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1

Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers that start far ahead of encountering a weather cell when rerouting around weather.

Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

2011-01-01

2

Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm ...

M. S. Refai R. Windhorst

2011-01-01

3

Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

2009-01-01

4

The Role of Meteorological Satellites in Tactical Battlefield Weather Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirements for tactical battlefield weather support are examined and the critical area of mesoscale analysis and prediction is identified. Ground data processing techniques and personnel training requirements are assessed as well as current and prop...

T. O. Haig

1982-01-01

5

Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

2011-01-01

6

Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

2002-01-01

7

Tactical Operations System. Basic System Description. Annex K. Weather Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Basic System Description (BSD) is a basic system specification for the Tactical Operations System (TOS). TOS is an ADP system being developed to support tactical army commanders in the 1975-1980 time frame. The Technical Summary of the BSD provides a ...

1970-01-01

8

High-energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) for mission planning and predictive avoidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates the development of a high energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) by the AFIT/CDE for mission planning High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon system engagements as well as centralized, decentralized, or hybrid predictive avoidance (CPA/DPA/HPA) assessments. Analyses of example HEL mission engagements are described as well as how mission planners are expected to employ the software. Example HEL engagement simulations are based on geographic location and recent/current atmospheric weather conditions. The atmospheric effects are defined through the AFIT/CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model or the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model upon which the HELTDA is based. These models enable the creation of vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer/winter) and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered to determine optimum efficiency in a specific environment. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on the propagating environment to and beyond the target. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are included. Numerical weather model forecasts are incorporated in the model to develop comprehensive understanding of HEL weapon system performance.

Burley, Jarred L.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Randall, Robb M.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

2012-05-01

9

Dynamic Weather Routes: A Weather Avoidance Concept for Trajectory-Based Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integration of convective weather modeling with trajectory automation for conflict detection, trial planning, direct routing, and auto resolution has uncovered a concept that could help controllers, dispatchers, and pilots identify improved weather routes that result in significant savings in flying time and fuel burn. Trajectory automation continuously and automatically monitors aircraft in flight to find those that could potentially benefit from improved weather reroutes. Controllers, dispatchers, and pilots then evaluate reroute options to assess their suitability given current weather and traffic. In today's operations aircraft fly convective weather avoidance routes that were implemented often hours before aircraft approach the weather and automation does not exist to automatically monitor traffic to find improved weather routes that open up due to changing weather conditions. The automation concept runs in real-time and employs two keysteps. First, a direct routing algorithm automatically identifies flights with large dog legs in their routes and therefore potentially large savings in flying time. These are common - and usually necessary - during convective weather operations and analysis of Fort Worth Center traffic shows many aircraft with short cuts that indicate savings on the order of 10 flying minutes. The second and most critical step is to apply trajectory automation with weather modeling to determine what savings could be achieved by modifying the direct route such that it avoids weather and traffic and is acceptable to controllers and flight crews. Initial analysis of Fort Worth Center traffic suggests a savings of roughly 50% of the direct route savings could be achievable.The core concept is to apply trajectory automation with convective weather modeling in real time to identify a reroute that is free of weather and traffic conflicts and indicates enough time and fuel savings to be considered. The concept is interoperable with today's integrated FMS/datalink. Auxiliary(lat/long) waypoints define a minimum delay reroute between current position and a downstream capture fix beyond the weather. These auxiliary waypoints can be uplinked to equipped aircraft and auto-loaded into the FMS. Alternatively, for unequipped aircraft, auxiliary waypoints can be replaced by nearby named fixes, but this could reduce potential savings. The presentation includes an overview of the automation approach and focuses on several cases in terms of potential savings, reroute complexity, best auxiliary waypoint solution vs. named fix solution, and other metrics.

McNally, B. David; Love, John

2011-01-01

10

Aircrew decision-making behavior in hazardous weather avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to assess the situation awareness and decision-making behavior of aircrews in a line-oriented simulation of the microburst/windshear encounter which occurred on July 11, 1988, at the Denver Stapleton Airport as affected by the manner in which information available at different times and in different forms. Intracrew communications and approach-to-land decisions were evaluated with conventional ATC communications and with automated cockpit alerting and display of weather information. It was found that the avoidance dicision-making performance of aircrews provided only with conventional ATC transmissions of weather information was significantly less efficient than the performance of crews provided with a visual display of microburst events.

Lee, Alfred T.

1991-01-01

11

Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

2010-01-01

12

Human Performance Aiding for Tactical Decision Aids and Mission Performance Aids: A Model of Human Visual Performance for the Weather Impact Decision Aid (WIDA) Electro-Optical Simulation (ACT/FOS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Performance Model (HPM) was developed as part of the Infrared Tactical Decision Aid Human Performance Modeling and Analysis Program. The Infrared Tactical Decision Aid (IRTDA) was developed by Air Weather Service as an analysis tool that helps a...

G. E. Irvin D. L. Aleva J. P. Gaska

1996-01-01

13

Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

14

Evaluation of a Dispatcher's Route Optimization Decision Aid to Avoid Aviation Weather Hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the results and analysis of the formal evaluation plan for the Honeywell software tool developed under the NASA AWIN (Aviation Weather Information) 'Weather Avoidance using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid' project. The software tool aims to provide airline dispatchers with a decision aid for selecting optimal routes that avoid weather and other hazards. This evaluation compares and contrasts route selection performance with the AWIN tool to that of subjects using a more traditional dispatcher environment. The evaluation assesses gains in safety, in fuel efficiency of planned routes, and in time efficiency in the pre-flight dispatch process through the use of the AWIN decision aid. In addition, we are interested in how this AWIN tool affects constructs that can be related to performance. The construct of Situation Awareness (SA), workload, trust in an information system, and operator acceptance are assessed using established scales, where these exist, as well as through the evaluation of questionnaire responses and subject comments. The intention of the experiment is to set up a simulated operations area for the dispatchers to work in. They will be given scenarios in which they are presented with stored company routes for a particular city-pair and aircraft type. A diverse set of external weather information sources is represented by a stand-alone display (MOCK), containing the actual historical weather data typically used by dispatchers. There is also the possibility of presenting selected weather data on the route visualization tool. The company routes have not been modified to avoid the weather except in the case of one additional route generated by the Honeywell prototype flight planning system. The dispatcher will be required to choose the most appropriate and efficient flight plan route in the displayed weather conditions. The route may be modified manually or may be chosen from those automatically displayed.

Dorneich, Michael C.; Olofinboba, Olu; Pratt, Steve; Osborne, Dannielle; Feyereisen, Thea; Latorella, Kara

2003-01-01

15

Advanced Mesoscale Weather Forecasting to Support Tactical Operations on the Airland Battlefield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work resulted in the test and evaluation of a hybrid statistical neural net program called Goal-Oriented Pattern Detection (GOPAD) and the development of a cloud tracking program that uses weather satellite imagery as input. Both technologies show gr...

K. C. Young L. A. Atkinson M. Perrone P. D. Lampru

1990-01-01

16

Super-resolution technologies for all-weather sense and avoidance (SAA) radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sense and avoidance (SAA) and due-regard radar systems have strict requirements on size, weight and power (SWaP) and target localization accuracies. Also, the multi-mission capabilities with both weather and hard targets are critical to the survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the next generation national airspace. The aperture limitations of the aircraft sensor installation, however, have prevented large antennas/arrays to be used. The tradeoffs among frequencies, resolutions and detection range/accuracies have not been fully addressed. Innovative concepts of overcoming the aperture limitation by using a special type of super-resolution technology are introduced. The first technique is based on a combination of thinned antenna array, an extension to the traditional Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique, and applying a two-dimensional sidelobe mitigation technique. To overcome the degradation of MUSIC-type of approach due to coherent radar signals, a special waveform optimization procedure is used. The techniques for mitigating artifacts due to "thinned" array are also introduced. Simulated results of super-resolution techniques are discussed and evaluated, and the capability of separating multiple targets within aperture-constrained beamwidth is demonstrated. Moreover, the potential capabilities of autonomous weather hazard avoidance are also analyzed.

Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Wang, Shang; Pan, Yu; Suarez, Hernan

2011-05-01

17

Mapping lessons from ants to free flight: an ant-based weather avoidance algorithm in free flight airspace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing growth of air traffic worldwide motivates the need for new approaches to air traffic management that are more flexible both in terms of traffic volume and weather. Free Flight is one such approach seriously considered by the aviation community. However the benefits of Free Flight are severely curtailed in the convective weather season when weather is highly active, leading aircrafts to deviate from their optimal trajectories. This paper investigates the use of ant colony optimization in generating optimal weather avoidance trajectories in Free Flight airspace. The problem is motivated by the need to take full advantage of the airspace capacity in a Free Flight environment, while maintaining safe separation between aircrafts and hazardous weather. The experiments described herein were run on a high fidelity Free Flight air traffic simulation system which allows for a variety of constraints on the computed routes and accurate measurement of environments dynamics. This permits us to estimate the desired behavior of an aircraft, including avoidance of changing hazardous weather patterns, turn and curvature constraints, and the horizontal separation standard and required time of arrival at a pre determined point, and to analyze the performance of our algorithm in various weather scenarios. The proposed Ant Colony Optimization based weather avoidance algorithm was able to find optimum weather free routes every time if they exist. In case of highly complex scenarios the algorithm comes out with the route which requires the aircraft to fly through the weather cells with least disturbances. All the solutions generated were within flight parameters and upon integration with the flight management system of the aircraft in a Free Flight air traffic simulator, successfully negotiated the bad weather.

Alam, Sameer; Abbass, Hussein A.; Barlow, Michael; Lindsay, Peter

2005-01-01

18

Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude UAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA operates two Global Hawk unmanned aircraft systems for Earth Science research projects. In particular, they are used in the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) project during 2012, 2013, and 2014 to take measurements from the environment around tropical cyclones, and from directly above tropical cyclones. There is concern that strict adherence to the weather avoidance rules used in 2012 may sacrifice the ability to observe important science targets. We have proposed modifications to these weather avoidance rules that we believe will improve the ability to observe science targets without compromising aircraft safety. The previous guidelines, used in 2012, specified: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. When flying above FL500: Do not approach reported lightning within 25NM in areas where cloud tops are reported at FL500 or higher. Aircraft should maintain at least 10000 ft vertical separation from reported lightning if cloud tops are below FL500. No over-flight of cumulus tops higher than FL500. No flight into forecast or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecast or reported moderate or severe turbulence Based on past experience with high-altitude flights over tropical cyclones, we have recommended changing this guidance to: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. Aircraft should maintain at least 5000 ft vertical separation from significant convective cloud tops except: a) When cloud tops above FL500: In the event of reported significant lightning activity or indicators of significant overshooting tops, do not approach within 10-25 nm, depending on pilot discretion and advice from Mission Scientist. b) When cloud tops are below FL500, maintain 10000 ft separation from reported significant lightning or indicators of significant overshooting tops. No flight into forecasted or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecasted or reported moderate or severe turbulence The key changes have to do with overflight of high convective cloud tops and those producing lightning. Experience shows that most tropical oceanic convection (including that in tropical cyclones) is relatively gentle even if the cloud tops are quite high, and can be safely overflown. Exceptions are convective elements producing elevated lightning flash rates (more than just the occasional flash, which would trigger avoidance under the previous rules) and significant overshooting cloud tops.

Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris; Monette, Sarah; Heymsfield, Gerry; Braun, Scott; Newman, Paul; Black, Pete; Black, Michael; Dunion, Jason

2014-01-01

19

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

20

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Williams, Ms.

2005-10-25

21

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

22

Intelligent hazard avoidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather hazards cause about 70% of flight delays and 21% of accidents in National Airspace System. Modern airborne weather radars enable pilots to detect and assess the severity of surrounding weather hazards in real-time. Military aircraft equipped with tactical data links can receive information about pop-up tactical threats, such as surface-to-air missiles, that can put the safety of the aircraft

Shih-Yih Young; K. M. Jerome

2009-01-01

23

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.

24

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Jennie, Miss

2009-10-22

25

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn how to describe and observe changes in weather patterns by completing the following activities. The students will record and report changes in weather on their data sheet. The Process: Read the information on How Air Pressure Affects You. In this article you will see the term barometer. Write its definition. Now look over Weather Facts. Now go to Investigate Climate Conditions and use the weather maker to observe the effects of certain changes. Answer the questions: How much of a change in temperature is needed to make it ...

Lauren, Ms.

2010-11-17

26

Tactical Intelligence Applications Experimentation Report (TIAX).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) concept is an attempt to significantly improve the processing and presentation of tactical intelligence information. It demands extensive preparation of terrain analysis information merged with weather and...

1978-01-01

27

Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Global Hawk flight rules would probably not have been effective in the single event of greatest concern (the Emily encounter). The cloud top had not reached 50,000 ft until minutes before the encounter. The TOT and lightning data would not have been available until near the overflight time since this was a rapidly growing cell. This case would have required a last-minute diversion when lightning became frequent. Avoiding such a cell probably requires continual monitoring of the forward camera and storm scope, whether or not cloud tops have been exceeding specific limits. However, the current overflight rules as strictly interpreted would have prohibited significant fractions of the successful Global Hawk overpasses of Karl and Matthew that proved not to be hazardous. Many other high altitude aircraft (ER-2 and Global Hawk) flights in NASA tropical cyclone field programs have successfully overflown deep convective clouds without incident.The convective cell that caused serious concern about the safety of the ER-2 in Emily was especially strong for a tropical cyclone environment, probably as strong or stronger than any that was overflown by the ER-2 in 20 previous flights over tropical cyclones. Specifically, what made that cell a safety concern was the magnitude of the vertical velocity of the updraft, at least 20 m/s (4000 ft/minute) at the time the ER-2 overflew it. Such a strong updraft can generate strong gravity waves at and above the tropopause, posing a potential danger to aircraft far above the maximum altitude of the updraft itself or its associated cloud top. Indeed, the ER-2 was probably at least 9000 ft above that cloud top. Cloud-top height, by itself, is not an especially good indicator of the intensity of convection and the likelihood of turbulence. Nor is overflying high cloud tops (i.e. > 50,000 ft) of particular concern unless there is other evidence of very strong convective updrafts beneath those tops in the path of the aircraft. center dot Lightning, especially lightning with a high flash rate, is well correlated with convective intensity. Lightning with a minimal flash rate (say 1-3 flashes per minute) is indicative of updraft speeds of about 10 m/s in the mixed phase region where charge is being separated, generally at altitudes about 20-25 kft in a hurricane. That is still stronger than typical updrafts (more like 5 m/s). An unresolved issue is whether there is a high and instantaneous correlation between vertical velocity in the middle troposphere (necessary for lightning generation) and near cloud top (more direct concern for overflights).

Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris S.; Monette, Sarah A.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Braun, Scott A.; Newman, Paul A.; Black, Peter G.; Black, Michael L.; Dunion, Jason P.

2014-01-01

28

Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This subject guide to weather resources includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources. Related disciplines are indicated, age levels are specified, and a student activity is included. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

29

Weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the natural environment, weathering and breakdown of stone is an accepted part of long-term landscape development but the\\u000a same acceptance of change and deterioration is not extended to stone used in construction especially when such deterioration\\u000a affects historically and\\/or culturally important structures. The value of an integrative approach to improve understanding\\u000a of weathering and failure of building stone is

P. A. Warke; J. McKinley; B. J. Smith

30

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

Caitlin, Ms.

2009-10-21

31

Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90° between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

Pochron, Sharon T.

32

Airland Battlefield Environment (ALBE) Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) Demonstration Program,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrain and weather affect combat operations more significantly than any other physical factors on the battlefield. Historically, field commanders have not had the capability to fully exploit battlefield environmental effects for tactical advantage. The C...

P. R. Capps M. J. Tolson

1987-01-01

33

Requirements for Tactical Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the need to replace Standardized Integrated Command Post System (SICPS) rigid wall shelters (RWS) and the transportability of DoD tactical shelters. The audit results concerning the use of standard tactical shelters and the method of...

S. Young R. Ryan G. Hopper T. Kotonias C. Perkins

1995-01-01

34

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

35

Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows surrounding the airport where coarse verification data were available as well as where airport scale datasets were available.

Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

2004-01-01

36

The DLR Project - Weather & Flying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project is introduced which aims at (a) providing timely, tailored and concise meteorological information especially for adverse weather as precisely as possible for air traffic control and management, airline operating centres, pilots, and airports, and (b) building automated flight control systems and evasion-manoeuvre methods to minimise the impact of adverse wind and wake conditions on the flight performance of an aircraft. Today ATM and ATC most of the time only react on adverse weather when the disruption has already happened or is just about to happen. A future air traffic management should pro-actively anticipate disruptive weather elements and their time scales well in advance to avoid or to mitigate the impact upon the traffic flow. But "weather” is not a technical problem that can be simply solved. Predicting the weather is a difficult and complex task and only possible within certain limits. It is therefore necessary to observe and forecast the changing state of the atmosphere as precisely and as rapidly as possible. Measures must be taken to minimise the impact of adverse weather or changing weather conditions on air traffic management and tactical manoeuvring, both on ground and onboard the aircraft. Weather and meteorological information (MET in short) is to be considered as an integral part of air traffic management. In 2008, DLR has initiated a major project "Wetter & Fliegen” (German for "Weather and Flying”) to address this inter¬disciplinary challenge. Its goal is to augment safety and efficiency of air transportation, thereby focusing on the two German hub airports in Frankfurt and München. This high-level goal shall be reached by two strands of work: a) The development of an Integrated Terminal Weather Systems (ITWS) for the air¬¬ports at Frankfurt and München to improve the detection and forecast of weather phenomena adversely affecting airport operations, including deep convection (thunderstorms, hail, wind), wake vortex, and winter weather conditions, and b) The development of on-board systems for automated control, surveillance and information and the specification of requirements for on-board sensors, to improve the behaviour of the aircraft when confronted with wind gusts, wake vortices and thunderstorms. The project design and first results will be presented.

Gerz, T.

2009-09-01

37

Tactical Maneuvering Using Immunized Sequence Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a tactical maneuvering system that uses an artificial immune system based approach for selecting maneuver sequences. This approach combines the problem solving abilities of genetic algorithms with the memory retention characteristics of an immune system. Of significant importance here is the fact that the tactical maneuvering system can make time-critical decisions to accomplish near-term objectives within a dynamic environment. These objectives can be received from a human operator, autonomous executive, or various flight planning specialists. Simulation tests were performed using a high performance military aircraft model. Results demonstrate the potential of using immunized sequence selection in order to accomplish tactical maneuvering objectives ranging from flying to a location while avoiding unforeseen obstacles, to performing relative positioning in support of air combat maneuvering.

Kaneshige, John; KrishnaKumar, K.; Shung, Felix

2003-01-01

38

Tactical visualization module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tactical Visualization Module (TVM) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable, tactical information system to enhance the situational awareness of individual warfighters and small military units by providing real-time access to manned and unmanned aircraft, tactically mobile robots, and unattended sensors. TVM consists of a family of portable and hand-held devices being advanced into a next- generation, embedded capability. It enables warfighters to visualize the tactical situation by providing real-time video, imagery, maps, floor plans, and 'fly-through' video on demand. When combined with unattended ground sensors, such as Combat- Q, TVM permits warfighters to validate and verify tactical targets. The use of TVM results in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduction of the potential for fratricide. TVM technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea, and air warfighting operations. As a PCMCIA card, TVM can be embedded in portable, hand-held, and wearable PCs. Thus, it leverages emerging tactical displays including flat-panel, head-mounted displays. The end result of the program will be the demonstration of the system with U.S. Army and USMC personnel in an operational environment. Raytheon Systems Company, the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command -- Natick RDE Center (SSCOM- NRDEC) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are partners in developing and demonstrating the TVM technology.

Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

1999-07-01

39

Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

Schutte, Paul C.

2004-01-01

40

Large Scale Tactical Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project effort was to develop an experimental model of an automated large scale situation display which is transportable, compact, and functionally and environmentally tailored to a tactical environment. The model is being used by RA...

G. P. Plotnikoff

1973-01-01

41

A Monadic Interpretation of Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many proof tools use 'tactic languages' as programs to di- rect their proofs. We present a simplified idealised tactic language, and describe its denotational semantics. The language has many applications outside theorem-proving activities. The semantics is parametrised by a monad (plus additional structure). By instantiating this in various ways, the core semantics of a number of different tactic languages is

Andrew Martin; Jeremy Gibbons

2002-01-01

42

Textual Tactics of Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we merge de Certeau's theory of strategies and tactics with more recent work on socially situated identities to investigate how youth in one eighth-grade reading class withstood and resisted identities of "being remedial." On the basis of observational and interview data collected during a year-long ethnographic study, we…

Gomez, Mary Louise; Stone, Jennifer C.; Hobbel, Nikola

2004-01-01

43

Tactical force protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for enhanced tactical force protection capabilities is evidenced from our recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan and occurs wherever U.S. Forces maintain a forward presence in a potentially hostile environment. Levels of force protection proficiency vary widely from combat units whose mission is to close with and destroy the enemy to combat support\\/combat service support units performing maintenance

Eugene Stockel; Jon C. Moneyhun

2004-01-01

44

Learned Tactics for Asset Allocation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tactics can be developed in a number of different ways. Rules can be created based on a theory of operations as has been done in the development of tactical decision aids for a considerable time. But these tools can behave poorly in unanticipated scenario...

D. B. D'Ambrosio D. S. Lange

2013-01-01

45

A Tactical Warfare Simulation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tactical warfare simulation program is a procedure by which the major interactions among opposing military units and terrain features can be treated in a tactical limited warfare situation. It is a critical-area, sequence-of-event model and is program...

W. W. Fain J. B. Fain H. W. Karr

1966-01-01

46

Stereo Imaging Tactical Helper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stereo Imaging Tactical Helper (SITH) program displays left and right images in stereo using the display technology made available by the JADIS framework. An overlay of the surface described by the disparity map (generated from the left and right images) allows the map to be compared to the actual images. In addition, an interactive cursor, whose visual depth is controlled by the disparity map, is used to ensure the correlated surface matches the real surface. This enhances the ability of operations personnel to provide quality control for correlation results, as well as to greatly assist developers working on correlation improvements. While its primary purpose is as a quality control tool for inspecting correlation results, SITH is also straightforward for use as a basic stereo image viewer

Toole, Nicholas T.

2010-01-01

47

Avoiding Snakebites  

MedlinePLUS

... Snakebites Avoiding Snakebites How can I avoid snakebites? Snakes are most active in the spring, early summer ... warm and outdoor activities are popular. Although most snakes are not poisonous, there are several kinds of ...

48

Avoiding Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... At Play > Avoiding Bullying Safety & Prevention Listen Avoiding Bullying Article Body How can we help our child ... in other ways. Getting that response reinforces the bullying behavior. Your child should try to keep his ...

49

Optimal path planning for unmanned air vehicles with kinematic and tactical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of 2D optimal path-planning problems for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with kinematic and tactical constraints. The existence of an optimal path class satisfying the UAV kinematic constraints and vector calculus are exploited to reduce this class of optimal path-planning problems to a parameter optimization problem. Illustrative tactical constraints arising in target touring and obstacle avoidance problems

Guang Yang; Vikram Kapila

2002-01-01

50

Panoramic cockpit displays for tactical military cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) incorporates the latest technology for aerial warfighting. To support this aircraft's mission and to provide the pilot with the increased situational awareness needed in today's battlespace, a panoramic AMLCD was developed and is being deployed for the first time. This 20" by 8" display is the largest fielded to date in a tactical fighter. Key system innovations had to be employed to allow this technology to function in this demanding environment. Certain older generation aircraft are now considering incorporating a panoramic display to provide their crews with this level of increased capability. Key design issues that had to be overcome dealt with sunlight readability, vibration resistance, touchscreen operation, and reliability concerns to avoid single-point failures. A completely dual redundant system design had to be employed to ensure that the pilot would always have access to critical mission and flight data.

Fletcher, Mark; Huffman, David

2010-04-01

51

New Tactics in Human Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international human rights. The New Tactics in Human Rights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.

52

Acceptance Test Plan for Tactical Interface System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the plan for test and verification of the Tactical Interface System (TIS) computer program, identified as SDSS-MMP-B1 and specified in the Analytics Technical Report 1585-TR-02, Computer Program Development Specification for Tactical ...

1982-01-01

53

[Vertigo: patient management tactics].  

PubMed

To avoid serious causes of dizziness and establishing preliminary diagnosis is usually enough sighting history taking and physical examination of the patient. Great importance is self-presenting patients with complaints of dizziness. In recent years, for treatment of various types vestybulopatiy, but also for the prevention of attacks, successfully used betahistyn hydrochloride, which improves the quality of care and well-being of the patient. PMID:23350121

Vasyl'chuk, I S; Kozlova, O O; Trinus, K F; Holovchenko, Iu I; Slobodin, T M

2012-01-01

54

Internetting tactical security sensor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multipurpose Surveillance and Security Mission Platform (MSSMP) is a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations, designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of military security operations and other tactical missions. The baseline MSSMP sensor suite consists of a pan\\/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder. With an

Douglas W. Gage; W. Dale Bryan; Hoa G. Nguyen

55

Aspects of Tactical Biological Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The threat of biological warfare (BW) directed against our forces is greater today than at any other time in the history of modern warfare. This thesis represents the first attempt to answer the question 'What is an effective design for tactical biologica...

T. F. Moshier

1994-01-01

56

Tactical Support Transport Aircraft Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study identifies the Tactical Support Transport (TST) aircraft mission and provides support for selection of a new TST aircraft program to replace the C117/47/54. It concisely presents the cost effectiveness advantages in retaining the TST aircraft or...

1967-01-01

57

Using antisubmarine warfare experience to enhance unattended ground sensor (UGS) employment tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present employment tactics for acoustic sensors in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) networks bear no resemblance to similar broadband acoustic sensor tactics for anti-submarine warfare. The tactical thought processes for the employment of both networks do not explain the differences even taking into account the variance in speed of sound in water and other environmental factors. The use of sonobouy experience appears to be a valid source of information on which to base tactical theory for acoustic sensor placement in the land warfare scenario. The development of tactical scenarios for land sensor operations requires knowledge of a set of factors parallel to the at sea scenario. Reverberation characteristics of local terrain, foliage attenuation of sound, weather background noise and other environmental issues must be considered in the placement of sensors to maximize effectiveness. Land-based sensors are being deployed in a single formation for both search and for track of targets. Examination of the operational experience of at sea deployment of acoustic sensors can greatly accelerate the deployment success of land-based unattended ground sensors in tactical situations.

Jarrett, Stephen M.

2002-08-01

58

Winter Weather Tips for Cardiac Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... workload on the heart. People outdoors in cold weather should avoid sudden exertion, like lifting a heavy ... with your doctor prior to exercising in cold weather. Be aware of the dangers of hypothermia. Heart ...

59

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to give students an understanding of how to forecast weather and how to use weather reports for their personal benefit. They will be able to tell what weather is, read weather instruments, understand basic cloud formations in relation to the weather, and make forecasts for two days in advance.

60

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

61

Strategy for tactical cellular connectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a strategy to unify four disparate networks under an Internet Protocol (IP) umbrella. The first network is the Army Warfighter Information Network - Tactical (WIN-T) area common user system. The second network is an extension to the area common user system using the Mobile Ad Hoc Interoperability Networking Gateway (MAINGATE) system. The third network is the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) based wireless access network and the forth network is the 802.11 WiFi Network. It is the intent of this paper to propose a skeletal wireless strategy that at its core will create everything over IP (EoIP) and "Everything over IEEE" ("EoIEEE") standards at the tactical level of the battlefield.

Carlson, Frederick R.

2011-05-01

62

Security in Tactical MANET Deployments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (‘MANET’) are a developing technology for the transfer of data between moving groups of devices. Due\\u000a to the restrictions imposed by the operational requirements and hardware limitations of MANETs, the implementation of data\\u000a communications and security for these networks presents several challenges, especially when deployed as a ‘tactical network’.\\u000a This paper examines the unique requirements of MANETs

Stuart Stent

63

Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

2004-01-01

64

Impact of Coercive Tactics on the Decision-Making of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: High rates of victimisation have raised concerns about the ability of adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) to avoid and escape from harmful situations and to make decisions in their own best interest. The present study was designed to assess the impact of specific coercive tactics on the decision-making of adolescents with…

Khemka, I.; Hickson, L.; Casella, M.; Accetturi, N.; Rooney, M. E.

2009-01-01

65

Tactics for the New Guerilla Trainer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses tactics for surviving as a trainer in an unfriendly organizational atmosphere. Offers a method for demonstrating to managers the connection between quality assurance and employee empowerment. (JOW)

Mershon, Phil

2001-01-01

66

Inhibiting Outrage: Tactics and counter-tactics in legal cases of sexual harassment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual harassment can be conceptualised as an interaction between harassers and targets. Utilising 23 detailed legal transcripts, this study explored evidence of a range of perpetrator tactics and target counter-tactics. These tactics can be readily fitted into the backfire framework, which proposes that powerful perpetrators of perceived unjust acts are likely to cover up the actions, devalue the target, reinterpret

Paula McDonald; Tina Graham

67

Weather Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the basics of the Earth's weather. Concepts include fundamental causes of common weather phenomena such as temperature changes, wind, clouds, rain and snow. The different factors that affect the weather and the instruments that measure weather data are also addressed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

68

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting â from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment â and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

69

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes, flash floods, lightning, and tornadoes.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

70

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

71

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

72

Shade avoidance.  

PubMed

The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

Casal, Jorge J

2012-01-01

73

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

74

User's Guide for Tactical Thinking Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ongoing need exists in the Army to enhance combat leaders' tactical thinking skills. In conjunction, measurement techniques must be developed to assess tactical thinking skills. This research product is a user's guide for the Tactical Thinking Behavior...

J. K. Phillips K. G. Ross S. B. Shadrick

2006-01-01

75

Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather affects our everyday lives. Some days it's sunny and some days its not. The years weather is split up into seasons. 1. What are the four seasons? 2. What kind of weather do you see in the summer? 3. What kind of weather is unique to winter? 4. ...

Bellows, Mrs.

2009-09-28

76

Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

Hively, Lee M [ORNL

2008-09-01

77

Automated Operator Instruction in Team Tactics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses the applicability of available advanced training technologies to the training of Navy tactical teams. An experiment was conducted to test whether there is sufficient commonality in team tasks performed in existing team tactics trainers to warrant development of a team training system for specific advanced technologies. Data…

Daniels, R. W.; And Others

78

Tactics for Improving Parenting Skills (TIPS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents 99 one-sheet informational brochures designed to improve parenting skills. Each brochure is in a format suitable for duplicating, folding, and distributing. Each parenting "tactic" offers references to related brochures. Tactics are grouped under the following broad areas: (1) home/family involvement (e.g., accepting "The…

Algozzine, Bob, Ed.; Ysseldyke, Jim, Ed.

79

Lateral Jet Control for Tactical Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this paper is to give a survey of lateral jets as control system of tactical missiles. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part gives a brief analysis of new control requirements pertaining to tactical missiles, presents the advanta...

P. Champigny R. G. Lacau

1994-01-01

80

Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

Filstad, Cathrine

2011-01-01

81

Organizational commitment through organizational socialization tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design\\/methodology\\/aproach – A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of organizational commitment. The respondents were newcomers in two large Norwegian government organizations. Findings

Cathrine Filstad

2011-01-01

82

Mate choice and mating tactics in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating tactics and mate choice are related to problems associated with mating effort: the former concerns how to spend it and the latter concerns who to spend it on. The solutions will have consequences for reproductive fitness and so will be shaped primarily by sexual selection. In this thesis, I investigate variation in mating tactics and mate choice within humans

Andrew P Clark

2006-01-01

83

Tactical Nuclear Operations: the Doctrinal Dilemma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The situation surrounding tactical nuclear weapons use is one affected by a great number of vital factors. The most basic is the doctrinal foundation upon which all tactical nuclear operations are built. U.S. nuclear deterrent credibility rests on how eff...

S. F. Tomhave

1980-01-01

84

Measuring tactical behaviour in football.  

PubMed

The present study explored how football players' dynamic positional data can be used to assess tactical behaviour by measuring movement patterns and inter-player coordination. A pre post-test design was used to assess the effects of a 13-week constructivist and cognitivist training program by measuring behaviour in a 5 × 5 football small-sided game, played on a 60 × 40 m outdoor natural turf pitch. Data was captured at 5 Hz by GPS devices (SPI Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia) and analysed with non-linear signal processing methods. Approximate entropy values were lower in post-test situations suggesting that these time series became more regular with increasing expertise in football. Relative phase post-test values showed frequent periods with a clear trend to moving in anti-phase, as measured by players' distance to the centre of the team. These advances may open new research topics under the tactical scope and allow narrowing the gap between sports sciences and sports coaching. PMID:22377947

Sampaio, J; Maçãs, V

2012-05-01

85

Spatial ontologies for tactical behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address spatial ontologies for the areas of operations of tactical behaviors carried out by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). An ontology is a conceptualization of a domain and provides a common vocabulary for automated applications in the domain of interest. Ontological concepts are typically qualitative yet are rigorously defined. An ontology should provide abstract concepts that allow meaningful generalizations. The work reported here is the first known attempt to apply spatial ontologies to tactical behaviors. Some research on spatial ontologies is based on point set topology, although many find points to be unnatural primitives. Alternatives include relations defined in terms of the primitive binary relation "connected_to" on regions; the "part_of" relation is also important. This paper includes a focused survey driven by examples in which we evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the domain in question. We also develop new concepts and techniques especially applicable to representing and reasoning about areas of operation in which UGVs perform missions.

BouSaba, Chafic W.; Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Fatehi, Fereshteh

2008-05-01

86

In situ weathering rind erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cosmogenic nuclide dating methods place in doubt the long-term future of weathering rinds (WRs) as a chronometric tool. Why estimate ages when radiometric control is possible? This paper presents evidence that WRs can provide invaluable clues about what particular sample would provide the most accurate cosmogenic age by avoiding binheritanceQ of cosmogenic nuclides and by avoiding boulders

Steven J. Gordon; Ronald I. Dorn

87

Optimization of Fighter Aircraft Evasive Trajectories for Radar Threats Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimal evasive trajectories of fighter aircraft for radar threats avoidance is studied. At the core of the function is the tactical level trajectory planner that is highly integrated with the mission level planning system. The trajectory planner is described that can find an optimal or sub-optimal trajectory to penetrate through hostile enemy radar threats with a high

Shi Xiaoli; Wang Xinmin; Liu Yongcai; Wang Changqing; Xu Cheng

2007-01-01

88

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

89

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

2008-03-27

90

Weather Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.

91

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

92

Tactical Voting in Plurality Elections  

PubMed Central

How often will elections end in landslides? What is the probability for a head-to-head race? Analyzing ballot results from several large countries rather anomalous and yet unexplained distributions have been observed. We identify tactical voting as the driving ingredient for the anomalies and introduce a model to study its effect on plurality elections, characterized by the relative strength of the feedback from polls and the pairwise interaction between individuals in the society. With this model it becomes possible to explain the polarization of votes between two candidates, understand the small margin of victories frequently observed for different elections, and analyze the polls' impact in American, Canadian, and Brazilian ballots. Moreover, the model reproduces, quantitatively, the distribution of votes obtained in the Brazilian mayor elections with two, three, and four candidates.

Araujo, Nuno A. M.; Andrade, Jose S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

2010-01-01

93

The innovation of e-marketing combination tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing, which is a method and function to link up enterprise with external circumstance, develops with and responses dynamically to the changing of the environment. Under the Internet environment, e-marketing changes the basis of traditional marketing tactics and expands the concept of marketing. The paper discusses the innovation of E-marketing combination tactics from four aspects: product tactics innovation, price tactics

Qin Qiuli; Chen Jingyan; Xizhao

2001-01-01

94

World Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

Elias, Jaume S.

2014-02-20

95

Weather Watcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As spring progresses, weather conditions can continue to fluctuate dramatically, something that may foil vacation plans or other outings. Keeping that in mind, visitors may do well to download the Weather Watcher application created by Mike Singer. With this application, users may automatically retrieve the current weather conditions, look through hourly forecasts, keep abreast of severe weather alerts, and take a look at weather maps for almost any city world-wide. This application is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and above.

Singer, Mike

96

The Innovation of E-marketing Combination Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing, which is a way and function to communicate enterprise and external circumstance changes with the environment development.\\u000a Emarketing under the Internet environment changes the base of traditional marketing tactics and expands the concept of marketing.\\u000a The paper expounds the innovation of E-marketing combination tactics from four aspects: product tactics innovation, price\\u000a tactics innovation, marketing channel innovation and promotion tactics

Qin Qiuli; Chen Jingyan; Xizhao

2001-01-01

97

Tactical Water Distribution System (TWDS) Conduit Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes testing conducted by this command for potential conduits/couplings used in the Tactical Water Distribution System. Three conduit/coupling candidates were evaluated on the basis of their hydraulic properties: rigid pipe with groove a...

G. W. Rutherford

1982-01-01

98

Trauma ultrasound in civilian tactical medicine.  

PubMed

The term "tactical medicine" can be defined in more than one way, but in the nonmilitary setting the term tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) is often used to denote medical support operations for law enforcement. In supporting operations involving groups such as special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams, TEMS entail executing triage, diagnosis, stabilization, and evacuation decision-making in challenging settings. Ultrasound, now well entrenched as a part of trauma evaluation in the hospital setting, has been investigated in the prehospital arena and may have utility in TEMS. This paper addresses potential use of US in the tactical environment, with emphasis on the lessons of recent years' literature. Possible uses of US are discussed, in terms of both specific clinical applications and also with respect to informing triage and related decision making. PMID:23243509

Whelan, Lori; Justice, William; Goodloe, Jeffrey M; Dixon, Jeff D; Thomas, Stephen H

2012-01-01

99

Judgments of Relative Motion in Tactical Displays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two experiments examined the response times with which the direction of relative motion could be inferred from tactical 'line of sight' diagrams, static displays of target and own ship motion used in solving submarine fire control and navigation problems....

K. Laxar A. N. Beare R. Lindner G. Moeller

1981-01-01

100

Real-Time Tactical Operating Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews overall objectives accomplishments, and approach to CENTACS analysis efforts in real-time tactical operating systems. Included is a delineation of final report and a projection of resource expenditure for remainder of contractual effor...

C. W. Yeisley

1975-01-01

101

Future Army Tactical Operation Center Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inefficiency, high complexity, and lack of mobility of current army tactical operation centers (TOC) will limit their effectiveness in the highly dynamic non-linear future battlefield. The extensive hardware, software, and manpower resources needed to...

A. Rodriquez J. E. Johnson J. P. Grills P. J. Emmerman

1999-01-01

102

Weather hazards in ATM: designing for resilient operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation -- Aid the normal decisions of airborne crews and ground controllers during tactical approach operations to airfields and in the presence of adverse atmospheric conditions. Research approach -- A Resilience Engineering framework is used in this research. A conversation analysis of 348 verbal exchanges among airborne crews and ground controllers involved in weather-related aviation incidents and accidents was performed.

Ronish Joyekurun

2007-01-01

103

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

104

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

2008-03-28

105

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

106

Space weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is caused by conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can affect human life or health. It affects man-made systems such as satellite electronics, terrestrial power grids and radio communications. This paper provides an overview of how space weather arises in the solar terrestrial system and how physical processes are able to cause space weather effects. We also discuss European perspectives and activities geared towards the possible initiation of a European Space Weather programme.

Glover, Alexi; Daly, Eamonn; Hilgers, Alain; Berghmans, David

2002-05-01

107

Wilderness search strategy and tactics.  

PubMed

Reports of overdue persons are common for search and rescue personnel. Search incidents for missing persons are conducted following established industry standard practices, which are continuously refined through experience and the analysis of previous search operations. Throughout this process, elements of uncertainty exist, and the knowledge and experience of the searchers and search managers may influence the outcome significantly. A sound knowledge of current search tactics will help search and rescue medical providers function more effectively during search operations. Initial actions during a search incident include 3 primary tasks that must be accomplished on any search: investigation, containment, and then hasty search efforts. Concurrent with these initial actions are the establishment of the search area and a formal US National Incident Management System incident command system. That is essential for an efficient operation and will lay the groundwork for expanding the operation past the initial operational period. The goal of applying these standard search management practices is to allow searchers to maximize their efforts, reduce some of the inherent uncertainty, and most importantly, place searchers in a position to detect the missing person. PMID:24792134

Phillips, Ken; Longden, Maura J; Vandergraff, Bil; Smith, William R; Weber, David C; McIntosh, Scott E; Wheeler, Albert R

2014-06-01

108

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

109

Space Weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video provides a narrated exploration of the history and affects of space weather. It includes information the earth's magnetic field, solar radiation, magnetic storms, and how solar winds affect electronics on earth, with specific information on how space weather affects space exploration in the future.

Gallagher, Dennis L.

2010-01-01

110

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

111

X-31A Tactical Utility Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.

Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin

1997-01-01

112

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

113

Planetary Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

114

Certification of tactics and strategies in aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper suggests that the 'tactics and strategies' notion is a highly suitable paradigm to describe the cognitive involvement of human operators in advanced aviation systems (far more suitable than classical functional analysis), and that the workload and situational awareness of operators are intimately associated with the planning and execution of their tactics and strategies. If system designers have muddled views about the collective tactics and strategies to be used during operation, they will produce sub-optimum designs. If operators use unproven and/or inappropriate tactics and strategies, the system may fail. The author wants to make a point that, beyond certification of people or system designs, there may be a need to go into more detail and examine (certify?) the set of tactics and strategies (i.e., the Operational Concept) which makes the people and systems perform as expected. The collective tactics and strategies determine the information flows and situational awareness which exists in organizations and composite human-machine systems. The available infrastructure and equipment (automation) enable these information flows and situational awareness, but are at the same time the constraining factor. Frequently, the tactics and strategies are driven by technology, whereas we would rather like to see a system designed to support an optimized Operational Concept, i.e., to support a sufficiently coherent, cooperative and modular set of anticipation and planning mechanisms. Again, in line with the view of MacLeod and Taylor (1993), this technology driven situation may be caused by the system designer's and operator job designer's over-emphasis on functional analysis (a mechanistic engineering concept), at the expense of a subject which does not seem to be well understood today: the role of the (human cognitive and/or automated) tactics and strategies which are embedded in composite human-machine systems. Research would be needed to arrive at a generally accepted 'planning theory' which can elevate the analysis, description and design of tactics and strategies from today's cottage industry methods to an engineering discipline. The available infrastructure and equipment (automation) enable these information flows and situational awareness, but are at the same time the constraining factor. Frequently, the tactics and strategies are driven by technology, whereas we would rather like to see a system designed to support an optimized Operational Concept, i.e., to support a sufficiently coherent, cooperative and modular set of anticipation and planning mechanisms. Again, in line with the view of MacLeod and Taylor (1993), this technology driven situation may be caused by the system designer's and operator job designer's over-emphasis on functional analysis (a mechanistic engineering concept), at the expense of a subject which does not seem to be well understood today: the role of the (human cognitive and/or automated) tactics and strategies which are embedded in composite human-machine systems. Research would be needed to arrive at a generally accepted 'planning theory' which can evaluate the analysis, description and design of tactics and strategies from today's cottage industry methods to an engineering discipline.

Koelman, Hartmut

1994-01-01

115

Basic and Advanced Submarine Officer's Tactical Training Device Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a summary of several documents on basic and advanced officer tactics training. These investigations examine submarine officer's tactical training requirements and recommend an overall plan to advance submarine technology. The major recommend...

A. J. Pesch T. J. Hammell

1974-01-01

116

XML Tactical Chat (XTC): The Way Ahead for Navy Chat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The motivation for pursuing XML-based tactical chat includes the great potential of this technology and fixing limitations of current chat programs. XTC capabilities have the potential to completely upgrade and restructure all tactical military communicat...

D. DeVos

2007-01-01

117

Tactical Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Protocols and Techniques (Briefing Charts).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the Tactical SOA project is to develop, assess and understand the application of technologies and protocols to bring the benefits of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to tactical environments, and investigate and quantify the network burde...

J. Milligan

2011-01-01

118

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

119

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Friend, Duane

120

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month-long interdisciplinary project students collect weather data, determine the best visual representation for displaying it, and discuss the patterns and implications of their findings. This resource includes extension and assessment suggestions and guiding questions.

2014-01-01

121

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

122

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following James Van Allen's discovery of Earth's radiation belts (1958), it was immediately recognized that the space environment would be hostile to the communications satellites that had been envision by Arthur Clark (1945) and John Pierce (1955). Van Allen's discovery set off a burst of "space weather" research and engineering that continues to today, paralleling "space weather" research that had, prior to 1958, been directed toward understanding environment effects on cable and early wireless communications, electric power distribution, and pipelines. Van Allen's discovery also meant that the flight of humans above the sensible atmosphere would be fraught with more peril than mere weightlessness. This Van Allen lecture will discuss the space weather considerations that arose from Van Allen's discovery as well as space weather effects that occur from numerous other physical processes in the complex sun-heliosphere-magnetosphere environmental system.

Lanzerotti, L. J.

2005-05-01

123

Weatherizing America  

SciTech Connect

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

2009-01-01

124

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Stelling, Pete

125

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

Kshumway

2009-09-28

126

Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

127

Progress report of the National Weatherization Assistance Program  

SciTech Connect

The National Weatherization Evaluation of the 1989 Program Year and the Metaevaluation of 1996 are described in two ways in this summary document. The text pages summarize the results of the two evaluations conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The photographs and explanations illustrate weatherization operations and tactics. An overview and history of the program is provided, followed by the scope of weatherization, metaevaluation methods and results for 1996, national evaluation methods and results for 1989, response to evaluation findings, remaining opportunities, and next steps. Conclusions and significant findings are then given.

Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States)

1997-09-01

128

Real-Time Tactical Operating System Study. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed analysis and characterization of tactical real-time operating systems (RTOS) that can be used to develop: (1) a guideline for specifying and designing tactical RTOS and (2) a generalized, parameterized RTOS module for a broad class of tactical ...

S. Steele J. Kulp A. Decegama C. Yeisley T. Hoke

1975-01-01

129

Tactical EMS: An emerging opportunity in graduate medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Modification of traditional emergency medical services (EMS) principles and procedures for use in the tactical law enforcement setting is emerging as a subspecialty of emergency medicine. Few opportunities exist to train physicians in the principles of tactical medicine, and no studies demonstrate the effectiveness of physician-level training in tactical EMS. Methods: A standardized eight-hour CONTOMS (Counter Terrorism Operations Medical

William P. Bozeman; Edward R. Eastman

2002-01-01

130

Surface tension of tactic polyvinylalcohols in water-DMSO-solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Surface tension of solutions of syndio-, iso- and atactic polyvinylalcohols in water-dimethylsulfoxide have been measured. Syndiotactic PVA is surface active with short relaxation time, nucleation and growth of the surface chains is rate determining. Isotactic surface adsorption is controlled by uncoiling of the intramolecular bonded sidegroups. If tactic PVA's have almost the same tactic percentage, tactic sequence distribution is

S. Matsuzawa; K. Ueberreiter

1978-01-01

131

Influence tactics and work outcomes: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent research on influence tactics has focused on the benefits that accrue as a result of using such tactics. The current study utilizes meta-analytic techniques to estimate the true popula- tion correlations between various influence tactics and work-related outcomes. Results indi- cate that ingratiation and rationality have positive effects on work outcomes. Additional analyses suggest that these and other

Chad A. Higgins; Timothy A. Judge; Gerald R. Ferris

2003-01-01

132

Evaluation of Two Isolated Responsive Ramp Control Tactics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two local responsive control tactics were evaluated on a five-entrance-ramp subsystem of the southbound direction of the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago. Two local responsive ramp control tactics were evaluated. One (existing) tactic was based on a univers...

J. A. Budrick M. Levin Y. D. Tsao

1982-01-01

133

Warden and the Air Corps Tactical School.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study answers the following questions: Is John A. Warden III's, 'The Enemy as a System' analogous to the Air Corps Tactical Schools (ACTS) industrial web theory of airpower employment. If so why (given the 50 plus years between development of these t...

S. D. West

1999-01-01

134

Cooperation creates selection for tactical deception  

PubMed Central

Conditional social behaviours such as partner choice and reciprocity are held to be key mechanisms facilitating the evolution of cooperation, particularly in humans. Although how these mechanisms select for cooperation has been explored extensively, their potential to select simultaneously for complex cheating strategies has been largely overlooked. Tactical deception, the misrepresentation of the state of the world to another individual, may allow cheaters to exploit conditional cooperation by tactically misrepresenting their past actions and/or current intentions. Here we first use a simple game-theoretic model to show that the evolution of cooperation can create selection pressures favouring the evolution of tactical deception. This effect is driven by deception weakening cheater detection in conditional cooperators, allowing tactical deceivers to elicit cooperation at lower costs, while simple cheats are recognized and discriminated against. We then provide support for our theoretical predictions using a comparative analysis of deception across primate species. Our results suggest that the evolution of conditional strategies may, in addition to promoting cooperation, select for astute cheating and associated psychological abilities. Ultimately, our ability to convincingly lie to each other may have evolved as a direct result of our cooperative nature.

McNally, Luke; Jackson, Andrew L.

2013-01-01

135

A Framework for Teaching Tactical Game Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an example of a framework of generic knowledge, designed for teachers, that describes and explains the foundational tactical aspects of invasive team-game play. The framework consists of four modules: participants and their roles, objectives, action principles, and action options. Guidelines to help instructors design practical activities…

Wilson, Gail E.

2002-01-01

136

NRC initiatives in tactical response evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December of 1987 the NRC published for comment proposed amendments to 10 CFR Part 73 that would require tactical exercises be performed on a periodic basis. These NRC initiatives were a result of a special team reviewing be comparability of physical protection for weapons-usable, special nuclear material at NRC and DOE facilities. The team noted the improved performances of

Kasun

1988-01-01

137

The DARWARS Tactical Language Training System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARWARS Tactical Language Training System (TLTS) helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. Learners practice their communication skills in a simulated village, where they must develop rapport with the local people, who in term will help them accomplish missions such as post-war reconstruction. Each learner is accompanied by a virtual aide who can provide assistance

W. L. Johnson; S. Marsella; H. Vilhjálmsson

2004-01-01

138

The Navy's Tactical Aircraft Strike Planning Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

lanning tactical aircraft strikes aboard the Navy's aircraft carriers is a complex process involving many different organizations, people, data, and computer systems. The process occurs within a series of events called the strike planning cycle. This repetitive cycle begins with the reception of a task and ends with the collection of strike assessment data. Within the cycle lie steps for

William A. Menner

139

Tactical Mobile Robot Mission Specification and Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech, as part of DARPA's Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR) Program, is developing a widerange of mission specification capabilities for the urban warfighter. These include the development of arange of easily configurable mission-specific robot behaviors suitable for various battlefield and specialforces scenarios; communications planning and configuration capabilities for small teams of robotsacting in a coordinated manner; interactive graphical visual programming

Ronald C. Arkin; Thomas R. Collins; Yoichiro Endo

1999-01-01

140

Field Results for Tactical Mobile Robot Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, Georgia Tech conducted two field experiments to determine the performance of its mission specification system. The experiments were developed for the DARPA Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR) Program and were conducted at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. The goal of the TMR Program is to develop robotic tools that can perform useful tasks on future military missions involving complex obstacle

Thomas R. Collins; Ronald C. Arkin; Michael J. Cramer; Yoichiro Endo

141

Graduating Tactics: Theorizing Plagiarism as Consumptive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plagiarism is a growing concern to educators in the tertiary sector, although currently its appearances in the higher education literature have predominantly been concerned with its prevention and management. This article draws on the poststructuralist theory of consumption developed by Michel de Certeau, to consider plagiarism as a tactic

Saltmarsh, Sue

2004-01-01

142

Tactical planning of offshore petroleum production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model for tactical planning of Norwegian petroleum production. The problem involves regulation of production levels from wells, splitting of production flows into oil and gas products, further processing of gas and transportation in a pipeline network. Blending and processing of gas is necessary to satisfy quality requirements in the markets. The problem is formulated with multi-component

Nina Linn Ulstein; Bjørn Nygreen; Jan Richard Sagli

2007-01-01

143

Network management training for tactical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) provided by GTE is an army tactical communication system providing battlefield voice and data communications. MSE consists of a number of node center switches, large and small extension node switches, line of sight radio equipment to connect fixed assets, and mobile subscriber terminals. The core element providing net management of MSE is the system control

C. B. Duncombe

1997-01-01

144

Tactical Decision Making and Decision Support Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of computerized decision support systems in higher education for making tactical institutional decisions is reviewed, with attention to the kind of administrative problems that lie somewhere between programmed to nonprogrammed decisions and require a combination of computer support and administrative judgment. (MSE)

Harmon, Joel I.

1986-01-01

145

ObsTac: Automated Execution of Dark Energy Survey Observing Tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey is a multi-filter survey of the southern galactic cap with two components: a wide component which visits many fields, each ten times over the course of five years; and a time-domain component of ten fields revisited on a regular cadence in each of four filters through the survey. Optimal selection of an observation for any particular time depends on many factors, including weather (including seeing), moon position and phase, image quality of already collected exposures, and others. ObsTac is the component of the observing software system that automates selection of observations based on current conditions. It integrates with the observing software through an observing queue, supporting interactive intervention by observers. It has a modular structure that simplifies replacement of different components of the system, including the implementation of the tactics algorithms themselves and interfaces with data sources that supply, for example, weather and progress data. In addition to its use in observing, obsTac may also be used to run simulations to evaluate strategic and tactical algorithms based on archival weather data.

Neilsen, E.; Annis, J.

2014-05-01

146

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of our current observational knowledge, theoretical understanding, and numerical capability with regard to the phenomena known as space weather. Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems, and can endanger human life or health. The rapid advance in these technologies has provided us with unprecedented capability and convenience, and we have come to rely on them more and more. Technology has reduced society's risk to many kinds of natural disasters, but through its own vulnerability, it has actually increased society's risk to space weather. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socioeconomic losses.

Song, Paul; Singer, Howard J.; Siscoe, George L.

147

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

148

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

149

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Illinois Extension comes the Weather One instructional Web site for kids. The lesson consists of six pages that cover various weather related topics including seasons, clouds, the atmosphere, wind, global warming, and storms. Each page describes the particular subject, provides related photographs, and contains several activities that reinforce the learning. For example, the clouds page shows how kids can make a cloud and create a collage out of simple material found around the house. The effective organization and clean look of the site will surely make it easy for students to follow and enjoy.

1969-12-31

150

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

151

Weather Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. Why does the wind blow? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What happens when the temperature is the same? 4. What happens when there is high relative humidity? 5. What ...

missy.jones@gmail.com

2009-09-28

152

Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

2001-12-01

153

It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system  

PubMed Central

Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods.

Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P.; Williamson, Jane E.

2012-01-01

154

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

155

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

156

Today's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

157

Weather Wordsearch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find the 12 weather related words in this word search brought to you by the Southeast Regional Climate Center (SERCC). When you finish finding all 12 words, hit the restart button to re-scramble the letters and start all over again!

2007-01-01

158

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

2002-01-01

159

NOAA Weather Radio Hourly Weather Roundup Formatter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Weather Service (NWS) is planning to replace the aging National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio (NWR) as part of its modernization program. The Office of Meteorology (OM) selected the Hourly Weather Roundup (HWR) t...

G. F. Battel G. A. Kokolis J. E. Calkins

1994-01-01

160

Genetically modified plants for tactical systems applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several tactical uses for this technology. Some obvious applications are using plants as sentinels for detecting biological and chemical warfare agents or their derivatives from a remote platform, as well as detecting explosives. Another tactical application is covert monitoring using individual plants. Different methods to detect GFP in transgenic plants will be discussed.

Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

2002-08-01

161

Microcryocooler for tactical and space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center has developed a very lightweight cryocooler for tactical and space cooling applications. A prototype pulse tube cryocooler was built and tested, utilizing a new microcompressor with a mass of less than 200 grams. The "Oxford type" compressor uses the same long-life features of Lockheed Martin's larger compressors: long-life flexure-bearing clearance-seal technology, with a simple moving magnet configuration designed both for low-cost tactical applications and for long-life space applications. The compressor operated flawlessly with electrical input power as high as 25 W. Test data will be presented for the prototype single-stage pulse tube cooler. Predictions for the cooling capability of optimized coldheads under a variety of cold tip temperatures and heat loads will also be presented. A first-article microcryocooler with an optimized coldhead is slated to be integrated into a high-performance infrared (IR) camera system by the end of 2013.

Olson, J. R.; Champagne, P.; Roth, E.; Nast, T.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.; Kenton, A. C.; Dobbins, C. L.

2014-01-01

162

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

163

Weather Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Mitchell, Mrs.

2010-09-23

164

Adaptive Intelligent Vehicle Modules for Tactical Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent vehicles must make real-time tactical level decisions to drive in mixed traffic environments. SAPIENT is a reasoning system that combines high-level task goals with low-level sensor constraints to control simulated and (ultimately) real vehicles like the Carnegie Mellon Navlab robot vans. SAPIENT consists of a number of reasoning modules whose outputs are combined using a voting scheme. The behavior

Rahul Sukthankar; John Hancock; Shumeet Baluja; Dean Pomerleau; Charles Thorpe

1996-01-01

165

Multiple Adaptive Agents for Tactical Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in automated highway systems has ranged from low-level vision-based controllers to high-level route-guidance software. However, there is currently no system for tactical-level reasoning. Such a system should address tasks such as passing cars, making exits on time, and merging into a traffic stream. Many previous approaches have attempted to hand construct large rule-based systems which capture the interactions

Rahul Sukthankar; Shumeet Baluja; John Hancock

1998-01-01

166

Tactical-Level Forest Management Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tactical analysis represents a bridge between strategic modeling and operations modeling. Whereas strategic models represent\\u000a space with large tracks and production areas, operational models represent a space as a set of stands, riparian zones, feasible\\u000a positions for road segments, and the terrain surface so that logging activities can be laid out. Strategic models allow a\\u000a broad-scale analysis over a long

Richard L. Church

167

Weathering Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Could bad weather be responsible for U.S. corruption? Natural disasters create resource windfalls in the states they strike by triggering federally provided natural-disaster relief. By increasing the benefit of fraudulent appropriation and creating new opportunities for such theft, disaster-relief windfalls may also increase corruption. We investigate this hypothesis by exploring the effect of disaster relief provided by the Federal Emergency

2008-01-01

168

An Antitrust Primer: How To Avoid Bid Rigging and Other Collusions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows school business officials how to detect and avoid bid rigging, price fixing, and other types of unlawful collusion prohibited by the Sherman Antitrust Act. School administrators should expand the list of bidders, consolidate purchases as a defensive tactic, consider reletting the contract in tie-bid situations, recognize the elements of…

Connolly, Robert E.

1997-01-01

169

Alternative reproductive tactics and the propensity of hybridization.  

PubMed

One explanation for hybridization between species is the fitness benefits it occasionally confers to the hybridizing individuals. This explanation is possible in species that have evolved alternative male reproductive tactics: individuals with inferior tactics might be more prone to hybridization provided it increases their reproductive success and fitness. Here we experimentally tested whether the propensity of hybridization in the wild depends on male reproductive tactic in Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Counter to our expectation, it was males adopting the superior reproductive tactic (territoriality) that had greatest propensity to hybridize than males adopting the inferior tactics (sneakers and floaters). Moreover, among the territorial males, the most ornamented males had greatest propensity to hybridize whereas the pattern was reversed in the sneaker males. Our results suggest that there is fluctuating selection on male mate discrimination against heterospecific females depending on both ornament size and the male's reproductive tactic. PMID:19878500

Tynkkynen, K; Raatikainen, K J; Häkkilä, M; Haukilehto, E; Kotiaho, J S

2009-12-01

170

Weather Science Hotlist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.

2008-04-11

171

Sexual strategies pursued and mate attraction tactics deployed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies tested evolutionary hypotheses about the use and perceived effectiveness of specific mate attraction tactics as a function of sexual strategy pursued. Participants and a close same-sex friend of each participant reported on the participant’s sexual strategy and deployment of attraction tactics. In Study 1, participants’ mate attraction tactics differed predictably depending on whether they were pursuing a long-term

April Bleske-Rechek; David M. Buss

2006-01-01

172

Effect of NEXRAD Image Looping and National Convective Weather Forecast Product on Pilot Decision Making in the Use of a Cockpit Weather Information Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment investigated improvements to cockpit weather displays to better support the hazardous weather avoidance decision-making of general aviation pilots. Forty-eight general aviation pilots were divided into three equal groups and presented with...

M. A. Burgess R. P. Thomas

2004-01-01

173

Weather Tamers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.

Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

2007-03-01

174

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

175

Weather Photography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

2000-01-01

176

Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

177

Destructive Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

Alizabethirwin

2010-11-03

178

From the laboratory to the soldier: providing tactical behaviors for Army robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Army Future Combat System (FCS) Operational Requirement Document has identified a number of advanced robot tactical behavior requirements to enable the Future Brigade Combat Team (FBCT). The FBCT advanced tactical behaviors include Sentinel Behavior, Obstacle Avoidance Behavior, and Scaled Levels of Human-Machine control Behavior. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN) has also documented a number of robotic behavior requirements for the Army non FCS forces such as the Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT), Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT), and Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT). The general categories of useful robot tactical behaviors include Ground/Air Mobility behaviors, Tactical Mission behaviors, Manned-Unmanned Teaming behaviors, and Soldier-Robot Interface behaviors. Many DoD research and development centers are achieving the necessary components necessary for artificial tactical behaviors for ground and air robots to include the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center, US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and non DoD labs such as Department of Energy (DOL). With the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) through DoD and non DoD labs the Army Maneuver Support Center has recently concluded successful field trails of ground and air robots with specialized tactical behaviors and sensors to enable semi autonomous detection, reporting, and marking of explosive hazards to include Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and landmines. A specific goal of this effort was to assess how collaborative behaviors for multiple unmanned air and ground vehicles can reduce risks to Soldiers and increase efficiency for on and off route explosive hazard detection, reporting, and marking. This paper discusses experimental results achieved with a robotic countermine system that utilizes autonomous behaviors and a mixed-initiative control scheme to address the challenges of detecting and marking buried landmines. Emerging requirements for robotic countermine operations are outlined as are the technologies developed under this effort to address them. A first experiment shows that the resulting system was able to find and mark landmines with a very low level of human involvement. In addition, the data indicates that the robotic system is able to decrease the time to find mines and increase the detection accuracy and reliability. Finally, the paper presents current efforts to incorporate new countermine sensors and port the resulting behaviors to two fielded military systems for rigorous assessing.

Knichel, David G.; Bruemmer, David J.

2008-05-01

179

Adaptation and Improvement of ASW Tactical Decision Aid Design to Mine Warfare Tactical Decision Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this presentation, the adaptation of a tactical decision aid (TDA) designed for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) to one used for Mine Warfare is discussed. Previous work at the Naval Research Laboratory established a TDA, namely GRASP for the ASW role. Rec...

J. Dubberley

2003-01-01

180

Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

181

Patenting as a competitive tactic in multipoint competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For patenting, the paper seeks to show how invention value and firm rivalry drive the tactics of competing, deterring competitors, retreating from markets, and cooperating. It also aims to explore the effects

Richard Reed; Susan F. Storrud-Barnes

2011-01-01

182

Time for Europeans to Debate the Presence of Tactical Nukes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The superpowers are making decisions about tactical and nuclear weapons which may be immutable for Europe for the next 20 years. The maintenance of arsenals for tactical and nuclear weapons should be discussed by more than just the closed circle of professional strategists-by journalists, politicians, philosophers and thoughtful citizens. (BT)

Miettinen, Jorma K.

1976-01-01

183

Sport Foundations for Elementary Physical Education: A Tactical Games Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a comprehensive, applied, and field-tested plan for using tactical games in teaching elementary physical education. The tactical games approach is taught by game category. For each game category, the book presents three progressive levels of units containing up to 30 detailed lesson plans. Each of the 90 lessons is designed to…

Mitchell, Stephen A.; Oslin, Judith L.; Griffin, Linda L.

184

Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

1998-01-01

185

Training SWAT teams: implications for improving tactical units  

Microsoft Academic Search

As terrorism and other forms of violence continue to increase in American society, there is a growing need for law enforcement agencies to utilize Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) or Tactical Teams. There is, however, very little research available on SWAT units, and even less information on the training needs of these specialized divisions. This article describes the results of

Joanna G. Clark; Mary S. Jackson; Peggy M. Schaefer; E. Gail Sharpe

2000-01-01

186

The evolution of human intrasexual competition: Tactics of mate attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin's theory of sexual selection suggests that individuals compete with members of their own sex for reproductively relevant resources held by members of the opposite sex. Four empirical studies were conducted to identify tactics of intrasexual mate competition and to test four evolution-based hypotheses. A preliminary study yielded a taxonomy of tactics. Study 1 used close-friend observers to report performance

David M. Buss

1988-01-01

187

Potential Strategies and Tactics for Organizational Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts the roles of performance technologists and other performance improvement specialists. Provides a matrix of strategies and tactics that performance technologists should be familiar with. Identifies regulations that can affect implementation of tactics, including EEO/affirmative action guidelines; employee safety and health laws,…

Hutchison, Cathleen Smith; And Others

1996-01-01

188

MASCOT: Manycast Architecture for Service-Oriented Tactical Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present our work on the Manycast Architecture for Service-Oriented Tactical Operations, or MASCOT, a project between the University of Masschusetts, Dartmouth and the United States Marine Corps (USMC). MASCOT is a service that can be used by the Combat Operation Centers (COCs) to efficiently allocate tactical field resources given a task request, or mission, and set

Neal Charbonneau; Vinod M. Vokkarane; Ramprasad Balasubramanian

2009-01-01

189

Behavioural Thermoregulatory Tactics in Lacustrine Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis  

PubMed Central

The need to vary body temperature to optimize physiological processes can lead to thermoregulatory behaviours, particularly in ectotherms. Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. The main objective of this study was to determine whether different thermal tactics exist among individuals of the same population. We studied the behavioural thermoregulation of 33 adult brook charr in a stratified lake using thermo-sensitive radio transmitters that measured hourly individual temperature over one month. The observed behavioural thermoregulatory patterns were consistent between years and suggest the existence of four tactics: two “warm” tactics with both crepuscular and finer periodicities, with or without a diel periodicity, and two “cool” tactics, with or without a diel periodicity. Telemetry data support the above findings by showing that the different tactics are associated with different patterns of diel horizontal movements. Taken together, our results show a clear spatio-temporal segregation of individuals displaying different tactics, suggesting a reduction of niche overlap. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a vertebrate.

Bertolo, Andrea; Pepino, Marc; Adams, Julie; Magnan, Pierre

2011-01-01

190

Tactics and technology: How do they affect each other  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of new, revolutionary technologies have been extensive. The resulting military applications will drastically change the tactical nature of the battlefield. To cover every technology currently under consideration would be lengthy and beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is the intent of this paper to detail selected technological innovations and their tactical implications. Technological advances in

Boyle

1991-01-01

191

Evaluation of AURORA as a Tactical Source Region Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memo compares the AURORA environment with that expected in an actual tactical source region environment. The primary interest in making the comparison is to evaluate the role that AURORA can play as a source region simulator for tactical systems of i...

W. F. Crevier E. D. Kalasky W. Scharf

1983-01-01

192

Tactics for the Educational Change Agent. A Preliminary Analyisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prototype of a guide for educational change agents focuses on the roles and tactics of personnel employed in nonprofit educational research and development organizations and in state and intermediate education agencies. Included is a compilation of reports from recent users of three classes of tactics: information, demonstration, and field…

Rosenau, Fred S.

193

Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

Spiro, Jody

2010-01-01

194

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

195

Socialization tactics, employee proactivity, and person-organization fit.  

PubMed

This study examined the linkage between organizational socialization tactics and person-organization (P-O) fit and examined the moderating influence of employees' proactivity behaviors. Results from a sample of 279 employee-supervisor pairs from 7 organizations in South Korea revealed a positive relationship between institutionalized socialization tactics and P-O fit perceptions. However, the association between firms' socialization tactics and P-O fit was facilitated or negated by several proactive behaviors that employees used to gain control over their environment. For example, employees' positive framing harmonized with institutional tactics to create higher P-O fit, whereas employees who proactively developed strong relationships with their supervisors essentially replaced institutionalized socialization tactics. PMID:15769234

Kim, Tae-Yeol; Cable, Daniel M; Kim, Sang-Pyo

2005-03-01

196

Development of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports.  

PubMed

Purpose of this study, in which 19 trainers and 415 competitive youth field hockey and soccer players (M age=15.9, SD=1.6; 283 boys and 132 girls) selected by their age, sex, and performance status participated, was to develop a practical, reliable, and valid measure of tactical skills in sports. With trainers, 34 questions were formulated involving tactical skills. Factor analysis yielded the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports. Scales were labeled Positioning and Deciding, Knowing about Ball Actions, Knowing about Others, and Acting in Changing Situations, covering all aspects of tactical skills regarding Declarative versus Procedural knowledge and Attack and Defense. Internal consistency and test-retest measures for reliability (except Knowing about Ball Actions) were within acceptable limits. Elite players scored better than nonelite players, supporting construct validity. The inventory is suitable for measuring tactical skills in youth field hockey and soccer players in sports practice. PMID:15648483

Elferink-Gemser, M T; Visscher, C; Richart, H; Lemmink, K A P M

2004-12-01

197

Diagnosing degradation of services in hybrid wireless tactical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a problem related to service management and deployment in tactical military networks. Tactical networks are typically hybrid wireless networks in which there are both static and mobile nodes with several wireless interfaces, such as 802.11, 3G, satellite, etc. In tactical networks, performance degradation in services could prove fatal, so it must be diagnosed quickly. This degradation could be due to mobility or bottlenecks in capacity at network layer. We provide a cross-layer framework to detect and diagnose these causes of performance degradation as part of service management; it includes a monitoring model of services and a network model for hybrid wireless networks. In addition, we give a working example in tactical military networks to illustrate our framework. We provide an experimental setup to simulate our hybrid wireless tactical network scenario along with preliminary results.

Tati, Srikar; Novotny, Petr; Ko, Bong Jun; Wolf, Alexander; Swami, Ananthram; La Porta, Thomas

2013-05-01

198

AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.

Huntsberger, Terrance L.

2013-01-01

199

Avoiding Statistical Mistakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

Strasser, Nora

2007-01-01

200

Inbreeding avoidance in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of inbreeding depression is well documented and behavioral adaptations for inbreeding avoidance have been described. However, there is debate over whether inbreeding depression is always an important selective force on behavior. Here, we summarize recent evidence for inbreeding depression under natural conditions, review inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, and discuss how these are influenced by social structure. We also examine

Anne Pusey; Marisa Wolf

1996-01-01

201

Cockpit Weather Information Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weat...

C. H. Scanlon

1992-01-01

202

Forecasting the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

Bollinger, Richard

1984-01-01

203

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

204

National Weather Service  

MedlinePLUS

HOME FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long ... LOADING... Menu ? ACTIVE ALERTS ? FORECAST MAPS ? RADAR ? RIVERS, LAKES, RAINFALL ? AIR QUALITY ? SATELLITE ? PAST WEATHER ? Local forecast ...

205

Predicting Weather and Understanding Weather Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The assignment requires students to observe the weather map in the newspaper for four consecutive days. On the first day they are instructed to choose a location somewhere in the country. The will record the weather conditions there and observe any weather systems that exist elsewhere in the country. They then make predictions of how they expect weather in their location to change over the subsequent three days.

Grandy, Carla

206

Palmer Automatic Weather Station  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Palmer Automatic Weather Station Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 06 ... Environmental Action Memorandum (Palmer Automatic Weather Station) To: Files (S.7 - Environment ...

207

Tactics as units of analysis in personality psychology: An illustration using tactics of hierarchy negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important recent trends in personality psychology have been a resurgence of traditional trait research (e.g. five factor model) and the emergence of personal goal-based approaches (e.g. life tasks, personal projects, and personal strivings). We propose that tactics are useful units of analysis that can provide a bridge between these two research movements. To illustrate this approach, we examined the

Liisa M. Kyl-Heku; David M. Buss

1996-01-01

208

Characterization of Tactical Departure Scheduling in the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses and analyzes current day utilization and performance of the tactical departure scheduling process in the National Airspace System (NAS) to understand the benefits in improving this process. The analysis used operational air traffic data from over 1,082,000 flights during the month of January, 2011. Specific metrics included the frequency of tactical departure scheduling, site specific variances in the technology's utilization, departure time prediction compliance used in the tactical scheduling process and the performance with which the current system can predict the airborne slot that aircraft are being scheduled into from the airport surface. Operational data analysis described in this paper indicates significant room for improvement exists in the current system primarily in the area of reduced departure time prediction uncertainty. Results indicate that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft did not meet their scheduled departure slot due to departure time uncertainty. In addition to missed slots, the operational data analysis identified increased controller workload associated with tactical departures which were subject to traffic management manual re-scheduling or controller swaps. An analysis of achievable levels of departure time prediction accuracy as obtained by a new integrated surface and tactical scheduling tool is provided to assess the benefit it may provide as a solution to the identified shortfalls. A list of NAS facilities which are likely to receive the greatest benefit from the integrated surface and tactical scheduling technology are provided.

Capps, Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

2011-01-01

209

Avoiding Construction Snafus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses risk management planning tips that help schools avoid project-delaying construction problems. Preconstruction planning topics explored include the type of construction method to use, contract selection, and the need for efficient project management. (GR)

Rochefort, Mark; Gosch, Jerry

2001-01-01

210

Avoiding the SCAMs.  

PubMed

Dendrites from the same neuron usually avoid contact with one another, a behavior known as self-avoidance. In this issue of Neuron and in the upcoming May 4, 2007 issue of Cell, a pair of studies by Soba et al. and Hughes et al. and a study by Matthews et al., respectively, identify products from the highly alternatively spliced Dscam gene as central to this behavior in Drosophila. Signaling induced by adhesion between identical isoforms triggers repulsion between sister dendrites. PMID:17481387

Kidd, Thomas; Condron, Barry

2007-05-01

211

WeatherNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherNet, brought to us by The Weather Underground at University of Michigan, aims to be the premier site of weather links on the Internet. Besides the topical tropical storm page, you can view Accu-Weathers graphics including Nexrad imagery, satellite photos, surface maps, and forecast maps.

1998-01-01

212

Teaching Weather Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

Sebastian, Glenn R.

213

Backyard Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use their senses to describe what the weather is doing and predict what it might do next. After gaining a basic understanding of weather patterns, students act as state park engineers and design/build "backyard weather stations" to gather data to make actual weather forecasts.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

214

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

215

Weather in Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

216

Impact of Probabilistic Weather on Flight Routing Decisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight delays in the United States have been found to increase year after year, along with the increase in air traffic. During the four-month period from May through August of 2005, weather related delays accounted for roughly 70% of all reported delays, The current weather prediction in tactical (within 2 hours) timeframe is at manageable levels, however, the state of forecasting weather for strategic (2-6 hours) timeframe is still not dependable for long-term planning. In the absence of reliable severe weather forecasts, the decision-making for flights longer than two hours is challenging. This paper deals with an approach of using probabilistic weather prediction for Traffic Flow Management use, and a general method using this prediction for estimating expected values of flight length and delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). The current state-of-the-art convective weather forecasting is employed to aid the decision makers in arriving at decisions for traffic flow and flight planing. The six-agency effort working on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) have considered weather-assimilated decision-making as one of the principal foci out of a list of eight. The weather Integrated Product Team has considered integrated weather information and improved aviation weather forecasts as two of the main efforts (Ref. 1, 2). Recently, research has focused on the concept of operations for strategic traffic flow management (Ref. 3) and how weather data can be integrated for improved decision-making for efficient traffic management initiatives (Ref. 4, 5). An overview of the weather data needs and benefits of various participants in the air traffic system along with available products can be found in Ref. 6. Previous work related to use of weather data in identifying and categorizing pilot intrusions into severe weather regions (Ref. 7, 8) has demonstrated a need for better forecasting in the strategic planning timeframes and moving towards a probabilistic description of weather (Ref. 9). This paper focuses on. specified probability in a local region for flight intrusion/deviation decision-making. The process uses a probabilistic weather description, implements that in a air traffic assessment system to study trajectories of aircraft crossing a cut-off probability contour. This value would be useful for meteorologists in creating optimum distribution profiles for severe weather, Once available, the expected values of flight path and aggregate delays are calculated for efficient operations. The current research, however, does not deal with the issue of multiple cell encounters, as well as echo tops, and will be a topic of future work.

Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Mulfinger, Daniel

2006-01-01

217

Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

2005-01-01

218

USS EDENTON (ATS-1) Tactical and Maneuvering Trial Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of tactical trials conducted on USS EDENTON (ATS-1). The trials consisted of turning circles, acceleration, deceleration, spiral, swinging tests and astern controllability tests conducted at a displacement of 3,200 tons an...

C. W. Tate

1972-01-01

219

Warden and the Air Corps Tactical School: Deja Vu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study answers the following questions: Is John Warden's 'The Enemy as a System' analogous to the Air Corps Tactical School's (ACTS) industrial Web theory of airpower employment. If so, why (given the 50+ years between development of these theories). ...

S. D. West

1998-01-01

220

Cultural Tactical Advisor for Warfighters in the Urban Battlespace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are developing a mobile handheld system that provides tactical and cultural advice to warfighters. The system fuses built-in knowledge of social factors and location specific information with dynamically entered situation descriptions to produce an ass...

A. Ruvinsky B. Mendoza J. Vidal M. Huhns S. Langevin

2006-01-01

221

Training Tactical Decision-Making Skills: An Emerging Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Training in decision-making skills directly contributes to the combat readiness of Battle Staff Officers assigned to Tactical Command and Control positions. More affordable, accessible and effective training technologies are required to supplement the com...

F. H. Brecke M. J. Young

1990-01-01

222

HFA-PFC Systems for Tactical Mobile Electric Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tactical Mobile Electric Power Systems have the potential for significant weight savings. An average decrease of 87.2% may be achieved through the use of a high frequency alternator - power frequency converter combination, when compared to the standard 18...

M. Hladky

1995-01-01

223

Tactical emergency medical services: an emerging subspecialty of emergency medicine.  

PubMed

Law enforcement agencies are recognizing the need to have emergency medical care available at the scene of any incident involving tactical operations. The potentially volatile and dangerous atmosphere surrounding tactical operations is conducive to severe injury to officers, hostages, suspects, and bystanders. This mandates the immediate availability of basic and advanced life support services. However, a purely traditional approach to emergency medical services in the tactical environment may not be feasible and may expose prehospital personnel to greater danger. It also may disrupt the law enforcement mission. These factors mandate a different set of field assessment and treatment priorities. To meet these needs, selected prehospital personnel and emergency physicians train to work with and support special weapons and tactics teams. PMID:8161047

Heiskell, L E; Carmona, R H

1994-04-01

224

User's Manual for the Tactical Operations System Analysis Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project was to produceprocedural guidelines to be used by divisions in the field in developing standard operating procedures for the information management in the Tactical Operations System (TOS). The objective of this work w...

G. Witus M. Meerschaert D. Kleist

1980-01-01

225

Properties of Mobile Tactical Radio Networks on VHF Bands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work extends a network model that was developed for the study of mobile tactical scenarios employing VHF combat radios. The model uses VHF radio signal measurement data, integrating practical network deployment scenarios and node mobility models to e...

L. Li P. Vigneron

2010-01-01

226

Do as we wish: Parental tactics of mate choice manipulation.  

PubMed

The mate choices of children do not always meet with the approval of their parents. As a consequence, the latter employ a battery of tactics that they use to manipulate the mating behavior of the former. This paper offers the first taxonomy of parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. In particular, in Study 1, 57 semi-structured interviews revealed 72 acts that parents employ to influence their children, and 27 that they employ to influence their children's partners. In Study 2, 405 parents rated how likely they were to use these acts to influence their daughters' and sons' mate choices. Factor analysis of participants' responses revealed 12 manipulation tactics that parents use on their children, and four manipulation tactics that they use on their children's partners. PMID:23906764

Apostolou, Menelaos

2013-01-01

227

Tactical Considerations of Atmospheric Effects on Laser Propagation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the progress made during the second year (Phase II) of a study of atmospheric effects on laser propagation in connection with the operation of certain tactical weapon systems. Included are a detailed discussion of the fourth quarter's...

R. J. Allen E. E. Uthe W. E. Evans

1968-01-01

228

Network on Target: Remotely Configured Adaptive Tactical Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emerging tactical networks represent complex network-centric systems, in which multiple sensors, unmanned vehicles, and geographically distributed units of highly mobile decision makers, transfer and analyze data while on the move. The network could e...

A. Bordetsky E. Bourakov

2006-01-01

229

Tactical Medical Coordination System (TacMedCS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tactical Medical Coordination System (TacMedCS) provides rapid casualty identification under adverse conditions, enables visibility of casualty status from the point of injury through medical treatment in higher echelons of care, maintains an electron...

D. Williams

2007-01-01

230

Task Force Tactical Operations Center: An Organization for Success.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph attempts to fill the current doctrinal void concerning practical solutions to recurring Tactical Operation Center (TOC) weaknesses. First, current task force command and control doctrine is reviewed to form a foundation on which to build. N...

T. R. Goedkoop

1988-01-01

231

78 FR 16757 - First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S...Discussion FAA Task Groups Discussion Anticipated Issues for TOC consideration and action at the next meeting. Any Other...

2013-03-18

232

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency\\/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Rongrui Wang

1993-01-01

233

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Wang, Rongrui

1993-07-01

234

Prototype Single-Mode Tactical Fiber Optic Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A ruggedized all-dielectric cable with two tightly buffered dual wavelength single-mode fibers was designed to meet the rigors of tactical deployment. The cable was designed against specific requirements to achieve desirable mechanical and optical perform...

A. C. Jenkins C. R. Lovelace O. Mascarenhas V. E. Kalomiris

1986-01-01

235

Applying Neuroscience to Enhance Tactical Leader Cognitive Performance in Combat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army relies on tactical-level leaders not for their physical warfighting skills, but for their ability to employ cognitive thought during stressful situations. Cognitive tasks include sensing patterns, deciphering complex environments, creating n...

A. C. Steadman

2011-01-01

236

Physical tactics of female partners against male batterer program participants.  

PubMed

Descriptive and predictive analyses were conducted using a multisite database of batterer program participants to assess the nature and extent of their female partner's violence, and implications for batterer program outcome (N = 563). Approximately 40% of the women reported ever using "severe" conflict tactics on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; 17% used severe tactics in the arrest incident). Approximately 20% of the women reported using any type of physical tactic during a 15-month follow-up, and nearly all of these women were with men who physically attacked them during that period. These women were also highly likely to report acting out of fear or self-defense, and having sought a variety of services to deal with the men's violence. Their male partners, furthermore, showed evidence of antisocial tendencies and alcohol problems. Overall, the findings suggest women's "violent resistance" rather than "mutuality and symmetry." Batterer programs appear more appropriate in this regard than couples counseling. PMID:22996628

Gondolf, Edward W

2012-09-01

237

Interworking of Tactical ad hoc and Static IP-Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the authors investigate the relationship between host/network mobility within an ad hoc network to support seamless connectivity between a fixed core network infrastructure and an autonomous mobile tactical ad hoc network. There are several...

P. Thoren

2003-01-01

238

Investigation of Functional Deficiencies in Tactical Aircraft Maintenance Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis was based on the hypothesis that functional deficiencies in aircraft maintenance facilities could be reduced if definitive floorplans and functional specifications were available. The thesis examined deficiencies in tactical aircraft maintenan...

F. D. Keller

1987-01-01

239

Information Management for the Tactical Operations System (TOS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This executive summary presents synopses of three items resulting from the first phase of a project to establish guidelines for a Standing Operating Procedure (SOP) for managing information at the division level within the Tactical Operations System (TOS)...

R. W. Blum W. D. Kinley C. A. Callahan M. G. Gravlich G. Witus

1979-01-01

240

Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

2012-01-01

241

Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify

C. Hyun; T. Roh; M. Choi

2009-01-01

242

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

243

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

2005-01-01

244

Sound Exposure Calculations for Transient Events and Other Improvements to an Acoustical Tactical Decision Aid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent enhancements to an acoustical tactical decision aid, called the Acoustic Battlefield Aid (ABFA), are described. ABFA predicts the effects of the atmosphere and local terrain on the performance of acoustical sensors, using advanced sound propagation models. Among the enhancements are: (1) sound-exposure and detection calculations for moving and transient sources, (2) new display capabilities including loading of vector-map features from CDs, (3) an interactive menu for entering and managing acoustical and meteorological ground properties, (4) initialization of runs from field trials stored in the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Automatic Target Recognition Acoustic Database, (5) a Java-based interface to numerical weather forecast data over the Internet, and (6) creation of a Windows executable version using the MATLAB compiler.

Wilson, D. K.; Nguyen, V. A.; Srour, Nassy; Noble, John

2002-08-01

245

Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on-line. The optimal avoidance trajectory is implemented as a receding-horizon model predictive control law. Therefore, at each time step, the optimal avoidance trajectory is found and the first time step of its acceleration is applied. At the next time step of the control computer, the problem is re-solved and the new first time step is again applied. This continual updating allows the RCA algorithm to adapt to a colliding spacecraft that is making erratic course changes.

Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

2010-01-01

246

Terminal weather information management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

Lee, Alfred T.

1990-01-01

247

Behavioral tactics, dominance, and copulatory success among male fox squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral tactics and mating behavior of male fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) were studied in a small population of uniquely marked, free-ranging individuals during the winter breeding season in 1986 to 1990. Twelve mating bouts were observed with an average of 5.83 males. Two alternative male reproductive tactics were active pursuit and satellite. Active-pursuit males were the most dominant squirrels

John L. Koprowski

1993-01-01

248

Tactical assessment in a squad of intelligent bots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the problem of communication and coordination in a team of intelligent game bots (aka embodied agents). It presents a tactical decision making system controlling the behavior of an autonomous bot followed by the concept of a team tactical decision making system controlling the team of intelligent bots. The algorithms to be introduced have been implemented in the Java language by means of Pogamut 2 framework, interfacing the bot logic with Unreal Tournament 2004 virtual environment.

Go?u?ski, Marcel; Wasiewicz, Piotr

2010-06-01

249

MultiAgent Tactical Sentry (MATS) project overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MultiAgent Tactical Sentry (MATS) project addressed a Canadian Forces (CF) requirement to remotely detect NBC threats. This requirement was met by integrating a suite of primary NBC sensors onto a remotely operated vehicular platform. From inception to completion, the project spanned 30 months. End user trials continue with the initial production run systems and consequently, the CF techniques, tactics, and procedures (TTPs) are evolving on a continual basis.

Penzes, Steven G.

2006-06-01

250

Advocates and critics for tactical behaviors in UGV navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical to the development of unmanned ground vehicle platforms is the incorporation of adaptive tactical behaviors for the planning of high-level navigation and tactical actions. BBN Technologies recently completed a simulation-based project for the Army Research Lab (ARL) in which we applied an evolutionary computation approach to navigating through a terrain to capture flag objectives while faced with one or more mobile enemies. Our Advocates and Critics for Tactical Behaviors (ACTB) system evolves plans for the vehicle that control its movement goals (in the form of waypoints), and its future actions (e.g., pointing cameras). We apply domain-specific, state-dependent genetic operators called advocates that promote specific tactical behaviors (e.g., adapt a plan to stay closer to walls). We define the fitness function as a weighted sum of a number of independent, domain-specific, state-dependent evaluation components called critics. Critics reward plans based upon specific tactical criteria, such as minimizing risk of exposure or time to the flags. Additionally, the ACTB system provides the capability for a human commander to specify the "rules of engagement" under which the vehicle will operate. The rules of engagement determine the planning emphasis required under different tactical situations (e.g., discovery of an enemy), and provide a mechanism for automatically adapting the relative selection probabilities of the advocates, the weights of the critics, and the depth of planning in response to tactical events. The ACTB system demonstrated highly effective performance in a head-to-head testing event, held by ARL, against two competing tactical behavior systems.

Hussain, Talib S.; Vidaver, Gordon; Berliner, Jeffrey

2005-05-01

251

Microburst avoidance simulation tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation issues for uplinked microburst alerts are presented in the form of view-graphs. The following topics are covered: evaluation, transmission, and presentation of ground-based Doppler weather radar derived information through a limited bandwidth digital data link; electronic cockpit presentation of uplinked wind shear alerts (pilot opinion survey, part-task simulation experiment); presentation modes (verbal, textual, and graphical); and ground evaluation of ground-measures wind shear data.

Hansman, John

1991-01-01

252

Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

2013-05-01

253

Tactical skills of world-class youth soccer teams.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18-20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18-23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of variances and effect sizes were conducted to assess between- and within-team differences. There was a positive relationship between competitive standard and level of tactical skills: the higher-ranked (FIFA World Ranking 2005-2006; http://www.fifa.com) Dutch players outscored their Indonesian counterparts on the TACSIS subscales "knowing about ball actions" (F(1,36) = 10.58, P < 0.01), "knowing about others" (F(1,36) = 28.88, P < 0.01), and "positioning and deciding" (F(1,36) = 10.10, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no relationship between tactical skills and playing time (P > 0.05) in the Dutch team, whereas in the Indonesian team one procedural knowledge factor ("positioning and deciding") did show a positive association (effect size = 0.99). In conclusion, tactical skills are fundamental to high-level soccer performance. Ample, expert-led training and match experience at a high competitive standard, starting at a young age, and high-quality talent development programmes are suggested as key ingredients for the development of good tactical skills. PMID:19437183

Kannekens, Rianne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

2009-06-01

254

Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.  

PubMed

The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility. PMID:7647184

Haas, M W

1995-05-01

255

Operational Concepts for Uninhabited Tactical Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes experiences with five remotely piloted flight research vehicle projects in the developmental flight test phase. These projects include the Pathfinder, Perseus B, Altus, and X-36 aircraft and the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT). Each of these flight projects was flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With the exception of the HIMAT, these projects are a part of the Flight Research Base Research and Technology (R&T) Program of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Enterprise. Particularly with respect to operational interfaces between the ground-based pilot or operator, this paper draws from those experiences, then provides some rationale for extending the lessons learned during developmental flight research to the possible situations involved in the developmental flights proceeding deployed uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) operations. Two types of UTA control approaches are considered: autonomous and remotely piloted. In each of these cases, some level of human operator or pilot control blending is recommended. Additionally, "best practices" acquired over years of piloted aircraft experience are drawn from and presented as they apply to operational UTA.

Deets, Dwain A.; Purifoy, Dana

1998-01-01

256

Avoiding the "M" Word.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

Klinger, Donna

2001-01-01

257

Relative Complexity: Beyond Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses two influential studies on relative clauses (RC), and addresses the development of relative clauses in the interlanguage of advanced Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language speakers in light of the theory of Accessibility Hierarchy (AH). As the two theories predict, avoidance of RCs is typically found with oblique and genitive…

Yip, Virginia; Matthews, Stephen

1991-01-01

258

Avoiding medical emergencies.  

PubMed

Medical emergencies can occur at any time in any location. This article and associated presentation at the forthcoming British Dental Conference Exhibition provide key advice on avoiding medical emergencies in dental practice; including advice on risk assessing all patients, understanding the importance of a checklist, and using a National Early Warning Score (NEWS). PMID:23470404

Omar, Y

2013-03-01

259

Avoiding the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

260

Avoiding Cross-Contact  

MedlinePLUS

Avoiding Cross-Contact Cross-contact happens when one food comes into contact with another food and their proteins mix. As a ... Understanding the difference between Cross-Contamination vs. Cross-Contact When dining at a restaurant, you will need ...

261

Avoiding object misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and describes a number of misconceptions observed in students learning about object technology. It identifies simple, concrete, measures course designers and teachers can take to avoid these misconceptions arising. The context for this work centres on an introductory undergraduate course and a postgraduate course. Both these courses are taught by distance education. These courses both use Smalltalk

Simon Holland; Robert Griffiths; Mark Woodman

1997-01-01

262

Interactive Weather Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

2002-01-01

263

Edheads: Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

2010-01-01

264

Pilot weather advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

1992-01-01

265

Weather and Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are different types of weather common in our everyday life? How can we use what we know about weather to go about everyday activities? First, use the Weather Chart to write down what you learn from each website. Then, go to Weather Information Website #1 and click on "What's the Weather?" to dress the bear for the day. Make sure you write it down on your graphic organizer. Next, go to Weather Information Website #3 and explore at least 5(clouds, thunderstorms, winter storms, etc.) of ...

Jones, Ms.

2012-04-12

266

The Weather Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

Grasser, Mrs. E.

2012-09-27

267

Comparative phylogenetic analysis of male alternative reproductive tactics in ray-finned fishes.  

PubMed

Using comparative phylogenetic analysis, we analyzed the evolution of male alternative reproductive tactics (MARTs) in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Numerous independent origins for each type of MART (involving sneaker males, female mimics, pirates, and satellite males) indicate that these behaviors have been highly labile across actinopterygiian evolution, consistent with a previous notion that convergent selection in fishes can readily mold the underlying suites of reproductive hormones into similar behaviors. The evolutionary appearance of MARTs was significantly correlated with the presence of sexually selected traits in bourgeois males (P = 0.001) but not with the presence of male parental care. This suggests that MARTs often arise from selection on some males to circumvent bourgeois male investment in mate monopolization, rather than to avoid male brood care per se. We found parsimony evidence for an evolutionary progression of MARTs wherein sneaking is usually the evolutionary precursor to the presumably more complex MARTs of female mimicry and cooperative satellite behavior. Nest piracy appears not to be part of this evolutionary progression, possibly because its late onset in the life cycle of most ray-finned fishes reduces the effects of selection on this reproductive tactic. PMID:16892981

Mank, Judith E; Avise, John C

2006-06-01

268

Autocalibrating vision guided navigation of unmanned air vehicles via tactical monocular cameras in GPS denied environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a novel robotic navigation strategy by using a conventional tactical monocular camera, proving the feasibility of using a monocular camera as the sole proximity sensing, object avoidance, mapping, and path-planning mechanism to fly and navigate small to medium scale unmanned rotary-wing aircraft in an autonomous manner. The range measurement strategy is scalable, self-calibrating, indoor-outdoor capable, and has been biologically inspired by the key adaptive mechanisms for depth perception and pattern recognition found in humans and intelligent animals (particularly bats), designed to assume operations in previously unknown, GPS-denied environments. It proposes novel electronics, aircraft, aircraft systems, systems, and procedures and algorithms that come together to form airborne systems which measure absolute ranges from a monocular camera via passive photometry, mimicking that of a human-pilot like judgement. The research is intended to bridge the gap between practical GPS coverage and precision localization and mapping problem in a small aircraft. In the context of this study, several robotic platforms, airborne and ground alike, have been developed, some of which have been integrated in real-life field trials, for experimental validation. Albeit the emphasis on miniature robotic aircraft this research has been tested and found compatible with tactical vests and helmets, and it can be used to augment the reliability of many other types of proximity sensors.

Celik, Koray

269

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Crane, Peter

2004-05-01

270

Weather and Stroke Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Weather and Stroke Risk HealthDay February 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Stroke Transcript Weather changes may significantly affect stroke risk, a new ...

271

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

272

In Depth Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Winter Weather is an In-Depth Special Report form the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It contains articles, images, activities, video clips, and interactive graphs to inform learners about meteorology and weather in the colder seasons.

2012-01-01

273

Multipurpose Weather Roundup Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Program RWR9 reads Surface Airways Observations (SAO's) from the local AFOS database and reformats them into plain language collectives for Hourly, State, and Regional Weather Roundups. Output is suitable for direct transmission on the state weather wire....

W. E. Sunkel

1983-01-01

274

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Francek, Mark

2002-10-01

275

Weather in Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homepage includes information about the weather in Antarctica and links to pages on the climate, wind chill, clouds, snow and ice, and pressure and storms of Antarctica. The current weather conditions updated automatically at various stations are also provided.

Hutchings, Thomas

1998-01-01

276

Systems and Techniques for Identifying and Avoiding Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight icing is one of the most difficult aviation weather hazards facing general aviation. Because most aircraft in the general aviation category are not certified for flight into known icing conditions, techniques for identifying and avoiding in-flight ice are important to maintain safety while increasing the utility and dispatch capability which is part of the AGATE vision. This report summarizes a brief study effort which: (1) Reviewed current ice identification, forecasting, and avoidance techniques; (2) Assessed feasibility of improved forecasting and ice avoidance procedures; and (3) Identified key issues for the development of improved capability with regard to in-flight icing.

Hansman, R. John

1995-01-01

277

Stormfax Weather Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

2002-06-10

278

AVOIDING MANUSCRIPT MISTAKES  

PubMed Central

Writing a scientific manuscript can be a consuming, but rewarding task with a number of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits. The ability to write a scientific manuscript is typically not an emphasized component of most entry?level professional programs. The purpose of this overview is to provide authors with suggestions to improve manuscript quality and to provide mechanisms to avoid common manuscript mistakes that are often identified by journal reviewers and editors.

Saliba, Susan A.

2012-01-01

279

Aircraft wake turbulence avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical studies and flight tests are used to describe the formation and severity of trailing vortices and the spatial extent of their influence. This information is then used to outline procedures for ready application by pilots, tower operators, and others concerned with the flow of traffic. The procedures provide the necessary appreciation of the physical attributes of trailing vortices, the potential hazards involved when encountering them, and how best to avoid the dangerous portions of the wake during flight operations.

Mcgowan, W. A.

1971-01-01

280

Time Saving Tactics: Preparation Is the Key.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes techniques to avoid the time crunch and safety hazards associated with fitting labs into 45-minute periods. The author presents information on organizing people and things, adapting labs, and cleanup management. The author cautions against rushing a science lab to the point of compromising safety or student understanding. (PR)

DeCoster, Patricia A.

1992-01-01

281

Space Mission Analysis & design for tactical spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to avoid the financial hurdle imposed by the physical constraints on objects orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), it is preferred to use High Elliptical Orbit (HEO) for broader coverage. It takes a huge amount of energy to be put objects in HEO. To provide similar benefits at a very low cost, the dasiaSpecial Orbitpsila was offered

Swaminathan Balaraman; J. Shanmugam; K. Harendranath; Kiran

2009-01-01

282

Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

2010-01-01

283

Weather Maps in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

Burrows, Charles

284

Aviation weather services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

Sprinkle, C. H.

1983-01-01

285

Pinpointing the weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately predicting weather in regions like the west, which have a variety of climates in high mountain, coastal, and desert sites, can be tricky. Now the National Weather Service (NWS) is testing an experimental computer model that will help forecasters predict weather conditions with greater detail. The Eta-10 model allows forecasters in 24 western NWS offices to monitor the development

Elaine Friebele

1997-01-01

286

Hot Weather Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and those ... conditions such as vascular disease or diabetes, the weather does not have to hit 100 degrees to ...

287

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is about a new method of predicting seasonal weather. The site describes the effects of El Nino on global weather and the accuracy of the new model. It includes links to classroom resources for a variety of weather-based units.

Dybas, Cheryl

2008-12-07

288

Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2008-01-01

289

WeatherHawk Weather Station Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a WeatherHawk weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

290

Fabulous Weather Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. M.

2007-01-01

291

External Resource: Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

1900-01-01

292

Changing first responder tactics through the use of advanced technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors will first analyze current tactics used by emergency personnel when responding to 'standard' emergencies involving transportation systems. Next, the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system. Next the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system in which weapons of mass destruction are employed will be explored. The unique problems associated with the site of an emergency where chemical, nuclear, or biological agents have been employed will be investigated. The use of available or next-ready technologies in the areas of detection devices, personal protective clothing, and decontamination equipment will be examined. Combining this information, we will seek to prove the hypothesis that without the use of new technologies a change in first responder tactics is impossible. However, with the use of advanced technologies we will illustrate how new tactics can produce safe, more effective emergency responses.

Nettles, William E.; Trotter, Stephen

1998-12-01

293

The eyesafe visioceilometer - A tactical visibility and cloud height lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent breakthrough in the mathematical solution to the lidar equation combined with state-of-the-art microelectronics has made it possible to produce the first portable ceiling, visibility, and rangefinding device suitable for tactical use by the U.S. Army. The signal processor of the former XE-2 (Nd:YAG) can be adapted to an eyesafe unit by making use of an erbium glass laser and a GaInAs PIN photodiode detector. It is pointed out that the XE-3 (Eyesafe Visioceilometer) provides tactical real-time data when and where the user needs it, with an accuracy superior to existing nonportable runway equipment. Attention is given to system evolution, lidar theory, the relationship of backscattering and extinction coefficients, a system description, the transient recorder, the analysis of data, and details regarding tactical applications.

Barnes, E. S.; Lentz, W. J.

294

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

295

Avalanche Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

Linder, Dave

2011-01-01

296

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales for the Assessment of Tactical Thinking Mental Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ongoing need exists in the Army to enhance combat leaders' tactical thinking skills. In conjunction, measurement techniques must be developed to assess tactical thinking skills. This report documents an effort to develop a standardized and reliable ass...

J. K. Phillips J. Shafer K. G. Ross D. A. Cox S. B. Shadrick

2006-01-01

297

Development and Application of a Task Taxonomy for Tactical Flying. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A taxonomy of tactical flying skills was developed as a user oriented skill-task analysis system for practical application in solving Tactical Air Command continuation training problems and for a behavioral data base for skill maintenance and reacquisitio...

R. P. Meyer J. I. Leveson G. L. Pape B. J. Edwards

1978-01-01

298

Shipboard Non-Tactical Automated Data Processing (SNAP) Resystemization: An Alternate Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next generation of Shipboard Non-tactical Automated Data Processing (SNAP) systems is now being designed. A historical review of the development of the original generation of shipboard non-tactical computer systems (SUADPS) shows an evolutionary rathe...

P. L. Puckett

1990-01-01

299

Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify weathering grade conventionally. Rocks and minerals absorb some particular wavelength ranges of electromagnetic energy by electronic process and vibrational process of composing elements and these phenomena produce intrinsic diagnostic spectral reflectance curve. Non-destructive technique for weathering degree assessment measures those diagnostic absorption features of weathering products and converts the depths of features related to abundance of the materials to relative weathering degree. We selected granite outcrop to apply conventional six folded weathering grade classification method using Schmidt hammer rebound teste. The correlations between Schmidt hammer rebound values and absorption depths of iron oxides such as ferric oxide in the vicinity of 0.9 micrometer wavelength and clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite in the vicinity of 2.2 micrometer wavelength, representative weathering products of granite, were analyzed. The Schmidt hammer rebound value decreased according to increase of absorption depths induced from those weathering products. Weathering grade classification on the granite stone monument was conducted by using absorption depths of weathering products This research is supported from National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and we appreciate for this.

Hyun, C.; Roh, T.; Choi, M.; Park, H.

2009-05-01

300

Avoiding Death by Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

2013-07-01

301

Personality and impression management: Mapping the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire onto 12 self-presentation tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relations between Tellegen’s three-factor personality model, using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and 12 self-presentation tactics operationalized in the self-presentation tactics scale (SPT). Differential correlations of the MPQ higher-order domains and primary scales were predicted based on a review of the literature pertaining to each self-presentation tactic and the dimensional classifications of tactics. Joint exploratory factor

Michael E. Sadler; Jeffrey M. Hunger; Christopher J. Miller

2010-01-01

302

Pricing strategy and tactics in the new hospital marketplace.  

PubMed

This article integrates and applies work in the general business literature to the design and execution of pricing decisions in hospitals. First, the emergence of pricing as an important function in hospitals is discussed. Second, four distinctly different strategies that can be employed by hospitals to price their offerings are described. Third, a variety of different pricing tactics, and their situational assets and liabilities, are reviewed. The article concludes with a series of recommendations for designing pricing strategies and tactics in the new health care marketplace. PMID:10279762

Pointer, D D; Zwanziger, J

1986-01-01

303

Survival tactics for managing the hospital marketing effort.  

PubMed

Hospital marketing is an intricate and complex process. Especially difficult is the transition the hospital marketer must make from designing marketing strategies to implementing those strategies. This transition usually causes the marketer to call upon a different set of skills. These skills involve managing the personnel needed to implement the designed marketing strategy. Unfortunately, little in the way of formal training is provided the marketer for developing these management skills. Therefore, the authors have comprised a series of tactical procedures designed to assist the hospital marketer to survive this transition. Using these tactics for decision-making guidelines may help to improve the management of the hospital's marketing effort. PMID:10137161

Schaupp, D L; Ponzurick, T G; Schaupp, F W

1994-01-01

304

Avoidable waste management costs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01

305

Integration of Emergency Medical Services and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Teams: The Emergence of the Tactically Trained Medic.  

PubMed

The emphasis of training for paramedics that function in the civilian sector in the United States has focused on the management of blunt trauma. The personal risks they face generally are the result of accidents or public health threats. The management of penetrating trauma under the threat of intentional personal harm is a different matter.Law enforcement agencies have responded to the threat of apprehending heavily armed felons by forming special units highly trained in military-style, small-unit tactics. To provide care in this special environment, and support a special weapons and tactics (SWAT) team in fulfilling its mission, there is a requirment for a unique body of knowledge and special skills. (Prehospital care providers with at least emergency medical technician [EMT] skills and SWAT training will be referred to as tactical medics.). PMID:24246162

McArdle, D Q; Rasumoff, D; Kolman, J

1992-09-01

306

Aviation Weather Information Communications Study (AWIN). Phase 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This two part study examines the communication requirements to provide weather information in the cockpit as well as public and private communication systems available to address the requirements. Ongoing research projects combined with user needs for weather related information are used to identify and describe potential weather products that address decision support in three time frames: Far-Term Strategic, Near-Term Strategic and Tactical. Data requirements of these future products are identified and quantified. Communications systems and technologies available in the public as well as private sector are analyzed to identify potential solutions. Recommendations for further research identify cost, performance, and safety benefits to justify the investment. The study concludes that not all weather information has the same level of urgency to safety-of-flight and some information is more critical to one category of flight than another. Specific weather products need to be matched with communication systems with appropriate levels of reliability to support the criticality of the information. Available bandwidth for highly critical information should be preserved and dedicated to safety. Meanwhile, systems designed for in-flight-entertainment and other passenger/crew services could be used to support less critical information that is used only for planning and economic decision support.

Ball, J. W.; Herron, R. G.; Nozawa, E. T.; Thomas, E. A.; Witchey, R. D.

2000-01-01

307

Marketing Tactics and Parents' Loyalty: The Mediating Role of School Image  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to investigate how marketing tactics can enhance parents' loyalty in the educational context. Building on extant research, it proposes an integrated framework in which perceived marketing tactics are related to school image, which in turn is related to parents' loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: Five marketing tactics

Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

2009-01-01

308

A testbed to emulate next-generation directional RF and free-space optical tactical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tactical edge network emulation tool (TENET) hardware integration system (THIS) is designed to characterize higher layer responses to the dynamic physical layer topology of a tactical network utilizing directional communication links. THIS emulates the mobile, tactical, network environment using the hardware in a static infrastructure. MATLAB-based tools implement the TENET emulation to simulate mobility induced link fragility, and the

William M. Turner; Daniel J. Tebben; Jason R. Madsen; Anurag Dwivedi

2009-01-01

309

The Use of Impression Management Tactics in Structured Interviews: A Function of Question Type?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated impression management tactic use during structured interviews containing both experience-based and situational questions. Specifically, the authors examined whether applicants' use of impression management tactics depended on question type. Results from 119 structured interviews indicated that almost all of the applicants used some form of impression management. Significantly more assertive than defensive impression management tactics were used, and

Aleksander P. J. Ellis; Bradley J. West; Ann Marie Ryan; Richard P. DeShon

2002-01-01

310

Marketing tactics and parents' loyalty: the mediating role of school image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate how marketing tactics can enhance parents' loyalty in the educational context. Building on extant research, it proposes an integrated framework in which perceived marketing tactics are related to school image, which in turn is related to parents' loyalty. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five marketing tactics are selected. A questionnaire is constructed, and data are collected

Chung-Kai Li; Chia-Hung Hung

2009-01-01

311

The use of impression management tactics in structured interviews: A function of question type?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated impression management tactic use during structured interviews containing both experience-based and situational questions. Specifically, the authors examined whether applicants' use of impression management tactics depended on question type. Results from 119 structured interviews indicated that almost all of the applicants used some form of impression management. Significantly more assertive than defensive impression management tactics were used, and

Aleksander P. J. Ellis; Bradley J. West; Ann Marie Ryan; Richard P. DeShon

2002-01-01

312

Exploring students’ calibration of self reports about study tactics and achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

When students self-regulate studying, they monitor achievement and study tactics. Proximal input to monitoring is perceptions that the student constructs based on experience. Productive self-regulation theoretically requires strong correspondence between (a) perceptions of achievement and actual achievement and (b) perceived use of study tactics and actual use of study tactics. That is, calibration should be high. Students studied using a

Philip H Winne; Dianne Jamieson-Noel

2002-01-01

313

The Influence Tactic Preferred by Teaching Faculty: An Exploratory Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study was developed to determine the influence tactic used most often by teachers in a small college classroom. It was hypothesized that the rational persuasion tactic, which is defined as "using logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade the target". (Fu & Yukl, 2000, p. 252) would be the most commonly employed tactic by…

Rogers-Backus, Bonnie L.

2010-01-01

314

Weather and Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

315

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

316

Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.

Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

2000-01-01

317

Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

2010-01-01

318

Interference with avoidance behavior: Failure to avoid traumatic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposed 35 dogs to inescapable traumatic shock. Either 24, 48, 72, or 144 hr. later, they were given instrumental avoidance training using a technique which eliminated all escape contingencies. Short time intervals between inescapable shock and avoidance training produced severe interference with the acquisition of avoidance responding as compared with a control group. But at longer intervals the amount of

J. Bruce Overmier

1968-01-01

319

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

320

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

321

Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times of the aircraft. Findings from these initial experiments indicate that it is possible to schedule arrivals into Anchorage with minimal delays under low-visibility conditions with less disruption to high-cost, international flights.

Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

2012-01-01

322

Frequency-dependent male mate harassment and intra-specific variation in its avoidance by females of the damselfly Ischnura elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focused on male harassment on different female color morphs of the damselfly Ischnura elegans and on variation in morph-specific mating avoidance tactics by females. In I. elegans, one of the female morphs is colored like the conspecific male (andromorphs) while the other morphs are not (gynomorphs). Our first goal was to quantify morph-specific male mating attempts, hence male harassment,

Hans Van Gossum; Robby Stoks; Luc De Bruyn

2001-01-01

323

Weather and Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

324

Space Weather: Welcome, SEC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video presentation welcomes the Space Environment Center (SEC) to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SEC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

Spangler, Tim

2005-01-11

325

WWW - Wonderful Web Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web quest for students to research weather forecasting using the Internet. Students work in groups to study how accurate weather forecasts are by tracking the weather for 3 days in several locations. Using graphs students then compare how each location scored in accuracy and present their findings to the class. This site contains links for students to use for more background information, a process for the students to follow, and evaluation rubrics for the student-produced graphs and presentation.

Parrish, Jason

326

RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

2012-12-01

327

National Weather Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

328

Backyard Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."

Randall, Dennis.

329

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

330

Everything Weather- Archived Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

2001-01-01

331

Weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

1975-01-01

332

Tactical Ballistic Missile Defense for the United States Marine Corps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author begins by describing the proliferation of Tactical Ballistic Missiles (TBM's) in the Third World as well as future improvements expected in the range, accuracy, and lethality of these weapons. He concludes that TBM's are emerging as a threat to...

R. C. Dodt

1992-01-01

333

Tactical HF field expedient antenna performance, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates the performance of various configurations of tactical High Frequency (HF) field deployable antennas in the presence of lossy earth. Antennas investigated include horizontal dipoles, short sloping wires, inverted vees, and monopoles with buried and elevated radials. Numerical models of the antennas are exercised via the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) for radiation pattern performance. Antennas are analyzed for

Gurkan Turkes

1990-01-01

334

Tactical HF field expedient antenna performance, volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates the performance of various configurations of tactical high frequency (HF) field deployable antennas in the presence of lossy earth. Antennas investigated include horizontal dipoles, short sloping wires, inverted vees, and monopoles with buried and elevated radials. Numerical models of the antennas are exercised via the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC) for radiation pattern performance. Antennas are analyzed for

Gurkan Turkes

1990-01-01

335

The 3G wireless technology in tactical communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Third generation mobile systems are seen as the technology to bring new broadband services to the mobile user. This paper discusses UMTS\\/GPRS technologies applying to tactical communication networks. A detailed description of the 3G technologies is provided, and their application in military environments is studied in depth. The paper discusses the introduction of new services into military networks, which improves

Dimitrios D. Vergados; Christos Gizelis; Dimitrios J. Vergados

2004-01-01

336

Implementing a Tactical Games Approach with Sport Education: A Chronicle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the challenges encountered by a middle school practitioner over a five-year period when implementing the tactical games approach within the sport education model. Included are genuine quotes (extracted from video tapes and written records) from the students, the principal at the practitioner's school, a guidance counselor,…

Gubacs-Collins, Klara; Olsen, Edward B.

2010-01-01

337

Tactical Decision Competency of Preservice Physical Education Teacher Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most recent publication of the "National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education" (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2009) requires physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to demonstrate that teacher candidates display both tactical knowledge and physical competence.…

Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margo M.; Henninger, Mary L.; Carlson, Kristin B.

2013-01-01

338

Tactical Medical Logistics Planning Tool: Modeling Operational Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tactical Medical Logistics Planning Tool (TML+) is a software program designed for Navy and Marine Corps medical planners as a tool that (1) models the patient flow from the point of injury through more definitive care, and (2) supports operations res...

P. Konoske

2004-01-01

339

Identification of Non-Specific Tactical Tasks in Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and significance: The notion of transferability (i.e. sampling) has been put forward as one of four core pedagogical principles for games teaching. The sampling principle was based on the premise that it may be possible to show the existence of tactical similarities between apparently dissimilar games, leading to a much better overall…

Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen

2010-01-01

340

Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Police Station. Hilla, Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are providing this project assessment report for your information and use. We assessed the in-process construction work being performed at the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Police Station in Hilla, Iraq, to determine its status and whether intende...

A. Johnston M. Stanka

2006-01-01

341

What's different about the hardware in tactical military systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent special issue of the Proceedings of the IEEE on computer communications' provides an excellent state-of-the-art report on the burgeoning field of digital telecommunications and computer networks. Included are papers on terminals, modems, errors and error control, multiplexing, processors and computer communication networks. Many of the system elements and system concepts in Tactical Military data processing systems are similar

Edward C. Svendsen; Donald L. Ream

1973-01-01

342

Augmented Cognition for Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System Operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve individuals took part in an experiment which investigated the feasibility of using physiological sensors to apply a pacing mitigation strategy to help prevent cognitive-overload-induced performance declines. The participants performed tasks using a simulated Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) while wearing electroencephalograph (EEG), electrocardiograph (EKG), and galvanic skin response (GSR) sensors. The tasks, retargeting missiles in response to emergent

Patrice Tremoulet; Joyce Barton; Patrick Craven; Adam Gifford; Nick Morizio; Nadya Belov; Kathleen Stibler; Susan Harkness Regli; Michael Thomas

343

Development of a tactical terrain analysis system with GIS technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have designed and implemented a computerized tactical terrain analysis system for a battlefield operation. The terrain information produced by this system will enhance the combat capability of a military unit and efficiency of weapon system. This system is designed to provide a computer graphics environment in which the analyst can interactively operate the whole analyzing process such as

Kyoung-Ok Kim; Young-Kyu Yang; Jong Hoon Lee; Kyung-Ho Choi; Hyun Ok Nan; Dong-Jo Seo

1994-01-01

344

DESIGN OF A SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT FOR TACTICAL SITUATION DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the development of a prototype Tactical Situation Development Environment (TSDE) which will aid intelligence analysts to construct and evaluate future situational projections and will support this function by maintaining appropriate models of the current situation. Conventional automated problem solvers have failed in these tasks because they are deterministic, being designed to solve pre-determined problems using pre-defined sets

M. J. Coombs; R. T. Hartley

1989-01-01

345

Tactical Symbology Standards. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CRT displays aboard U.S. Navy ships use a standardized monochrome Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) symbol set to represent properties of symbols such as platform type (e.g., Aircraft Carrier, Combat Air), environment (e.g., air, surface, subsurface), and...

M. Kirkpatrick L. Dutra R. Lyons G. Osga J. Puggi

1992-01-01

346

Digging in the deep: killer whales' advanced hunting tactic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document one of the most spectacular predator-prey interactions observed in a marine ecosystem, in which groups of killer whales force tens of tons of herrring out of their safe deep-water habitat to the surface where the whales are superior. Killer whales performing this hunting tactic congregate in large groups, dive to the limit of their capacity, lift herring vertically

Leif Nøttestad; Anders Fernö; Bjørn E. Axelsen

2002-01-01

347

Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery

Robert K. Tyson

1999-01-01

348

The research on tactical communication network simulative training system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the educating and training requirements of tactical communication network (TCN), one advanced means is to develop its simulative training system. Firstly, the general framework of TCN simulative training system was designed, which included the system constitution, software structure and application manner. Secondly, a single federation and multi federation architecture were proposed, which solved the distributed interactive

Jian-jun Shen; Jing-jing Li; Xiao-hu Yu

2010-01-01

349

A study of tactical patterns during fire fighting operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty experiments were performed in a three-room apartment, on the first floor of a three-storey apartment building with an attached staircase. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate various tactical patterns used during fire fighting operations, including suppression and ventilation procedures. As a fire source, eight standard wooden pallets were used. The temperature and pressure in the apartment, the

Stefan Svensson

2002-01-01

350

From vigilance to violence: Mate retention tactics in married couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following:

David M. Buss; Todd K. Shackelford

1997-01-01

351

Modelling Human Emotions for Tactical Decision-Making Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…

Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny

2013-01-01

352

Alternative male mating tactics in garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative mating strategies occur in many animal lineages, often because males adopt tactics best suited to their own phenotypes or to spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the distribution of females. Garter snakes near a communal overwintering den in Manitoba show courtship in two contexts: competition from rival males is intense close to the den, but weak or absent when males court solitary

RICHARD SHINE; T RACY LANGKILDE; M ICHAEL WALL; ROBERT T. MASON

2005-01-01

353

The intifada: Palestinian adaptation to Israeli counterinsurgency tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1987 the uprising in the West Bank and Gaza Strip significantly changed the nature of the Palestinian threat to Israel and pushed the West Bank and Gaza Palestinians into the forefront of the Palestinian?Israeli conflict. This article examines the effects of the Israeli counterinsurgency tactics on the Palestinian strategy from the period of 1967 through 1987. It proposes

Ruth Margolies Beitler

1995-01-01

354

Strategies and Tactics for Community Mobilization. 1981 Latin America Seminars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three seminars examined strategies and tactics for community mobilization in Latin America. The sessions--which were held in Bogota, Columbia; Quito, Ecuador; and Recife, Brazil--involved a total of 75 participants from 27 organizations. Addressed during the seminars were development, leadership, mobilization, and learning in the context of…

Dobson, John R. A.

355

Tactics and Motives of Sexually Aggressive College Women and Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research findings were used in this study to develop and compare categories of the commonly used tactics and motives of sexually aggressive college women and men. In the collaborative work, 43% of the men and 26% of the women said they had perpetrated at least one act of sexual persistence. Based upon the reports of sexual targets,…

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Anderson, Peter B.; Struckman-Johnson, David

356

Tactical fiber optic gyro with all-digital signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northrop's Electronics System Division has built and tested a tactical fiber optic gyro (FOG) with all-digital signal processing. The Northrop FOG uses 160 meters of polarization maintaining optical fiber wound on a spool 29 mm in diameter. Without any data compensation, this FOG has demonstrated excellent scale factor stability and non-linearity (< 100 ppm) over a high dynamic range (+\\/-

Michael S. Perlmutter

1994-01-01

357

Gender and influence tactics among university administrative employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Office politics or politicking is the option for those who wish to influence decisions and it is common to find organizational members or units engaging in influence tactics to protect or further their own interest, especially if their workplace is characterized by uncertainty, limited resources and lack of trust. Although organizational politics can work either for or against an organization,

M. Ghazali; R. Hashim; N. M. Ismail

2012-01-01

358

[Treatment tactics in patients with popliteal artery aneurysm].  

PubMed

The quality of diagnosis and treatment of 72 patients, suffering popliteal artery aneurysm and hospitalized to the Department of the main arteries surgery in 1980-2007 yrs, were analyzed. Basing on the disease clinical signs analysis and diagnostic data obtained the tactics and choice of surgical treatment of patients, suffering popliteal artery aneurysm, was substantiated. PMID:18680976

Nikul'nikov, P I; Danylets', A O; Liksunov, O V; Babi?, O L

2008-02-01

359

Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

Boughton, Marla

2011-01-01

360

Automated Intelligent Training with a Tactical Decision Making Serious Game.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Intelligent Game-Based Evaluation And Review (InGEAR) capability is a game-based training system that affords junior officers the opportunity for self-training in tactical command skills. This leverages two existing technologies: (i) Follow Me, a smal...

B. Presnell J. Lunsford M. G. Cobb R. Jensen

2013-01-01

361

Automated Intelligent Training with a Tactical Decision Making Serious Game.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Intelligent Game-Based Evaluation And Review (InGEAR) capability is a game-based training system that affords junior officers the opportunity for self-training in tactical command skills. This leverages two existing technologies: (i) 'Follow Me,' a sm...

B. Presnell J. Lunsford M. G. Cobb R. Jensen

2014-01-01

362

Hybrid free space optical\\/RF networks for tactical operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss our research and development in high availability, high bandwidth, tactical communications and networks using hybrid (free-space optical (FSO)) and RF links. To achieve this, the primary high data rate bridges use free space laser links, in parallel with high performance RF links. To manage this dynamic network, in which nodes may lose connectivity in the optical domain, the

S. D. Milner; Christopher C. Davis

2004-01-01

363

LDRD Final Report for 'Tactical Laser Weapons for Defense' SI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focus of this project was a convincing demonstration of two new technological approaches to high beam quality; high average power solid-state laser systems that would be of interest for tactical laser weapon applications. Two pathways had been identif...

R. Beach L. Zapata

2002-01-01

364

Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Mate Retention Tactics.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-five college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inflicting mate retention tactics, including the specific tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infidelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specific associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. PMID:22494171

Tragesser, Sarah L; Benfield, Jacob

2012-04-11

365

Borderline personality disorder features and mate retention tactics.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mate retention tactics as a means of examining an evolutionary perspective on the association between BPD features and interpersonal problems and violence in romantic relationships. Two-hundred twenty-five college student participants completed the Personality Assessment Inventory for Borderlines (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) and the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF; Buss, Shackelford, & McKibbin, 2008) embedded within other measures. There was a strong association between BPD features and cost-inflicting mate retention tactics, including the specific tactics of vigilance, punishing mate's infidelity threat, intrasexual threats, and sexual inducements for both men and women. There were also gender-specific associations for additional tactics. These results contribute to our understanding of problems in romantic relationships among men and women with BPD features, including violence, and to our understanding of impulsive sexual behavior among individuals with BPD features by showing how these behaviors are used as extreme, maladaptive attempts at mate retention. PMID:22686222

Tragesser, Sarah L; Benfield, Jacob

2012-06-01

366

Improvements in Navy Data Networks and Tactical Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the benefits gained by using an efficient quality of service management such as DiffServ technique to improve the performance of military communications. Low delay and no blockage must be achieved especially for real time tactical data. All traffic flows generated by different applications do not need same bandwidth, same latency, same error ratio and this scalable technique

Laurent Enel; Franck Guillem

2007-01-01

367

Weather or Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather or Not? is part of an online series of modules entitled Exploring the Environment. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental Earth Science education through problem-based learning, this module asks students to monitor the current weather and make predictions for up to a week. Using satellite imagery and monitoring resources, students predict the weather for an up-coming event of their choice (such as a sporting event). After the predictions are made, students track the actual weather that occurred during the event. There are links and resources for further information and research, as well as a reference on problem-based learning.

368

Weather assessment and forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

1977-01-01

369

Washington Post Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

1997-01-01

370

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

371

The role of tactical emergency medical support in hostage and crisis negotiations.  

PubMed

The use of tactical medics by members of hostage and crisis negotiations teams has not been examined in the literature or in the field. Usually, negotiations teams are deployed within the confines of the established inner perimeter along with the tactical team and tactical medics. While the likelihood of injuries or performance degrading medical problems for negotiators is less than that expected for Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team members, they may occur and need attention. Additionally, there are other roles that tactical medical personnel can play that are specific to the needs of police negotiators. This article will examine these possible roles. PMID:10346408

Greenstone, J L

1998-01-01

372

Avoidance learning in neonatal dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using cloth as the CS and cold air as the UCS, 6 beagle puppies were trained to crawl over a barrier in a 1-way avoidance box. 10 control puppies were run to assess the effects of noncontingent exposures to the CS and UCS. All avoidance-trained Ss met a performance criterion of 14 avoidance responses in 15 consecutive trials, while the

W. Edward Bacon; Walter C. Stanley

1970-01-01

373

Tax evasion and avoidance typologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore tax evasion and avoidance typologies with a view to understanding how they work and the implications for those who handle the wealth of others. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – American, Canadian and UK cases of tax avoidance and tax evasion are studied. Findings – Structuring transactions to avoid or minimize taxes is highly

Jeffrey Simser

2008-01-01

374

Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

Saunders, Emily C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowberry, Ariana N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-12

375

CAT altitude avoidance system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

Gary, B. L. (inventor)

1982-01-01

376

Mild and Wild Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

377

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

378

Basics of Weather Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Without using mathematics, this memo summarizes the important information weather forecasters need to know to apply numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts. We've had to make some tough choices regarding what material to include. We've put the more t...

W. D. Meyer

1993-01-01

379

Home Weatherization Visit  

ScienceCinema

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

380

Home Weatherization Visit  

ScienceCinema

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

381

Northwest Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

Palewicz, Sue; Scurlock, Marianne; Edmon, Harry

382

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

383

Weathering Database Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

Snyder, Robert

2005-01-01

384

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

385

Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

1998

386

Weather Vane and Anemometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

387

Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering and erosion work together as natural forces, removing and transporting material. Sediments, the by-products of these processes, are subsequently deposited to produce characteristic landforms such as dunes, deltas, and glacial moraines. This slide show presents images of landforms that result from erosion and weathering, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects.

388

Aviation Weather Program (AWP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Weather Program (AWP) combines additional weather observations, improved forecast technology, and more efficient distribution of information to pilots, controllers, and automated systems to improve the weather information provided to the air traffic control system, pilots, and other users of aviation weather information. Specific objectives include the needs to: improve airport and en-route capacity by accurate, high resolution, timely forecasts of changing weather conditions affecting airport and en-route operations; improve analyses and forecasts of upper-level winds for efficient flight planning and traffic management; and increase flight safety through improved aviation weather hazard forecasting (e.g. icing, turbulence, severe storms, microbursts, or strong winds). The AWP would benefit from participation in a cooperative multiscale experiment by obtaining data for: evaluation of aviation weather forecast products, analysis of four dimensional data assimilation schemes, and experimental techniques for retrieving aerosol and other visibility parameters. A multiscale experiment would also be helpful to AWP by making it possible to evaluate the added benefit of enhanced data sets collected during the experiment on those forecast and analysis products. The goals of the Coperative Multiscale Experiment (CME) are an essential step in attaining the long-term AWP objective of providing two-to-four hour location-specific forecasts of significant weather. Although the possibility of a funding role for the AWP in the CME is presently unclear, modest involvement of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/AWP personnel could be expected.

Foote, Brant

1993-01-01

389

Weathering of Serpentine Aggregates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the rapid weathering of serpentine aggregates in an autoclave-type device. Samples of serpentine aggregate from three sources were subjected to ten weathering cycles each and the results were compared with the resistance to rapid we...

1965-01-01

390

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the United States (US) military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly nonexistent. This...

B. B. Coble

1997-01-01

391

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the U.S. military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly non-existent. This study examin...

B. E. Coble

1996-01-01

392

Fair weather atmospheric electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

Harrison, R. G.

2011-06-01

393

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

394

Predicting the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

395

Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in intensity and location for center forecast are relatively low. For example, 1-hour forecast intensity and horizontal location errors for ZDC center were about 0.12 and 0.13. However, the correlation between sector 1-hour forecast and actual weather coverage was weak, for sector ZDC32, about 32% of the total variation of observation weather intensity was unexplained by forecast; the sector horizontal location error was about 0.10. The paper also introduces an approach to estimate the sector three-dimensional actual weather coverage by using multiple sector forecasts, which turned out to produce better predictions. Using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model for this approach, the correlations between actual observation and the multiple sector forecast model prediction improved by several percents at 95% confidence level in comparison with single sector forecast.

Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

2010-01-01

396

Analysis of Preflight Weather Briefings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather is often cited as a factor in general aviation (GA) accidents and mishaps. The type of weather information requested from, or provided by, automated flight service station (AFSS) specialists is dependent on weather conditions at the time the prefl...

A. M. Hendrix O. V. Prinzo R. Hendrix

2007-01-01

397

Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard  

MedlinePLUS

... cold air. But, not everyone knows that cold weather can also lower the temperature inside your body. ... cold it is where you are. Check the weather forecasts for windy and cold weather. Try to ...

398

Space Weather CD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a software package about space weather: what it is and what it does in space and here on Earth. The disc includes software that displays movies and images of the aurora and of the Sun in various wavelengths from the ground and from orbiting NASA spacecraft; a tutorial about what space weather is and how the aurora is formed; and more. Users will also find real-time space weather conditions from current satellite missions and can download the latest data without leaving the Space Weather application. A TicTacToe game is also included that tests space weather knowledge. The disc contains many other Space Weather resources, programs, sounds, and games for use at home or school, and there are several educational websites included in full on the disc for offline viewing. In addition there is an exhaustive list of links to a variety of space weather resources available online. The disc is available for free from a number of sites if downloaded.

399

Individual differences in incompetence avoidance.  

PubMed

This study compared the fear of failure and perfectionism constructs by analyzing their latent structure as well as their motivational antecedents and consequences. College students (N = 372) enrolled in physical activity classes completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fear of failure, perfectionism, approach and avoidance motivational temperaments, and 2 x 2 achievement goals. Structural equation modeling revealed that responses were best summarized by two correlated factors representing perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Avoidance temperament was positively associated with both forms of incompetence avoidance; however, approach temperament was positively related only to perfectionist strivings. Perfectionistic concerns were positively related to the adoption of mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals and negatively related to the adoption of mastery-approach goals. Perfectionistic strivings were positively associated with both approach goals. These results indicate that strivings to avoid incompetence can be distinguished with respect to their latent structure, temperamental antecedents, and motivational consequences. PMID:18369246

Kaye, Miranda P; Conroy, David E; Fifer, Angela M

2008-02-01

400

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses weather conditions and their contribution to weathering and erosion. Students learn to explain the process of physical and chemical weathering. They also learn to compare and contrast erosion resulting from wind, ice and water. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

401

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based Real Time Data Module was created by the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) for use by students in the elementary grades to allow them to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The site features a Teacher Area containing lesson plans, curriculum standards, guidelines for data collection, and a list of children's books with weather-related themes.

402

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features visual resources and supporting data that illustrate the relationship between weather and climate. Resources are divided by topic including climate resources, weather forecasting, warnings and data, and evidence for global warming. Visualizations and data sets include GIS-based animated maps, static maps, simple animations, and links to real-time stream gauge data. This site provides an array of visual resources that help demonstrate the difference between weather and climate and may be incorporated into lectures, labs, or other activities.

2007-04-11

403

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

2001-01-01

404

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

2006-01-01

405

Solar structure and terrestrial weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that solar activity has discernible effects on terrestrial weather is considered. Research involving correlation of weather conditions with solar and geomagnetic activity is discussed.

Wilcox, J. M.

1976-01-01

406

Migration costs drive convergence of threshold traits for migratory tactics.  

PubMed

Partial migration of some, but not all, members of a population is a common form of migration. We evaluated how migration costs influence which members migrate in 10 populations of two salmonid species. The migratory patterns of both species were evaluated based on the size at maturity for resident males, which is the threshold trait that determines the migratory tactics used within a population. In both species, this size was smaller in males located further from the sea, where migration costs are presumably higher. Moreover, the threshold sizes at maturity in males were correlated between both species. Our results suggest that migration costs are a significant convergent selective force on migratory tactics and life-history traits in nature. PMID:24197418

Sahashi, Genki; Morita, Kentaro

2013-12-22

407

Children's responses to everyday marital conflict tactics in the home.  

PubMed

Mothers' and fathers' reports of marital conflicts in the home were obtained (n = 1,638 and 1,281 conflicts, respectively), including conflicts in front of the children (n = 580 and 377, respectively). Participants were 116 families with children 8 to 16 years old (M = 10.82 years, SD = 2.17; 58 boys, 58 girls). Children's emotional responses indicated distinctions between distressing conflict tactics (i.e., threat, personal insult, verbal hostility, defensiveness, nonverbal hostility, marital withdrawal, physical distress) and those that increased their emotional security (i.e., calm discussion, support, affection). Analyses based on cross-reporter informants of parental conflict and child responses strengthened confidence in the findings. Conflict tactics were related to marital functioning, and children's emotional reactions during marital conflicts were associated with their adjustment. PMID:14669904

Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

2003-01-01

408

Demonstrating tactical information services from coordinated UAV operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the component technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles mature, increased attention is being paid to the problem of command and control. Many UAVs, even small lightweight versions, are seeing significant operational time as a result of the Iraq war, and consequently, users are becoming increasingly proficient with the platform technologies and are considering new and more elaborate tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), as well as concepts of operations (CONOPS), for their use, both individually and in teams. This paper presents one such concept and summarizes the progress made toward that goal in a recent research program. In particularly, the means by which a team of UAVs can be considered a tactical information resource is investigated, and initial experimental results are summarized.

Bay, John S.

2006-06-01

409

Tactics and technology: How do they affect each other  

SciTech Connect

Research and development of new, revolutionary technologies have been extensive. The resulting military applications will drastically change the tactical nature of the battlefield. To cover every technology currently under consideration would be lengthy and beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is the intent of this paper to detail selected technological innovations and their tactical implications. Technological advances in space research will allow us to (1) reduce the reaction time in engaging adversary's ballistic missiles by employing boost-phase monitoring technology; (2) establish an overall command and control network for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) by incorporating all of our assets into an overall surveillance and tracking system; (3) engage incoming ballistic missiles in a variety of ways, using directed-energy and kinetic energy weapons, both ground and space based; and (4) engage the adversary's satellites from ground, space, and aerial-based means, hampering his ability to use satellite systems for surveillance, reconnaissance, and communication.

Jensen; Boyle; Frank; Gilmore.

1991-04-01

410

Battlefield nuclear weapons and tactical gridlock in Europe  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the issue of whether the use of tactical nuclear weapons in a war in Europe will bring about a tactical stalemate or gridlock. The TRADOC Common Teaching Scenario is used for a guide as to the area, forces employed, general situation, and nuclear weapons available to commanders on both sides. With these considerations, two iterations of a war game were run and the areas contaminated and rough levels of casualties calculated. An analysis of how this may affect battlefield maneuver is made and other issues which may affect the use of battlefield nuclear weapons are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of areas that require additional research to further develop the answer to the research question.

Cannon, M.W.

1988-11-17

411

Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

1990-01-01

412

Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277

Byrne, Sharon K

2008-01-01

413

Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

Stough, H. Paul, III

2007-01-01

414

UAVs as Tactical Wingmen: Control Methods and Pilots' Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

performed by automation unless a human intervenes1. Allowing a human to retain ultimate authority and control in directing UAVs from a remote ground site provides improved human performance as well as increased situation awareness. While much progress has been made to improve human-in-the-loop performance for remote control of UAVs from ground stations, research into remote control of UAVs from tactical

D. Morales; M. L. Cummings

415

Towards 3D Tactical Intelligence Assessments for Crime Scene Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a set of methods and functions to create interactive 3D tactical intelligence assessments by joining analysis\\u000a of burglary crime scenes and geovisualization issues. For this purpose general spatio-temporal patterns of residential burglary\\u000a crimes are analysed and subsequently visualised by using three-dimensional geovirtual environments. To allow furthermore for\\u000a a straightforward portability, an application framework is developed that encapsulates

Markus Wolff; Hartmut Asche

2010-01-01

416

The Tools, Tactics, and Mentality of Outlaw Biker Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warfare among rival outlaw motorcycle clubs has been and remains a critical dynamic in the subculture. This paper examines\\u000a the role of war mentality in the biker subculture and how it has changed overtime. Specific exemplary and noteworthy events\\u000a are discussed to illustrate critical ideas. Also examined are the changing tactics, defenses, and tools used in these conflict\\u000a and how

James F. Quinn; Craig J. Forsyth

417

[Selection of foraging tactics in leaf Warblers (phylloscopus)].  

PubMed

Aviary observations revealed particularities of foraging behavior in seven species of leaf warblers of the genus Phylloscopus, which sympatrically inhabit the middle-taiga Yenisei. The differences consist in the ratio of the tactics of each type, including the flight, frequency of using them, and selectivity with respect to maneuvers. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of particularities of the external morphology of the species. PMID:21789995

Batova, O N

2011-01-01

418

F/A-18 tactical reconnaissance (tac recce) capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995 the F/A-18 TAC RECCE Program was expanded beyond the initial electro-optic and infrared image recording capability of the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS). The program now also includes integration of new high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconnaissance modes and air-to-ground data link of ATARS and SAR image data. Delivery of the first reconnaissance equipment production units and fleet release is scheduled for 1998. F/A-18D two-seat aircraft will be retrofit with the RECCE equipment and designated F/A-18D(RC) (Reconnaissance Capable). This presentation describes recent F/A-18D(RC) operational assessment results, tactical reconnaissance equipment, functions, and interfaces for the 1998 fleet release. The equipment consists of the ATARS, the aircraft RECCE kit (access door, sensor windows, fairings), the upgraded APG-73 radar, and the data link pod. Functions include mission planning, automatic and manual acquisition of RECCE targets, image data recording, crew-station image review and edit, and data link. Interfaces include those with the Tactical Automated Mission Planning System, ground exploitation stations, and the aircraft carrier environment.

Heinz, David; Pugh, Gregory G.; Wolters, David

1996-11-01

419

Collaborative tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles are an area of high interest to the Army. They are critical for the inclusion of robots in the Future Combat System (FCS). Tactical behaviors can be defined at multiple levels: at the Company, Platoon, Section, and Vehicle echelons. They are currently being defined by the Army for the FCS Unit of Action. At all of these echelons, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned air vehicles, and unattended ground sensors must collaborate with each other and with manned systems. Research being conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and sponsored by the Army Research Lab is focused on defining the Four Dimensional Real-time Controls System (4D/RCS) reference model architecture for intelligent systems and developing a software engineering methodology for system design, integration, test and evaluation. This methodology generates detailed design requirements for perception, knowledge representation, decision making, and behavior generation processes that enable complex military tactics to be planned and executed by unmanned ground and air vehicles working in collaboration with manned systems.

Albus, James; Barbera, Anthony; Scott, Harry; Balakirsky, Stephen

2005-05-01

420

Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics.  

PubMed

In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072

Wirtz-Oca?a, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

2013-06-01

421

TACTIC: A new detector for Nuclear Astrophysics Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly measuring nuclear astrophysics reactions presents unique challenges. Low energy reaction products and small reaction cross sections are just two of the issues that the TACTIC detector addresses. TACTIC is the "TRIUMF Annular Chamber for Tracking and Identification of Charged-particles" detector being developed by TRIUMF and the University of York, UK. TACTIC is a cylindrical, active-target TPC providing high detection efficiency; a "shielding" cathode traps the ionization created by the beam and allows for higher intensities than typical TPCs. The 480 anode signals are collected through custom preamplifiers, digital electronics and acquisition systems. Acquisition and analysis software is also undergoing extensive development. Amplification of the small signals is accomplished using a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). The fill gas, He-CO2, provides both particle detection and a homogeneous, variable-thickness target for studying reactions on ?s, such as 8Li(?,n)11B. A preliminary study of this flagship reaction was carried out in June 2009 and the results are providing feedback into the development of the final detector and infrastructure.

Fox, S. P.; Amaudruz, P. A.; Bruskiewich, P.; Buchmann, L.; Chipps, K. A.; Hager, U.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ruprecht, G.; Shotter, A. C.; Walden, P.

2011-09-01

422

Paternal inheritance of growth in fish pursuing alternative reproductive tactics  

PubMed Central

In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree.

Wirtz-Ocana, Sabine; Schutz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael

2013-01-01

423

Tactical Defenses Against Systematic Variation in Wind Tunnel Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the role of unexplained systematic variation on the reproducibility of wind tunnel test results. Sample means and variances estimated in the presence of systematic variations are shown to be susceptible to bias errors that are generally non-reproducible functions of those variations. Unless certain precautions are taken to defend against the effects of systematic variation, it is shown that experimental results can be difficult to duplicate and of dubious value for predicting system response with the highest precision or accuracy that could otherwise be achieved. Results are reported from an experiment designed to estimate how frequently systematic variations are in play in a representative wind tunnel experiment. These results suggest that significant systematic variation occurs frequently enough to cast doubts on the common assumption that sample observations can be reliably assumed to be independent. The consequences of ignoring correlation among observations induced by systematic variation are considered in some detail. Experimental tactics are described that defend against systematic variation. The effectiveness of these tactics is illustrated through computational experiments and real wind tunnel experimental results. Some tutorial information describes how to analyze experimental results that have been obtained using such quality assurance tactics.

DeLoach, Richard

2002-01-01

424

Tombstone Weathering Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups in a cemetery to collect a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the extent of weathering of tombstones and their ages. The data are shared between all students, graphed as scatter plots, and the rate of weathering is estimated. Students write about and then discuss the results, the difference between the quantitative and qualitative measures, and speculate on factors in addition to time that may be important for weathering rate. The exercise ends with each students writing a hypothesis about a factor that influences weathering rate and describing a research project that could test that hypothesis. This activity is aimed at developing an understanding of the scatter in "real data", allowing for practice of team work, and hypothesis generation and testing. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Anders, Alison

425

Wasatch Weather Modification Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the Wasatch Weather Modification Project is to 'assess the relative effectiveness and the practicability of selected procedures for increasing the water supply, from precipitation in the Wasatch Mountains, by cloud seeding.' A loc...

G. W. Reynolds

1969-01-01

426

Cold-Weather Sports  

MedlinePLUS

Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular fitness, and strengthen muscles. Activities that are ...

427

Weather and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...

1975-01-01

428

Garments, Outer (Wet Weather).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a method for evaluation of wet weather clothing operational and functional performance characteristics. Identifies supporting tests, facilities, and equipment required. Provides procedures for preoperational inspection, physical chara...

R. Rush

1972-01-01

429

Cold Weather Aerostat Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerostats are being considered for application in cold weather regions. A review of aerostat flight experience to date was made to determine the limitations of the current technology. Areas for improvements and modifications to extend the aerostat system ...

R. L. Ashford

1982-01-01

430

Accelerated Weathering of Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project concerns correlation between weathering indices obtained from samples of one type of sedimentary rock (graywacke) and those obtained after laboratory agency tests of the same rocks. Study is made of the process of natural alteration in three s...

L. Aires-Barros

1977-01-01

431

Physical and chemical weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering processes that might be important on Mars are reviewed, and the limited observations, including relevant Viking results and laboratory simulations, are summarized. Physical weathering may have included rock splitting through growth of ice, salt or secondary silicate crystals in voids. Chemical weathering probably involved reactions of minerals with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, although predicted products vary sensitively with the abundance and physical form postulated for the water. On the basis of kinetics data for hydration of rock glass on earth, the fate of weathering-rind formation on glass-bearing Martian volcanic rocks is tentatively estimated to have been on the order of 0.1 to 4.5 cm/Gyr; lower rates would be expected for crystalline rocks.

Gooding, James L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Zolotov, Mikhail Iu.

432

Weather Here and There  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Education Project of the Resource for Science Education Program offers the Weather Here and There educational unit. The Web site consists of six lessons geared for students in grades four through six that cover everything from characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere to forecasting the weather. Each lesson contains the objectives, materials, background information, vocabulary, evaluation, etc. needed to easily prepare and complete each.

1995-01-01

433

Windows on the Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Windows on the Weather is a web-based teaching tool designed to engage middle school students in the analysis and understanding of Earth's atmosphere by combining current weather satellite imagery with live webcams from across the United States. This project lends itself to inquiry-based studies in a variety of Earth science disciplines, including meteorology, climatology, and geography. This paper describes the project as it currently stands, along with features to be implemented in the future.

Alena, T. R.

2010-08-01

434

NOAA Weather Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA offers links to a variety of educational materials on meteorology, hydrology, climatology, and other weather-related fields for children, teens, and young adults at this website. Students can find websites where they can learn about hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, and floods through interactive games. Teachers can find lightning safety presentations, satellite images, lightning photos, and glossaries. The website offers materials on weather related careers, degree programs, distance learning courses, and additional opportunities.

435

Weathering of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

Van Norden, Wendy

436

TypoWeather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-03-13

437

Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

438

Avoidance: Grammatical or Semantic Causes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs. Three tests (multiple choice, memorization, and translation) were administered to Dutch learners of English to determine whether Dutch learners would tend not to avoid English phrasal verbs because they do not exist in Dutch. (Author/OD)

Hulstijn, Jan H.; Marchena, Elaine

1989-01-01

439

Obstacle avoidance with ultrasonic sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile robot system, capable of performing various tasks for the physically disabled, has been developed. To avoid collision with unexpected obstacles, the mobile robot uses ultrasonic range finders for detection and mapping. The obstacle avoidance strategy used for this robot is described. Since this strategy depends heavily on the performance of the ultrasonic range finders, these sensors and the

JOHANN BORENSTEIN; YORAM KOREN

1988-01-01

440

Formation control with collision avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formation flight control strategy featuring a collision avoidance scheme. The control algorithm is based on a Sliding Mode controller. The controller sliding surfaces account for aircraft maneuvering limitations, restricting the required velocities to a feasible set. Further, the relative position between vehicles affects the sliding surfaces shape, enabling collision avoidance. The control method derivation is based on

Ricardo Bencatel; Mariam Faied; Joao Sousa; Anouck R. Girard

2011-01-01

441

Modeling spatiotemporal relationships between moving objects for event tactics analysis in tennis videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of spatial relationships between objects often provides important clues for semantic video analysis. We present\\u000a a symbolic representation that describes spatiotemporal characteristics and facilitates tactics detection based on string\\u000a matching. To find typical spatiotemporal patterns of a targeted tactic, we organize training sequences as a tree, and effectively\\u000a discover frequent patterns from the structure. Tactics detection is conducted by

Wei-Ta Chu; Wen-Ho Tsai

2010-01-01

442

Federal Plan for Weather Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan for weather radars describes the use of national weather radar resources in providing warnings and forecasts of severe weather for all walks of life within the U.S. Information is given on disaster warnings, general weather forecasting special De...

1973-01-01

443

Social Aspects of Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated

J. Eugene Haas

1973-01-01

444

Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

Hilderman, Don R.

2006-01-01

445

Affective Decision-Making and Tactical Behavior of Under-15 Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Affective decision-making is a type of Executive Function related to cost benefit analysis in situations where gains and losses imply direct consequences for the subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the affective decision-making on tactical behavior in soccer players under the age of 15 years old. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to assess tactical behavior. To evaluate affective decision-making, we used the neuropsychological test called The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The values of the offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior of participants were used to create performance groups. The low (?25%) and high (?75%) groups, according to offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior, were compared and shown to be different. The values of the IGT net score of the participants with low and high tactical behavior were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for Defensive Tactical Behavior (Z?=??3.133; p?=?0.002; r?=??0.355) and Game Tactical Behavior (Z?=??2.267; p?=?0.023; r?=??0.260). According to these results, it is possible to state that affective decision-making can influence the tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players.

Gonzaga, Adeilton dos Santos; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Greco, Pablo Juan; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

2014-01-01

446

Ethical considerations in embedding a surgeon in a military or civilian tactical team.  

PubMed

Tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) bring immediate medical support to the inner perimeter of special weapons and tactics team activations. While initially envisioned as a role for an individual dually trained as a police officer and paramedic, TEMS is increasingly undertaken by physicians and paramedics who are not police officers. This report explores the ethical underpinnings of embedding a surgeon within a military or civilian tactical team with regard to identity, ethically acceptable actions, triage, responsibility set, training, certification, and potential future refinements of the role of the tactical police surgeon. PMID:22985714

Kaplan, Lewis J; Siegel, Mark D; Eastman, Alexander L; Flynn, Lisa M; Rosenbaum, Stanley H; Cone, David C; Blake, David P; Mulhern, Jonathan

2012-12-01

447

Affective decision-making and tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players.  

PubMed

Affective decision-making is a type of Executive Function related to cost benefit analysis in situations where gains and losses imply direct consequences for the subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the affective decision-making on tactical behavior in soccer players under the age of 15 years old. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to assess tactical behavior. To evaluate affective decision-making, we used the neuropsychological test called The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The values of the offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior of participants were used to create performance groups. The low (?25%) and high (?75%) groups, according to offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior, were compared and shown to be different. The values of the IGT net score of the participants with low and high tactical behavior were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for Defensive Tactical Behavior (Z?=?-3.133; p?=?0.002; r?=?-0.355) and Game Tactical Behavior (Z?=?-2.267; p?=?0.023; r?=?-0.260). According to these results, it is possible to state that affective decision-making can influence the tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players. PMID:24978030

Gonzaga, Adeilton Dos Santos; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Greco, Pablo Juan; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

2014-01-01

448

Standardizing orbit planning, satellite operations, and communication activities that are affected by space weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision satellite orbit determination, constellation station-keeping, debris avoidance, reentry timing, satellite subsystem performance and safety, and communication link enhancement are among the major technological activities that are affected by space weather. There are numerous applications being developed to mitigate space weather affects on these domains. However, the common language for information exchange still needs community attention. We report on progress

W. Tobiska

2007-01-01

449

Alternating, pattern-avoiding permutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of counting alternating permutations avoiding\\u000acollections of permutation patterns including 132. We construct a bijection\\u000abetween the set S_n(132) of 132-avoiding permutations and the set A_{2n +\\u000a1}(132) of alternating, 132-avoiding permutations. For every set p_1, ..., p_k\\u000aof patterns and certain related patterns q_1, ..., q_k, our bijection restricts\\u000ato a bijection between S_n(132, p_1,

Joel Brewster Lewis

2008-01-01

450

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

451

Oceans, Climate, and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-10-01

452

Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Travelers' Health All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Travelers' Health: Travel Safe, Travel Smart Share Compartir Avoid bug ...

453

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

454

Extreme Weather Sourcebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a summary of damage caused by hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, hail, thunderstorms, and windstorms in the United States and its territories. Information was collected from as far back as 1900 (for hurricanes) and as recently as 1999 (for most categories). For each weather category, there is statistical information on monetary damages (in millions of dollars), sorted by rank and by alphabetic listing. There is also a summary table for composite damage from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods; tables and graphs for damage and casualties caused by lightning; and summary information for other types of extreme weather (hail, thunderstorms, winter storms). Links are provided to information on data sources and methodology and on the societal impacts of weather.

455

Planetary Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invited Talk - Space weather at other planets While discussion of space weather effects has so far largely been confined to the near-Earth environment, there are significant present and future applications to the locations beyond, and to other planets. Most obviously, perhaps, are the radiation hazards experienced by astronauts on the way to, and on the surface of, the Moon and Mars. Indeed, the environment experienced by planetary spacecraft in transit and at their destinations is of course critical to their design and successful operation. The case of forthcoming missions to Jupiter and Europa is an exreme example. Moreover, such craft can provide information which in turn increases our understanding of geospace. Indeed, space weather may be a significant factor in the habitability of other solar system and extrasolar planets, and the ability of life to travel between them.

Grande, M.

2012-04-01

456

Large-Scale Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the previous chapter, we dealt with how the properties of air and water affected small-scale weather such as the formation of clouds, the formation of fog, and how comfortable you feel at different times of the year. In this chapter, we're going to go global, talking about major interactions between the Sun and Earth, the resulting effects on large air masses, and how these major interactions help us figure out what the weather's going to be tomorrow. As discussed earlier in the book, when science concepts are applied to the real world, things don't always work out exactly as expected. However, it is possible to get an overall picture of what's happening in large-scale weather.

Robertson, William C.

2005-01-01

457

Linking Weather and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides an overview major phenomena and mechanisms linking weather and climate variations, with a focus on a subset of major, recurrent phenomena that impact extratropical wintertime weather and climate variations over the Pacific-North American region. While progress in advancing understanding has been impressive, research has also illuminated areas where significant future gains are possible. Emerging thrusts in international and national research priorities suggest that over time artificial distinctions will be removed between "weather" and "climate", as we begin to achieve a more unified understanding of phenomena and processes that bridge time scales. We discuss these research thrusts, which are likely to serve as increasingly vital components of an overall research strategy in earth system science.

Dole, R.

2006-05-01

458

Vision-based obstacle avoidance  

DOEpatents

A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

Galbraith, John (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2006-07-18

459

Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

2009-04-01

460

Weather Scope: An Investigative Study of Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the course of this project, students will learn how to build instruments to measure weather, access online weather observations, collect weather data for an extended period, analyze weather data to reveal trends, and make predictions. They will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The module contains five lessons relating to weather, five relating to climate, and three enrichment activities. Project information, a teacher guide, reference materials, and an "ask an expert" feature are also provided.

461

AIMS taking on roles to support tactical information dominance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military solutions to enable information sharing are being developed that will fundamentally change future concepts of operation. The development of sophisticated approaches to managing this information is a key element to reliably disseminate valued information to the tactical edge. This paper will describe the merging of two such systems to support these tactical edge users; the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Joint Battlespace Infosphere Reference Implementation (JBI/RI) and the Northrop Grumman Advanced Information Architecture (AIA TM). The newly formed system is called the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS). The resulting technology, rooted in a service oriented approach, provides a managed information dissemination approach through the use of publish, subscribe, and query services. Information can be collected and shared among Communities of Interest (COI) without specific involvement from the tactical users. Persistence (via archiving to repositories), is a new capability added to the existing AIA TM. Extreme care is taken to effectively manage the information within this dynamic environment. For example, Information resulting from queries and subscriptions is cached to mitigate potential bandwidth challenges at critical location within the system. AIMS improves security by allowing the establishment of roles for retrieval/publishing of information. The access to information is controlled not only at the message level but also by specified elements within the metadata tags. Lastly, the fortification of AIMS with Web Services allows for a highly cohesive loosely coupled design. AIMS utilizes of a Universal Description, Definition, and Integration (UDDI) [2] registry to describe and register services within the architecture. The UDDI allows implementations outside of AIMS (3rd party) to invoke any of the registered services for use within their own applications.

Ceccio, Philip Joseph; Hillman, Robert G.

2007-05-01

462

Wisconsin Weather Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.

463

Reading Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Department of Atmospheric Sciences comes the Reading Weather Maps Web site. Visitors learn how to convert their local time to the standard used by all meteorologists; to tell the difference between Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperatures; and how to read maps with weather data collected on and above the Earth's surface. For example, wind bards, which are flag-like symbols that indicate wind direction and wind speed, always point in the direction the wind is blowing "from." Other interesting facts, descriptions, and illustrations are available on the site.

1969-12-31

464

Weather and The Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow students to see the different weather conditions that are apart of the different seasons. It will also help students to identify the characterisitics that go along with each of the different seasons, For example, what weather conditions are present in each season and how we dress for each season. With a partner watch the video: Observing Clouds On piece of paper write your answers to the following questions: 1). What types of changes in the clouds did you observe? 2). What do you think caused the changes in the clouds? (Ex: teperature, morning to night, etc) Next, with your partner, please watch the second video: Observing Precipitation On ...

Maxwell, Ms.

2012-02-07

465

Weather Station Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson instructs students on how to read station models, the symbols used on weather maps to show data (temperature, wind speed and direction, barometeric pressure, etc.) for a given reporting station. It includes a diagram of a station model, an explanation of the data conveyed by the numbers and symbols, and a table of definitions for the graphic symbols used with models. There is also a set of interactive station models students can use for practice at interpretation, and an interactive exercise in which students use real-time weather data to interpret models.

466

Small molecule unlocks key prostate cancer survival tactic  

Cancer.gov

The most recent in a series of studies from a team at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center has shown that a single molecule is at the heart of one of the most basic survival tactics of prostate cancer cells. A paper published by the Public Library of Science identifies a microRNA called miR-125b as a potential target for treatments designed to stop the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, particularly in patients who have developed a late-stage form of the disease resistant to androgen deprivation therapy.

467

Surgical tactics in the revision of the hip prosthesis pin.  

PubMed

Parallel to the rise in the number of primary hip arthroplasties the number of complications is also increasing, especially aseptic loosening of cemented implants and uncemented implants with a smooth surface. The loosening of the implant is very often accompanied by the destruction of bone stock, which requires reconstruction.
On the base of 217 cases operated in the years 1997-2000 the authors present the methods of treating deficits in the proximal femur using special instruments, bone transplants, reconstructive systems, and revision prostheses. The so-called biological attitude to the problem is preferred. Operative tactics are presented in respect to bone deficits classified according to Mallory. PMID:17986956

Jab?o?ski, T; Górecki, A; Purski, K

2001-01-01

468

[Cervico-mediastinal goiter. Problems of surgical technic and tactics].  

PubMed

The Authors, on the basis of their experience, as well as of the data of the literature, discuss the problems of technique and tactics involved in the treatment of retrosternal goiters. As to the way of approach, they think cervicotomy should be primarily preferred, and the complementary sternotomy should be associated to the former only in some limited cases of totally dipped and large-sized goiter. They, moreover, assert that, beyond the diagnostical and therapeutical difficulties, endothoracic goiter, if adequately treated, keeps a favourable diagnosis, not dissimilar from the one of cervical goiters. PMID:4075459

Malvicini, G; Arcidiaco, M; Valenti, L

1985-08-01

469

A Concurrent Distributed System for Aircraft Tactical Decision Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS) program, a second generation TDG, is presented. Concurrent computing environments and programming approaches are discussed and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

McManus, John W.

1990-01-01

470

Programmable modular joint tactical radio in a communications system environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a software programmable and modular communications system that will be interoperable with legacy waveforms. It will also be capable of satisfying new communication system requirements for a multitude of military and civilian land, air, and maritime platforms. A Systems Reference Model has been developed to guide a systems architecture design that will use families of common hardware and software configurations to support requirements of different users. The JTRS is a cost-effective approach that allows users to dynamically change capability by reinitializing application software.

Dyson, Richard M.; Newman, Alfred V.; Noll, Bruce T.; Russell, Victor C.

1998-08-01

471

Psychological Type and Analysis of Preferred Negotiation Strategies and Tactics of United States Air Force Contract Negotiators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis identified the psychological types of contract negotiators and determined whether their preferences for negotiating strategies and tactics, and their perceptions of contractors' tactics, were correlated with their psychological types. The Myer...

C. M. Johnstone

1986-01-01

472

Weather Depot 1.21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

473

Tactical Nuclear Weapons-Does the U.S. Army Still Need Them.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1991 Bush disarmament initiative resulted in the withdrawal and elimination of U.S. tactical nuclear weapons from around the globe. The Bush Nuclear Disarmament left only the U.S. Air Force active in the business of tactical nuclear warfighting. Many ...

A. Tulak

1995-01-01

474

The Use and Acceptance of Sexually Aggressive Tactics in College Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extended the findings of Cleveland, Koss, and Lyon's (1999) research on rape tactics to a sample of college men by examining the use and acceptance of sexually aggressive tactics. Participants included 297 male undergraduate students who filled out instruments assessing for a history of sexual aggression and other personality…

Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Gidycz, Christine A.

2007-01-01

475

A Tactical Information Management Middleware for Resource-Constrained Mobile P2P Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide an architecture for Tactical Information Middleware for bandwidth constrained information management. We propose the ideas of rank-based data dissemination, and the use of a tactical information management query language. These ideas will deal with dynamic changes in bandwidth and explore opportunistic data dissemination. Thus, will lead to a cross layer design of a system capable

Bo Xu; Mark Linderman; Sanjay Madria; Ouri Wolfson

2010-01-01

476

MANET Route Optimization using Cross-Layer Enhancements in Tactical Radio Waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross Layer interactions have gained acceptance in communications protocol stacks in order to optimize the operation of network nodes with ever increasing sophistication. In a related paper [4] we discuss the role of selecting a cross layer architectural framework for mobile tactical communications nodes. If we go to the effort of developing a cross-layer architecture for mobile tactical radio networks,

Jerome Sonnenberg; Miller Chin; Ryan Hanks; Peter Griessler

2007-01-01

477

A Model for Developing and Assessing Tactical Decision-Making Competency in Game Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All teachers want their students to become better game players who are motivated to participate in and outside of class. Students need to learn how to make good tactical decisions, in addition to being skilled movers, in order to become competent game players. When students make better tactical decisions, they experience more success and therefore…

Pagnano-Richardson, Karen; Henninger, Mary L.

2008-01-01

478

Strategic Leaders: Determining Successful Presidential Opinion Leadership Tactics Through Public Appeals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most scholars find presidents generally fail at moving the public's views on policy; however, although presidents may fail at opinion leadership at the aggregate level, examining specific communication tactics may yield a more nuanced view of when presidents succeed or fail at leadership. In this article, using a comprehensive data set spanning 1953 to 2001, several strategic communication tactics through

Brandon Rottinghaus

2009-01-01

479

Male reproductive tactics in the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos : social and hormonal mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that pair status is a proximate cue influencing the mating tactics adopted by male waterfowl. Specifically, it is thought that, compared to unpaired males, paired males are more likely to force extra-pair copulations, but are less likely to court females. Currently, it is unclear how social cues interact with physiological mechanisms affecting male mating tactics. Because

Ellen S. Davis

2002-01-01

480

Improving the Authoring of Foreign Language Interactive Lessons in the Tactical Language Training System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) teaches foreign language and culture using a task-based approach. Four trainers have been developed so far, for Iraqi Arabic, Pashto, French and Levantine Arabic. The Tactical Iraqi system has been used to train thousands of users in the U.S. military. In this paper, we describe recent work we undertook to improve the

Joram Meron; Andre Valente; W. Lewis Johnson

481

Male Sexual Polymorphism, Alternative Reproductive Tactics, and Androgens in Combtooth Blennies (Pisces: Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species in which intense intermale competition for the access to females is present males of lower competitive ability may adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ART) to get access to mates. These ART translate in many cases into male sexual polymorphism, with individuals following distinctly different tactics. Usually two alternative male morphs can be recognized in species with ART: (1) bourgeois

Rui F. Oliveira; Adelino V. M. Canario; Matthew S. Grober

2001-01-01

482

Evolution of Artillery Tactics in General J. Lawton Collins' US VII Corps in World War Two.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the evolution of artillery tactics in World War II using General J. Lawton Collins US VII Corps as a case study. This study first reviews artillery doctrine and tactics during World War I and during the 1920s and 1930s, in which time ...

D. S. Wilson

1996-01-01

483

Tactics and Strategies of Relationship-Based Practice: Reassessing the Institutionalization of Community Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay revises Paula Mathieu's call for relationship-based tactics of engagement over institution-based strategies. Because engaged scholars operate within institutional contexts, they should utilize both tactics and strategies to make the academic institutional paradigm more conducive to relationship-based engagement. In supporting this…

Feigenbaum, Paul

2011-01-01

484

Qualitative Description and Quantitative Optimization of Tactical Reconnaissance Agents System Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of qualitative description and quantitative optimization for tactical reconnaissance agents system organization is considered with objective of higher teamwork efficiency and more reasonable task balancing strategies. By analyzing tactical reconnaissance system and its environment, task-(role)-entity agent mapping mechanism and agents in system organization, the system framework is qualitatively described. By transforming the system into an

Xiong Li; Yonglong Chen; Zhiming Dong

2012-01-01

485

Foraging time of rutting bighorn rams varies with individual behavior, not mating tactic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate guarding is the primary mating tactic used by dominant males of many species of ungulates. Guarding males are thought to forage less during the rut than do nonguarding males, possibly leading to greater fitness costs. I observed bighorn rams foraging during the pre-rut and the rut. I compared how coursing (an alternative mating tactic) and tending (a form of

Fanie Pelletier

2005-01-01

486

Achieving Communication Goals in Superior-Subordinate Relationships: The Multi-Functionality of Upward Maintenance Tactics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies upward maintenance tactics reportedly used by subordinates in maintaining an acceptable relational state with their supervisor. Concludes that in high quality supervisory relationships, upward maintenance tactics may be multifunctional, simultaneously preserving relational stability and the capacity for negotiation and change. (SR)

Waldron, Vincent R.

1991-01-01

487

Cold Weather Pet Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... him/her with a warm, solid shelter against wind. Make sure that they have unlimited access to ... the shelter should be positioned away from prevailing winds. Space heaters and heat lamps should be avoided ...

488

Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

2012-12-01

489

Winds, Weather, and Deserts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 17 questions on the topic of wind and weathering, which covers the Coriolis Effect and wind characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy

490

Blogging About the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

Evans, Kyle; Frazier, Wendy

2010-04-01

491

Controlled Temperature Natural Weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempting to quantify and predict the exterior service life performance of a coating is an essential and frequently undertaken activity in the technical sections of the paint and surface coating industry. Such work, usually termed weathering or durability studies, is carried out in an attempt to underpin new product development, or to provide a measure of assurance of the in-use

Anthony Buxton; Jon A. Graystone; Richard Holman; Francesco Macchi

492

Space Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information and images about plasmas, solar flares, and magnetic storms. Users will find out about the "solar wind," and its influence on a stream of particles from the sun which leads to interaction with Earth's magnetic field and consequently the change in space weather. Interactive illustrations and games are also included.

2006-07-18

493

Weather and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF), this course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, ultraviolet radiation, and other phenomena.

2008-01-01

494

Dress for the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

2010-01-01

495

Accessing Space Weather Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

2009-12-01

496

Introduction to Space Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse space weather is one of the principal threats to modern human technology. Solar coronal mass ejections, large solar flares, and high-speed solar wind streams often lead to sequences of damaging disturbances within the Earths magnetosphere, in the atmosphere, and even on the Earths surface. Powerful and long-lasting geomagnetic storms can develop following solar disturbances and enhancements of the highly

Daniel N. Baker

2004-01-01

497

Introduction to Space Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse space weather is one of the principal threats to modern human technology. Solar coronal mass ejections, large solar flares, and high-speed solar wind streams often lead to sequences of damaging disturbances within the Earths magnetosphere, in the atmosphere, and even on the Earths surface. Powerful and long-lasting geomagnetic storms can develop following solar disturbances and enhancements of the highly

Daniel N. Baker

498

Introduction to Space Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse space weather is one of the principal threats to modern human technology. Solar coronal mass ejections, large solar flares, and high-speed solar wind streams often lead to sequences of damaging disturbances within the Earth's magnetosphere, in the atmosphere, and even on the Earth's surface. Powerful and long-lasting geomagnetic storms can develop following solar disturbances and enhancements of the highly

Daniel N. Baker

2005-01-01

499

Weathering and mass wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class exercise is an opportunity for students to apply textbook information about weathering and mass wasting to local and nationally-recognized surface features, such as Stone Mountain (GA), Half Dome (CA), and others. It also serves as an introduction to the use of Google Earth as an analytical tool for calculating distances, slopes, and evaluating landforms. Designed for a geomorphology course

Clayton, Jordan

500

Weather and Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

Wiley, Scott

2007-01-01