in millions of dollars), sorted by rank and by alphabetic listing. There is also a summary table for composite damage from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods; tables and graphs for damage and casualties caused by lightning; and summary information for other types of extreme weather (hail, thunderstorms, winter storms). Links are provided to information on data sources and methodology and on the societal impacts of weather.
... weather exercise by drinking enough fluids, wearing proper clothing and timing your workout to avoid extreme heat. By Mayo Clinic staff Whether you're running, playing a pickup game of basketball or going for a power walk, take care when the temperatures rise. If ...
Reactive Obstacle Avoidance 'OA' is an important step in attaining greater autonomy in Autonomous Underwater Vehicles 'AUV'. For AUVs that conduct underwater surveys, avoidance of uncharted obstacles can improve vehicle survivability. This paper discusses...
University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.
Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.
This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation
In Japan, Communications Research Laboratory engages in operational space environment information service as National Forecasting Center and Regional Warning Center of ISES. Data of local observation and data collected via internet from domestic and foreign institute are used for daily operational forecast. Fundamental research on space weather issue has been carried out at several institutes and university, including STE Laboratory and NASDA. In this presentation, overview of current space weather forecast operation and system for information outreach in Japan will be presented. Current and future observation program from ground-base and space will be also briefly reviewed.
In Japan, Communications Research Laboratory engages in operational space environment information services as National Forecasting Center and Regional Warning Center of ISES. Data from local observations and data collected via internet from domestic and foreign institutes are used for the daily operational forecast. Fundamental research on space weather issues has been carried out at several institutes and universities, including STE Laboratory and NASDA. In this presentation, an overview of current space weather forecast operations and a system for information outreach in Japan will be presented. Current and future observation programs from ground-base and space will be also briefly reviewed.
Akioka, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Kikuchi, T.; Sagawa, E.; Nagatsuma, T.
In this interdisciplinary activity, learners create a Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) to monitor solar storms and develop real SWAC news reports. Learners work in teams to first investigate sunspot regions, storm signals, a magnetosphere, and auroras and share their research with their peers. Then, learners assemble an instructional flip chart, data collection clipboards/notebook, and display board for their SWAC. Learners conclude the activity by writing their own weather reports, which can be filmed or broadcast if equipment is available. Once learners create a SWAC, solar storm research and reporting can become an ongoing activity.
A unique public-private partnership will provide detailed weather information at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Utah, 8-24 February About 50 meteorologists with the National Weather Service (NWS) and several private groups will work in the background to provide accurate forecasts.This is the first time that U.S. government and private meteorologists will share forecasting responsibilities for the Olympics, according to the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. The partnership includes meteorologists with the University of Utah and KSL-TV in Salt Lake City.
This project will allow students to see the different weather conditions that are apart of the different seasons. It will also help students to identify the characterisitics that go along with each of the different seasons, For example, what weather conditions are present in each season and how we dress for each season. With a partner watch the video: Observing Clouds On piece of paper write your answers to the following questions: 1). What types of changes in the clouds did you observe? 2). What do you think caused the changes in the clouds? (Ex: teperature, morning to night, etc) Next, with your partner, please watch the second video: Observing Precipitation On ...
Reactive obstacle avoidance (OA) is an important step in attaining greater autonomy in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). For AUVs that conduct underwater surveys, avoidance of uncharted obstacles can improve vehicle survivability. This paper discusses initial experiments at the Center for AUV Research in obstacle detection and avoidance using the Naval Postgraduate School ARIES AUV with the Blueview Blazed Array forward
Outlines the state-of-the-art in obstacle avoidance and path planning for industrial robots that is practical on the current generation of computer hardware. Describes practical vehicle planners and planning for manipulators. Summarizes that obstacle avoidance and path planning are techniques with differing goals. Sonar is the standard method of obstacle avoidance systems which is largely limited by the reliability of the
The objective of this paper is to empirically study if and to what extent people legally reduce their tax payments. There are few empirical studies of tax avoidance although avoidance may seriously affect the possibilities to raise tax revenue. I use a sample of Swedish siblings receiving inheritances in 2004. These children of deceased had the opportunity to avoid inheritance
As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.
The U.S. Army is fielding several unmanned air vehicles (UAV) within the Tactical, Light Attack, and Future Combat Systems (FCS) Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) classes over the next several years. Each UAV program will develop its own mission processing architecture unless the Army implements a common approach that is responsive to a broad set of
Some tactical mistakes have theater-strategic consequences. Few would disagree with this statement. In fact, many recent events help prove its validity. But, so what. Can anything be done about it. Yes. The Combatant Commander (COCOM) is in a unique posit...
|Three seminars examined strategies and tactics for community mobilization in Latin America. The sessions--which were held in Bogota, Columbia; Quito, Ecuador; and Recife, Brazil--involved a total of 75 participants from 27 organizations. Addressed during the seminars were development, leadership, mobilization, and learning in the context of…
The authors propose a design of an internetted sensor management system (ISMS) and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using such a system. Quantifiable measures of performance for assessing the benefits of internetted sensor management are defined. The effects of internetted sensor management and cooperative tactics on the intraflight data link requirements are discussed
To improve the efficiency of firefighting practice, two artificial intelligence techniques, case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR), learning from other's strong points to offset its weakness, are combined and applied to the system designing process of firefighting tactics intelligent decision system in this paper. Then, the system architecture and its working process are introduced, and some primary techniques for
The authors examine the use of a failure detection and identification (FDI) method in the adaptive tactical navigator (ATN) as a means for monitoring the health of navigation-aiding equipment. The objective of FDI is to detect sensor failures before the problem worsens to the point of requiring pilot intervention. The method uses parity functions to compare dissimilar measurements, and thus
A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is
The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-five college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inflicting mate retention tactics, including the specific tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infidelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specific associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. PMID:22686222
Background and significance: The notion of transferability (i.e. sampling) has been put forward as one of four core pedagogical principles for games teaching. The sampling principle was based on the premise that it may be possible to show the existence of tactical similarities between apparently dissimilar games, leading to a much better overall understanding of games. However, research has yet
Realistic military simulations are needed for analysis, planning and training. Intelligent Agent Technology is a valuable software concept with the potential to be widely used in military simulation applications. They provide a powerful abstraction mechanism required for designing simulations of complex and dynamic battlefields. Their ability to model the tactical decision-making behaviour of battlefield entities gives an edge over many
|The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…
Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.
The primary emphasis of this thesis was to develop a measure of effectiveness for tactical airlift scheduling, based on satisfying the needs of the airlift user. The basis for this research was that user needs in different supply categories should be the ...
For making full use of combat efficiency of electronic warfare equipments, it is critical to prefer electromagnetic interference (EMI) tactics. Several uncertainties in the process of preferring are analyzed, and the modeling steps and flowchart for uncertainty preference are proposed in details. Firstly, linguistic terms quantification of indices based on expert system and vague set is studied. Secondly, a comprehensive
In modern warfare, timely extraction of coordinates from tactical reconnaissance images remains a critical restriction in the targeting loop. Often, a warfighter has immediate access to real time sensor images. However, extracting the true coordinates of a target can be time consuming and difficult. Usually, the sensor will provide basic parameters such as range, heading, and depression angle, which can
Benjamin P. Carlson; W. Rodney Ditzler; Michael R. Havlin
|Though its popularity has waxed and waned, cloze continues to be regarded as an instructional strategy for the fostering of reading comprehension. This article takes the view of cloze as one tactic in support of strategy instruction, rather than a strategy in its own right. In contrast to the formulaic applications of cloze for assessment…
The scientific tasks that were to be performed in this research project comprised a set of observational studies and a series of experiments. During the first year, observational studies were to focus on experienced naval tactical decision makers at sea a...
The Marine Corps currently stands at a crossroads in the development of the next generation of individual body armor and may be able to leverage lessons learned in the recent development of the Modular Tactical Vest (MTV). This research paper will examine...
Three seminars examined strategies and tactics for community mobilization in Latin America. The sessions--which were held in Bogota, Columbia; Quito, Ecuador; and Recife, Brazil--involved a total of 75 participants from 27 organizations. Addressed during the seminars were development, leadership, mobilization, and learning in the context of…
|Previous research findings were used in this study to develop and compare categories of the commonly used tactics and motives of sexually aggressive college women and men. In the collaborative work, 43% of the men and 26% of the women said they had perpetrated at least one act of sexual persistence. Based upon the reports of sexual targets,…
Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Anderson, Peter B.; Struckman-Johnson, David
The report presents the results of a study concerning possible high intensity (hundreds of kilowatts to multi-megawatts) tactical electric power sources for utilization by the US Army during the 1990 time frame. The study considers plausible methods of el...
Traditional risk assessments (as delineated by regulatory agencies) use health outcome endpoints of interest to society as a whole, and are based on broad assumptions about the demographics of the potentially exposed populations and the routes of exposure. Immediacy of impact is not normally a major consideration. In tactical situations, the commander must balance considerations of short-term health effects against
Warren W. Jederberg; Kenneth R. Still; G. Bruce Briggs
Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resource management plan (RMP) every four years or less. These plans constitute a strategic agenda for a park. Later, tactical plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects over the planning horizon. Yet, neither planning stage incorporates much quantitative and analytical rigor and is devoid of formal decision-making tools.
The SATAN 2 Programming Specification Manual (PSM) provides a detailed description for the SATAN 2 Model as implemented on the IBM 360/50/65 computer. SATAN 2, Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons, is a model for the two-sided, open p...
M. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales C. D. Seefeldt N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff
The SATAN 2 Programming Specification Manual (PSM) provides a detailed description for the SATAN 2 Model as implemented on the IBM 360/50/65 computer. SATAN 2, Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons, is a model for the two-sided, open p...
M. Lautzenheiser W. B. Bales C. D. Seefeldt N. H. Fletcher D. A. Eoff
The problem of tracking a tactical ballistic missile is complicated by the varying target dynamics in the boost, exo-atmospheric and endo-atmospheric phases of flight. A single Kalman filter tuned for constant velocity or constant acceleration is not based upon the correct underlying physical model of these dynamics. By including models with all of the correct dynamics, an interacting multiple model
This paper addresses tracking tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) from space and ships. Modeling errors in the tracking system produce an uncertainty covariance matrix. Determining the critical error sources and identifying the needed elements of the covariance matrix is one analysis objective. Given the shooter ship has received the TBM's state via a cue link, then a trajectory propagation model is
An interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is presented for the real-time tracking of tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs). The novel aspects of the proposed IMM filter include the development of a constant axial force (CAF) Kalman filter, asymmetric IMM state interaction, and an entropy-based variation of the IMM mode probability update equation. Using data from a recent TBM defense (TBMD) test
|Having subject matter experts (SMEs) identify the skills and knowledge to be taught is among the more difficult and time-consuming steps in the training development process. A procedure has been developed for identifying specific tactical decision-making knowledge requirements and translating SME knowledge into appropriate multimedia…
Interoperability between systems is increasingly important within the military community. Traditionally, many tactical systems have been implemented as self-contained entities, incapable or minimally capable of interoperation with systems of different versions, vendors, and military branches. This has certainly been true of remoted signals intelligence (SIGINT) systems. Custom protocols and architectures, unique to each system, have frequently been justified as necessary
E. L. Klasen; Lawrence J. Levin; Barbara A. Denny; J. Cunningham
Two of the major concerns in tactical military wireless communication networks are covertness and throughput. Impulse radio is an ultra-wideband code division multiple access (UWB-CDMA) technique being considered as the physical layer for future networks. Impulse radio exhibits low power spectral density and relatively high immunity to fading but suffers from relatively long acquisition times. In traditional packet radio networks
Santosh S. Kolenchery; J. K. Townsend; J. A. Freebersyser
Even though Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are in wide-spread use, the question of how to efficiently initiate responses to detected attacks has been discussed far less often, especially in highly dynamic scenarios such as tactical MANETs. Despite being flexible and robust in their ability to self-organize, these MANETS are distinctly more susceptible to attacks than their wired counterparts. Especially in
Gabriel Klein; Henning Rogge; Felix Schneider; Jens Toelle; Marko Jahnke; Stefan Karsch
In this document we describe the adoption of a common European standardised interchange format (Tactical Situation Object - TSO), one of the cornerstones of the OASIS Project (Open Advanced System for Disaster and Emergency Management) enabling a minimum level of interoperability between civil protection agencies using heterogeneous systems during operations by sharing a timely and comprehensive operating picture.
We document one of the most spectacular predator-prey interactions observed in a marine ecosystem, in which groups of killer whales force tens of tons of herrring out of their safe deep-water habitat to the surface where the whales are superior. Killer whales performing this hunting tactic congregate in large groups, dive to the limit of their capacity, lift herring vertically
|The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…
This research investigates the influence of three theoretically valid independent variables – horizontal and vertical individualism–collectivism, ethical idealism and trust propensity – on employees' attitudes toward ethically questionable negotiation tactics in Peru. A total of 233 usable responses were collected from participants employed in various industries in the capital area, Lima. The results empirically corroborated a classification of three groups
Abraham Stefanidis; Moshe Banai; Ulf Henning Richter
This thesis proposes the design for a prototype device that would be used by Air Traffic Controllers in the radar environment to input tactical Air Traffic Control (ATC) instructions to be sent to aircraft via the Mode S digital data link network. The purpose of the device is to reduce the time required to issue instructions and to eliminate misunderstandings
|Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…
This monograph investigates the suitability of the Wass de Czege Combat Power Model as a framework for thought in which the military decision-making process--specifically the critical steps of wargaming--can occur at the tactical level of war. The model c...
In this paper we successfully demonstrate the use of coevolving Influence Maps (IM)s to generate coordinating team tactics for a Real Time Strategy (RTS) game. Each entity in the team is assigned their own IM generated with evolved parameters. The individual IMs allows each entity to act independently of the team and team coordination is then achieved by evolving all
This paper discusses the use of evolutionary computation for an automated player of a real-time strategic tactics game in which assets are assigned to targets and threats belonging to the opposing team. Strategy games such as this are essentially a series of asset allocation problems to which evolutionary algorithms are particularly adept. This game contains a significant coupling affect between
Aaron J. Rice; John R. Mcdonnell; Andy Spydell; Stewart Stremler
Dynamic scripting is a reinforcement learning algorithm designed specifically to learn appropriate tactics for an agent in a modern computer game, such as Neverwinter Nights. This reinforcement learning algorithm has previously been extended to support the automatic construction of new abstract states to improve its context sensitivity and integrated with a graphical behavior modeling architecture to allow for hierarchical dynamic
We present an approach used in CSDTA (canonical sequence directed tactics analyzer) that uses canonical sequences (Joseki) in hoping to improve computer Go programs. We collect 1278 canonical sequences and their deviations in our system. Instead of trivially matching the current game to the collected sequences, we define a notion of similarity to extract the most suitable move from the
The relationship between social role-taking ability and preferences for interpersonal control tactics was assessed in 50 mentally retarded children. Feffer's Role-Taking Task and two hypothetical interpersonal control episodes were used as experimental measures. Results were that role-taking proficiency was associated with the development of alter-directed tactics or tactics by which the subject appeared to take into account the needs, motivations, or expectations of others. Neither MA nor IQ were significant predictors of interpersonal tactic choice. Controls for IQ and MA did not alter the significance of the association between role-taking and general tactic preferences. PMID:961733
A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the
Antonio Padilha; Hisao Takahashi; Eurico de Paula; Hanumant Sawant; Haroldo de Campos Velho; Icaro Vitorello; Joaquim Costa; Jonas Souza; José Cecatto; Odim Mendes; Walter Demétrio Gonzalez Alarcon
Provides (1) background information showing how the sun, earth, air, and water work together to create weather; (2) six activities on this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy coloring page on the water cycle. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)
"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…
|Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is…
Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.
This correspondence course is designed for self-study to help military personnel to attain the rating of weather specialist. The course is organized in three volumes. The first volume, containing seven chapters, covers background knowledge, meteorology, and climatology. In the second volume, which also contains seven chapters, surface…
Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.
At the end of the Eocene epoch, permanent ice cover developed over Antarctica as the Earth began to cool from greenhouse warmth. Sediment records off the Antarctic coast show spikes in weathering rate at the onset of ice growth that may indicate synchronous consumption of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson,
This site contains 17 questions on the topic of wind and weathering, which covers the Coriolis Effect and wind characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.
Funded by the National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF), this course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, ultraviolet radiation, and other phenomena.
Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie
In this lesson plan students will research, discuss, and write reports on the relationship between climate and agriculture. They will pretend that they have just purchased farms in specific parts of the United States and will investigate the weather and climate of that region in order to maximize the chances that their farms will succeed.
... Your Cool in the Cold and Snow Bad-Weather Driving Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines Share this page using: What are these? Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control.
The field of weather and climate ethics is a novel branch of applied ethics, based on environmental sciences and philosophy. Due to recent scientific findings concerning climate change, intentional weather and climate modification schemes have become even more relevant to finding feasible ways to moderate climate change and therefore are in need of careful analysis. When, if ever, can weather
A description of the Otis Weather Test Facility (WTF) is presented, taking into account the distribution of surface-based and tower-mounted instrumentation at the WTF, the automation of the rotating beam ceilometer, the present weather decision tree, and slant visual range techniques. A demonstration model of a Modular Automated Weather System (MAWS) is also considered. The versatility of MAWS results from
The possible roles that tactical nuclear weapons might play in future US-Soviet naval warfare are re-examined. Previous studies are reviewed as are the at-sea nuclear war-fighting capabilities of the two superpowers. Implications for US maritime strategy are also presented. 11 refs.
Asteroid 2011 AG5 will impact on Earth in 2040. (See Donald K. Yoemans, ``Asteroid 2011 AG5 - A Reality Check,'' NASA-JPL, 2012) In 2011, The author say: the dark hole will take the dark comet to impact our solar system in 20 years, and give a systemic model between the sun and its companion-dark hole to explain why were there periodicity mass extinction on earth. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78 and BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17) The dark Asteroid 2011 AG5 (as a dark comet) is made of the dark matter which has a space-time (as frequence-amplitude square) center- a different systemic model from solar systemic model. It can asborb the space-time and wave. So it is ``dark.'' When many dark matters hit on our earth, they can break our atom structure and our genetic code to trigger the Mass Extinction. In our experiments, consciousness can change the systematic model and code by a life-informational technology. So it can change the output signals of the solar cell. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.MAR.C1.286 and BAPS.2012.MAR.P33.14) So we will develop the genetic code of lives to evolution and sublimation, will use the dark matter to change the systemic model between dark hole and sun and will avoid next extinction.
In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?
Saunders, Emily C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowberry, Ariana N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The Japanese translation contains an attempt to report world weather trends, environmental pollution, and meteorological forecasting. It is a well-documented study ranging from analysis of man's earliest organized recording of the weather to fossil fuel p...
Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Dec 11,2012 The fall and winter seasons will bring cooler temperatures, and ... and snow. It’s important to know how cold weather can affect your heart, especially if you have ...
... Health and Aging » Publications Stay Safe in Cold Weather! What is hypothermia? Keep warm inside Bundle up ... to find more information Stay Safe in Cold Weather! Learn Why You Need to Stay Warm When ...
To determine the experiences of contractors in building in a variety of weather conditions, the following tasks are reported and discussed: (1) a summary of literature review and annotated bibliography for all - weather home building, (2) a questionnaire ...
The National Research Council (NRC) sponsors the Space Weather: A Research Perspective Website. Space weather occurs due to the behavior of the sun, the "nature of Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, and our location in the solar system." Space weather research will be useful for space weather forecasting, satellite troubleshooting, and gaining a greater understanding of Earth's place in space. To further understand space weather, the user can browse through sections such as What is Space Weather, The Elements of Near-Earth Space, Practical Consequences of Space Weather, and Earth-Space Meteorology, among others. Each section provides images, diagrams, and descriptions. Weather links and resources, as well as a glossary, round out the site.
This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci
This three-part activity shows learners how to build three meteorology tools: a wind vane, a rain gauge, and a barometer. Then, they can use their tools to build their own weather station to record data about the weather, study the data to detect patterns, and use the patterns to predict the weather. This lesson also includes information about the difference between weather and climate.
While the efiects of rising mean temperatures on agricultural output have been studied extensively, there is limited discussion of the impact of inter-annual weather variation on crop yields. This paper estimates the link between weather and crop yields separating the in?uence of (i) mean weather outcomes (i.e., climate) to which a farmer can adapt from (ii) unpredictable year-to-year weather ?uctuations
In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli
|The videos in this educational series for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes), describes weather patterns and cycles around the globe. The various types of climates around…
|This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…
The videos in this educational series for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes), describes weather patterns and cycles around the globe. The various types of climates around…
This exploratory study examined the effects of selected weather variables on pain and pain-related stress in osteoarthritic subjects. Urban and rural dwelling arthritics who perceived that weather made their symptoms worse and those who did not were surveyed. Some persons with osteoarthritis in urban Chicago were more weather sensitive than their rural counterparts in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Multiple regression
Joyce M. Laborde; William A. Dando; Marjorie J. Powers
In this activity, students collect weather data over several days or weeks, graph temperature data, and compare the temperature data collected with long-term climate averages from where they live. Understanding the difference between weather and climate and interpreting local weather data are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes.
Contents: Development of the weathering crust theory; Factors influencing weathering crust formation; Weathering. geochemical types and stages; Geochemical thermodynamics of the weathering and migration of elements; Effect of the mineral composition of ro...
The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].
Forecasts for UK winter gales and severe gales, North Atlantic and US landfalling hurricanes, Northwest Pacific and Far East landfalling typhoons, Southwest Pacific and Australian landfalling cyclones, and US Cooling Degree Days are available at this site from the Benfield Greig Hazard Research Centre at University College, London. Forecast summaries, descriptions of forecasting methodology, and graphics of historical and predicted events through time are presented in .pdf format for each weather subcategory. This site also tells users when the next predictions are to be released and has links to press releases and other extreme weather Websites. This is a good site for those interested in methods of climatology or those who want to prepare for that next big typhoon.
This section of the Windows to the Universe web site features weather crossword puzzles. Topics include the Earth's atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, fronts, clouds, winds, hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, weather, lightning and thunder, how hurricanes form, and snow. Links at the bottom of the page allow users to reference other Windows to the Universe sites to help solve the puzzles. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.
The weather in the United States during 1980 was bad. A 3-month heat wave in the southwest caused about $20 billion in ruined crops, an increase in power consumption, and damage to roads and highways. Nationwide, the heat killed 1320 people. Floods caused more than $1 billion in losses. Hurricane Allen caused about $500 million in property losses and took two lives.The highest temperature reading during 1980, 51°C (124°F), was reached five times. Locations were at Bull Head, Arizona; Death Valley, California; and three times at Baker, California. Preliminary figures also show that the lowest temperature for the year was recorded at Tok weather station, 150 miles southeast of Fairbanks, Alaska. There the mercury plummeted to -56°C (-68°F). In the lower 48 states the minimum thermometer reading was -44°C at Wisdom, Montana.
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277
This activity has students collect weather data for eight days and enter it into a chart to look for relationships. Students should find the relationship between air temperature, dew point, relative humidity, and the chance of precipitation. They also should see the relationship between air pressure and cloud cover and the relationship between temperature and air pressure. The site also provides a list of required materials, a formatted copy of the data table, and links to online references.
The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver\\/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator\\/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the
Long conductors of all types on Earth's surface are subject to disturbance and disruption by telluric currents (currents that flow within the Earth or on its surface) induced by space weather events. Attention is most often paid to the effects that these currents can produce in electric grids. After all, if an electric power system is disrupted, many other modern infrastructures that depend on the secure and continuous supply of electrical power will also be affected. A recent technical paper in Space Weather by R. A. Marshall and colleagues draws needed attention to the effects of telluric currents on long pipelines. This is a space weather topic that often does not receive the attention it warrants in terms of its critical relevance to modern-day life. Pipelines have long used cathodic protection systems to mitigate the corrosion of the pipes that can arise from potential differences between the ground and the pipes. These potential differences occur because telluric currents flow more readily in the pipes than in the ground. While pipeline engineers have long worked hard on this problem, it was the design and installation in the mid-1970s of the Alaska pipeline directly under the auroral zone that drew enhanced attention to this topic.
America needs timely and accurate weather forecasting, said Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.), chairman of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on National Ocean Policy. Calling the existing warning and forecast system dangerously obsolete, Hollings said that new technology “should dramatically improve the accuracy and timeliness of weather predictions,” as we face the new challenge of bringing the National Weather Service into the 21st century. Hollings' committee heard testimony to consider the modernization of the NWS and pending legislation (S98, S916) on June 18.Major components of the Weather Service Modernization program, according to John A. Knauss, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, are the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), a new generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-NEXT), the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS), and the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIA). The best defense against severe weather—early warnings—is probably hampered by outdated equipment, he added.
Complexity of biomedical data requires novel sophisticated analysis and presentation methods. Sonification is used as a new information display in augmented reality systems to overcome problems of existing human-computer interface (e.g., opaque or heavy head-mounted displays, slow computer graphics, etc.). A novel taxonomy of sonification methods and techniques is introduced. We present our experience with tactical audio and acoustic rendering in biomedical applications. Tactical audio as an audio feedback is used as support for precise manual positioning of a surgical instrument in the operating room. Acoustic rendering is applied as an additional information channel and/or warning signal in biomedical signal analysis and data presentation. PMID:10719492
Jovanov, E; Wegner, K; Radivojevi?, V; Starcevi?, D; Quinn, M S; Karron, D B
Research and development of new, revolutionary technologies have been extensive. The resulting military applications will drastically change the tactical nature of the battlefield. To cover every technology currently under consideration would be lengthy and beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is the intent of this paper to detail selected technological innovations and their tactical implications. Technological advances in space research will allow us to (1) reduce the reaction time in engaging adversary's ballistic missiles by employing boost-phase monitoring technology; (2) establish an overall command and control network for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) by incorporating all of our assets into an overall surveillance and tracking system; (3) engage incoming ballistic missiles in a variety of ways, using directed-energy and kinetic energy weapons, both ground and space based; and (4) engage the adversary's satellites from ground, space, and aerial-based means, hampering his ability to use satellite systems for surveillance, reconnaissance, and communication.
Mothers' and fathers' reports of marital conflicts in the home were obtained (n = 1,638 and 1,281 conflicts, respectively), including conflicts in front of the children (n = 580 and 377, respectively). Participants were 116 families with children 8 to 16 years old (M = 10.82 years, SD = 2.17; 58 boys, 58 girls). Children's emotional responses indicated distinctions between distressing conflict tactics (i.e., threat, personal insult, verbal hostility, defensiveness, nonverbal hostility, marital withdrawal, physical distress) and those that increased their emotional security (i.e., calm discussion, support, affection). Analyses based on cross-reporter informants of parental conflict and child responses strengthened confidence in the findings. Conflict tactics were related to marital functioning, and children's emotional reactions during marital conflicts were associated with their adjustment. PMID:14669904
Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M
The scenario of Tactical Internet simulative training can't be realized directly through the scenario systems and methods in existence. For solving this problem, firstly this paper introduced the new concept called digitized scenario, which can describe the meaning of scenario more exactly than the old simulation scenario. Secondly, this paper constructed the framework of digitized scenario, and it settled such issues as composition of digitized scenario system, scenario generating flow and data architecture. Thirdly, this paper built up the general data model for script situation, and it settled the problem of situation setting. Finally, this paper proposed the method of describing scenario files based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), and it settled such problems as generation, verification and distribution of scenario files. The paper's work has been applied in the Tactical Internet simulative training system, and it also has good directive value to the developing of other communication network simulative training system.
Because not all females are equally attractive, and because mating reduces the chances of getting further copulations, males should prefer better-quality mates. In this paper, we use the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to explore the effects of two non-correlated measures of female quality--size and reproductive status--on male mating decisions. All male guppies employ two alternative mating tactics. We found that large females, particularly those from a high predation site, were the target of most sneaky mating attempts. The response persisted in fish raised under standard conditions over several generations in the laboratory. In addition, non-pregnant females received more courtship displays. We conclude that males can discriminate among females and that they uncouple their mating tactics to track different axes of quality.
A new detector for nuclear astrophysics studies is being designed and built by TRIUMF and the University of York. The TRIUMF Annular Chamber for Tracking and Identification of Charged particles (TACTIC) is designed to detect low-energy charged particles from inverse kinematics reaction studies performed at the relevant astrophysical energies. TACTIC is a cylindrical ionisation/time-projection chamber with segmented anode strips, which allow the dE/dx of the particle to be determined along with the total energy. Information from drift times allows the particle trajectory to be reconstructed. This in turn identifies the interaction point along the beam axis and hence the centre of mass energy of the reaction. To amplify the expected weak signals, a gas electron multiplier (GEM) will be used in place of the usual Frisch grid. Full digital readout of the charge and timing of each anode strip will be achieved with flash ADC cards allowing pulse shape analysis of the signals.
Laird, A. M.; Amaudruz, P.; Buchmann, L.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B. R.; Gigliotti, D.; Kirchner, T.; Mumby-Croft, P. D.; Openshaw, R.; Pavan, M. M.; Pearson, J.; Ruprecht, G.; Sheffer, G.; Walden, P.
This thesis explores a new approach to the classification of tactical targets using a new biologically-based neural network. The targets of interest were generated from Doppler imagery and forward looking infrared imagery, and consisted of tanks, trucks, armored personnel carriers, jeeps and petroleum, oil, and lubricant tankers. Each target was described by feature vectors, such as normalized moment invariants. The features were generated from the imagery using a segmenting process. These feature vectors were used as the input to a neural network classifier for tactical target recognition. The neural network consisted of a multilayer perceptron architecture, employing a backward error propagation learning algorithm. The minimization technique used was an approximation to Newton's method. This second order algorithm is a generalized version of well known first order techniques, i.e., gradient of steepest descent and momentum methods. Classification using both first and second order techniques was performed, with comparisons drawn.
Gastropod shells are limited resources for most hermit crab species, acting as primary factors in various aspects of their\\u000a biology. To investigate the efficacy of different behavioral tactics adopted for their acquisition (locomotion, attendance\\u000a at shell-supplying sites, interactions with conspecifics in aggregation) we conducted observations and experiments at a salt\\u000a marsh in New England (USA). Locomotion, fast and meandering, significantly
This paper describes a co-evolutionary algorithm for generating simple spatially oriented tactics and considers whether students can learn better by playing against co-evolved opponents or by playing against an expert system or other similar hard-coded opponent. Although a number of artificially intelligent tutoring and e-learning systems exist, our work looks at using co-evolution to generate competent opponents for human students
Greg Smith; Phillipa Avery; Ramona Houmanfar; Sushil Louis
The Assistant Secretary of Defense (ASD) memorandum pertaining to command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) tactical data link policy, dated, October 18, 1994, states: “...this policy designates the US agreed Link-16 data link as the DoD primary data link for all Service and Defense Agency Command and Control (C2) intelligence (I) and when practical, weapon system applications...”. Link-16 is synonymous
Recent research in automated highway systems has ranged from low-level vision-based controllers to high-level route-guidance software. However there is currently no system for tactical-level reasoning. Such a system should address tasks such as passing cars, making exits on time, and merging into a traffic stream. Our approach to this intermediate-level planning combines a distributed reasoning system (PolySAPIENT) with a novel
Aviary observations revealed particularities of foraging behavior in seven species of leaf warblers of the genus Phylloscopus, which sympatrically inhabit the middle-taiga Yenisei. The differences consist in the ratio of the tactics of each type, including the flight, frequency of using them, and selectivity with respect to maneuvers. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of particularities of the external morphology of the species. PMID:21789995
Military Network Operations (NetOps) consist of three main components: network management, network defense (information assurance), and content staging (information dissemination management). NetOps capabilities include organizations, procedures, and technologies required to manage, defend, and utilize a network. Conventionally NetOps components are regarded as functionally orthogonal and operationally independent. However, based on our experience1 with the future Army tactical network that consist
Cho-Yu Jason Chiang; Ritu Chadha; Scott Newman; Richard Lo; Rocio Bauer
Warfare among rival outlaw motorcycle clubs has been and remains a critical dynamic in the subculture. This paper examines\\u000a the role of war mentality in the biker subculture and how it has changed overtime. Specific exemplary and noteworthy events\\u000a are discussed to illustrate critical ideas. Also examined are the changing tactics, defenses, and tools used in these conflict\\u000a and how
A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a tactical decision generator (TDG) for within visual range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem-solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the computerized logic for air-to-air warfare simulations (CLAWS) program, a
A software application for correlating and fusion information products from multiple dissimilar sensors is presented. The Tactical Multi Sensor Fusion (TMSF) system is a C++ object oriented application implementing data correlation and fusion algorithms which provide decision aids for identifying, locating, and determining the status of processing equipment within suspected weapons of mass destruction sites. The TMSF system also provides valuable information for assessing weapon delivery accuracy and effectiveness.
Henderson, Robert D.; Short, Robert; Stewart, Clayton V.
The current study explored whether men's avoidance coping in response to the drinking behavior of their female partner with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) would be associated with higher levels of men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Women with an AUD (n = 109) and their male partners in a U.S. urban area were assessed on men's perpetration of minor and severe violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale, men's avoidance coping using the Spouse Behavior Questionnaire, and men's and women's drinking behavior using the Time Line Follow Back Interview. Using multiple regression analysis, results showed that men's use of avoidance coping significantly predicted male IPV perpetration over and above the women's perpetration of violence toward him, while women's alcohol use did not significantly predict male-to-female IPV perpetration. Implications for teaching emotion-regulation strategies to male partners of women with an AUD to cope with partner drinking are discussed.
Cohn, Amy M.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon M.
Simple random walk is well understood. However, if we condition a random walk not to intersect itself, so that it is a self-avoiding walk, then it is much more di-- cult to analyse and many of the important mathematical problems remain unsolved. This paper provides an overview of some of what is known about the self-avoiding walk, includ- ing some
Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions. PMID:15721046
Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from
A mobile robot system, capable of performing various tasks for the physically disabled, has been developed. To avoid collision with unexpected obstacles, the mobile robot uses ultrasonic range finders for detection and mapping. The obstacle avoidance strategy used for this robot is described. Since this strategy depends heavily on the performance of the ultrasonic range finders, these sensors and the
INVESTIGATED THE EXTINCTION OF AVOIDANCE RESPONSES THROUGH OBSERVATION OF MODELED APPROACH BEHAVIOR DIRECTED TOWARD A FEARED STIMULUS WITHOUT ANY ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES ACCRUING TO THE MODEL. CHILDREN WHO DISPLAYED FEARFUL AND AVOIDANT BEHAVIOR TOWARD DOGS WERE ASSIGNED TO A CONDITION IN WHICH THEY (1) PARTICIPATED IN A SERIES OF BRIEF MODELING SESSIONS IN WHICH THEY OBSERVED, WITHIN A HIGHLY POSITIVE CONTEXT,
ALBERT BANDURA; JOAN E. GRUSEC; FRANCES L. MENLOVE
Tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles are an area of high interest to the Army. They are critical for the inclusion of robots in the Future Combat System (FCS). Tactical behaviors can be defined at multiple levels: at the Company, Platoon, Section, and Vehicle echelons. They are currently being defined by the Army for the FCS Unit of Action. At all of these echelons, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned air vehicles, and unattended ground sensors must collaborate with each other and with manned systems. Research being conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and sponsored by the Army Research Lab is focused on defining the Four Dimensional Real-time Controls System (4D/RCS) reference model architecture for intelligent systems and developing a software engineering methodology for system design, integration, test and evaluation. This methodology generates detailed design requirements for perception, knowledge representation, decision making, and behavior generation processes that enable complex military tactics to be planned and executed by unmanned ground and air vehicles working in collaboration with manned systems.
Albus, James; Barbera, Anthony; Scott, Harry; Balakirsky, Stephen
In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072
Wirtz-Oca?a, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael
A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate forecasts of space weather conditions, and timely hazard alert warnings. The program is expected to be fully operational for the peak activity of the next solar maximum, but for its future growth and development it is essential to have a wide network of international collaborations.
Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio
The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the base data formation, point target removal, signal-to-noise thresholding, and velocity de-aliasing and to the TDWR algorithms and displays. A schematic diagram of the TDWR system is presented.
This tutorial introduces students to global weather patterns and how they affect the kinds of trees and plants that grow in different latitudes of the Earth. The discussion covers the tropics and the lush rainforests that live there, temperate forests in the mid-latitudes, and boreal forests in the far north. There is also a description of how treeless areas occur in various climate zones (desert, tundra, savannah), and how plants adapt to low-water conditions in the desert. A quiz and glossary are included.
The relations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with use of consultative, legitimating, and pressure influence tactics were examined using validity generalization procedures. 5 to 7 field studies with cumulative samples exceeding 800 were used to test each relationship. Significance was found for relation between agents' intrinsic motivation and their use of consultative influence tactics and agents' extrinsic motivation and their use of legitimating influence tactics. PMID:17037458
Intense competition between males for reproduction has led to the evolution of alternative mating tactics (AMTs). Feral goat\\u000a males usually use a tactic called tending, in which they defend oestrous females from other males. Males may also use a second\\u000a mating tactic called coursing, in which they gain access to oestrous females by disturbing a tending pair. Herein, we examine
Fiona C. Saunders; Alan G. McElligott; Kamran Safi; Thomas J. Hayden
Rocky Mountain bighorn rams use three distinct tactics in competition for mates. Two tactics (tending and blocking) feature\\u000a defense and cooperative mating over a relatively prolonged consort period (up to 3 days). In the coursing tactic, subordinate\\u000a rams fight dominants for temporary copulatory access (lasting seconds) to defended ewes. By combining population-wide genetic\\u000a (microsatellite) exclusion of paternity, behavioral data and
The DoD vision of real-time information sharing and net-centric services available to warfighters at the tactical edge is challenged by low-bandwidth and high-latency tactical network links. Secured tactical applications require transmission of digital certificates that contribute a major portion of data in most secure sessions, which further increases response time for users and drains device power. In this paper we